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Sample records for pae jan-roland raukas

  1. [Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) pollution in farmland soils: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Rong; Cui, Ming-Ming; Shi, Yan-Xi

    2013-09-01

    The environmental pollution and food safety problems caused by phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been attracted 'extensive attention around the world. As a large PAEs producer and consumer, China is facing severe PAEs environmental pollution problems. This paper reviewed the present pollution status of six PAEs classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the priority pollutants in China farmland soils, analyzed the sources of these six PAEs in this country, and discussed the absorption and accumulation characteristics of the PAEs in different crops as well as the bio-toxic effects of PAEs pollutants. The PAEs concentrations in China farmland soils are significantly higher those in the farmland soils of the United States and European countries. The main sources of PAEs in China farmland soils are atmospheric deposition, agricultural films, sewage sludge application, and wastewater irrigation. There exist significant differences in the characteristics of PAEs absorption, accumulation, and distribution among different crops. PAEs not only have negative effects on soil quality, crop growth, and crop physiological and biochemical properties, but also possess bio-accumulative characteristics. The weaknesses in current researches were pointed out, and the suggestions for the further researches were given, e. g., to expand the scope of PAEs pollution survey, to explore the toxic mechanisms of PAEs on crops, and to develop the techniques for in situ remediation of PAEs-polluted soils.

  2. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  3. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  4. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  5. 24 CFR 401.407 - Closing conducted by PAE.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Closing conducted by PAE. 401.407... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.407 Closing conducted by PAE. After the owner has executed the Restructuring Commitment, the PAE must arrange for a closing to execute all documents necessary...

  6. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  7. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  8. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.451 PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). (a)...

  9. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  10. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  11. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE RESTRUCTURING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  12. 24 CFR 401.451 - PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PAE Physical Condition Analysis (PCA). 401.451 Section 401.451 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIFAMILY HOUSING MORTGAGE AND HOUSING ASSISTANCE...

  13. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false PRA provisions on PAE compensation. 401.304 Section 401.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE...

  14. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false PRA provisions on PAE compensation. 401.304 Section 401.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF HOUSING AND OFFICE OF MULTIFAMILY HOUSING ASSISTANCE...

  15. Variations in phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation and their formation mechanism in Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars grown on PAE-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Chen, Yi-Liang; Lu, Lei-An; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-11-01

    Phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation in crops poses great risks to human health and has aroused great concern. Here, we investigated variations in di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accumulation by various Chinese flowering cabbage cultivars and revealed their variation mechanism. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in shoot PAE concentrations of 28 cultivars. Moreover, significant positive correlations between DBP and DEHP concentrations in shoots of all cultivars indicated that they could be taken up simultaneously by various cultivars. Due to the lower translocation factor of low-PAE accumulator, its shoot PAEs concentrations were much lower than root compared to high-PAE accumulator. Further, subcellular distribution showed that PAE concentrations of root cell walls and organelles were much higher than those of shoots in low-PAE accumulator. Therefore, lower translocation from root to shoot and more PAEs accumulating in cell walls and organelles of root might act as main formation mechanism of low-PAE accumulator.

  16. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  17. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  18. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  19. PaeX, a Second Pectin Acetylesterase of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937

    PubMed Central

    Shevchik, Vladimir E.; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. Pectin is a complex polysaccharide. The main chain is constituted of galacturonate residues, and some of them are modified by methyl and/or acetyl esterification. Esterases are necessary to remove these modifications and, thus, to facilitate the further degradation of the polysaccharidic chain. In addition to PaeY, the first pectin acetylesterase identified in the E. chrysanthemi strain 3937, we showed that this bacterium produces a second pectin acetylesterase encoded by the gene paeX. The paeX open reading frame encodes a 322-residue precursor protein of 34,940 Da, including a 21-amino-acid signal peptide. Analysis of paeX transcription, by using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and affected by catabolite repression. The expression of paeX is regulated by the repressor KdgR, which controls all the steps of pectin catabolism; by the repressor PecS, which controls most of the pectinase genes; and by catabolite regulatory protein, the global activator of sugar catabolism. The paeX gene is situated in a cluster of genes involved in the catabolism and transport of pectic oligomers. In induced conditions, the two contiguous genes kdgM, encoding an oligogalacturonate-specific porin, and paeX are both transcribed as an operon from a promoter proximal to kdgM, but transcription of paeX can also be uncoupled from that of kdgM in noninduced conditions. PaeX is homologous to the C-terminal domain of the Butyrivibrio fibriosolvens xylanase XynB and to a few bacterial esterases. PaeX contains the typical box (GxSxG) corresponding to the active site of the large family of serine hydrolases. Purified PaeX releases acetate from various synthetic substrates and from sugar beet pectin. The PaeX activity increased after previous depolymerization and demethylation of pectin, indicating that its preferred substrates are

  20. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Zoe A.; Seviour, Robert J.; Tucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  1. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-06-16

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA.

  2. Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas oryzihabitans Phage POR1 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PAE1.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Zoe A; Seviour, Robert J; Tucci, Joseph; Petrovski, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We report the genome sequences of two double-stranded DNA siphoviruses, POR1 infective for Pseudomonas oryzihabitans and PAE1 infective for Pseudomonas aeruginosa The phage POR1 genome showed no nucleotide sequence homology to any other DNA phage sequence in the GenBank database, while phage PAE1 displayed synteny to P. aeruginosa phages M6, MP1412, and YuA. PMID:27313312

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and adolescent stress: Unmasking persistent attentional deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, Wendy L; Winstanley, Catharine A; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can produce a myriad of deficits. Unfortunately, affected individuals may also be exposed to the stress of an adverse home environment, contributing to deficits of attentional processes that are the hallmark of optimal executive function. Male offspring of ad libitum-fed Control (Con), Pairfed (PF), and PAE dams were randomly assigned to either a five day period of variable chronic mild stress (CMS) or no CMS (Non CMS) in adolescence. In adulthood, rats were trained in a non-match to sample task (T-maze), followed by extensive assessment in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Once rats acquired the 5-CSRTT (stable accuracy), rats were tested in three challenge conditions, 1) increased sustained attention, 2) selective attention and, 3) varying doses of d- amphetamine, an indirect dopamine and norepinephrine agonist. At birth and throughout the study, PAE offspring showed reduced body weight. Moreover, although PAE were comparable to Con animals in task acquisition, they were progressively less proficient with transitions to shorter stimulus durations (decreased accuracy and increased omissions). Five days of adolescent CMS increased basal corticosterone levels in adolescence and disrupted cognitive performance in adulthood. Further, CMS augmented PAE-related disturbances in acquisition and, to a lesser extent, disrupted attentional processes in Con and PF animals as well. Following task acquisition, challenges unmasked persistent attentional difficulties resulting from both PAE and adolescent CMS. In conclusion, PAE, adolescent CMS, and their interaction produced unique behavioural profiles that suggest vulnerability in select neurobiological processes at different stages of development. PMID:25059261

  4. Distribution of PAEs in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, China.

    PubMed

    Sha, Yujuan; Xia, Xinghui; Yang, Zhifeng; Huang, Gordon H

    2007-01-01

    Samples of water, sediment and suspended particulates were collected from 13 sites in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River in China. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) concentrations in different phases of each sample were determined by Gas Chromatogram GC-FID. The results are shown as follows: (1) In the Xiao Langdi-Dongming Bridge section, PAEs concentrations in water phase from the main river ranged from 3.99 x 10(-3) to 45.45 x 10(-3) mg/L, which were similar to those from other rivers in the world. The PAEs levels in the tributaries of the Yellow River were much higher than those of the main river. (2) In the studied branches, the concentration of PAEs in sediment for Luoyang Petrochemical Channel (331.70 mg/Kg) was the highest. The concentrations of PAEs in sediment phase of the main river were 30.52 to 85.16 mg/Kg, which were much higher than those from other rivers in the world. In the main river, the concentration level of PAEs on suspended solid phases reached 94.22 mg/Kg, and it reached 691.23 mg/Kg in the Yiluo River - one tributary of the Yellow River. (3) Whether in the sediment or on the suspended solid phases, there was no significant correlation between the contents of PAEs and TOC or particle size of the solid phase; and the calculated Koc of Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) in the river were much less than the theoretical value, which inferred that PAEs were not on the equilibrium between water and suspended solid phases/sediment. (4) Among the measured PAEs compounds, the proportions of DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were much higher than the others. The concentrations of DEHP exceeded the Quality Standard in all the main river and tributary stations except those in the Mengjin and Jiaogong Bridge of the main river. This indicates that more attention should be paid to pollution control and further assessment in understanding risks associated with human health. PMID:17160441

  5. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided. PMID:26202432

  6. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male.

  7. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Review of Evidence and Guidelines for Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lauren R.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal alcohol use have been well documented. In this review, we discuss the inclusion of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) as a condition for further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We present a review of the evidence for impairment in three domains highlighted in ND-PAE: neurocognitive functioning, self2 regulation, and adaptive functioning. In addition, we provide guidelines for clinical assessment of each domain. When considering ND-PAE, it is essential to obtain as comprehensive an assessment as possible, including multidisciplinary/multimethod assessment of the individual by a qualified team. It is our aim to provide clinicians with a useful reference for assessing ND-PAE and highlight important guidelines to be followed when conducting neuropsychological assessment. PMID:26509108

  8. Inappropriate Feeding Behaviors and Dietary Intakes in Children with FASD or Probable PAE

    PubMed Central

    Werts, Rachel L.; Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Wargowski, David S.; Smith, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a leading cause of significant neurobehavioral and neurocognitive deficits. Its potential consequences for eating behaviors, nutritional status and other nutritional issues in childhood have received little attention. Methods Nineteen children (11 male, 8 female) of mean age 9.6 years, referred for FASD screening and assessment, were analyzed with physical exams and caregiver questionnaires to identify possible abnormalities in food and eating behaviors. Fourteen children contributed 24-hour diet recalls and were assessed for nutritional status. Results Seventy-nine percent of participants were diagnosed with FASD and 63.2% had confirmed PAE. Fifty percent of females were overweight or obese, whereas 37% of males had reduced stature, weight, or BMI for their age. Recurring feeding problems included constant snacking (36.8%), lack of satiety (26.3%), and picky eating/poor appetite (31.6%). None had oral feeding problems. Constipation was common (26.3%). Macronutrient intakes were largely normal but sugar consumption was excessive (140%-190% of recommendations) in 57% of subjects. Vitamin A intake exceeded the Upper Limit for 64% of participants, whereas ≥50% had intakes <80% of RDAs for choline, vitamin E, potassium, β-carotene, and essential fatty acids; 100% had vitamin D intakes <80% of the RDA. Conclusions PAE may be associated with altered acquisition and distribution of body mass with increasing age. Disordered eating was common. The increased feeding behaviors surrounding lack of satiety suggest self-regulation may be altered. Constipation could reflect low dietary fiber or altered gastrointestinal function. These exploratory data suggest that children with PAE may be at risk for nutritional deficiencies, which are influenced by inappropriate food preferences, disordered eating patterns, medication use, and the stressful dynamics surrounding food preparation and mealtime. PMID:24164456

  9. Association of PAEs with Precocious Puberty in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Liu, Shu-Dan; Lei, Xun; Ling, Yu-Shuang; Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precocious puberty (PP) currently affects 1 in 5000 children and is 10 times more common in girls. Existing studies have tried to detect an association between phathalic acid esters (PAEs) and PP, but the results did not reach a consensus. Objective: To estimate the association between PAEs and children with PP based on current evidence. Methods: Databases including PubMed (1978 to March 2015), OVID (1946 to March 2015), Web of Science (1970 to March 2015), EBSCO (1976 to March 2015), CNKI (1979 to March 2015), WANFANG DATA (1987 to March 2015), CBM (1978 to March 2015) and CQVIP (1989 to March 2015) were searched to identify all case-control studies that determined the exposure and concentration of PAEs and their metabolites in children with PP. Meta-analysis of the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: A total of 14 studies involving 2223 subjects were finally included. The pooled estimates showed that PP was associated with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) exposure (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.77 to 5.49). Besides, the concentration of DEHP (SMD: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.91) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (SMD: 4.31, 95% CI: 2.67 to 5.95) in the PP group were significantly higher than those in the control group, respectively, while no difference was detected between case and control groups in either serum or urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate(MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) or monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Conclusions: Exposure of DEHP and DBP might be associated with PP risk for girls, however, there is no evidence to show an association between the exposure to most PAE metabolites and PP. Given the moderate strength of the results, well-designed cohort studies with large sample size should be performed in

  10. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion.

  11. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. PMID:25863503

  12. Flow of sewage sludge-borne phthalate esters (PAEs) from human release to human intake: implication for risk assessment of sludge applied to soil.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Ying; Xiang, Nan; Chen, Ling; Liu, Zhigang; Wu, Bing; Dai, Xiaohu; Zhang, Yun-Hui; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-04-01

    The wide production and use of phthalate esters (PAEs) in both industry and commercial products lead to their ubiquitous existence in the environment. However, understanding flow and pathway of human exposure to PAEs from sources to receptors is necessary and challenging. In this study, we selected final sewage sludge, an inevitable byproduct of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), as one type of important carrier/sources of PAEs to clarify the flow of PAEs between human and the environment, e.g. the release by human to sludge and in turn ingestion by human after these sludges were disposed as soil amendment. Twenty-five sludge samples were collected from 25 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, East China. Of all 16 PAE congeners, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DnBP) were predominant with mean concentrations of 97.4 and 22.4 μg/g dw, respectively, both locating at the high end of the global range. WWTP treating industrial waster generally contained higher PAEs compared to those treating domestic wastewater, but no positive relationship was found between PAE levels with the percentage of industrial wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that similar PAE sources for all WWTPs in Shanghai with three exceptions, in which specific PAE products were made. The annual mass loadings via sludge of DEHP, DnBP, and Σ16PAEs were 31.4, 7.44, and 39.6 tons in Shanghai and 1042, 247, and 1314 tons in China, respectively, only accounting for 0.09% of the total consumption of PAEs in China. If this sludge is applied in soil, human will take 16.4 and 3.8 μg/kg bw for DEHP and DnBP every day, respectively, via dietary and soil ingestion, which were lower than the toxicological safety parameters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze the flow of sludge-borne PAEs from human release to human intake.

  13. ROPE Registry Project to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE) for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE).

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE); Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE); Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP); Open Prostatectomy; Laser Enucleation or Ablation of the Prostate

  14. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.

  15. [Early diagnosis importance for a correct surgical treatment of PAES (popliteal artery entrapment syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Catani, M; De Milito, R; Clementi, I; Romagnoli, F; Simonelli, L; Vardas, P N; Manili, G; Capitano, S

    2004-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an uncommon pathological entity, caused by segmental popliteal artery compression by the surrounding myofascial structures. Clinical symptoms may appear acutely, with temporary ischaemic attacks, or chronically, with concerned calf claudicatio intermittens and for 30% are bilateral. Diagnosis, besides being based on clinical objectivity (acute and deep pain to the struck limb, mainly during active plantar hyperextension) and history-taking (subject-age and lack of atherosclerosis), is based on ultrasonographic (eco-color Doppler of the aortic-iliac-femural-popliteal trunks, tensiometric Doppler), angio-RM, angio-CT scan and dynamic angiographic exams. Treatment, essentially, is surgical by simple freeing of the popliteal artery from surrounding myofascial structures or by autologous vein (saphenous v.) interposition grafting and patching, or bypass without vessel resection. About clinical case reported by the authors, 44-years female with left calf acute pain symptoms, cold skin by the thermo-touch, hypo-paraesthesia with fifth toe cyanosis and walking inability, surgical treatment, because of precox diagnosis, consisted of simple cut of myofibrous shoot starting from medial head of the left gastrocnemious muscle and compressing popliteal artery, with clinical chart complete resolution.

  16. Morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies in the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai`ōpae, Hawai`i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. H. R.; Rozet, N. K.; Takabayashi, M.

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the morphology, severity, and distribution of growth anomalies (GAs) in the coral, Montipora capitata, from Wai`ōpae tide pools, southeast Hawai`i Island. A macro-image analysis of skeletal microstructure placed GAs into two definable categories; Type A and Type B. Type A GAs had polyp density reduced by 43.05 ± 0.80% (mean ± SE) compared to healthy M. capitata tissue, with many fused and protrusive tuberculae. Type B GAs had no discernable polyps or calices and fused protuberant coenosteum. The prevalence of Type A and Type B GAs among all M. capitata colonies ( n = 1,093) in 8 tide pools at Wai`ōpae was 22.1% (range 2.8-33.7%) and 8.2% (range 0.0-16.9%), respectively. The proportion of colony surface area occupied by GA (relative GA cover) was quantified to assess the severity of this disease among all surveyed colonies. The relative GA cover was significantly greater on colonies larger than 1 m in diameter than smaller colonies and in the central portion of colonies than in the periphery. Furthermore, relative GA cover was negatively related to water motion ( R 2 = 0.748, P < 0.01). Developing field diagnostic criteria of M. capitata GA allowed for a detailed epizootiological assessment that determined several cofactors associated with disease severity. Such epizootiological analysis is applicable to future studies of GAs elsewhere.

  17. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-05-30

    A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application.

  18. [Feasibility of 3BER-S Process for the Deep Denitrification in Synch with the Removal of PAEs from Reclaimed Water].

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng-cheng; Hao, Rui-xia; Zhang, Ya; Wang, Dong-yue; Zhong, Li-yan; Xu, Hao-dan

    2016-02-15

    In order to investigate the feasibility of deep denitrification and simultaneous removing phthalate esters (PAEs) in the process of reclaimed water treatment uses three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor coupled with sulfur autotrophic deep denitrification technology (3BER-S), the technological characteristics and mechanisms were analyzed based on determining the static adsorption capacity of biofilm cultured active carbon fillers in 3BER-S reactor together with the operation results of dynamic denitrification and simultaneous PAEs removing. The results showed that the average adsorption rates of DBP, DEHP were 85.84% and 97.12% in the biofilm cultured active carbon fillers, the equilibrium adsorption capacities were 0.1426 mg x g(-1) and 0.162 mg(-1) and the time spans of reaching adsorption saturation were 120 min and 60 min, respectively; The existence of PAEs had no obvious effect on denitrification, the reactor effluent concentration of TN was in range of 1-2 mg x L(-1) before and after the addition of PAEs, and the average removal rate of TN reached above 94%; 3BER-S denitrification system showed significant ability in removing PAEs, leading to effluent concentrations of DBP and DEHP of no more than 6 microg x L(-1) with removal rates of above 96%; this was due to the synergistic effect of absorption, biodegradation and electrochemistry. After treatment with 3BER-S technology, DBP and DEHP in simulative municipal secondary effluent met the regulated limitation of The Reuse of Urban Recycling Water Quality Standard for Groundwater Recharge (GB/T 19772-2005). PMID:27363158

  19. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS for the determination of phthalate monoesters in rats urine and its application to study the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of priority controlling PAEs.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Gao, H T; Zhu, F; Cao, W X; Yan, Y H M; Zhou, X; Xu, Q; Ji, W L

    2016-02-15

    This research was mainly focused on the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of six priority controlling phthalate acid esters (PAEs) for the further accurate assessment of their toxic effects, using the corresponding phthalate acid monoesters (PAMEs) in rats urine as biomarkers. Glycerin monostearate was chosen as typical food emulsifier. A method was established to determine PAMEs in urine from rats either in experimental group (integrated gavaged with glycerin monostearate and PAEs) or in control group (gavaged with PAEs only), by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS). Extraction recoveries were more than 75% for all the PAMEs; the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-1000.0ng/mL with R(2)>0.995; the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.30ng/mL-0.50ng/mL. In addition, by analysing quality control (QC) urine samples in 3 days, it showed that the method was precise and accurate, for the intra-day and inter-day RSD within 16%, and the accuracy more than 82%. Internal exposure amount of all PAEs in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group with p values of less than 0.05 except for butyl benzyl phthalates (BBP) (P=0.07). The bioavailability of all PAEs ranged from 5.03% to 109.35% with the presence of food emulsifiers glycerin monostearate, observably higher than that without glycerin monostearate (1.12% to 54.39%). It indicated that food emulsifiers increased the bioavailability of PAEs and may lead to potential food safety risk, which should bring awareness and be further studied.

  20. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS for the determination of phthalate monoesters in rats urine and its application to study the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of priority controlling PAEs.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Gao, H T; Zhu, F; Cao, W X; Yan, Y H M; Zhou, X; Xu, Q; Ji, W L

    2016-02-15

    This research was mainly focused on the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of six priority controlling phthalate acid esters (PAEs) for the further accurate assessment of their toxic effects, using the corresponding phthalate acid monoesters (PAMEs) in rats urine as biomarkers. Glycerin monostearate was chosen as typical food emulsifier. A method was established to determine PAMEs in urine from rats either in experimental group (integrated gavaged with glycerin monostearate and PAEs) or in control group (gavaged with PAEs only), by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS). Extraction recoveries were more than 75% for all the PAMEs; the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-1000.0ng/mL with R(2)>0.995; the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.30ng/mL-0.50ng/mL. In addition, by analysing quality control (QC) urine samples in 3 days, it showed that the method was precise and accurate, for the intra-day and inter-day RSD within 16%, and the accuracy more than 82%. Internal exposure amount of all PAEs in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group with p values of less than 0.05 except for butyl benzyl phthalates (BBP) (P=0.07). The bioavailability of all PAEs ranged from 5.03% to 109.35% with the presence of food emulsifiers glycerin monostearate, observably higher than that without glycerin monostearate (1.12% to 54.39%). It indicated that food emulsifiers increased the bioavailability of PAEs and may lead to potential food safety risk, which should bring awareness and be further studied. PMID:26815919

  1. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    PubMed

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study.

  2. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  3. Postantibiotic, Postantibiotic Sub-MIC, and Subinhibitory Effects of PGE-9509924, Ciprofloxacin, and Levofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Odenholt, Inga; Löwdin, Elisabeth; Cars, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects, and sub-MIC effects of the new nonfluoroquinolone PGE-9509924, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative strains were investigated. In comparison to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, PGE-9509924 exerted very similar PAEs against all strains except for both strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, where longer PAEs were found for PGE-9509924. All three investigated quinolones showed no minimal PAEs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:14506057

  4. Postantibiotic Effect and Postantibiotic Sub-MIC Effect of Levofloxacin Compared to Those of Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Azithromycin, and Clarithromycin against 20 Pneumococci

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, Sheila K.; Lin, Gengrong; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides. PMID:9593160

  5. Postantibiotic effect and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect of levofloxacin compared to those of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Lin, G; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-05-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides. PMID:9593160

  6. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  7. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable. PMID:27322908

  8. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable.

  9. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-08-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  10. Characteristics and assessment of phthalate esters in urban dusts in Guangzhou city, China.

    PubMed

    Lan, Qing; Cui, Kunyan; Zeng, Feng; Zhu, Fang; Liu, Hong; Chen, Hongli; Ma, Yongqing; Wen, Jiaxin; Luan, Tiangang; Sun, Guoquan; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2012-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) were examined in indoor and outdoor dust samples from the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. The ∑(16)PAEs concentrations ranged from 121 to 3,223 μg g(-1) dust, with the median concentration of 840 μg g(-1) dust. Significantly higher concentrations of PAEs in dust samples were found in offices where electrical and electronic devices, carpet pads, and office furniture were widely used. Of the 16 PAEs, diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs in indoor and outdoor dust samples, and accounted for >96.8% and >93.1% of the ∑(16)PAEs concentrations, respectively. The median daily inhalation exposure of ∑(16)PAEs were 3.53 and 0.247 μg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), and at the 95(th) percentile were 7.62 and 0.530 μg kg(-1) body weight day(-1), up on the measured concentrations and estimated dust ingestion rates, respectively, for toddles and adults. The ubiquitous distribution of PAEs as noted in this study suggests the need for detailed assessment of PAEs concentrations using more sites and to further investigate the factors influencing PAEs exposure in China.

  11. Fate of phthalate esters in municipal wastewater treatment plant and their environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Kong, Minghao; Song, Yonghui; Zhang, Yizhang; Liu, Ruixia; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The fate and distribution of six phthalate esters (PAEs) in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) employing an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process were investigated. The process achieved relatively high removal efficiencies of PAEs in the range 55-97%. It illustrated that biotransformation and sludge-adsorption were major elimination pathways by analyzing the mass balance and flux of PAEs. About 83% of ∑PAEs was entirely removed by A(2)/O bioreactors indicating biotransformation is the dominant removal mechanism. PAEs with shorter alkyl chain length and higher water solubility were more biodegradable. Less than 6% of ∑PAEs were removed by excess sludge adsorption. The sludge-adsorption capacity of PAE depends on its hydrophobicity. The levels and fluxes of PAEs were analyzed by monitoring different sites of the receiving river of the WWTP effluent to clarify the potential impact of discharge. Daily flux of PAEs upstream and downstream of the discharging point were 113 kg·d(-1) and 205 kg·d(-1), respectively, which were higher than the effluent devotion value of 6.67 kg·d(-1). It suggested that the emissions from the WWTP appeared to be less than those from the other possible sources, such as potential untreated discharge and surface runoff. Improvement of wastewater collection efficiencies is necessary to eliminate the PAE load in the urban river. PMID:27003081

  12. Fate of phthalate esters in municipal wastewater treatment plant and their environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Kong, Minghao; Song, Yonghui; Zhang, Yizhang; Liu, Ruixia; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The fate and distribution of six phthalate esters (PAEs) in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) employing an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process were investigated. The process achieved relatively high removal efficiencies of PAEs in the range 55-97%. It illustrated that biotransformation and sludge-adsorption were major elimination pathways by analyzing the mass balance and flux of PAEs. About 83% of ∑PAEs was entirely removed by A(2)/O bioreactors indicating biotransformation is the dominant removal mechanism. PAEs with shorter alkyl chain length and higher water solubility were more biodegradable. Less than 6% of ∑PAEs were removed by excess sludge adsorption. The sludge-adsorption capacity of PAE depends on its hydrophobicity. The levels and fluxes of PAEs were analyzed by monitoring different sites of the receiving river of the WWTP effluent to clarify the potential impact of discharge. Daily flux of PAEs upstream and downstream of the discharging point were 113 kg·d(-1) and 205 kg·d(-1), respectively, which were higher than the effluent devotion value of 6.67 kg·d(-1). It suggested that the emissions from the WWTP appeared to be less than those from the other possible sources, such as potential untreated discharge and surface runoff. Improvement of wastewater collection efficiencies is necessary to eliminate the PAE load in the urban river.

  13. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250-2000 μm) and fine sand (53-250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  14. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250-2000 μm) and fine sand (53-250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  15. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  16. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid).

  17. Phthalic Acid Esters in Soils from Vegetable Greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs. PMID:24747982

  18. Monitoring of phthalates in foodstuffs using gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Yang, Cui; Geng, Renjie; Zhao, Xiangai; Hong, Lian; Piao, Xiangfan; Chen, Tie; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-06-16

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are commonly used as nonreactive plasticisers in vinyl plastics to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Numerous studies have indicated that the PAEs as a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, the studies have also shown that a major source of human exposure to phthalates is the diet. To date, the largest problem in PAEs analysis is the high blank value because PAEs are widely used in various applications and products. To overcome this shortcoming, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was applied, which established a new and low-blank-value analytical method for PAE analysis to analyse PAEs in foodstuffs. In this study, GP-MSE was used as a clean-up method, and the overall recoveries ranged from 85.7 to 102.6%, and the RSD was less than 10%. More importantly, this method can overcome the problem of the high blank value in PAE analysis. This method was applied for measuring PAEs in 78 foodstuffs. The results showed that a wide variety of PAE concentrations were found in the different groups, and the content of PAEs (varies from 658 to 1610 ng g(-1) fresh weight) is greatest in seafood. The concentrations were in the following order: DEHP>DBP>DEP≈DMP>BBP≈DNOP. Finally, the daily intake of PAEs was estimated for adults based on the levels of PAEs in foodstuffs. The total EDIdiet values of 3.2 and 12.9 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1) were calculated for DEHP based on the mean and highest concentrations in foodstuffs, respectively. PMID:26002478

  19. Monitoring of phthalates in foodstuffs using gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Yang, Cui; Geng, Renjie; Zhao, Xiangai; Hong, Lian; Piao, Xiangfan; Chen, Tie; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-06-16

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are commonly used as nonreactive plasticisers in vinyl plastics to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Numerous studies have indicated that the PAEs as a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, the studies have also shown that a major source of human exposure to phthalates is the diet. To date, the largest problem in PAEs analysis is the high blank value because PAEs are widely used in various applications and products. To overcome this shortcoming, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was applied, which established a new and low-blank-value analytical method for PAE analysis to analyse PAEs in foodstuffs. In this study, GP-MSE was used as a clean-up method, and the overall recoveries ranged from 85.7 to 102.6%, and the RSD was less than 10%. More importantly, this method can overcome the problem of the high blank value in PAE analysis. This method was applied for measuring PAEs in 78 foodstuffs. The results showed that a wide variety of PAE concentrations were found in the different groups, and the content of PAEs (varies from 658 to 1610 ng g(-1) fresh weight) is greatest in seafood. The concentrations were in the following order: DEHP>DBP>DEP≈DMP>BBP≈DNOP. Finally, the daily intake of PAEs was estimated for adults based on the levels of PAEs in foodstuffs. The total EDIdiet values of 3.2 and 12.9 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1) were calculated for DEHP based on the mean and highest concentrations in foodstuffs, respectively.

  20. Occurrence of phthalate esters in sediments in Qiantang River, China and inference with urbanization and river flow regime.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Anping; Liu, Weiping; Cheng, Wenwei

    2013-03-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of emerging organic contaminants, have become a serious issue arousing much attention for their ubiquitous presence and hazardous impact on the environment. This study provides the first data on distribution of PAEs in the sediments in the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province, China, and the inference with urbanization and river flow regime. PAEs were detected in all 23 sediment samples analyzed, and the total concentrations of their 16 congeners in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 6.74μg/g dry weight (dw), with the geometric mean value of 2.03μg/g dw. Of the 16 PAE congeners, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were present in all sediment samples. The PAEs concentrations in urban regions were higher than those in rural regions because of higher discharge of PAEs from plastic materials in urbanized areas. Concentrations of PAEs were positively correlated with sediment organic matter (fOM) and negatively correlated with logistic value of annual average flow volume at sample sites. River flow regime modified by man-made dams significantly affected the distribution of PAEs. Analysis of congener composition of PAEs indicated that the DEHP was predominant congener in the Qiantang River. The normalized concentration of DEHP exceeded recommended environmental risk limit (ERL).

  1. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-03-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  2. Phthalate esters in soil, plastic film, and vegetable from greenhouse vegetable production bases in Beijing, China: Concentrations, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Ma, Xupu; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-10-15

    The increased use of plastic film in greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) could result in phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in vegetables. However, limited information is currently available on their occurrence and associated potential risks in GVP systems. The present study documents the occurrence and composition of 15 PAEs in soil, plastic film, and vegetable samples from eight large-scale GVP bases in Beijing, China. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous contaminants in these GVP bases. Total PAE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.13mg/kg (mean 0.99mg/kg) in soils and from 0.15 to 6.94mg/kg (mean 1.49mg/kg) in vegetables. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diisobutyl phthalate were the most abundant components, which accounted for >90% of the total PAEs. This investigation also indicated that the widespread application of plastic film in GVP systems may be the primary source of these PAEs. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of target PAEs were estimated based on the exposures of vegetable intake. The hazard quotients of PAE in all vegetable samples were lower than 1 and the carcinogenic risks were also at acceptable levels for consumers. The data in this study can provide valuable information to understand the status of potential pollutants, specifically PAEs, in GVP systems.

  3. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  4. [Paradoxical air embolism resulted in acute myocardial infarction and massive ischemic brain injury in a patient operated on in a sitting position].

    PubMed

    Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position. PMID:27070262

  5. [Distribution characteristics of phthalic acid esters in soils and peanut kernels in main peanut producing areas of Shandong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming-Ming; Wang, Kai-Rong; Wang, Lin-Lin; Shi, Yan-Xi

    2013-12-01

    Surface soil (0-20 cm) and peanut kernel samples were collected in four main peanut producing areas of Shandong Province, and the contents of six PAEs chemicals that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants were determined by gas chromatography (GC). The results indicated that the total concentration of six PAEs (sigma PAEs) ranged from 0.34 to 2.81 mg x kg(-1), and the mean was 1.22 mg x kg(-1). In four different areas, the order of sigmaPAEs concentration in soil was hilly area of middle southern Shandong > western plain of Shandong > Jiaodong Peninsula > northern plain of Shandong. The concentration of DBP in four main peanut producing areas of Shandong Province seriously exceeded the control limit in USA. The content of PAEs ranged from 0.17 to 0.66 mg x kg(-1) in peanut kernels, with the average value 0.34 mg x kg(-1) which was less than the suggested targets in USA and Europe and of low health risk. DEHP and DBP were the main components of PAEs both in soils and peanut kernels, with higher percentage content and detection rate. The sigma PAEs contents in soils or peanut kernels under plastic mulching were significantly higher than that of open field cultivation pattern. The PAEs concentrations in peanut kernels and soils had significant correlation, with the Pearson coefficient 0. 786 (sigma PAEs), 0.747 (DBP) and 0.511 (DEHP), respectively.

  6. Evaluating Pharmacological Effects of Two Major Components of Shuangdan Oral Liquid: Role of Danshensu and Paeonol in Diabetic Nephropathy Rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Zhuying; Zhou, Fuxing; Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Li, Hua; Sun, Jiyuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-09-01

    Shuangdan oral liquid (SDO) containing radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Chinese name Danshen) and cortex moutan (Chinese name Mudanpi) is a traditional Chinese medicine using for treating vascular diseases. Danshensu (DSS) is a main effective monomer composition derived from radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and paeonol (Pae) from cortex moutan. Although the two herbs are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, the pharmacological functions of their active compositions were not reported. Therefore, the research of DSS and Pae in mechanisms and pharmacodynamics interaction can provide scientific evidence to support clinical application. The diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SDO, DSS, Pae, and DSS+Pae for eight weeks. The positive effects on DN animal models were investigated by detection of physiological and biochemical indexes and oxidative stress markers, within five treatments: SDO, DSS, Pae, DSS+Pae and insulin group. Compared with the model group, the DSS+Pae group improved the renal function, blood lipid metabolism and blood viscosity, increased the vitality of T-SOD or T-AOC and decreased the level of MDA or NO after the treatment. The study was successfully showed that the DSS+Pae group could delay the process of DN, especially in the renal injury part of histopathology changes. Our results suggest that the co-administration of DSS and Pae significantly may play a protective role in DN rats through decreasing the oxidative stress and improving the blood lipid metabolism mechanisms. PMID:27582557

  7. Evaluating Pharmacological Effects of Two Major Components of Shuangdan Oral Liquid: Role of Danshensu and Paeonol in Diabetic Nephropathy Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Zhuying; Zhou, Fuxing; Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Li, Hua; Sun, Jiyuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Shuangdan oral liquid (SDO) containing radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Chinese name Danshen) and cortex moutan (Chinese name Mudanpi) is a traditional Chinese medicine using for treating vascular diseases. Danshensu (DSS) is a main effective monomer composition derived from radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and paeonol (Pae) from cortex moutan. Although the two herbs are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, the pharmacological functions of their active compositions were not reported. Therefore, the research of DSS and Pae in mechanisms and pharmacodynamics interaction can provide scientific evidence to support clinical application. The diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SDO, DSS, Pae, and DSS+Pae for eight weeks. The positive effects on DN animal models were investigated by detection of physiological and biochemical indexes and oxidative stress markers, within five treatments: SDO, DSS, Pae, DSS+Pae and insulin group. Compared with the model group, the DSS+Pae group improved the renal function, blood lipid metabolism and blood viscosity, increased the vitality of T-SOD or T-AOC and decreased the level of MDA or NO after the treatment. The study was successfully showed that the DSS+Pae group could delay the process of DN, especially in the renal injury part of histopathology changes. Our results suggest that the co-administration of DSS and Pae significantly may play a protective role in DN rats through decreasing the oxidative stress and improving the blood lipid metabolism mechanisms. PMID:27582557

  8. Chronic supplementation of paeonol combined with danshensu for the improvement of vascular reactivity in the cerebral basilar artery of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Li, Ya-Ling; Li, Zi-Lin; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuan-Xuan; Qiu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Qian; Wang, Si-Wang

    2012-01-01

    One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew) and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae) and danshensu (DSS), should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh) which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl(2)-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS treated diabetic

  9. Distribution of phthalate esters in topsoil: a case study in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu

    2013-10-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0∼20 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794∼19.504 μg g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 μg g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 μg g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world. PMID:23609921

  10. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students. PMID:22209025

  11. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring.

  12. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students.

  13. Differential effects of the histamine H3 receptor agonist methimepip on dentate granule cell excitability, paired-pulse plasticity and long-term potentiation in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Varaschin, Rafael K.; Rosenberg, Martina J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenatal alcohol-induced deficits in dentate gyrus (DG) long-term potentiation (LTP) are ameliorated by the histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. ABT-239 did not enhance LTP in control rats, suggesting a heightened H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release in prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE) offspring. As the modulation of glutamate release is one important facet of LTP, we examined the effect of methimepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, on DG granule cell excitability, glutamate release and LTP in control and PAE rats. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution four hours daily throughout gestation. Male adult offspring were anesthetized with urethane and electrodes implanted into the entorhinal cortex and DG. PAE reduced coupling of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials to population spikes, an effect mimicked in control rats treated with 1 mg/kg methimepip. Methimepip decreased release probability in controls but not in PAE offspring. GABAergic feedback inhibition of granule cell responsiveness was not affected by either PAE or methimepip. PAE reduced LTP in the DG, another effect mimicked in methimepip-treated control rats. Again, methimepip did not exacerbate the PAE-induced LTP deficit. Thus, while methimepip treatment of control rats mimicked some baseline and activity-dependent deficits observed in saline-treated PAE offspring, methimepip treatment of PAE rats did not exacerbate these deficits. Whether the absence of an added methimepip effect in PAE offspring is a consequence of a “floor effect” for the responses measured or is due to differential drug dose responsiveness will require further investigation. Further, more detailed studies of H3 receptor-mediated responses in vitro may provide clearer insights into the role of the H3 receptor regulation of excitatory transmission at the perforant path - DG synapse in PAE rats. PMID:24818819

  14. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film.

  15. Analysis of power efficiencies of polar transmitter and HPA in OFDM communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Heung-Gyoon

    2014-02-01

    Polar transmitter is known as good candidates for high data rate systems such as OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) because they can obtain high-efficiency switched-mode radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. But it is important to consider the nonlinear effects and power efficiency of the amplifier in the OFDM communication systems. High PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) causes performance degradation by non-linear distortion in OFDM communication system. So to avoid non-linear distortion, back-off is needed. In addition, output of amplifier is lower and the power efficiency is reduced because of back-off. In this article, we compare PAE (power added efficiency) of polar transmitter in OFDM system and PAE of HPA (high power amplifier) in OFDM system. Also, we analyse PAE according to back-off in DFT-spread OFDM (discrete Fourier transform-spread OFDM), which is PAPR reduction method and we compare with PAE of polar transmitter in OFDM system. And we analyse output spectrum of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM system. Through spectrum analysis, we analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM, which is satisfied with output spectrum mask of 3rd generation long term evolution (3G LTE) and also compare with PAE polar transmitter of OFDM system, which is satisfied with spectrum mask. Finally, we analyse PAE according to modulation method and analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM at same bit error rate.

  16. Developmental and behavioral consequences of early life maternal separation stress in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Alberry, Bonnie; Singh, Shiva M

    2016-07-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), characterized by developmental disability. As children with FASD are often raised in suboptimal conditions, we have investigated the combination of PAE via maternal preference consumption of 10% ethanol in water with early life stress (ELS) via daily 3h maternal separation and isolation. Our results focus on development and behavioral features, including activity, anxiety-like behavior, as well as learning and memory. PAE influenced the number of pups surviving to postnatal day 2 and 70, with fewer surviving pups associated with the severity of ethanol exposure. PAE and ELS both had effects on pup weight at postnatal day 21, with amount of ethanol exposure positively correlating with pup weight. We found females were more active than males in a novel open field environment, but not following PAE. In addition, PAE resulted in overall increased exploratory behavior in the open field. Further, PAE and ELS both resulted in overnight hypoactivity in a home cage environment, as well as learning deficits that were influenced by sex in the Barnes Maze for learning and memory. These results are attributed to environmental interactions involving PAE and ELS. PMID:27102339

  17. Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Sempéré, Richard; Delmont, Anne; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-01

    Because of their large and widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in all the environmental compartements. They have been widely detected throughout the worldwide environment. Indoor air where people spend 65-90% of their time is also highly contaminated by various PAEs released from plastics, consumer products as well as ambient suspended particulate matter. Because of their widespread application, PAEs are the most common chemicals that humans are in contact with daily. Based on various exposure mechanisms, including the ingestion of food, drinking water, dust/soil, air inhalation and dermal exposure the daily intake of PAEs may reach values as high as 70 μg/kg/day. PAEs are involved in endocrine disrupting effects, namely, upon reproductive physiology in different species of fish and mammals. They also present a variety of additional toxic effects for many other species including terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Therefore, their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. This paper is a synthesis of the extensive literature data on behavior, transport, fate and ecotoxicological state of PAEs in environmental matrices: air, water, sediment, sludge, wastewater, soil, and biota. First, the origins and physicochemical properties of PAEs that control the behavior, transport and fate in the environment are reviewed. Second, the compilation of data on transport and fate, adverse environmental and human health effects, legislation, restrictions, and ecotoxicological state of the environment based on PAEs is presented. PMID:25730609

  18. Phthalate esters in water and surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary: distribution, ecological, and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2016-10-01

    The Pearl River Estuary (PRE) is vulnerable due to the increasingly serious environmental pollution, such as phthalate esters (PAEs) contaminants, from the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The concentrations of six US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAEs in water and surface sediments collected from the PRD's six main estuaries in spring, summer, and winter 2013 were measured by GC-MS. Total PAEs (∑6PAEs) concentrations were from 0.5 to 28.1 μg/L and from 0.88 to 13.6 μg/g (dry weight (DW)) in water and surface sediments, respectively. The highest concentration was detected in summer. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in Yamen (YM) and Humen (HM) areas than the other areas. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the dominant PAEs in the investigated areas, contributing between 61 and 95 % of the PAEs in water and from 85 to 98 % in surface sediments. Based on risk quotients (RQs), DEHP posed greater ecological risks to the studied aquatic environments than other measured compounds. Little human health risk from the target PAEs was identified. PMID:27370535

  19. Prenatal alcohol exposure and adolescent stress increase sensitivity to stress and gonadal hormone influences on cognition in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Comeau, Wendy L; Lee, Kristen; Anderson, Katie; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal activity of stress hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA]), and gonadal hormone (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG]) systems is reported following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). PAE increases vulnerability of brain regions involved in regulation of these systems to stressors or challenges during sensitive periods of development, such as adolescence. In addition, HPA and HPG functions are linked to higher order functions such as executive function (EF), with dysregulation of either system adversely affecting EF processes, including attention and response inhibition, that influence cognition. However, how HPA and HPG systems interact to influence cognitive performance in individuals with an FASD is not fully understood. To investigate, we used a rat model of moderate PAE. Adolescent female PAE and control offspring were exposed to 10days of chronic mild stress (CMS) and cognitive function was assessed on the radial arm maze (RAM) in adulthood. On the final test day, animals were sacrificed, with blood collected for hormone analyses, and vaginal smears taken to assess estrus stage at the time of termination. Analyses showed that adolescent CMS significantly increased levels of CORT and RAM errors during proestrus in adult PAE but not control females. Moreover, CORT levels were correlated with estradiol levels and with RAM errors, but only in PAE females, with outcome dependent on adolescent CMS condition. These results suggest that PAE increases sensitivity to the influences of stress and gonadal hormones on cognition, and thus, in turn, that HPA and HPG dysregulation may underlie some of the deficits in executive function described previously in PAE females.

  20. Pollution levels and characteristics of phthalate esters in indoor air in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Song, Min; Guo, Min; Chi, Chenchen; Mo, Feifei; Shen, Xueyou

    2015-11-01

    The concentrations of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese hospitals were investigated by simultaneously determining concentrations of gas- and particle-phase PAEs. PAEs were detected in two third-class first-grade hospitals, two second-class first-grade hospitals, and a community health service center. Hospital drugstores had the highest concentration (24.19μg/m(3)), which was 1.54 times that of newly decorated houses. The second highest concentration was found in the transfusion rooms, averaging 21.89μg/m(3); this was followed by the concentrations of PAEs in the nurse's workstations, the wards, and the doctor's offices, with mean concentrations of 20.66, 20.0, and 16.92μg/m(3), respectively. The lowest concentrations were found in the hallways (16.30μg/m(3)). Of the six different kinds of PAEs found, major pollutants included diethyl phthalates, dibutyl phthalates, butylbenzyl phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates, comprising more than 80% of all PAEs present. Meanwhile, a comparison between different wards showed that PAE concentrations in the maternity wards were 1.63 times higher than in the main wards. Based on known health hazards, our results suggest that the PAEs seriously influence the health of the pregnant women and babies; therefore, it is of great importance to take the phthalate concentrations in hospitals into consideration. In addition, hospital indoor air was more seriously contaminated than the air of newly decorated houses.

