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Sample records for pae jan-roland raukas

  1. 24 CFR 401.200 - Who may be a PAE?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUD. If the PAE is a private entity, whether nonprofit or for-profit, it must enter into a partnership with a public purpose entity, which may include HUD. A PAE may delegate responsibilities only as...

  2. 24 CFR 401.313 - Consequences of PAE violations; finality of HUD determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination. (a) Effect on PRA. If a PAE, potential PAE or other restricted person (as defined in § 401.310... PRA; (3) Find the PAE in default under an existing PRA with the right of termination for cause...

  3. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced.

  4. Variations in phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation and their formation mechanism in Chinese flowering cabbage (Brassica parachinensis L.) cultivars grown on PAE-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Ming; Du, Huan; Xiang, Lei; Chen, Yi-Liang; Lu, Lei-An; Li, Yan-Wen; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2015-11-01

    Phthalate ester (PAE) accumulation in crops poses great risks to human health and has aroused great concern. Here, we investigated variations in di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accumulation by various Chinese flowering cabbage cultivars and revealed their variation mechanism. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in shoot PAE concentrations of 28 cultivars. Moreover, significant positive correlations between DBP and DEHP concentrations in shoots of all cultivars indicated that they could be taken up simultaneously by various cultivars. Due to the lower translocation factor of low-PAE accumulator, its shoot PAEs concentrations were much lower than root compared to high-PAE accumulator. Further, subcellular distribution showed that PAE concentrations of root cell walls and organelles were much higher than those of shoots in low-PAE accumulator. Therefore, lower translocation from root to shoot and more PAEs accumulating in cell walls and organelles of root might act as main formation mechanism of low-PAE accumulator.

  5. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed.

  6. [Behavior ethogram and PAE coding system of Cervus nippon sichuanicus].

    PubMed

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Yue, Bi-Song; Ning, Ji-Zu; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Quan, Qiu-Mei; Guo, Yan-Shu; Mi, Jun; Zuo, Lin; Xiong, Yuan-Qing

    2010-02-01

    A monthly 5-day periodic observation at 06:00-18:00 from March to November 2007 was conducted to record the behavioral processes, contents, and results, and the surrounding habitats of Sichuan sika deer (Cervus nippon sichuanicus) in Donglie, Chonger, and Reer villages of Tiebu Natural Reserve of Sichuan Province. The behavioral ethogram, vigilance behaviors ethogram and its PAE (posture, act, and environment) coding system of the Sichuan sika deer were established, which filled the gap of the PAE coding of ungulates vigilance behaviors. A total of 11 kinds of postures, 83 acts, and 136 behaviors were recorded and distinguished, with the relative frequency of each behavior in relation to gender, age, and season described. Compared with other ungulates, the behavioral repertoire of Sichuan sika deer was mostly similar to that of other cervid animals.

  7. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  8. Beyond Barriers: Involving Hispanic Families in the Education Process. Padres a la escuela (PAE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Magdalena C.

    The Padres a la escuela (PAE) or Parents in the School program in San Antonio (Texas) encouraged the participation of Hispanic parents in the education of their children. The successes of the PAE program are used in this guidebook to help parents, program staff, and policy makers in similar efforts. This handbook describes the history,…

  9. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  10. Gas/solid particulate phthalic esters (PAEs) in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-xin; Fan, Chinbay Q

    2014-07-15

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are used in many branches of industry and are produced in huge amounts throughout the world. An investigation on particulate- and gas-phase distribution of PAEs has been conducted between January 2011 and December 2012 in Nanjing (China). Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) needles and rhizosphere surface soils were sampled from urban to suburban/remote sites, to investigate the pine needle/soil distribution of PAEs. The results showed that the average total PAE concentration (gas+particle) was 97.0ngm(-3). The six PAE congeners considered predominantly existed in the gas phase and the average contribution of gas phase to total PAEs ranged from 75.0% to 89.1%. The PAE concentrations in rhizosphere soils and pine needles were positively correlated with their particulate- and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, which suggested that surface soils accumulated PAEs mainly through gravity deposition of particles and pine needle stomata absorbed PAEs mainly from the gas phase. The gas/particle partitioning (KP) and soil-pine needle ratio (Rs/n) were determined. Experimentally determined KP values correlated well with the subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PL). A set of interesting relationships of logRs/n-logKP-logPL was employed to explain the experimental findings of PAEs deposition to surface soils and to needles. This data set offered a unique perspective into the influence that Rs/n played in KP and correlated with PL.

  11. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Sánchez, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE.

  12. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 1, Pathological Background and Clinical Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Fei Crisóstomo, Verónica Báez-Díaz, Claudia Sánchez, Francisco M.

    2016-01-15

    Pathological features of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) dictate various responses to prostatic artery embolization (PAE). Typically, BPH originates in the transition zone and periurethral region, where should be considered the primary target area in PAE procedures. Given that histological heterogeneity of components in hyperplasia nodules, epithelial or stromal, identifying the more responsive nodules to PAE will have clinical implications. Since some lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with BPH are usually related to bladder outlet obstruction-induced changes in bladder function rather than to outflow obstruction directly, proper selection of candidate patients prior to PAE is of great clinical importance. BPH is a typical chronic progressive condition, suggesting PAE could aim not only to relieve LUTS but also to delay or prevent the clinical progression. Awareness of the pathological background of BPH is essential for interventional radiologists to improve clinical outcomes and develop new treatment strategies in clinical practice of PAE.

  13. Health risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water sources of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Long; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Wang, Chao; He, Tao; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) with endocrine disruption effects and carcinogenicity are widely detected in water environment. Occurrences of PAEs in source water and removal efficiencies of PAEs by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in China were surveyed from publications in the last 10 years. Concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in source water with median value of 1.3 μg/L was higher than that of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). If the removal efficiencies of DEHP and DnBP reached 60 and 90 %, respectively, the calculated PAE concentration in drinking water can generally meet Standards for Drinking Water Quality in China. The health risks of PAEs, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks via the "water source-DWTP-oral ingestion/dermal permeation" pathway, were evaluated with Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis under certain removal efficiencies from 0 to 95 %. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was lower than the upper acceptable carcinogenic risk level (10(-4)), while the probability of DEHP's carcinogenic risk between lower (10(-6)) and upper (10(-4)) acceptable carcinogenic risk level decreased from about 21.2 to 0.4 % through increasing DEHP removal efficiency from 0 to 95 %. The non-carcinogenic risk of DEHP was higher than that of DEP and DnBP. In all cases, the total non-carcinogenic risk of DEP, DnBP, and DEHP was lower than 1, indicating that there would be unlikely incremental non-carcinogenic risk to humans. Both carcinogenic risk and non-carcinogenic risk of PAEs in drinking water to female were a little higher than those to male.

  14. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability. PMID:26769923

  15. Genome Sequence of a Typical Ultramicrobacterium, Curvibacter sp. Strain PAE-UM, Capable of Phthalate Ester Degradation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dan; Hao, Zhenyu; Sun, Rui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-14

    Curvibacter sp. strain PAE-UM, isolated from river sediment, is a typical ultramicrobacterium capable of phthalate ester degradation. The genome of Curvibacter sp. PAE-UM consists of 3,284,473 bp, and its information will provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying its degradation ability.

  16. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Báez-Díaz, Claudia; Sánchez, Francisco M

    2016-02-01

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α1-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studies on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.

  17. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Fei Crisóstomo, Verónica Báez-Díaz, Claudia Sánchez, Francisco M.

    2016-02-15

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studies on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.

  18. Complete Genome Sequences of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phages vB_PaeP_PcyII-10_P3P1 and vB_PaeM_PcyII-10_PII10A

    PubMed Central

    Midoux, Cédric; Latino, Libera; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    vB_PaeP_PcyII-10_P3P1 and vB_PaeM_PcyII-10_PII10A are Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophages belonging, respectively, to the Lit1virus genus of the Podoviridae family and the Pbunavirus genus of the Myoviridae family. Their genomes are 72,778 bp and 65,712 bp long, containing 94 and 93 predicted open reading frames, respectively. PMID:27856570

  19. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Review of Evidence and Guidelines for Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lauren R.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of prenatal alcohol use have been well documented. In this review, we discuss the inclusion of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) as a condition for further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We present a review of the evidence for impairment in three domains highlighted in ND-PAE: neurocognitive functioning, self2 regulation, and adaptive functioning. In addition, we provide guidelines for clinical assessment of each domain. When considering ND-PAE, it is essential to obtain as comprehensive an assessment as possible, including multidisciplinary/multimethod assessment of the individual by a qualified team. It is our aim to provide clinicians with a useful reference for assessing ND-PAE and highlight important guidelines to be followed when conducting neuropsychological assessment. PMID:26509108

  20. pH-sensitive micelles self-assembled from polymer brush (PAE-g-cholesterol)-b-PEG-b-(PAE-g-cholesterol) for anticancer drug delivery and controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiangxuan; Liao, Wenbo; Zhang, Gang; Kang, Shimin; Zhang, Can Yang

    2017-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic pH-sensitive triblock polymer brush (poly(β-amino esters)-g-cholesterol)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-(poly(β-amino esters)-g-cholesterol) ((PAE-g-Chol)-b-PEG-b-(PAE-g-Chol)) was designed and synthesized successfully through a three-step reaction, and their self-assembled polymeric micelles were used as hydrophobic anticancer drug delivery carriers to realize effectively controlled release. The critical micelle concentrations were 6.8 μg/mL, 12.6 μg/mL, 17.4 μg/mL, and 26.6 μg/mL at pH values of 7.4, 6.5, 6.0, and 5.0, respectively. The trend of critical micelle concentrations indicated that the polymer had high stability that could prolong the circulation time in the body. The hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of the polymeric micelles were influenced significantly by the pH values. As pH decreased from 7.4 to 5.0, the particle size and zeta potential increased from 205.4 nm to 285.7 nm and from +12.7 mV to +47.0 mV, respectively. The pKb of the polymer was confirmed to be approximately 6.5 by the acid–base titration method. The results showed that the polymer had sharp pH-sensitivity because of the protonation of the amino groups, resulting in transformation of the PAE segment from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Doxorubicin-loaded polymeric micelles were prepared with a high loading content (20%) and entrapment efficiency (60%) using the dialysis method. The in vitro results demonstrated that drug release rate and cumulative release were obviously dependent on pH values. Furthermore, the drug release mechanism was also controlled by the pH values. The polymer had barely any cytotoxicity, whereas the doxorubicin-loaded system showed high toxicity for HepG2 cells as free drugs. All the results proved that the pH-sensitive triblock polymer brush and its self-assembled micelle might be a potential delivery carrier for anticancer drugs with sustained release. PMID:28356738

  1. Association of PAEs with Precocious Puberty in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Liu, Shu-Dan; Lei, Xun; Ling, Yu-Shuang; Luo, Yan; Liu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precocious puberty (PP) currently affects 1 in 5000 children and is 10 times more common in girls. Existing studies have tried to detect an association between phathalic acid esters (PAEs) and PP, but the results did not reach a consensus. Objective: To estimate the association between PAEs and children with PP based on current evidence. Methods: Databases including PubMed (1978 to March 2015), OVID (1946 to March 2015), Web of Science (1970 to March 2015), EBSCO (1976 to March 2015), CNKI (1979 to March 2015), WANFANG DATA (1987 to March 2015), CBM (1978 to March 2015) and CQVIP (1989 to March 2015) were searched to identify all case-control studies that determined the exposure and concentration of PAEs and their metabolites in children with PP. Meta-analysis of the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results: A total of 14 studies involving 2223 subjects were finally included. The pooled estimates showed that PP was associated with di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) exposure (OR: 3.90, 95% CI: 2.77 to 5.49). Besides, the concentration of DEHP (SMD: 1.73, 95% CI: 0.54 to 2.91) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) (SMD: 4.31, 95% CI: 2.67 to 5.95) in the PP group were significantly higher than those in the control group, respectively, while no difference was detected between case and control groups in either serum or urinary concentration of mono-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate(MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) or monoethyl phthalate (MEP). Conclusions: Exposure of DEHP and DBP might be associated with PP risk for girls, however, there is no evidence to show an association between the exposure to most PAE metabolites and PP. Given the moderate strength of the results, well-designed cohort studies with large sample size should be performed in

  2. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion.

  3. ROPE Registry Project to Determine the Safety and Efficacy of Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE) for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Secondary to Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE).

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-03

    Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Caused by Benign Prostatic Enlargement (LUTS BPE); Prostate Artery Embolisation (PAE); Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP); Open Prostatectomy; Laser Enucleation or Ablation of the Prostate

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.

  5. [Early diagnosis importance for a correct surgical treatment of PAES (popliteal artery entrapment syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Catani, M; De Milito, R; Clementi, I; Romagnoli, F; Simonelli, L; Vardas, P N; Manili, G; Capitano, S

    2004-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an uncommon pathological entity, caused by segmental popliteal artery compression by the surrounding myofascial structures. Clinical symptoms may appear acutely, with temporary ischaemic attacks, or chronically, with concerned calf claudicatio intermittens and for 30% are bilateral. Diagnosis, besides being based on clinical objectivity (acute and deep pain to the struck limb, mainly during active plantar hyperextension) and history-taking (subject-age and lack of atherosclerosis), is based on ultrasonographic (eco-color Doppler of the aortic-iliac-femural-popliteal trunks, tensiometric Doppler), angio-RM, angio-CT scan and dynamic angiographic exams. Treatment, essentially, is surgical by simple freeing of the popliteal artery from surrounding myofascial structures or by autologous vein (saphenous v.) interposition grafting and patching, or bypass without vessel resection. About clinical case reported by the authors, 44-years female with left calf acute pain symptoms, cold skin by the thermo-touch, hypo-paraesthesia with fifth toe cyanosis and walking inability, surgical treatment, because of precox diagnosis, consisted of simple cut of myofibrous shoot starting from medial head of the left gastrocnemious muscle and compressing popliteal artery, with clinical chart complete resolution.

  6. pH-sensitive drug loading/releasing in amphiphilic copolymer PAE-PEG: integrating molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhonglin; Jiang, Jianwen

    2012-08-20

    Molecular dynamics (MD) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are integrated to investigate the loading/releasing of anti-cancer drug camptothecin (CPT) in pH-sensitive amphiphilic copolymer, composed of hydrophobic poly(β-amino ester) (PAE) and hydrophilic methyl ether-capped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). MD simulation is used to estimate the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters and miscibility of binary components. On this basis, DPD simulation is applied to examine the micellization of PAE-PEG, CPT loading in PAE-PEG, and CPT releasing in PAEH-PEG. With increasing concentration, PAE-PEG forms spherical then disk-like micelles and finally vesicles, as a competitive counterbalance of free energies for the formation of shell, interface and core. CPT loading in PAE-PEG micelles/vesicles is governed by adsorption-growth-micellization mechanism, and CPT is loaded into both hydrophobic core and interface of hydrophobic core/hydrophilic shell. The predicted loading efficiency is close to experimental value. Similar to literature reports, the loading of high concentration of CPT is observed to cause morphology transition from micelles to vesicles. Upon protonation, CPT is released from micelles/vesicles by swelling-demicellization-releasing mechanism. This multi-scale simulation study provides microscopic insight into the mechanisms of drug loading and releasing, and might be useful for the design of new materials for high-efficacy drug delivery.