  1. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  2. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  3. Study on the Mechanism of Interaction between Phthalate Acid Esters and Bovine Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Zhao, Jing; You, Hong; Wang, Mingjing

    2016-08-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are widely used in plastic products as a series of chemical softeners. However, PAEs, which now exist in many environmental media such as the atmosphere, water, and soil, have been shown to be environmental endocrine disruptors. Hemoglobin is a functional protein that carries oxygen in the red blood cells of animals. This study aims at revealing the interactions between bovine hemoglobin (BHb) and PAEs using spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results indicate that the selected representative PAEs-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-can interact with BHb to form BHb-PAE complexes with one binding site, mainly relying on hydrophobic forces, with the affinity order DMP > DEP > DBP, opposite to the order of side-chain length. The binding of PAEs can cause conformational and micro-environmental changes in BHb, which may affect the physiological functions of Hb. Furthermore, molecular docking was applied to define the specific binding sites, the results of which show that all the three PAEs can bind into the central cavity of BHb. The study contributes to expound the toxic mechanism of PAEs in vivo from the point of hematological toxicology. PMID:27379662

  4. Reliable quantification of phthalates in environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil): a review.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Delmont, Anne; Sempéré, Richard; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-05-15

    Because of their widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health, so their quantification has become a necessity. Various extraction procedures as well as gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection techniques are found as suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, PAEs are ubiquitous in the laboratory environment including ambient air, reagents, sampling equipment, and various analytical devices, that induces difficult analysis of real samples with a low PAE background. Therefore, accurate PAE analysis in environmental matrices is a challenging task. This paper reviews the extensive literature data on the techniques for PAE quantification in natural media. Sampling, sample extraction/pretreatment and detection for quantifying PAEs in different environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil) have been reviewed and compared. The concept of "green analytical chemistry" for PAE determination is also discussed. Moreover useful information about the material preparation and the procedures of quality control and quality assurance are presented to overcome the problem of sample contamination and these encountered due to matrix effects in order to avoid overestimating PAE concentrations in the environment. PMID:25723871

  5. Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Sempéré, Richard; Delmont, Anne; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-01

    Because of their large and widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in all the environmental compartements. They have been widely detected throughout the worldwide environment. Indoor air where people spend 65-90% of their time is also highly contaminated by various PAEs released from plastics, consumer products as well as ambient suspended particulate matter. Because of their widespread application, PAEs are the most common chemicals that humans are in contact with daily. Based on various exposure mechanisms, including the ingestion of food, drinking water, dust/soil, air inhalation and dermal exposure the daily intake of PAEs may reach values as high as 70 μg/kg/day. PAEs are involved in endocrine disrupting effects, namely, upon reproductive physiology in different species of fish and mammals. They also present a variety of additional toxic effects for many other species including terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Therefore, their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. This paper is a synthesis of the extensive literature data on behavior, transport, fate and ecotoxicological state of PAEs in environmental matrices: air, water, sediment, sludge, wastewater, soil, and biota. First, the origins and physicochemical properties of PAEs that control the behavior, transport and fate in the environment are reviewed. Second, the compilation of data on transport and fate, adverse environmental and human health effects, legislation, restrictions, and ecotoxicological state of the environment based on PAEs is presented.

  6. Pharmacodynamic effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg, M; Hanberger, H; Nilsson, M; Nilsson, L E

    1997-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies of Helicobacter pylori exposed to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole were performed with microscopy, viable count determination, and bioluminescence assay of intracellular ATP. The pharmacodynamic parameters determined were change in morphology, change in cell density, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and control-related effective regrowth time (CERT). The PAE is delayed regrowth after brief exposure to antibiotics or acid pump inhibitors. CERT was defined as the time required for the bacteria to resume logarithmic growth and return to the pre-exposure inoculum in the test culture minus the corresponding time for the control culture. CERT measures the combined effect of initial killing and PAE. There was a good concordance between the bioluminescence assay and viable counts for determining CERT, which makes this parameter useful for pharmacodynamic studies of the effects of antibiotics and acid pump inhibitors on H. pylori. Amoxicillin and metronidazole produced a strong, concentration-dependent initial decrease in CFU per milliliter, but there was a less prominent initial change in intracellular ATP in these cultures. Amoxicillin caused a long PAE when assayed by the bioluminescence assay but no PAE or a negative PAE when assayed by viable count determination. However, amoxicillin showed similar long CERTs with both methods. The pharmacodynamic effects of amoxicillin were concentration dependent up to a maximum response, indicating that concentrations above this level do not increase the antibiotic effect. The PAEs and CERTs of clarithromycin and metronidazole were concentration dependent with no maximum response. With omeprazole and lanzoprazole, there was no PAE or CERT. PMID:9333051

  7. Comparative genomics of pectinacetylesterases: Insight on function and biology

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Amancio José; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pectin acetylation influences the gelling ability of this important plant polysaccharide for the food industry. Plant apoplastic pectinacetylesterases (PAEs) play a key role in regulating the degree of pectin acetylation and modifying their expression thus represents one way to engineer plant polysaccharides for food applications. Identifying the major active enzymes within the PAE gene family will aid in our understanding of this biological phenomena as well as provide the tools for direct trait manipulation. Using comparative genomics we propose that there is a minimal set of 4 distinct PAEs in plants. Possible functional diversification of the PAE family in the grasses is also explored with the identification of 3 groups of PAE genes specific to grasses. PMID:26237162

  8. Water-Soluble Poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s: A Sensor Array Discriminates Aromatic Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinsong; Wang, Benhua; Bender, Markus; Seehafer, Kai; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2016-08-10

    A chemical tongue consisting of 11 elements (four poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s (PAE) at pH 7 and pH 13, and seven electrostatic complexes formed from oppositely charged poly(p-aryleneethynylene)s at pH 7) discriminate 21 benzoic and phenylacetic acid derivatives in aqueous solution. The mechanism of discrimination is the fluorescence modulation of the PAEs, leading to quenching or fluorescence turn-on. The PAEs alone at both pH values and the tongue, consisting of the complexes only, discriminate the 21 acids with 92% (PAEs at pH 7), 95% (PAEs at pH 13), and 99% (complexes at pH 7) reliability after linear discriminant analysis (LDA). A sensor field with all 14 elements, according to LDA, discriminates all of the 21 acids with 100% accuracy. PMID:27415439

  9. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  10. Improving Recognition of Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Detection of Exposure in Pediatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Ami C.; Geurts, Carrie D.; Balachova, Tatiana N.

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is important for providing services and preventing secondary disabilities. Recent studies indicate that many FASDs are undiagnosed, partly because there is a need to improve detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims of this review are to characterize existing practices for assessing PAE in pediatric care, identify the most efficient, promising methods of detecting PAE, and recognize the knowledge and practice gaps. This review indicates that maternal self-reports remain the most common method utilized in routine clinical practice and highlights promising methods of PAE identification, including a single binge drinking question. The review yields few studies describing existing strategies to assess PAE in pediatric practice and identifies knowledge gaps that need to be addressed for improving recognition of FASDs in pediatric practice. PMID:26317063

  11. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  12. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  13. Xylose induces the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica to produce a cutinase-like enzyme which efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Fujii, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Hiroko Kuze

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to speed up the degradation of used agricultural mulch films that are made of biodegradable plastics (BPs) in the field. Treating them with BP-degrading enzymes could be a solution to this problem. A cutinase-like enzyme of yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) has wide specificity of BPs degradation, but needs to be produced efficiently. Here we report that the production of PaE by P. antarctica can be increased by using xylose as carbon source. BP-degradation activity was analyzed using a polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion as the substrate. Strain P. antarctica GB-4(1)W was found to be the best PaE producer among the tested strains. Using a 5-L jar fermentor with xylose fed-batch cultivation, high PaE productivity could be maintained and about 21 U/ml of PaE was obtained in 120 h. This amount was 100 times higher than the amount that we obtained previously (0.21 U/ml by flask cultivation using glycerol as carbon source). Under repeated xylose fed-batch cultivation with 24 h intervals, the maximum PaE production rate (0.34 U/ml/h) was maintained and the highest PaE productivity (28,000 U/2 L/d) was repeatedly obtained for 7 intervals. The activity of filtered jar-culture (crude PaE) was stable over 12 weeks at 4°C. Commercially available BP mulch films (20 μm thickness, cut into 1-cm-squares) were completely degraded by submerging them in crude PaE (2 U/ml) at 30°C in 24 h. These results indicated that concentrated PaE can rapidly degrade the strength of BP mulch films in the field so that they do not interfere with plowing.

  14. PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS STEADY-STATE AND ACTIVATED GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ADULT RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Katarzyna A.; Lussier, Alexandre A.; Neumann, Sarah M.; Pavlidis, Paul; Kobor, Michael S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations in numerous physiological systems, including the stress and immune systems . We have previously shown that PAE increases the course and severity of arthritis in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model. While the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully known, changes in neural gene expression are emerging as important factors in the etiology of PAE effects. As the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HPC) play key roles in neuroimmune function, PAE-induced alterations to their transcriptome may underlie abnormal steady-state functions and responses to immune challenge. The current study examined brains from adult PAE and control females from our recent AA study to determine whether PAE causes long-term alterations in gene expression and whether these mediate the altered severity and course of arthritis in PAE females Methods Adult females from PAE, pair-fed [PF], and ad libitum-fed control [C]) groups were injected with either saline or complete Freund’s adjuvant. Animals were terminated at the peak of inflammation or during resolution (days 16 and 39 post-injection, respectively); cohorts of saline-injected PAE, PF and C females were terminated in parallel. Gene expression was analyzed in the PFC and HPC using whole genome mRNA expression microarrays. Results Significant changes in gene expression in both the PFC and HPC were found in PAE compared to controls in response to ethanol exposure alone (saline-injected females), including genes involved in neurodevelopment, apoptosis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, in response to inflammation (adjuvant-injected females), PAE animals showed unique expression patterns, while failing to exhibit the activation of genes and regulators involved in the immune response observed in control and pair-fed animals. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that PAE affects neuroimmune function at the level of gene expression

  15. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  16. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:27151426

  17. Loss of bactericidal activities of quinolones during the post-antibiotic effect induced by rifampicin.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Nightingale, C H; Sweeney, K R; Quintiliani, R

    1994-04-01

    The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) is the phenomenon of persisting suppression of bacterial growth as a result of prior antimicrobial exposure. In antimicrobial therapy, multiple doses of either a single drug or a combination of drugs are common. Accordingly, the following question may arise: what impact might the PAE induced by the previous dose impose on the subsequent bactericidal action of a cycle-specific antibiotic. To answer the question, a study was conducted using pefloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin as test drugs, rifampicin as the PAE inducer and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the test organism. Bacterial kill kinetics were determined for each quinolone at 4 x MIC before rifampicin treatment and during the PAE period following rifampicin challenge. The relative bactericidal activity of the quinolones during the PAE period was calculated. During the PAE period, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin displayed only 6%, 8%, 7% and 33% of their normal activities, respectively. The results were compared to those obtained at low temperature (4 degrees C) and when the cells were challenged simultaneously with a quinolone and with rifampicin. The findings of this study suggest that prolonging the dosing interval by taking the PAE into account may not only lower the cost of antimicrobial therapy and the risk of toxicity, but also ensure the efficacy of subsequent doses. PMID:8056690

  18. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  19. In vitro postantibiotic effect of imipenem and enoxacin alone and in combination against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hostacká, A

    1997-07-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs), i.e. suppression of growth of three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (386, 648, 659) after a short treatment (30 min) with imipenem and enoxacin alone and in combination were evaluated. Imipenem (2 x MIC) induced PAEs for two strains for 0.5 h (386, 648) at concentrations of 4 x MIC, PAEs lasted 0.8 h (386), 2 h (648) and 1.5 h (659). The PAE values of enoxacin (2 x MIC) were 4.6 h (386), 1.7 h (648), 1.6 h (659) and those of enoxacin (4 x MIC) were 6.1 h (386), 3.2 h (648) and 2.1 h (659). PAEs manifested by an imipenem/enoxacin combination were longer than the mathematical sum of PAEs induced by individual antibiotics. Prolongation of PAEs induced by the imipenem (2 x MIC)/enoxacin (2 x MIC) combination was 25.5% and 27.3% (strains 386 and 648) as well as 27.8%, 32.4% and 16.1% (strains 386, 648 and 659) after treatment with imipenem (4 x MIC)/enoxacin (2 x MIC).

  20. Dynamic Computed Tomography Angiography: Role in the Evaluation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Anil, Gopinathan Tay, Kiang-Hiong; Howe, Tse-Chiang; Tan, Bien-Soo

    2011-04-15

    This study reviews our experience with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) as an imaging modality in the evaluation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). Eight patients with surgically proven PAES were included in this study. Dynamic CTA studies performed with the feet in neutral and plantar flexed positions were reviewed for the detailed anatomy of the region and to define the location and extent of the stenosis, occlusions and collateral circulation. These findings were compared with intraoperative observations. CTA provided adequate angiographic and anatomic information required to arrive at the diagnosis and make a surgical decision. Thirteen limbs were affected in eight patients. There was popliteal artery occlusion in four limbs, stenosis at rest that was accentuated on stress imaging in two limbs, and patent popliteal artery with marked stenosis on stress imaging in seven limbs. Long-segment stenosis was seen in functional entrapment compared to short-segment stenosis in anatomic PAES. Anteroposterior compression of the popliteal artery in anatomic PAES unlike the side-to-side compression in functional PAES was a unique observation in this study. The CTA and surgical characterisation and classification of PAES matched in all the patients, except for misinterpretation of compressing fibrous bands as accessory slips of muscles in three limbs. In conclusion, dynamic CTA is a robust diagnostic tool that provides clinically relevant information and serves as a rapidly performed and easily available 'one-stop-shop' imaging modality in the management of PAES.

  1. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux. PMID:26711120

  2. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux.

  3. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of novel poly(anhydride-ester)-based amphiphilic copolymer curcumin-loaded micelles.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li; Shen, Yuanyuan; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Min; Guo, Shengrong; Huang, Shengtang

    2014-02-01

    Novel poly(anhydride-ester)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers (PAE-b-PEGs) were synthesized by esterization of methyl poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-ester), which were obtained by the melt polycondensation of alpha,omega-acetic anhydride-terminated poly(L-lactic acid), and characterized by 1H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The two poly(anhydride-ester)-b-poly(ethylene glycols) (denoted as PAE-b-PEG2k and PAE-b-PEG5k) thus obtained can self-assemble in water to form micelles with hydrodynamic diameters of 92.5 and 97.5 nm above their critical micelle concentrations of 3.78 and 2.36 microg/mL, respectively. The curcumin-loaded PAE-b-PEG2k and PAE-b-PEG5k micelles were prepared by the solid dispersion method, and they could encapsulate approximately 7% (w/w) curcumin. The diameters of the micelles were stable for 5 days. Curcumin is released faster from the micelles at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4. Curcumin is released from the micelles at a fast rate during the initial 12 h, followed by a zero-order release during the subsequent 200 h, both at pH 5.0 and 7.4. The IC50 values of the curcumin-loaded PAE-b-PEG2k and PAE-b-PEG5k micelles against HeLa cells are 12.41 and 15.31 microg/mL, respectively, which is lower than that of free curcumin (25.90 microg/mL). The PAE-b-PEG2k micelles are taken up faster than the PAE-b-PEG5k micelles by HeLa cells. Curcumin-loaded micelles can induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HeLa cells.

  4. Volume changes and brain-behavior relationships in white matter and subcortical gray matter in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Lebel, Catherine; Narr, Katherine L; Mattson, Sarah N; May, Philip A; Adnams, Colleen M; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Kan, Eric C; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have cognitive, behavioral and brain abnormalities. Here, we compare rates of white matter and subcortical gray matter volume change in PAE and control children, and examine relationships between annual volume change and arithmetic ability, behavior, and executive function. Participants (n = 75 PAE/64 control; age: 7.1-15.9 years) each received two structural magnetic resonance scans, ~2 years apart. Assessments included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Subcortical white and gray volumes were extracted for each hemisphere. Group volume differences were tested using false discovery rate (q < 0.05). Analyses examined group-by-age interactions and group-score interactions for correlations between change in volume and raw behavioral scores. Results showed that subjects with PAE had smaller volumes than control subjects across the brain. Significant group-score interactions were found in temporal and parietal regions for WISC arithmetic scores and in frontal and parietal regions for behavioral measures. Poorer cognitive/ behavioral outcomes were associated with larger volume increases in PAE, while control subjects generally showed no significant correlations. In contrast with previous results demonstrating different trajectories of cortical volume change in PAE, our results show similar rates of subcortical volume growth in subjects with PAE and control subjects. We also demonstrate abnormal brain-behavior relationships in subjects with PAE, suggesting different use of brain resources. Our results are encouraging in that, due to the stable volume differences, there may be an extended window of opportunity for intervention in children with PAE.

  5. IREB2 and GALC are associated with pulmonary artery enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10(-8); versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10(-9)). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype.

  6. Volume changes and brain-behavior relationships in white matter and subcortical gray matter in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Lebel, Catherine; Narr, Katherine L; Mattson, Sarah N; May, Philip A; Adnams, Colleen M; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Kan, Eric C; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have cognitive, behavioral and brain abnormalities. Here, we compare rates of white matter and subcortical gray matter volume change in PAE and control children, and examine relationships between annual volume change and arithmetic ability, behavior, and executive function. Participants (n = 75 PAE/64 control; age: 7.1-15.9 years) each received two structural magnetic resonance scans, ~2 years apart. Assessments included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Subcortical white and gray volumes were extracted for each hemisphere. Group volume differences were tested using false discovery rate (q < 0.05). Analyses examined group-by-age interactions and group-score interactions for correlations between change in volume and raw behavioral scores. Results showed that subjects with PAE had smaller volumes than control subjects across the brain. Significant group-score interactions were found in temporal and parietal regions for WISC arithmetic scores and in frontal and parietal regions for behavioral measures. Poorer cognitive/ behavioral outcomes were associated with larger volume increases in PAE, while control subjects generally showed no significant correlations. In contrast with previous results demonstrating different trajectories of cortical volume change in PAE, our results show similar rates of subcortical volume growth in subjects with PAE and control subjects. We also demonstrate abnormal brain-behavior relationships in subjects with PAE, suggesting different use of brain resources. Our results are encouraging in that, due to the stable volume differences, there may be an extended window of opportunity for intervention in children with PAE. PMID:25711175

  7. Anticoagulant effect and safety assessment of an aqueous extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) harms and Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Ex Hook.) harms

    PubMed Central

    Nyansah, Wilson Bright; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Asare, Frederick; Gyanfosu, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently available therapeutic options for thromboembolic disorders are often very expensive and are associated with unfavorable side effects. Aim: To establish the anticoagulant effect and safety profile of an extract made from of the root bark of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms and the aerial part of Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms (PAE). Materials and Methods: PAE (0.5-2.0 g/L) effect on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were evaluated on whole blood drawn from the marginal ear vein of New Zealand White rabbits. Effect of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg) on bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) in Sprague-Dawley rats were also assessed. Histopathological, hematological, and liver function studies were also carried out to assess the safety for use of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg). Results: PAE had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on PT, but resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in aPTT. The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control. Safety studies indicated no deaths with PAE treatment with hematological and liver function tests being normal. Histological studies revealed pathological changes in the liver at a PAE treatment dose of 2000 mg/kg but all doses had no detrimental effect on kidney and stomach tissue. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally. Conclusion: PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg. PMID:27104036

  8. IREB2 and GALC Are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T.; Bowler, Russell P.; Lynch, David A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10−8; versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10−9). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10−8). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  9. Distributions of phthalic esters carried by total suspended particulates in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxin; Zhang, Yinlong; Wang, Shuiliang; Fan, Chinbay Q; Xu, Hui

    2012-11-01

    Atmospheric trace phthalic esters (PAEs) carried by total suspended particulates were systematically investigated. A total of 450 air samples were collected at six typical locations and three specific micro-environmental sites (a stadium with a new plastic track, new cars, and a farming greenhouse with plastic film) in Nanjing metropolitan area of China from April 2009 to January 2010. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The dominant PAEs are dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), which were found in the atmosphere of Nanjing. The average concentrations of DMP, DBP, and DEHP were 10.5 ± 1.2, 62.3 ± 4.5, and 33.3 ± 2.5 ng m(-3), respectively, constituting 9.9%, 58.7%, and 31.4% of total PAEs (106 ± 8.2 ng m(-3)). (2) The dynamic variations of atmospheric PAEs in the three specific micro-environmental sites showed that the PAE concentrations in the stadium with a new plastic track reduced to normal after 1 month remediation, while new cars need 6 months to remove their effect. The levels of PAEs in a farming greenhouse with plastic film were relatively high, but little PAEs accumulated in vegetables. (3) The vertical profiles from 1.5 to 40 m above ground display some fluctuations in PAE concentration, but no significant height dependence. This information will make a valuable contribution to the examination of the influence of atmospheric PAEs on the environment and human health. PMID:22146820

  10. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  11. Postantibiotic effect of ceftaroline against gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA-SMEs), and sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of ceftaroline, a novel injectable cephalosporin, were determined for 15 gram-positive organisms. The pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal PAEs were 0.8 to 1.8 h, 0.7 to 2.2 h, and 0.2 to 1.1 h, respectively. The corresponding PA-SMEs (0.4 times the MIC) were 2.5 to 6.7 h, 2.9 to >0.0 h, and 7.9 to >10.3 h, respectively. The PA-SMEs were longer than the PAEs, suggesting that sub-MIC levels extend the PAE of ceftaroline against gram-positive cocci.

  12. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  13. 24 CFR 401.311 - Standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) § 401.311 Standards of conduct. (a) Minimum ethical standards for PAEs. In connection with the... benefit, or the financial or business benefit of a third party, except as contemplated by the PRA; or...

  14. Development of rapid determination of 18 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Li

    2013-02-13

    A simultaneous and fast determination of 18 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. After solvent extraction, the PAEs in the oil sample were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. After concentration, the extract was directly injected into gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in positive-ion electron impact (EI) mode. Method quantification limits of 18 PAEs were between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. Quantitative recoveries ranging from 63.9 to 115.3% were obtained by analysis of spiked oil. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% (n = 6). The method could potentially overcome the interference from large amounts of lipids and pigment. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation of PAEs in routine analysis.

  15. Phenols, flame retardants and phthalates in water and wastewater - a global problem.

    PubMed

    Ayanda, Olushola Sunday; Olutona, Godwin Oladele; Olumayede, Emmanuel G; Akintayo, Cecilia O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2016-01-01

    Organic pollutants in water and wastewater have been causing serious environmental problems. The arbitrary discharge of wastewater by industries, and handling, use, and disposal constitute a means by which phenols, flame retardants (FRs), phthalates (PAEs) and other toxic organic pollutants enter the ecosystem. Moreover, these organic pollutants are not completely removed during treatment processes and might be degraded into highly toxic derivatives, which has led to their occurrence in the environment. Phenols, FRs and PAEs are thus highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic, and are capable of disrupting the endocrine system. Therefore, investigation to understand the sources, pathways, behavior, toxicity and exposure to phenols, FRs and PAEs in the environment is necessary. Formation of different by-products makes it difficult to compare the efficacy of the treatment processes, most especially when other organic matters are present. Hence, high levels of phenols, FRs and PAEs removal could be attained with in-line combined treatment processes.

  16. Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ai-Peng; Liu, Yu-Lan; Shi, Long-Kai

    2016-09-01

    Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specimens; maize germ samples were least contaminated. Di-n-octyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate were not detected in 12 and five types of oilseeds, respectively. Only eight samples contained all seven analytes. No difference was observed between woody oil-bearing plant and herbaceous oil-bearing plant in terms of PAEs content.

  17. Postantibiotic effects of imipenem and enoxacin against S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis and the influence on their surface hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Majtánová, L; Majtán, V

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the postantibiotic effect (PAE) and the postantibiotic sub-MICs effect (PA SME) of imipenem and enoxacin on the surface hydrophobicity of S. typhimurium and S. enteritidis strains were studied by evaluating Congo red binding and the aggregation in molar solutions of ammonium sulfate (SAT). A PAE was induced by 2x and 4 x MIC of antibiotics tested for 0.5 h. Suprainhibitory concentrations of imipenem against S. typhimurium induced a short PAE (0.3-0.6 h) compared to S. enteritidis (6.0-9.7 h). Suprasubinhibitory concentrations of imipenem did not allow a regrowth of S. enteritidis. Similar results were also found for enoxacin. Evaluation of surface hydrophobic properties of the salmonellas after affecting both PAEs and PA SMEs has shown that imipenem at concentrations 4 x MIC and 4 x MIC + 0.3 x MIC partially influenced the hydrophobicity of S. typhimurium. S. enteritidis was more susceptible toward both antibiotics tested.

  18. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    PubMed

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  19. 75 FR 29728 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...: Administrative Files of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, PAE (February 22, 1993; 58 FR 10227). Reason: Based... within the purview of subsection (r) of the Privacy Act of 1974, (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended,...

  20. 24 CFR 401.421 - Rental Assistance Assessment Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (such as elderly families, disabled families, large families, and cooperative homeowners); (3) The local... assistance may occur over a period of not more than 5 years if the PAE decides the transition period...

  1. 24 CFR 401.421 - Rental Assistance Assessment Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (such as elderly families, disabled families, large families, and cooperative homeowners); (3) The local... assistance may occur over a period of not more than 5 years if the PAE decides the transition period...

  2. 24 CFR 401.421 - Rental Assistance Assessment Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (such as elderly families, disabled families, large families, and cooperative homeowners); (3) The local... assistance may occur over a period of not more than 5 years if the PAE decides the transition period...

  3. [Intervention epidemiology training programs in Germany and Europe. An investment in our future].

    PubMed

    Bremer, Viviane; Alpers, Katharina; Krause, Gérard

    2009-02-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases such as SARS and influenza can have a profound impact on society. Therefore, training epidemiologists in infectious diseases control is of crucial importance. The German Postgraduate training in Applied Epidemiology (PAE) at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) are striving to meet these challenges. Currently, 27 and 12 persons of German origin have joined PAE and EPIET, respectively. A total of 17 out of the 36 alumni started working at the RKI, regional or local German health authorities after completing their training. Since 2006, the number of yearly admitted fellows increased from 3 to 6 in PAE, and 9 to 19 in EPIET and 5 state health departments have been added as training sites. The collaboration between EPIET and PAE has been strengthened and diversified in recent years. Alumni of these programs will play a key role in the control of infectious diseases in Germany and Europe. PMID:19214461

  4. Phenols, flame retardants and phthalates in water and wastewater - a global problem.

    PubMed

    Ayanda, Olushola Sunday; Olutona, Godwin Oladele; Olumayede, Emmanuel G; Akintayo, Cecilia O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    2016-01-01

    Organic pollutants in water and wastewater have been causing serious environmental problems. The arbitrary discharge of wastewater by industries, and handling, use, and disposal constitute a means by which phenols, flame retardants (FRs), phthalates (PAEs) and other toxic organic pollutants enter the ecosystem. Moreover, these organic pollutants are not completely removed during treatment processes and might be degraded into highly toxic derivatives, which has led to their occurrence in the environment. Phenols, FRs and PAEs are thus highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic, and are capable of disrupting the endocrine system. Therefore, investigation to understand the sources, pathways, behavior, toxicity and exposure to phenols, FRs and PAEs in the environment is necessary. Formation of different by-products makes it difficult to compare the efficacy of the treatment processes, most especially when other organic matters are present. Hence, high levels of phenols, FRs and PAEs removal could be attained with in-line combined treatment processes. PMID:27642822

  5. Widespread occurrence of phthalic acid esters in raw oilseeds in China used for edible vegetable oil production.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ai-Peng; Liu, Yu-Lan; Shi, Long-Kai

    2016-09-01

    Seven different phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were quantified in 124 samples of 16 types of oilseeds from China using a simplified GC-MS method. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate were found in all tested oilseed samples. Each made a high contribution to the summed total PAEs. Total PAE concentrations in 124 oilseeds ranged from 0.14 to 3.05 mg kg(-1), and the mean was 0.99 mg kg(-1). Mandulapalka (Cyperus esculentus) samples were the most severely contaminated among all the tested specimens; maize germ samples were least contaminated. Di-n-octyl phthalate and butylbenzyl phthalate were not detected in 12 and five types of oilseeds, respectively. Only eight samples contained all seven analytes. No difference was observed between woody oil-bearing plant and herbaceous oil-bearing plant in terms of PAEs content. PMID:27603777

  6. Transient Ischemic Rectitis as a Potential Complication after Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Airton Mota; Marques, Carlos Frederico Sparapan; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Nahas, Caio Sergio Rizkallah Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Gregorio Ariza, Miguel Angel de; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is an alternative treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Complications are primarily related to non-target embolization. We report a case of ischemic rectitis in a 76-year-old man with significant lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia, probably related to nontarget embolization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an 85.5-g prostate and urodynamic studies confirmed Inferior vesical obstruction. PAE was performed bilaterally. During the first 3 days of follow-up, a small amount of blood mixed in the stool was observed. Colonoscopy identified rectal ulcers at day 4, which had then disappeared by day 16 post PAE without treatment. PAE is a safe, effective procedure with a low complication rate, but interventionalists should be aware of the risk of rectal nontarget embolization.

  7. Review of Current Literature for Prostatic Artery Embolization.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeon; Isaacson, Ari J; Burke, Charles T

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is an emerging, novel interventional technique in the management of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH is a common clinical condition in middle-aged and elderly men resulting in LUTS, including nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency, decreased urinary flow rates, hesitancy, and incomplete bladder emptying. Traditionally, LUTSs have been managed by medical or surgical therapies. Since the initial incidental discovery that selective PAE performed for uncontrolled bleeding secondary to BPH resulted in improved LUTS, the technique has continually evolved with a growing body of evidence supporting its safety and efficacy. However, despite the available data, PAE has yet to be established as a standard-of-care treatment option for patients with LUTS/BPH. In this article, the authors review the history and current state of PAE, including published data from case reports, animal studies, retrospective/prospective cohort studies, and prospective randomized controlled trials. PMID:27582611

  8. Time-dependent investigation of sub-monolayers of Ni on Pd using Positron-annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimnik, Samantha; Piochacz, Christian; Vohburger, Sebastian; Hugenschmidt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surface of a polycrystalline Pd-substrate covered with (sub-) monolayers of Ni was investigated with Positron-annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). Comparative studies using conventional AES induced by electrons and X-rays showed the outstanding surface sensitivity of PAES. Time-dependent PAES was performed on a 0.5 ML Ni cover layer on Pd and compared with conventional X-ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) in order to observe changes in the elemental composition of the surface. The PAES results appear to show a migration of Ni atoms into the Pd substrate, whereas the Ni signal shows a decrease of 12% within 13 h with respect to the initial value.

  9. [The use of micromycetes for cleaning parts of aircraft].

    PubMed

    Dotsenko, G N; Feofilova, E P; Tereshina, V M; Memorskaia, A S

    2001-01-01

    The mycelial Fungi Penicillium funiculosum, P. citrinum, P. expansum, P. chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, A. alliaceus, A. luchaensis, A. flavus, and A. niger were isolated from enrichment cultures. These fungi actively destruct carbon deposits formed during exploitation of aircraft. A biotechnological method for removing fouling from parts of aircraft engines (PAE) was developed. This method is less laborious, more rapid and ecologically clean than contemporary chemical methods. Scanning microscopy was suggested to use for estimating the degree of decarbonization of PAE surfaces.

  10. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. PMID:27424779

  11. Analysis of phthalate migration from plastic containers to packaged cooking oil and mineral water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Yin, Xueyan; Wang, Min; Wang, Haifeng; Zhang, Niping; Shen, Yanyan; Xu, Shi; Zhang, Ling; Gu, Zhongze

    2010-11-10

    The migration of phthalates (PAEs), a class of typical environmental estrogen contaminants in food, from food packaging to packaged food attracts more and more attention worldwide. Many factors will affect the migration processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAE migration from plastic containers to cooking oil and mineral water packed in authentic commercial packaging and stored under various conditions (different storage temperatures, contact times, and storage states (static or dynamic state)) and to identify a potential relationship between the amount and type of PAEs migrated and the lipophilic character of the food matrix. The samples were analyzed by a novel method of liquid chromatography combined with solid-phase extraction by an electrospun nylon 6 nanofibers mat, with PAE detection limits of 0.001 μg/L in mineral water and 0.020 μg/L in cooking oil, respectively. The results demonstrated that the cooking oil was a more suitable medium for the migration of PAEs from packages into foodstuffs than mineral water. Scilicet, the migration potential of the PAEs into foodstuffs, depends on the lipophilic characteristics of the food matrix. The results also demonstrated that migrations were more significant at higher temperature, longer contact time, and higher dynamic frequency; thus, the migration tests should be evaluated with consideration of different storage temperatures and contact times. Mathematical models with good logarithmic relationships were established to demonstrate the relationship between the PAE migration and food/packaging contact time for different storage temperatures. These established mathematical models would be expected to become a set of practical tools for the prediction of PAE migration.

  12. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  13. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  14. Tips and Tricks for Difficult Prostatic Artery Embolization.

    PubMed

    Bagla, Sandeep; Isaacson, Ari J

    2016-09-01

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) is a promising, new, safe, minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it can be a one of the most technically difficult interventional radiology procedures because of the challenging anatomy involved. To help achieve technical success and limit complications, the authors present here a series of tips and tricks that have been proven useful from prior PAE experience. PMID:27582612

  15. Sampling effort and estimates of species richness based on prepositioned area electrofisher samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Z.H.; Freeman, Mary C.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of species richness based on electrofishing data are commonly used to describe the structure of fish communities. One electrofishing method for sampling riverine fishes that has become popular in the last decade is the prepositioned area electrofisher (PAE). We investigated the relationship between sampling effort and fish species richness at seven sites in the Tallapoosa River system, USA based on 1,400 PAE samples collected during 1994 and 1995. First, we estimated species richness at each site using the first-order jackknife and compared observed values for species richness and jackknife estimates of species richness to estimates based on historical collection data. Second, we used a permutation procedure and nonlinear regression to examine rates of species accumulation. Third, we used regression to predict the number of PAE samples required to collect the jackknife estimate of species richness at each site during 1994 and 1995. We found that jackknife estimates of species richness generally were less than or equal to estimates based on historical collection data. The relationship between PAE electrofishing effort and species richness in the Tallapoosa River was described by a positive asymptotic curve as found in other studies using different electrofishing gears in wadable streams. Results from nonlinear regression analyses indicted that rates of species accumulation were variable among sites and between years. Across sites and years, predictions of sampling effort required to collect jackknife estimates of species richness suggested that doubling sampling effort (to 200 PAEs) would typically increase observed species richness by not more than six species. However, sampling effort beyond about 60 PAE samples typically increased observed species richness by < 10%. We recommend using historical collection data in conjunction with a preliminary sample size of at least 70 PAE samples to evaluate estimates of species richness in medium-sized rivers

  16. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia; Campos Pinheiro, Luis; Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A.; Oliveira, Antonio G.; O'Neill, Joao

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  17. Radiodermitis After Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Assis, Andre Moreira De; Ioakeim, Ignatios Sánchez-Ballestín, María; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Gregorio, Miguel Angel De

    2015-06-15

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm{sup 2}) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  18. Rapid screening of edible oils for phthalates using phase-transfer catalyst-assisted hydrolysis and liquid phase microextraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuhui; Liu, Laping; Han, Yangying; Sun, Jingru; Feng, Jing; Wang, Jin; Zhong, Chongming

    2015-11-13

    Edible oil is easily contaminated with phthalic acid esters (PAEs). Conventional procedures to analyze individual PAEs require very rigorous experimental conditions that are extremely labor-intensive due to significant procedural contaminations generated by the ubiquitous presence of PAEs in the laboratory environment. In this study, a rapid screening method for PAEs in edible oil was successfully developed. Using a phase-transfer catalyst (terabutylammonium bromide) during oil/water biphasic base hydrolysis of PAEs, the hydrolysis time was decreased from a previously reported time of 20 h to 10 min (80 °C). The resulting phthalic acid in the acidified hydrolysate was extracted with 600 μL of tributyl phosphate and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 6 min. Parameters affecting the hydrolysis of PAEs and the extraction of phthalic acid were optimized, and the analytical method was validated. No obvious matrix effect existed in the edible oils whether an external or internal standard method was used. The detection limit was 1.0 μmol kg(-1), and the quantification limit was 1.3 μmol kg(-1). The recovery rates varied from 86 to 107% with relative standard deviations equal to or lower than 9.9% in all of the tested conditions. Twenty-six samples were analyzed, and the background corrected total PAE content was found to be in the range of PAEs. In addition, it presents a new and promising methodology to deal with oil matrices. PMID:26477519

  19. Venous and paradoxical air embolism in the sitting position. A prospective study with transoesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, G; Kuhly, P; Brock, M; Rudolph, K H; Link, J; Eyrich, K

    1994-01-01

    This prospective study investigates the frequency of patent foramen ovale (PFO), venous air embolism (VAE) and paradoxical air embolism (PAE) by transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in neurosurgical patients operated on in the sitting position. The risk of PAE after exclusion of PFO is assessed. A PFO was identified by pre-operative TOE and VAE and PAE by continuous intraoperative TOE. Sixty-two patients were divided into two groups, 22 patients were studied in group 1 (posterior fossa surgery) and group 2 (cervical surgery) contained 40 patients. Pre-operative TOE demonstrated a PFO in 5 of the 22 patients in group 1 (23%). Patients with proven PFO were excluded from the sitting position. Two further patients of this group (12% of 17 patients), in whom a PFO had been excluded pre-operatively, nevertheless had PAE, air occurring in all cavities of the heart. In group 2 the incidence of PFO was 4 out of 40 patients (10%). No PAE was observed in this group. Three morphological types of VAE with different haemodynamic and ventilation changes were demonstrated. VAE was observed in 76% of all posterior fossa operations and in 25% of cervical laminectomies. We conclude that a pre-operative search for PFO is mandatory considering its incidence of 23% in group 1 and of 10% in group 2, and the risk of PAE. If a PFO is detected, the sitting position should be avoided. A residual risk for PAE remains despite exclusion of PFO because the reliability of TOE is limited. TOE is the method of choice for detecting VAE and PAE. PMID:8042546

  20. Effects of plastic film residues on occurrence of phthalates and microbial activity in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lv, Shenghong; Zhang, Manyun; Chen, Gangcai; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Shen; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-05-01

    Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture, especially in vegetable production, but large amounts of film residues can accumulate in the soil. The present study investigated the effects of plastic film residues on the occurrence of soil PAEs and microbial activities using a batch pot experiment. PAE concentrations increased with increasing plastic film residues but the soil microbial carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities and microbial diversity decreased significantly. At the end of the experiment the PAE concentrations were 0-2.02 mg kg(-1) in the different treatments. Soil microbial C and N, enzyme activities, AWCD value, and Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices declined by about 28.9-76.2%, 14.9-59.0%, 4.9-22.7%, 23.0-42.0% and 1.8-18.7%, respectively. Soil microbial activity was positively correlated with soil PAE concentration, and soil PAE concentrations were impacted by plastic color and residue volume. Correlations among, and molecular mechanisms of, plastic film residues, PAE occurrence and microbial activity require further study.

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  2. Sonophotolytic degradation of phthalate acid esters in water and wastewater: influence of compound properties and degradation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, L J; Chu, W; Graham, Nigel

    2015-05-15

    The influence of physicochemical properties on the sonolytic and sonophotolytic degradation of a group of short-chain phthalate acid esters (PAEs) was investigated in this study. A 400 kHz ultrasonic system and a photolytic system at 253.7 nm were employed separately and together, and both pure water and secondary effluent were used as the water matrices. It was found that PAEs with greater hydrophobicity demonstrated more rapid sonolysis and exhibited greater competitiveness in sonochemical reactions in the presence of other compounds. However, although a greater compound hydrophobicity is beneficial for the sonochemical degradation of PAEs, the observed synergy between ultrasound and UV in the sonophotolytic process is reduced owing to the lower accumulation of H₂O₂ in the aqueous phase. For the sonophotolysis of PAEs in secondary effluent, it was found that PAEs with greater hydrophobicity experienced less inhibition or competition from the background organic substances (expressed as TOC). Identification of prominent degradation intermediates of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), as a representative PAE, indicated that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring and butyl-scission of the aliphatic chain are the principal degradation mechanisms. The combined process of US/UV produced a greater degree of DBP mineralization than either US or UV alone (17% TOC reduction within 90 min).

  3. Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: Poorly Understood and Frequently Missed? A Review of Clinical Features, Appropriate Investigations, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Matthew; Kennedy, Dominic; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an important and possibly underrecognized cause of exertional leg pain (ELP). As it is poorly understood, it is at risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The features indicative of PAES are outlined, as it can share features with other causes of ELP. Investigating functional PAES is also fraught with potential problems and if it is performed incorrectly, it can result in false negative and false positive findings. A review of the current vascular investigations is provided, highlighting some of the limitations standard tests have in determining functional PAES. Once a clinical suspicion for PAES is satisfied, it is necessary to further distinguish the subcategories of anatomical and functional entrapment and the group of asymptomatic occluders. When definitive entrapment is confirmed, it is important to identify the level of entrapment so that precise intervention can be performed. Treatment strategies for functional PAES are discussed, including the possibility of a new, less invasive intervention of guided Botulinum toxin injection at the level of entrapment as an alternative to vascular surgery. PMID:26464888

  4. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  5. Formulation of liposomes gels of paeonol for transdermal drug delivery by Box-Behnken statistical design.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun; Ma, Fangli; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Fang; Liao, Huawei

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and optimize a transdermal liposomes gel formulation for paeonol (PAE). A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used to derive a second-order polynomial equation to construct three-dimensional (3-D) contour plots for prediction of responses. Independent variables studied were the DC-Chol concentration (X₁), molar ratio of lipid/drug (X₂), and the polymer concentration (X₃), and the levels of each factor were low, medium, and high. The dependent variables studied were the encapsulation efficiency (%EE) of PAE (Y₁), flux of PAE (Y₂), and viscosity of the gels (Y₃). Response surface plots were drawn and statistical validity of the polynomials was established to find the compositions of optimized formulation, which was evaluated using the Franz diffusion cell. The %EE of PAE increased proportionally with the molar ratio of lipid/drug, but decreased with polymer concentration, whereas the flux of PAE increased proportionally with polymer concentration and the DC-Chol concentration. The viscosity of gels increased with the polymer concentration. Gels showed a non-Fickian diffusion release mechanism for PAE, and the in vitro release profiles were fit for Higuchi's order model. The design demonstrated the role of the derived polynomial equation and 3-D contour plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization of gel formulation for transdermal drug release.

  6. Can echocardiographically estimated pulmonary arterial elastance be a non-invasive predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Neeraj; Devabhaktuni, Srikala; Kadambi, Aparna; McClung, John A.; Lehrman, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is essential in evaluating a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Material and methods Data from right heart catheterization (RHC) and echocardiograms performed within 90 days of each other on 45 non-consecutive adult patients were reviewed in this retrospective study. Patients were recruited using an assortment of strategies to ensure the presence of patients with a wide range of PVR. Results The linear regression equation between RHC-derived PVR and echocardiographic pulmonary arterial elastance (PAE) was: PVR = (562.6 × PAE) – 38.9 (R = 0.56, p < 0.0001). An adjustment for echocardiographic PAE was made by multiplying it by hemoglobin (in g/dl) and (right atrial area)1.5 (in cm3). As RHC-derived PVR varies with blood hemoglobin, an adjustment for PVR was made for hemoglobin of 12 g/dl. Visualization of the XY scatter plot of adjusted PVR and adjusted PAE isolated a subset of patients with PVR higher than 8.8 Wood units, where a strong linear relationship existed (adjusted PVR = (0.89 × adjusted PAE) + 137.4, R = 0.89, p = 0.008). Conclusions The correlation coefficient of the regression equation connecting echocardiographic PAE and RHC-derived PVR was moderate. In a subset of patients with very high PVR and after appropriate adjustment, a strong linear relationship existed with an excellent correlation coefficient. PMID:25276152

  7. Paeonol Inhibits Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Stimulated by High Glucose via Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in Coculture Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junjun; Dai, Min; Wang, Yueqin

    2014-01-01

    Paeonol (Pae) has been previously reported to protect against atherosclerosis (AS) by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation or vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury. But studies lack how VSMCs and VECs interact when Pae plays a role. The current study was based on a coculture model of VSMCs and VECs to investigate the protective mechanisms of Pae on atherosclerosis (AS) by determining the secretory function of VECs and proliferation of VSMCs focusing on the Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. VECs were stimulated by high glucose. Our data showed that high concentration (35.5 mM) of glucose induced damage in VECs. Injury of VECs stimulated VSMC proliferation in the coculture model. Pae (120 μM) decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet derivative growth factor B (PDGF-B) release from VECs and inhibited overexpression of Ras, P-Raf, and P-ERK proteins in VSMCs. The results indicate that diabetes modulates the inflammatory response in VECs to stimulate VSMC proliferation and promote the development of AS. Pae was beneficial by inhibiting the inflammatory effects of VECs on VSMC proliferation. This study suggests the inhibitory mechanism of Pae due to the inhibition of VEGF and PDGF-B secretion in VECs and Ras-Raf-ERK1/2 signaling pathway in VSMCs. PMID:25002903

  8. Effects of plastic film residues on occurrence of phthalates and microbial activity in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lv, Shenghong; Zhang, Manyun; Chen, Gangcai; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Shen; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-05-01

    Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture, especially in vegetable production, but large amounts of film residues can accumulate in the soil. The present study investigated the effects of plastic film residues on the occurrence of soil PAEs and microbial activities using a batch pot experiment. PAE concentrations increased with increasing plastic film residues but the soil microbial carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities and microbial diversity decreased significantly. At the end of the experiment the PAE concentrations were 0-2.02 mg kg(-1) in the different treatments. Soil microbial C and N, enzyme activities, AWCD value, and Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices declined by about 28.9-76.2%, 14.9-59.0%, 4.9-22.7%, 23.0-42.0% and 1.8-18.7%, respectively. Soil microbial activity was positively correlated with soil PAE concentration, and soil PAE concentrations were impacted by plastic color and residue volume. Correlations among, and molecular mechanisms of, plastic film residues, PAE occurrence and microbial activity require further study. PMID:26938679

  9. The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400 mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23431342

  10. Fast microextraction of phthalate acid esters from beverage, environmental water and perfume samples by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-02-15

    In this work, magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by mixing the magnetic particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed solutions. Due to their excellent adsorption capability towards hydrophobic compounds, the magnetic CNTs were used as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to extract phthalate acid esters (PAEs), which are widely used in many consumable products with potential carcinogenic properties. By coupling MSPE with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for the analysis of PAEs was established. Our results showed that the limits of detection (LODs) of 16 PAEs ranged from 4.9 to 38 ng L(-1), which are much lower compared to the previously reported methods. And good linearities of the detection method were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) between 0.9821 and 0.9993. In addition, a satisfying reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 11.7% and 14.6%, respectively. Finally, the established MSPE-GC/MS method was successfully applied to the determination of PAEs from bottled beverages, tap water and perfume samples. The recoveries of the 16 PAEs from the real samples ranged from 64.6% to 125.6% with the RSDs less than 16.5%. Taken together, the MSPE-GC/MS method developed in current study provides a new option for the detection of PAEs from real samples with complex matrices.