  7. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) Versus Original and PErFecTED Prostate Artery Embolization (PAE) Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Preliminary Results of a Single Center, Prospective, Urodynamic-Controlled Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Iscaife, Alexandre Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Moreira, Airton Mota; Antunes, Alberto A. Srougi, Miguel

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare clinical and urodynamic results of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to original and PErFecTED prostate artery embolization (PAE) methods for benign prostatic hyperplasia.MethodsWe prospectively randomized 30 patients to receive TURP or original PAE (oPAE) and compared them to a cohort of patients treated by PErFecTED PAE, with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were assessed for urodynamic parameters, prostate volume, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL).ResultsAll groups were comparable for all pre-treatment parameters except bladder contractility and peak urine flow rate (Q{sub max}), both of which were significantly better in the TURP group, and IIEF score, which was significantly higher among PErFecTED PAE patients than TURP patients. All groups experienced significant improvement in IPSS, QoL, prostate volume, and Q{sub max}. TURP and PErFecTED PAE both resulted in significantly lower IPSS than oPAE but were not significantly different from one another. TURP resulted in significantly higher Q{sub max} and significantly smaller prostate volume than either original or PErFecTED PAE but required spinal anesthesia and hospitalization. Two patients in the oPAE group with hypocontractile bladders experienced recurrence of symptoms and were treated with TURP. In the TURP group, urinary incontinence occurred in 4/15 patients (26.7 %), rupture of the prostatic capsule in 1/15 (6.7 %), retrograde ejaculation in all patients (100 %), and one patient was readmitted for temporary bladder irrigation due to hematuria.ConclusionsTURP and PAE are both safe and effective treatments. TURP and PErFecTED PAE yield similar symptom improvement, but TURP is associated with both better urodynamic results and more adverse events.

  8. Curriculum-Based Vocational Assessment of Students with Special Needs at the Middle School/Junior High School Levels: The Practical Arts Evaluation System (PAES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swisher, Judy; Clark, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Practical Arts Evaluation System (PAES), a curriculum-based vocational assessment program for students with special needs at the middle school/junior high school level. Provides a rationale for curriculum-based assessment and occupational exploration at this level and describes benefits of the program. (Author/JOW)

  9. Adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven from aqueous solution: the study of hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangyu; Wei, Junfu; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Han

    2014-05-30

    A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application.

  10. Magnetic solid-phase extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) in apparel textile by core-shell structured Fe3O4@silica@triblock-copolymer magnetic microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mei; Liu, Minhua; Sun, Meirong; Chen, Kun; Cao, Xiujun; Hu, Yaoming

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, novel core-shell structured magnetic Fe3O4/silica nanocomposites with triblock-copolymer grafted on their surface (Fe3O4@SiO2@MDN) were successfully fabricated by combining a sol-gel method with a seeded aqueous-phase radical copolymerization approach. Owing to the excellent characteristics of the strong magnetic responsivity, outstanding hydrophilicity and abundant π-electron system, the obtained core-shell structured microspheres showed great potential as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent. Several kinds of phthalate esters (PAEs) were selected as model analytes to systematically evaluate the applicability of adsorbents for extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Various parameters, including adsorbents amounts, adsorption time, species of eluent, and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, Validation experiments such as recovery, reproducibility, and limit of detection were carried on and showed satisfactory results. The analysis method showed excellent linearity with a wide range of 0.2-10mg/kg (R(2)>0.9974) and low limits of detection (LOD) of 0.02-0.09 mg/kg (S/N=3). Ultimately, the novel magnetic adsorbents were successfully employed to detect the PAEs in apparel textile samples. And the results indicated that this novel approach brought forward in the present work offered an attractive alternative for rapid, efficient and sensitive MSPE for PAEs compounds.

  11. Self-assembled micelles based on pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-cholesterol block copolymer for anticancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Can Yang; Xiong, Di; Sun, Yao; Zhao, Bin; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Li Juan

    2014-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic triblock pH-sensitive poly(β-amino ester)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-cholesterol (PAE-g-MPEG-Chol) was designed and synthesized via the Michael-type step polymerization and esterification condensation method. The synthesized copolymer was determined with proton nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The grafting percentages of MPEG and cholesterol were determined as 10.93% and 62.02%, calculated from the area of the characteristic peaks, respectively. The amphiphilic copolymer was confirmed to self-assemble into core/shell micelles in aqueous solution at low concentrations. The critical micelle concentrations were 6.92 and 15.14 mg/L at pH of 7.4 and 6.0, respectively, obviously influenced by the changes of pH values. The solubility of pH-responsive PAE segment could be transformed depending on the different values of pH because of protonation–deprotonation of the amino groups, resulting in pH sensitivity of the copolymer. The average particle size of micelles increased from 125 nm to 165 nm with the pH decreasing, and the zeta potential was also significantly changed. Doxorubicin (DOX) was entrapped into the polymeric micelles with a high drug loading level. The in vitro DOX release from the micelles was distinctly enhanced with the pH decreasing from 7.4 to 6.0. Toxicity testing proved that the DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, whereas the copolymer showed low toxicity. The results demonstrated how pH-sensitive PAE-g-MPEG-Chol micelles were proved to be a potential vector in hydrophobic drug delivery for tumor therapy. PMID:25364250

  12. Assessing the concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) and the genotoxic potential of treated wastewater (final effluent) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Elkhatib, Rola; Al-Rajoudi, Tahreer; Al-Qudaihi, Ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Plasticizers such as phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are highly persistent organic pollutants that tend to bio-accumulate in humans through the soil-plant-animal food chain. Some studies have reported the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects in addition to their estrogenic activities. Water resources are scarce in Saudi Arabia, and several wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) have been constructed for agricultural and industrial use. This study was designed to: (1) measure the concentrations of BPA and six PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), in secondary- and tertiary-treated wastewater collected from five WTPs in three Saudi cities for four to five weeks and (2) test their potential genotoxicity. Three genotoxicological parameters were used: % tail DNA (%T), tail moment (TM) and percentage micronuclei (%MN). Both DBP and DEHP were detected in all treated wastewater samples. DMP, DEP, BBP, DOP, and BPA were found in 83.3, 84.2, 79, 73.7 and 97.4% of the samples, respectively. The levels of DMP (p<0.001), DOP (p<0.001) and BPA (p=0.001) were higher in tertiary- treated wastewater than secondary-treated wastewater, perhaps due to the influence of the molecular weight and polarity of the chemicals. Both weekly sampling frequency and WTP locations significantly affected the variability in our data. Treated wastewater from Wadi Al-Araj was able to induce DNA damage (%T and TM) in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells that was statistically higher than wastewater from all other WTPs and in untreated TK6 cells (negative control). %MN in samples from both Wadi Al-Araj and Manfouah did not differ statistically but was significantly higher than in the untreated TK6 cells. This study also showed that the samples of tertiary-treated wastewater had a higher genotoxicological potential to induce DNA damage than the samples of

  13. SPE-UPLC-MS/MS for the determination of phthalate monoesters in rats urine and its application to study the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of priority controlling PAEs.

    PubMed

    Xu, R; Gao, H T; Zhu, F; Cao, W X; Yan, Y H M; Zhou, X; Xu, Q; Ji, W L

    2016-02-15

    This research was mainly focused on the effects of food emulsifier on the bioavailability of six priority controlling phthalate acid esters (PAEs) for the further accurate assessment of their toxic effects, using the corresponding phthalate acid monoesters (PAMEs) in rats urine as biomarkers. Glycerin monostearate was chosen as typical food emulsifier. A method was established to determine PAMEs in urine from rats either in experimental group (integrated gavaged with glycerin monostearate and PAEs) or in control group (gavaged with PAEs only), by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-UPLC-MS/MS). Extraction recoveries were more than 75% for all the PAMEs; the calibration curve was linear in the range of 1.0-1000.0ng/mL with R(2)>0.995; the limits of detection (LOD) were 0.30ng/mL-0.50ng/mL. In addition, by analysing quality control (QC) urine samples in 3 days, it showed that the method was precise and accurate, for the intra-day and inter-day RSD within 16%, and the accuracy more than 82%. Internal exposure amount of all PAEs in experimental group was significantly higher than that in control group with p values of less than 0.05 except for butyl benzyl phthalates (BBP) (P=0.07). The bioavailability of all PAEs ranged from 5.03% to 109.35% with the presence of food emulsifiers glycerin monostearate, observably higher than that without glycerin monostearate (1.12% to 54.39%). It indicated that food emulsifiers increased the bioavailability of PAEs and may lead to potential food safety risk, which should bring awareness and be further studied.

  14. 24 CFR 401.304 - PRA provisions on PAE compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fees to be paid by HUD. (2) HUD will establish a substantially uniform baseline for base fees for...) Incentives. The PRA may provide for incentives to be paid by HUD. While individual components may vary... will be uniform. Objectives may include maximizing savings to the Federal Government,...

  15. An Octave Bandwidth, High PAE, Linear, Class J GaN High Power Amplifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    the signal modulated with QPSK (18 Mbps data rate) and an EVM of -14 dB or better; at 16- QAM (36 Mbps) and an EVM of -20 dB or better; and at 64...waveforms with up to 64- QAM modulation . Operating at peak power levels up to 210-W, the WLPA represents a significant advancement for wideband, high...a stability risk for a single module in that there is a potential for oscillations due to signal feedback. The PA provides 200-W saturated power

  16. [Paradoxical air embolism resulted in acute myocardial infarction and massive ischemic brain injury in a patient operated on in a sitting position].

    PubMed

    Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position.

  17. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... company or entity's management and policies. For purposes of this definition, a general partner of a...; any management official of the PAE; any legal entity that is under the control of the PAE, is...

  18. Comparative Genome Analysis Provides Insights into the Evolution and Adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J.; Laue, Bridget E.; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E.; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree. PMID:20419105

  19. Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi on Aesculus hippocastanum.

    PubMed

    Green, Sarah; Studholme, David J; Laue, Bridget E; Dorati, Federico; Lovell, Helen; Arnold, Dawn; Cottrell, Joan E; Bridgett, Stephen; Blaxter, Mark; Huitema, Edgar; Thwaites, Richard; Sharp, Paul M; Jackson, Robert W; Kamoun, Sophien

    2010-04-19

    A recently emerging bleeding canker disease, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pathovar aesculi (Pae), is threatening European horse chestnut in northwest Europe. Very little is known about the origin and biology of this new disease. We used the nucleotide sequences of seven commonly used marker genes to investigate the phylogeny of three strains isolated recently from bleeding stem cankers on European horse chestnut in Britain (E-Pae). On the basis of these sequences alone, the E-Pae strains were identical to the Pae type-strain (I-Pae), isolated from leaf spots on Indian horse chestnut in India in 1969. The phylogenetic analyses also showed that Pae belongs to a distinct clade of P. syringae pathovars adapted to woody hosts. We generated genome-wide Illumina sequence data from the three E-Pae strains and one strain of I-Pae. Comparative genomic analyses revealed pathovar-specific genomic regions in Pae potentially implicated in virulence on a tree host, including genes for the catabolism of plant-derived aromatic compounds and enterobactin synthesis. Several gene clusters displayed intra-pathovar variation, including those encoding type IV secretion, a novel fatty acid biosynthesis pathway and a sucrose uptake pathway. Rates of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the four Pae genomes indicate that the three E-Pae strains diverged from each other much more recently than they diverged from I-Pae. The very low genetic diversity among the three geographically distinct E-Pae strains suggests that they originate from a single, recent introduction into Britain, thus highlighting the serious environmental risks posed by the spread of an exotic plant pathogenic bacterium to a new geographic location. The genomic regions in Pae that are absent from other P. syringae pathovars that infect herbaceous hosts may represent candidate genetic adaptations to infection of the woody parts of the tree.

  20. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources. PMID:27555553

  1. Study of Submonolayer Films of GOLD/COPPER(100) and PALLADIUM/COPPER(100) Using Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keunho

    Positron Annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES), Electron induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (EAES), and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to study the surface composition, surface alloying and overlayer formation of ultrathin films of Au and Pd on Cu(100). This is the first systematic application of PAES to the study of the surface properties of ultrathin layers of metals on metal substrates. Temperature induced changes in the top layer surface compositions in Au/Cu(100) and Pd/Cu(100) are directly observed using PAES, while EAES spectra indicate only minor changes. The surface alloying of the Au/Cu(100) and Pd/Cu(100) systems are demonstrated using PAES in conjunction with LEED. The PAES intensity measurements also provide evidence for positron trapping at surface defects such as steps, kinks and isolated adatoms. The PAES intensity was found to be strongly dependent on surface defects introduced by ion sputtering. The surface defect dependence of the PAES intensity is interpreted in terms of the surface atomic diffusion and positron trapping at surface defects in Au/Cu(100) and Pd/Cu(100). In both systems the shapes of the PAES intensity versus coverage curves for submonolayer coverages at 173K are quite distinct indicating differences in overlayer growth and diffusion behavior of Au and Pd adatoms on the Cu(100) surface. PAES intensities for both Au and Pd are saturated at 1 monolayer demonstrating the extreme surface selectivity of PAES.

  2. Phthalate Esters in Indoor Window Films in a Northeastern Chinese Urban Center: Film Growth and Implications for Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chun-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Ma, Wan-Li; Song, Wei-Wei; Li, Hai-Ling; Li, Wen-Long; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Wu, Yong-Kai; Han, Ya-Meng; Peng, Zhi-Xiang; Li, Yi-Fan

    2016-07-19

    Indoor window film samples were collected in buildings during 2014-2015 for the determination of six phthalate diesters (PAEs). Linear regression analysis suggested that the film mass was positively and significantly correlated with the duration of film growth (from 7 to 77 days). PAEs were detected in all window film samples (n = 64). For all the samples with growth days ranged from 7 to 77 days, the median concentrations of total six PAEs (∑6PAEs) in winter and summer window film samples were 9900 ng/m(2) film (2000 μg/g film) and 4700 ng/m(2) film (650 μg/g film), respectively. Among PAEs analyzed, di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the major compound (71 ± 9.7%), followed by di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 20 ± 7.4%) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 5.1 ± 2.2%). Positive correlations among PAEs suggested their common sources in the window film samples. Room temperature and relative humidity were negatively and significantly correlated with PAEs concentations (in ng/m(2)). Poor ventilation in cold winter in Noreastern China significantly influenced the concentrations of PAEs in window film which suggested higher inhalation exposure dose in winter. The median hazard quotient (HQ) values from PAEs exposure were below 1, suggesting that the intake of PAEs via three exposure pathways was considered as acceptable.