  11. Impact of MSW landfill on the environmental contamination of phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liang, Ying; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Cheng; Liang, Hecheng; Cai, Hesheng

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of MSW landfill on the contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) in nearby environment. Landfill leachate, surface water, groundwater and soil profile samples were collected from a MSW landfill area in Wuhan, China. Contents of 16 PAEs were detected for each sample using gas chromatography method. Results showed that landfill had an obvious effect on the contamination of PAEs in groundwater, whereas showed no tremendous effect on the PAEs contamination in surface water and topsoil. Seven possible transportation processes of PAEs in landfill area were put forward. However, the especially important processes are the invasion of PAEs into aquifer through weathered crevice, horizontal transportation in aquifer and upward infiltration with groundwater. It is suggested that the whole landfill area should be engineered with seepage-proof membrane and clay so as to prevent landfill leachate from flowing out of the filling area. On the other hand, no weathering crevice is permitted in the landfill area as it will affect groundwater seriously.

  12. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked.

  13. Determination of phthalates in food packing materials by electrokinetic chromatography with polymeric pseudostationary phase.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinjiong; Xing, Xiaoping; Cao, Yuhua; Cao, Guangqun

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric pseudostationary phase (PSP), formed by random copolymer poly (stearyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(SMA-co-MAA)), was used in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) to separate 15 kinds of phthalates (PAEs). The organic solvent modifier is a key factor for the separation of PAEs. Without organic solvents, only four kinds of PAEs with smaller molecular weight could be separated in the running buffer containing 1% P(SMA-co-MAA). The other eleven kinds of PAEs with larger molecular weight could be separated within 25 min by adding 40% (v/v) methanol and 2% (v/v) 1-butanol in the running buffer. The linear ranges of 15 kinds of PAEs were between 2 and 200mg/L, and the limit of detection based on the ratio of signal to noise of 3 were between 1 and 3mg/L. The method was applied to determination of PAEs in 6 kinds of food packing materials. The recoveries were between 81% and 118% with the RSD less than 4%.

  14. Sorption behavior of 17 phthalic acid esters on three soils: effects of pH and dissolved organic matter, sorption coefficient measurement and QSPR study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fen; Wang, Meng; Wang, Zunyao

    2013-09-01

    This work studies the sorption behaviors of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) on three soils by batch equilibration experiments and quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) methodology. Firstly, the effects of soil type, dissolved organic matter and pH on the sorption of four PAEs (DMP, DEP, DAP, DBP) are investigated. The results indicate that the soil organic carbon content has a crucial influence on sorption progress. In addition, a negative correlation between pH values and the sorption capacities was found for these four PAEs. However, the effect of DOM on PAEs sorption may be more complicated. The sorption of four PAEs was promoted by low concentrations of DOM, while, in the case of high concentrations, the influence of DOM on the sorption was complicated. Then the organic carbon content normalized sorption coefficient (logKoc) values of 17 PAEs on three soils were measured, and the mean values ranged from 1.50 to 7.57. The logKoc values showed good correlation with the corresponding logKow values. Finally, two QSPR models were developed with 13 theoretical parameters to get reliable logKoc predictions. The leave-one-out cross validation (CV-LOO) indicated that the internal predictive power of the two models was satisfactory.

  15. Photoacoustic endoscopy with hollow structured lens-focused polyvinylidine fluoride transducer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiaying; Li, Yanan; Jin, Wentao; Peng, Kuang; Zhu, Ziqiang; Wang, Bo

    2016-03-20

    Currently, most transducers in photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) are ceramic based, which are complicated to fabricate and are expensive. In this work, we have for the first time presented a hollow structured epoxy lens-focused transducer that was based on a 52 μm thick polyvinylidine fluoride (PVDF) film for the purpose of PAE imaging. Intensive field characteristic tests were performed on transducers with different lens curvatures, and results show that with the 6 mm fixed aperture, a lateral resolution less than 0.5 mm can be obtained with a focal length around 19 mm, which is close to the theoretical calculations. The PAE application of the built transducer was also demonstrated with phantom experiments. Compared with the commonly used ceramic-based transducers, the proposed method has greatly reduced the design and fabrication cost of the hollow structured focused transducer as required in PAE, and facilitated the development of the PAE system in lab conditions. The built transducer may play an important role in the PAE imaging of some relatively large human structures and organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and the cervical canal. PMID:27140566

  16. Simultaneous determination of trace migration of phthalate esters in honey and royal jelly by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Wu, Hongmei; Diao, Qingyun; Tian, Feifei; Li, Yi

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid, and reliable liquid-liquid extraction coupled to GC-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 22 phthalate esters (PAEs) in honey and royal jelly. Instrument parameters for GC-MS were tested to obtain the satisfactory separation between 22 PAEs with high sensitivity. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to achieve the best recovery. The following criteria were used to validate the developed method: linearity, LOD, lower LOQ, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and carry-over. Correlation coefficients were >0.999 by applying the linear regression model based on the least-squares method with a weighting factor (1/x). The intra- and interday precision were within 12.7% in terms of RSD, and the accuracy was within -11.8% in terms of relative error. The mean extraction recoveries ranged between 80.1 and 110.9% for honey and royal jelly. No significant matrix effect and carry-over for PAEs were observed for the analysis of honey and royal jelly samples. A total of 20 real samples were analyzed for a mini-survey using the developed method. Seven PAEs in honey samples and five PAEs in royal jelly samples were found, indicating potential contamination with several PAEs.

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  18. Sorption behavior of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate by aged refuse.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng-ran; Long, Yu-yang; Shen, Dong-sheng

    2014-06-01

    Sorption is a fundamental process controlling the transformation, fate, degradation, and biological activity of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the environment. We investigated the kinetics, isotherms, and potential mechanisms for the sorption of two phthalic acid esters (PAEs), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), on aged refuse. A two-compartment first-order model performed better than a one-compartment first-order model in describing the kinetic sorption of PAEs, with a fast sorption process dominating. Both the Freundlich and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) models fit the sorption isotherms of DBP and DOP, with the DA model being of a better fit over the range of apparent equilibrium concentrations. The values of the fitting parameters (n, b, E) of the PAEs suggest nonlinear sorption characteristics. Higher predicted partition coefficient values and saturated sorption capacity existed in refuse containing larger quantities of organic matter. The sorption capacity of DOP was significantly higher than that of DBP. PAE sorption was dependent on liquid phase pH. Desorption hysteresis occurred in PAE desorption experiments, especially for the long-chain DOP. PAEs may therefore be a potential environmental risk in landfill.

  19. Uptake and Metabolism of Phthalate Esters by Edible Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gan, Jay

    2015-07-21

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). All four compounds were detected in the plant tissues, with the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 4.78 ± 0.59. However, the test compounds were poorly translocated from roots to leaves, with a translocation factor below 1. Further, PAEs were readily transformed to their monoesters following uptake. Incubation of PAEs and monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in carrot cell culture showed that DnBP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than DEHP, while the monoesters were transformed more quickly than their parent precursors. Given the extensive metabolism of PAEs to monoesters in both whole plants and plant cells, metabolism intermediates such as MPEs should be considered when assessing human exposure via dietary intake of food produced from PAE-contaminated soils. PMID:26090545

  20. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation.

  1. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    PubMed

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  2. Neurocircuitry Underlying Stress and Emotional Regulation in Animals Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Subjected to Chronic Mild Stress in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Raineki, Charlis; Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Bodnar, Tamara; Lavigne, Katie M.; Ellis, Linda; Woodward, Todd S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to alcohol during gestation show higher rates of psychopathologies. The hyperresponsivity to stress induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may be related to this increased rate of psychopathologies, especially because this population is more likely to be exposed to stressful environments throughout life. However, alcohol-induced changes in the overlapping neurocircuitries that underlie stress and the expression of psychopathologies are not fully understood. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the neural activity within central areas known to play key roles in both emotional and stress regulation. Adult male and female offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control conditions were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Following CMS, the neural activity (c-fos mRNA) of the amygdala, ventral hippocampal formation, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) was assessed in response to an acute stress (elevated plus maze). Our results demonstrate that, overall, PAE decreased neural activity within the amygdala and hippocampal formation in males and increased neural activity within the amygdala and mPFC in females. CMS reduced neural activity within the mPFC and PVN in PAE males, but reduced activity in all areas analyzed in control males. By contrast, CMS reduced neural activity in the mPFC in PAE females and had no effects in control females. Furthermore, the constrained principal component analysis revealed that these patterns of neural activity resulted in differential activation of the functional neural networks in males compared to females, indicating sexually dimorphic effects of PAE and CMS. Importantly, the altered networks of brain activation in PAE animals may underlie the hyperresponsivity to stress and increased psychopathologies observed among individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:24592255

  3. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Garic, Ana; Berres, Mark E.; Flentke, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development, including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genome-wide SNP analysis links PDGFRA with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and – resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss-and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene–ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to ethanol’s neurotoxicity

  4. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied. PMID:24769174

  5. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  6. Anthropometric and Health-Related Behavioral Factors in the Explanation of Social Inequalities in Low Birth Weight in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors. PMID:24406666

  7. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  8. Transport and sorption behavior of individual phthalate esters in sandy aquifer: column experiments.

    PubMed

    Zakari, Sissou; Liu, Hui; Li, Yan-Xi; He, Xi; Tong, Lei

    2016-08-01

    This work aimed to quantify the transport and sorption behavior of four individual phthalate esters (PAEs) in sandy aquifer using column experiments so as to provide important parameters for the prediction and control of PAEs pollution plume in groundwater system. The transport curves of four individual PAEs were simulated with HYDRUS-1D through fitting linear and nonlinear equilibrium (LE/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, one-site non-equilibrium (LO/NO), linear and nonlinear, first-order, two-site non-equilibrium (LFO/NFO) sorption models. Simulation results showed that two-site models (LFO and NFO) displayed similar best fittings. The results from LFO model simulation showed that when water flowed 1000 m in sandy aquifer, PAEs with shorter carbon chains (DMP and DEP) transport 31.6 and 22.2 m, respectively. Unexpectedly for the same water transport distance, PAEs with longer carbon chains (DBP and DiBP) transported 40.2 and 60.7 m, respectively, which were faster than DMP and DEP, mainly due to the limited accessibility of type-2 sorption sites. The retardations were mainly caused by the sorption of PAEs on the time-dependent type-2 sites. DBP and DiBP exhibited higher mass transfer speed to and fro type-2 sites but showed lower total sorption coefficient (K) due to the limited accessibility of sorption sites. Coexistence of PAEs and smaller sorbent particles increased total K values of DBP and DiBP due to synergic development of more sorption sites with DMP and DEP. PMID:27146532

  9. Prostatic Artery Embolization as a Primary Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Mauricio da; Oliveira Cerri, Luciana Mendes de; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Freire, Geraldo Campos; Moreira, Airton Mota; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-04-15

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-{alpha}-reductase inhibitors and selective {alpha}-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-{mu}m microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.

  10. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  11. The influence of facility agriculture production on phthalate esters distribution in black soils of northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Hui; Du, Na

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigates the existence of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface soils (27 samples) collected from 9 different facility agriculture sites in the black soil region of northeast China, during the process of agricultural production (comprising only three seasons spring, summer and autumn). Concentrations of the 15 PAEs detected significantly varied from spring to autumn and their values ranged from 1.37 to 4.90 mg/kg-dw, with a median value of 2.83 mg/kg-dw. The highest concentration of the 15 PAEs (4.90 mg/kg-dw) was determined in summer when mulching film was used in the greenhouses. Probably an increase in environmental temperature was a major reason for PAE transfer from the mulching film into the soil and coupled with the increased usage of chemical fertilizers in greenhouses. Results showed that of the 15 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were in abundance with the mean value of 1.12 ± 0.22, 0.46 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.04, and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg-dw, respectively; and their average contributions in spring, summer, and autumn ranged between 64.08 and 90.51% among the 15 PAEs. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated the concentration of these four main PAEs significantly differed among the facility agricultures investigated, during the process of agricultural production. In comparison with foreign and domestic results of previous researches, it is proved that the black soils of facility agriculture in northeast China show higher pollution situation comparing with non-facility agriculture soils.

  12. Study of XAD-2 adsorbent for the enrichment of trace levels of phthalate esters in hydroalcoholic food beverages and analysis by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization and ion-trap mass spectrometry detectors.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Giuseppe; Avino, Pasquale; Notardonato, Ivan; Centola, Angela; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent used as stationary phase for determining phthalate esters (PAEs) in hydroalcoholic food beverages by GC-FID (and peak confirmation by GC-IT/MS) has been set up. The XAD-2 resin shows excellent properties for determining PAEs in solutions at very large alcoholic range (10-40% v/v): 500mL of hydroalcoholic solution spiked with a PAE mixture solution (20pgμL(-1) of each PAE) and containing 25gL(-1) of NaCl are passed onto a cartridge containing 500mg XAD-2 adsorbent and re-extracted for GC analysis. The effects of NaCl concentration (0, 12, 25 and 50gL(-1)) and different solvents (CS2, toluene, acetone, n-hexane, ethyl acetate) are extensively studied as well the PAE recoveries both in hydroalcoholic aqueous solutions (ranging between 94% and 103% with a Relative Standard Deviation, RSD, below 8.3) and spiked (5, 10 and 25pgμL(-1) of each PAE) real samples (between 90% and 106% with a RSD below 9.9). The correlation coefficients (R(2)) of each PAE vary between 0.9830 and 0.9950 and they are calculated in the linear range 5-100pgμL(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) in GC-FID vary between 1.21 and 2.51pgμL(-1) (RSD⩽11.1) whereas the Limits of Quantification (LOQ) range between 2.42 and 5.03pgμL(-1) (RSD⩽8.9) whereas the infra-day and inter-day repeatabilities calculated as RSD for hydroalcoholic solutions, are between 6.5% and 13.7%. PMID:24176330

  13. Genomic factors that shape craniofacial outcome and neural crest vulnerability in FASD.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Berres, Mark E; Flentke, George R

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes distinctive facial characteristics in some pregnancies and not others; genetic factors may contribute to this differential vulnerability. Ethanol disrupts multiple events of neural crest development, including induction, survival, migration, and differentiation. Animal models and genomic approaches have substantially advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these facial changes. PAE during gastrulation produces craniofacial changes corresponding with human fetal alcohol syndrome. These result because PAE reduces prechordal plate extension and suppresses sonic hedgehog, leading to holoprosencephaly and malpositioned facial primordia. Haploinsufficiency in sonic hedgehog signaling increases vulnerability to facial deficits and may influence some PAE pregnancies. In contrast, PAE during early neurogenesis produces facial hypoplasia, preceded by neural crest reductions due to significant apoptosis. Factors mediating this apoptosis include intracellular calcium mobilization, elevated reactive oxygen species, and loss of trophic support from β-catenin/calcium, sonic hedgehog, and mTOR signaling. Genome-wide SNP analysis links PDGFRA with facial outcomes in human PAE. Multiple genomic-level comparisons of ethanol-sensitive and - resistant early embryos, in both mouse and chick, independently identify common candidate genes that may potentially modify craniofacial vulnerability, including ribosomal proteins, proteosome, RNA splicing, and focal adhesion. In summary, research using animal models with genome-level differences in ethanol vulnerability, as well as targeted loss-and gain-of-function mutants, has clarified the mechanisms mediating craniofacial change in PAE. The findings additionally suggest that craniofacial deficits may represent a gene-ethanol interaction for some affected individuals. Genetic-level changes may prime individuals toward greater sensitivity or resistance to ethanol's neurotoxicity. PMID

  14. A comparison of the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure obtained via maternal self-reports versus meconium testing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal self-reports, used for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), may lack validity, necessitating the use of an objective biomarker. The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (products of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism) in meconium has been established as a novel biomarker of PAE. The purpose of the current study was to compare the prevalence of PAE as reported via maternal self-reports with the results of meconium testing, and to quantify the disparity between these two methods. Methods A systematic literature search for studies reporting on the prevalence of PAE, using maternal self-reports in combination with meconium testing, was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on eight studies, using the Mantel-Haenszel method, assuming a random effects model. A random effects meta-regression was performed to test for a difference. Results The pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by meconium testing was 4.26 (95% CI: 1.34-13.57) times the pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by maternal self-reports. Large variations across the studies in regard to the difference between estimates obtained from maternal self-reports and those obtained from meconium testing were observed. Conclusions If maternal self-reports are the sole information source upon which health care professionals rely, a number of infants who were prenatally exposed to alcohol are not being recognized as such. However, further research is needed in order to validate existing biomarkers, as well as discover new biomarkers, for the detection of PAE. PMID:24708684

  15. Parallel Synthesis of Poly(amino ether)-Templated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Transgene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated for numerous applications in medicine, sensing, and catalysis. In particular, gold nanoparticles have been investigated for separations, sensing, drug/nucleic acid delivery, and bioimaging. In addition, silver nanoparticles demonstrate antibacterial activity, resulting in potential application in treatments against microbial infections, burns, diabetic skin ulcers, and medical devices. Here, we describe the facile, parallel synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small set of poly(amino ethers), or PAEs, derived from linear polyamines, under ambient conditions and in absence of additional reagents. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were dependent on PAE concentration and chemical composition. In addition, yields were significantly greater in case of PAEs when compared to 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine), which was used as a standard catonic polymer. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced the kinetics and the yield of both gold and silver nanoparticles, likely by means of a coreduction effect. PAE-templated gold nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to deliver plasmid DNA, resulting in transgene expression, in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer and MB49 murine bladder cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that chemically diverse poly(amino ethers) can be employed for rapidly templating the formation of metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. The simplicity of synthesis and chemical diversity make PAE-templated nanoparticles useful tools for several applications in biotechnology, including nucleic acid delivery. PMID:25084138

  16. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed. PMID:21609316

  17. What Research Is Being Done on Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Russian Research Community?

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024

  18. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  19. Acetylesterase-mediated deacetylation of pectin impairs cell elongation, pollen germination, and plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  20. A Bacillus licheniformis pectin acetylesterase is specific for homogalacturonans acetylated at O-3.

    PubMed

    Remoroza, C; Wagenknecht, M; Gu, F; Buchholt, H C; Moerschbacher, B M; Schols, H A; Gruppen, H

    2014-07-17

    A recombinant acetylesterase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13, belonging to carbohydrate esterase family 12, was purified and biochemically characterized. The purified enzyme, termed BliPAE, was capable of deacetylating acetylated pectins, e.g. sugar beet pectin (SBP). Contrary to its provisional annotation as rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase, the enzyme specifically removed acetyl groups from the homogalacturonan region classifying it as a PAE. The recombinant enzyme has a molecular mass of 26.7 kDa and shows optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 50°C. It is stable in the range pH 5.0-7.0 and below 50°C. Methylesterification of the galacturonic acid (GalA) moieties reduces the deacetylation efficacy of BliPAE. The enzyme efficiently removes acetyl groups from SBPs with low degree of methylesterification (DM) 9-30, releasing about 75% of the acetyl groups present in the homogalacturonan. Furthermore, (1)H NMR of polymer and LC-HILIC-MS(n) after endo-PGII and PL degradation were used to structurally characterize the BliPAE-modified pectins. The results show that BliPAE removes acetyl groups specifically when substituted at the O-3 position of GalA moieties.

  1. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M.; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility. PMID:22247250

  2. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of erythromycin, roxithromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Yun, H

    2001-06-01

    When intermittent dosing is used during treatment, the concentrations of antibiotics fluctuate and subinhibitory concentrations may occur between doses. Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic subinhibitory effects (PA SMEs) on bacteria may provide additional, valuable information for the rational use of a drug in clinical practice. In this study tilmicosin was the most active antibiotic tested against P. multocida type D with MICs ranging from 4-16 mg/l. Roxithromycin and tilmicosin induced a statistically significantly longer PAE than did tylosin against P. multocida types A and D (P < 0.05). The duration of PAEs and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on P. multocida. Tilmicosin had a longer PA SME compared with erythromycin, roxithromycin and tylosin for P. multocida. The computerized incubator used in the present study provided an efficient and convenient determination of PAE and PA SME, allowing frequent measurements of the bacterial growth. PMID:11397617

  3. Determining Phthalic Acid Esters Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shen, L.; Yang, F.; Han, F.; Hu, P.; Song, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is applied for determining phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in standard materials. We reported the THz transmission spectrum in the frequency range of 0.2 to 2.0 THz for three PAEs: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP). The study provided the refractive indices and absorption features of these materials. The absorption spectra of three PAEs were simulated by using Gaussian software with Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For pure standard PAEs, the values of the refractive indices changed between 1.50 and 1.60. At 1.0 THz, the refractive indices were 1.524, 1.535, and 1.563 for DINP, DEHP, and DBP, respectively. In this experiment different concentrations of DBP were investigated using THz-TDS. Changes were measured in the low THz frequency range for refractive indices and characteristic absorption. The results indicated that THz-TDS is promising as a new method in determining PAEs in many materials. The results of this study could be used to support the practical application of THz-TDS in quality detection and food monitoring. In particular, this new technique could be used in detecting hazardous materials and other substances present in wine or foods.

  4. Transurethral Photoacoustic Endoscopy for Prostate Cancer: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanshan; Chen, Jian; Samant, Pratik; Stratton, Kelly; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to optimize the configuration of a photoacoustic endoscope (PAE) for prostate cancer detection and therapy monitoring. The placement of optical fiber bundles and ultrasound detectors was chosen to maximize the photoacoustic imaging penetration depth. We performed both theoretical calculations and simulations of this optimized PAE configuration on a prostate-sized phantom containing tumor and various photosensitizer concentrations. The optimized configuration of PAE with transurethral light delivery simultaneously increases the imaging penetration depth and improves image quality. Thermal safety, investigated via COMSOL Multiphysics, shows that there is only a 4 mK temperature rise in the urethra during photoacoustic imaging, which will cause no thermal damage. One application of this PAE has been demonstrated for quasi-quantifying photosensitizer concentrations during photodynamic therapy. The sensitivity of the photoacoustic detection for TOOKAD was 0.18 ng/mg at a 763 nm laser wavelength. Results of this study will greatly enhance the potential of prostate PAE for in vivo monitoring of drug delivery and guidance of the laser-induced therapy for future clinical use. PMID:26886974

  5. Newly Identified Thermostable Esterase from Sulfobacillus acidophilus: Properties and Performance in Phthalate Ester Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Xiang; Qiu, Yong-Jun; Li, Cheng-Yuan; Xing, Shuai; Zheng, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    EstS1, a newly identified thermostable esterase from Sulfobacillus acidophilus DSM10332, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to enzymatically degrade phthalate esters (PAEs) to their corresponding monoalkyl PAEs. The optimal pH and temperature of the esterase were found to be 8.0 and 70°C, respectively. The half-life of EstS1 at 60°C was 15 h, indicating that the enzyme had good thermostability. The specificity constant (kcat/Km) of the enzyme for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was as high as 6,770 mM−1 s−1. The potential value of EstS1 was demonstrated by its ability to effectively hydrolyze 35 to 82% of PAEs (10 mM) within 2 min at 37°C, with all substrates being completely degraded within 24 h. At 60°C, the time required for complete hydrolysis of most PAEs was reduced by half. To our knowledge, this enzyme is a new esterase identified from thermophiles that is able to degrade various PAEs at high temperatures. PMID:25149523

  6. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  7. [Preparation of self-microemulsion drug delivery system of the mixture of paeonol and borneol based on Xingbi Fang].

    PubMed

    Lü, Feng-Qin; Li, Huang; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Ming-Qing; Zheng, Jian; Chu, Ke-Dan

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) of the mixture of paeonol (Pae) and borneol (Bor). Solubility test, ternary phase diagrams and simplex lattice method were employed to screen and optimize the formulation of the mixture of Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS. After formed into microemulsions, the particle diameter (PD) was determined and a TEM was employed to observe the microemulsions' morphology. The contents of Pae and Bor were determined by gas chromatography. As a result, while ethyl oleate (EO) as the oil phase, cremophor EL35 (EL35) as surfactant and Transcutol HP (HP) as cosurfactant, the range of the microemulsion on the ternary phase diagram was larger than other combinations. And at a ratio of 20:45:35, the microemulsions' PD was about 34 nm and the polydispersity index (PI) was about 0.2. There were 16% of Pae, 2% of Bor, 16% of EO, 37% of EL35 and 29% of HP in the prepared SMEDDS. The preparation process of the Pae and Bor-loaded SMEDDS based on Xingbi Fang is simple and feasible. This study provides a reference for the researches on the related traditional Chinese medicine and the related components. PMID:24417089

  8. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making.

  9. Recent advances in photoacoustic endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Jong; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-01-01

    Imaging based on photoacoustic effect relies on illuminating with short light pulses absorbed by tissue absorbers, resulting in thermoelastic expansion, giving rise to ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic waves are then detected by detectors placed around the sample. Photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) is one of four major implementations of photoacoustic tomography that have been developed recently. The prototype PAE was based on scanning mirror system that deflected both the light and the ultrasound. A recently developed mini-probe was further miniaturized, and enabled simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. This PAE-endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) system can offer high-resolution vasculature information in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and display differences between optical and mechanical contrast compared with single-mode EUS. However, PAE for endoscopic GI imaging is still at the preclinical stage. In this commentary, we describe the technological improvements in PAE for possible clinical application in endoscopic GI imaging. In addition, we discuss the technical details of the ultrasonic transducer incorporated into the photoacoustic endoscopic probe. PMID:24255745

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1006 Is a Persulfide-Modified Protein That Is Critical for Molybdenum Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tombline, Gregory; Schwingel, Johanna M.; Lapek, John D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Darrah, Thomas; Maguire, Michael; Van Alst, Nadine E.; Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    A companion manuscript revealed that deletion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) PA1006 gene caused pleiotropic defects in metabolism including a loss of all nitrate reductase activities, biofilm maturation, and virulence. Herein, several complementary approaches indicate that PA1006 protein serves as a persulfide-modified protein that is critical for molybdenum homeostasis in Pae. Mutation of a highly conserved Cys22 to Ala or Ser resulted in a loss of PA1006 activity. Yeast-two-hybrid and a green-fluorescent protein fragment complementation assay (GFP-PFCA) in Pae itself revealed that PA1006 interacts with Pae PA3667/CsdA and PA3814/IscS Cys desulfurase enzymes. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) “top-down” analysis of PA1006 purified from Pae revealed that conserved Cys22 is post-translationally modified in vivo in the form a persulfide. Inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP)-MS analysis of ΔPA1006 mutant extracts revealed that the mutant cells contain significantly reduced levels of molybdenum compared to wild-type. GFP-PFCA also revealed that PA1006 interacts with several molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis proteins as well as nitrate reductase maturation factor NarJ and component NarH. These data indicate that a loss of PA1006 protein’s persulfide sulfur and a reduced availability of molybdenum contribute to the phenotype of a ΔPA1006 mutant. PMID:23409003

  11. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  12. Characterization of five newly isolated bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Magdalena; Mizak, Lidia; Parasion, Sylwia; Gryko, Romuald; Olender, Alina; Niemcewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. It exhibits multiple mechanisms of resistance, including efflux pumps, antibiotic modifying enzymes and limited membrane permeability. The primary reason for the development of novel therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections is the declining efficacy of conventional antibiotic therapy. These clinical problems caused a revitalization of interest in bacteriophages, which are highly specific and have very effective antibacterial activity as well as several other advantages over traditional antimicrobial agents. Above all, so far, no serious or irreversible side effects of phage therapy have been described. Five newly purified P. aeruginosa phages named vB_PaeM_WP1, vB_PaeM_WP2, vB_PaeM_WP3, vB_PaeM_WP4 and vB_PaeP_WP5 have been characterized as potential candidates for use in phage therapy. They are representatives of the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Their host range, genome size, structural proteins and stability in various physical and chemical conditions were tested. The results of these preliminary investigations indicate that the newly isolated bacteriophages may be considered for use in phagotherapy.

  13. Changes in Mood in New Enrollees at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Stephanie M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Austin, Shane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine changes in mood after 9 months of enrollment in a Program of All- Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). DESIGN Cohort Study SETTING Alexian Brothers PACE–St. Louis, Missouri PARTICIPANTS Newly enrolled patients aged 55 or older, living in the PACE service area, eligible for nursing home care, and able to live safely in the community with continuous care for at least 9 months (n=182). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 score at the pre- admission evaluation (PAE) and the 9 month evaluation (9ME). RESULTS Of the 182 patients evaluated, 27% (n=49) met the definition of depression as defined by the GDS-15 score of ≥6 at the PAE. At the 9ME, only 11% of patients met the depression criteria (p<0.001). Of the patients who met the criteria for depression at the PAE, 80% of patients (n=39) no longer met this criteria at the 9ME (p=0.029). Similar findings were observed by age, sex, and race. Greater improvement was observed among those who were depressed at the PAE; the depressed cohort improved by 5.0 points (p<0.001) on the GDS-15 scale from the PAE to the 9ME, whereas the non-depressed cohort improved by 0.6 points (p=0.003). CONCLUSION The use of PACE as an alternative intervention may be a good option to improve mood in older adults. PMID:26260643

  14. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  15. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  16. [Determination of phthalate esters in Baiyangdian Lake by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengyan; Gao, Li; Shen, Jie; Liu, Wei; Cai, Lipeng

    2010-05-01

    A simple method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was developed for the determination of trace amounts of phthalate esters (PAEs) in environment water samples. In this method, polydimethylsilane (PDMS) fiber was chosen to enrich the PAEs. The PAEs were extracted for 60 min using the PDMS fiber under stirring with a magnetic stir bar, after that the fiber was introduced into the GC injector port and the extract was desorbed at 250 degrees C for 4 min. Under the optimized conditions, 13 PAEs can be extracted completely and separated well. The limits of detection (LOD) were from 0.02 to 0. 83 microg/L (S/N = 3). The water samples collected from Baiyangdian lake were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, phthalic acid, bis-isobutyl ester (DIBP), phthalic acid, bis-butyl ester (DBP) and phthalic acid, bis-2-ethylhexyl ester (DEHP) were detected in all the samples. The spiked (2.5 microg/L and 5.0 microg/L) recoveries were in the range of 75.3-111.0% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 2.1% and 8.0% (n=3). The results showed that this would be a valuable method for PAEs analysis in environmental water samples. PMID:20812632

  17. Comments and reflections on ethics in screening for biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Zizzo, Natalie; Di Pietro, Nina; Green, Courtney; Reynolds, James; Bell, Emily; Racine, Eric

    2013-09-01

    Early identification of and intervention for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) has been shown to optimize outcomes for affected individuals. Detecting biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in neonates may assist in the identification of children at risk of FASD enabling targeted early interventions. Despite these potential benefits, complicated ethical issues arise in screening for biomarkers of PAE and these must be addressed prior to the implementation of screening programs. Here, we identify and comment, based on a North American perspective, on concerns raised in the current ethical, social, and legal literature related to meconium screening for PAE. Major ethical concerns revolve around the targeting of populations for PAE screening, consent and respect for persons, stigma and participation rates, the cost-benefit analysis of a screening program, consequences of false-positive and false-negative test results, confidentiality and appropriate follow-up to positive screen results, and the use of screen results for criminal prosecution. We identify gaps in the literature on screening for PAE, most notably related to a lack of stakeholder perspectives (e.g., parents, healthcare providers) about screening and the ethical challenges it presents.

  18. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

  19. An Early Assessment of Accountable Care Organizations' Efforts to Engage Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Sehgal, Neil J; Bibi, Salma; Ramsay, Patricia P; Neuhauser, Linda; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A

    2015-10-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have incentives to meet quality and cost targets to share in any resulting savings. Achieving these goals will require ACOs to engage more actively with patients and their families. The extent to which ACOs do so is currently unknown. Using mixed methods, including a national survey, phone interviews, and site-visits, we examine the extent to which ACOs actively engage patients and their families, explore challenges involved, and consider approaches for dealing with those challenges. Results indicate that greater ACO use of patient activation and engagement (PAE) activities at the point-of-care may be related to positive perceptions among ACO leaders of the impact of PAE investments on ACO costs, quality, and outcomes of care. We identify a number of important practices associated with greater PAE, including high-level leadership commitment, goal-setting supported by adequate resources, extensive provider training, use of interdisciplinary care teams, and frequent monitoring and reporting on progress.

  20. Pinosylvin-Based Polymers: Biodegradable Poly(Anhydride-Esters) for Extended Release of Antibacterial Pinosylvin.

    PubMed

    Bien-Aime, Stephan; Yu, Weiling; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    Pinosylvin is a natural stilbenoid known to exhibit antibacterial bioactivity against foodborne bacteria. In this work, pinosylvin is chemically incorporated into a poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) backbone via melt-condensation polymerization, and characterized with respect to its physicochemical and thermal properties. In vitro release studies demonstrate that pinosylvin-based PAEs hydrolytically degrade over 40 d to release pinosylvin. Pseudo-first order kinetic experiments on model compounds, butyric anhydride and 3-butylstilbene ester, indicate that the anhydride linkages hydrolyze first, followed by the ester bonds to ultimately release pinosylvin. An antibacterial assay shows that the released pinosylvin exhibit bioactivity, while in vitro cytocompatibility studies demonstrate that the polymer is noncytotoxic toward fibroblasts. These preliminary findings suggest that the pinosylvin-based PAEs can serve as food preservatives in food packaging materials by safely providing antibacterial bioactivity over extended time periods. PMID:27071713

  1. An evaluation of the response modulation hypothesis in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Rucklidge, Julia J

    2006-08-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=18) and normal controls (n=23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter trials of a computerized go/no go task with mixed incentives, and this effect remained significant or marginally significant even after common variance associated with variables that covary with ADHD (i.e., IQ, oppositional-defiant/conduct disorder [ODD/CD] symptoms, anxious/depressed mood) was removed. While a moderate inverse association was observed between PAE frequency and the amount of time spent viewing response feedback following punishment, both categorical (diagnostic) and dimensional analyses of ADHD symptomatology indicated that ADHD and reflection on punishment feedback are uniquely associated with PAE commission. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to models of disinhibition applicable to youth with ADHD.

  2. Graphene nanoplatelets as a highly efficient solid-phase extraction sorbent for determination of phthalate esters in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, FeiFang; Ji, Shunli; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-03-01

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GN) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography has been used for the determination of five phthalate esters (PAEs) in aqueous solution. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Comparative studies showed that GN was superior to other common SPE sorbents in terms of recovery and adsorption capacity. Under optimization conditions, detection limits of 0.09-0.33 ng mL(-1) were achieved for five PAEs and enrichment factors of 402-711 for the analytes were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAEs in tap water and drink samples with recoveries ranging from 87.7% to 100.9%.

  3. Formulation of salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) microspheres for short- and long-term salicylic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Ouimet, Michelle A.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) microspheres was optimized by altering polymer concentration and homogenization speed to improve the overall morphology. The microspheres were prepared using three salicylate-based PAEs with different chemical compositions comprised of either a heteroatomic, linear aliphatic, or branched aliphatic moiety. These PAEs broadened the range of complete salicylic acid release to now include days, weeks and months. The molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index (PDI) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the formulated polymers were compared to the unformulated polymers. In general, the Mw and PDI exhibited decreased and increased values, respectively, after formulation, whereas the Tg changes did not follow a specific trend. Microsphere size and morphology were determined using scanning electron microscopy. These microspheres exhibited smooth surfaces, no aggregation, and size distributions ranging from 2-34 m in diameter. In vitro release studies of the chemically incorporated salicylic acid displayed widely tunable release profiles. PMID:23420391

  4. Graphene nanoplatelets as a highly efficient solid-phase extraction sorbent for determination of phthalate esters in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, FeiFang; Ji, Shunli; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-03-01

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GN) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography has been used for the determination of five phthalate esters (PAEs) in aqueous solution. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Comparative studies showed that GN was superior to other common SPE sorbents in terms of recovery and adsorption capacity. Under optimization conditions, detection limits of 0.09-0.33 ng mL(-1) were achieved for five PAEs and enrichment factors of 402-711 for the analytes were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAEs in tap water and drink samples with recoveries ranging from 87.7% to 100.9%. PMID:24468344

  5. Preparation of C18-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for extraction and determination of phthalic acid esters in Chinese herb preparations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bize; Ji, Shunli; Zhang, Feifang; Yang, Bingcheng; Gu, Jiangping; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-11-01

    The extraction and determination of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) residue in Chinese herbal preparations (CHP) by C18-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (C18-FS-MNP) has been firstly performed. It was synthesized through coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles with sodium silicate, followed by freeze-drying technique and then modified with C18 groups. C18-FS-MNPs prepared via freeze-drying technique were superior to those particles prepared via common vacuum drying method in terms of dispersion and extraction recovery. C18-FS-MNPs demonstrated obvious enrichment effect for four model PAEs and 478-627-fold enrichment factors were obtained. The limit of detection was <1.89ng/mL and relative standard deviation was ranging from 3.7 to 5.8%. It was successfully applied for determination of trace PAEs residue in CHP with good recoveries. PMID:25213260

  6. Novel pH/Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels Based on Poly(β-Amino Ester) for Controlled Protein Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Dai Phu; He, Chaoliang; Lee, Doo Sung

    The concept of this research was to use poly(β-amino ester) (PAE) as a bi-functional group for synthesis of the novel stimuli-sensitive injectable hydrogels for controlled drug/protein delivery. Firstly, PAE was used as a pH-sensitive moiety to conjugate with the temperature-sensitive biodegradable triblock copolymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone)(PCL-PEG-PCL) or poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) (PACL-PEG-PCLA). Secondly, the cationic nature of PAE was used as the second function to make ionic complexes with anionic biomolecules loaded onto the hydrogel such as insulin. As a result, the release of the drug/protein from the hydrogel device can be controlled by the degradation of the copolymer.

  7. In situ infrared spectroscopy study on imidization reaction and imidization-induced refractive index and thickness variations in microscale thin films of a poly(amic ester).

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Joo; Ree, Moonhor

    2005-06-21

    Poly(amic ester) (PAE) is a soluble precursor of polyimide that has attracted interest from both the microelectronic and the flat-panel display industries because of its several important advantages, including excellent solubility, high hydrolytic stability, and solvent-free film formation, over the polyimide precursor, poly(amic acid), for which monomer-polymer equilibration always occurs in solution due to its carboxylic acid groups. In this study, poly(3,4'-oxydiphenylene pyromellitamic diethyl ester) (PMDA-3,4'-ODA PAE) was chosen as a PAE precursor, and its thermal imidization behavior in microscale thin films was investigated quantitatively for the first time using time-resolved infrared (IR) spectroscopy. In addition, the variations of the film refractive index and thickness with temperature and time were determined in detail from the time-resolved IR spectra and are fully interpreted in this paper by considering the imidization kinetics of the precursor.

  8. Comparative antioxidant responses in liver of Carassius auratus exposed to phthalates: an integrated biomarker approach.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qing; Feng, Mingbao; Dai, Yong

    2013-11-01

    Phthalates (PAEs) are chemical agents typically used as plasticizers in numerous industrial products. They have become ubiquitous contaminants due to their tendency to release into the environment. The present study was conducted to investigate the comparative antioxidant responses in liver of freshwater goldfish Carassius auratus injected intraperitoneally with 17 different PAEs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg for 10 days. The results indicated that these PAEs can adversely affect the antioxidant status, confirmed by the significantly inhibited activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase). Especially, the latter two enzymes constituted the most affected antioxidant enzymes after the exposure, and the lowest values were recorded for the catalase activity. The toxicity order was proposed via the integrated biomarker response, with dicyclohexyl phthalate the most toxic and diethyl phthalate the least. Overall, these findings may contribute to the risk assessments of these chemicals on aquatic species.

  9. a Gan on sic Hfet Device Technology for Wireless Infrastructure Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, B.; Henry, H.; Moore, K.; Abdou, J.; Lawrence, R.; Clayton, F.; Miller, M.; Crowder, J.; Mares, E.; Hartin, O.; Liu, C.; Weitzel, C.

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents Freescale's baseline GaN device technology for wireless infrastructure applications. At 48 V drain bias and 2.1 GHz operating frequency 10-11 W/mm, 62-67% power-added efficiency (PAE) is realized on 0.3 mm devices and 74 W (5.9 W/mm), 55% PAE is demonstrated for 12.6 mm devices. A simple thermal model shows that a more than twofold increase in channel temperature is responsible for limiting the CW power density on the 12.6 mm compared to 0.3 mm devices. The addition of through wafer source vias to improve gain and tuning the device in a fixture optimized for efficiency yield an output power of 57W (4.7 W/mm), PAE of 66%, and a calculated channel temperature of approximately 137°C at a 28 V bias.

  10. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time.

  11. What Happens When Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Become Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eileen M.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs. The health consequences associated with PAE in the human adult are unknown, but animal models suggest that they may be more susceptible to chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, immune dysfunction, and cancer. More research is needed to understand the lasting effects of PAE on adults and the developmental trajectories of FASDs. PMID:26543794

  12. An Early Assessment of Accountable Care Organizations' Efforts to Engage Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Shortell, Stephen M; Sehgal, Neil J; Bibi, Salma; Ramsay, Patricia P; Neuhauser, Linda; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A

    2015-10-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have incentives to meet quality and cost targets to share in any resulting savings. Achieving these goals will require ACOs to engage more actively with patients and their families. The extent to which ACOs do so is currently unknown. Using mixed methods, including a national survey, phone interviews, and site-visits, we examine the extent to which ACOs actively engage patients and their families, explore challenges involved, and consider approaches for dealing with those challenges. Results indicate that greater ACO use of patient activation and engagement (PAE) activities at the point-of-care may be related to positive perceptions among ACO leaders of the impact of PAE investments on ACO costs, quality, and outcomes of care. We identify a number of important practices associated with greater PAE, including high-level leadership commitment, goal-setting supported by adequate resources, extensive provider training, use of interdisciplinary care teams, and frequent monitoring and reporting on progress. PMID:26038349

  13. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  14. Effects of phthalate ester treatment on seed germination and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus radiatus L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenli; Zhang, Chongbang; Liu, Shuyuan

    2014-05-01

    Effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate on seed germination rate and antioxidant enzymes activities of mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.) were investigated. Results showed that under the treatment with 10 mg/kg of phthalate esters (PAEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase (CAT) activities were higher than those of the control (p > 0.05). But SOD and CAT activities decreased with the PAEs concentrations and the treatment duration, and were significantly lower than those of the control (p < 0.05). Effect of PAEs stress on SOD activity in germinating seeds of mung bean displayed a significant dose-effect relationship.

  15. Synthesis of novel fluorine containing poly(arylene ether-pyrazoles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.G.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1993-12-31

    Several novel poly(arylene ether-pyrazoles) (PAE-pyrazoles) containing N-tetrafluorophenyl or octafluorobiphenal groups have been prepared. Polymers containing N-tetrafluorophenyl groups were prepared from two new monomers namely, 3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrazole and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrazole, respectively. Several bisphenol pyrazole monomers were polymerized with decafluorobiphenyl under controlled reaction conditions to obtain PAE-pyrazoles containing octafluorobiphenyl moieties. All polymers were obtained as white granular or fibrous solids with inherent viscosities of 0.19-1.40 dL/g, and were stable up to 480{degrees}C in air and helium. In general, the thermal properties of fluorine containing PAE-pyrazoles were comparable or lower than their corresponding non-fluorine containing systems. The preparation and thermal properties of these polymers will be discussed.

  16. Novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer micelles loading curcumin: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li; Shen, Yuanyuan; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Mingna; Guo, Shengrong; Huang, Shengtang

    2013-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE) was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-esters) which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α -, ω -acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid). The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by (1)H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38 μg/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles were prepared by a solid dispersion method and the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the micelles were 7.0% and 85.2%, respectively. The curcumin-loaded micelles were spherical with a hydrodynamic diameter of 151.9 nm. Curcumin was encapsulated within 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles amorphously and released from the micelles, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4, presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. The hemolysis rate of the curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles was 3.18%, which was below 5%. The IC50 value of the curcumin-loaded micelles against Hela cells was 10.21 μg/mL, lower than the one of free curcumin (25.90 μg/mL). The cellular uptake of the curcumin-loaded micelles in Hela cell increased in a time-dependent manner. The curcumin-loaded micelles could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Hela cells.