  3. Distribution patterns of phthalic acid esters in soil particle-size fractions determine biouptake in soil-cereal crop systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Yuan; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Mao, Xuhui; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liang, Qiong; Cui, Dongyu; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2016-08-01

    The use of wastewater irrigation for food crops can lead to presence of bioavailable phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soils, which increase the potential for human exposure and adverse carcinogenic and non-cancer health effects. This study presents the first investigation of the occurrence and distribution of PAEs in a maize-wheat double-cropping system in a wastewater-irrigated area in the North China Plain. PAE levels in maize and wheat were found to be mainly attributed to PAE stores in soil coarse (250–2000 μm) and fine sand (53–250 μm) fractions. Soil particle-size fractions with higher bioavailability (i.e., coarse and fine sands) showed greater influence on PAE congener bioconcentration factors compared to PAE molecular structures for both maize and wheat tissues. More PAEs were allocated to maize and wheat grains with increased soil PAE storages from wastewater irrigation. Additional findings showed that levels of both non-cancer and carcinogenic risk for PAE congeners in wheat were higher than those in maize, suggesting that wheat food security should be prioritized. In conclusion, increased soil PAE concentrations specifically in maize and wheat grains indicate that wastewater irrigation can pose a contamination threat to food resources.

  4. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants.

  5. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  6. Biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: cloning, sequencing, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Morita, Tomotake; Cao, Xiao-hong; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-04-01

    Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317 exhibits a strong degradation activity for biodegradable plastics (BPs) such as agricultural mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). An enzyme named PaE was isolated and the gene encoding PaE was cloned from the strain by functional complementation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deduced amino acid sequence of PaE contains 198 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20,362.41. High identity was observed between this sequence and that of cutinase-like enzymes (CLEs) (61-68%); therefore, the gene encoding PaE was named PaCLE1. The specific activity of PaE against emulsified PBSA was 54.8±6.3 U/mg. In addition to emulsified BPs, PaE degraded solid films of PBS, PBSA, poly(ε-caprolactone), and poly(lactic acid).

  7. In vitro postantibiotic effects of rifapentine, isoniazid, and moxifloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Au-Yeang, Carrie; Yew, Wing-Wai; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Cheng, Augustine F B

    2004-01-01

    Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of rifapentine, isoniazid, and moxifloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 27294 were studied using a radiometric culture system. Rifapentine at 20 mg/liter gave the longest PAE (104 h) among the drugs used alone. The combinations of rifapentine plus isoniazid, rifapentine plus moxifloxacin, and isoniazid plus moxifloxacin gave PAEs of 136.5, 59.0, and 8.3 h, respectively.

  8. In Vitro Postantibiotic Effects of Rifapentine, Isoniazid, and Moxifloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chiu-Yeung; Au-Yeang, Carrie; Yew, Wing-Wai; Leung, Chi-Chiu; Cheng, Augustine F. B.

    2004-01-01

    Postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of rifapentine, isoniazid, and moxifloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATCC 27294 were studied using a radiometric culture system. Rifapentine at 20 mg/liter gave the longest PAE (104 h) among the drugs used alone. The combinations of rifapentine plus isoniazid, rifapentine plus moxifloxacin, and isoniazid plus moxifloxacin gave PAEs of 136.5, 59.0, and 8.3 h, respectively. PMID:14693563

  9. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  10. Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Feng; Lin, Yujun; Cui, Kunyan; Wen, Jiaxin; Ma, Yongqin; Chen, Hongli; Zhu, Fang; Ma, Zhiling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2010-02-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Bulk atmospheric deposition samples were collected two-weekly, from February 2007 to January 2008, at three representative areas, one suburban and two urbanized, in the subtropical city, Guangzhou, China, to assess the deposition fluxes and seasonal variations of phthalate esters (PAEs). Sixteen PAE congeners in bulk deposition samples were measured and the depositional fluxes of ∑ 16PAEs ranged from 3.41 to 190 μg m -2 day -1, and were highly affected by local anthropogenic activities. The significant relationship between PAEs and particulate depositional fluxes (correlation coefficient R2 = 0.72, P < 0.001) showed PAEs are associated primarily with particles. Temporal flux variations of PAEs were influenced by seasonal changes in meteorological parameters, and the deposition fluxes of PAEs were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Diisobutyl phthalate (D iBP), Di- n-butyl phthalate (D nBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAE pattern in bulk depositions, which is consistent with a high consumption of the plasticizer market in China. PAE profiles in bulk deposition showed similarities exhibited in both time and space, and a weak increase of high molecular weight PAE (HMW PAE) contribution in the wet season compared to those in the dry season. Average atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAEs in the present study were significantly higher than those from other studies, reflecting strong anthropogenic inputs as a consequence of rapid industrial and urban development in the region.

  11. Monitoring of phthalates in foodstuffs using gas purge microsyringe extraction coupled with GC-MS.

    PubMed

    He, Miao; Yang, Cui; Geng, Renjie; Zhao, Xiangai; Hong, Lian; Piao, Xiangfan; Chen, Tie; Quinto, Maurizio; Li, Donghao

    2015-06-16

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are commonly used as nonreactive plasticisers in vinyl plastics to increase the flexibility of plastic polymers. Numerous studies have indicated that the PAEs as a class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, the studies have also shown that a major source of human exposure to phthalates is the diet. To date, the largest problem in PAEs analysis is the high blank value because PAEs are widely used in various applications and products. To overcome this shortcoming, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was applied, which established a new and low-blank-value analytical method for PAE analysis to analyse PAEs in foodstuffs. In this study, GP-MSE was used as a clean-up method, and the overall recoveries ranged from 85.7 to 102.6%, and the RSD was less than 10%. More importantly, this method can overcome the problem of the high blank value in PAE analysis. This method was applied for measuring PAEs in 78 foodstuffs. The results showed that a wide variety of PAE concentrations were found in the different groups, and the content of PAEs (varies from 658 to 1610 ng g(-1) fresh weight) is greatest in seafood. The concentrations were in the following order: DEHP>DBP>DEP≈DMP>BBP≈DNOP. Finally, the daily intake of PAEs was estimated for adults based on the levels of PAEs in foodstuffs. The total EDIdiet values of 3.2 and 12.9 μg kg(-1) bw d(-1) were calculated for DEHP based on the mean and highest concentrations in foodstuffs, respectively.

  12. Occurrence and removal characteristics of phthalate esters from typical water sources in northeast china.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin

    2013-01-01

    The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir-the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks) was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%), the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  13. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk; Kim, Okjin

    2016-03-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites.

  14. Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract on experimental Eimeria tenella infection

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sunhwa; Oh, Gi-Wook; Kang, Won-Guk

    2016-01-01

    Anticoccidial effects of the Plantago asiatica extract (PAE) were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This study was conducted on the 3-day-old chickens (n=30). Those animals were divided with 3 groups; PAE 0.1% treated/infected (n=10), PAE untreated/infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Chickens were fed a standard diet supplemented with or without PAE for 1 week prior to infection with E. tenella (10,000 sporulated oocysts per chicken). The effects of PAE on E. tenella infection were assessed by two parameters; fecal oocysts shedding and body weights gain. The PAE-fed chickens produced significantly reduced fecal oocysts (P<0.05) when compared to the E. tenella-infected group fed standard diet. Also, PAE-based diet, improved body weight loss caused by E. tenella infection. Our data demonstrated that PAE had remarkable anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. This finding might have implications for the development of anticoccidial drug. This study is the first to demonstrate anticoccidial effect of PAE on Eimeria parasites. PMID:27051444

  15. Alcohol expectancies, perceived norms, and drinking behavior among college students: examining the reciprocal determinism hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-03-01

    Social learning mechanisms, such as descriptive norms for drinking behavior (norms) and positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs), play a major role in college student alcohol use. According to the principle of reciprocal determinism (Bandura, 1977), norms and PAEs should be reciprocally associated with alcohol use, each influencing one another over time. However, the nature of these prospective relationships for college students is in need of further investigation. This study provided the first examination of the unique reciprocal associations among norms, PAEs, and drinking together in a single model. PAEs become more stable with age, whereas norms are likely to be more dynamic upon college entry. Thus, we hypothesized that alcohol use would show stronger reciprocal associations with norms than with PAEs for college students. Students (N = 557; 67% women) completed online measures of PAEs, norms, and quantity and frequency of alcohol use in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. Reciprocal associations were analyzed using a cross-lagged panel design. PAEs had unidirectional influences on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, with no prospective effects from alcohol use to PAEs. Reciprocal associations were observed between norms and alcohol use, but only for quantity and not for frequency. Specifically, drinking quantity prospectively predicted quantity norms and quantity norms prospectively predicted drinking quantity. This effect was observed across both years in the model. These findings support the reciprocal determinism hypothesis for norms but not for PAEs in college students and may help to inform norm-based interventions.

  16. Occurrence, spatial distribution, historical trend and ecological risk of phthalate esters in the Jiulong River, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongli; Liang, Jing; Gong, Zhenbin; Zhang, Ningning; Duan, Hualing

    2017-02-15

    The occurrence and spatial distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the Jiulong River of southeast China were investigated in water and sediment samples collected from 35 stations along the river in Mar. 2014. The historical trend of the past 26years was reconstructed with a sediment core collected in Dec. 2012 via a (210)Pb dating technique. The potential ecological risk of PAEs was assessed using the risk quotient (RQ) method. Of the 16 PAE congeners analyzed, only 6 PAEs, including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP), were identified and quantified; the remaining 10 PAEs were below their respective limits of quantification (LOQs) for the analytical methods used here. The cumulative concentration of 6 PAEs (∑6PAEs) found in the samples spanned a range of 3.48-17.7μg/L in water and 0.046-1.65mg/kg in sediment. The most abundant PAEs in the water-phase were DEHP and DIBP, together accounting for 84.9% of ∑6PAEs in the North River, 82.8% of ∑6PAEs in the West River and 91.6% of ∑6PAEs in the estuary. DEHP and DINP were the richest congeners in the sediment-phase, with proportions of 84.9% in the North River, 81.0% in the West River and 65.4% in the estuary. The spatial distribution of ∑6PAEs in water and sediment phases showed that the riverside environment had influence on the distribution pattern. The reconstruction profile of the PAE congeners and the ∑6PAEs vs the depth of the sediment core indicated that PAEs became increasingly present pollutants around 2006 in the Jiulong River. The results of the potential ecological risk assessment of the RQ method revealed that DIBP and DEHP posed a high risk because of their relatively higher concentrations, while DBP and DINP posed a medium risk to the aquatic system. The baseline data of PAEs in this river will be benefits to the regulatory attention and future

  17. Occurrence of phthalate esters in sediments in Qiantang River, China and inference with urbanization and river flow regime.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Anping; Liu, Weiping; Cheng, Wenwei

    2013-03-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of emerging organic contaminants, have become a serious issue arousing much attention for their ubiquitous presence and hazardous impact on the environment. This study provides the first data on distribution of PAEs in the sediments in the Qiantang River, Zhejiang Province, China, and the inference with urbanization and river flow regime. PAEs were detected in all 23 sediment samples analyzed, and the total concentrations of their 16 congeners in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 6.74μg/g dry weight (dw), with the geometric mean value of 2.03μg/g dw. Of the 16 PAE congeners, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were present in all sediment samples. The PAEs concentrations in urban regions were higher than those in rural regions because of higher discharge of PAEs from plastic materials in urbanized areas. Concentrations of PAEs were positively correlated with sediment organic matter (fOM) and negatively correlated with logistic value of annual average flow volume at sample sites. River flow regime modified by man-made dams significantly affected the distribution of PAEs. Analysis of congener composition of PAEs indicated that the DEHP was predominant congener in the Qiantang River. The normalized concentration of DEHP exceeded recommended environmental risk limit (ERL).

  18. Effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ["Avocado"] ethanolic leaf extract on blood glucose and kidney function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on kidney cell lines of the proximal (LLCPK1) and distal tubules (MDBK).

    PubMed

    Gondwe, M; Kamadyaapa, D R; Tufts, M A; Chuturgoon, A A; Ojewole, J A O; Musabayane, C T

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) ("Avocado") have been traditionally used to treat hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accordingly, we studied the hypoglycaemic and renal function effects of P. americana leaf ethanolic extracts (PAE) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Oral glucose tolerance responses to various doses of PAE were monitored in fasted rats following a glucose load. Rats treated with deionized water or standard hypoglycaemic drugs acted as untreated and treated positive controls, respectively. Acute renal effects of PAE were investigated in anesthetized rats challenged with 0.077 M NaCl after a 3.5-h equilibration for 4 h comprising 1 h control, 1.5 h treatment and 1.5 h recovery periods. PAE was added to the infusate during the treatment period. Hepatic glycogen concentration was measured after 6 weeks of daily treatment with PAE. PAE induced dose-dependent hypoglycaemic responses in STZ-induced diabetic rats while subchronic PAE treatment additionally increased hepatic glycogen concentrations. Acute PAE infusion decreased urine flow and electrolyte excretion rates, whilst subchronic treatment reduced plasma creatinine and urea concentrations. These results indicate not only the basis of the ethnomedicinal use of P. americana leaf extract in diabetes management, but also of need for further studies to identify and evaluate the safety of PAE's bioactive compounds.

  19. [Degradation of phthalate esters in soil and the effects on soil enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shi, Yi-Jing; Cui, Yin; Xie, Hui-Jun; Wang, Wen-Xing

    2010-12-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are a kind of widespread toxic organic compounds in the environment. We discussed the different degradation rate of four kinds of PAEs in the soil and its impact on different soil enzyme activities. We used GC-MS methods to determine the concentration of PAEs in soil. The results showed that soil microorganisms play a major role in the degradation of PAEs. The biodegradation diagram of PAEs was accord with first-order kinetics equation. And the shorter carbon chain, the better degradation efficiency. With the high concentration of PAE30, DnOP, which has long carbon chain, the degradation efficiency is lower than that of PAE1 and PAE10, only 73% was degraded after 40 days. We use standard methods to determine the matrix enzyme activities, after adding the PAEs into soil, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease, protease activity have changed. Phosphatase activity decreased at first and then increased, beta-glucosidase activity decreased slowly, protease activity increased at first and then decreased, the activity of urease increased gradually. After 20 days, except for beta-glucosidase activity continued decreasing, the activities of others enzyme recovered gradually, and higher than the control group.

  20. [Characteristics of Phthalic Acid Esters in Agricultural Soils and Products in Areas of Zhongshan City, South China].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wu, Shan; Liang, Jin-ming; Liang, Wen-li; Chen, Gui-xian; Li, Yong-jun; Yang, Guo-yi

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate and assess the pollution level of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in farm soils and products from typical agricultural fields in areas of Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, South China, 65 topsoil and 37 agricultural product samples were collected and contents of 6 PAEs compounds that classified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants were determined by the GC-FID. The results indicated that total contents of the PAEs (∑ PAEs) in soils ranged from 0. 14 to 1. 14 mg x kg(-1), and the mean value was 0.43 mg x kg(-1), with the detected ratio of 100%. Various concentrations of PAEs differed in three land-use types were ordered by vegetable soil > orchard soil > paddy soil. Comparing with six U.S. EPA priority pollutants of PAEs, the contents of Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Dimethyl phthalate ( DMP) in soils exceeded the control limits of PAEs in the American soil by 93.85% and 27.69% respectively, but the rest four PAEs compounds were lower than the control limits. Generally, the pollution level of soils contaminated by PAEs in agricultural fields of Zhongshan City was relatively low. The contents of 3 PAEs in agricultural products ranged from 0.15 to 3.15 mg x kg(-1) with the average of 1.12 mg x kg(-1), which was lower than the suggested standards in USA and Europe and with low health risk. Meanwhile, ∑ PAEs concentrations in vegetables were higher than those both in rice and fruits. DBP and DEHP were the main components of PAEs both in agricultural soils and products, with higher percentage contents and detected ratio. ∑ PAEs and DBP contents in various agricultural products-soils had a significantly positive correlation, with Pearson coefficients (r) in vegetables-vegetable soils were 0.81 (P = 0.000), 0.75 (P = 0.000), and corresponding r among rice-paddy soil and fruits-fruit soils were 0.74 (P = 0.036), 0.65 (P = 0.041) and 0.66 (P = 0.029), 0.78 (P = 0.045), respectively. Although there existed a

  1. Stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult male rats is altered by prenatal ethanol exposure

    PubMed Central

    SLIWOWSKA, J. H.; BARKER, J. M.; BARHA, C. K.; LAN, N.; WEINBERG, J.; GALEA, L. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    In adulthood, both alcohol (ethanol) and stress are known to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis in male rats. Similarly, most studies report that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces cell proliferation and/or cell survival in the hippocampus of adult males. Furthermore, PAE is known to have marked effects on behavioral and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) responsiveness to stressors. However, no studies have examined the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by stress in PAE animals. We hypothesized that, in accordance with previous data, PAE would suppress basal levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and further that stress acting on a sensitized HPA axis would have greater adverse effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in PAE than in control rats. Adult male offspring from PAE, pair-fed (PF) control, and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to restraint stress (9 days, 1 h/day) or left undisturbed. Rats were then injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) on day 10, perfused 24 h (proliferation) or 3 weeks (survival) later, and brains processed for BrdU immunohistochemistry. We found that (1) under non-stressed conditions, PAE rats had a small but statistically significant suppressive effect on levels of hippocampal neurogenesis and (2) unexpectedly, repeated restraint stress significantly reduced neurogenesis in C and PF, but not PAE rats. We speculate that the failure of PAE males to mount an appropriate (i.e. suppressive) neurogenic response to stressors, implies reduced plasticity and adaptability or resilience, which could impact negatively on hippocampal structure and function. PMID:20536332

  2. Evaluating Pharmacological Effects of Two Major Components of Shuangdan Oral Liquid: Role of Danshensu and Paeonol in Diabetic Nephropathy Rat

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Zhuying; Zhou, Fuxing; Zhao, Hang; Yang, Qian; Li, Hua; Sun, Jiyuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Shuangdan oral liquid (SDO) containing radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (Chinese name Danshen) and cortex moutan (Chinese name Mudanpi) is a traditional Chinese medicine using for treating vascular diseases. Danshensu (DSS) is a main effective monomer composition derived from radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and paeonol (Pae) from cortex moutan. Although the two herbs are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, the pharmacological functions of their active compositions were not reported. Therefore, the research of DSS and Pae in mechanisms and pharmacodynamics interaction can provide scientific evidence to support clinical application. The diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats which were induced by streptozotocin (STZ) were treated with SDO, DSS, Pae, and DSS+Pae for eight weeks. The positive effects on DN animal models were investigated by detection of physiological and biochemical indexes and oxidative stress markers, within five treatments: SDO, DSS, Pae, DSS+Pae and insulin group. Compared with the model group, the DSS+Pae group improved the renal function, blood lipid metabolism and blood viscosity, increased the vitality of T-SOD or T-AOC and decreased the level of MDA or NO after the treatment. The study was successfully showed that the DSS+Pae group could delay the process of DN, especially in the renal injury part of histopathology changes. Our results suggest that the co-administration of DSS and Pae significantly may play a protective role in DN rats through decreasing the oxidative stress and improving the blood lipid metabolism mechanisms. PMID:27582557

  3. Differential effects of the histamine H3 receptor agonist methimepip on dentate granule cell excitability, paired-pulse plasticity and long-term potentiation in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Varaschin, Rafael K.; Rosenberg, Martina J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Savage, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that prenatal alcohol-induced deficits in dentate gyrus (DG) long-term potentiation (LTP) are ameliorated by the histamine H3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. ABT-239 did not enhance LTP in control rats, suggesting a heightened H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release in prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE) offspring. As the modulation of glutamate release is one important facet of LTP, we examined the effect of methimepip, a histamine H3 receptor agonist, on DG granule cell excitability, glutamate release and LTP in control and PAE rats. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution four hours daily throughout gestation. Male adult offspring were anesthetized with urethane and electrodes implanted into the entorhinal cortex and DG. PAE reduced coupling of excitatory post-synaptic field potentials to population spikes, an effect mimicked in control rats treated with 1 mg/kg methimepip. Methimepip decreased release probability in controls but not in PAE offspring. GABAergic feedback inhibition of granule cell responsiveness was not affected by either PAE or methimepip. PAE reduced LTP in the DG, another effect mimicked in methimepip-treated control rats. Again, methimepip did not exacerbate the PAE-induced LTP deficit. Thus, while methimepip treatment of control rats mimicked some baseline and activity-dependent deficits observed in saline-treated PAE offspring, methimepip treatment of PAE rats did not exacerbate these deficits. Whether the absence of an added methimepip effect in PAE offspring is a consequence of a “floor effect” for the responses measured or is due to differential drug dose responsiveness will require further investigation. Further, more detailed studies of H3 receptor-mediated responses in vitro may provide clearer insights into the role of the H3 receptor regulation of excitatory transmission at the perforant path - DG synapse in PAE rats. PMID:24818819

  4. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F.; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the HPA or stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5–18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA. PMID:27286932

  5. Positive alcohol expectancies mediate the influence of the behavioral activation system on alcohol use: a prospective path analysis.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P; Colder, Craig R; Merrill, Jennifer E

    2012-04-01

    Gray's (1975, 1987) behavioral activation (BAS) and behavioral inhibition systems (BIS) are thought to underlie sensitivity to reinforcement and punishment, respectively. Consistent with Gray's theory and the Acquired Preparedness model, BAS may facilitate the learning of positive alcohol expectancies (PAEs) over time, leading to increases in drinking. Yet, no prospective tests of this pathway have been reported. The present study investigated whether BAS prospectively predicted PAEs and whether PAEs mediated the association between BAS and subsequent alcohol use. We hypothesized that BAS would influence drinking specifically via enhancement-related PAEs. We also explored the role of BIS in PAEs and drinking. College students (N=557) completed online BAS, PAE, and alcohol use measures in September of their first (T1), second (T2), and third (T3) years of college. We conducted autoregressive path analyses with three BAS subscales and BIS (T1) as predictors, four PAE types (T2) as mediators, and quantity and frequency of drinking (T3) as outcomes. The BAS Fun-Seeking scale was prospectively associated with PAEs, and there was a significant indirect path from Fun-Seeking to alcohol use mediated specifically through activity enhancement PAEs. BIS was positively associated with some PAE types, but did not have indirect effects on drinking. Findings are consistent with both the theory of the BAS and the Acquired Preparedness model, as individuals high on BAS Fun-Seeking may find the rewarding properties of alcohol more reinforcing, leading to stronger enhancement PAEs and increased drinking over time. The prospective design helps establish the temporal association between BAS and alcohol-related learning, and points to the need for prevention efforts that target these at-risk students.

  6. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring.

  7. Distribution of phthalate esters in topsoil: a case study in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Hongjun, Yang; Wenjun, Xie; Qing, Liu; Jingtao, Liu; Hongwen, Yu; Zhaohua, Lu

    2013-10-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of phthalate esters (PAEs) of soil residues, soil samples (0∼20 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. PAEs were detected in all topsoil samples analyzed, which indicated that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Concentrations of 11 PAEs are in the range of 0.794∼19.504 μg g(-1), with an average value of 2.975 μg g(-1). It was presented that PAEs pollution in this area was weak and monotonously increasing along the rural-urban gradient. Higher concentrations were observed from roadsides (and/or gutters), densely anthropogenic activities areas (such as the urbanization and industrialization), and agriculture influence district, which mainly originated from construction waste, municipal sewage, agricultural waste and pesticide, discarded plastic effusion and atmospheric depositions. Concentrations of PAEs were weakly positivity correlated with soil organic carbon content and pH, which suggested both of them can affect the distribution of PAEs. The concentration of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate dominated in the 11 PAEs, with the average values of 0.735 and 1.915 μg g(-1), respectively, and accounted for 92.1 % of the whole PAEs' concentrations. No significant differences of PAE congeneric profiles were observed between our work and others previously reported, which is consistent with the use of similar commercial PAEs around the world.

  8. Soil contamination by phthalate esters in Chinese intensive vegetable production systems with different modes of use of plastic film.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Ma, Wenting; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2013-09-01

    The concentrations of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in intensively managed suburban vegetable soils in Nanjing, east China, were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAE concentrations in the soils ranged widely from 0.15 to 9.68 mg kg(-1) with a median value of 1.70 mg kg(-1), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) were the most abundant phthalate esters. Soil PAE concentrations depended on the mode of use of plastic film in which PAEs were incorporated as plasticizing agents and both the plastic film and poultry manure appeared to be important sources of soil PAEs. Vegetables in rotation with flooded rice led to lower concentrations of PAEs in soil. The results indicate that agricultural plastic film can be an important source of soil PAE contamination and further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanisms of PAE contamination of intensive agricultural soils with different use modes of use of plastic film.

  9. Analysis of power efficiencies of polar transmitter and HPA in OFDM communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Heung-Gyoon

    2014-02-01

    Polar transmitter is known as good candidates for high data rate systems such as OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) because they can obtain high-efficiency switched-mode radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. But it is important to consider the nonlinear effects and power efficiency of the amplifier in the OFDM communication systems. High PAPR (peak-to-average power ratio) causes performance degradation by non-linear distortion in OFDM communication system. So to avoid non-linear distortion, back-off is needed. In addition, output of amplifier is lower and the power efficiency is reduced because of back-off. In this article, we compare PAE (power added efficiency) of polar transmitter in OFDM system and PAE of HPA (high power amplifier) in OFDM system. Also, we analyse PAE according to back-off in DFT-spread OFDM (discrete Fourier transform-spread OFDM), which is PAPR reduction method and we compare with PAE of polar transmitter in OFDM system. And we analyse output spectrum of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM system. Through spectrum analysis, we analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM, which is satisfied with output spectrum mask of 3rd generation long term evolution (3G LTE) and also compare with PAE polar transmitter of OFDM system, which is satisfied with spectrum mask. Finally, we analyse PAE according to modulation method and analyse PAE of OFDM and DFT-spread OFDM at same bit error rate.

  10. DoD Infrastructure: Why It Is & What Does It Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    support decision makers. 46 LMI Comparison of CORM Example to PA&E Infrastructure Categories Roles and Missions Example PA&E Categories 1 echnology ...On-line BQ registration & check in/out »Replace cash counting, manual head counts at galleys » Replaces weapons cards »Automates mobilization

  11. Occurrence, fate, behavior and ecotoxicological state of phthalates in different environmental matrices.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Sempéré, Richard; Delmont, Anne; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-04-07

    Because of their large and widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in all the environmental compartements. They have been widely detected throughout the worldwide environment. Indoor air where people spend 65-90% of their time is also highly contaminated by various PAEs released from plastics, consumer products as well as ambient suspended particulate matter. Because of their widespread application, PAEs are the most common chemicals that humans are in contact with daily. Based on various exposure mechanisms, including the ingestion of food, drinking water, dust/soil, air inhalation and dermal exposure the daily intake of PAEs may reach values as high as 70 μg/kg/day. PAEs are involved in endocrine disrupting effects, namely, upon reproductive physiology in different species of fish and mammals. They also present a variety of additional toxic effects for many other species including terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Therefore, their presence in the environment has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health. This paper is a synthesis of the extensive literature data on behavior, transport, fate and ecotoxicological state of PAEs in environmental matrices: air, water, sediment, sludge, wastewater, soil, and biota. First, the origins and physicochemical properties of PAEs that control the behavior, transport and fate in the environment are reviewed. Second, the compilation of data on transport and fate, adverse environmental and human health effects, legislation, restrictions, and ecotoxicological state of the environment based on PAEs is presented.

  12. Reliable quantification of phthalates in environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil): a review.

    PubMed

    Net, Sopheak; Delmont, Anne; Sempéré, Richard; Paluselli, Andrea; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2015-05-15

    Because of their widespread application, phthalates or phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Their presence has attracted considerable attention due to their potential impacts on ecosystem functioning and on public health, so their quantification has become a necessity. Various extraction procedures as well as gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry detection techniques are found as suitable for reliable detection of such compounds. However, PAEs are ubiquitous in the laboratory environment including ambient air, reagents, sampling equipment, and various analytical devices, that induces difficult analysis of real samples with a low PAE background. Therefore, accurate PAE analysis in environmental matrices is a challenging task. This paper reviews the extensive literature data on the techniques for PAE quantification in natural media. Sampling, sample extraction/pretreatment and detection for quantifying PAEs in different environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil) have been reviewed and compared. The concept of "green analytical chemistry" for PAE determination is also discussed. Moreover useful information about the material preparation and the procedures of quality control and quality assurance are presented to overcome the problem of sample contamination and these encountered due to matrix effects in order to avoid overestimating PAE concentrations in the environment.

  13. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑5PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log Kow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  14. 24 CFR 401.503 - Access to information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access to information. 401.503... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Restructuring Plan § 401.503 Access to information. (a) PAE responsibilities. The PAE must provide to parties entitled to notice under § 401.501 access to information obtained by the...