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters synaptic activity of adult hippocampal dentate granule cells under conditions of enriched environment.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Kenta; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Allan, Andrea M; Ge, Shaoyu; Gu, Yan; Cunningham, Lee Anna

    2016-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), which is characterized by a wide range of cognitive and behavioral deficits that may be linked to impaired hippocampal function and adult neurogenesis. Preclinical studies in mouse models of FASD indicate that PAE markedly attenuates enrichment-mediated increases in the number of adult-generated hippocampal dentate granule cells (aDGCs), but whether synaptic activity is also affected has not been studied. Here, we utilized retroviral birth-dating coupled with whole cell patch electrophysiological recordings to assess the effects of PAE on enrichment-mediated changes in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity as a function of DGC age. We found that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) had no effect on baseline synaptic activity of 4- or 8-week-old aDGCs from control mice, but significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in 8-week-old aDGCs from PAE mice. In contrast, exposure to EE significantly enhanced the excitatory/inhibitory ratio of synaptic activity in older pre-existing DGCs situated in the outer dentate granule cell layer (i.e., those generated during embryonic development; dDGCs) in control mice, an effect that was blunted in PAE mice. These findings indicate distinct electrophysiological responses of hippocampal DGCs to behavioral challenge based on cellular ontogenetic age, and suggest that PAE disrupts EE-mediated changes in overall hippocampal network activity. These findings may have implications for future therapeutic targeting of hippocampal dentate circuitry in clinical FASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27009742

  18. Suppression of polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in vitro: a study of the mechanisms and the correlation with ring abscess in pseudomonal keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Kamata, R.; Nishino, N.; Okamura, R.; Kambara, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria, or the culture supernatants of an elastase non-producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elicited a chemotactic response from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in vitro. The chemoattractive capacity was diminished under the presence of Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, a receptor antagonist of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) which is a bacterial chemotactic peptide to PMN. This indicated that the chemoattractant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was a fMLP-like molecule(s). In contrast, culture supernatants of an elastase producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced negligible chemotactic response from PMN. Indeed, an inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants or of purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) on PMN chemotaxis was observed when fMLP was used as a chemoattractant. Another fMLP-induced function of PMN, respiratory burst activation, was also diminished by pretreatment of PMN with PAE. PAE hydrolysed fMLP at the Met-Leu bond and diminished the chemoattractant capacity. In addition, a receptor analysis with fML-3H-P demonstrated a decrease in numbers of fMLP receptors on PMN without changing the dissociation constant values after the treatment of the cells with PAE. In the primary structure of the fMLP receptor previously reported, a preferential amino acid sequence for cleavage by PAE was identified in what was believed to be an extracellular portion of the receptor molecule. These results suggested that PAE could diminish PMN infiltration in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo by cleavage of the fMLP-like pseudomonal chemotactic ligand and the receptors on PMN. Images Figure 4 PMID:7734333

  19. Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of six phthalate esters from drinking water: a combination of experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Conglu; Yang, Zhao; Dai, Xinpeng; Cheng, Maosheng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    An attractive metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) material was synthesized at the nanoscale and applied as a sorbent in the porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) device for the pre-concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the selection of sorbent materials, pH adjustment, the effect of salt, magnetic-stirring extraction time, the desorption solvent and the desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for PAEs varied from 0.004 to 0.02 μg L(-1). The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 50 μg L(-1) or from 0.2 to 50 μg L(-1) for the analytes with the relative standard deviations fluctuating from 0.8 to 10.9% (n = 5). The enrichment factors (EFs) for the target PAEs were varied from 143 to 187. MIL-101(Cr) exhibited remarkable advantages compared to activated carbon and MIL-100(Fe). On the other hand, the computational method was first used to predict the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) towards PAEs. The molecular interactions and the free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and PAEs were observed and calculated in terms of the molecular modeling method. MIL-101(Cr) showed high potential in the analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinking water. The computational result was consistent with the detected enrichment factors. The computational modeling accurately predicted the extraction efficiency of MOF-based material towards the target analytes. Therefore, the combination of experimental and computational study provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis. PMID:26076497

  20. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs. PMID:10461841

  1. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  2. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  3. Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of six phthalate esters from drinking water: a combination of experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Conglu; Yang, Zhao; Dai, Xinpeng; Cheng, Maosheng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    An attractive metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) material was synthesized at the nanoscale and applied as a sorbent in the porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) device for the pre-concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the selection of sorbent materials, pH adjustment, the effect of salt, magnetic-stirring extraction time, the desorption solvent and the desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for PAEs varied from 0.004 to 0.02 μg L(-1). The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 50 μg L(-1) or from 0.2 to 50 μg L(-1) for the analytes with the relative standard deviations fluctuating from 0.8 to 10.9% (n = 5). The enrichment factors (EFs) for the target PAEs were varied from 143 to 187. MIL-101(Cr) exhibited remarkable advantages compared to activated carbon and MIL-100(Fe). On the other hand, the computational method was first used to predict the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) towards PAEs. The molecular interactions and the free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and PAEs were observed and calculated in terms of the molecular modeling method. MIL-101(Cr) showed high potential in the analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinking water. The computational result was consistent with the detected enrichment factors. The computational modeling accurately predicted the extraction efficiency of MOF-based material towards the target analytes. Therefore, the combination of experimental and computational study provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis.

  4. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  5. Impact of pH and cationic supplementation on in vitro postantibiotic effect.

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsson, A; Erlendsdottir, H; Gottfredsson, M; Gudmundsson, S

    1991-01-01

    Most studies on pharmacodynamic variables in vitro, including the postantibiotic effect (PAE), are performed at pH 7.4 in noncationic-supplemented media, a situation which may differ significantly from the true microenvironment in most infected foci. We studied the impact of five different pH levels (pH 5, 6, 7, 7.4, and 8) on the duration of the PAE, the MIC, and bactericidal activity. Acid pH was found to have in general a deleterious effect on the activity of aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with the MIC being higher, the bactericidal rate being lower, and the PAE being shorter at pH 5 (and to a lesser extent at pH 6) than at more alkaline pH levels. Similar results were observed for imipenem against P. aeruginosa. The PAEs induced by ampicillin against E. coli and dicloxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus were not predictably dependent on the pH, whereas the PAEs induced by ciprofloxacin against S. aureus were longest at either end of the pH spectrum. The bactericidal activity of these agents was, however, pH dependent, being slower at acid pHs. The addition of 50 mg of Ca2+ and 20 mg of Mg2+ per liter of liquid medium at pH 7.4 did not affect the duration of the PAE. Since the pH in abscess cavities may be close to 5, these observations may be of importance for employment of the agents studied in closed or poorly drained infections. PMID:1810197

  6. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  7. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T.C. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications. PMID:26690232

  8. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  9. Postantibiotic and physiological effects of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin at subminimal and suprainhibitory concentrations on some swine and bovine respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diarra, M S; Malouin, F; Jacques, M

    1999-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin on some important gram-negative swine and bovine pathogens namely, Pasteurella multocida, Pasteurella haemolytica, Bordetella bronchiseptica, and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae were studied in vitro. The effect of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and sub-MICs (1/4, 1/2 MIC) on bacterial growth was evaluated. The presence of tilmicosin, tylosin and apramycin in the medium decreased the rate of growth of the bacterial strains tested using drug concentrations as low as 1/4 MIC. The postantibiotic effect (PAE) which is the suppression of optimal bacterial growth that persists after a short exposure (2 h) of microorganisms to an antibiotic was studied by exposure of bacteria to drugs at 1/4, 1/2, 1, 4 and 8 times MIC. The duration of PAEs increased with rising concentration for all drugs tested but at concentrations below the MIC, tilmicosin showed more significant PAEs than tylosin or apramycin against P. multocida and A. pleuropneumoniae. Tilmicosin and tylosin caused PAEs of up to 8 h when used at 8 times the MIC, while apramycin caused PAEs of up to 5 h when used at this concentration. Sub-MICs of either tilmicosin, tylosin, or apramycin had no effect on P. multocida dermonecrotic toxin production. However sub-MICs of tylosin, or apramycin significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of A. pleuropneumoniae and affected the capsular material production of this isolate and of one isolate of P. multocida (type A). The in vitro effect of tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin (even when used at sub-MIC levels) on growth, production of capsular material, and haemolytic activity might impair the virulence of some of the microorganisms studied. In addition to the effects of these drugs on some putative virulence factors, we suggest that the strong PAEs caused by tilmicosin, tylosin, and apramycin may also contribute to the in vivo efficacy of these drugs.

  10. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA. PMID:27286932

  11. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C. Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Cerri, Luciana M. O.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.; Marcelino, Antonio S. Z.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  12. Popliteal artery entrapment presenting as acute limb ischemia: treatment with intra-arterial thrombolysis. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Taslakian, Bedros; Haddad, Fady; Ghaith, Ola; Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2012-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a relatively rare condition, which occurs predominantly in active young adults who lack atherogenic risk factors. It has been rarely reported in patients under the age of 18 years. The most common presentation in the early stages is intermittent claudication; however, in the later stages of undiagnosed PAES, acute ischemia can occur as a result of complete arterial occlusion or embolism. We present a 14-year-old boy, who presented with acute limb ischemia which was managed with a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Rao, Bin; Yao, Junjie; Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a major experimental tool of photoacoustic tomography, with unique imaging capabilities for various biological applications. However, conventional imaging systems are all table-top embodiments, which preclude their use in internal organs. In this study, by applying the OR-PAM concept to our recently developed endoscopic technique, called photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE), we created an optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAEM) system, which enables internal organ imaging with a much finer resolution than conventional acoustic-resolution PAE systems. OR-PAEM has potential preclinical and clinical applications using either endogenous or exogenous contrast agents. PMID:25798315

  14. Assessing effects of prenatal alcohol exposure using group-wise sparse representation of fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinglei; Jiang, Xi; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Dajiang; Zhao, Shijie; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Guo, Lei; Li, Zhihao; Coles, Claire; Hu, Xiaoping; Liu, Tianming

    2015-08-30

    Task-based fMRI activation mapping has been widely used in clinical neuroscience in order to assess different functional activity patterns in conditions such as prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) affected brains and healthy controls. In this paper, we propose a novel, alternative approach of group-wise sparse representation of the fMRI data of multiple groups of subjects (healthy control, exposed non-dysmorphic PAE and exposed dysmorphic PAE) and assess the systematic functional activity differences among these three populations. Specifically, a common time series signal dictionary is learned from the aggregated fMRI signals of all three groups of subjects, and then the weight coefficient matrices (named statistical coefficient map (SCM)) associated with each common dictionary were statistically assessed for each group separately. Through inter-group comparisons based on the correspondence established by the common dictionary, our experimental results have demonstrated that the group-wise sparse coding strategy and the SCM can effectively reveal a collection of brain networks/regions that were affected by different levels of severity of PAE. PMID:26195294

  15. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  16. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  17. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  18. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  19. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  20. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P < 0.001) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bile salts. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of 50 mg kg-1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg-1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  1. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on social, cognitive and affective behavioral domains: Insights from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Kristin; Brigman, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are characterized by deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. However, the combination and severity of impairments are highly dependent upon maternal ethanol consumption patterns, which creates a complex variety of manifestations. Rodent models have been essential in identifying behavioral endpoints of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, experimental model outcomes are extremely diverse based on level, pattern, timing, and method of ethanol exposure, as well as the behavioral domain assayed and paradigm used. Therefore, comparisons across studies are difficult and there is currently no clear comprehensive behavioral phenotype of PAE. This lack of defined cognitive and behavioral phenotype is a contributing factor to the difficulty in identifying FASD individuals. The current review aims to critically examine preclinical behavioral outcomes in the social, cognitive, and affective domains in terms of the PAE paradigm, with a special emphasis on dose, timing, and delivery, to establish a working model of behavioral impairment. In addition, this review identifies gaps in our current knowledge and proposes future areas of research that will advance knowledge in the field of PAE outcomes. Understanding the complex behavioral phenotype, which results from diverse ethanol consumption will allow for development of better diagnostic tools and more critical evaluation of potential treatments for FASD. PMID:26992695

  2. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health.

  3. Characterization and Genomic Analysis of a Highly Efficient Dibutyl Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium Gordonia sp. Strain QH-12.

    PubMed

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Xinxin; Deng, Ye; Jia, Minghong; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain QH-12 isolated from activated sludge was identified as Gordonia sp. based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and was found to be capable of utilizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other common phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source. The degradation kinetics of DBP under different concentrations by the strain QH-12 fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R² > 0.98). However, strain QH-12 could not utilize the major intermediate product phthalate (phthalic acid; PA) as the sole carbon and energy source, and only a little amount of PA was detected. The QH-12 genome analysis revealed the presence of putative hydrolase/esterase genes involved in PAEs-degradation but no phthalic acid catabolic gene cluster was found, suggesting that a novel degradation pathway of PAEs was present in Gordonia sp. QH-12. This information will be valuable for obtaining a more holistic understanding on diverse genetic mechanisms of PAEs-degrading Gordonia sp. strains. PMID:27347943

  4. Kinetics of phenolic and phthalic acid esters biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic of phenolic and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate was investigated. Laboratory-scale MBR was fed with mixture of fresh and stabilized landfill leachate containing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 10, 6, 3 and operated under different solid retention time (SRT) of 90, 15 and 5 d. Batch experiments using MBR sludge obtained from each steady-state operating condition revealed highest biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.059-0.092 h(-1) of the phenolic and PAEs compounds at C/N of 6. Heterotrophic bacteria were the major group responsible for biodegradation of compounds whereas the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) helped accelerating their removals. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria found under high ammonia condition had an important role in enhancing the biodegradation of phenols and PAEs by releasing phenol hydroxylase (PH), esterase (EST) and phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) enzymes and the presence of AOB helped improving biodegradation of phenolic and PAEs compounds through their co-metabolism. PMID:26908045

  5. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  6. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  7. Characterization and Genomic Analysis of a Highly Efficient Dibutyl Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium Gordonia sp. Strain QH-12

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Xinxin; Deng, Ye; Jia, Minghong; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain QH-12 isolated from activated sludge was identified as Gordonia sp. based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and was found to be capable of utilizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other common phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source. The degradation kinetics of DBP under different concentrations by the strain QH-12 fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R2 > 0.98). However, strain QH-12 could not utilize the major intermediate product phthalate (phthalic acid; PA) as the sole carbon and energy source, and only a little amount of PA was detected. The QH-12 genome analysis revealed the presence of putative hydrolase/esterase genes involved in PAEs-degradation but no phthalic acid catabolic gene cluster was found, suggesting that a novel degradation pathway of PAEs was present in Gordonia sp. QH-12. This information will be valuable for obtaining a more holistic understanding on diverse genetic mechanisms of PAEs-degrading Gordonia sp. strains. PMID:27347943

  8. [Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a solid phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of 13 phthalate acid esters in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Fu, Shanliang; Ding, Li; Zhu, Shaohua; Jiao, Yanna; Gong, Qiang; Chen, Jitao; Wang, Libing

    2011-08-01

    A method based on solid phase extraction (SPE) with magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the determination of 13 phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as extraction time, pH of water sample, desorption solvent, and desorption time, were carefully investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: extraction time, 10 min; pH of water samples, 5 - 7; desorption solvent, 2 mL acetone; desorption time, 5 min. The extraction efficiencies were 89.7% - 100.5% under the optimized conditions. The method was sensitive with the detection limits (S/N = 3) between 0.08 -0.47 microg/L for the 13 PAEs. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of tap water, bottle drinking water and lake water, and none of the 13 PAEs was detected. The recoveries ranged from 84.5% to 107.5% for the 3 real spiked samples, and the relative standard deviations were between 1.9% and 12.8%. The developed method has proved convenient, time-saving, accurate, sensitive, and environmental-friendly, and can be used for the determination of PAEs in water samples.

  9. Novel oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of pederin-producing endosymbionts of Paederus riparius rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Kador, Matthias; Horn, Marcus A; Dettner, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts from female Paederus rove beetles are hitherto uncultured, phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas sp., and produce the polyketide pederin, which exhibits strong cytotoxic effects and antitumoral activities. The location of such endosymbionts inside beetles and on beetles' eggs is hypothesized based on indirect evidence rather than elucidated. Thus, an endosymbiont-specific and a competitor oligonucleotide probe (Cy3-labelled PAE444 and unlabelled cPAE444, respectively) were designed and utilized for FISH with semi-thin sections of Paederus riparius eggs. Cy3-PAE444-positive cells were densely packed and covered the whole eggshell. Hundred percent of EUB338-Mix-positive total bacterial cells were PAE444 positive, indicating a biofilm dominated by Paederus endosymbionts. Analysis of different egg deposition stadiums by electron microscopy and pks (polyketide synthase gene, a structural gene associated with pederin biosynthesis)-PCR supported results obtained by FISH and revealed that the endosymbiont-containing layer is applied to the eggshell inside the efferent duct. These findings suggest that P. riparius endosymbionts are located inside unknown structures of the female genitalia, which allow for a well-regulated release of endosymbionts during oviposition. The novel oligonucleotide probes developed in this study will facilitate (1) the identification of symbiont-containing structures within genitalia of their beetle hosts and (2) directed cultivation approaches in the future.

  10. Effect of biochar aging on surface characteristics and adsorption behavior of dialkyl phthalates.

    PubMed

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Ghosh, Saikat; Li, Fangfang; Dong, Xudong; Zhang, Di; Wu, Min; Li, Hao; Pan, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The implications of biochar aging regarding their material properties as well as their interactions with other contaminants are not vivid. We report the role of biochar aging on sorption behavior of di-alkyl phthalates (PAEs). Biochars used in this study were produced from peanut-shell and their aging was simulated by chemical oxidation. The structural composition and morphology of the obtained biochars, before and after oxidation with HNO3/H2SO4, were analyzed by element composition, XPS, DRIFT, and SEM/EDX. Several experimental results unequivocally showed oxygen enrichment in the mixed acid treated samples compared to their precursors. Despite surface area reduction and pore destruction, increased PAEs sorption on oxidized biochar surfaces portrayed existence of strong PAEs binding sites. The adsorption of PAEs on oxidized biochar surface is a cumulative influence of hydrophobic interactions and pi-pi electron donor-acceptor interactions. Our results suggest that imminent aging of biochar upon environmental exposure may change their sorbent properties. PMID:26281762

  11. 24 CFR 401.421 - Rental Assistance Assessment Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... permitted by §§ 401.410 and 401.411; (5) The long-term financial stability of the project; (6) The ability... needed for the financial viability of the project. (d) Reports to HUD. The PAE must report to HUD on...

  12. 24 CFR 401.421 - Rental Assistance Assessment Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... permitted by §§ 401.410 and 401.411; (5) The long-term financial stability of the project; (6) The ability... needed for the financial viability of the project. (d) Reports to HUD. The PAE must report to HUD on...

  13. 24 CFR 401.401 - Consolidated Restructuring Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consolidated Restructuring Plans... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.401 Consolidated Restructuring Plans. A PAE may request HUD to approve a Consolidated Restructuring Plan that presents an overall strategy for more than...

  14. 24 CFR 401.401 - Consolidated Restructuring Plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consolidated Restructuring Plans... PROGRAM (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.401 Consolidated Restructuring Plans. A PAE may request HUD to approve a Consolidated Restructuring Plan that presents an overall strategy for more than...

  15. 24 CFR 401.403 - Rejection of a request for a Restructuring Plan because of actions or omissions of owner or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 2424. (2) Other grounds. HUD may elect not to permit continued consideration of the... under 2 CFR part 2424; (ii) HUD or the PAE determines that the owner or an affiliate has engaged in... meet the housing quality standards in § 401.558 and that the poor condition of the project is...

  16. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  17. Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Yueqin; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development. PMID:26867681

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a photosensitive polyimide precursor and its photocuring behavior for lithography applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Le Thu T.; Nguyen, Huu Nieu; La, Thai Ha T.

    2007-02-01

    Photosensitive polyimide (PSPI) is of great interest, especially in microelectronic industry and potentially in the photonics and MEMS applications. Here we report on our studies for optimization of synthesis conditions for a PSPI which can be used in lithography. The direct polymerization method using phenyl phosphonic dichloride (PPD) as an activator was used to synthesize poly(amic ester) (PAE) from pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA). Main parameters of the synthesis procedure were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. From that, synthesis conditions were determined. Characteristics of the synthesized PAE and the imidized film were studied by the means of DSC, thermalgravimetric analyses (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature and the thermal stability of the imidized film were determined. Additionally, formulations of photo-PAE and the Irgacure 369 as photoinitiator were prepared and photocuring was tested by lithography. The results show that the images can be transferred to the PAE film by selective exposure.

  19. An Evaluation of the Response Modulation Hypothesis in Relation to Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Richard F.; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 18) and normal controls (n = 23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter…

  20. Protease-cleaved iron-transferrin augments oxidant-mediated endothelial cell injury via hydroxyl radical formation.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A; Britigan, B E

    1995-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the Pseudomonas-derived protease, pseudomonas elastase (PAE), can modify transferrin to form iron complexes capable of catalyzing the formation of hydroxyl radical (.OH) from neutrophil (PMN)-derived superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As the lung is a major site of Pseudomonas infection, the ability of these iron chelates to augment oxidant-mediated pulmonary artery endothelial cell injury via release of 51Cr from prelabeled cells was examined. Diferrictransferrin previously cleaved with PAE significantly enhanced porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayer injury from 2.3-6.3 to 15.8-17.0% of maximum, resulting from exposure to H2O2, products of the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction, or PMA-stimulated PMNs. Iron associated with transferrin appeared to be responsible for cell injury. Spin trapping and the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive 2-deoxyribose oxidation products demonstrated the production of .OH in this system. The addition of catalase, dimethyl thiourea, and the hydrophobic spin trap, alpha-phenyl-n-terbutyl-nitrone, offered significant protection from injury (27.8-58.2%). Since sites of Pseudomonas infection contain other proteases, the ability of porcine pancreatic elastase and trypsin to substitute for PAE was examined. Results were similar to those observed with PAE. We conclude .OH formation resulting from protease alteration of transferrin may serve as a mechanism of tissue injury at sites of bacterial infection and other processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity. Images PMID:7769095

  1. Neonatal phthalate ester exposure induced placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP mRNA expression in two districts of southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Xu, Xijin; Zhu, Yueqin; Cao, Junjun; Zhang, Yuling; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Plastic production releases phthalate esters (PAEs), which can alter the expression of metallothioneins (MTs), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) and heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP). A total of 187 mother-infant pairs were recruited, 127 from Chenghai (high exposed group) and 60 from Haojiang (low exposed group), to investigate the association between neonatal PAE exposure and mRNA expression of placental MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Umbilical cord blood and placenta samples were collected for measuring five PAE concentrations and detecting mRNA levels of MTs, FATP1 and HFABP. Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) were significantly higher in the high exposed group compared to the low exposed group. FATP1 and HFABP mRNA in the high exposed group were higher than that in the low exposed group while MT-1A was contrary. Both dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and DEHP were correlated with higher MT and MT-2A expression, while diethyl phthalate (DEP) was also positively correlated with MT-1A and FATP1 expression in female infants. DEHP exposure was negatively correlated with birth weight and gestational age in male infants. These results show that neonatal PAE exposure alters the mRNA expression of placental MTs and FATP1, which are related to fetal growth and development. PMID:26867681

  2. Determination of phthalate esters in environmental water by magnetic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Sun, Zhiwei; Chen, Guang; Zhang, Wanwan; Cai, Yiping; Kong, Rongmei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-08-28

    In this study, the magnetic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) microspheres were successfully synthesized and applied as an effective sorbent for preconcentration of several typical phthalate esters (PAEs) from environmental water samples. Firstly, the solvothermal treatment method was used for preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Then, mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) was served as the functionalized chemical to modify Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The Fe3O4@ZIF-8 core-shell microspheres were synthesized through coating the MAA-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with ZIF-8. By coupling magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a reliable, sensitive and cost-effective method for simultaneous determination of five main PAEs including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was developed. Good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-100.0μg/L. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were in the range of 0.08-0.24 and 0.3-0.8μg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 5.5% and the accuracies of the method for the PAEs were in the range from 85.6% to 103.6%. Finally, the Fe3O4@ZIF-8 was successfully applied for rapid extraction of trace amounts of PAEs in environmental water samples. PMID:26228850

  3. Distribution, possible sources, and health risk assessment of SVOC pollution in small streams in Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwei; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Qiao, Meng; Wei, Dongbin

    2014-09-01

    The pollution levels of typical semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) consisting of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 20 organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs), and 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) were investigated in small rivers running through the flourishing cities in Pearl River Delta region, China. The concentrations of ∑15PAHs were 2.0-48 ng/L and 29-1.2 × 10(3) ng/g in the water and sediment samples, respectively. The ∑20OCPs were 6.6-57 ng/L and 9.3-6.0 × 10(2) ng/g in the water and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of ∑15PAEs were much higher both in the water and sediments. The partition process of the detected SVOCs between the water and sediment did not reach the equilibrium state at most of the sites when sampling. The combustion of petroleum products and coal was the major source of the detected PAHs. The OCPs were mainly historical residue, whereas the new inputs of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, and endosulfan were possible at several sites. The industrial and domestic sewage were the major source for the PAEs; storm water runoff accelerated the input of PAEs. No chronic risk of the SVOCs was identified by a health risk assessment through daily water consumption, except for the ∑20OCPs that might cause cancer at several sites. Nevertheless, the integrated health risk of the SVOCs should not be neglected and need intensive investigations.

  4. Phosphate-affinity electrophoresis on a microchip for determination of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Aishan; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Mizuo

    2009-10-01

    We describe microchip-based phosphate-affinity electrophoresis (microPAE) for separation of peptides aimed at determination of kinase activity. The microPAE exploits two recently published technologies: autonomous sample injection for PDMS microchips and a phosphate-specific affinity ligand, Phos-tag. We prepared a fluorescently labeled substrate peptide, specific to human c-Src, and its phosphorylated form. We synthesized a Phos-tag-poly(dimethylacrylamide) conjugate. The conjugate and the sample solutions were autonomously injected into a PDMS-glass hybrid microchip. The two solutions were contacted together in the microchannel. When the peptides were electrophoresed into the Phos-tag-poly(dimethylacrylamide) region, the phosphorylated peptide was specifically trapped, and separated from the nonphosphorylated peptide in 10 s. The results were quantified by the areas of the fluorescence peaks. The calibration plot obtained with standard samples showed an excellent linearity and a LOD of 0.9% phosphorylated peptide among the total peptides. For c-Src-reacted samples, the results from the microPAE were in good agreement with those from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The microPAE was also successful in the presence of inhibitors for c-Src. The measured 50% inhibitory concentration values for staurosporine, PP2, and SU6656 were in good agreement with the literature values. PMID:19784951

  5. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  6. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  7. In-Plasma Photo-Assisted Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Demetre

    2015-09-01

    A methodology to precisely control the ion energy distribution (IED) on a substrate allowed the study of silicon etching as a function of ion energy at near-threshold energies. Surprisingly, a substantial etching rate was observed, independent of ion energy, when the ion energy was below the ion-assisted etching threshold (~ 16 eV for etching silicon with chlorine plasma). Careful experiments led to the conclusion that this ``sub-threshold'' etching was due to photons, predominately at wavelengths <1700 Å. Among the plasmas investigated, photo-assisted etching (PAE) was lowest in Br2/Ar gas mixtures and highest in HBr/Cl2/Ar. Above threshold etching rates scaled with the square root of ion energy. PAE rates scaled with the product of surface halogen coverage (measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Ar emission intensity (7504 Å). Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM) revealed that photo-etched surfaces were very rough, quite likely due to the inability of the photo-assisted process to remove contaminants from the surface. In-plasma PAE may be be a complicating factor for processes that require low ion energies, such as atomic layer etching. On the other hand PAE could produce sub-10 nm high aspect ratio (6:1) features by highly selective plasma etching to transfer nascent nanopatterns in silicon. Work supported by DOE Plasma Science Center and NSF.

  8. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a PRA? 401.300 Section 401.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... What is a PRA? A PRA is an agreement between HUD and a PAE that delineates rights and...

  9. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a PRA? 401.300 Section 401.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... What is a PRA? A PRA is an agreement between HUD and a PAE that delineates rights and...

  10. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is a PRA? 401.300 Section 401.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... What is a PRA? A PRA is an agreement between HUD and a PAE that delineates rights and...

  11. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a PRA? 401.300 Section 401.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... What is a PRA? A PRA is an agreement between HUD and a PAE that delineates rights and...

  12. Students Protest Lack of Representation at Spellings Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Student lobbyists have sent Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings a letter scolding her for what they see as a minimizing of student representation at the higher-education summit held last week. The Department of Education responded by saying that students had indeed been invited to participate. The letter, which was signed by Jennifer S. Pae,…

  13. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  14. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  15. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  16. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  17. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  18. Remediation of phthalates in river sediment by integrated enhanced bioremediation and electrokinetic process.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Huang, Sheng-Chih; Jen, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Pei-Shin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of enhanced bioremediation coupling with electrokinetic process for promoting the growth of intrinsic microorganisms and removing phthalate esters (PAEs) from river sediment by adding an oxygen releasing compound (ORC). Test results are given as follows: Enhanced removal of PAEs was obtained by electrokinetics, through which the electroosmotic flow would render desorption of organic pollutants from sediment particles yielding an increased bioavailability. It was also found that the ORC injected into the sediment compartment not only would alleviate the pH value variation due to acid front and base front, but would be directly utilized as the carbon source and oxygen source for microbial growth resulting in an enhanced degradation of organic pollutants. However, injection of the ORC into the anode compartment could yield a lower degree of microbial growth due to the loss of ORC during the transport by EK. Through the analysis of molecular biotechnology it was found that both addition of an ORC and application of an external electric field can be beneficial to the growth of intrinsic microbial and abundance of microflora. In addition, the sequencing result showed that PAEs could be degraded by the following four strains: Flavobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Rhodococcus sp. The above findings confirm that coupling of enhanced bioremediation and electrokinetic process could be a viable remediation technology to treat PAEs-contaminated river sediment. PMID:26733014

  19. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  20. A longitudinal study of the long-term consequences of drinking during pregnancy: heavy in utero alcohol exposure disrupts the normal processes of brain development.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Catherine; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Adnams, Colleen M; May, Philip A; Bookheimer, Susan Y; O'Connor, Mary J; Narr, Katherine L; Kan, Eric; Abaryan, Zvart; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2012-10-31

    Exposure to alcohol in utero can cause birth defects, including face and brain abnormalities, and is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities. Here we use structural magnetic resonance imaging to measure cortical volume change longitudinally in a cohort of human children and youth with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a group of unexposed control subjects, demonstrating that the normal processes of brain maturation are disrupted in individuals whose mothers drank heavily during pregnancy. Trajectories of cortical volume change within children and youth with PAE differed from those of unexposed control subjects in posterior brain regions, particularly in the parietal cortex. In these areas, control children appear to show a particularly plastic cortex with a prolonged pattern of cortical volume increases followed by equally vigorous volume loss during adolescence, while the alcohol-exposed participants showed primarily volume loss, demonstrating decreased plasticity. Furthermore, smaller volume changes between scans were associated with lower intelligence and worse facial morphology in both groups, and were related to the amount of PAE during each trimester of pregnancy in the exposed group. This demonstrates that measures of IQ and facial dysmorphology predict, to some degree, the structural brain development that occurs in subsequent years. These results are encouraging in that interventions aimed at altering "experience" over time may improve brain trajectories in individuals with heavy PAE and possibly other neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23115162

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). International Communication, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Split Images: Arab and Asian Political Leaders' Portraits in Major U.S. News Magazines" (Hye-Kyeong Pae); "Public Relations Functions and Models: U.S. Practitioners in International Assignments" (Alan R. Freitag); "The Influence of Ideological…

  2. Paclitaxel-Loaded Mixed Micelles Enhance Ovarian Cancer Therapy through Extracellular pH-Triggered PEG Detachment and Endosomal Escape.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haijun; Li, Qian; Hong, Zehui

    2016-07-01

    Although PEGylation allows a drug delivery vehicle to have prolonged blood circulation time, it faces the problem of reduced cellular uptake. Removal of the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-shell at the appropriate time through tumor-microenvironment triggers could be a feasible solution to this problem. Here, paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded mixed micelles (PTX-mM) self-assembled from stearate-modified hyaluronic acid (SHA), mPEG-b-poly(β-amino ester) (mPEG-b-PAE), and ethylene acetyl-b-poly(β-amino ester) (EA-b-PAE) were developed. In the preparation of PTX-mM, SHA micelles were coated with EA-b-PAE followed by coloading of PTX and mPEG-b-PAE. PTX-mM were capable of extracellular pH-triggered PEG-detachment and poly(β-amino ester) (PAE)-mediated endosomal escape. When the pH was changed from pH 7.4 to pH 6.8, the particle size of PTX-mM significantly decreased from 97.5 ± 4.4 to 71.5 ± 2.3 nm. It also resulted in rapid and complete release of mPEG-b-PAE from PTX-mM as monitored using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology. PTX-mM capable of PEG detachment provided significant enhancement of PTX accumulation in SKOV-3 cells compared to PEG nondetachable PTX-mM. Interestingly, intracellular transport studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that EA-b-PAE could promote the escape of micelles from endolysosomes. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PTX-mM against SKOV-3 cells was 5.7 μg/mL, and PTX-mM containing 20 μg/mL of PTX induced apoptosis in 53.0% of the cell population. PTX-mM exhibited a highly prolonged elimination half-life (t1/2, 2.83 ± 0.37 h) and improved area under the curve (AUC, 7724.82 ± 1190.75 ng/mL/h) than the PTX-loaded SHA micelles (PTX-M). Furthermore, PTX-mM showed the highest tumor inhibition rate (64.9%) and the longest survival time (53 days) against the SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenograft models among all formulations. Taken together, the results suggested that PTX-mM have potential as an efficient

  3. Solid-phase microextraction of phthalate esters in water sample using different activated carbon-polymer monoliths as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Lirio, Stephen; Fu, Chung-Wei; Lin, Jhih-Yun; Hsu, Meng-Ju; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-07-13

    In this study, the application of different activated carbon-polymer (AC-polymer) monoliths as adsorbents for the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of phthalate esters (PAEs) in water sample were investigated. The activated carbon (AC) was embedded in organic polymers, poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) or poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (poly(STY-DVB)), via a 5-min microwave-assisted or a 15-min water bath heating polymerization. Preliminary investigation on the performance of the native poly(BMA-EDMA) and poly(STY-DVB) demonstrated remarkable adsorption efficiencies for PAEs. However, due to the strong hydrophobic, π-π, and hydrogen bonding interactions between the analytes and polymers, low extraction recoveries were achieved. In contrast, the presence of AC in native polymers not only enhanced the adsorption efficiencies but also assisted the PAE desorption, especially for AC-poly(STY-DVB) with extraction recovery ranged of 76.2-99.3%. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction recoveries for intra-, inter-day and column-to-column were in the range of 76.5-100.8% (<3.7% RSDs), 77.2-97.6% (<5.6% RSDs) and 75.5-99.7% (<6.2% RSDs), respectively. The developed AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column showed good mechanical stability, which can be reused for more than 30 extraction times without any significant loss in the extraction recoveries of PAEs. The AC-poly(STY-DVB) monolithic column was successfully applied in SPME of PAEs in water sample with extraction recovery ranged of 78.8%-104.6% (<5.5% RSDs). PMID:27237837

  4. A comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis study reveals roles for salt bridges in the structure and activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Fei; Yue, Shousong; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Xiaowei; Chen, Gao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between salt bridges and stability/enzymatic activity is unclear. We studied this relationship by systematic alanine-scanning mutation analysis using the typical M4 family metalloprotease Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE, also known as pseudolysin) as a model. Structural analysis revealed seven salt bridges in the PAE structure. We constructed ten mutants for six salt bridges. Among these mutants, six (Asp189Ala, Arg179Ala, Asp201Ala, Arg205Ala, Arg245Ala and Glu249Ala) were active and four (Asp168Ala, Arg198Ala, Arg253Ala, and Arg279Ala) were inactive. Five mutants were purified, and their catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km), half-lives (t1/2) and thermal unfolding curves were compared with those of PAE. Mutants Asp189Ala and Arg179Ala both showed decreased thermal stabilities and increased activities, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp189-Arg179 stabilizes the protein at the expense of catalytic efficiency. In contrast, mutants Asp201Ala and Arg205Ala both showed slightly increased thermal stability and slightly decreased activity, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp201-Arg205 destabilizes the protein. Mutant Glu249Ala is related to a C-terminal salt bridge network and showed both decreased thermal stability and decreased activity. Furthermore, Glu249Ala showed a thermal unfolding curve with three discernable states [the native state (N), the partially unfolded state (I) and the unfolded state (U)]. In comparison, there were only two discernable states (N and U) in the thermal unfolding curve of PAE. These results suggest that Glu249 is important for catalytic efficiency, stability and unfolding cooperativity. This study represents a systematic mutational analyses of salt bridges in the model metalloprotease PAE and provides important insights into the structure-function relationship of enzymes.

  5. Acute alcohol exposure during neurulation: Behavioral and brain structural consequences in adolescent C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Fish, E W; Holloway, H T; Rumple, A; Baker, L K; Wieczorek, L A; Moy, S S; Paniagua, B; Parnell, S E

    2016-09-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can induce physical malformations and behavioral abnormalities that depend in part on thedevelopmental timing of alcohol exposure. The current studies employed a mouse FASD model to characterize the long-term behavioral and brain structural consequences of a binge-like alcohol exposure during neurulation; a first-trimester stage when women are typically unaware that they are pregnant. Time-mated C57BL/6J female mice were administered two alcohol doses (2.8g/kg, four hours apart) or vehicle starting at gestational day 8.0. Male and female adolescent offspring (postnatal day 28-45) were then examined for motor activity (open field and elevated plus maze), coordination (rotarod), spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), sensory motor gating (acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition), sociability (three-chambered social test), and nociceptive responses (hot plate). Regional brain volumes and shapes were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. In males, PAE increased activity on the elevated plus maze and reduced social novelty preference, while in females PAE increased exploratory behavior in the open field and transiently impaired rotarod performance. In both males and females, PAE modestly impaired Morris water maze performance and decreased the latency to respond on the hot plate. There were no brain volume differences; however, significant shape differences were found in the cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, and corpus callosum. These results demonstrate that alcohol exposure during neurulation can have functional consequences into adolescence, even in the absence of significant brain regional volumetric changes. However, PAE-induced regional shape changes provide evidence for persistent brain alterations and suggest alternative clinical diagnostic markers.

  6. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  7. Structure and function of an archaeal homolog of survival protein E (SurEalpha): an acid phosphatase with purine nucleotide specificity.

    PubMed

    Mura, Cameron; Katz, Jonathan E; Clarke, Steven G; Eisenberg, David

    2003-03-01

    The survival protein E (SurE) family was discovered by its correlation to stationary phase survival of Escherichia coli and various repair proteins involved in sustaining this and other stress-response phenotypes. In order to better understand this ancient and well-conserved protein family, we have determined the 2.0A resolution crystal structure of SurEalpha from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (Pae). This first structure of an archaeal SurE reveals significant similarities to and differences from the only other known SurE structure, that from the eubacterium Thermatoga maritima (Tma). Both SurE monomers adopt similar folds; however, unlike the Tma SurE dimer, crystalline Pae SurEalpha is predominantly non-domain swapped. Comparative structural analyses of Tma and Pae SurE suggest conformationally variant regions, such as a hinge loop that may be involved in domain swapping. The putative SurE active site is highly conserved, and implies a model for SurE bound to a potential substrate, guanosine-5'-monophosphate (GMP). Pae SurEalpha has optimal acid phosphatase activity at temperatures above 90 degrees C, and is less specific than Tma SurE in terms of metal ion requirements. Substrate specificity also differs between Pae and Tma SurE, with a more specific recognition of purine nucleotides by the archaeal enzyme. Analyses of the sequences, phylogenetic distribution, and genomic organization of the SurE family reveal examples of genomes encoding multiple surE genes, and suggest that SurE homologs constitute a broad family of enzymes with phosphatase-like activities.

  8. Acute alcohol exposure during neurulation: Behavioral and brain structural consequences in adolescent C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Fish, E W; Holloway, H T; Rumple, A; Baker, L K; Wieczorek, L A; Moy, S S; Paniagua, B; Parnell, S E

    2016-09-15

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can induce physical malformations and behavioral abnormalities that depend in part on thedevelopmental timing of alcohol exposure. The current studies employed a mouse FASD model to characterize the long-term behavioral and brain structural consequences of a binge-like alcohol exposure during neurulation; a first-trimester stage when women are typically unaware that they are pregnant. Time-mated C57BL/6J female mice were administered two alcohol doses (2.8g/kg, four hours apart) or vehicle starting at gestational day 8.0. Male and female adolescent offspring (postnatal day 28-45) were then examined for motor activity (open field and elevated plus maze), coordination (rotarod), spatial learning and memory (Morris water maze), sensory motor gating (acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition), sociability (three-chambered social test), and nociceptive responses (hot plate). Regional brain volumes and shapes were determined using magnetic resonance imaging. In males, PAE increased activity on the elevated plus maze and reduced social novelty preference, while in females PAE increased exploratory behavior in the open field and transiently impaired rotarod performance. In both males and females, PAE modestly impaired Morris water maze performance and decreased the latency to respond on the hot plate. There were no brain volume differences; however, significant shape differences were found in the cerebellum, hypothalamus, striatum, and corpus callosum. These results demonstrate that alcohol exposure during neurulation can have functional consequences into adolescence, even in the absence of significant brain regional volumetric changes. However, PAE-induced regional shape changes provide evidence for persistent brain alterations and suggest alternative clinical diagnostic markers. PMID:27185739

  9. Asn347 Glycosylation of Corticosteroid-binding Globulin Fine-tunes the Host Immune Response by Modulating Proteolysis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neutrophil Elastase.

    PubMed

    Sumer-Bayraktar, Zeynep; Grant, Oliver C; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Woods, Robert J; Packer, Nicolle H; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2016-08-19

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) delivers anti-inflammatory cortisol to inflamed tissues upon elastase-based proteolysis of the exposed reactive center loop (RCL). However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the RCL proteolysis by co-existing host and bacterial elastases in inflamed/infected tissues remain unknown. We document that RCL-localized Asn(347) glycosylation fine-tunes the RCL cleavage rate by human neutrophil elastase (NE) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) by different mechanisms. NE- and PAE-generated fragments of native and exoglycosidase-treated blood-derived CBG of healthy individuals were monitored by gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS to determine the cleavage site(s) and Asn(347) glycosylation as a function of digestion time. The site-specific (Val(344)-Thr(345)) and rapid (seconds to minutes) NE-based RCL proteolysis was significantly antagonized by several volume-enhancing Asn(347) glycan features (i.e. occupancy, triantennary GlcNAc branching, and α1,6-fucosylation) and augmented by Asn(347) NeuAc-type sialylation (all p < 0.05). In contrast, the inefficient (minutes to hours) PAE-based RCL cleavage, which occurred equally well at Thr(345)-Leu(346) and Asn(347)-Leu(348), was abolished by the presence of Asn(347) glycosylation but was enhanced by sialoglycans on neighboring CBG N-sites. Molecular dynamics simulations of various Asn(347) glycoforms of uncleaved CBG indicated that multiple Asn(347) glycan features are modulating the RCL digestion efficiencies by NE/PAE. Finally, high concentrations of cortisol showed weak bacteriostatic effects toward virulent P. aeruginosa, which may explain the low RCL potency of the abundantly secreted PAE during host infection. In conclusion, site-specific CBG N-glycosylation regulates the bioavailability of cortisol in inflamed environments by fine-tuning the RCL proteolysis by endogenous and exogenous elastases. This study offers new molecular insight into host- and pathogen

  10. A comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis study reveals roles for salt bridges in the structure and activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Fei; Yue, Shousong; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Xiaowei; Chen, Gao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between salt bridges and stability/enzymatic activity is unclear. We studied this relationship by systematic alanine-scanning mutation analysis using the typical M4 family metalloprotease Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE, also known as pseudolysin) as a model. Structural analysis revealed seven salt bridges in the PAE structure. We constructed ten mutants for six salt bridges. Among these mutants, six (Asp189Ala, Arg179Ala, Asp201Ala, Arg205Ala, Arg245Ala and Glu249Ala) were active and four (Asp168Ala, Arg198Ala, Arg253Ala, and Arg279Ala) were inactive. Five mutants were purified, and their catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km), half-lives (t1/2) and thermal unfolding curves were compared with those of PAE. Mutants Asp189Ala and Arg179Ala both showed decreased thermal stabilities and increased activities, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp189-Arg179 stabilizes the protein at the expense of catalytic efficiency. In contrast, mutants Asp201Ala and Arg205Ala both showed slightly increased thermal stability and slightly decreased activity, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp201-Arg205 destabilizes the protein. Mutant Glu249Ala is related to a C-terminal salt bridge network and showed both decreased thermal stability and decreased activity. Furthermore, Glu249Ala showed a thermal unfolding curve with three discernable states [the native state (N), the partially unfolded state (I) and the unfolded state (U)]. In comparison, there were only two discernable states (N and U) in the thermal unfolding curve of PAE. These results suggest that Glu249 is important for catalytic efficiency, stability and unfolding cooperativity. This study represents a systematic mutational analyses of salt bridges in the model metalloprotease PAE and provides important insights into the structure-function relationship of enzymes. PMID:25815820

  11. Deficits in response inhibition correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-02-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. PMID:24185031

  12. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL.

  13. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL. PMID:26512003

  14. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  15. Photophysics of metalloazurins

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.E.; Fleming, G.R. ); Longworth, J.W. )

    1990-08-07

    The fluorescence lifetimes of Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I), Hg(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) azurin Pae from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Cu(II), Cu(I), and Hg(II) azurin Afe from Alcaligenes faecalis were measured at 295 K by time-correlated single-photon counting. In addition, fluorescence lifetimes of Cu(II) azurin Pae were measured between 30 and 160 K and showed little change in value. Ultraviolet absorption difference spectra between metalloazurin Pae and apoazurin Pae were measured, as were the fluorescence spectra of metalloazurins. Forster electronic energy transfer rates were calculated for both metalloazurin Pae and metalloazurin Afe derivatives; both enzymes contain a single tryptophyl residue which is located in a different position in the two azurins. Intramolecular distances and orientations were derived from an x-ray crystallographic structure and a molecular dynamic simulation of the homologous azurin Ade from Alcaligenes denitrifcans, which contains both tryptophyl sites. This study illustrates the application of Forster electronic energy transfer calculations to intramolecular transfers in structurally well characterized molecular systems and demonstrates its ability to predict observed fluorescence quenching rates when the necessary extensive structural, electronic transition assignment, and spectroscopic data are available. The agreement between Forster calculations and quenching rates derived from fluorescence lifetime measurements suggests there are limited changes in conformation between crystal structure and solution structures, with the exception of the tryptophyl residue of azurin Afe, where a conformation derived from a molecular simulation in water was necessary rather than that found in the crystal structure.