  15. Secondary Agricultural Education Teachers as Agents of Change in Oklahoma and the Adoption of Precision Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickeson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that precision agricultural education (PAE) in Oklahoma affects environmental quality, water conservation, and crop yields. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore the nature and perceived effectiveness of PAE in Oklahoma secondary agricultural education classes. The study was framed by the diffusion of…

  16. Legume-grass intercropping phytoremediation of phthalic acid esters in soil near an electronic waste recycling site: a field study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming; Christie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the phytoremediation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) by legume (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.)-grass (perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. and tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea) intercropping in contaminated agricultural soil at one of the largest e-waste recycling sites in China. Two compounds, DEHP and DnBP, were present in the soil and in the shoots of the test plants at much higher concentrations than the other target PAEs studied. Over 80% of 'total' (i.e., all six) PAEs were removed from the soil across all treatments by the end of the experiment. Alfalfa in monoculture removed over 90% of PAEs and alfalfa in the intercrop of the three plant species contained the highest shoot concentration of total PAEs of about 4.7 mg kg(-1) DW (dry weight). Calculation of phytoextraction efficiency indicated that the most effective plant combinations in eliminating soil PAEs were the three-species intercrop (1.78%) and the alfalfa monocrop (1.41%). Phytoremediation with alfalfa was effective in both monoculture and intercropping. High bioconcentration factors (BCFs) indicated the occurrence of significant extraction of PAEs by plants from soil, suggesting that phytoremediation may have potential for the removal of PAEs from contaminated soils.

  17. 24 CFR 401.550 - Monitoring and compliance agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgage insurance programs. The regulatory agreement must contain remedies for breach, including monetary..., or contract with other parties to perform, the PAE's functions under this section if: (1) The project is subject to a PRA with a PAE that is not qualified to be a section 8 contract administrator; or...

  18. Status of phthalate esters contamination in agricultural soils across China and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lili; Xu, Yang; Xu, Chao; Yun, Lingxiang; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The extensive utilization of phthalate-containing products has lead to ubiquitous contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) in various matrices. However, comprehensive knowledge of their pollution in Chinese farmland and associated risks is still limited. In this study, 15 PAEs were determined in soils from agricultural fields throughout the Mainland China. The concentrations of Σ15PAEs were in the range of 75.0-6369 μg kg(-1). Three provinces (i.e., Fujian, Guangdong and Xinjiang, China) showed the highest loadings of PAEs. Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found as the most abundant component and contributed 71.5% to the ∑15PAEs. The major source of PAEs in arable soils was associated with the application of agricultural plastic films, followed by the activities for soil fertility. Furthermore, the non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of target PAEs were estimated. The hazard indexes (HIs) of PAEs in all samples were below 1 and the carcinogenic risk levels were all within 10(-4). Results from this study will provide valuable information for Chinese agricultural soil management and risk avoidance.

  19. Simple Model of a Photoacoustic System as a CR Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko "et al" 2010 "J. Chem. Educ." 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we…

  20. Postantibiotic effects and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of tilmicosin, erythromycin and tiamulin on erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains of Streptococcus suis (M phenotype) were investigated in vitro. Tilmicosin and tiamulin induced significantly longer PAE and PA SME against both erythromycin-susceptible and erythromycin-resistant strains than did erythromycin. The durations of PAE and PA SMEs were proportional to the concentrations of drugs used for exposure. The PA SMEs were substantially longer than PAEs on S. suis (P<0.05) regardless of the antimicrobial used for exposure. The results indicated that the PAE and PA SME could help in the design of efficient control strategies for infection especially caused by erythromycin-resistant S. suis and that they may provide additional valuable information for the rational drug use in clinical practice.

  1. Comparative genomics of pectinacetylesterases: Insight on function and biology

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Amancio José; Pauly, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Pectin acetylation influences the gelling ability of this important plant polysaccharide for the food industry. Plant apoplastic pectinacetylesterases (PAEs) play a key role in regulating the degree of pectin acetylation and modifying their expression thus represents one way to engineer plant polysaccharides for food applications. Identifying the major active enzymes within the PAE gene family will aid in our understanding of this biological phenomena as well as provide the tools for direct trait manipulation. Using comparative genomics we propose that there is a minimal set of 4 distinct PAEs in plants. Possible functional diversification of the PAE family in the grasses is also explored with the identification of 3 groups of PAE genes specific to grasses. PMID:26237162

  2. [Distribution characteristics of phthalic acid esters in soils and plants at e-waste recycling sites in Taizhou of Zhejiang, China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Lian-Qiu; Shen, Chao-Feng; Wang, Jiang

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, great attention has being paid on the consequences of improper electric and electronic waste (e-waste) disposal. In this paper, soil and plant samples were collected from the e-waste recycling sites in Taizhou City of Zhejiang Province, China, with five kinds of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) analyzed. In the soil samples, the total PAEs concentration was 12.566-46.669 mg x kg(-1) soil, among which, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were the major phthalates, accounting for more than 94% of the total. In the plant samples, the PAEs concentration was obviously higher in Vicia faba L. than in other plants. No significant correlations were observed in the PAEs concentration between soils and various plants (P > 0.05). Comparing with the soil cleanup guidelines in USA, the soils at test sites were severely contaminated by PAEs.

  3. Comparing diagnostic classification of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure with the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder guidelines: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, James L.; Breen, Rebecca E. Hudson; Netelenbos, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Second, classification of ND-PAE was compared with FAS and pFAS only, a criterion for which includes facial features highly predictive of prenatal alcohol exposure and effects. Methods: Eighty-two patients underwent multidisciplinary clinical evaluations using the Canadian FASD diagnostic guidelines between 2011 and 2015. Two clinicians independently reviewed patient files for evidence of diagnostic criteria for ND-PAE when applying an impairment cut-off level of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean, or clinically significant impairment in the absence of standardized norm-referenced measures. Results: Good interrater reliability was established between clinicians (κ = 0.79). Classifications of ND-PAE and Canadian FASD diagnoses, including alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, were moderately correlated (Cramer V [82] = 0.44, p < 0.01). However, ND-PAE possessed low sensitivity in FASD identification. Further, there was no correlation between ND-PAE and FAS/pFAS classifications (Cramer V [82] = 0.05, p > 0.05). Interpretation: Although there is considerable overlap between both sets of criteria, ND-PAE was less likely to identify patients with FASD. Although the neurobehavioral domains assessed by ND-PAE are supported in research, its diagnostic structure restricts the identification of FASD at the impairment threshold of 2 or more standard deviations. A

  4. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants. PMID:27575856

  5. Distribution of phthalate esters in agricultural soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kankan; Ma, Dong; Wu, Juan; Chai, Chao; Shi, Yanxi

    2016-12-01

    The content of phthalate esters (PAEs) was investigated in 36 vegetable fields with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula, East China. Soils at depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-40 cm were collected, and 16 PAEs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAEs were detected in all the analyzed samples. The total contents of the 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.374 to 18.810 mg/kg, with an average of 6.470 mg/kg. Among the four areas of Shandong Peninsula, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the highest Σ16PAE in the soil was observed in Weifang district (9.786 mg/kg), which is famous for large-scale vegetable production. Despite the significant differences among the Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions in soils with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula were comparable. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate, and di(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate were present in all the samples, whereas di-n-hexyl phthalate was detected only in Qingdao (∼1%) and dicyclohexyl phthalate was observed only in Weifang (5.7-8.2%) in low proportions. The ratios of dimethyl phthalate, DEP, and di-n-butyl phthalate, which exceeded allowable concentrations, were 63.9-100% at different soil depths, indicating high PAE pollution. The concentration of butyl benzyl phthalate detected only in Weifang exceeded the recommended allowable soil concentration. Overall, the high PAE content in the soil with plastic film mulching in Shandong Peninsula is an issue of concern because of the large amounts of plastic film used.

  6. Xylose induces the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica to produce a cutinase-like enzyme which efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Fujii, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Hiroko Kuze

    2014-03-01

    There is a need to speed up the degradation of used agricultural mulch films that are made of biodegradable plastics (BPs) in the field. Treating them with BP-degrading enzymes could be a solution to this problem. A cutinase-like enzyme of yeast Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) has wide specificity of BPs degradation, but needs to be produced efficiently. Here we report that the production of PaE by P. antarctica can be increased by using xylose as carbon source. BP-degradation activity was analyzed using a polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) emulsion as the substrate. Strain P. antarctica GB-4(1)W was found to be the best PaE producer among the tested strains. Using a 5-L jar fermentor with xylose fed-batch cultivation, high PaE productivity could be maintained and about 21 U/ml of PaE was obtained in 120 h. This amount was 100 times higher than the amount that we obtained previously (0.21 U/ml by flask cultivation using glycerol as carbon source). Under repeated xylose fed-batch cultivation with 24 h intervals, the maximum PaE production rate (0.34 U/ml/h) was maintained and the highest PaE productivity (28,000 U/2 L/d) was repeatedly obtained for 7 intervals. The activity of filtered jar-culture (crude PaE) was stable over 12 weeks at 4°C. Commercially available BP mulch films (20 μm thickness, cut into 1-cm-squares) were completely degraded by submerging them in crude PaE (2 U/ml) at 30°C in 24 h. These results indicated that concentrated PaE can rapidly degrade the strength of BP mulch films in the field so that they do not interfere with plowing.

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure potentiates chronic neuropathic pain, spinal glial and immune cell activation and alters sciatic nerve and DRG cytokine levels.

    PubMed

    Noor, Shahani; Sanchez, Joshua J; Vanderwall, Arden G; Sun, Melody S; Maxwell, Jessie R; Davies, Suzy; Jantzie, Lauren L; Petersen, Timothy R; Savage, Daniel D; Milligan, Erin D

    2017-03-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may predispose individuals to secondary medical disabilities later in life. Animal models of PAE reveal neuroimmune sequelae such as elevated brain astrocyte and microglial activation with corresponding region-specific changes in immune signaling molecules such as cytokines and chemokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate PAE on the development and maintenance of allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in adult male rat offspring. Because CCI allodynia requires the actions of glial cytokines, we analyzed lumbar spinal cord glial and immune cell surface markers indicative of their activation levels, as well as sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cytokines in PAE offspring in adulthood. While PAE did not alter basal sensory thresholds before or after sham manipulations, PAE significantly potentiated adult onset and maintenance of allodynia. Microscopic analysis revealed exaggerated astrocyte and microglial activation, while flow cytometry data demonstrated increased proportions of immune cells with cell surface major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) and β-integrin adhesion molecules, which are indicative of PAE-induced immune cell activation. Sciatic nerves from CCI rats revealed that PAE potentiated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) protein levels with a simultaneous robust suppression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. A profound reduction in IL-10 expression in the DRG of PAE neuropathic rats was also observed. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the vulnerability that PAE produces for adult-onset central nervous system (CNS) pathological conditions from peripheral nerve injury.

  8. Calcium and oxidative stress mediate perillaldehyde-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Qu, Su; Wang, Yanzhen; Lu, Zhaoqun; Zhang, Man; Gan, Yeyun; Zhang, Peng; Tian, Jun

    2017-02-21

    New anti-Candida albicans drugs are needed due to the emergence of resistant cases in recent years. Perillaldehyde (PAE) is a natural monoterpenoid compound derived from Perilla frutescens. The minimum inhibitory concentration of PAE against C. albicans was 0.4 μL/mL. We aimed to elucidate the antifungal mode of action of PAE against C. albicans. The antifungal activity of PAE against C. albicans was found to correlate with an elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) and accumulation of ROS. Several downstream apoptosis events such as the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, cytochrome c release, and metacaspase activation were observed in PAE-treated cells. DNA damage and nuclear fragmentation assays also revealed apoptosis of C. albicans cells. In summary, by means of fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometer analysis, and Western blot, our data uncovered that PAE exerts its antifungal activity through Ca(2+) and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis mechanisms. This study deciphered the mode of action of PAE, which will be useful in the design of improved antifungal therapies.

  9. Absorption characteristic of paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Chun; Zhou, Peng; Yu, Jun; Asenso, James; Ma, Yong; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-01

    1. Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25) was synthesized to improve the poor oral absorption of paeoniflorin (Pae). 2. This study was performed to investigate the absorptive behavior and mechanism of CP-25 in in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion in rats, using Pae as a control. 3. The results showed that intestinal absorption of CP-25 was neither segmental nor sex dependent. However, the main segment of intestine that absorbed Pae was the duodenum. Furthermore, passive transport was confirmed to be the main absorption pattern of CP-25. More importantly, the absorption of CP-25 was much higher than Pae in the small intestine. 4. Among the ABC transporter inhibitors, the absorption rate of Pae increased in the presence of P-gp inhibitors verapamil and GF120918, which indicated that Pae was a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), however, such was not observed in the presence of breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. Finally, the ABC transporter inhibitors did not have any significant impact on CP-25 as demonstrated in the parallel studies. 5. CP-25 could improve the poor absorption of Pae, which may be attributed to both the lipid solubility enhancement and its resistance to P-gp-mediated efflux.

  10. Phthalate esters and organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils and vegetables from fast-growing regions: a case study from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Tsang, Daniel C W; Li, Zhiheng; Zhu, Lizhong; Li, Xiangdong

    2016-10-13

    The present study investigated phthalate esters (PAEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils and vegetables from eastern China. The concentrations of PAEs ranged from 109 to 5560 ng/g in soils and 60.1 to 2390 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 946 and 601 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of OCPs ranged from <0.1 to 662 ng/g in soils and <0.1 to 42.8 ng/g in cabbages, with average concentrations of 134 and 11.6 ng/g, respectively. OCPs were mainly in the 0-30 cm surface soil layers, while PAEs could infiltrate in deep soil profiles to 70-80 cm layer. Potential source analysis traced the occurrence of OCPs to both historical application and current usage, whereas building materials and agricultural plastic film were possible input sources of PAEs in the ambient environment. OCPs showed no apparent effect on soil microbial communities, whereas significant negative relationship was observed between PAEs and fungi in soils (R = -0.54, p < 0.01). Human health risk assessment data revealed marginal noncarcinogenic risks and low carcinogenic risks in these soils. Notably, PAEs posed a comparable or higher risk level compared with that of OCPs. This study suggests the need for better regulation on pollution control and management of PAE-elevated sites to protect soil quality and food safety.