  16. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  17. Protective Effect of Punica granatum L. against Serum/Glucose Deprivation-Induced PC12 Cells Injury

    PubMed Central

    Forouzanfar, Fatemeh; Afkhami Goli, Amir; Asadpour, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    The discovery and development of natural products with potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties have been one of the most interesting and promising approaches in the search for the treatment of many neurodegenerative diseases including ischemic stroke. Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) has served as an excellent in vitro model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia and for the development of neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Recent studies suggested that pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) or its active constituents exert pharmacological actions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Therefore, in this study we investigated the possible protective effects of different extracts of pomegranate against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Initially, the cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pulp hydroalcoholic extract (PHE), pulp aqueous extract (PAE) and pomegranate juice (PJ) for 2 h and then deprived of serum/glucose (SGD) for 6 and 12 h. SGD caused a significant reduction in cell viability (measured by the MTT assay) after 6 and 12 h, as compared with control cells (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with PHE, PAE, and PJ significantly and concentration-dependently increased cell viability following SGD insult for 6 and 12 h. A significant increase in DNA damage (measured by the comet assay) was seen in nuclei of cells following SGD for 12 h (P < 0.001). In control groups, no significant difference was seen in DNA damage between PHE, PAE, and PJ-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated PC12 cells (P > 0.05). PHE, PAE, and PJ pretreatment resulted in a significant decrease in DNA damage following ischemic insult (P < 0.001). This suppression of DNA damage by PHE, PAE and PJ was found to be concentration dependent. These data indicate that there is a cytoprotective property in PHE, PAE, and PJ under SGD condition in PC12 cells

  18. Integration of PK/PD for dose optimization of Cefquinome against Staphylococcus aureus causing septicemia in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Hao, Haihong; Huang, Lingli; Sanders, Pascal; Wang, Xu; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Xie, Shuyu; Xiuhua, Kuang; Li, Juan; Dan, Wan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    Cefquinome is a fourth generation cephalosporin with antimicrobial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of our study was to observe the ex-vivo activity of cefquinome against Staphylococcus aureus strains by using bovine serum from intravenously treated cattle. Cefquinome kinetics were measured by liquid chromatography and UV detection. In vitro post antibiotic effects (PAEs) and mutant prevention concentrations were determined with S. aureus strain ATCC 12598. Cefquinome exhibited time-dependent killing and produced in vitro PAEs increasing with concentration and time of exposure. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was established to simulate the efficacy of cefquinome for different dosage regimens. A dosage of 2 mg/kg every 12 h for 3 days was expected to reach a bactericidal activity against S. aureus in case of septicemia. PMID:26136730

  19. Integration of PK/PD for dose optimization of Cefquinome against Staphylococcus aureus causing septicemia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Hao, Haihong; Huang, Lingli; Sanders, Pascal; Wang, Xu; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Xie, Shuyu; Xiuhua, Kuang; Li, Juan; Dan, Wan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    Cefquinome is a fourth generation cephalosporin with antimicrobial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of our study was to observe the ex-vivo activity of cefquinome against Staphylococcus aureus strains by using bovine serum from intravenously treated cattle. Cefquinome kinetics were measured by liquid chromatography and UV detection. In vitro post antibiotic effects (PAEs) and mutant prevention concentrations were determined with S. aureus strain ATCC 12598. Cefquinome exhibited time-dependent killing and produced in vitro PAEs increasing with concentration and time of exposure. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was established to simulate the efficacy of cefquinome for different dosage regimens. A dosage of 2 mg/kg every 12 h for 3 days was expected to reach a bactericidal activity against S. aureus in case of septicemia.

  20. A high efficiency C-band internally-matched harmonic tuning GaN power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Zhao, B. C.; Zheng, J. X.; Zhang, H. S.; Zheng, X. F.; Ma, X. H.; Hao, Y.; Ma, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a high efficiency C-band gallium nitride (GaN) internally-matched power amplifier (PA) is presented. This amplifier consists of 2-chips of self-developed GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 16 mm total gate width on SiC substrate. New harmonic manipulation circuits are induced both in the input and output matching networks for high efficiency matching at fundamental and 2nd-harmonic frequency, respectively. The developed amplifier has achieved 72.1% power added efficiency (PAE) with 107.4 W output power at 5 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this amplifier exhibits the highest PAE in C-band GaN HEMT amplifiers with over 100 W output power. Additionally, 1000 hours' aging test reveals high reliability for practical applications.

  1. Predominance of multielectron processes contributing to the intrinsic spectra of low-energy Auger transitions in copper and gold

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, S. F.; Shastry, K.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-10-15

    Positron-annihilation-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) was used to obtain Cu and Au Auger spectra that are free of primary-beam-induced backgrounds by impinging the positrons at an energy below the secondary-electron-emission threshold. The removal of the core electron via annihilation in the PAES process resulted in the elimination of postcollision effects. The spectra indicate that there is an intense low-energy tail (LET) associated with the Auger peak that extends all the way to 0 eV. The LET is interpreted as indicative of processes in which filling of the core hole by a valence electron results in the ejection of two or more valence electrons which share the energy of the conventional core-valence-valence Auger electron.

  2. Direct LC-ES-MS/MS determination of phthalates in physiological saline solutions.

    PubMed

    Feás, C Pérez; Barciela-Alonso, M C; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2011-02-01

    A method for determining a group of phthalic esters (PAEs) in physiological saline solutions has been developed. The PAEs studied were dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate. These groups of phthalates were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, working in positive ion mode. The compounds were separated by liquid chromatography working in gradient mode with acetonitrile-ultrapure water as a mobile phase. The separation was performed starting with 5% of acetonitrile and increasing to 75% in 5 min, followed by isocratic elution for 8 min. The method was precise (with relative standard deviation (RSD) from 1.0 to 6.8%) and sensitive, with LODs of 0.05, 0.38, 0.05 and 0.82 μg L⁻¹ for DMP, DEP, BBP and DBP, respectively. The proposed analytical method has been applied to determine these compounds in different physiological saline solutions commercialized in plastic bottles.

  3. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  4. Development, application and assessment of a taxonomy for characterizing international environmental problems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, M.D.; Marrs, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    As national leaders become increasingly aware of the environmental risks that modern technology adds to existing natural environmental problems, they have begun to search for ways to prioritize the risks they face. Several experts in risk assessment, including Professor Gordon Goodman of the Stockholm Environmental Institute, researchers at Clark University's Center for Environment, Technology, Development (CENTED), and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, have already developed some hazard characterization taxonomies that attempt to fill this need. The Kennedy School of Government (KSG) taxonomy if the next iteration of taxonomies designed to characterize environmental problems. The purpose of this Policy Analysis Exercise (PAE) is to test and evaluate the KSG taxonomy. In order to accomplish these goals, the United States and India are presented as case studies. The final section of this PAE provides recommendations to policy makers who use the KSG taxonomy.

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure: An assessment strategy for the legal context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie Novick; Burd, Larry; Grant, Therese; Edwards, William; Adler, Richard; Streissguth, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have shown that people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have the kind of brain damage that increases risk of criminal behavior. Thus, it is generally accepted that FASD is likely to affect a sizable minority of individuals involved in the justice system. Most of these defendants have never been diagnosed because they lack the facial abnormalities and severe intellectual deficiency that would have improved identification and diagnosis in childhood. Despite the fact that an FASD diagnosis and associated cognitive deficits may be directly relevant to offense conduct and post-arrest capacities, screening for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by legal teams remains relatively rare. This article addresses the relatively straightforward screening process with strategies that may be used singly or in combination to produce information that can establish PAE and provide a foundation for diagnostic assessment by medical and mental health experts. PMID:26338492

  6. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers. PMID:16124498

  7. Expression and activity of cell-wall-degrading enzymes in the latex of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L.

    PubMed

    Pilatzke-Wunderlich, I; Nessler, C L

    2001-03-01

    The alkaloid-rich latex of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L., is valued as a source of pharmaceuticals including thebaine, codeine, and morphine, but is also harvested for heroin production. The poppy laticifer system develops through the gradual disappearance of the common walls between differentiating laticifer elements throughout the plant. Gene homologues for cell-wall-degrading enzymes were found during random sequencing of an opium poppy latex cDNA library. RNA gel blot analysis of cellulase, polygalacturonase beta-subunit, 1,3-beta-glucanase, and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase homologues showed their expression was not limited to laticifers. In contrast, poppy gene homologues to pectin methylesterase (PME), pectin acetylesterase (PAE) and pectate lyase (PL) where all highly expressed and latex-specific. Enzyme assays confirmed the presence of PME, PAE, and PL activities in latex serum. The abundance of transcripts encoding pectin-degrading enzymes in latex suggests that these enzymes may play an important role in laticifer development.

  8. The Energy General Store, sunscreen production and sales: A business plan for Tucson Urban League

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, R.; Goldberg, A.; Johnson, C.; Robinson, M.

    1987-06-01

    The Tucson Urban League, in an effort to reduce its dependence on federal grants for the operation of community programs, proposes to establish a profit-making component of the agency which has been named Park Avenue Enterprises. Initially, Park Avenue Enterprises will consist of three divisions: Wood Unlimited, Weatherization-Home Repair, and The Energy General Store. Wood Unlimited will market, fabricate, and install wood products including cabinets, pallets, crates, and other custom items. The Weatherization-Home Repair division of PAE will be labor intensive and designed to provide unique energy-saving services. Finally, The Energy General Store division of PAE will provide goods and services conducive to principles of energy conservation: sunscreens, low-flow showerheads, energy-efficient light bulbs, toilet tank insert, and other conservation items. The Energy General Store is also planned to be a resource for information and ideas in energy and water conservation. This plan will use sunscreen production and marketing as its focus.

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure: An assessment strategy for the legal context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie Novick; Burd, Larry; Grant, Therese; Edwards, William; Adler, Richard; Streissguth, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have shown that people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have the kind of brain damage that increases risk of criminal behavior. Thus, it is generally accepted that FASD is likely to affect a sizable minority of individuals involved in the justice system. Most of these defendants have never been diagnosed because they lack the facial abnormalities and severe intellectual deficiency that would have improved identification and diagnosis in childhood. Despite the fact that an FASD diagnosis and associated cognitive deficits may be directly relevant to offense conduct and post-arrest capacities, screening for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by legal teams remains relatively rare. This article addresses the relatively straightforward screening process with strategies that may be used singly or in combination to produce information that can establish PAE and provide a foundation for diagnostic assessment by medical and mental health experts.

  10. Application of GC-triple quadrupole MS in the quantitative confirmation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in soil.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong; Yang, Ping; Xie, Zhenwei; Zhao, Yunzhi; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Zhaohui; Guo, Zhonghua; Liao, Ji

    2010-03-01

    A new multi-residue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil at trace levels by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Microwave extraction and solid-phase extraction have been employed prior to gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Quality parameters have been established using matrix spike and reference material IRM 104A. Average recoveries of the 34 organic compounds spiked at 5 microg/kg into soils are typically in the range of 66.59-122.07% with relative standard deviations generally less than 20%. Limits of detection (LODs) for PAEs are < or = 0.84 microg/kg, and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.13 to 2.81 microg/kg. LODs for PAHs are < or = 0.51 microg/kg, and LOQs ranged from 0.02 to 1.81 microg/kg.

  11. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  12. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  13. X-band inverse class-F GaN internally-matched power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo-Chao; Lu, Yang; Han, Wen-Zhe; Zheng, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Heng-Shuang; Ma, Pei-jun; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue

    2016-09-01

    An X-band inverse class-F power amplifier is realized by a 1-mm AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The intrinsic and parasitic components inside the transistor, especially output capacitor Cds, influence the harmonic impedance heavily at the X-band, so compensation design is used for meeting the harmonic condition of inverse class-F on the current source plane. Experiment results show that, in the continuous-wave mode, the power amplifier achieves 61.7% power added efficiency (PAE), which is 16.3% higher than the class-AB power amplifier realized by the same kind of HEMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first inverse class-F GaN internally-matched power amplifier, and the PAE is quite high at the X-band. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA016801).

  14. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. PMID:26807987

  15. The Infrapopliteal Arterial Occlusions Similar to Buerger Disease: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Igari, Kimihiro; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori; Iwai, Takehisa

    2014-01-01

    We herein present two cases that required the differential diagnosis of Buerger disease. Case 1 involved a 55-year-old male with a smoking habit who was admitted with ulcers and coldness in his fingers and toes. Angiography showed blockage in both the radial and posterior tibial arteries, which led to an initial diagnosis of Buerger disease. However, a biopsy of the right posterior tibial artery showed pathological findings of fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). Case 2 involved a 28-year-old male with intermittent claudication who was examined at another hospital. Angiography showed occlusion of both popliteal and crural arteries, and the patient was suspected to have Buerger disease. However, computed tomography disclosed an abnormal slip on both sides of the popliteal fossa, and we diagnosed him with bilateral popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). These cases illustrate that other occlusive diseases, such as FMD and PAES, may sometimes be misdiagnosed as Buerger disease. PMID:25431737

  16. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE.

  17. [Determination of six phthalate acid esters in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction using single-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhonghai; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaosong

    2014-07-01

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the simultaneous determination of six phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were diluted by hexane and then cleaned up with a glass SWCNTs solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The PAEs were measured by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, using external standard method for quantitative analysis. The important factors affecting extraction efficiency, such as the dilution volume of hexane, the type of adsorbent material, the dosage of SWCNTs, the volume of wash solution, the type and volume of elution solution were optimized. The optimal conditions were as follows: the dilution volume of hexane was 5 mL, the dosage of SWCNTs was 0.6 g, the wash solution was 20 mL hexane, and the elution solution was 5 mL toluene. The six PAEs had a good linear range from 0.05 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients (r) all above 0.999 9. The average recoveries of the six targets in spiked camellia oil (from 0.05 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg) ranged from 86.4% to 111.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 4.2% to 10.4%. The developed method is accurate, quick and suitable for the determination of the six PAEs in camellia oil.

  18. Effects of poultry manure on soil biochemical properties in phthalic acid esters contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Qin, Xiaojian; Ren, Xuqin; Zhou, Haifeng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of poultry manure (PM) on soil biological properties in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils. An indoor incubation experiment was conducted. Soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), soil enzymatic activities, and microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were measured during incubation period. The results indicated that except alkaline phosphatase activity, DBP and DEHP had negative effects on Cmic, dehydrogenase, urease, protease activities, and contents of total PLFA. However, 5 % PM treatment alleviated the negative effects of PAEs on the above biochemical parameters. In DBP-contaminated soil, 5 % PM amendment even resulted in dehydroenase activity and Cmic content increasing by 17.8 and 11.8 % on the day 15 of incubation, respectively. During the incubation periods, the total PLFA contents decreased maximumly by 17.2 and 11.6 % in DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without PM amendments, respectively. Compared with those in uncontaminated soil, the total PLFA contents increased slightly and the value of bacPLFA/fugalPLFA increased significantly in PAE-contaminated soils with 5 % PM amendment. Nevertheless, in both contaminated soils, the effects of 5 % PM amendment on the biochemical parameters were not observed with 10 % PM amendment. In 10 % PM-amended soils, DBP and DEHP had little effect on Cmic, soil enzymatic activities, and microbial community composition. At the end of incubation, the effects of PAEs on these parameters disappeared, irrespective of PM amendment. The application of PM ameliorated the negative effect of PAEs on soil biological environment. However, further work is needed to study the effect of PM on soil microbial gene expression in order to explain the change mechanisms of soil biological properties.

  19. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dae Sik, Kim; Yu Seung, Kim; Gilles, Robertson; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  20. Characterization and Comparative Genomic Analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaoP5: New Members Assigned to PAK_P1-like Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Jin, Xiaolin; Li, Gang; Tan, Yinling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Wei; Yang, Yuhui; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan; Lu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    As a potential alternative to antibiotics, phages can be used to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria. As such, the biological characteristics of phages should be investigated to utilize them as effective antimicrobial agents. In this study, phage PaoP5, a lytic virus that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, was isolated and genomically characterized. PaoP5 comprises an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 69 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 120 nm. The PaoP5 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 93,464 base pairs (bp) with 49.51% G + C content of 11 tRNA genes and a 1,200 bp terminal redundancy. A total of 176 protein-coding genes were predicted in the PaoP5 genome. Nine PaoP5 structural proteins were identified. Three hypothetical proteins were determined as structural. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that seven new Pseudomonas phages, namely, PaoP5, K8, C11, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab02, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab08, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab10, and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab15, were similar to PAK_P1-like viruses. Phylogenetic and pan-genome analyses suggested that the new phages should be assigned to PAK_P1-like viruses, which possess approximately 100 core genes and 150 accessory genes. This work presents a detailed and comparative analysis of PaoP5 to enhance our understanding of phage biology. PMID:27659070

  1. Effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on the performance of paper diagnostics for blood typing.

    PubMed

    McLiesh, Heather; Sharman, Scot; Garnier, Gil

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect that two common types of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking might have on the performance of paper diagnostics using blood typing as an example. The results were analyzed in terms of red blood cells (RBC) retention and antibody-antigen specificity. Two questions were addressed: (1) can poly(amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) typically used for paper wet strength affect the diagnostic performance? (2) can high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) employed as retention aid enhance or affect the selectivity and sensitivity of paper diagnostics? A series of paper varying in type of fibers and drying process were constructed with PAE and tested for blood typing performance. Residual PAE has no significant effect on blood typing paper diagnostics under normal conditions. Positives are unaffected with PAE, while negatives lose slight sharpness as some RBCs are unselectively retained. CPAM, the most common retention aid, can also be used to retain cells and biomolecules on paper. Paper towel was treated with CPAM solutions varying in polymer concentration and charge density and tested for blood typing. We found that CPAM dried on paper can retain RBC. CPAM affects the negative tests by retaining non-specifically individual RBC on fibers. RBC retention increases non-linearly with the CPAM charge density and concentration. As expected, wet CPAM retain RBCs at concentrations higher than 0.1wt%. As paper diagnostics are becoming a reality, more realistic papers than the Whatman filter paper will be engineered. This study provides guidance on how best use the required polymeric wet-strength and retention agents. PMID:26101819

  2. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  3. Organophosphorus flame retardants and phthalate esters in indoor dust from different microenvironments: Bioaccessibility and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiwen; Li, Yunzi; Xiang, Ping; Li, Chao; Zhou, Chunyang; Zhang, Shujun; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    Incidental ingestion of indoor dust is an important pathway for human exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). However, little is known about their bioaccessibility in indoor dust. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected from houses, offices, public microenvironments (PMEs), and university dorms, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to measure the bioaccessibility of OPFRs and PAEs in these dust samples. Total concentrations of OPFRs in dust samples ranged from 0.01 to 63.2 μg g(-1), with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (median = 0.30 μg g(-1)) than those in houses (3.12), offices (5.94), and PMEs (11.6). Total PAEs ranged from 5.49 to 2161 μg g(-1) with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (379 μg g(-1)) than those in the other three types of dust (767, 515, and 731 μg g(-1)). When subject to PBET, the bioaccessibility of OPFRs ranged from 8.18% (triphenyl phosphate) to 54.5% (Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) for OPFRs, and from 1.21% (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) to 81.1% (dimethyl phthalate) for PAEs. Estimated exposure doses for adults and infants to OPFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reference doses (RfD), but intake dose of DEHP for infants was higher than the RfD of 20 μg kg(-1) d(-1). However, the DEHP intake dose did not exceed the RfD after incorporating bioaccessibility into risk assessment. Our data indicated the importance of considering contaminant bioaccessibility during risk assessment of indoor dust. PMID:26585356

  4. Phosphate utilization efficiency correlates with expression of low-affinity phosphate transporters and noncoding RNA, IPS1, in barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Y; Shirley, Neil; Genc, Yusuf; Shi, Bujun; Langridge, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Genetic variation in phosphorus (P) efficiency exists among wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes, but the underlying mechanisms for the variation remain elusive. High- and low-affinity phosphate (Pi) PHT1 transporters play an indispensable role in P acquisition and remobilization. However, little is known about genetic variation in PHT1 gene expression and association with P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and P utilization efficiency (PUE). Here, we present quantitative analyses of transcript levels of high- and low-affinity PHT1 Pi transporters in four barley genotypes differing in PAE. The results showed that there was no clear pattern in the expression of four paralogs of the high-affinity Pi transporter HvPHT1;1 among the four barley genotypes, but the expression of a low-affinity Pi transporter, HvPHT1;6, and its close homolog HvHPT1;3 was correlated with the genotypes differing in PUE. Interestingly, the expression of HvPHT1;6 and HvPHT1;3 was correlated with the expression of HvIPS1 (for P starvation inducible; noncoding RNA) but not with HvIPS2, suggesting that HvIPS1 plays a distinct role in the regulation of the low-affinity Pi transporters. In addition, high PUE was found to be associated with high root-shoot ratios in low-P conditions, indicating that high carbohydrate partitioning into roots occurs simultaneously with high PUE. However, high PUE accompanying high carbon partitioning into roots could result in low PAE. Therefore, the optimization of PUE through the modification of low-affinity Pi transporter expression may assist further improvement of PAE for low-input agriculture systems.

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination rates for the mother, fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1)  h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.

  6. Characterization of PM2.5 in Guangzhou, China: uses of organic markers for supporting source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingzhi; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ma, Shexia; Cao, Junji; Dai, Wenting; Liu, Suixin; Shen, Zhenxing; Huang, Rujin; Wang, Gehui; Han, Yongming

    2016-04-15

    Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (n-C14-n-C40), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and hopanes were quantified in fine particulate (PM2.5), which were collected in urban area of Guangzhou, China in winter and summer in 2012/2013. The pollutants levels were well comparable with the data obtained in previous studies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region but much lower than most northern Chinese megacities. The contribution of EC to PM2.5 and OC/EC ratio suggest that the pollution sources were relatively consistent in GZ between the two seasons. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was the most abundant PAHs, which were 4.9 and 1.0ng/m(3) on average, accounting for 10.7% and 9.1% to the total quantified PAHs in winter and summer, respectively. The total concentrations of PAEs ranged from 289.1 to 2435ng/m(3) and from 102.4 to 1437ng/m(3), respectively, in winter and summer. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was the most dominant PAEs. The ambient levels of PAEs could be partly attributed to the widespread uses of the household products, municipal garbage compressing, sewage, and external painting material on the building. Source apportionment for OC with chemical mass balance (CMB) model demonstrated coal combustion, vehicle emission, cooking, and secondary organic compounds (SOC) formation were the four major pollution sources. Both of the indices of n-alkanes and diagnostic PAHs ratios support that anthropogenic sources such as vehicle emission and coal combustion were the significant pollution sources with some extents from epicuticular waxes by terrestrial plants. The ratio of hopanes to EC proved the influences from vehicle emission, and displayed a certain degree of the air aging in the Guangzhou ambient air.

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C.; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE. PMID:26180184

  8. Alcohol-free fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage phenolic extract attenuates diet-induced obesity and blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle H; Wallig, Matthew; Luna Vital, Diego A; de Mejia, Elvira G

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the potential of phenolic compounds from a fermented blackberry-blueberry beverage to reduce diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia in mice fed a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) for 10weeks after 1week of pretreatment. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into six groups and allowed to drink (ad libitum) an alcohol-free blackberry-blueberry beverage [alcohol-free fermented beverage (AFFB), 8.4mg anthocyanin (ANC)/kg body weight (BW)/day]; three doses of a phenolic extract [postamberlite extract (PAE)] from AFFB at 0.1×, 1× and 2× ANC concentrations; sitagliptin (hypoglycemic positive control); or water (negative control). Weight and fat mass gain were attenuated in mice receiving the highest doses of PAE (18.9mg ANC/kg BW/day, P<.05). There were also reductions (P<.05) in percent fat mass, epididymal fat pad weights, mean adipocyte diameters and plasma triglycerides and cholesterol associated with PAE treatments. By the end of the study, fasting blood glucose for mice receiving 9mg (1×) or 18.9mg (2×) ANC/kg BW/day was significantly lower than in the water and the sitagliptin groups (P<.05). Histological and histochemical analyses revealed an unexpected change in liver of mice fed ANC at 1× or 2× doses consisting of liver enlargement and increased lipid deposition. PAE also induced the most differential gene expression changes, including highly significant downstream effects at all doses to reduce d-glucose concentrations. Overall, phenolic compounds from the fermented blueberry-blackberry beverage had an impact to attenuate the development of obesity and fasting blood glucose in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:27133423

  9. Effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on the performance of paper diagnostics for blood typing.

    PubMed

    McLiesh, Heather; Sharman, Scot; Garnier, Gil

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect that two common types of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking might have on the performance of paper diagnostics using blood typing as an example. The results were analyzed in terms of red blood cells (RBC) retention and antibody-antigen specificity. Two questions were addressed: (1) can poly(amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) typically used for paper wet strength affect the diagnostic performance? (2) can high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) employed as retention aid enhance or affect the selectivity and sensitivity of paper diagnostics? A series of paper varying in type of fibers and drying process were constructed with PAE and tested for blood typing performance. Residual PAE has no significant effect on blood typing paper diagnostics under normal conditions. Positives are unaffected with PAE, while negatives lose slight sharpness as some RBCs are unselectively retained. CPAM, the most common retention aid, can also be used to retain cells and biomolecules on paper. Paper towel was treated with CPAM solutions varying in polymer concentration and charge density and tested for blood typing. We found that CPAM dried on paper can retain RBC. CPAM affects the negative tests by retaining non-specifically individual RBC on fibers. RBC retention increases non-linearly with the CPAM charge density and concentration. As expected, wet CPAM retain RBCs at concentrations higher than 0.1wt%. As paper diagnostics are becoming a reality, more realistic papers than the Whatman filter paper will be engineered. This study provides guidance on how best use the required polymeric wet-strength and retention agents.

  10. Characterization of PM2.5 in Guangzhou, China: uses of organic markers for supporting source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingzhi; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ma, Shexia; Cao, Junji; Dai, Wenting; Liu, Suixin; Shen, Zhenxing; Huang, Rujin; Wang, Gehui; Han, Yongming

    2016-04-15

    Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (n-C14-n-C40), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and hopanes were quantified in fine particulate (PM2.5), which were collected in urban area of Guangzhou, China in winter and summer in 2012/2013. The pollutants levels were well comparable with the data obtained in previous studies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region but much lower than most northern Chinese megacities. The contribution of EC to PM2.5 and OC/EC ratio suggest that the pollution sources were relatively consistent in GZ between the two seasons. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was the most abundant PAHs, which were 4.9 and 1.0ng/m(3) on average, accounting for 10.7% and 9.1% to the total quantified PAHs in winter and summer, respectively. The total concentrations of PAEs ranged from 289.1 to 2435ng/m(3) and from 102.4 to 1437ng/m(3), respectively, in winter and summer. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was the most dominant PAEs. The ambient levels of PAEs could be partly attributed to the widespread uses of the household products, municipal garbage compressing, sewage, and external painting material on the building. Source apportionment for OC with chemical mass balance (CMB) model demonstrated coal combustion, vehicle emission, cooking, and secondary organic compounds (SOC) formation were the four major pollution sources. Both of the indices of n-alkanes and diagnostic PAHs ratios support that anthropogenic sources such as vehicle emission and coal combustion were the significant pollution sources with some extents from epicuticular waxes by terrestrial plants. The ratio of hopanes to EC proved the influences from vehicle emission, and displayed a certain degree of the air aging in the Guangzhou ambient air. PMID:26851882

  11. Post-antibiotic effect of orbifloxacin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Kataoka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-03-20

    Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone drug used widely in companion animal medicine. In this study, we firstly determined post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) and post-antibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) effects (PA-SMEs) of orbifloxacin for two strains each of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dogs, and these parameters were compared with those of enrofloxacin. At twice the MIC, the PAEs of orbifloxacin ranged from -0.28-0.93 h (mean, 0.29 h) for E. coli and -0.18-1.18 h (mean, 0.37 h) for P. aeruginosa. These parameters were not significantly different for E. coli and shorter for P. aeruginosa, compared to enrofloxacin (P < 0.05). Continued exposure to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 the MIC of orbifloxacin resulted in average PA-SMEs of 0.55, 1.11, and 2.03 h, respectively, for E. coli, and 1.04, 1.40, and 2.47 h, respectively, for P. aeruginosa. These PA-SMEs, which had no significant differences with those of enrofloxacin, were significantly longer than the corresponding PAEs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the PA-SME of orbifloxacin for E. coli and P. aeruginosa can be meaningfully prolonged by increase of sub-MICs.

  12. Determination of phthalate esters in liquor samples by vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Leng, Geng; Chen, Wenjin; Zhang, Mingfang; Huang, Fang; Cao, Qiming

    2014-03-01

    A novel method using vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese liquor samples prior to analysis by GC-MS. In the proposed method, a high-density extraction solvent (carbon tetrachloride) was dispersed into samples with the aid of a surfactant (Triton X-100) and vortex agitation, resulting in a short extraction equilibrium (30 s). After centrifugation, a single microdrop of solvent was easily collected for GC-MS analysis. Key factors that affected the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linearity was found in the range from 0.05 to 50 μg/L. Coefficients of determination varied from 0.9938 to 0.9971. LODs, based on an S/N of 3, ranged from 4.9 to 13 ng/L. Enrichment factors varied from 140 to 184. Reproducibility and recoveries were assessed by testing a series of three liquor samples that were spiked with different concentration levels. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAEs in 16 Chinese liquor samples. In this work, high-density-solvent vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction was applied for the first time for the extraction of PAEs in Chinese liquor samples and was proved to be simple, rapid, and sensitive.

  13. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper.

  14. Meta-analysis of environmental contamination by phthalates.

    PubMed

    Bergé, Alexandre; Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Coursimault, Annie; Tassin, Bruno; Moilleron, Régis

    2013-11-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAE), commonly named phthalates, are toxics classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds; they are primarily used as additives to improve the flexibility in polyvinyl chloride. Many studies have reported the occurrence of phthalates in different environmental matrices; however, none of these studies has yet established a complete overview for those compounds in the water cycle within an urban environment. This review summarizes PAE concentrations for all environmental media throughout the water cycle, from atmosphere to receiving waters. Once the occurrences of compounds have been evaluated for each environmental compartment (urban wastewater, wastewater treatment plants, atmosphere, and the natural environment), we reviewed data in order to identify the fate of PAE in the environment and establish whether geographical and historical trends exist. Indeed, geographical and historical trends appear between Europe and other countries such as USA/Canada and China, however they remain location dependent. This study aimed at identifying both the correlations existing between environmental compartments and the processes influencing the fate and transport of these contaminants into the environment. In Europe, the concentrations measured in waterways today represent the background level of contamination, which provides evidence of a past diffuse pollution. In contrast, an increasing trend has actually been observed for developing countries, especially for China.

  15. Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders by Nonmedical Community Workers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary J.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Bill, Claudine; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has the highest prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) in the world yet many women have no access to clinic care or to physicians in their communities. The shortage of physicians trained in the diagnosis of FASD is even more severe. Thus there is a need to train community workers to assist in the delivery of health care. Objectives This study reports on the effectiveness of training community workers to screen for a possible diagnosis of a FASD. Methods Community workers in Cape Town, South Africa were trained to screen for FASD in 139, 18-month-old toddlers with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Children were assessed according to the salient characteristics of individuals with PAE using height, weight, head circumference (OFC), philtrum, and lip measurements according to criteria set forth by the Institute of Medicine. Screen-positive children were referred for diagnostic assessment to a pediatrician reliably trained in the diagnosis of FASD. Results Of the screen-positive children, 93% received an FASD diagnosis suggesting that the screening procedure was highly sensitive. Diagnoses included 15% with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 23% with Partial FAS, and 62% with Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND, provisional). Conclusion The use of community workers to screen for FASD represents a promising approach to effective diagnosis of children affected by PAE in areas lacking adequate medical resources. PMID:25658901

  16. In vivo remineralization of acid-etched enamel in non-brushing areas as influenced by fluoridated orthodontic adhesive and toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Praxedes-Neto, Otávio José; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra; Florêncio-Filho, Cícero; Farias, Arthur Costa Rodrigues; Drennan, John; De Lima, Kenio Costa

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the in vivo remineralization of acid-etched enamel in non-brushing areas as influenced by fluoridated orthodontic adhesive and toothpaste. One hundred and twenty teeth from 30 volunteers were selected. The teeth were assigned to four treatments: no treatment (negative control); 37% phosphoric acid-etching (PAE) (positive control); PAE + resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC); and, PAE + composite resin. Patients brushed teeth with fluoridated (n = 15) or non-fluoridated (n = 15) toothpastes, so that etched enamel was protected with screens and it was not in contact with the brush bristles. Remineralization was evaluated by means of laser fluorescence (LF), environmental scanning electronic microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry after extraction. The LF means were compared by means of Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney tests. Environmental scanning electron microscopy scores were compared among the groups using a Kruskal Wallis test, whereas the Ca/P ratio was evaluated by means of an Analysis of Variance with subparcels (treatments) and Tukey's post-hoc test. There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth pastes and between the orthodontic adhesives evaluated. Most teeth presented only partial enamel remineralization. Therefore, the fluoride released by the RMGIC was not enough to cause increased crystal regrowth in the acid-etched enamel. The use of fluoridated toothpaste did not provide positive additional effect.

  17. In vitro assessment of chloramphenicol and florfenicol as second-line antimicrobial agents in dogs.

    PubMed

    Maaland, M G; Mo, S S; Schwarz, S; Guardabassi, L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of chloramphenicol and florfenicol as second-line antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in dogs, through a systematic in vitro assessment of the pharmacodynamic properties of the two drugs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and phenicol resistance genes were determined for 169 S. pseudintermedius and 167 E. coli isolates. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC), time-killing kinetics, and postantibiotic effect (PAE) of both agents against wild-type isolates of each species were assessed. For S. pseudintermedius, the chloramphenicol MIC90 was 32 μg/mL. No florfenicol resistance was detected in this species (MIC90 = 4 μg/mL). The MIC90 of both agents against E. coli was 8 μg/mL. Resistance genes found were catpC221 in S. pseudintermedius and catA1 and/or floR in E. coli. The phenicols displayed a time-dependent, mainly, bacteriostatic effect on both species. Prolonged PAEs were observed for S. pseudintermedius, and no PAEs were detected for E. coli. More research into determination of PK/PD targets of efficacy is needed to further assess the clinical use of chloramphenicol and florfenicol as second-line agents in dogs, optimize dosage regimens, and set up species-specific clinical break points. PMID:25623169

  18. Concurrent release of admixed antimicrobials and salicylic acid from salicylate-based poly(anhydride-esters).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michelle L; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2009-12-01

    A polymer blend consisting of antimicrobials (chlorhexidine, clindamycin, and minocycline) physically admixed at 10% by weight into a salicylic acid-based poly (anhydride-ester) (SA-based PAE) was developed as an adjunct treatment for periodontal disease. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends were characterized by multiple methods, including contact angle measurements and differential scanning calorimetry. Static contact angle measurements showed no significant differences in hydrophobicity between the polymer and antimicrobial matrix surfaces. Notable decreases in the polymer glass transition temperature (T(g)) and the antimicrobials' melting points (T(m)) were observed indicating that the antimicrobials act as plasticizers within the polymer matrix. In vitro drug release of salicylic acid from the polymer matrix and for each physically admixed antimicrobial was concurrently monitored by high pressure liquid chromatography during the course of polymer degradation and erosion. Although the polymer/antimicrobial blends were immiscible, the initial 24 h of drug release correlated to the erosion profiles. The SA-based PAE/antimicrobial blends are being investigated as an improvement on current localized drug therapies used to treat periodontal disease.

  19. Thermally stable ionic liquid-based sol-gel coating for ultrasonic extraction-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography determination of phthalate esters in agricultural plastic films.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Shao, Xiao; Shu, Jian-jun; Liu, Ming-ming; Liu, Han-lan; Feng, Xiong-han; Liu, Fan

    2012-01-30

    A novel sol-gel-coated ionic liquid-based ([AMIM][N(SO(2)CF(3))(2)]-OH-TSO) fiber was successfully applied for the determination of phthalate esters (PAEs) in agricultural plastic films by ultrasonic extraction (UE) combined with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC) due to its high thermal stability, specific selectivity and extraction efficiency. The extractant for UE and the adsorption time for SPME were optimized to achieve higher extraction efficiency. The desorption temperature and time were also optimized to avoid the carryover effect of previous extraction, and ultimately improve the precision and accuracy of the method. The [AMIM][N(SO(2)CF(3))(2)]-OH-TSO fiber showed comparable, or even higher response to most of the investigated PAEs than the commercial PDMS, PDMS-DVB and PA fibers. The carryover problem, often encountered when using commercial fibers, had been eliminated when desorption was performed at 360°C for 8 min. The proposed SPME-GC method showed good linearity over three to four orders of magnitude, and low limits of detection ranged from 0.003 to 0.063 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation values obtained were below 10%, and the recoveries were in the ranges of 90.2-111.4%. Some of the PAEs studied were detected at very high concentration in these agricultural plastic film samples, resulting in a potential risk of crop damage, environmental contamination and human health exposure.

  20. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Veerasingam Armugam; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2013-02-01

    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream. PMID:22552495

  1. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Cui, Bingjian; Bai, Zhihui; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the absence of NaCl. Stain TJ could tolerate up to 4% NaCl in minimal salt medium supplemented with DBP, although the DBP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. In addition, substrate tests showed that strain TJ could utilize shorter side-chained PAEs, such as dimethyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate, but could not metabolize long-chained PAEs, such as di-n-octyl phthalate, diisooctyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biodegradation characteristics of DBP by a member of the Sphingobium genus. PMID:24336064

  2. Monitoring and removal of residual phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Yen, Chia-Heng; Wang, Chih-Lung

    2014-07-30

    This study monitored the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 8 phthalate esters (PAEs) and 13 pharmaceuticals present in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration (EC/EF) process was used to remove the contaminants. To this end, a monitoring program was conducted and a novel laboratory-prepared tubular carbon nanofiber/carbon/alumina composite membrane (TCCACM) was incorporated into the EC/EF treatment module (collectively designated as "TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module") to remove the abovementioned compounds from water samples. The monitoring results showed that the concentrations of PAEs were lower in water samples from drinking fountains as compared with tap water samples. No significant differences were found between the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the two types of water samples. Under optimal operating conditions, the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module yielded the lowest residual concentrations, ranging from not detected (ND) to 52ng/L for PAEs and pharmaceuticals of concern in the tap water samples. Moreover, the performance of the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module is comparable with a series of treatment units employed for the drinking fountain water treatment system. The relevant removal mechanisms involved in the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module were also discussed in this work.

  3. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for protein structure prediction with immune operators.

    PubMed

    Judy, M V; Ravichandran, K S; Murugesan, K

    2009-08-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are often well suited for optimisation problems involving several conflicting objectives. It is more suitable to model the protein structure prediction problem as a multi-objective optimisation problem since the potential energy functions used in the literature to evaluate the conformation of a protein are based on the calculations of two different interaction energies: local (bond atoms) and non-local (non-bond atoms) and experiments have shown that those types of interactions are in conflict, by using the potential energy function, Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics. In this paper, we have modified the immune inspired Pareto archived evolutionary strategy (I-PAES) algorithm and denoted it as MI-PAES. It can effectively exploit some prior knowledge about the hydrophobic interactions, which is one of the most important driving forces in protein folding to make vaccines. The proposed MI-PAES is comparable with other evolutionary algorithms proposed in literature, both in terms of best solution found and the computational time and often results in much better search ability than that of the canonical GA.

  4. A comparative study on antioxidant status combined with integrated biomarker response in Carassius auratus fish exposed to nine phthalates.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the antioxidant responses to nine phthalates (PAEs) in the liver of the goldfish Carassius auratus. The fish were injected with 10 mg/kg body weight of each PAE for 1 day and 4, 8, and 15 days. The potential biotoxicity of the PAEs were examined using the antioxidase and lipid peroxide indices. We determined that the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels displayed different trends following prolonged treatment, suggesting that metabolism generated either less toxic or more active substances. Based on the intensity of enzymes inhibition, MDA content, and the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR), the toxicity order was determined as follows: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) > diethyl phthalate (DEP) > diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) > diphenyl phthalate (DPP) > butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) > diallyl phthalate (DAP) > dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) > dimethyl phthalate (DMP) > di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). In particular, DBP, which exhibited significant inhibition of enzyme activity and the greatest decrease in MDA content, may be a highly toxic contaminant. Furthermore, our results suggest that the IBR may be a general marker of pollution.

  5. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and <1.0-382 ng/g, respectively. The OCPs residuals originated from both historical usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security. PMID:26674696

  6. Distribution and estrogenic potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in estuarine sediments from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, M; Sahu, S K; Pandit, G G

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are responsible for inappropriate development and they alter the hormonal and homeostatic systems of organism. Phthalates (PAEs), bisphenol A (BPA) and other EDCs were monitored in surface sediments at different stations across Thane Creek, India. Analysis of PAEs was carried out using GC-MS technique, while BPA and other EDCs were analyzing on UPLC-PDA instrument. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) had the highest concentration among all fourteen analyzed phthalates ranges between 0.13 and 0.4 mg kg(-1); and was detectable in all sediment samples. Strong correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.01) was observed between total organic carbon (TOC, %) and total PAEs. BPA was also detected in all samples; average BPA concentration varies from 16.3 to 35.79 μg kg(-1) with mean value 25.15 μg kg(-1) dry weight of sediment. Synthetic EDCs such as 4-para-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) were also analyzed; and their average concentrations were founds to be 356.5 and 176 μg kg(-1), respectively. Estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were the main contributors to the overall estradiol equivalent concentration (EEQs) in sediment, their average total percentage contributions is more than 90 %. PMID:27316650

  7. Post-antibiotic effect of orbifloxacin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone drug used widely in companion animal medicine. In this study, we firstly determined post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) and post-antibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) effects (PA-SMEs) of orbifloxacin for two strains each of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dogs, and these parameters were compared with those of enrofloxacin. At twice the MIC, the PAEs of orbifloxacin ranged from -0.28-0.93 h (mean, 0.29 h) for E. coli and -0.18-1.18 h (mean, 0.37 h) for P. aeruginosa. These parameters were not significantly different for E. coli and shorter for P. aeruginosa, compared to enrofloxacin (P < 0.05). Continued exposure to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 the MIC of orbifloxacin resulted in average PA-SMEs of 0.55, 1.11, and 2.03 h, respectively, for E. coli, and 1.04, 1.40, and 2.47 h, respectively, for P. aeruginosa. These PA-SMEs, which had no significant differences with those of enrofloxacin, were significantly longer than the corresponding PAEs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the PA-SME of orbifloxacin for E. coli and P. aeruginosa can be meaningfully prolonged by increase of sub-MICs. PMID:22433170

  8. Analysis of levels of support and resonance demonstrated by an elite singing teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Ronald C.; Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Poulimenos, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    This was a study of levels of singing expertise demonstrated by an elite operatic singer and teacher. This approach may prove advantageous because the teacher demonstrates what he thinks is important, not what the nonsinging scientist thinks should be important. Two pedagogical sequences were studied: (1) the location of support-glottis (poor), chest (better), abdomen (best); (2) locations of resonance-hard palate/straight tone (poor), mouth (better), sinus/head (best). Measures were obtained for a single frequency (196 Hz), the vowel /ae/, and for mezzo-forte loudness using the /pae pae pae/ technique. Sequence differences: The support sequence was characterized by formant frequency lowering suggestive of vocal tract lengthening. The resonance sequence was characterized by flow (AC, mean flow) and abduction increases. Sequence similarities: The best locations had the widest F2 bandwidths. The better and best locations had the largest dB difference between F2 and F3. Although acoustic power increased through the sequences, the acoustic efficiency was not a discriminating factor. Open and speed quotients were not differentiating. The flow resistance was highest and aerodynamic power the lowest for the first of each sequence. Combined data: The maximum flow declination rate correlated highly with the AC flow (r=-0.92) and SPL (r=0.901).

  9. Carcinogenic potential of phthalic acid esters and related compounds: structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Kluwe, W M

    1986-01-01

    Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of several phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and compounds containing a 2-ethylhexyl moiety were conducted in Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 (hybrid) mice. The compounds studied were phthalic anhydride, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, and 2-ethylhexyl sulfate (sodium salt). Estimated maximum tolerable doses and fractionally lower doses of each compound were administered to groups of 50 male and 50 female rats and mice for 2 years, followed by sacrifice, necropsy, and histopathological examination of major organs and tissues. The low toxic potencies of most of the compounds allowed for relatively high doses to be given during the chronic studies. In general, the toxic manifestations of the PAEs were closely correlated with their ester substituents. Although many of the PAEs possessed some carcinogenic activity, target sites for such effects were dissimilar, suggesting the absence of a common mode of action. In contrast, all of the 2-ethylhexyl-containing compounds studied possessed some hepatocarcinogenic activity, indicating that this moiety may have a propensity for causing hepatocarcinogenesis in mice, particularly those of the female sex. The 2-ethylhexyl compound that caused the greatest hepatocarcinogenic response in mice, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, was also hepatocarcinogenic in rats. Similarly, those with a relatively greater effect in female mice were also active in male mice. Thus, sex and species differences in 2-ethylhexyl-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rodents are probably quantitative rather than qualitative in nature. PMID:3709453

  10. Impaired arousal in rat pups with prenatal alcohol exposure is modulated by GABAergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirieix, Chrystelle M; Tobia, Christine M; Schneider, Robert W; Darnall, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) increases the risk for The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in human infants. In rat pups, the arousal response to hypoxia is modulated by medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. We hypothesized that arousal to hypoxia is impaired by PAE, and is associated with an increase in medullary GABA and enhanced GABAergic activity. Pregnant dams received an ethanol liquid diet (ETOH), an iso-caloric pair fed diet (PF) or a standard chow diet (CHOW). We first measured the time to arousal (latency), during four episodes of hypoxia in P5, P15, and P21 CHOW, PF, and ETOH pups. We also measured brainstem GABA concentration in the same groups of pups. Finally, we injected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), nipecotic acid (NIP) or gabazine into the medullary raphe of P15 and P21 pups receiving the three diets. For statistical analysis, the PF and CHOW groups were combined into a single CONTROL group. Our main finding was that compared to CONTROL, arousal latency to hypoxia is increased in ETOH pups at P15 and P21, and the concentration of brainstem GABA is elevated at P21. NIP administration in CONTROL pups led to arousal latencies similar in magnitude to those in ETOH pups after aCSF injection. NIP injected ETOH pups had no further increases in arousal latency. We conclude that PAE impairs arousal latency and this is mediated or modulated by medullary GABAergic mechanisms. PMID:26059034

  11. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum excreted-secreted antigens for detection of canine leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Kesper, Norival; Umezawa, Eufrosina Setsu

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of tests with L. (L.) infantum excreted-secreted antigens (ESA) to detect canine leishmaniasis (CanL) was evaluated using immunoblotting (ESA-blot), ELISA (ESA-ELISA) and ELISA with alkaline extract from promastigotes (PAE). Of one hundred fifty-five domestic dogs tested, 100 were suspected of CanL, 23 had other diseases and 32 were healthy. Sera from the dogs suspected of CanL were tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and 54% were confirmed to be infected by L. (L.) infantum (38 symptomatic and 16 asymptomatic). Of these, 100% were positive by ESA-blot, ESA-ELISA and PAE-ELISA. In the ESA-blot their sera recognized polypeptides in the 26.5-31.5kDa region. Of the 46% of dogs with negative IHC, 44-53% tested positive in all three tests irrespective of clinical status. The twenty-three dogs with other diseases were negative by ESA-blot, but sera from 9% and 26% of them reacted with ESA-ELISA and PAE-ELISA, respectively. The 32 healthy dogs were negative in all the tests. ESA-blot showed good correlation with IHC in the detection of CanL and a high specificity index. PMID:27212707

  12. Positron spectroscopy of 2D materials using an advanced high intensity positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A.; Chirayath, V.; Lim, Z.; Gladen, R.; Chrysler, M.; Fairchild, A.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.