  11. Dynamic Computed Tomography Angiography: Role in the Evaluation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Anil, Gopinathan Tay, Kiang-Hiong; Howe, Tse-Chiang; Tan, Bien-Soo

    2011-04-15

    This study reviews our experience with dynamic computed tomographic angiography (CTA) as an imaging modality in the evaluation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). Eight patients with surgically proven PAES were included in this study. Dynamic CTA studies performed with the feet in neutral and plantar flexed positions were reviewed for the detailed anatomy of the region and to define the location and extent of the stenosis, occlusions and collateral circulation. These findings were compared with intraoperative observations. CTA provided adequate angiographic and anatomic information required to arrive at the diagnosis and make a surgical decision. Thirteen limbs were affected in eight patients. There was popliteal artery occlusion in four limbs, stenosis at rest that was accentuated on stress imaging in two limbs, and patent popliteal artery with marked stenosis on stress imaging in seven limbs. Long-segment stenosis was seen in functional entrapment compared to short-segment stenosis in anatomic PAES. Anteroposterior compression of the popliteal artery in anatomic PAES unlike the side-to-side compression in functional PAES was a unique observation in this study. The CTA and surgical characterisation and classification of PAES matched in all the patients, except for misinterpretation of compressing fibrous bands as accessory slips of muscles in three limbs. In conclusion, dynamic CTA is a robust diagnostic tool that provides clinically relevant information and serves as a rapidly performed and easily available 'one-stop-shop' imaging modality in the management of PAES.

  12. Paeonol Suppresses Neuroinflammatory Responses in LPS-Activated Microglia Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Li Xia; Tong, Xiaoyun; Zeng, Jing; Tu, Yuanqing; Wu, Saicun; Li, Manping; Deng, Huaming; Zhu, Miaomiao; Li, Xiucun; Nie, Hong; Yang, Li; Huang, Feng

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of paeonol (PAE) in LPS-activated N9 microglia cells, as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms. PAE had no adverse effect on the viability of murine microglia N9 cell line within a broad range (0.12∼75 μM). When N9 cell line was activated by LPS, PAE (0.6, 3, 15 μM) significantly suppressed the release of proinflammatory products, such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), demonstrated by the ELISA assay. Moreover, the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were significantly reduced in PAE-treated N9 microglia cells. We also examined some proteins involved in immune signaling pathways and found that PAE treatment significantly decreased the expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRAK4, TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), p-IkB-α, and NF-kB p65, as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway molecules p-P38, p-JNK, and p-ERK, indicating that PAE might act on these signaling pathways to inhibit inflammatory responses. Overall, we found that PAE had anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-activated N9 microglia cells, possibly via inhibiting the TLR4 signaling pathway, and it could be a potential drug therapy for inflammation-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Analysis of Phosphate Acquisition Efficiency in Different Arabidopsis Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Ram A.; Bruene, Asja; Altmann, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The morphological and physiological characteristics of Arabidopsis accessions differing in their phosphate acquisition efficiencies (PAEs) when grown on a sparingly soluble phosphate source (hydroxylapatite) were analyzed. A set of 36 accessions was subjected to an initial PAE evaluation following cultivation on synthetic, agarose-solidified media containing potassium phosphate (soluble) or hydroxylapatite (sparingly soluble). From the five most divergent accessions identified in this way, C24, Co, and Cal exhibited high PAEs, whereas Col-0 and Te exhibited low PAEs. These five accessions were analyzed in detail. Significant differences were found in root morphology, phosphate uptake kinetics, organic acid release, rhizosphere acidification, and the ability of roots to penetrate substrates. Long root hairs at high densities, high uptake per unit root length, and high substrate penetration ability in the efficient accessions C24 and Co mediate their high PAEs. The third accession with high PAE, Cal, exhibits a high shoot-to-root ratio, long roots with long root hairs, and rhizosphere acidification. These results are consistent with previous observations and highlight the suitability of using Arabidopsis accessions to identify and isolate genes determining the PAE in plants. PMID:11115894

  14. Efficacy and possible mechanisms of perillaldehyde in control of Aspergillus niger causing grape decay.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Zeng, Hong; Li, Zongyun; Zhang, Peng; Tessema, Akalate; Peng, Xue

    2015-06-02

    A variety of plant products have been recognized for their antifungal activity and recently have attracted food industry attention for their efficacy in controlling postharvest fungal decay of fruits. The antifungal activity of perillaldehyde (PAE) was evaluated against Aspergillus niger, a known cause of grape spoilage, and possible mechanisms were explored. PAE showed notable antifungal activity against A. niger, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 0.25 and 1 μl/ml, respectively. The accumulation of mycelial biomass was also inhibited by PAE in a dose-dependent manner, completely inhibiting mycelial growth at 1 μl/ml. In vivo data confirmed that the vapour treatment of grapes with various concentrations of PAE markedly improved control of A. niger and suppressed natural decay. Concentrations of PAE of 0.075 μl/ml air showed the greatest inhibition of fungal growth compared to the controls. Further experiments indicated that PAE activated a membrane-active mechanism that inhibits ergosterol synthesis, increases membrane permeability (as evidenced by extracellular pH and conductivity measurements), and disrupts membrane integrity, leading to cell death. Our findings suggest that this membrane-active mechanism makes PAE a promising potential antifungal agent for postharvest control of grape spoilage.

  15. Paradoxical reactions under TNF-α blocking agents and other biological agents given for chronic immune-mediated diseases: an analytical and comprehensive overview

    PubMed Central

    Toussirot, Éric; Aubin, François

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical adverse events (PAEs) have been reported during biological treatment for chronic immune-mediated diseases. PAEs are defined as the occurrence during biological agent therapy of a pathological condition that usually responds to this class of drug. A wide range of PAEs have been reported including dermatological, intestinal and ophthalmic conditions, mainly with antitumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) agents. True PAEs include psoriasis, Crohn's disease and hidradenitis suppurativa. Other PAEs may be qualified as borderline and include uveitis, scleritis, sarcoidosis and other granulomatous diseases (granuloma annulare, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis), vasculitis, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Proposed hypotheses to explain these PAEs include an imbalance in cytokine production, the differential immunological properties between the monoclonal antibodies and TNF-α soluble receptor, an unopposed type I interferon production and a shift towards a Th1/Th2 profile. Data from registries suggest that the risk for paradoxical psoriasis is low and non-significant. We discuss management of these PAEs, which depends on the type and severity of the adverse events, pre-existing treated conditions and the possibility of alternative therapeutic options for the underlying disease. Paradoxical adverse events are not restricted to anti-TNF-α agents and close surveillance of new available biological drugs (anti-interleukin-17/23, anti-integrin) is warranted in order to detect the occurrence of new or as yet undescribed events. PMID:27493788

  16. Diversities of phthalate esters in suburban agricultural soils and wasteland soil appeared with urbanization in China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2012-11-01

    The distribution of six priority phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in suburban farmland, vegetable, orchard and wasteland soils of Tianjin were obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis in 2009. Results showed that total PAEs varied from 0.05 to 10.4 μg g(-1), with the median value as 0.32 μg g(-1). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate are most abundant species. PAEs concentrations for the four types of soils exhibited decreasing order as vegetable soil > wasteland soil > farmland soil > orchard soil. PAEs exhibited elevated levels in more developed regions when compared with other studies. The agricultural plastic film could elevate the PAEs contents in soils. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products and plasticizers were important sources for PAEs in suburban soils in Tianjin. The higher PAEs contents in wasteland soils from suburban area should be paid more attention owing to large amounts of solid wastes appeared with the ongoing urbanization.

  17. Post-antibacterial effect of thymol.

    PubMed

    Zarrini, Gholamreza; Delgosha, Zahra Bahari; Moghaddam, Kamyar Mollazadeh; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2010-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of thymol has been well established and reported in the scientific literature. Continued suppression of bacterial growth following limited exposure to antimicrobial compounds at different concentrations greater than or equal to the minimum inhibitory concentration level (MIC) and at concentrations less than the MIC can be used as an indicator of biological activity, and are respectively referred to as a post-antibacterial effect (PAE) and a post-antibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME). In this study, the PAE and the PA-SME of thymol against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus cereus were investigated. A spectrophotometric method was used to determine the PAE and the PA-SME of thymol against the selected test strains. Thymol exhibited a considerable PAE and PA-SME at MIC and sub-MIC concentrations against test strains. The greatest duration of both the PAE and the PA-SME was observed for thymol against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The PAE and PA-SME times for E. coli were 12 and 8 h, respectively, and for P. aeruginosa were 11 and 7.5 h, respectively. The duration of the PAE and PA-SME observed for S. aureus and B. cereus was shorter than for Gram-negative strains.

  18. IREB2 and GALC Are Associated with Pulmonary Artery Enlargement in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H.; Hersh, Craig P.; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N.; Wells, J. Michael; Dransfield, Mark T.; Bowler, Russell P.; Lynch, David A.; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10−8; versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10−9). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10−8). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype. PMID:25101718

  19. Biosynthesis of amidated joining peptide from pro-adrenocorticotropin-endorphin

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, E.I.; Mains, R.E. )

    1987-09-01

    Joining peptide is the major alpha-amidated product of pro-ACTH/endorphin (PAE) in AtT-20 corticotropic tumor cells. To study intracellular joining peptide synthesis, affinity purified antibodies directed against gamma-MSH, joining peptide, and ACTH were used to immunoprecipitate extracts from biosynthetically labeled AtT-20 cells. Immunoprecipitates were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by tryptic peptide mapping on HPLC. In steady labeling experiments, radioactivity in amidated joining peptide (JP) increased roughly linearly with time, in the manner of a final product, whereas radioactivity associated with PAE (1-94)NH2 reached a constant value after 2-4 h, indicating that PAE(1-94)NH2 is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of JP. Radioactivity appeared in ACTH(1-39) well before JP, consistent with a cleavage order in which ACTH is cleaved from PAE(1-95) before JP sequences are cleaved from PAE(1-74). This conclusion was supported by tryptic peptide analyses of immunoprecipitates, which indicated that less than 5% of JP-related material is cleaved from PAE(1-74) before being cleaved from ACTH-related sequences. After a pulse label, radioactivity in PAE(1-94)NH2 reached a peak value after 1 h of chase and declined with a half-life of less than 1 h. Amidated JP increased to a constant level after 2 h of chase. Enough radiolabeled PAE(1-94)NH2 was detected to account for about half of the radioactivity found in amidated JP, indicating that about half of JP-related material is first cleaved from PAE(1-95) before being amidated. This result was corroborated using HPLC purification to determine both amidated and glycine-extended forms of JP.

  20. IREB2 and GALC are associated with pulmonary artery enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Cho, Michael H; Hersh, Craig P; McDonald, Merry-Lynn N; Wells, J Michael; Dransfield, Mark T; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Lomas, David A; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is associated with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although pulmonary vascular changes occur early in the course of the disease. Pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement (PAE) measured by computed tomography correlates with pulmonary hypertension and COPD exacerbation frequency. Genome-wide association studies of PAE in subjects with COPD have not been reported. To investigate whether genetic variants are associated with PAE within subjects with COPD, we investigated data from current and former smokers from the COPDGene Study and the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints study. The ratio of the diameter of the PA to the diameter of the aorta (A) was measured using computed tomography. PAE was defined as PA/A greater than 1. A genome-wide association study for COPD with PAE was performed using subjects with COPD without PAE (PA/A ≤ 1) as a control group. A secondary analysis used smokers with normal spirometry as a control group. Genotyping was performed on Illumina platforms. The results were summarized using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Both meta-analyses revealed a genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 15q25.1 in IREB2 (COPD with versus without PAE, rs7181486; odds ratio [OR] = 1.32; P = 2.10 × 10(-8); versus smoking control subjects, rs2009746; OR = 1.42; P = 1.32 × 10(-9)). PAE was also associated with a region on 14q31.3 near the GALC gene (rs7140285; OR = 1.55; P = 3.75 × 10(-8)). Genetic variants near IREB2 and GALC likely contribute to genetic susceptibility to PAE associated with COPD. This study provides evidence for genetic heterogeneity associated with a clinically important COPD vascular subtype.

  1. Anticoagulant effect and safety assessment of an aqueous extract of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) harms and Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. Ex Hook.) harms

    PubMed Central

    Nyansah, Wilson Bright; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Asare, Frederick; Gyanfosu, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Currently available therapeutic options for thromboembolic disorders are often very expensive and are associated with unfavorable side effects. Aim: To establish the anticoagulant effect and safety profile of an extract made from of the root bark of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms and the aerial part of Adenia cissampeloides (Planch. ex Hook.) Harms (PAE). Materials and Methods: PAE (0.5-2.0 g/L) effect on prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were evaluated on whole blood drawn from the marginal ear vein of New Zealand White rabbits. Effect of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg) on bleeding time (BT) and clotting time (CT) in Sprague-Dawley rats were also assessed. Histopathological, hematological, and liver function studies were also carried out to assess the safety for use of PAE (250-2000 mg/kg). Results: PAE had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on PT, but resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in aPTT. The PAE treatment resulted in a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05-0.0001) in BT and CT in vivo compared with control. Safety studies indicated no deaths with PAE treatment with hematological and liver function tests being normal. Histological studies revealed pathological changes in the liver at a PAE treatment dose of 2000 mg/kg but all doses had no detrimental effect on kidney and stomach tissue. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was <2000 mg/kg when given orally. Conclusion: PAE has anticoagulant effect in vitro and is safe to use at oral doses <2000 mg/kg. PMID:27104036

  2. Volume changes and brain-behavior relationships in white matter and subcortical gray matter in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Lebel, Catherine; Narr, Katherine L; Mattson, Sarah N; May, Philip A; Adnams, Colleen M; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Kan, Eric C; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have cognitive, behavioral and brain abnormalities. Here, we compare rates of white matter and subcortical gray matter volume change in PAE and control children, and examine relationships between annual volume change and arithmetic ability, behavior, and executive function. Participants (n = 75 PAE/64 control; age: 7.1-15.9 years) each received two structural magnetic resonance scans, ~2 years apart. Assessments included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Subcortical white and gray volumes were extracted for each hemisphere. Group volume differences were tested using false discovery rate (q < 0.05). Analyses examined group-by-age interactions and group-score interactions for correlations between change in volume and raw behavioral scores. Results showed that subjects with PAE had smaller volumes than control subjects across the brain. Significant group-score interactions were found in temporal and parietal regions for WISC arithmetic scores and in frontal and parietal regions for behavioral measures. Poorer cognitive/ behavioral outcomes were associated with larger volume increases in PAE, while control subjects generally showed no significant correlations. In contrast with previous results demonstrating different trajectories of cortical volume change in PAE, our results show similar rates of subcortical volume growth in subjects with PAE and control subjects. We also demonstrate abnormal brain-behavior relationships in subjects with PAE, suggesting different use of brain resources. Our results are encouraging in that, due to the stable volume differences, there may be an extended window of opportunity for intervention in children with PAE.

  3. A standardized extract from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus attenuates liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Yi; Wang, Ling; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiang; Wei, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus are two popular traditional Chinese medicines, commonly used in Chinese herb prescription to treat liver disease. The extract prepared from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membranaceus (PAE) demonstrated better hepatoprotective activity than the herbs used individually as shown in our previous studies. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of PAE on liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum (PS) in rats and to explore its possible mechanisms. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Wistar rats by injection with PS intraperitoneally. The rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a liver fibrosis model group and a PAE (40, 80, 160 mg•kg-1) treated group. After a 16-week treatment, PAE-treated rats showed significantly reduced liver damage and symptoms of liver fibrosis upon pathological examination. Administration of PAE significantly decreased serum HA, PC III levels, and content of hydroxyproline in the liver tissue of fibrotic rats. It also restored the decrease in SOD and GSH-Px activities and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during PS treatment. In vitro, PAE also significantly decreased [3H]-thymidine incorporation in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-B subunit homodimer (PDGF-BB). Moreover, PAE significantly decreased the expression of PDGF receptor beta (PDGFR-β) and p-ERK1/2, p-p38, p-JNK. The results showed that PAE displays antifibrotic effects in rats induced by PS, the mechanism by which might be associated with its ability to scavenge free radicals, decreasing the expression of PDGFR-β, inhibition of HSC proliferation and MAPK activation. These findings indicate that PAE is a potential agent for the prevention of liver fibrosis.

  4. The effects of paeoniflorin injection on soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid-1 (sTREM-1) levels in severe septic rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Wang, Yi-Min; Ji, Ming-Suo; Liu, Fu-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PAE) is the most abundant compound in Xuebijing injection widely used to treat sepsis. We aimed to investigate effect of PAE on expression of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in a rat model of sepsis. Wistar rats were divided into Normal, Model, and PAE groups (n=20 each). Endotoxin was administrated at 5 mg/ml/kg in Model and PAE rats to establish rat sepsis model. 1 h after endotoxin administration, PAE was administrated at 4 ml/kg in PAE group once per day for 3 days. Routine blood tests and biochemical indexes were assessed, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB). The plasma sTREM-1 level was measured using quantitative ELISA. At the end of experiment, the small intestine, liver, kidney and lung were subjected to pathological examinations. A rat model of sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was established successfully with endotoxin administration (5 mg/ml/kg), evidenced by histo-pathological examinations, routine blood tests and biochemical indexes: platelet count decreased and white blood cell count increased (p<0.05), CK-MB and AST increased (p<0.05). PAE treatment significantly reduced the plasma levels of AST, CK-MB, and sTREM-1, compared to Model group (p<0.05). Meanwhile, sepsis-induced damages in the liver, lung, stomach and intestinal mucosa were also markedly ameliorated by PAE treatment. PAE demonstrated a significantly protective effect in a rat model of sepsis by decreasing plasma sTREM-1 level, reducing inflammation, preventing MODS and protecting organ functions. PMID:27847433

  5. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  6. Postantibiotic effects of grepafloxacin compared to those of five other agents against 12 gram-positive and -negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Bajaksouzian, S; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2000-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10x the MIC) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5x the MIC) were determined for six compounds against 12 strains. Measurable PAEs ranged between 0 and 1.8 h for grepafloxacin, 0 and 2.2 h for ciprofloxacin, 0 and 3. 1 h for levofloxacin, 0 and 2.2 h for sparfloxacin, 0 and 2.4 h for amoxicillin-clavulanate and 0 and 4.8 h for clarithromycin. Reexposure to subinhibitory concentrations increased the PAEs against some strains.

  7. Pharmacodynamic effects of subinhibitory concentrations of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an in vitro dynamic model.

    PubMed Central

    Maggiolo, F; Taras, A; Frontespezi, S; Legnani, M C; Silanos, M A; Pravettoni, G; Suter, F

    1994-01-01

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE), sub-MIC effect (SME), and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PASME) of imipenem on Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated with an in vitro dynamic model reproducing in vivo elimination kinetics of the antibiotic. The PASMEs were constantly longer than the corresponding SMEs, but differences between them were not statistically significant. Both PASMEs and SMEs were initially bactericidal and were significantly longer than PAEs. The mean values of both PASMEs and SMEs were over 12 h. SMEs appear to be more relevant for the bacterial growth kinetics than PAEs. PMID:8092847

  8. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  9. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-12-14

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring.

  10. Postantibiotic effect of ceftaroline against gram-positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Pankuch, G A; Appelbaum, P C

    2009-10-01

    The postantibiotic effects (PAEs), postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA-SMEs), and sub-MIC effects (SMEs) of ceftaroline, a novel injectable cephalosporin, were determined for 15 gram-positive organisms. The pneumococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal PAEs were 0.8 to 1.8 h, 0.7 to 2.2 h, and 0.2 to 1.1 h, respectively. The corresponding PA-SMEs (0.4 times the MIC) were 2.5 to 6.7 h, 2.9 to >0.0 h, and 7.9 to >10.3 h, respectively. The PA-SMEs were longer than the PAEs, suggesting that sub-MIC levels extend the PAE of ceftaroline against gram-positive cocci.

  11. 24 CFR 401.311 - Standards of conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... restricted person has supervision or charge by reason of the PRA; (3) Use its status as PAE for its own... subject to criminal sanctions. Other Federal civil statutes also apply to making false statements to...

  12. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Alex; Koymen, A. R.; Mehl, David; Jensen, K. O.; Lei, Chun; Lee, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, Weiss et al. have demonstrated that it is possible to excite Auger transitions by annihilating core electrons using a low energy (less than 30eV) beam of positrons. This mechanism makes possible a new electron spectroscopy, Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES). The probability of exciting an Auger transition is proportional to the overlap of the positron wavefunction with atomic core levels. Since the Auger electron energy provides a signature of the atomic species making the transition, PAES makes it possible to determine the overlap of the positron wavefunction with a particular element. PAES may therefore provide a means of detecting positron-atom complexes. Measurements of PAES intensities from clean and adsorbate covered Cu surfaces are presented which indicate that approx. 5 percent of positrons injected into CU at 25eV produce core annihilations that result in Auger transitions.

  13. Physical Self-Concept and Physical Activity Enjoyment in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohbeck, Annette; Tietjens, Maike; Bund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences and relationships of seven specific domains of physical self-concept (PSC) ("Strength," "Endurance," "Speed," "Flexibility," "Coordination," "Global Sport Competence," and "Appearance") and physical activity enjoyment (PAE) in 447…

  14. Marijuana and tobacco exposure predict affect-regulation expectancies in dual users.

    PubMed

    Martens, K M; Gilbert, David G

    2008-11-01

    In order to better compare affect-related expectancies for tobacco and marijuana smoking, associations of marijuana and tobacco exposure to negative affect reduction (NAR), positive affect enhancement (PAE), and related smoking outcome expectancies were assessed in young individuals who reported smoking both marijuana and tobacco on a regular basis (dual users). More frequent smoking of a given substance was associated with expectations of greater NAR and PAE by that substance while duration of exposure did not reliably predict NAR or PAE drug expectancies. Contrary to expectations, individuals anticipating greater NAR and/or PAE for one substance did not exhibit corresponding expectancies for the other drug. These findings suggest that exposure duration may be less important than current usage levels in influencing affect expectancies and that the affect-related expectancies for tobacco and marijuana are largely independent of each other.

  15. Phenols, flame retardants and phthalates in water and wastewater - a global problem.

    PubMed

    Ayanda, Olushola Sunday; Olutona, Godwin Oladele; Olumayede, Emmanuel G; Akintayo, Cecilia O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    Organic pollutants in water and wastewater have been causing serious environmental problems. The arbitrary discharge of wastewater by industries, and handling, use, and disposal constitute a means by which phenols, flame retardants (FRs), phthalates (PAEs) and other toxic organic pollutants enter the ecosystem. Moreover, these organic pollutants are not completely removed during treatment processes and might be degraded into highly toxic derivatives, which has led to their occurrence in the environment. Phenols, FRs and PAEs are thus highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic, and are capable of disrupting the endocrine system. Therefore, investigation to understand the sources, pathways, behavior, toxicity and exposure to phenols, FRs and PAEs in the environment is necessary. Formation of different by-products makes it difficult to compare the efficacy of the treatment processes, most especially when other organic matters are present. Hence, high levels of phenols, FRs and PAEs removal could be attained with in-line combined treatment processes.

  16. Simple model of a photoacoustic system as a CR circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, Akiko; Kaneko, Fumitoshi; Ogawa, Naohisa

    2012-05-01

    We introduce the photoacoustic educational system (PAES), by which we can identify which gas causes the greenhouse effect in a classroom (Kaneko et al 2010 J. Chem. Educ. 87 202-4). PAES is an experimental system in which a pulse of infrared (IR) is absorbed into gas as internal energy, an oscillation of pressure (sound) appears, and then we can measure the absorptance of IR by the strength of sound. In this paper, we construct a simple mathematical model for PAES which is equivalent to the CR circuit. The energy absorption of an IR pulse into gas corresponds to the charge of a condenser and the heat diffusion to the outside corresponds to the energy dissipation by electric resistance. We analyse the experimental results by using this simple model, and check its validity. Although the model is simple, it explains phenomena occurring in PAES and can be a good educational resource.

  17. Development of rapid determination of 18 phthalate esters in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinping; Wang, Shuhui; Wang, Li

    2013-02-13

    A simultaneous and fast determination of 18 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. After solvent extraction, the PAEs in the oil sample were further cleaned up by solid-phase extraction. After concentration, the extract was directly injected into gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in positive-ion electron impact (EI) mode. Method quantification limits of 18 PAEs were between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. Quantitative recoveries ranging from 63.9 to 115.3% were obtained by analysis of spiked oil. The relative standard deviations were less than 15% (n = 6). The method could potentially overcome the interference from large amounts of lipids and pigment. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation of PAEs in routine analysis.

  18. [Post-antibiotic effect of imipenem, amikacin and ciprofloxacin against various strains of Serratia marcescens].

    PubMed

    Bollet, C; Mallet, M N; Bouchemal, H; de Micco, P

    1990-05-01

    The authors compared the post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of imipenem, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and latamoxef against Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880 (type strain) and against 12 clinical strains belonging to Grimont's most frequent biotypes: A2a, A3a, A3b, A4a, A4b, A5, A6a, A8a, A8b, A8c, TT, TCT. PAE was determined by measuring bacterial growth kinetics after one hour exposure to concentration of 2 x MIC of 10(6) CFUs in Mueller-Hinton broth. Drug removal was by 10-3 dilution of the exposed culture. A PAE was consistently present with imipenem (range 0.8-2.9 hrs), amikacin (range 1.0-4.9 hrs), ciprofloxacin (range 1.4-2.8 hrs). The duration of PAE did not correlate with MIC or Grimont's biotypes.

  19. Identification of a bacterial pectin acetyl esterase in Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937.

    PubMed

    Shevchik, V E; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, N

    1997-06-01

    Erwinia chrysanthemi causes soft-rot diseases of various plants by enzymatic degradation of the pectin in plant cell walls. The structural complexity of pectin requires the combined action of several pectinases for its efficient breakdown. Three types of pectinases have so far been identified in E. chrysanthemi: two pectin methyl esterases (PemA, PemB), a polygalacturonase (PehX), and eight pectate lyases (PelA, PelB, PelC, PelD, PelE, PelL, PelZ, PelX). We report in this paper the analysis of a novel enzyme, the pectin acetyl esterase encoded by the paeY gene. No bacterial form of pectin acetyl esterases has been described previously, while plant tissues and some pectinolytic fungi were found to produce similar enzymes. The paeY gene is present in a cluster of five pectinase-encoding genes, pelA-pelE-pelD-paeY-pemA. The paeY open reading frame is 1650 bases long and encodes a 551-residue precursor protein of 60704Da, including a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. PaeY shares one region of homology with a rhamnogalacturonan acetyl esterase of Aspergillus aculeatus. To characterize the enzyme, the paeY gene was overexpressed and its protein product was purified. PaeY releases acetate from sugar-beet pectin and from various synthetic substrates. Moreover, the enzyme was shown to act in synergy with other pectinases. The de-esterification rate by PaeY increased after previous demethylation of the pectins by PemA and after depolymerization of the pectin by pectate lyases. In addition, the degradation of sugar-beet pectin by pectate lyases is favoured after the removal of methyl and acetyl groups by PemA and PaeY, respectively. The paeY gene was first identified on the basis of its regulation, which shares several characteristics with that of other pectinases. Analysis of the paeY transcription, using gene fusions, revealed that it is induced by pectic catabolic products and is affected by growth phase, oxygen limitation and catabolite repression. Regulation of pae

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters response of kisspeptin-ir neurons to estradiol and progesterone in adult female rats

    PubMed Central

    Sliwowska, Joanna H.; Bodnar, Tamara S.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has adverse effects on reproductive function and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) activity. Kisspeptin neurons play a role in mediating feedback effects of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) on the HPG axis. We hypothesized that PAE will have long-term effects on the response of kisspeptin neurons to E2 and P4. METHODS Adult female rats (53–58 days) from prenatal ad libitum-fed control (C), pair-fed (PF), and alcohol-exposed (PAE) groups were subjected to Sham ovariectomy (OVX) or OVX without or with replacement with low or high physiological levels of E2 and P4, and terminated under basal conditions. E2 and P4 levels, and the response of kisspeptin-ir neurons in the arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nuclei to these hormones, were measured. As the E2 signal is conveyed to kisspeptin neurons via estrogen receptor-α (ERα), we investigated PAE effects on the number of kisspetin-ir/ERα-ir neurons. To determine if PAE alters interactions between kisspeptin and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, close contacts between kisspeptin-ir fibers and GnRH-ir cell bodies were examined. RESULTS Our data present the novel finding that kisspeptin-ir neurons in the ARC of PAE females show differential responses to E2 and to the combined treatment with E2 and P4 compared to controls: 1) OVX increased the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons in C and PF, but not PAE females compared to their Sham counterparts; 2) E2 replacement restored kisspeptin-ir cell numbers to Sham levels in C and PF females but caused a robust downregulation of kisspeptin-ir neurons below Sham levels in PAE females; 3) OVX and replacement with high physiological concentrations of E2 resulted in fewer kisspeptin-ir cells in PAE than C females; 4) OVX and replacement with high levels of both E2 and P4 markedly decreased the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons, below levels observed following E2 alone, in PF and C females, but had no

  1. Data Provisioning Using Authoritative Data Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    users going to many data sources Joint Staff J-8 EUCOM CFC-K ACOM SOCOM PACOM SPACECOM HQS USMC AMSO 21st TAACOM USAF NSEP CENTCOM OSD PA&E WPC CAA AWC...Data without ADS M&S Community Joint Staff J-8 EUCOM CFC-K ACOM SOCOM PACOM SPACECOM HQS USMCAMSO 21st TAACOM USAF NSEP CENTCOM OSD PA&E WPC CAA AWC

  2. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES.