    An advanced high intensity variable energy positron beam(~1eV to 20keV) has been designed, tested and utilized for the first coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements on 6-8 layers graphene on polycrystalline Cu sample. The system is capable of simultaneous Positron annihilation induced Auger electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and CDB measurements giving it unparalleled sensitivity to chemical structure at external surfaces, interfaces and internal pore surfaces. The system has a 3m flight path up to a micro channel plate (MCP) for the Auger electrons emitted from the sample. This gives a superior energy resolution for PAES. A solid rare gas(Neon) moderator was used for the generation of the monoenergetic positron beam. The positrons were successfully transported to the sample chamber using axial magnetic field generated with a series of Helmholtz coils. We will discuss the PAES and coincidence Doppler broadening measurements on graphene -Cu sample and present an analysis of the gamma spectra which indicates that a fraction of the positrons implanted at energies 7-60eV can become trapped at the graphene/metal interface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.

  13. The Validity of Phosphatidylethanol in Dried Blood Spots of Newborns for the Identification of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savich, Renate D.; Cano, Sandra; Gutierrez, Hilda; Savage, Daniel D.; Rayburn, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate identification of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the newborn period offers an opportunity for early identification of children at risk for future neurocognitive problems and the implementation of interventional approaches earlier in life. PAE newborn screening by measuring phosphatidylethanol in dried blood spot (PEth-DBS) cards is feasible, logistically easier, and more cost-efficient compared to other biomarkers. However, the sensitivity and specificity of this method have yet to be established. Methods This prospective cohort study examined validity of PEth-DBS among 28 infants with PAE and 32 controls relative to maternal self-report and other biomarkers. Pregnant women were recruited from a University of New Mexico clinic and followed to early postpartum period. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed to classify subjects into PAE and control groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of PEth-DBS. Results The study included large proportions of patients representing ethnic minorities (7.4% American Indian, 81.7% Hispanic/Latina), low education (54.2% PAE in conjunction with other biomarkers. Minimal invasiveness, ease of storage and

  14. High-level recombinant protein production by the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica under a xylose-inducible xylanase promoter.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Yarimizu, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-04-01

    Yeast host-vector systems are useful tools for the production of recombinant proteins. Here, we report the construction of a new high-level expression plasmid pPAX1-neo for the basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica. pPAX1-neo harbours a xylose-inducible expression cassette under control of the xylanase promoter and terminator of P. antarctica T-34, a selection cassette of neomycin/G418 with an Escherichia coli neomycin resistance gene under control of the homocitrate synthase promoter of strain T-34, and an autonomously replicating sequence fragment of Ustilago maydis (UARS). Biodegradable plastic (BP)-degrading enzymes of P. antarctica JCM10317 (PaE) and Paraphoma-related fungal strain B47-9 (PCLE) were used as reporter proteins and inserted into pPAX1-neo, resulting in pPAX1-neo::PaCLE1 and pPAX1-neo::PCLE, respectively. Homologous and heterologous BP-degrading enzyme production of transformants of P. antarctica T-34 were detected on agar plates containing xylose and emulsified BP. Recombinant PaE were also produced by transformants of other Pseudozyma strains including Pseudozyma aphidis, Pseudozyma rugulosa, and Pseudozyma tsukubaensis. To improve the stability of transformed genes in cells, the UARS fragment was removed from linearized pPAX1-neo::PaCLE1 and integrated into the chromosome of the P. antarctica strain, GB-4(0), which was selected as a PaE producer in xylose media. Two transformants, GB-4(0)-X14 and X49, had an 11-fold higher activity compared with the wild type strain in xylose-containing liquid media. By xylose fed-batch cultivation using a 3-L jar fermentor, GB-4(0)-X14 produced 73.5 U mL(-1) of PaE, which is 13.4-fold higher than that of the wild type strain GB-4(0), which produced 5.5 U mL(-1) of PaE. PMID:26695155

  15. Cat serum contamination by phthalates, PCBs, and PBDEs versus food and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Braouezec, Clélie; Enriquez, Brigitte; Blanchard, Martine; Chevreuil, Marc; Teil, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with semi-volatile properties are emitted to indoor air and, thus, humans might get exposed to these compounds. Pet cats spend the major part of their lifetime at home and might integrate indoor contamination so that they could mirror the human exposure. Three classes of EDCs, polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and phthalates (PAEs), were simultaneously considered and quantified in the serum of cats (Felis silvestris catus) living in the Paris area (France). The main compound concentrations by decreasing importance order were as follows: for PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (79,900 ng L(-1)) next di-iso-butyl phthalate (53,200 ng L(-1)), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (43,800 ng L(-1)), and di-ethylhexyl phthalate (32,830 ng L(-1)); for PCBs, CB153 (1378 ng L(-1)) next CB52 (509 ng L(-1)), CB101 (355 ng L(-1)), CB110 (264 ng L(-1)), and CB118 (165 ng L(-1)); and for PBDEs, BDE 153/154 (35 ng L(-1)) next BDE47 (10.7 ng L(-1)). Total serum concentrations as mean ± standard deviation were 107 ± 98 μg L(-1) for ∑9PAEs, 2799 ± 944 ng L(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 56 ± 21 ng L(-1) for ∑9BDEs. The three chemical groups were found in cat food: 0.088 ng g(-1) for ∑9BDEs, 1.7 ng g(-1) for ∑19PCBs, and 2292 ng g(-1) for ∑9PAEs and in indoor air: 0.063 ng m(-3) for ∑9BDEs, 1.5 ng m(-3) for ∑19PCBs, and 848 ng m(-3) for ∑9PAEs. Contaminant intake by food ingestion was approximately 100-fold higher than that by indoor air inhalation.

  16. Asn347 Glycosylation of Corticosteroid-binding Globulin Fine-tunes the Host Immune Response by Modulating Proteolysis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Neutrophil Elastase.

    PubMed

    Sumer-Bayraktar, Zeynep; Grant, Oliver C; Venkatakrishnan, Vignesh; Woods, Robert J; Packer, Nicolle H; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2016-08-19

    Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) delivers anti-inflammatory cortisol to inflamed tissues upon elastase-based proteolysis of the exposed reactive center loop (RCL). However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the RCL proteolysis by co-existing host and bacterial elastases in inflamed/infected tissues remain unknown. We document that RCL-localized Asn(347) glycosylation fine-tunes the RCL cleavage rate by human neutrophil elastase (NE) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) by different mechanisms. NE- and PAE-generated fragments of native and exoglycosidase-treated blood-derived CBG of healthy individuals were monitored by gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS to determine the cleavage site(s) and Asn(347) glycosylation as a function of digestion time. The site-specific (Val(344)-Thr(345)) and rapid (seconds to minutes) NE-based RCL proteolysis was significantly antagonized by several volume-enhancing Asn(347) glycan features (i.e. occupancy, triantennary GlcNAc branching, and α1,6-fucosylation) and augmented by Asn(347) NeuAc-type sialylation (all p < 0.05). In contrast, the inefficient (minutes to hours) PAE-based RCL cleavage, which occurred equally well at Thr(345)-Leu(346) and Asn(347)-Leu(348), was abolished by the presence of Asn(347) glycosylation but was enhanced by sialoglycans on neighboring CBG N-sites. Molecular dynamics simulations of various Asn(347) glycoforms of uncleaved CBG indicated that multiple Asn(347) glycan features are modulating the RCL digestion efficiencies by NE/PAE. Finally, high concentrations of cortisol showed weak bacteriostatic effects toward virulent P. aeruginosa, which may explain the low RCL potency of the abundantly secreted PAE during host infection. In conclusion, site-specific CBG N-glycosylation regulates the bioavailability of cortisol in inflamed environments by fine-tuning the RCL proteolysis by endogenous and exogenous elastases. This study offers new molecular insight into host- and pathogen

  17. Degradation of Phthalate Esters by Fusarium sp. DMT-5-3 and Trichosporon sp. DMI-5-1 Isolated from Mangrove Sediments.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-Hua; Pang, Ka-Lai; Wu, Yi-Rui; Gu, Ji-Dong; Chow, Raymond K K; Vrijmoed, L L P

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are important industrial compounds mainly used as plasticizers to increase flexibility and softness of plastic products. PAEs are of major concern because of their widespread use, ubiquity in the environment, and endocrine-disrupting toxicity. In this study, two fungal strains, Fusarium sp. DMT-5-3 and Trichosporon sp. DMI-5-1 which had the capability to degrade dimethyl phthalate esters (DMPEs), were isolated from mangrove sediments in the Futian Nature Reserve of Shenzhen, China, by enrichment culture technique. These fungi were identified on the basis of spore morphology and molecular typing using 18S rDNA sequence. Comparative investigations on the biodegradation of three isomers of DMPEs, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dimethyl isophthalate (DMI), and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were carried out with these two fungi. It was found that both fungi could not completely mineralize DMPEs but transform them to the respective monomethyl phthalate or phthalate acid. Biochemical degradation pathways for different DMPE isomers by both fungi were different. Both fungi could transform DMT to monomethyl terephthalate (MMT) and further to terephthalic acid (TA) by stepwise hydrolysis of two ester bonds. However, they could only carry out one-step ester hydrolysis to transform DMI to monomethyl isophthalate (MMI). Further metabolism of MMI did not proceed. Only Trichosporon sp. was able to transform DMP to monomethyl phthalate (MMP) but not Fusarium sp. The optimal pH for DMI and DMT degradation by Fusarium sp. was 6.0 and 4.5, respectively, whereas for Trichosporon sp., the optimal pH for the degradation of all the three DMPE isomers was at 6.0. These results suggest that the fungal esterases responsible for hydrolysis of the two ester bonds of PAEs are highly substrate specific.

  18. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol☆

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Valerie A.; Price, Mathew; Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate an automated cerebellar segmentation method based on active shape and appearance modeling and then segment the cerebellum on images acquired from adolescents with histories of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and non-exposed controls (NC). Methods Automated segmentations of the total cerebellum, right and left cerebellar hemispheres, and three vermal lobes (anterior, lobules I–V; superior posterior, lobules VI–VII; inferior posterior, lobules VIII–X) were compared to expert manual labelings on 20 subjects, studied twice, that were not used for model training. The method was also used to segment the cerebellum on 11 PAE and 9 NC adolescents. Results The test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the automated method were greater than 0.94 for all cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal vermal area measures, comparable or better than the test–retest ICCs for manual measurement (all ICCs > 0.92). The ICCs computed on all four cerebellar measurements (manual and automated measures on the repeat scans) to compare comparability were above 0.97 for non-vermis parcels, and above 0.89 for vermis parcels. When applied to patients, the automated method detected smaller cerebellar volumes and mid-sagittal areas in the PAE group compared to controls (p < 0.05 for all regions except the superior posterior lobe, consistent with prior studies). Discussion These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample. PMID:25061566

  19. Analysis of phthalic acid diesters, monoester, and other plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride household products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of six phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)], two non-phthalic plasticizers [di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate (TMPDIB)], and mono 2-ethylhexyl phthalate(MEHP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) household products that children often places in their mouths and/or contact with their skin (41 products, 47 samples) in Japan. The detection frequencies of the studied compounds were as follows: DEHP (79 %), DINP-2 (13 %), DINP-1 (11 %), DBP (8.5 %), DEHA (8.5 %), DIDP (4.3 %), and DNOP (2.1 %). Concentrations of these compounds ranged from 0.021 % to 48 %. BBP and TMPDIB were not detected in the all samples. Most samples contained DEHP and DINP at high concentrations over 0.1 %. High concentrations of PAEs were detected in PVC household products that appear appealing to children and can possibly be licked and chewed by them. Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephtalete, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, acetyl tributyl citrate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate used as substitute plasticizers were also detected in several samples. MEHP was present in 70 % of the samples, with concentrations ranging from trace amounts to 140 μg/g. The ratios of MEHP against DEHP were 6.2 × 10(-4) to 1.6 × 10(-1) %. MEHP in the household products investigated in this study was most probably an impurity in DEHP. The high concentrations of PAEs detected in products that children often place in their mouth reveal the importance of replacing plasticizers in common household products, and not just children's toys, with safer alternatives.

  20. Click Cross-Linking-Improved Waterborne Polymers for Environment-Friendly Coatings and Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianqing; Peng, Kaimei; Guo, Jinshan; Shan, Dingying; Kim, Gloria B; Li, Qiyao; Gerhard, Ethan; Zhu, Liang; Tu, Weiping; Lv, Weizhong; Hickner, Michael A; Yang, Jian

    2016-07-13

    Waterborne polymers, including waterborne polyurethanes (WPU), polyester dispersions (PED), and polyacrylate emulsions (PAE), are employed as environmentally friendly water-based coatings and adhesives. An efficient, fast, stable, and safe cross-linking strategy is always desirable to impart waterborne polymers with improved mechanical properties and water/solvent/thermal and abrasion resistance. For the first time, click chemistry was introduced into waterborne polymer systems as a cross-linking strategy. Click cross-linking rendered waterborne polymer films with significantly improved tensile strength, hardness, adhesion strength, and water/solvent resistance compared to traditional waterborne polymer films. For example, click cross-linked WPU (WPU-click) has dramatically improved the mechanical strength (tensile strength increased from 0.43 to 6.47 MPa, and Young's modulus increased from 3 to 40 MPa), hardness (increased from 59 to 73.1 MPa), and water resistance (water absorption percentage dropped from 200% to less than 20%); click cross-linked PED (PED-click) film also possessed more than 3 times higher tensile strength (∼28 MPa) than that of normal PED (∼8 MPa). The adhesion strength of click cross-linked PAE (PAE-click) to polypropylene (PP) was also improved (from 3 to 5.5 MPa). In addition, extra click groups can be preserved after click cross-linking for further functionalization of the waterborne polymeric coatings/adhesives. In this work, we have demonstrated that click modification could serve as a convenient and powerful approach to significantly improve the performance of a variety of traditional coatings and adhesives. PMID:27326894

  1. Pelvic Arterial Anatomy Relevant to Prostatic Artery Embolisation and Proposal for Angiographic Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Assis, André Moreira de Moreira, Airton Mota Paula Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina de; Harward, Sardis Honoria; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel Srougi, Miguel; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo describe and categorize the angiographic findings regarding prostatic vascularization, propose an anatomic classification, and discuss its implications for the PAE procedure.MethodsAngiographic findings from 143 PAE procedures were reviewed retrospectively, and the origin of the inferior vesical artery (IVA) was classified into five subtypes as follows: type I: IVA originating from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (IIA), from a common trunk with the superior vesical artery (SVA); type II: IVA originating from the anterior division of the IIA, inferior to the SVA origin; type III: IVA originating from the obturator artery; type IV: IVA originating from the internal pudendal artery; and type V: less common origins of the IVA. Incidences were calculated by percentage.ResultsTwo hundred eighty-six pelvic sides (n = 286) were analyzed, and 267 (93.3 %) were classified into I–IV types. Among them, the most common origin was type IV (n = 89, 31.1 %), followed by type I (n = 82, 28.7 %), type III (n = 54, 18.9 %), and type II (n = 42, 14.7 %). Type V anatomy was seen in 16 cases (5.6 %). Double vascularization, defined as two independent prostatic branches in one pelvic side, was seen in 23 cases (8.0 %).ConclusionsDespite the large number of possible anatomical variations of male pelvis, four main patterns corresponded to almost 95 % of the cases. Evaluation of anatomy in a systematic fashion, following a standard classification, will make PAE a faster, safer, and more effective procedure.

  2. Repeated intermittent alcohol exposure during the third trimester-equivalent increases expression of the GABA(A) receptor δ subunit in cerebellar granule neurons and delays motor development in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin R; Vollmer, Cyndel C; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula A; Vollmer, William; Blomquist, Samantha L; Morton, Russell A; Everett, Julie C; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Yu, Jieying; Orser, Beverley A; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to ethanol (EtOH) during fetal development can lead to long-lasting alterations, including deficits in fine motor skills and motor learning. Studies suggest that these are, in part, a consequence of cerebellar damage. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are the gateway of information into the cerebellar cortex. Functionally, CGNs are heavily regulated by phasic and tonic GABAergic inhibition from Golgi cell interneurons; however, the effect of EtOH exposure on the development of GABAergic transmission in immature CGNs has not been investigated. To model EtOH exposure during the 3rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy, neonatal pups were exposed intermittently to high levels of vaporized EtOH from postnatal day (P) 2 to P12. This exposure gradually increased pup serum EtOH concentrations (SECs) to ∼60 mM (∼0.28 g/dl) during the 4 h of exposure. EtOH levels gradually decreased to baseline 8 h after the end of exposure. Surprisingly, basal tonic and phasic GABAergic currents in CGNs were not significantly affected by postnatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, PAE increased δ subunit expression at P28 as detected by immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Also, electrophysiological studies with an agonist that is highly selective for δ-containing GABA(A) receptors, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridine-3-ol (THIP), showed an increase in THIP-induced tonic current. Behavioral studies of PAE rats did not reveal any deficits in motor coordination, except for a delay in the acquisition of the mid-air righting reflex that was apparent at P15 to P18. These findings demonstrate that repeated intermittent exposure to high levels of EtOH during the equivalent of the last trimester of human pregnancy has significant but relatively subtle effects on motor coordination and GABAergic transmission in CGNs in rats.

  3. Degradation of phthalate esters and acetaminophen in river sediments using the electrokinetic process integrated with a novel Fenton-like process catalyzed by nanoscale schwertmannite.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Huang, Sheng-Chih; Wang, Chih-Lung; Jen, Yu-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and establish an in situ remediation technology coupling nano-schwertmannite/H2O2 process and electrokinetic (EK) process for the removal of phthalates (PAEs) and acetaminophen in river sediments. Test results are given as follows: (1) injection of nano-schwertmannite slurry and H2O2 (collectively, "novel oxidant") into the anode reservoir would yield ·OH radicals that then will be diffused into the sediment compartment and further transported by the electroosmotic flow and/or electrophoresis from the anode end toward the cathode to degrade PAEs and pharmaceuticals in the sediment if any; (2) an electric potential gradient of 1.5 V cm(-1) would help the removal of PAEs and acetaminophen in the blank test, which no "novel oxidants" was added to the remediation system; (3) the practice of electrode polarity reversal would maintain neutral pH for sediment after remediation; (4) injection of equally divided dose of 10 mL novel oxidant into the anode reservoir and four injection ports on the top of sediment chamber would further enhance the removal efficiency; and (5) an extension of treatment time from 14 d to 28 d is beneficial to the removal efficiency as expected. In comparison, the remediation performance obtained by the EK-assisted nano-SHM/H2O2 oxidation process is superior to that of the batch degradation test, but is comparable with other EK integrated technologies for the treatment of same contaminants. Thus, it is expected that the EK-assisted nano-SHM/H2O2 oxidation process is a viable technology for the removal of phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals from river sediments in large-scale operations. PMID:27309673

  4. Extracellular esterases of phylloplane yeast Pseudozyma antarctica induce defect on cuticle layer structure and water-holding ability of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirokazu; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Tabata, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-08-01

    Aerial plant surface (phylloplane) is a primary key habitat for many microorganisms but is generally recognized as limited in nutrient resources. Pseudozyma antarctica, a nonpathogenic yeast, is commonly isolated from plant surfaces and characterized as an esterase producer with fatty acid assimilation ability. In order to elucidate the biological functions of these esterases, culture filtrate with high esterase activity (crude enzyme) of P. antarctica was applied onto leaves of tomato and Arabidopsis. These leaves showed a wilty phenotype, which is typically associated with water deficiency. Furthermore, we confirmed that crude enzyme-treated detached leaves clearly lost their water-holding ability. In treated leaves of both plants, genes associated to abscisic acid (ABA; a plant stress hormone responding osmotic stress) were activated and accumulation of ABA was confirmed in tomato plants. Microscopic observation of treated leaf surfaces revealed that cuticle layer covering the aerial epidermis of leaves became thinner. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis exhibited that fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon chains were released in larger amounts from treated leaf surfaces, indicating that the crude enzyme has ability to degrade lipid components of cuticle layer. Among the three esterases detected in the crude enzyme, lipase A, lipase B, and P. antarctica esterase (PaE), an in vitro enzyme assay using para-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate demonstrated that PaE was the most responsible for the degradation. These results suggest that PaE has a potential role in the extraction of fatty acids from plant surfaces, making them available for the growth of phylloplane yeasts.

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Parnell, Scott E; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  6. A novel L-aspartate dehydrogenase from the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: molecular characterization and application for L-aspartate production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Kawakami, Norika; Ogola, Henry Joseph Oduor; Ashida, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-06-01

    L-aspartate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.21; L: -AspDH) is a rare member of amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily and so far, two thermophilic enzymes have been reported. In our study, an ORF PA3505 encoding for a putative L-AspDH in the mesophilic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was identified, cloned, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The homogeneously purified enzyme (PaeAspDH) was a dimeric protein with a molecular mass of about 28 kDa exhibiting a very high specific activity for L-aspartate (L-Asp) and oxaloacetate (OAA) of 127 and 147 U mg(-1), respectively. The enzyme was capable of utilizing both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as coenzyme. PaeAspDH showed a T (m) value of 48°C for 20 min that was improved to approximately 60°C by the addition of 0.4 M NaCl or 30% glycerol. The apparent K (m) values for OAA, NADH, and ammonia were 2.12, 0.045, and 10.1 mM, respectively; comparable results were observed with NADPH. The L-Asp production system B consisting of PaeAspDH, Bacillus subtilis malate dehydrogenase and E. coli fumarase, achieved a high level of L-Asp production (625 mM) from fumarate in fed-batch process with a molar conversion yield of 89.4%. Furthermore, the fermentative production system C released 33 mM of L-Asp after 50 h by using succinate as carbon source. This study represented an extensive characterization of the mesophilic AspDH and its potential applicability for efficient and attractive production of L-Asp. Our novel production systems are also hopeful for developing the new processes for other compounds production.

  7. Preparation of Fe3O4@PPy magnetic nanoparticles as solid-phase extraction sorbents for preconcentration and separation of phthalic acid esters in water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Huang, Manyan; Wu, Jianrong; Wang, Li; He, Hua

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a solid-phase extraction method of separating and determining of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by PPy-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PPy MNPs). In the process, nanoparticles were served as sorbents and the optimal conditions of the extraction have been explored. The composite was synthesized through the chemical oxidation method, combining pyrrole monomer with Fe3O4 magnetic ball in the form of aggregation state and the coated nanoparticles possessed core-shell construction. The PPy-coated Fe3O4 magnetic microspheres have been extensively characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The optimum conditions were investigated by orthogonal experimental design, which was used to testing the influence of main factors and the interactions among them. The orthoplan is famous for the merit that it can study the whole experiments comprehensively through minimal tests. Under the optimal extraction conditions: 20mg of modified magnetite nanoparticles, eluting with acetic ester of 2mL, 40min of MSPE, eluting in 1h and 20mL of sample volume, good linearity (r(2)>0.9912) of all calibration curves was obtained in validation experiments. And the limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.006 to 0.021ng/mL. The recoveries in different sample matrices were in the range from 80.4% to 108.2% with relative standard deviations less than 12.8%. The present work demonstrates the applicability of the developed method for the determination of PAEs in water sample and the results justified that it can be applied successfully to the selective isolation and enrichment of PAEs in real water samples. PMID:26751591

  8. Design of an Ultra-High Efficiency GaN High-Power Amplifier for SAR Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrivikraman, Tushar; Hoffman, James

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development of a high-power amplifier for use with a remote sensing SAR system. The amplifier is intended to meet the requirements for the Sweep-SAR technique for use in the proposed DESDynI SAR instrument. In order to optimize the amplifier design, active load-pull technique is employed to provide harmonic tuning to provide efficiency improvements. In addition, some of the techniques to overcome the challenges of load-pulling high power devices are presented. The design amplifier was measured to have 49 dBm of output power with 75% PAE, which is suitable to meet the proposed system requirements.

  9. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers. PMID:26260252

  10. Software Development Cost Estimation Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hihn, Jairus M.; Menzies, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identify simple fully validated cost models that provide estimation uncertainty with cost estimate. Based on COCOMO variable set. Use machine learning techniques to determine: a) Minimum number of cost drivers required for NASA domain based cost models; b) Minimum number of data records required and c) Estimation Uncertainty. Build a repository of software cost estimation information. Coordinating tool development and data collection with: a) Tasks funded by PA&E Cost Analysis; b) IV&V Effort Estimation Task and c) NASA SEPG activities.

  11. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers.

  12. High-efficiency high-gain monolithic heterostructure FET amplifier at 31 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tserng, H. Q.; Saunier, P.; Kao, Y.-C.

    1993-01-01

    A three-stage heterostructure FET monolithic amplifier has achieved a power-added efficiency of 36 percent with 200 mW output and 18 dB gain at 31 GHz. At a higher drain voltage, the output power increases to 280 mW (with 17.5 dB gain and 31 percent PAE) at a power density of 0.7 W/mm. The MMIC chip measures 2.63 x 1.35 sq mm and requires only a single drain bias and a single gate bias.

  13. Li-ion battery operated power amplifier MMICs utilizing SrTiO 3 capacitors and heterojunction FETs for PDC and CDMA cellular phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, N.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nishimura, T. B.; Takemura, K.; Miyasaka, Y.

    1999-04-01

    Highly efficient two-stage 1 W power amplifier MMICs utilizing SrTiO 3 capacitors and Si-doped AlGaAs/InGaAs/Si-doped AlGaAs FETs have been developed for Li-ion battery operated digital cellular phones. For the personal digital cellular (PDC) applications, a power amplifier MMIC with 2.0×2.4 mm 2 area includes all bias and matching circuits. The MMIC delivered a 950 MHz π/4-shifted QPSK output signal power ( Pout) of 0.8 W (29.0 dBm), a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 30% and an associated gain ( Ga) of 26.4 dB with an adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACPR) of -50.5 dBc at 50 kHz off-center frequency under 3.4 V drain bias operation. The power performance showed good agreement with a simulated one when series resistances in the output matching circuit and the drain bias circuit for the second-stage FET were taken into account. When the circuits were removed from the MMIC, it exhibited PAE of 42.4% and Pout of 1.0 W (30.0 dBm) with Ga of 29.8 dB at the PDC criteria. These results revealed that a low loss in the output passive circuits of a power amplifier MMIC is essential. Then, a power amplifier MMIC for the IS-95 application at 840 MHz was designed and evaluated without the output circuit. The MMIC with 2.0×1.5 mm 2 area delivered Pout of 0.93 W (29.7 dBm), PAE of 48.6% and Ga of 28.4 dB with ACPR of -42 dBc at 0.9 MHz off-center frequency under 3.5 V operation. Even operated at a reduced supply voltage of 1.2 V, a high PAE of 46.9% was obtained. These results indicate that the developed power amplifier MMICs and its approach are promising for small-size and lightweight digital cellular phones with long talk time.

  14. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  15. Noise-driven multistability in a plasma diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, J. T.; Pae, K. H.; Hahn, S. J.

    2004-11-01

    Recently, a brand-new phenomenon of competing multistability in plasma diode systems has been observed by our group [S. J. Hahn and K. H. Pae, Phys. Plasmas 10, 314 (2003)]. By employing one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations with proper control of the inherent numerical noise, the noise-driven multistability and dynamical transitions between regular and multistable solutions have been investigated. Throughout this work, it is verified that the competing multistability is, in principle, a noise-driven dynamical switch between attractors and occurs due to noise fluctuations inside a system near the fractal basin boundaries.

  16. Ethylglucuronide in Maternal Hair as a Biomarker of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F.; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D.; Bakhireva, Ludmila N.

    2015-01-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair might allow for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers (gamma glutamyltranspeptidase [GGT], carbohydrate-deficient transferrin [%dCDT], urine ethyl glucuronide [uEtG], urine ethyl sulfate [uEtS], and phosphatidylethanol [PEth]) in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a University of New Mexico prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders, and followed until early postpartum. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG and other biomarkers. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioiddependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5–20%) to hEtG in this cohort, but specificities were higher (98–100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with

  17. An Optimized 2.4GHz RF Power Amplifier Performance for WLAN System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammed H.; Chakrabarty, C. K.; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Hock, Goh C.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the design of RF power amplifiers (PAs) for modern wireless systems are faced with a difficult tradeoff for example, cellphone; battery lifetime is largely determined by the power efficiency of the PA and high spectral efficiency which have ability to transmit data at the highest possible rate for a given channel bandwidth. This paper presents the design a multi stage class AB power Amplifier with high power added efficiency (PAE) and acceptable linearity for the WLAN applications. The open-circuited third harmonic control circuit enhances the efficiency of the PA without deteriorating the linearity of class-AB mode of the PA. The voltage and current waveforms are simulated to evaluate the appropriate operation for the modes. The effectiveness of the proposed controller has been verified by comparing proposed method with another methods using simulation study under a variety of conditions. The proposed circuit operation for a WLAN signals delivers a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 37.6% is measured at 31.6-dBm output power while dissipating 34.61 mA from a 1.8V supply. Finally, the proposed PA is show a good and acceptable result for the WLAN system.

  18. Robust, flexible, and bioadhesive free-standing films for the co-delivery of antibiotics and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongdong; Wu, Mingda; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunqiu; Pan, Tiezheng; Zhang, Bing; Tian, Huayu; Chen, Xuesi; Sun, Junqi

    2014-11-25

    Free-standing polymer films that adhere strongly to tissue and can codeliver multiple therapeutic agents in a controlled manner are useful as medical plasters. In this study, a bilayer polymer film comprising a drug reservoir layer and a supporting layer is fabricated by spin-coating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on top of a layer-by-layer assembled film of poly(β-amino esters) (PAE), alginate sodium (ALG), and recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Apart from bFGF, the bilayer film can also load antibiotic drug ceftriaxone sodium (CTX) by a postdiffusion process. The PLGA supporting layer facilitates the direct peeling of the bilayer film from substrate to produce a robust and flexible free-standing film with excellent adhesion onto the human skin and porcine liver. The excellent adhesion of the bilayer film originates from the ALG component in the drug reservoir layer. CTX is quickly released by easily breaking its electrostatic interaction with the drug reservoir layer, whereas the sustained release of bFGF is due to the slow degradation of PAE component in the drug reservoir layer. Wounds can be synergetically treated by fast release of CTX to effectively eradicate invasive bacteria and by sustained release of bFGF to accelerate wound healing. Our results serve as a basis for designing multifunctional free-standing films with combination therapy for biomedical applications. PMID:25353985

  19. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhixiong, Ren; Kefeng, Zhang; Lanqi, Liu; Cong, Li; Xiaofei, Chen; Dongsheng, Liu; Zhenglin, Liu; Xuecheng, Zou

    2015-09-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076030).

  20. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  1. Characterization of a novel Achromobacter xylosoxidans specific siphoviruse: phiAxp-1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erna; Zhao, Jiangtao; Ma, Yanyan; Wei, Xiao; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ruixiang; Jiang, Aimin; Yang, Huiying; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Xiangna

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages have recently been considered as an alternative biocontrol tool because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Herein, we isolated a virulent bacteriophage (phiAxp-1) from a water sample of the Bohai sea of China that specifically infects A. xylosoxidans. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage phiAxp-1 belongs to the Siphoviridae. We sequenced the genome of phiAxp-1, which comprises 45,045 bp with 64 open reading frames. Most of the proteins encoded by phiAxp-1 have no similarity to sequences in the public databases. Twenty-one proteins with assigned functions share weak homology with those of other dsDNA bacteriophages infecting diverse hosts, such as Burkholderia phage KL1, Pseudomonas phage 73, Pseudomonas phage vB_Pae-Kakheti25, Pseudomonas phage vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26, Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and Achromobacter phage JWX. The genome can be divided into different clusters for the head and tail structure, DNA replication and mazG. The sequence and genomic organization of bacteriophage phiAxp-1 are clearly distinct from other known Siphoviridae phages; therefore, we propose that it is a member of a novel genus of the Siphoviridae family. Furthermore, one-step growth curve and stability studies of the phage were performed, and the specific receptor of phiAxp-1 was identified as the lipopolysaccharide of A. xylosoxidans. PMID:26908262

  2. Causes of endocrine disrupting potencies in surface water in East China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Deng, Dongyang; Wang, Yuting; Hu, Guanjiu; Guo, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Xinru; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Ziheng

    2016-02-01

    Surface water is essential for human health and ecological diversity, but some endocrine disrupting chemicals are detectable. Both thyroid receptor (TR) and androgen receptor (AR) agonistic/antagonistic potencies in grade II surface water in East China were investigated using reporter gene assays. While none of the water exhibited agonistic potency, significant AR and TR antagonistic potencies were detectable. TR antagonistic equivalents (TR-AntEQ) and AR antagonistic equivalents (AR-AntEQ) ranged from 3.6 to 76.1 μg dibutyl phthalate/L and from 2.3 to 242.6 μg flutamide/L, respectively. The TR and AR antagonistic potencies in the Yangtze River watershed were highlighted, with equivalents greater than the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) of dibutyl phthalate and flutamide, respectively. Phthalate esters (PAEs) being the most abundant explained most of the TR antagonistic potency, contributing more than 65% of the TR-AntEQ and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) was the major contributor. In most surface waters studied, PAEs contributed little of the AR-AntEQ, but the frequently detected octylphenol, nonylphenol and benzo[a]pyrene might be responsible. PMID:26495828

  3. X-ray Analysis of Self-assembled Nano-Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Turrisi, Riccardo; Emery, Jonathan; Hersam, Mark; Marks, Tobin; Bedzyk, Michael

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are viewed as the new generation thin-film transistors (TFT) for future low-cost, printable, flexible electronics. A class of materials called self-assembled nano-dielectrics (SAND) with phosphoric acid-based-electron (PAE) building blocks sandwiched between ultrathin layers of high- k inorganic oxide materials has been synthesized. These materials show exceptional large capacitance, insulating properties, and are also suitable for ambient atmosphere fabrication. The hybrid nature of these materials combines the distinct properties of both the organic and inorganic components and can be incorporated into the low-operating voltage semiconductor-based OTFT. Despite the great performance and flexibility of SANDs, fundamental aspects of dielectric behavior remain unexplored. Particularly, the behaviors of the Br counteranions that exist within PAE building blocks are poorly understood. Therefore, long-period X-ray Standing Wave (LP-XSW), which is a powerful technique sensitive to heavy atom distributions, was used to characterize SAND deposited on synthetic Si/Mo multilayer substrates. The elemental distributions of Br and reference elements were extracted from the analysis of XSW data. These accurate measurements are important for better understanding of counteranions distributions, charge transportation, dipole-semiconductors interactions, and future device modeling and engineering.

  4. Some phonatory and resonatory characteristics of the rock, pop, soul, and Swedish dance band styles of singing.

    PubMed

    Borch, D Zangger; Sundberg, Johan

    2011-09-01

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/ in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  5. Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study

    PubMed Central

    Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Paterson, David S.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Dan Zaharie, S.; Hewlett, Richard H.; Dempers, Johan J.; Burger, Elsie; Wadee, Shabbir; Schubert, Pawel; Wright, Colleen; Sens, Mary Ann; Nelsen, Laura; Randall, Bradley B.; Tran, Hoa; Geldenhuys, Elaine; Elliott, Amy J.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2016-01-01

    The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner’s system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval ≤100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference dataset, and virtually identical between stillbirths and live born fetal cases in grossly non-macerated tissues. The pattern of binding was present at mid-gestation with dramatic changes in binding levels in the medullary 5-HT nuclei over the second half of gestation; there was a plateau at lower levels in the neonatal period and into infancy. This study demonstrates feasibility of 5-HT1A binding analysis in the medulla in the Safe Passage Study. PMID:27634962

  6. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  7. Faropenem, a new oral penem: antibacterial activity against selected anaerobic and fastidious periodontal isolates.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, I; Blandino, G; Caccamo, F; Musumeci, R; Nicoletti, G; Speciale, A

    2003-03-01

    The in vitro activity of faropenem, an oral penem, was compared with those of penicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefoxitin, clindamycin, erythromycin and metronidazole against 106 isolates of anaerobic pathogens involved in systemic infections. The organisms tested comprised Porphyromonas gingivalis (29), Prevotella spp. (eight), Prevotella melaninogenica (seven), Prevotella intermedia (five), Actinomyces spp. (25), Fusobacterium nucleatum (14), Peptostreptococcus spp. (11), Bacteroides ureolyticus (five) and Bacteroides forsythus (two). The antimicrobial properties of faropenem were investigated by studying MICs, MBCs, time-kill kinetics and post-antibiotic effect (PAE). Faropenem was highly active against all the anaerobes tested (MIC(90) < or = 0.5 mg/L) and was bactericidal against both beta-lactamase-positive and -negative anaerobes, with a maximum bactericidal effect at 10 x MIC at between 12 and 24 h. In addition, faropenem had an in vitro PAE on all the tested isolates and this was not influenced by beta-lactamase production. Faropenem may be useful for treating infections caused by periodontal bacteria or oral flora. PMID:12615878

  8. Spectra of electrons emitted as a result of the sticking and annihilation of low energy positrons to the surfaces of graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysler, M.; Chirayath, V.; McDonald, A.; Lim, Z.; Shastry, K.; Gladen, R.; Fairchild, A.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) was used to study the positron induced low energy electron spectra from HOPG and a sample composed of 6-8 layers of graphene grown on polycrystalline copper. A low energy (~2eV) beam of positrons was used to implant positrons into a surface localized state on the graphene and HOPG samples. Measurements of the energy spectra of the positron induced electrons obtained using a TOF spectrometer indicate the presence of an annihilation induced KLL C Auger peak (at ~263 eV) along with a narrow low energy secondary peak due to an Auger mediated positron sticking (AMPS) process. A broad spectral feature was also observed below ~15 eV which we believe may be due to a VVV C Auger transition not previously observed. The energy dependence of the integrated intensity of the AMPS peak was measured for a series of incident positron kinetic energies ranging from ~1.5 eV up to 11 eV from which the binding energy of the surface localized positron state on graphene and HOPG was estimated. The implication of our results regarding the applicability of AMPS and PAES to the study of graphene surfaces and interfaces will be discussed. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.

  9. Toxicological characterization of phthalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Bang, Du Yeon; Lee, In Kyung; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2011-12-01

    There has been growing concern about the toxicity of phthalate esters. Phthalate esters are being used widely for the production of perfume, nail varnish, hairsprays and other personal/cosmetic uses. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. The parent phthalate is rapidly metabolized to its monoester (the active metabolite) and also glucuronidated, then excreted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of phthalic acid (PA), which is the final common metabolic form of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). The individual PA isomers are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents, for example isophthalic acid (IPA), and terephthalic acid (TPA), which have very broad applications in the preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items. There is a broad potential for exposure by industrial workers during the manufacturing process and by the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). This review suggests that PA shows in vitro and in vivo toxicity (mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc.). In addition, PA seems to be a useful biomarker for multiple exposure to PAEs in humans.

  10. Exactification of the Poincaré asymptotic expansion of the Hankel integral: spectacularly accurate asymptotic expansions and non-asymptotic scales

    PubMed Central

    Galapon, Eric A.; Martinez, Kay Marie L.

    2014-01-01

    We obtain an exactification of the Poincaré asymptotic expansion (PAE) of the Hankel integral, as , using the distributional approach of McClure & Wong. We find that, for half-integer orders of the Bessel function, the exactified asymptotic series terminates, so that it gives an exact finite sum representation of the Hankel integral. For other orders, the asymptotic series does not terminate and is generally divergent, but is amenable to superasymptotic summation, i.e. by optimal truncation. For specific examples, we compare the accuracy of the optimally truncated asymptotic series owing to the McClure–Wong distributional method with owing to the Mellin–Barnes integral method. We find that the former is spectacularly more accurate than the latter, by, in some cases, more than 70 orders of magnitude for the same moderate value of b. Moreover, the exactification can lead to a resummation of the PAE when it is exact, with the resummed Poincaré series exhibiting again the same spectacular accuracy. More importantly, the distributional method may yield meaningful resummations that involve scales that are not asymptotic sequences. PMID:24511252

  11. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  12. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  13. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins.

  14. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  15. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <140 microg kg(-1) d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers. PMID:17826902

  16. Smart Porous Silicon Nanoparticles with Polymeric Coatings for Sequential Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wujun; Thapa, Rinez; Liu, Dongfei; Nissinen, Tuomo; Granroth, Sari; Närvänen, Ale; Suvanto, Mika; Santos, Hélder A; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka

    2015-11-01

    In spite of the advances in drug delivery, the preparation of smart nanocomposites capable of precisely controlled release of multiple drugs for sequential combination therapy is still challenging. Here, a novel drug delivery nanocomposite was prepared by coating porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles with poly(beta-amino ester) (PAE) and Pluronic F-127, respectively. Two anticancer drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), were separately loaded into the core of PSi and the shell of F127. The nanocomposite displayed enhanced colloidal stability and good cytocompatibility. Moreover, a spatiotemporal drug release was achieved for sequential combination therapy by precisely controlling the release kinetics of the two tested drugs. The release of PTX and DOX occurred in a time-staggered manner; PTX was released much faster and earlier than DOX at pH 7.0. The grafted PAE on the external surface of PSi acted as a pH-responsive nanovalve for the site-specific release of DOX. In vitro cytotoxicity tests demonstrated that the DOX and PTX coloaded nanoparticles exhibited a better synergistic effect than the free drugs in inducing cellular apoptosis. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a promising strategy to enhance the efficiency of combination cancer therapies by precisely controlling the release kinetics of different drugs.

  17. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis.

  18. Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Hardware Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L.; Khan, P.; Silva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in wide-bandgap (WBG) gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology, there is considerable interest in developing efficient solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) as an alternative to the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for space applications. This article documents proof-of-concept hardware used to validate power-combining technologies that may enable a 120-W, 40 percent power-added efficiency (PAE) SSPA. Results in previous articles [1-3] indicate that architectures based on at least three power combiner designs are likely to enable the target SSPA. Previous architecture performance analyses and estimates indicate that the proposed architectures can power combine 16 to 32 individual monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with >80 percent combining efficiency. This combining efficiency would correspond to MMIC requirements of 5- to 10-W output power and >48 percent PAE. In order to validate the performance estimates of the three proposed architectures, measurements of proof-of-concept hardware are reported here.

  19. White Matter Deficits Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Cognitive Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jia; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Taylor, Paul A.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Dodge, Neil C.; Stanton, Mark E.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ±1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster. HE children showed lower FA and higher MD in a subset of these regions. Significant correlations were observed between three continuous alcohol measures and DTI values at cluster peaks, indicating that WM damage in several regions is dose dependent. Lower FA in the regions of interest was attributable primarily to increased radial diffusivity rather than decreased axonal diffusivity, suggesting poorer axon packing density and/or myelination. Multiple regression models indicated that this cortical WM impairment partially mediated adverse effects of PAE on information processing speed and eyeblink conditioning. PMID:27219850

  20. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  1. Study of solvent sublation for concentration of trace phthalate esters in plastic beverage packaging and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Bi, Pengyu; Li, Xiaochen; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-15

    A novel trace analytical method based on solvent sublation (SS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for the trace determination of twenty-two phthalate esters (PAEs) from plastic beverage packaging. In the solvent sublation section, the effects of solution pH, NaCl concentration, nitrogen flow rate, and sublation time on the sublation efficiency were investigated in detail, and the optimal conditions were obtained. The trace PAEs migrated from plastic beverage packaging to food simulants were separated and concentrated by solvent sublation, and then the trace target compounds in the concentrated solution were analyzed by GC-MS. According to the European Union Regulation, the food simulants including distilled water for the normal beverages and acetic acid solution (3%) for the acetic beverage of yogurt were prepared for migration tests. The trace analysis method showed good linearity, low limits of detection (LODs) of 1.6-183.5 ng/L, and satisfied recoveries (67.3-113.7%). PMID:25660867

  2. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis. PMID:27080878

  3. Gene expression for peroxisome-associated enzymes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.S.; Nemali, M.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1986-03-05

    Administration of hypolipidemic compounds leads to marked proliferation of peroxisomes and peroxisome-associated enzymes (PAE) in the livers of rodents and non-rodent species. The increase peroxisome-associated enzymes such as fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation system and catalase is shown to be due to an increase in the levels of mRNA. In this experiment they have examined hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), induced in male F-344 rats by ciprofibrate (0.025%, w/w for 60 weeks), for gene expression of PAE. Total RNA was purified from HCC as well as from control and ciprofibrate (0.025% for 2 weeks) fed rat livers. Northern blot analysis was performed using (32/sub p/)cDNA probes for albumin, fatty acetyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme and catalase. mRNA levels in HCC for albumin, fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation enzymes and catalase were comparable with those levels observed in the livers of rats given ciprofibrate for 2 weeks. In control livers the mRNAs for ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were low. Albumin mRNA levels in all the 3 groups were comparable. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether the increased level of mRNAs for the ..beta..-oxidation enzymes in HCC is due to the effect of ciprofibrate or to the gene amplification.

  4. White matter deficits mediate effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive development in childhood.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Taylor, Paul A; Molteno, Christopher D; Dodge, Neil C; Stanton, Mark E; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ± 1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster. HE children showed lower FA and higher MD in a subset of these regions. Significant correlations were observed between three continuous alcohol measures and DTI values at cluster peaks, indicating that WM damage in several regions is dose dependent. Lower FA in the regions of interest was attributable primarily to increased radial diffusivity rather than decreased axonal diffusivity, suggesting poorer axon packing density and/or myelination. Multiple regression models indicated that this cortical WM impairment partially mediated adverse effects of PAE on information processing speed and eyeblink conditioning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2943-2958, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27219850

  5. Odd-even effect of repeating aminoethylene units in the side chain of N-substituted polyaspartamides on gene transfection profiles.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hirokuni; Miyata, Kanjiro; Oba, Makoto; Ishii, Takehiko; Suma, Tomoya; Itaka, Keiji; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2011-10-01

    A series of the N-substituted polyaspartamides possessing repeating aminoethylene units in the side chain was prepared in this study to identify polyplexes with effective endosomal escape and low cytotoxicity. All cationic N-substituted polyaspartamides showed appreciably lower cytotoxicity than that of commercial transfection reagents. Interestingly, a distinctive odd-even effect of the repeating aminoethylene units in the polymer side chain on the efficiencies of endosomal escape and transfection to several cell lines was observed. The polyplexes from the polymers with an even number of repeating aminoethylene units (PA-Es) achieved an order of magnitude higher transfection efficiency, without marked cytotoxicity, than those of the polymers with an odd number of repeating aminoethylene units (PA-Os). This odd-even effect agreed well with the buffering capacity of these polymers as well as their capability to disrupt membrane integrity selectively at endosomal pH, leading to highly effective endosomal escape of the PA-E polyplexes. Furthermore, the formation of a polyvalent charged array with precise spacing between protonated amino groups in the polymer side chain was shown to be essential for effective disruption of the endosomal membrane, thus facilitating transport of the polyplex into the cytoplasm. These data provide useful knowledge for designing polycations to construct safe and efficient nonviral gene carriers.

  6. Pa-AGOG, the founding member of a new family of archaeal 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylases.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Alessandro A; Lingaraju, Gondichatnahalli M; Hunziker, Peter; Winkler, Fritz K; Jiricny, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative damage represents a major threat to genomic stability, as the major product of DNA oxidation, 8-oxoguanine (GO), frequently mispairs with adenine during replication. In order to prevent these mutagenic events, organisms have evolved GO-DNA glycosylases that remove this oxidized base from DNA. We were interested to find out how GO is processed in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum, which lives at temperatures around 100 degrees C. To this end, we searched its genome for open reading frames (ORFs) bearing the principal hallmark of GO-DNA glycosylases: a helix-hairpin-helix motif and a glycine/proline-rich sequence followed by an absolutely conserved aspartate (HhH-GPD motif). Interestingly, although the P.aerophilum genome encodes three such ORFs, none of these encodes the potent GO-processing activity detected in P.aerophilum extracts. Fractionation of the extracts, followed by analysis of the active fractions by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, showed that the GO-processing enzyme has a molecular size of approximately 30 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins in this size range identified several peptides originating from P.aerophilum ORF PAE2237. We now show that PAE2237 encodes AGOG (Archaeal GO-Glycosylase), the founding member of a new family of DNA glycosylases, which can remove GO from single- and double-stranded substrates with great efficiency. PMID:15604455

  7. Distribution and sources of phthalate esters in the topsoils of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihuan; He, Guangxiu; Peng, Xuyang; Lu, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Phthalate esters in the topsoil samples collected from Beijing were determined by derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The results showed that diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate ester (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate ester (DBP), dibutyl (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were found in the topsoils. The total concentrations of the five phthalate esters varied from 2.30 to 24.71 μg g(-1). According to phthalate esters (PAEs) control standards in soil of the USA, the standard exceeding rates of DMP, DBP, and DEHP were 100 %, 100 %, and 4.84 % in soils of Beijing, respectively. The rate of DBP exceeding soil remediation standard was 12.9 %. Overall, concentrations of PAEs in Beijing were at a high level in China. The concentrations of DBP, DEHP, and DIBP were high, and the total concentrations of all the phthalate esters were higher in the areas with intensive human activities than in the other areas, which may be related to the use of phthalate compounds (such as the use of plastic products). The total and individual concentrations of phthalate compounds were relatively low in the areas that used plastic films compared with other samples due to the diffusion of atmospheric motion, categories, and amounts of plastic products and other factors. The greatest contributor may be the usage amount of plastic products in people's daily lives.

  8. [Application of Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction and Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer to the Phthalic Acid Esters Analysis in Seawater].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chen-chen; Li, Feng-min; Lu, Lun; Sun, Yue

    2015-10-01

    For the determination of trace amounts of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in complex seawater matrix, a stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS) method was established. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) were selected as study objects. The effects of extraction time, amount of methanol, amount of sodium chloride, desorption time and desorption solvent were optimized. The method of SBSE-GC-MS was validated through recoveries and relative standard deviation. The optimal extraction time was 2 h. The optimal methanol content was 10%. The optimal sodium chloride content was 5% . The optimal desorption time was 50 min. The optimal desorption solvent was the mixture of methanol to acetonitrile (4:1, volume: volume). The linear relationship between the peak area and the concentration of PAEs was relevant. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.997. The detection limits were between 0.25 and 174.42 ng x L(-1). The recoveries of different concentrations were between 56.97% and 124.22% . The relative standard deviations were between 0.41% and 14.39%. On the basis of the method, several estuaries water sample of Jiaozhou Bay were detected. DEP was detected in all samples, and the concentration of BBP, DEHP and DOP were much higher than the rest. PMID:26841630

  9. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <140 microg kg(-1) d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers.

  10. Properties of a Newly Identified Esterase from Bacillus sp. K91 and Its Novel Function in Diisobutyl Phthalate Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhenrong; Li, Junjun; Yang, Yunjuan; Mu, Yuelin; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Zunxi

    2015-01-01

    The widely used plasticizer phthalate esters (PAEs) have become a public concern because of their effects on environmental contamination and toxicity on mammals. However, the biodegradation of PAEs, especially diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), remains poorly understood. In particular, genes involved in the hydrolysis of these compounds were not conclusively identified. In this study, the CarEW gene, which encodes an enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing ρ-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids, was cloned from a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus sp. K91 and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pEASY-E2 expression system. The enzyme showed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of approximately 53.76 kDa and pI of 4.88. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 45°C, with ρ-NP butyrate as the best substrate. The enzyme was fairly stable within the pH range from 7.0 to 8.5. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were employed to detect the catabolic pathway of DiBP. Two intermediate products were identified, and a potential biodegradation pathway was proposed. Altogether, our findings present a novel DiBP degradation enzyme and indicate that the purified enzyme may be a promising candidate for DiBP detoxification and for environmental protection. PMID:25746227

  11. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  12. Degradation of dimethyl phthalate in solutions and soil slurries by persulfate at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Deng, Dayi; Yang, Liling

    2014-04-30

    The degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by persulfate at ambient temperature (T=20-40°C) was investigated in aqueous solutions and soil slurries to assess the feasibility of using persulfate to remediate DMP contaminated soil and groundwater. First, the effects of temperature, initial oxidant concentration, initial DMP concentration and initial solution pH on the removal of DMP and TOC were studied in aqueous solutions. The results show that persulfate at 40°C can effectively mineralize DMP. Furthermore, dimethyl 4-hydroxyl phthalate, maleic acid and oxalic acid were identified as the degradation intermediates, and degradation pathways were proposed. Lastly, persulfate at 40°C was applied to remediate soil spiked with DMP at ∼ 600 mg/kg. The results show that persulfate at 40°C is highly effective for the remediation of DMP contaminated soil. Overall, this study provides fundamental and practical knowledge for the treatment of emerging phthalate esters (PAEs) contaminated soil and groundwater, as well as PAEs contaminated industrial wastewater, with persulfate at ambient temperature.

  13. Characterization of a novel Achromobacter xylosoxidans specific siphoviruse: phiAxp-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Erna; Zhao, Jiangtao; Ma, Yanyan; Wei, Xiao; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Chao; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Ruixiang; Jiang, Aimin; Yang, Huiying; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Xiangna

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages have recently been considered as an alternative biocontrol tool because of the widespread occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Herein, we isolated a virulent bacteriophage (phiAxp-1) from a water sample of the Bohai sea of China that specifically infects A. xylosoxidans. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phage phiAxp-1 belongs to the Siphoviridae. We sequenced the genome of phiAxp-1, which comprises 45,045 bp with 64 open reading frames. Most of the proteins encoded by phiAxp-1 have no similarity to sequences in the public databases. Twenty-one proteins with assigned functions share weak homology with those of other dsDNA bacteriophages infecting diverse hosts, such as Burkholderia phage KL1, Pseudomonas phage 73, Pseudomonas phage vB_Pae-Kakheti25, Pseudomonas phage vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26, Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and Achromobacter phage JWX. The genome can be divided into different clusters for the head and tail structure, DNA replication and mazG. The sequence and genomic organization of bacteriophage phiAxp-1 are clearly distinct from other known Siphoviridae phages; therefore, we propose that it is a member of a novel genus of the Siphoviridae family. Furthermore, one-step growth curve and stability studies of the phage were performed, and the specific receptor of phiAxp-1 was identified as the lipopolysaccharide of A. xylosoxidans.

  14. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Components After Oral Administration of a Kampo Medicine, Shakuyakukanzoto, to Healthy Adult Japanese Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sadakane, Chiharu; Watanabe, Junko; Fukutake, Miwako; Nisimura, Hiroaki; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio; Kono, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been used by patients with muscle cramps and abdominal pains. In this trial, we analyzed plasma concentrations of active components after SKT was administered as a single oral dose of 2.5 or 5.0 g/day per person. The study was a randomized, open-label, two-arm, two-period, crossover trial conducted in healthy Japanese volunteers. Albiflorin (ALB), paeoniflorin (PAE), glycycoumarin (GCM), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), and glycyrrhetic acid-3-O-monoglucuronide were targeted, and the plasma concentration of each component was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the linearity was assessed. All targeted components were detected in the plasma after oral administration of SKT. ALB, PAE, GCM, and ILG were detected at an early stage. The linearity was observed for the maximum plasma concentration of GCM, ILG, and GA and for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of GA. In this trial, we demonstrated for the first time in humans that these components were absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SKT. The results of this pharmacokinetic trial in humans are also important and useful for understanding the mechanism of action of SKT, verifying the active components predicted in basic research, and conducting pharmacokinetics and safety studies in the future. PMID:26211516

  15. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, Patrick L; Cooney, Ashley L; Oakland, Mayumi; Dylla, Douglas E; Wallen, Tanner J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Chang, Eugene H; McCray, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE) and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE). Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF). PMID:23187455

  16. High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance polymers that have improved processing characteristics, and a method of making them, have been invented. One of the improved characteristics is low (relative to corresponding prior polymers) melt viscosities at given temperatures. This characteristic makes it possible to utilize such processes as resin-transfer molding and resin-film infusion and to perform autoclave processing at lower temperatures and/or pressures. Another improved characteristic is larger processing windows that is, longer times at low viscosities. Other improved characteristics include increased solubility of uncured polymer precursors that contain reactive groups, greater densities of cross-links in cured polymers, improved mechanical properties of the cured polymers, and greater resistance of the cured polymers to chemical attack. The invention is particularly applicable to poly(arylene ether)s [PAEs] and polyimides [PIs] that are useful as adhesives, matrices of composite materials, moldings, films, and coatings. PAEs and PIs synthesized according to the invention comprise mixtures of branched, linear, and star-shaped molecules. The monomers of these polymers can be capped with either reactive end groups to obtain thermosets or nonreactive end groups to obtain thermoplastics. The synthesis of a polymeric mixture according to the invention involves the use of a small amount of a trifunctional monomer. In the case of a PAE, the trifunctional monomer is a trihydroxy- containing compound for example, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). In the case of a PI, the trifunctional monomer is a triamine for example, triamino pyrimidine or melamine. In addition to the aforementioned trifunctional monomer, one uses the difunctional monomers of the conventional formulation of the polymer in question (see figure). In cases of nonreactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have melt viscosities and melting temperatures lower than those of the corresponding linear polymers of equal

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15-17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics analysis

  18. Photoacoustic endoscopy probe using a coherent fibre-optic bundle and Fabry-Pérot ultrasound sensor (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rehman; Beard, Paul C.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) probes for the clinical assessment of pathologies in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, guiding minimally invasive laparoscopic surgeries and applications in foetal medicine. However, most previous PAE probes integrate mechanical scanners and piezoelectric transducers at the distal end which can be technically complex, expensive and pose challenges in achieving the necessary level of miniaturisation. We present two novel all-optical forward-viewing endoscopic probes operating in widefield tomography mode that have the potential to overcome these limitations. In one configuration, the probe comprises a transparent 40 MHz Fabry-Pérot ultrasound sensor deposited at the tip of a rigid, 3 mm diameter coherent fibre-optic bundle. In this way, the distal end of coherent fibre bundle acts as a 2D array of wideband ultrasound detectors. In another configuration, an optical relay is used between the distal end face of flexible fibre bundle and the Fabry-Pérot sensor to enlarge the lateral field of view to 6 mm x 6 mm. In both configurations, the pulsed excitation laser beam is full-field coupled into the fibre bundle at the proximal end for uniform backward-mode illumination of the tissue at the probe tip. In order to record the photoacoustic waves arriving at the probe tip, the proximal end of the fibre bundle is optically scanned in 2D with a CW wavelength-tunable interrogation laser beam thereby interrogating different spatial points on the sensor. A time-reversal image reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct a 3D image from the detected signals. The 3D field of view of the flexible PAE probe is 6 mm x 6 mm x 6 mm and the axial and lateral spatial resolution is 30 µm and 90 µm, respectively. 3D imaging capability is demonstrated using tissue phantoms, ex vivo tissues and in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first forward-viewing implementation of a photoacoustic

  19. Power SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) Fabricated by Fully Self-Aligned Double Mesa Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Liang-Hung; Mohammadi, Saeed; Ma, Zhen-Qiang; Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Strohm, Karl M.; Luy, Johann-Friedrich; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multifinger SiGe HBTs have been fabricated using a novel fully self-aligned double-mesa technology. With the novel process technology, a common-emitter 2x2x30 sq micrometer device exhibits high maximum oscillating frequency (f(sub max)) and cut-off frequency (f(sub T)) of 78 and 37 GHz, respectively. In class-A operation, a multifinger device with l0x2x30 sq micrometer emitter is expected to provide an output power of 25.6 dBm with a gain of 10 dB and a maximum power added efficiency (PAE) of 30.33% at 8 GHz.

  20. Monomeric adiponectin increases cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in normal and high glucose conditions: Data on kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Grossini, Elena; Farruggio, Serena; Qoqaiche, Fatima; Raina, Giulia; Camillo, Lara; Sigaudo, Lorenzo; Mary, David; Surico, Nicola; Surico, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    We found that monomeric adiponectin was able to increase cell viability in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAE) cultured both in normal and high glucose condition. Moreover, in normal glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased p38MAPK, Akt, ERK1/2 and eNOS phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent way. Also in high glucose condition monomeric adiponectin increased eNOS and above kinases phosphorylation with similar patterns but at lower extent. For interpretation of the data presented in this article, please see the research article "Monomeric adiponectin modulates nitric oxide release and calcium movements in porcine aortic endothelial cells in normal/high glucose conditions" (Grossini et al., in press) [1]. PMID:27583345

  1. Quantitative photoacoustic elastography in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-06-01

    We report quantitative photoacoustic elastography (QPAE) capable of measuring Young's modulus of biological tissue in vivo in humans. By combining conventional PAE with a stress sensor having known stress-strain behavior, QPAE can simultaneously measure strain and stress, from which Young's modulus is calculated. We first demonstrate the feasibility of QPAE in agar phantoms with different concentrations. The measured Young's modulus values fit well with both the empirical expectation based on the agar concentrations and those measured in an independent standard compression test. Next, QPAE was applied to quantify the Young's modulus of skeletal muscle in vivo in humans, showing a linear relationship between muscle stiffness and loading. The results demonstrated the capability of QPAE to assess the absolute elasticity of biological tissue noninvasively in vivo in humans, indicating its potential for tissue biomechanics studies and clinical applications.

  2. Rapid screening and identification of multi-class substances of very high concern in textiles using liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Luo, Xin; Niu, Zengyuan; Ye, Xiwen; Tang, Zhixu; Yao, Peng

    2015-03-20

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 19 substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in textiles, including phthalic acid esters (PAEs), organotins (OTs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs) and flame retardants (FRs). After ultrasonic extraction in methanol, the textile samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). The values of LOQ were in the range of 2-200mg/kg. Recoveries at two levels (at the LOQ and at half the limit of regulation) ranged from 68% to 120%, and the repeatability was lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to the screening of SVHCs in commercial textile samples and is useful for the fast screening of various SVHCs.

  3. Paecilomyces niveus Stolk & Samson, 1971 (Ascomycota: Thermoascaceae) as a pathogen of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley, 1841) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadneak, M A C; Pimentel, I C; Robl, D; Dalzoto, P; Vicente, V; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Porsani, M; Cuquel, F L

    2015-11-01

    Nasonovia ribisnigri is a key pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Brazil that requires alternative control methods to synthetic pesticides. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Paecilomyces niveus as an entomopathogen of the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of mummified aphids were collected from lettuce crops. The fungus P. niveus (PaePR) was isolated from the insect bodies and identified by macro and micromorphology. The species was confirmed by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA. We obtained a sequence of 528 bp (accession number HQ441751), which aligned with Byssochlamys nivea strains (100% identities). In a bioassay, 120 h after inoculation of N. ribisnigri with pathogenic P. niveus had an average mortality of 74%. The presence of P. niveus as a natural pathogen of N. ribisnigri in Brazil suggests that it may be possible to employ P. niveus to minimize the use of chemical insecticides.

  4. Expression and characterization of recombinant leptospiral outer membrane protein LipL32 from Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis.

    PubMed

    Boonsathorn, Naphatsawan; Konghom, Ganokrot; Mongkolsiri, Kaveewan; Jirapongwattana, Chanin; Balachandra, Kruavon; Naigowit, Pimjai; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2009-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans serovar autumnalis, a causative agent of leptospirosis in Thailand, was isolated from a patient for DNA extraction and amplification of LipL32 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 782 bp PCR product was obtained, which was inserted into pAE plasmid with polyhistidine (His6 tag) to construct pAE-LipL32. This recombinant plasmid was transfected into E. coli BL21 (DE3). His6-LipL32 was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein was used as antigen for testing with sera from leptospirosis and syphilis patients by dot-ELISA technique. It reacted positively with leptospirosis patient sera and negatively with syphilis and healthy sera.

  5. Hearing light from an incandescent bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Du, Li; Zhang, Youtian; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun; Gao, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting experiment to turn the vibratory light from an incandescent light bulb into audible sound. Inspired by research on the photoacoustic effect (PAE) using lasers, we construct a similar device in an undergraduate physics laboratory with everyday articles including light bulbs, glass beakers and soot. Using our device, a distinct sound is detected and analysed experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the attenuation effect of the acoustic signal, which can be explained by modifying the existing theory and using the adiabatic boundary condition according to the incident light source we use. This demonstration is a comprehensive experiment with the combination of sound, light and heat. The modification on the model can help undergraduate students gain an intuitive understanding of different boundary conditions.

  6. Paecilomyces niveus Stolk & Samson, 1971 (Ascomycota: Thermoascaceae) as a pathogen of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley, 1841) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadneak, M A C; Pimentel, I C; Robl, D; Dalzoto, P; Vicente, V; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Porsani, M; Cuquel, F L

    2015-11-01

    Nasonovia ribisnigri is a key pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Brazil that requires alternative control methods to synthetic pesticides. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Paecilomyces niveus as an entomopathogen of the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of mummified aphids were collected from lettuce crops. The fungus P. niveus (PaePR) was isolated from the insect bodies and identified by macro and micromorphology. The species was confirmed by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA. We obtained a sequence of 528 bp (accession number HQ441751), which aligned with Byssochlamys nivea strains (100% identities). In a bioassay, 120 h after inoculation of N. ribisnigri with pathogenic P. niveus had an average mortality of 74%. The presence of P. niveus as a natural pathogen of N. ribisnigri in Brazil suggests that it may be possible to employ P. niveus to minimize the use of chemical insecticides. PMID:26602345

  7. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tingting; Chen, Li’ke; Wu, Longhua; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol) for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR) time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed. PMID:26982081

  8. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids grafted on graphene oxide-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for extraction and enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in potatoes and phthalate esters in food-wrap.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiudan; Guo, Yong; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    A class of novel, environmental friendly ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized by on-fiber preparation strategy and modified on graphene oxide (GO)-coated stainless steel wire, which was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for efficient enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Surface characteristic of the ILs and polymeric-ILs (PILs) fibers with the wave-structure were inspected by scanning electron microscope. The successfully synthesis of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2(-))-based ILs were also characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. Through the chromatograms of the proposed two ILs (1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C2NH2MIm(+)Br(-)), C2NH2MIm(+)NTf2(-)) and two PILs (polymeric 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide (poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))), poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-)))-GO-coated fibers for the extraction of analytes, NTf2(-)-based PIL demonstrated higher extraction capacity for hydrophobic compounds than other as-prepared ILs. Analytical performances of the proposed fibers were investigated under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions coupled with gas chromatography (GC). Compared with the poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))-GO fiber, the poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-))-GO SPME fiber brought wider linear ranges for analytes with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9852-0.9989 and lower limits of detection ranging from 0.015-0.025μgL(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly prepared PILs-GO coating was a feasible, selective and green microextraction medium, which could be suitable for extraction and determination of PAHs and PAEs in potatoes and food-wrap sample, respectively. PMID:27130133

  9. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMT with Al2O3 deposition by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Lee, Ching-Sung; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Sun, Wen-Ching; Wei, Sung-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Min; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) grown on SiC substrate by using the non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. The Al2O3 was deposited as gate dielectric and surface passivation simultaneously to effectively suppress gate leakage current, enhance output current density, reduce RF drain current collapse, and improve temperature-dependent stabilities performance. The present MOS-HEMT design has shown improved device performances with respect to a Schottky-gate HEMT, including drain-source saturation current density at zero gate bias (IDSS: 337.6 mA mm-1 → 462.9 mA mm-1), gate-voltage swing (GVS: 1.55 V → 2.92 V), two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD: -103.8 V → -183.5 V), unity-gain cut-off frequency (fT: 11.3 GHz → 17.7 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax: 14.2 GHz → 19.1 GHz), and power added effective (P.A.E.: 25.1% → 43.6%). The bias conditions for measuring fT and fmax of the studied MOS-HEMT (Schottky-gate HEMT) are VGS = -2.5 (-2) V and VDS = 7 V. The corresponding VGS and VDS biases are -2.5 (-2) V and 15 V for measuring the P.A.E. characteristic. Moreover, small capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis is obtained in the Al2O3-MOS structure by using USPD. Temperature-dependent characteristics of the present designs at 300-480 K are also studied.

  10. Surfactant-modified flowerlike layered double hydroxide-coated magnetic nanoparticles for preconcentration of phthalate esters from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Shuangliu; Wang, Peifang; Tang, Zhi; Niu, Hongyun; Cai, Yaqi; Wu, Fengchang; Wang, Hao; Meng, Wei; Giesy, John P

    2015-10-01

    A novel type of layered, flowerlike magnetic double hydroxide (MLDH) nanoparticles modified by surfactants has been successfully synthesized and was applied as an effective sorbent for pre-concentration of several phthalate ester pollutants (PAEs) from water prior to quantification. The MLDH was obtained via a simple ultrasound-assisted method by using silica coated Fe3O4 as the core and anisotropic Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH) nanocrystals as the shell to which analytes were absorbed. Orientation and dimensionality hierarchical structure as well as the large expandable interlayer free space and positive charge of the Mg-Al LDH shell make it easier to form anionic surfactant micelles on its surface via self-assembly. Due to its high adsorption area, compared with non-mesoporous nano solid-phase extraction agents, mesoporous channel shell and reduction diffusion path, MLDH exhibited high extraction efficiency of organic target residues. Under optimized conditions, with a total of 30mg of adsorbant added to from samples containing 400mL water from the environment recoveries of DPP, DBP, DCP and DOP were consistent with ranges of 69-101%, 79-101%, 86-102% and 63-100%, respectively. Standard deviations of recoveries ranged from 1 to 7%, respectively and the method was sensitive with limits of detection of 12.3, 18.7, 36.5 and 15.6ngL(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of surfactant-modified MLDH nanoparticles and its application as adsorbent to pre-concentration of PAEs from environmental water samples prior to instrumental analyses.

  11. A comparative analysis of metal transportomes from metabolically versatile Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    Haritha, Adhikarla; Rodrigue, Agnes; Mohan, Pamarthi Maruthi

    2008-01-01

    Background The availability of complete genome sequences of versatile Pseudomonas occupying remarkably diverse ecological niches enabled to gain insights into their adaptative assets. The objective of this study was to analyze the complete genetic repertoires of metal transporters (metal transportomes) from four representative Pseudomonas species and to identify metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features. Methods A comparative metal transporter inventory was built for the following four Pseudomonas species: P.putida (Ppu) KT2440, P.aeruginosa (Pae) PA01, P.fluorescens (Pfl) Pf-5 and P.syringae (Psy)pv.tomato DC3000 using TIGR-CMR and Transport DB. Genomic analysis of essential and toxic metal ion transporters was accomplished from the above inventory. Metal transporters with "Genomic Island" associated features were identified using Islandpath analysis. Results Dataset cataloguing has been executed for 262 metal transporters from the four spp. Additional metal ion transporters belonging to NiCoT, Ca P-type ATPase, Cu P-type ATPases, ZIP and MgtC families were identified. In Psy DC3000, 48% of metal transporters showed strong GI features while it was 45% in Ppu KT2440. In Pfl Pf-5 and Pae PA01 only 26% of their metal transporters exhibited GI features. Conclusion Our comparative inventory of 262 metal transporters from four versatile Pseudomonas spp is the complete suite of metal transportomes analysed till date in a prokaryotic genus. This study identified differences in the basic composition of metal transportomes from Pseudomonas occupying diverse ecological niches and also elucidated their novel features. Based on this inventory we analysed the role of horizontal gene transfer in expansion and variability of metal transporter families. PMID:18816395

  12. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids grafted on graphene oxide-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for extraction and enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in potatoes and phthalate esters in food-wrap.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiudan; Guo, Yong; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    A class of novel, environmental friendly ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized by on-fiber preparation strategy and modified on graphene oxide (GO)-coated stainless steel wire, which was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for efficient enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Surface characteristic of the ILs and polymeric-ILs (PILs) fibers with the wave-structure were inspected by scanning electron microscope. The successfully synthesis of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2(-))-based ILs were also characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. Through the chromatograms of the proposed two ILs (1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C2NH2MIm(+)Br(-)), C2NH2MIm(+)NTf2(-)) and two PILs (polymeric 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide (poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))), poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-)))-GO-coated fibers for the extraction of analytes, NTf2(-)-based PIL demonstrated higher extraction capacity for hydrophobic compounds than other as-prepared ILs. Analytical performances of the proposed fibers were investigated under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions coupled with gas chromatography (GC). Compared with the poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))-GO fiber, the poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-))-GO SPME fiber brought wider linear ranges for analytes with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9852-0.9989 and lower limits of detection ranging from 0.015-0.025μgL(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly prepared PILs-GO coating was a feasible, selective and green microextraction medium, which could be suitable for extraction and determination of PAHs and PAEs in potatoes and food-wrap sample, respectively.

  13. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  14. Rapid determination of phthalate esters in alcoholic beverages by conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingying; Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong

    2014-02-01

    A very simple, fast and environmentally friendly sample extraction method was proposed for the analysis of phthalate esters (PAEs, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)) in alcoholic beverages by using conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The samples were extracted by 160 μL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the presence of appropriate amount of ethanol and 10% (w/v) sodium chloride solution; the enriched analytes in sedimented phases were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum conditions, a satisfactory linearity (in the range of 0.02-1 μg mL(-1) for white spirits and 0.01-0.5 μg mL(-1) for red wines with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9983 to 1), acceptable recovery rates (88.5-103.5% for white spirits and 91.6-104.6% for red wines), good repeatability (RSD ≤ 8.0%) and low detection limits (3.1-4.2 ng mL(-1) for white spirits and 1.5-2.2 ng mL(-1) for red wines) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the four PAEs in 30 white spirits and 11 red wines collected locally, and the DBP content in 63% (19:30) white spirits exceeded the specific migration limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1) established by international regulation.

  15. Application of modified attapulgite in phthalate acid ester-contaminated soil: Effects on phthalate acid ester dissipation and the composition of soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Shi, Yi-Ying; Zhou, Hai-Feng; Ren, Xu-Qin; Ji, Huai

    2016-08-01

    The effects of modified attapulgite (MA) on the dissipations of the plasticizers di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in soil, as well as on the composition of soil microbial community, were studied. DBP, DEHP (50 mg kg(-1) in soil, respectively), and MA (1, 5, and 10 % in soil) were mixed thoroughly with soil and incubated for 60 days. DBP- and DEHP-contaminated soils without MA were used as the controls. Both of DBP and DEHP residues in bulk soils and four soil fractions were measured at five incubation times 1, 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, and their dissipation kinetic equations were analyzed. The microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations were also measured at the end of experiment. Our results showed that the effect of modified attapulgite on DBP dissipation was related to its dosage in soil. The DEHP dissipation was both inhibited by MA at the 5 and 10 % rates in soils. The application of MA changed the content percentages but did not change the concentration order of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in soil particle-size fractions. The total microbial PLFA content was significantly increased by 5 and 10 % MA in the contaminated soils. Meanwhile, the gram-negative (GN)/gram-positive (GP) ratios increased when MA was applied at the dosages of 5 and 10 % in DBP and 10 % in DEHP-contaminated soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the change of bacteria PLFA, especially the GN bacterial PLFA, depended on the dosages of MA added into soil. The application of MA into soil has a positive effect on reducing the eco-toxicity of PAEs in soil based on the analysis of the soil microbial PLFA. PMID:27094276

  16. Effient Supply-Modulated Transmitters for Variable Amplitude Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai, Andrew H.

    This thesis introduces an efficient radar transmitter with improved spectral confinement, enabled by a pulse waveform that contains both amplitude and frequency modulation. The theoretical behavior of the Class-B power amplifier (PA) under Gaussian envelope is compared to that of a Class-A PA. Experimental validation is performed on a 4-W 10-GHz GaN MMIC PA, biased in Class B with a power added efficiency (PAE) of 50%. When driven with a Gaussian-like pulse envelope with a 5 MHz linear frequency modulation (LFM), the PA demonstrates a 31% average efficiency over the pulse duration. To improve the efficiency, a simple resonant supply modulator with a peak efficiency of 92% is used for the pulse Gaussian amplitude modulation, while the LFM is provided only through the PA input. This case results in a 5-point improvement in system efficiency, with an average PAE=40% over the pulse duration for the PA alone, and with simultaneous 40-dB reduction in spectral emissions relative to a rectangular pulse with the same energy. A measurement bench, which was internally developed, and supply-modulation simulations with Applied Wave Research (AWR) Microwave Office and VSS are also presented. Supply modulation simulation is helpful for predicting the performance of a supply-modulated system while a well calibrated bench is essential for verification. Both tools are used to demonstrate resonant supply-modulated GaN MMIC PAs. Lastly, the design of an X-Band GaN Doherty MMIC PA for use in a variable power radar is presented. Simulations and preliminary measurement demonstrate power added efficiency of greater that 40% from 30 to 35 dBm of output power.

  17. Sorption of phthalate acid esters on black carbon from different sources.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Dai, Zhineng; Zhang, Ju

    2011-10-01

    Black carbon (BC) is known as a strong sorbent for the sorption of planar hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), but there is very little information about the sorption of nonplanar HOCs on BC. In this study, the sorption of di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), one kind of nonplanar phthalate acid ester (PAE), by environmental BC collected from river sediments and pure BC (char-wood, char-stalk and soot-ash) was investigated. Strong and nonlinear sorption was observed for the sorption of DEHP on both pure BC and environmental BC with the Freundlich exponent ranging from 0.55 to 0.75 except for soot-ash, and the measured K(BC) (BC-water partition coefficient) of DEHP was about one order of magnitude higher than its organic carbon-water partition coefficient. There was a significant difference in sorption capacity among the environmental and pure BC. The presence of di-methyl phthalate (DMP) could significantly decrease the sorption of DEHP on BC, especially for environmental BC. In addition, the contribution of BC to the total sorption of DEHP on original river sediments was more than 50% when the equilibrium concentration of DEHP was less than 10 μg L(-1). This study indicated that ortho-substituted nonplanar PAEs could also be strongly sorbed by BC, and the difference in sorption among the BC samples revealed that it is important to take the source of BC into account when assessing its effects on the fate of HOCs in aquatic environment.

  18. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP. PMID:23810743

  19. Neural Crest Development in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R.; Berres, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the “classic” fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species, and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology, and include genes important for neural crest development including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol’s effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol’s CNS pathologies

  20. Bacterial metabolism of aromatic compounds and a complex hazardous waste under anaerobic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    The biological fate of organic chemicals in the environment depends upon a variety of physical/chemical factors. In the absence of molecular oxygen, the importance of terminal electron acceptors has been often overlooked. Since anaerobic microbial consortia are dependent upon the availability of particular electron acceptors, these conditions can play an important role in influencing the fate of environmental pollutants. In this research, different electron acceptors were evaluated for their effects on the biodegradation of environmental toxicants. Two anaerobic bioassays, the Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) and the Anaerobic Toxicity Assay (ATA), were used to evaluate a series of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), substituted phenols and a landfill leachate, for their methanogenic biodegradability and toxicity. Many of the PAEs and phenols could be stoichiometrically mineralized. In addition, the landfill leachate was found to be inhibitory at concentrations greater than 10%, and partially mineralized in approximately 50 weeks. Based upon these assays, 6 different functional groups and their isomers were evaluated for their effect on the biodegradability and toxicity of phenol under methanogenic and denitrifying conditions. These results indicated that nitro- and chloro-substituted phenols were persistent under denitrifying conditions. Under methanogenic conditions, these compounds were metabolized to a more reduced intermediate with less toxicity. Conversely, amino-substituted phenols were not readily mineralized under methanogenic conditions, but were metabolized after minimal lag under denitrifying conditions. From active denitrifying phenol degrading cultures, a pure culture was obtained which could grow on phenol and on a variety of other alkyl-substituted aromatic compounds. Additional studies have tentatively identified several alicyclic metabolites including cyclohexanol, 2-cyclohexene-1-ol, cyclohexanone and 2-cyclohexene-1-one from phenol catabolism.

  1. Nutrients, heavy metals and phthalate acid esters in solar greenhouse soils in Round-Bohai Bay-Region, China: impacts of cultivation year and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqun; Tian, Tian; Gao, Lihong; Tian, Yongqiang

    2016-07-01

    Solar greenhouse is a common facility type used for horticultural crop production in China. However, most solar greenhouse fields have been degraded due to continuous cropping and excessive fertilizer use. Therefore, we investigated solar greenhouse soils covering a wide range of cultivation years and environmental conditions in Round-Bohai Bay-Region to test the effects of cultivation year and biogeography on nutrients, heavy metals, and phthalate acid esters (PAEs). In general, soil pH decreased while soil electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, mineral nitrogen (MN), Olsen-P, and NH4OAc-K contents increased as time of cultivation increased. However, this trend was influenced by sampling sites. Among sampling sites, Jiangsu showed a relatively low soil pH and high Olsen-P content, while Hebei showed a relatively high soil EC value, NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, MN, and NH4OAc-K contents. Liaoning was characterized by relatively high soil OM and TN contents. The nutrient level indexes in evaluation of soil quality on Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K exceeded the standard seriously. The maximum values of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, and Zn were 4.87, 2.78, and 1.15 times higher than the threshold values, respectively. There was a rising trend on the heavy metal contents with the increasing cultivation years, and this trend was significantly influenced by sampling sites. Both Cu and Zn had relative high heavy metal indexes in evaluation of soil pollution. The PAEs were not detected in almost all sampling soils. Overall, the excessive fertilizer application was an important cause of nutrient accumulation and heavy metal pollution, resulting in soil degradation in solar greenhouses.

  2. Effect of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) on germination, antioxidant system, and chloroplast ultrastructure in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xin; Wang, Lei; Du, Na; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Erinle, Kehinde O; Wang, Pengjie; Zhou, Changjian; Duan, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products, such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs), are becoming widespread in China, and they have become a threat to human health and the environment. However, little information is available on the influence of PAEs on vegetable crops. In this study, effects of different dimethyl phthalate (DMP) treatments (0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L(-1)) on seed germination and growth of cucumber seedlings were investigated. Although germination rate showed no significant difference compared to control, seed germination time was significantly delayed at DMP greater than 50 mg L(-1). Concentrations of DMP greater than 30 mg L(-1) reduced cucumber lateral root length and number. The measurement of five physiological indexes in cucumber leaves with increasing DMP concentration revealed a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content, while proline and H2O2 contents increased. Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased in cucumber plants under 30 and 50 mg L(-1) DMP treatments compared to control; while after a 7-day treatment, these activities were seriously reduced under 100 and 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatments. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographic images, the control and 30 mg L(-1) DMP treatments caused no change to leaf chloroplast shape with well-structured thylakoid membrane and parallel pattern of lamellae. At concentrations higher than 30 mg L(-1), DMP altered the ultrastructure of chloroplast, damaged membrane structure, disordered the lamellae, and increased the number and volume of starch grains. Moreover, the envelope of starch grains began to degrade under 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatment.

  3. Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R; Berres, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the "classic" fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology and include genes important for neural crest development, including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol's effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol's CNS pathologies.

  4. Ertapenem: a new carbapenem.

    PubMed

    Odenholt, I

    2001-06-01

    Ertapenem is a new 1-beta-methyl carbapenem, stable to dehydropeptidase, which binds preferable to penicillin-binding proteins (PBP) 2 and 3. Ertapenem has a broad antibacterial spectrum with MIC90 values < 0.5 mg/l for penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Citrobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., Proteus spp., Clostridium perfringens, Fusobacterium spp. Peptostreptococcus spp. and anaerobic Streptococcus spp. Ertapenem exhibits a bactericidal mode of action as shown by time-killing curves and exhibits a short PAE of 1.4 - 2.6 h against the Gram-positive strains but no PAE against Gram-negative strains. In an infection model in mice, it has been shown that ertapenem and imipenem were highly efficacious at a level of 2 mg/kg in bacterial clearance in comparison to ceftriaxone, cefepime, ceftazidime, cefazolin, cefonicid, cefotaxime and meropenem. In comparison to other available carbapenems, ertapenem has a long half-life of 4.5 h and is developed as a single daily dose carbapenem. The protein binding is dose-dependent and is estimated to 94% at concentrations under 100 mg/l and approximately 85% at 300 mg/l. Cmax after a dose of 1 g in healthy volunteers has been estimated to 190 mg/l. Given the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data, it may be predicted that ertapenem will have an effect on most Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and Acinetobacter spp. For pathogens with a MIC of 0.5 mg/l, the estimated T > MIC will be 50% (of 24 h) and for pathogens with a MIC of 1 mg/l 31%. For anaerobic bacteria with MIC values between 1-2 mg/l, the T > MIC may not be sufficient for bacterial eradication. However, clinical trials have to confirm this hypothesis.

  5. Concentration and risk assessment of phthalates present in indoor air from newly decorated apartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, X. Q.; Song, M.; Guo, M.; Mo, F. F.; Shen, X. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment, owing to their use in consumer products. People spend a considerable amount of time indoors. As a result, human exposure to indoor contaminants is of great concern. People are exposed to phthalates through inhalation and dermal absorption of indoor air. In this study, the concentrations, characteristics and carcinogenic risks of gas-phase and particle-phase phthalates in indoor air from bedroom, living room and study room of 10 newly decorated apartments in Hangzhou, China were first investigated. The mean concentration of phthalates (gas-phase and particle-phase) present in household air was 12 096.4 ng m-3, of which diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were the most abundant compounds with concentrations of 2290 ng m-3, 3975 ng m-3 and 2437 ng m-3, respectively, totally accounting for 72.0% of ∑6PAEs. Contamination levels of phthalates varied in different compartments. The concentration of phthalates was the highest 17 363.7 ng m-3 in living room, followed with 11 389.5 ng m-3 in study room, and the lowest 9739.1 ng m-3 in bedroom. It was also found that phthalates mainly accumulated in gaseous form in household air. DEHP posed the greatest health risk to children aged 1-2. Carcinogenic risk of DEHP was evaluated to be 3.912 × 10-5, and was 39 times higher than the limit set by the U.S. EPA.

  6. Sampling characteristics and calibration of snorkel counts to estimate stream fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Pollock, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Snorkeling is a versatile technique for estimating lotic fish population characteristics; however, few investigators have evaluated its accuracy at population or assemblage levels. We evaluated the accuracy of snorkeling using prepositioned areal electrofishing (PAE) for estimating fish populations in a medium-sized Appalachian Mountain river during fall 2008 and summer 2009. Strip-transect snorkel counts were calibrated with PAE counts in identical locations among macrohabitats, fish species or taxa, and seasons. Mean snorkeling efficiency (i.e., the proportion of individuals counted from the true population) among all taxa and seasons was 14.7% (SE, 2.5%), and the highest efficiencies were for River Chub Nocomis micropogon at 21.1% (SE, 5.9%), Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum at 20.3% (SE, 9.6%), and darters (Percidae) at 17.1% (SE, 3.7%), whereas efficiencies were lower for shiners (Notropis spp., Cyprinella spp., Luxilus spp.) at 8.2% (SE, 2.2%) and suckers (Catostomidae) at 6.6% (SE, 3.2%). Macrohabitat type, fish taxon, or sampling season did not significantly explain variance in snorkeling efficiency. Mean snorkeling detection probability (i.e., probability of detecting at least one individual of a taxon) among fish taxa and seasons was 58.4% (SE, 6.1%). We applied the efficiencies from our calibration study to adjust snorkel counts from an intensive snorkeling survey conducted in a nearby reach. Total fish density estimates from strip-transect counts adjusted for snorkeling efficiency were 7,288 fish/ha (SE, 1,564) during summer and 15,805 fish/ha (SE, 4,947) during fall. Precision of fish density estimates is influenced by variation in snorkeling efficiency and sample size and may be increased with additional sampling effort. These results demonstrate the sampling properties and utility of snorkeling to characterize lotic fish assemblages with acceptable efficiency and detection probability, less effort, and no mortality, compared with traditional

  7. Evaluation of a microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional microscale gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Serrano, Gustavo; Wise, Kensall D; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Zellers, Edward T

    2011-07-15

    A microfabricated thermal modulator (μTM) designed for ultimate use in a comprehensive two-dimensional microscale gas chromatography (μGC × μGC) system is evaluated. The 2-stage device measures 13 mm (l) × 6 mm (w) × 0.5 mm (h) and consists of two interconnected serpentine etched-Si microchannels suspended from a thin Pyrex cap and wall-coated with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane). The chip is mounted within a few tens of micrometers of a thermoelectric cooler that maintains both stages at a baseline temperature between -35 and -20 °C in order to focus analytes eluting from an upstream separation column. Each stage is heated to 210 °C sequentially at a rate as high as 2400 °C/s by independent thin-film resistors to inject the analytes in consecutive fractions to a downstream column, and then cooled at a rate as high as -168 °C/s. The average power dissipation is only ∼10 W for heating and 21 W for cooling without using consumable materials. In this study, the outlet of the μTM is connected directly to a flame ionization detector to assess its performance. Following a demonstration of basic operation, the modulated peak amplitude enhancement (PAE) and full-width-at-half-maximum (fwhm) are evaluated for members of a series of n-alkanes (C(6)-C(10)) as a function of the rim and stage temperatures; modulation period, phase, and offset; analyte concentration; and carrier-gas flow rate. A PAE as high as 50 and a fwhm as narrow as 90 ms are achieved for n-octane under optimized conditions.

  8. Composition and antioxidant activity of the anthocyanins of the fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Li; Gao, Wan; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Li, Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun; Ji, Teng-Fei

    2014-11-19

    In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk.

  9. Rates of fetal alcohol exposure among newborns in a high-risk obstetric unit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Y Ingrid; Hutson, Janine R; Lum, Lisa; Roukema, Henry; Gareri, Joey; Lynn, Hazel; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are sensitive and specific biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in pregnancy. We recently reported a 2.5% rate of FAEE positive meconium in a general population sample of infants born in the region of Grey-Bruce, Ontario. Women in this region with high-risk pregnancies are transferred to a tertiary care facility in London, Ontario. The objective of this study was to determine, in a population-based sample, whether high-risk pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of in utero alcohol exposure. Grey-Bruce residents transferred to the high-risk obstetric unit of St. Joseph's Health Care in London, Ontario were identified and consented to this anonymous prevalence study. Meconium was collected and analyzed for FAEE using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The prevalence of FAEE positive meconium was compared with the population-based prevalence in the Grey-Bruce. Fifty meconium specimens were collected from August 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007. Fifteen (30%) specimens tested positive for FAEE. The results indicate that infants born in the high-risk obstetric unit had a 12-fold higher risk of screening positive for second and third trimester alcohol exposure compared with infants born in the general population of Grey-Bruce (relative risk=12.04, 95% confidence interval=6.40-22.65, P<.0001). These results suggest that the high-risk pregnancies should be screened for PAE and followed-up for potential diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:20584588

  10. Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort: Study design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Lowe, Jean R.; Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Stephen, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background While intervention is the leading factor in reducing long-term disabilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), early identification of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains challenging. Deficits in higher-order cognitive domains (e.g. executive function) might be more specific to FASD than global neurodevelopmental tests, yet these functions are not developed in very young children. Measures of early sensorimotor development may provide early indications of atypical brain development during the first two years of life. Methods This paper describes the novel methodology of the Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort study of 120 maternal-infant pairs with a goal to identify early indices of functional brain impairment associated with PAE. The cohort is established by recruiting women early in pregnancy and classifying them into one of three study groups: patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who consume alcohol during pregnancy (Group 1), patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who abstain from alcohol during pregnancy (Group 2), and healthy controls (Group 3). After the initial prenatal assessment (Visit 1), patients are followed to Visit 2 occurring at delivery, and two comprehensive assessments of children at six (Visit 3) and 20 months (Visit 4) of age. ENRICH recruitment started in November 2013 and 87 women were recruited during the first year. During Year 1, the biospecimen (maternal whole blood, serum, urine, dry blood spots of a newborn) collection rate was 100% at Visit 1, and 97.6% for those who completed Visit 2. Discussion The tiered screening approach, evaluation of confounders, neurocognitive and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) outcomes, and ethical considerations are discussed. PMID:26491726

  11. Comparisons among aerodynamic, electroglottographic, and acoustic spectral measures of female voice.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, E B; Hillman, R E; Perkell, J S; Guiod, P C; Goldman, S L

    1995-12-01

    This study examines measures of the glottal airflow waveform, the electroglottographic signal (EGG), amplitude differences between peaks in the acoustic spectrum, and observations of the spectral energy content of the third formant (F3), in terms of how they relate to one another. Twenty females with normal voices served as subjects. Both group and individual data were studied. Measurements were made for the vowel in two speech tasks: strings of the syllable /pae/and sustained phonation of /ae/, which were produced at two levels of vocal effort: comfortable and loud voice. The main results were: 1. Significant differences in parameter values between /pae/and/ae/were related to significant differences in the sound pressure level (SPL). 2. An "adduction quotient," measured from the glottal waveform at a 30% criterion, was sensitive enough to differentiate between waveforms reflecting abrupt versus gradual vocal fold closing movements. 3. DC flow showed weak or nonsignificant relationships with acoustic measures. 4. The spectral content in the third formant (F3) in comfortable loudness typically consisted of a mix of noise and harmonic energy. In loud voice, the F3 spectral content typically consisted of harmonic energy. 5. Significant differences were found in all measures between tokens with F3 harmonic energy and tokens with F3 noise, independent of loudness condition. 6. Strong relationships between flow- and EGG-adduction quotients suggested that these signals can be used to complement each other. 7. The amplitude difference between spectral peaks of the first and third formant (F1-F3) was found to add information about abruptness of airflow decrease (flow declination) that may be lost in the glottal waveform signal due to low-pass filtering. The results are discussed in terms of how an integrated use of these measures can contribute to a better understanding of the normal vocal mechanism and help to improve methods for evaluating vocal function. PMID:8747815

  12. Nutrients, heavy metals and phthalate acid esters in solar greenhouse soils in Round-Bohai Bay-Region, China: impacts of cultivation year and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqun; Tian, Tian; Gao, Lihong; Tian, Yongqiang

    2016-07-01

    Solar greenhouse is a common facility type used for horticultural crop production in China. However, most solar greenhouse fields have been degraded due to continuous cropping and excessive fertilizer use. Therefore, we investigated solar greenhouse soils covering a wide range of cultivation years and environmental conditions in Round-Bohai Bay-Region to test the effects of cultivation year and biogeography on nutrients, heavy metals, and phthalate acid esters (PAEs). In general, soil pH decreased while soil electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, mineral nitrogen (MN), Olsen-P, and NH4OAc-K contents increased as time of cultivation increased. However, this trend was influenced by sampling sites. Among sampling sites, Jiangsu showed a relatively low soil pH and high Olsen-P content, while Hebei showed a relatively high soil EC value, NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, MN, and NH4OAc-K contents. Liaoning was characterized by relatively high soil OM and TN contents. The nutrient level indexes in evaluation of soil quality on Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K exceeded the standard seriously. The maximum values of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, and Zn were 4.87, 2.78, and 1.15 times higher than the threshold values, respectively. There was a rising trend on the heavy metal contents with the increasing cultivation years, and this trend was significantly influenced by sampling sites. Both Cu and Zn had relative high heavy metal indexes in evaluation of soil pollution. The PAEs were not detected in almost all sampling soils. Overall, the excessive fertilizer application was an important cause of nutrient accumulation and heavy metal pollution, resulting in soil degradation in solar greenhouses. PMID:26996919

  13. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP.

  14. ApnI, a Transmembrane Protein Responsible for Subtilomycin Immunity, Unveils a Novel Model for Lantibiotic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yun; Li, Cong-Zhi; Zhu, Yi-Guang; Wang, Peng-Xia; Qi, Qing-Dong; Fu, Jing-Jing; Peng, Dong-Hai; Ruan, Li-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Subtilomycin was detected from the plant endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis BSn5 and was first reported from B. subtilis strain MMA7. In this study, a gene cluster that has been proposed to be related to subtilomycin biosynthesis was isolated from the BSn5 genome and was experimentally validated by gene inactivation and heterologous expression. Comparison of the subtilomycin gene cluster with other verified related lantibiotic gene clusters revealed a particular organization of the genes apnI and apnT downstream of apnAPBC, which may be involved in subtilomycin immunity. Through analysis of expression of the apnI and/or apnT genes in the subtilomycin-sensitive strain CU1065 and inactivation of apnI and apnT in the producer strain BSn5, we showed that the single gene apnI, encoding a putative transmembrane protein, was responsible for subtilomycin immunity. To our knowledge, evidence for lantibiotic immunity that is solely dependent on a transmembrane protein is quite rare. Further bioinformatic analysis revealed the abundant presence of ApnI-like proteins that may be responsible for lantibiotic immunity in Bacillus and Paenibacillus. We cloned the paeI gene, encoding one such ApnI-like protein, into CU1065 and showed that it confers resistance to paenibacillin. However, no cross-resistance was detected between ApnI and PaeI, even though subtilomycin and paenibacillin share similar structures, suggesting that the protection provided by ApnI/ApnI-like proteins involves a specific-sequence recognition mechanism. Peptide release/binding assays indicated that the recombinant B. subtilis expressing apnI interacted with subtilomycin. Thus, ApnI represents a novel model for lantibiotic immunity that appears to be common. PMID:25085495

  15. Antistaphylococcal and biofilm inhibitory activities of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid from Boswellia serrata

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Boswellic acids are pentacyclic triterpenes, which are produced in plants belonging to the genus Boswellia. Boswellic acids appear in the resin exudates of the plant and it makes up 25-35% of the resin. β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid have been implicated in apoptosis of cancer cells, particularly that of brain tumors and cells affected by leukemia or colon cancer. These molecules are also associated with potent antimicrobial activities. The present study describes the antimicrobial activities of boswellic acid molecules against 112 pathogenic bacterial isolates including ATCC strains. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), which exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, was further evaluated in time kill studies, postantibiotic effect (PAE) and biofilm susceptibility assay. The mechanism of action of AKBA was investigated by propidium iodide uptake, leakage of 260 and 280 nm absorbing material assays. Results AKBA was found to be the most active compound showing an MIC range of 2-8 μg/ml against the entire gram positive bacterial pathogens tested. It exhibited concentration dependent killing of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 up to 8 × MIC and also demonstrated postantibiotic effect (PAE) of 4.8 h at 2 × MIC. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited the formation of biofilms generated by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and also reduced the preformed biofilms by these bacteria. Increased uptake of propidium iodide and leakage of 260 and 280 nm absorbing material by AKBA treated cells of S aureus indicating that the antibacterial mode of action of AKBA probably occurred via disruption of microbial membrane structure. Conclusions This study supported the potential use of AKBA in treating S. aureus infections. AKBA can be further exploited to evolve potential lead compounds in the discovery of new anti-Gram-positive and anti-biofilm agents. PMID:21406118

  16. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants.

    PubMed

    Kable, J A; Coles, C D; Keen, C L; Uriu-Adams, J Y; Jones, K L; Yevtushok, L; Kulikovsky, Y; Wertelecki, W; Pedersen, T L; Chambers, C D

    2015-11-01

    The potential of micronutrients to ameliorate the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was explored in a clinical trial conducted in Ukraine. Cardiac orienting responses (ORs) during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 6 to 12 month-olds to assess neurophysiological encoding and memory. Women who differed in prenatal alcohol use were recruited during pregnancy and assigned to a group (No study-provided supplements, multivitamin/mineral supplement, or multivitamin/mineral supplement plus choline supplement). Heart rate was collected for 30 s prior to stimulus onset and 12 s post-stimulus onset. Difference values (∆HR) for the first 3 trials of each condition were aggregated for analysis. Gestational blood samples were collected to assess maternal nutritional status and changes as a function of the intervention. Choline supplementation resulted in a greater ∆HR on the visual habituation trials for all infants and for the infants with no PAE on the dishabituation trials. The latency of the response was reduced in both conditions for all infants whose mothers received choline supplementation. Change in gestational choline level was positively related to ∆HR during habituation trials and levels of one choline metabolite, dimethylglycine (DMG), predicted ∆HR during habituation trials and latency of responses. A trend was found between DMG and ∆HR on the dishabituation trials and latency of the response. Supplementation did not affect ORs to auditory stimuli. Choline supplementation when administered together with routinely recommended multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements during pregnancy may provide a beneficial impact to basic learning mechanisms involved in encoding and memory of environmental events in alcohol-exposed pregnancies as well as non- or low alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Changes in maternal nutrient status suggested that one mechanism by which choline supplementation may positively impact brain development is

  17. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).

  18. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants.

    PubMed

    Kable, J A; Coles, C D; Keen, C L; Uriu-Adams, J Y; Jones, K L; Yevtushok, L; Kulikovsky, Y; Wertelecki, W; Pedersen, T L; Chambers, C D

    2015-11-01

    The potential of micronutrients to ameliorate the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was explored in a clinical trial conducted in Ukraine. Cardiac orienting responses (ORs) during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 6 to 12 month-olds to assess neurophysiological encoding and memory. Women who differed in prenatal alcohol use were recruited during pregnancy and assigned to a group (No study-provided supplements, multivitamin/mineral supplement, or multivitamin/mineral supplement plus choline supplement). Heart rate was collected for 30 s prior to stimulus onset and 12 s post-stimulus onset. Difference values (∆HR) for the first 3 trials of each condition were aggregated for analysis. Gestational blood samples were collected to assess maternal nutritional status and changes as a function of the intervention. Choline supplementation resulted in a greater ∆HR on the visual habituation trials for all infants and for the infants with no PAE on the dishabituation trials. The latency of the response was reduced in both conditions for all infants whose mothers received choline supplementation. Change in gestational choline level was positively related to ∆HR during habituation trials and levels of one choline metabolite, dimethylglycine (DMG), predicted ∆HR during habituation trials and latency of responses. A trend was found between DMG and ∆HR on the dishabituation trials and latency of the response. Supplementation did not affect ORs to auditory stimuli. Choline supplementation when administered together with routinely recommended multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements during pregnancy may provide a beneficial impact to basic learning mechanisms involved in encoding and memory of environmental events in alcohol-exposed pregnancies as well as non- or low alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Changes in maternal nutrient status suggested that one mechanism by which choline supplementation may positively impact brain development is

  19. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Chen, Li'ke; Wu, Longhua; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol) for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR) time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed. PMID:26982081

  20. A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

    2014-04-01

    The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different β-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced β-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 μg L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

  1. Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R; Berres, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the "classic" fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology and include genes important for neural crest development, including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol's effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol's CNS pathologies. PMID

  2. A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

    2014-04-01

    The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different β-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced β-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 μg L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples.

  3. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance

  4. Production of bioinspired and rationally designed polymer hydrogels for controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hye

    Hydrogel systems for controlled delivery therapeutic growth factors have been developed in a wide spectrum of strategies: these systems aim for the release of growth factors via a passive diffusion, electrostatic interaction, degradation of hydrogels, and responsiveness to external stimuli. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), was employed for a targeted delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells overexpressing a relevant receptor VEGFR-2. Addition of dimeric VEGF to 4-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) immobilized with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) afforded a non-covalently assembled hydrogel via interaction between heparin and VEGF, with storage modulus 10 Pa. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached maximum 100 % at day 4 in the presence of VEGFR-2 overexpressing pocine aortic endothelial cell (PAE/KDR), while those of 80% were achieved via passive release at day 5 in the presence of PAE cell lacking VEGFR-2 or in the absence of cell, indicating that the release of VEGF was in targeted manner toward cell receptor. The proliferation of PAE/KDR in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel was greater by ca. 30% at day 4 compared to that of PAE, confirming that the release of VEGF was in response to the cellular demand. The phosphorylation fraction of VEGFR-2 on PAE/KDR was greater in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel, increasing from 0.568 at day 1 to 0.790 at day 4, whereas it was maintained at 0.230 at day 4 in the presence of [PEG-LMWH] hydrogel. This study has proven that this hydrogel, assembled via bio-inspired non-covalent interaction, liberating VEGFon celluar demand to target cell, eroding upon VEGF release, and triggering endothelial cell proliferation, could be used in multiple applications including targeted delivery and angiogenesis. Heparin has been widely exploited in growth factor delivery systems owing to its ability to bind many growth factors through the flexible

  5. Production of bioinspired and rationally designed polymer hydrogels for controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hye

    Hydrogel systems for controlled delivery therapeutic growth factors have been developed in a wide spectrum of strategies: these systems aim for the release of growth factors via a passive diffusion, electrostatic interaction, degradation of hydrogels, and responsiveness to external stimuli. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), was employed for a targeted delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells overexpressing a relevant receptor VEGFR-2. Addition of dimeric VEGF to 4-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) immobilized with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) afforded a non-covalently assembled hydrogel via interaction between heparin and VEGF, with storage modulus 10 Pa. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached maximum 100 % at day 4 in the presence of VEGFR-2 overexpressing pocine aortic endothelial cell (PAE/KDR), while those of 80% were achieved via passive release at day 5 in the presence of PAE cell lacking VEGFR-2 or in the absence of cell, indicating that the release of VEGF was in targeted manner toward cell receptor. The proliferation of PAE/KDR in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel was greater by ca. 30% at day 4 compared to that of PAE, confirming that the release of VEGF was in response to the cellular demand. The phosphorylation fraction of VEGFR-2 on PAE/KDR was greater in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel, increasing from 0.568 at day 1 to 0.790 at day 4, whereas it was maintained at 0.230 at day 4 in the presence of [PEG-LMWH] hydrogel. This study has proven that this hydrogel, assembled via bio-inspired non-covalent interaction, liberating VEGFon celluar demand to target cell, eroding upon VEGF release, and triggering endothelial cell proliferation, could be used in multiple applications including targeted delivery and angiogenesis. Heparin has been widely exploited in growth factor delivery systems owing to its ability to bind many growth factors through the flexible

  6. The Structure of the Kaali Impact Crater (Estonia) based on 3D Laser Scanning, Photogrammetric Modelling and Strike and Dip Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Michael; Wilk, Jakob; Joeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Losiak, Anna; Wisniowski, Tomek; Huber, Matthew; Pavel, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Plado, Jüri; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Realworks software. A DEM, Hillshade, Slope Map and Contour Map were created in ESRI ArcScene software. Photogrammetry: Photogrammetric techniques from images of key outcrops were used to create texture, photorealistic 3D representations using Agisoft PhotoScan software. Acknowledgements: We extend our sincerest gratitude to the Estonian National Heritage Board for permission to dig and make measurements at the crater. References: [1] I.Kolkun (1922) Üldine geologia. Tallin, 170. [2] J. A.Reinwald (1933) Publications of the Geological Institution of the University of Tartu, 30:1-20. [3] J.A.Reinwald (1928) thesis; Univ of Tartu [4] L.J.Spencer (1938) Miner. Mag., 25:75-80. [5] A.Aaloe (1959) ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused, 2:105-117. [6] A.Raukas et al. (2002) Impact Studies 2005, 341-355.

  7. Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for western Europe over the period 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, A.; Gheusi, F.; Delmas, R.; Ordóñez, C.; Sarrat, C.; Zbinden, R.; Thouret, V.; Athier, G.; Cousin, J.-M.

    2007-08-01

    The PAES (French acronym for synoptic scale atmospheric pollution) network focuses on the chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx/y and aerosols) of the lower troposphere (0-3000 m). Its high-altitude surface stations located in different mountainous areas in France complete the low-altitude rural MERA stations (the French contribution to the european program EMEP, European Monitoring and Evaluation Program). They are representative of pollution at the scale of the French territory because they are away from any major source of pollution. This study deals with ozone observations between 2001 and 2004 at 11 stations from PAES and MERA, in addition to 16 elevated stations located in mountainous areas of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. The set of stations covers a range of altitudes between 115 and 3550 m. The comparison between recent ozone mixing ratios to those of the last decade at Pic du Midi (2877 m), as well as trends calculated over 14-year data series at three high-altitude sites in the Alps (Jungfraujoch, Sonnblick and Zugspitze) reveal that ozone is still increasing but at a slower rate than in the 1980s and 1990s. The 2001-2004 mean levels of ozone from surface stations capture the ozone stratification revealed by climatological profiles from the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service airCraft) and from ozone soundings above Payerne (Switzerland). In particular all data evidence a clear transition at about 1000-1200 m a.s.l. between a sharp gradient below (of the order of +30 ppb/km) and a gentler gradient (+3 ppb/km) above. The same altitude (1200 m) is also found to be a threshold regarding how well the ozone levels at the surface stations agree with the free-tropospheric reference (MOZAIC or soundings). Below the departure can be as large as 40%, but suddenly drops within 15% above. For stations above 2000 m, the departure is even less than 8%. Ozone variability also reveals a clear

  8. Feasibility of ultra-high performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for accurate determination of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Laura; Calvarro, Sagrario; Fernández, Mario A; Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates (PAEs) are ubiquitous toxic chemical compounds. During the last few years, some phthalate metabolites (MPAEs) have been proposed as appropriate biomarkers in human urine samples to determine PAE human intake and exposure. So, it is necessary to have fast, easy, robust and validated analytical methods to determine selected MPAEs in urine human samples. Two different instrumental methods based on gas (GC) and ultra-high performance liquid (UHPLC) chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) have been optimized, characterized and validated for the simultaneous determination of nine primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples. Both instrumental methods have similar sensitivity (detection limits ranged from 0.03 to 8.89 pg μL(-1) and from 0.06 to 0.49 pg μL(-1) in GC-MS and UHPLC-MS(2), respectively), precision (repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, which was lower than 8.4% in both systems, except for 5OH-MEHP in the case of GC-MS) and accuracy. But some advantages of the UHPLC-MS(2) method, such as more selectivity and lower time in the chromatographic runs (6.8 min vs. 28.5 min), have caused the UHPLC-MS(2) method to be chosen to analyze the twenty one human urine samples from the general Spanish population. Regarding these samples, MEP showed the highest median concentration (68.6 μg L(-1)), followed by MiBP (23.3 μg L(-1)), 5cx-MEPP (22.5 μg L(-1)) and MBP (19.3μgL(-1)). MMP (6.99 μg L(-1)), 5oxo-MEHP (6.15 μg L(-1)), 5OH-MEHP (5.30 μg L(-1)) and MEHP (4.40 μg L(-1)) showed intermediate levels. Finally, the lowest levels were found for MBzP (2.55 μg L(-1)). These data are within the same order of magnitude as those found in other similar populations. PMID:25467512

  9. Ambient-processable high capacitance hafnia-organic self-assembled nanodielectrics.

    PubMed

    Everaerts, Ken; Emery, Jonathan D; Jariwala, Deep; Karmel, Hunter J; Sangwan, Vinod K; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Geier, Michael L; McMorrow, Julian J; Bedzyk, Michael J; Facchetti, Antonio; Hersam, Mark C; Marks, Tobin J

    2013-06-19

    Ambient and solution-processable, low-leakage, high capacitance gate dielectrics are of great interest for advances in low-cost, flexible, thin-film transistor circuitry. Here we report a new hafnium oxide-organic self-assembled nanodielectric (Hf-SAND) material consisting of regular, alternating π-electron layers of 4-[[4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]phenyl]diazenyl]-1-[4-(diethoxyphosphoryl) benzyl]pyridinium bromide) (PAE) and HfO2 nanolayers. These Hf-SAND multilayers are grown from solution in ambient with processing temperatures ≤150 °C and are characterized by AFM, XPS, X-ray reflectivity (2.3 nm repeat spacing), X-ray fluorescence, cross-sectional TEM, and capacitance measurements. The latter yield the largest capacitance to date (1.1 μF/cm(2)) for a solid-state solution-processed hybrid inorganic-organic gate dielectric, with effective oxide thickness values as low as 3.1 nm and have gate leakage <10(-7) A/cm(2) at ±2 MV/cm using photolithographically patterned contacts (0.04 mm(2)). The sizable Hf-SAND capacitances are attributed to relatively large PAE coverages on the HfO2 layers, confirmed by X-ray reflectivity and X-ray fluorescence. Random network semiconductor-enriched single-walled carbon nanotube transistors were used to test Hf-SAND utility in electronics and afforded record on-state transconductances (5.5 mS) at large on:off current ratios (I(ON):I(OFF)) of ~10(5) with steep 150 mV/dec subthreshold swings and intrinsic field-effect mobilities up to 137 cm(2)/(V s). Large-area devices (>0.2 mm(2)) on Hf-SAND (6.5 nm thick) achieve mA on currents at ultralow gate voltages (<1 V) with low gate leakage (<2 nA), highlighting the defect-free and conformal nature of this nanodielectric. High-temperature annealing in ambient (400 °C) has limited impact on Hf-SAND leakage densities (<10(-6) A/cm(2) at ±2 V) and enhances Hf-SAND multilayer capacitance densities to nearly 1 μF/cm(2), demonstrating excellent compatibility with device postprocessing

  10. Electrical stimulation of the vmPFC serves as a remote control to affect VTA activity and improve depressive-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruchim-Samuel, Merav; Lax, Elad; Gazit, Tomer; Friedman, Alexander; Ahdoot, Hadas; Bairachnaya, Maryia; Pinhasov, Albert; Yadid, Gal

    2016-09-01

    Despite progress in elucidating mechanisms of depression, the efficacy of different treatments remains inadequate. Recent small-scale clinical studies suggested anti-depressant treatment using deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum or subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC), yet controlled, multi-center trials were unsuccessful. We recently suggested the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as an important intersection for treating depression. We also found that stimulation of the VTA of a genetic rat model of depression (Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats) with a programmed pattern designed to mimic the burst firing of normal rats decreases depressive-like behavior. Herein, we examined the possibility of reaching the VTA - located deep in the brain stem - through its direct connection to the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which parallels the human SCC. Thus, we compared treatment of FSLs with modified versions of DBS - either chronic-intermittent low-frequency electrical stimulation of the vmPFC, or patterned acute electrical stimulation (pAES), which integrates transcranial magnetic stimulation properties, namely, bursts of pulse trains and low frequency stimulation, applied to the VTA. We found that stimulation of the vmPFC (20Hz, 15min/day, 10days) improved depressive-like behavior and VTA local field potential (LFP) activity of FSLs, yet it had only a partial long-term effect on behavior. In particular, vmPFC stimulation decreased theta band activity, which correlated with the improvement in depressive-like behavior of all treated FSLs at day 1, and in ~50% of treated FSLs at day 28 post treatment. pAES of the VTA (10Hz, 20min) caused significant, long-term improvement of depressive-like behavior of FSLs, concurrently with normalizing intra-VTA LFP activity, and increasing VTA LFP synchronicity and hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels. Thus, although low-frequency electrical stimulation of the PFC alters VTA activity, leading to attenuation of

  11. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children. PMID:23780492

  12. Feasibility of ultra-high performance liquid and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for accurate determination of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Laura; Calvarro, Sagrario; Fernández, Mario A; Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates (PAEs) are ubiquitous toxic chemical compounds. During the last few years, some phthalate metabolites (MPAEs) have been proposed as appropriate biomarkers in human urine samples to determine PAE human intake and exposure. So, it is necessary to have fast, easy, robust and validated analytical methods to determine selected MPAEs in urine human samples. Two different instrumental methods based on gas (GC) and ultra-high performance liquid (UHPLC) chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) have been optimized, characterized and validated for the simultaneous determination of nine primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in urine samples. Both instrumental methods have similar sensitivity (detection limits ranged from 0.03 to 8.89 pg μL(-1) and from 0.06 to 0.49 pg μL(-1) in GC-MS and UHPLC-MS(2), respectively), precision (repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, which was lower than 8.4% in both systems, except for 5OH-MEHP in the case of GC-MS) and accuracy. But some advantages of the UHPLC-MS(2) method, such as more selectivity and lower time in the chromatographic runs (6.8 min vs. 28.5 min), have caused the UHPLC-MS(2) method to be chosen to analyze the twenty one human urine samples from the general Spanish population. Regarding these samples, MEP showed the highest median concentration (68.6 μg L(-1)), followed by MiBP (23.3 μg L(-1)), 5cx-MEPP (22.5 μg L(-1)) and MBP (19.3μgL(-1)). MMP (6.99 μg L(-1)), 5oxo-MEHP (6.15 μg L(-1)), 5OH-MEHP (5.30 μg L(-1)) and MEHP (4.40 μg L(-1)) showed intermediate levels. Finally, the lowest levels were found for MBzP (2.55 μg L(-1)). These data are within the same order of magnitude as those found in other similar populations.

  13. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  14. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Correlation of Cefquinome Against Experimental Catheter-Associated Biofilm Infection Due to Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Feng; Shi, Wei; Yu, Yang; Tao, Meng-Ting; Xiong, Yan Q; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formations play an important role in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and contribute to antibiotic treatment failures in biofilm-associated infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profiles of cefquinome against an experimental catheter-related biofilm model due to S. aureus, including three clinical isolates and one non-clinical isolate. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), biofilm bactericidal concentration (BBC), minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and biofilm prevention concentration (BPC) and in vitro time-kill curves of cefquinome were studied in both planktonic and biofilm cells of study S. aureus strains. The in vivo post-antibiotic effects (PAEs), PK profiles and efficacy of cefquinome were performed in the catheter-related biofilm infection model in murine. A sigmoid E max model was utilized to determine the PK/PD index that best described the dose-response profiles in the model. The MICs and MBICs of cefquinome for the four S. aureus strains were 0.5 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. The BBCs (32-64 μg/mL) and MBECs (64-256 μg/mL) of these study strains were much higher than their corresponding BPC values (1-2 μg/mL). Cefquinome showed time-dependent killing both on planktonic and biofilm cells, but produced much shorter PAEs in biofilm infections. The best-correlated PK/PD parameters of cefquinome for planktonic and biofilm cells were the duration of time that the free drug level exceeded the MIC (fT > MIC, R (2) = 96.2%) and the MBIC (fT > MBIC, R (2) = 94.7%), respectively. In addition, the AUC24h/MBIC of cefquinome also significantly correlated with the anti-biofilm outcome in this model (R (2) = 93.1%). The values of AUC24h/MBIC for biofilm-static and 1-log10-unit biofilm-cidal activity were 22.8 and 35.6 h; respectively. These results indicate that the PK/PD profiles of cefquinome could be used as valuable guidance for

  15. The evolution of endothermy in Cenozoic mammals: a plesiomorphic-apomorphic continuum.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry Gordon

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals was one of the most important events in the evolution of the vertebrates. Past tests of hypotheses on the evolution of endothermy in mammals have relied largely on analyses of the relationship between basal and maximum metabolic rate, and artificial selection experiments. I argue that components of existing hypotheses, as well as new hypotheses, can be tested using an alternative macrophysiological modeling approach by examining the development of endothermy during the Cenozoic. Recent mammals display a 10°C range in body temperature which is sufficiently large to identify the selective forces that have driven the development of endothermy from a plesiomorphic (ancestral) Cretaceous or Jurassic condition. A model is presented (the Plesiomorphic-Apomorphic Endothermy Model, PAE Model) which proposes that heterothermy, i.e. bouts of normothermy (constant body temperature) interspersed with adaptive heterothermy (e.g. daily torpor and/or hibernation), was the ancestral condition from which apomorphic (derived), rigid homeothermy evolved. All terrestrial mammal lineages are examined for existing data to test the model, as well as for missing data that could be used to test the model. With the exception of Scandentia and Dermoptera, about which little is known, all mammalian orders that include small-sized mammals (<500 g), have species which are heterothermic and display characteristics of endothermy which fall somewhere along a plesiomorphic-apomorphic continuum. Orders which do not have heterothermic representatives (Cetartiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Pholidota, and Lagomorpha) are comprised of medium- to large-sized mammals that have either lost the capacity for heterothermy, or in which heterothermy has yet to be measured. Mammalian heterothermy seems to be plesiomorphic and probably evolved once in the mammalian lineage. Several categories of endothermy are identified (protoendothermy, plesioendothermy, apoendothermy

  16. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  17. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Correlation of Cefquinome Against Experimental Catheter-Associated Biofilm Infection Due to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu-Feng; Shi, Wei; Yu, Yang; Tao, Meng-Ting; Xiong, Yan Q.; Sun, Jian; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formations play an important role in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and contribute to antibiotic treatment failures in biofilm-associated infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) profiles of cefquinome against an experimental catheter-related biofilm model due to S. aureus, including three clinical isolates and one non-clinical isolate. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), biofilm bactericidal concentration (BBC), minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and biofilm prevention concentration (BPC) and in vitro time-kill curves of cefquinome were studied in both planktonic and biofilm cells of study S. aureus strains. The in vivo post-antibiotic effects (PAEs), PK profiles and efficacy of cefquinome were performed in the catheter-related biofilm infection model in murine. A sigmoid Emax model was utilized to determine the PK/PD index that best described the dose-response profiles in the model. The MICs and MBICs of cefquinome for the four S. aureus strains were 0.5 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. The BBCs (32–64 μg/mL) and MBECs (64–256 μg/mL) of these study strains were much higher than their corresponding BPC values (1–2 μg/mL). Cefquinome showed time-dependent killing both on planktonic and biofilm cells, but produced much shorter PAEs in biofilm infections. The best-correlated PK/PD parameters of cefquinome for planktonic and biofilm cells were the duration of time that the free drug level exceeded the MIC (fT > MIC, R2 = 96.2%) and the MBIC (fT > MBIC, R2 = 94.7%), respectively. In addition, the AUC24h/MBIC of cefquinome also significantly correlated with the anti-biofilm outcome in this model (R2 = 93.1%). The values of AUC24h/MBIC for biofilm-static and 1-log10-unit biofilm-cidal activity were 22.8 and 35.6 h; respectively. These results indicate that the PK/PD profiles of cefquinome could be used as valuable guidance for

  18. Ex vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of valnemulin against Clostridium perfringens in plasma, the small intestinal and caecal contents of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Feng; Yu, Yang; Sun, Jian; Tao, Meng-Ting; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Li, Xiao; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) and ex vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) of valnemulin against Clostridium perfringens were investigated in plasma, the small intestinal and caecal contents of rabbits following intravenous (IV) or oral administration at 3 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME) of valnemulin against C. perfringens ATCC13124 were also determined. The time-kill curves were established in vitro and ex vivo to evaluate the antibacterial activity of valnemulin against C. perfringens. The elimination half-lives (T1/2λz) of valnemulin in the jejunal fluids (7.82 h) or caecal contents (14.8 h) of rabbits was significantly longer than that in plasma (2.94 h). The MIC values of valnemulin against C. perfringens ATCC13124 were both 0.063 μg/mL in the artificial medium and jejunal fluids. The PAEs of valnemulin against C. perfringens were 2.9 h (1 × MIC) and 5.03 h (4 × MIC), and the PA-SMEs ranged from 7.9 h to 11.1 h. Valnemulin exhibited rapid, time-dependent killing feature, and the ex vivo dose-response profile was closely fitted to sigmoid Emax model (r(2) = 0.9985). The surrogate index of AUC24 h/MIC ratios required to achieve the bactericidal and virtual bacterial elimination effects were 57.5 and 90.1 h, respectively. Accordingly, the calculated daily dosage regimens of valnemulin for the bactericidal activity (1.96 mg/kg) and bacterial elimination (3.08 mg/kg) would be therapeutically effective in rabbits against C. perfringens with MIC ≤0.5 μg/mL.

  19. A Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Architecture Performance Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L.; Khan, P.; Silva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in wide-bandgap (WBG) gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology, there is considerable interest in developing efficient solidstate power amplifiers (SSPAs) as an alternative to the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for space applications. This article documents the results of a study to investigate power-combining technology and SSPA architectures that can enable a 120-W, 40 percent power-added efficiency (PAE) SSPA. Results of the study indicate that architectures based on at least three power combiner designs are likely to enable the target SSPA. The proposed architectures can power combine 16 to 32 individual monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with >80 percent combining efficiency. This corresponds to MMIC requirements of 5- to 10-W output power and >48 percent PAE. For the three proposed architectures [1], detailed analysis and design of the power combiner are presented. The first architecture studied is based on a 16-way septum combiner that offers low loss and high isolation over the design band of 31 to 36 GHz. Analysis of a 2-way prototype septum combiner had an input match >25 dB, output match >30 dB, insertion loss <0.02 dB, and isolation >30 dB over the design band. A 16-way design, based on cascading this combiner in a binary fashion, is documented. The second architecture is based on a 24-way waveguide radial combiner. A prototype 24-way radial base was analyzed to have an input match >30 dB (under equal excitation of all input ports). The match of the mode transducer that forms the output of a radial combiner was found to be >27 dB. The functional bandwidth of the radial base and mode transducer, which together will form a radial combiner/divider, exceeded the design band. The third architecture employs a 32-way, parallel-plate radial combiner. Simulation results indicated an input match >24 dB, output match >22 dB, insertion loss <0.23 dB, and adjacent port isolation >20 dB over the design band. All

  20. Electrical stability of metal/low dielectric constant material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallikarjunan, Anupama

    In order to boost the performance of future generation silicon integrated circuits, new materials with lower dielectric constant (kappa) are under evaluation to replace traditional SiO2 as on-chip inter-layer dielectrics (ILDs). The goal of this thesis has been to investigate the intrinsic electrical stability and metal penetration resistance of a variety of low kappa materials: fluorinated silica glass (FSG), polyparaxylylene-N (parylene-N), polyarylether (PAE) and hybrid organosiloxane polymer (HOSP). Emphasis was placed on fundamental understanding of the factors controlling the electrical properties of different metal/low kappa dielectric systems. Traditionally, metal ion penetration is studied using Bias Temperature Stressing (BTS) with Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) measurement. In this work, an alternative technique, Triangular Voltage Sweep (TVS), was also adopted to provide insight into metal penetration behavior. Surprisingly, aluminum ion penetration into oxygen containing polymers such as PAE and HOSP was detected, and was in contrast to the stability of the Al/SiO2 system. Platinum was demonstrated as a viable control for metal drift studies in such polymers, as no platinum ion penetration was detected. Among the blanket dielectrics, the number of copper ions detected was lowest in HOSP, demonstrating its promise for ILD applications. Experimentation with a variety of metals led to the result that ion penetration behavior in HOSP showed the trend Pt < Cu < Ta < Al. This trend indicated that metal penetration increases with metal ionization and oxidation tendency. Plasma modification of HOSP by converting its surface to a thin intrinsic dielectric barrier resembling SiO2 dramatically reduced aluminum ion penetration in HOSP. Surface modification is therefore a powerful strategy to realize the future requirement of ultra-thin barriers. The impact of on-chip integration on electrical stability was also studied. Copper ions were detected along fast diffusion

  1. Ex vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of valnemulin against Clostridium perfringens in plasma, the small intestinal and caecal contents of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Feng; Yu, Yang; Sun, Jian; Tao, Meng-Ting; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Li, Xiao; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Ya-Hong

    2016-06-01

    The pharmacokinetic (PK) and ex vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) of valnemulin against Clostridium perfringens were investigated in plasma, the small intestinal and caecal contents of rabbits following intravenous (IV) or oral administration at 3 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME) of valnemulin against C. perfringens ATCC13124 were also determined. The time-kill curves were established in vitro and ex vivo to evaluate the antibacterial activity of valnemulin against C. perfringens. The elimination half-lives (T1/2λz) of valnemulin in the jejunal fluids (7.82 h) or caecal contents (14.8 h) of rabbits was significantly longer than that in plasma (2.94 h). The MIC values of valnemulin against C. perfringens ATCC13124 were both 0.063 μg/mL in the artificial medium and jejunal fluids. The PAEs of valnemulin against C. perfringens were 2.9 h (1 × MIC) and 5.03 h (4 × MIC), and the PA-SMEs ranged from 7.9 h to 11.1 h. Valnemulin exhibited rapid, time-dependent killing feature, and the ex vivo dose-response profile was closely fitted to sigmoid Emax model (r(2) = 0.9985). The surrogate index of AUC24 h/MIC ratios required to achieve the bactericidal and virtual bacterial elimination effects were 57.5 and 90.1 h, respectively. Accordingly, the calculated daily dosage regimens of valnemulin for the bactericidal activity (1.96 mg/kg) and bacterial elimination (3.08 mg/kg) would be therapeutically effective in rabbits against C. perfringens with MIC ≤0.5 μg/mL. PMID:27060276

  2. Occurrence of emerging and priority pollutants in municipal reverse osmosis concentrates.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaozhu; Gu, Ping; Zhang, Guanghui; Huang, Jianjun

    2015-02-01

    This paper aimed to investigate the occurrence and concentrations of emerging and priority pollutants in the municipal reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicated that there were varieties of pollutants, including chlorinated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs), pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), herbicides and flame retardants, in the ROC. Most of the pollutants were quantified, and the performance of the analytical method was explored. For most of the target compounds, the mean recoveries at two concentration levels (0.17 μg L(-1) and 1.67 μg L(-1)) ranged from 70% to 130% and the relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 20%, indicating excellent accuracy and precision. Typical concentrations of most of the pollutants were as low as tens or hundreds of ng L(-1), whereas others were as high as several μg L(-1) (such as, the concentration of 2-chloroethyl ether was 1.42 μg L(-1), of caffeine was 3.73 μg L(-1), and of benzyl butyl phthalate was 4.90 μg L(-1)).

  3. Genomic islands 1 and 2 play key roles in the evolution of extensively drug-resistant ST235 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Martin; Worden, Paul; Huntington, Peter; Hudson, Bernard; Karagiannis, Thomas; Charles, Ian G.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa are noscomially acquired, opportunistic pathogens that pose a major threat to the health of burns patients and the immunocompromised. We sequenced the genomes of P. aeruginosa isolates RNS_PA1, RNS_PA46 and RNS_PAE05, which displayed resistance to almost all frontline antibiotics, including gentamicin, piperacillin, timentin, meropenem, ceftazidime and colistin. We provide evidence that the isolates are representatives of P. aeruginosa sequence type (ST) 235 and carry Tn6162 and Tn6163 in genomic islands 1 (GI1) and 2 (GI2), respectively. GI1 disrupts the endA gene at precisely the same chromosomal location as in P. aeruginosa strain VR-143/97, of unknown ST, creating an identical CA direct repeat. The class 1 integron associated with Tn6163 in GI2 carries a blaGES-5–aacA4–gcuE15–aphA15 cassette array conferring resistance to carbapenems and aminoglycosides. GI2 is flanked by a 12 nt direct repeat motif, abuts a tRNA-gly gene, and encodes proteins with putative roles in integration, conjugative transfer as well as integrative conjugative element-specific proteins. This suggests that GI2 may have evolved from a novel integrative conjugative element. Our data provide further support to the hypothesis that genomic islands play an important role in de novo evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:26962050

  4. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophage, Ab31, a Chimera Formed from Temperate Phage PAJU2 and P. putida Lytic Phage AF: Characteristics and Mechanism of Bacterial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Latino, Libera; Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Vu Thien, Hoang; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31) is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10) with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung. PMID:24699529

  5. Device and Design Optimization for AlGaN/GaN X-Band-Power-Amplifiers with High Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Jutta; van Raay, Friedbert; Quay, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Rudolf; Mikulla, Michael; Seelmann-Eggebert, Matthias; Bronner, Wolfgang; Schlechtweg, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver; Thumm, Manfred

    2010-03-01

    The design, realization and characterization of dual-stage X-band high-power and highly-efficient monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) with AlGaN/GaN high electronic mobility transistors (HEMTs) is presented. These high power amplifiers (HPAs) are based on a precise investigation of circuit-relevant HEMT behavior using two different field-plate variants and its effects on PA performance as well as optimization of HPA driver stage size which also has a deep impact on the entire HPA. Two broadband (3 GHz) MMICs with different field-plate variants and two narrowband (1 GHz) PAs with different driver- to final-stage gate-width ratio are realized with a maximum output power of 19-23 W, a maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of ≥40%, and an associated power gain of 17 dB at X-band. Furthermore, two 1 mm test transistors of the same technology with the mentioned field-plate variants and a 1 mm test MMIC support VSWR-ratio tests of 6:1 and 4:1, respectively.

  6. Cytotoxic effects exerted by polyarylsulfone dialyser membranes depend on different sterilization processes.

    PubMed

    Golli-Bennour, Emna El; Kouidhi, Bochra; Dey, Mouna; Younes, Rabia; Bouaziz, Chayma; Zaied, Chiraz; Bacha, Hassen; Achour, Addellatif

    2011-06-01

    Polyarylsulfone group is one of the most important polymeric materials used in the biomedical field, due to its excellent properties, such as good thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability. There are three important polyarylsulfone polymers, all of which have excellent electrical properties: polysulfone (PSu), polyarylsulfone (PAS) and polyarylethersulfone (PAES). All these polymers have excellent creep, radiation and high temperature resistance. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of three sterilization processes (steam, ethylene oxide and gamma rays) on cytotoxicity of polyarylsulfone dialysis membranes. Ten long-term dialysis patients and ten age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in our study. We analysed (1) serum effect on cultured endothelial cell viability using MTT assay and (2) lipid peroxidation assessed by serum malondialdehyde (MDA) formation at the beginning (T0), the middle (T2) and the end (T4) of haemodialysis (HD) session. Our results clearly showed that steam-sterilized membranes improve endothelial cell viability when compared to ethylene oxide or gamma rays-sterilized ones. Moreover, there is a increased generation of MDA in patients sera during HD session. The serum MDA concentration was about 3, 6 and 10 times higher, respectively, for steam, ethylene oxide and gamma rays sterilization procedures when compared to the MDA amount in healthy subject sera. We concluded that using steam instead of ethylene oxide or gamma rays for sterilization may improve the biocompatibility of polyarylsulfone membranes. PMID:19795219

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China: Regional contamination characteristics, combined ecological effects and human health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhan, Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-11-01

    The current contamination status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied in the agricultural soils of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), one of the largest economic zones in China. The concentrations of PCBs ranged from <0.1 to 130 ng/g dry weight. Higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in the 0-30 cm surface layers relative to the subsurface soils. A distinct spatial distribution was observed with a declining concentration gradient from the northwest to the southeast of the region. The composition of PCBs in the soils was consistent with the Chinese commercial PCB mixtures, but different from the compositions in global background soil. Local sources including large-scale use and disposal of PCB-containing products were the main potential sources to soil. The ecological effects and human health risks associated with combined persistent organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were further estimated. The four toxic organic compounds and seven physicochemical parameters together could only explain 12.7% of the variation in microbial community composition, suggesting the soil ecosystem function was not strongly influenced by the combined pollution at low concentrations. However, the potential health risks to residents via multiple pathways were notably higher for PCBs than other chemicals. The potential risks were mainly derived from PCB-126, 81, and 169. PMID:27565309

  8. [Arbuscular mycorrhizal bioremediation and its mechanisms of organic pollutants-contaminated soils].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuling; Ling, Wanting; Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Fuchun; Xiong, Wei

    2006-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), the symbiont of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plant root, has been proved to be able to improve soil structure and enhance the plant resistance to environmental stress. There are more than 170 kinds of AMF worldwide. Recently, the promoted degradation of organic pollutants in soils in the presence of AM was observed, and AM bioremediation (AMB) is becoming a promising and perspective remediation technique for organic pollutants-contaminated soils. This paper reviewed the research progress on the AMB of soils contaminated by typical organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAEs, petroleum, and pesticides. The mechanisms of AMB mainly include the metabolism of organic pollutants by AM fungi, the degradation of these pollutants by the enzymes derived from AM exudation and by the enhanced root exudation and rhizospheric microbial activity in the presence of AM, and the removal of the pollutants by plant uptake and accumulation. As a new approach for the remediation of contaminated soils, some aspects involved in AMB, e.g., the screening of high efficient AM fungi, efficacy of co-existing AM fungi, soil ageing, and plant uptake of organic pollutants from soils in the presence of AM, still need to be further investigated.

  9. A novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage, Ab31, a chimera formed from temperate phage PAJU2 and P. putida lytic phage AF: characteristics and mechanism of bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Latino, Libera; Essoh, Christiane; Blouin, Yann; Vu Thien, Hoang; Pourcel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A novel temperate bacteriophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phage vB_PaeP_Tr60_Ab31 (alias Ab31) is described. Its genome is composed of structural genes related to those of lytic P. putida phage AF, and regulatory genes similar to those of temperate phage PAJU2. The virion structure resembles that of phage AF and other lytic Podoviridae (S. enterica Epsilon 15 and E. coli phiv10) with similar tail spikes. Ab31 was able to infect P. aeruginosa strain PA14 and two genetically related strains called Tr60 and Tr162, out of 35 diverse strains from cystic fibrosis patients. Analysis of resistant host variants revealed different phenotypes, including induction of pigment and alginate overproduction. Whole genome sequencing of resistant variants highlighted the existence of a large deletion of 234 kbp in two strains, encompassing a cluster of genes required for the production of CupA fimbriae. Stable lysogens formed by Ab31 in strain Tr60, permitted the identification of the insertion site. During colonization of the lung in cystic fibrosis patients, P. aeruginosa adapts by modifying its genome. We suggest that bacteriophages such as Ab31 may play an important role in this adaptation by selecting for bacterial characteristics that favor persistence of bacteria in the lung.

  10. [Distribution of phthalate acid esters in waters and Potamogeton crispus L. from the mainstream of Haihe River].

    PubMed

    Chi, Jie; Zheng, Yan

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of phthalate acid esters(PAEs) in waters and aquatic plant, Potamogeton crispus L., were measured from March 29 to May 25, 2008 in the mainstream of Haihe River. The results showed that dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected in all samples of waters and Potamogeton crispus L.. Concentrations of DBP and DEHP in water samples ranged from 0.35-40.68 microg/L (mean 7.32 microg/L) and 3.54-101.2 microg/L (mean 21.72 microg/L), respectively. Concentrations of DBP and DEHP in Potamogeton crispus L. ranged from 0.007-0.242 microg/g (0.078 microg/g) and 0.163-1.286 microg/g (0.457 microg/g), respectively. Concentrations of DBP and DEHP in Potamogeton crispus L. reached the highest value during Potamogeton crispus L. blooming period and were significantly related to concentrations of DBP and DEHP in waters. PCF values of DBP and DEHP by Potamogeton crispus L. were obviously above 1, and the PCFs value reached the maxima during the early growing period and the minima during the period of decay. Concentration and PCF of DBP were both lower than those of DEHP. Potamogeton crispus L. was an important sink of phthalate acid esters, a kind of hydrophobic organic compounds, because of its abundance in Haihe River.

  11. Homogalacturonan-modifying enzymes: structure, expression, and roles in plants

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Fabien; Wattier, Christopher; Rustérucci, Christine; Pelloux, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the changes affecting the plant cell wall is a key element in addressing its functional role in plant growth and in the response to stress. Pectins, which are the main constituents of the primary cell wall in dicot species, play a central role in the