  3. Physical Fitness Testing by the U.S. Air Force Academy, 1955-1981

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    month) may have been allowed for training effects to take place at the reported repetition rates. The exercises, selected with regard to a kinesio ...the 150 PAE test sites, there is a longer elapsed time between test items than when only 2 candidates show up). Dr Horvath noted that audio- taped or...video- taped instructions would reduce test-site differences in the presentabon of PAE information to candidates. Finally, Capt Shadduck presented data

  4. Popliteal entrapment syndrome. A systematic review of the literature and case presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gokkus, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Bakalim, Tamer; Taskaya, Ertugrul; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is rare in young adults. Claudication of the young patient, which is often overlooked, is a very rare symptom for orthopedic surgeons. In elder patients, the physician might expect atherosclerotic claudication, however in young patients, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) should be considered as a possibility in the cases of claudication. Here, an unusual presentation of an uncommon disease that is not widely known by orthopedic surgeons is reported. PMID:25332925

  5. Radiodermitis After Prostatic Artery Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Assis, Andre Moreira De; Ioakeim, Ignatios Sánchez-Ballestín, María; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Gregorio, Miguel Angel De

    2015-06-15

    Prostate artery embolization (PAE) is a technically demanding new treatment option for benign prostatic hyperplasia. We present a case of radiation-induced dermitis in a 63-year-old patient after a technically successful PAE, due to high radiation exposure (KAP: 8,023,949 mGy cm{sup 2}) and long fluoroscopy time (72 min). Anatomical and technical aspects are discussed, as well as recommendations to decrease radiation exposure in these procedures.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of β-patchoulene isolated from patchouli oil in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbiao; Chen, Xiaoying; Chen, Hanbin; Wang, Lan; Liang, Jiali; Luo, Dandan; Liu, Yuhong; Yang, Hongmei; Li, Yucui; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2016-06-15

    β-Patchoulene (β-PAE) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene isolated from the oil of Pogostemon cablin (patchouli oil), which has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, as one of the major principle of patchouli oil, the biological activity of β-PAE has not been explored so far. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and the underlying mechanism, of β-PAE was investigated on experimental mice models of acute inflammation, i.e. xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The results showed that β-PAE evoked a significant dose-dependent inhibition of ear edema induced by xylene, paw edema induced by carrageenan and suppressed the increase of vascular permeability elicited by acetic acid. Histopathological analysis indicated that β-PAE could markedly decrease the cellular infiltration in paw tissue. β-PAE was also shown to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in edema paw. In addition, carrageenan-induced production of some pro-inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner in mice subjected to β-PAE pretreatment, and it also significantly down-regulated the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Further analysis revealed that β-PAE also inhibited the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and stabilize the conversion of nuclear factor-κBα (IκBα) level. These results provided additional chemical and pharmacological basis for the traditional application of P. cablin in inflammatory disorders.

  7. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia; Campos Pinheiro, Luis; Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A.; Oliveira, Antonio G.; O'Neill, Joao

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  8. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups.

  9. IDA Cost Research Symposium Held 25 May 1995.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-01

    Regression, Mathematical Model, Study B-83 NCA-46 Title: MK 41 Vertical Launch System Cost Analysis Summary : This study reports cost research for the Sea...the Director, Program Analysis and Evaluation (PA&E), in the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The document contains summaries of ongoing...Required PA&E-l Title: Private Shipbuilder Overhead Costs Summary : The Weapon Systems Cost Analysis Division of PA&E is continually involved in

  10. Phthalate release in leachate from municipal landfills of central Poland

    PubMed Central

    Wowkonowicz, Paweł; Kijeńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Phthalate diesters (PAEs) are used as plasticizer additives to polymer chains to make the material more flexible and malleable. PAEs are bonded physically, not chemically, to the polymeric matrix and can migrate to and leach from the product surface, posing a serious danger to the environment and human health. There have been a number of studies on PAE concentrations in landfill leachate conducted in the EU and around the world, though few in Poland. In the present study, the leachate of five municipal landfills was analyzed for the presence of PAEs. Raw leachate was sampled four times over the period of one year in 2015/16. It was the first large study on this subject in Poland. PAEs were detected in the leachate samples on all of the landfills, thereby indicating that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The following PAEs were detected in at least one sample: Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Di-isobutylphthalate (DIBP). Out of all ten PAEs, DEHP was the most predominant, with concentrations up to 73.9 μg/L. DEHP was present in 65% of analyzed samples (in 100% of samples in spring, 80% in winter, and 40% in summer and autumn). In only 25% of all samples DEHP was below the acceptable UE limit for surface water (1.3 μg/L), while 75% was from 1.7 to 56 times higher than that value. On the two largest landfills DEHP concentrations were observed during samples from all four seasons, including on a landfill which has been remediated and closed for the last 5 years. PMID:28358912

  11. Amphetamine sensitization and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress: impact of prenatal alcohol exposure in male and female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy L.; Bodnar, Tamara; Yu, Wayne K.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUD). In typically developing individuals, susceptibility to SUD is associated with alterations in dopamine and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systems, and their interactions. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters dopamine and HPA systems, yet effects of PAE on dopamine-HPA interactions are unknown. Amphetamine-stress cross-sensitization paradigms were utilized to investigate sensitivity of dopamine and stress (HPA) systems, and their interactions following PAE. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley offspring from PAE, pair-fed, and ad libitum-fed control groups were assigned to amphetamine-(1–2mg/kg) or saline-treated conditions, with injections every other day for 15 days. 14 days later, all animals received an amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) and 5 days later, hormones were measured under basal or acute stress conditions. Amphetamine sensitization (augmented locomotion, days 1–29) and cross-sensitization with acute restraint stress (increased stress hormones, day 34) were assessed. Results PAE rats exhibited a lower threshold for amphetamine sensitization compared to controls, suggesting enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic systems to stimulant-induced changes. Cross-sensitization between amphetamine (dopamine) and stress (HPA hormone) systems was evident in PAE, but not in control rats. PAE males exhibited increased dopamine receptor expression (mPFC) compared to controls. Conclusions PAE alters induction and expression of sensitization/cross-sensitization, as reflected in locomotor, neural, and endocrine changes, in a manner consistent with increased sensitivity of dopamine and stress systems. These results provide insight into possible mechanisms that could underlie increased prevalence of SUD, as well as the impact of widely prescribed stimulant medications among adolescents with FASD. PMID:25420606

  12. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces the proportion of newly produced neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Sliwowska, Joanna H.; Lieblich, Stephanie; Ellis, Linda A.; Yu, Wayne L.; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters adult neurogenesis and the neurogenic response to stress in male rats. As the effects of stress on neurogenesis are sexually dimorphic, the present study investigated the effects of PAE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis under both non-stressed and stressed conditions in female rats. Pregnant females were assigned to one of three prenatal treatments: 1) Alcohol (PAE) - liquid alcohol (ethanol) diet ad libitum (36% ethanol-derived calories); 2) Pair-fed - isocaloric liquid diet, with maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by a PAE partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and 3) Control - lab chow ad libitum. Female offspring were assigned to either non-stressed (undisturbed) or stressed (repeated restraint stress for 9 days) conditions. On day 10, all rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and perfused either 24 hours (cell proliferation) or 3 weeks (cell survival) later. We found that PAE did not significantly alter cell proliferation or survival, whereas females from the Pair-fed condition exhibited elevated levels of cell survival compared to Control females. Importantly, however, the proportion of both new neurons and new glial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was reduced in PAE compared to Control females. Exposure to stress did not alter neurogenesis in any of the prenatal treatment groups. In summary, compared to females from the Control condition, prenatal dietary restriction enhanced the survival of new neurons, whereas PAE altered the differentiation of newly produced cells in the adult dentate gyrus. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis following PAE may contribute to learning and memory deficits seen in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:20736015

  13. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces the proportion of newly produced neurons and glia in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in female rats.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Sliwowska, Joanna H; Lieblich, Stephanie; Ellis, Linda A; Yu, Wayne K; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2010-11-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) alters adult neurogenesis and the neurogenic response to stress in male rats. As the effects of stress on neurogenesis are sexually dimorphic, the present study investigated the effects of PAE on adult hippocampal neurogenesis under both nonstressed and stressed conditions in female rats. Pregnant females were assigned to one of three prenatal treatments: (1) alcohol (PAE)-liquid alcohol (ethanol) diet ad libitum (36% ethanol-derived calories); (2) pair-fed-isocaloric liquid diet, with maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol, in the amount consumed by a PAE partner (g/kg body wt/day of gestation); and (3) control-lab chow ad libitum. Female offspring were assigned to either nonstressed (undisturbed) or stressed (repeated restraint stress for 9 days) conditions. On day 10, all rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and perfused either 24 hours (cell proliferation) or 3 weeks (cell survival) later. We found that PAE did not significantly alter cell proliferation or survival, whereas females from the pair-fed condition exhibited elevated levels of cell survival compared to control females. Importantly, however, the proportion of both new neurons and new glial cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was reduced in PAE compared to control females. Exposure to stress did not alter neurogenesis in any of the prenatal treatment groups. In summary, compared to females from the control condition, prenatal dietary restriction enhanced the survival of new neurons, whereas PAE altered the differentiation of newly produced cells in the adult dentate gyrus. Alterations in hippocampal neurogenesis following PAE may contribute to learning and memory deficits seen in individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

  14. The partitioning behavior of persistent toxicant organic contaminants in eutrophic sediments: Coefficients and effects of fluorescent organic matter and particle size.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Yilong; Kong, Xiangzhen; Lan, Xinyu; Xu, Fuliu

    2016-12-01

    In the shallow lakes, the partitioning of organic contaminants into the water phase from the solid phase might pose a potential hazard to both benthic and planktonic organisms, which would further damage aquatic ecosystems. This study determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and phthalate esters (PAEs) in both the sediment and the pore water from Lake Chaohu and calculated the sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KD) and the organic carbon normalized sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KOC), and explored the effects of particle size, organic matter content, and parallel factor fluorescent organic matter (PARAFAC-FOM) on KD. The results showed that log KD values of PAHs (2.61-3.94) and OCPs (1.75-3.05) were significantly lower than that of PAEs (4.13-5.05) (p < 0.05). The chemicals were ranked by log KOC as follows: PAEs (6.05-6.94) > PAHs (4.61-5.86) > OCPs (3.62-4.97). A modified MCI model can predict KOC values in a range of log 1.5 at a higher frequency, especially for PAEs. The significantly positive correlation between KOC and the octanol - water partition coefficient (KOW) were observed for PAHs and OCPs. However, significant correlation was found for PAEs only when excluding PAEs with lower KOW. Sediments with smaller particle sizes (clay and silt) and their organic matter would affect distributions of PAHs and OCPs between the sediment and the pore water. Protein-like fluorescent organic matter (C2) was associated with the KD of PAEs. Furthermore, the partitioning of PARAFAC-FOM between the sediment and the pore water could potentially affect the distribution of organic pollutants. The partitioning mechanism of PAEs between the sediment and the pore water might be different from that of PAHs and OCPs, as indicated by their associations with influencing factors and KOW.

  15. Simultaneous determination of trace migration of phthalate esters in honey and royal jelly by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinhui; Qi, Yitao; Wu, Hongmei; Diao, Qingyun; Tian, Feifei; Li, Yi

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid, and reliable liquid-liquid extraction coupled to GC-MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 22 phthalate esters (PAEs) in honey and royal jelly. Instrument parameters for GC-MS were tested to obtain the satisfactory separation between 22 PAEs with high sensitivity. The extraction procedure was optimized in order to achieve the best recovery. The following criteria were used to validate the developed method: linearity, LOD, lower LOQ, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and carry-over. Correlation coefficients were >0.999 by applying the linear regression model based on the least-squares method with a weighting factor (1/x). The intra- and interday precision were within 12.7% in terms of RSD, and the accuracy was within -11.8% in terms of relative error. The mean extraction recoveries ranged between 80.1 and 110.9% for honey and royal jelly. No significant matrix effect and carry-over for PAEs were observed for the analysis of honey and royal jelly samples. A total of 20 real samples were analyzed for a mini-survey using the developed method. Seven PAEs in honey samples and five PAEs in royal jelly samples were found, indicating potential contamination with several PAEs.

  16. Effects of plastic film residues on occurrence of phthalates and microbial activity in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lv, Shenghong; Zhang, Manyun; Chen, Gangcai; Zhu, Tongbin; Zhang, Shen; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-05-01

    Plastic film mulching has played an important role in Chinese agriculture, especially in vegetable production, but large amounts of film residues can accumulate in the soil. The present study investigated the effects of plastic film residues on the occurrence of soil PAEs and microbial activities using a batch pot experiment. PAE concentrations increased with increasing plastic film residues but the soil microbial carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities and microbial diversity decreased significantly. At the end of the experiment the PAE concentrations were 0-2.02 mg kg(-1) in the different treatments. Soil microbial C and N, enzyme activities, AWCD value, and Shannon-Weaver and Simpson indices declined by about 28.9-76.2%, 14.9-59.0%, 4.9-22.7%, 23.0-42.0% and 1.8-18.7%, respectively. Soil microbial activity was positively correlated with soil PAE concentration, and soil PAE concentrations were impacted by plastic color and residue volume. Correlations among, and molecular mechanisms of, plastic film residues, PAE occurrence and microbial activity require further study.

  17. Spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment of phthalic acid esters and phenols in surface sediment from urban rivers in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Liu, Ruixia; Gao, Hongjie; Tan, Ruijie; Zeng, Ping; Song, Yonghui

    2016-12-01

    Concentration and spatial distribution of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and eight phenols in sediments of urban rivers, namely the Xi River (XR) and Pu River (PR) in Shenyang city, Northeast China were investigated and the ecological risk of these target pollutants was assessed based on the risk quotient (RQ) approach. Target PAEs and phenols were detected in most of sediment samples collected from the XR and PR. The concentrations of total PAEs in sediments varied from 22.4 to 369 μg/g dw in the XR and 3.71-46.9 μg/g dw in the PR. The levels of phenols ranged from 2.72 to 106 μg/g dw in the XR and 0.811-25.0 μg/g dw in the PR, respectively. The dominant pollutants in both XR and PR were DEHP, phenol and 4-methylphnol. The sampling locations XR1-3 in the XR suffered severe contamination from PAEs and phenols. The sites PR1 and PR6 were heavily polluted by phenols and PAEs, respectively. Almost all target PAEs and phenolic compounds in sediment of the XR exhibited medium or high ecological risk to organisms and the ecological risk in the PR mainly originated from PEAs, phenol and 4-methylphenol. These results would provide guidance for individual pollutant control and indicate that it is imperative to take some effective measures to reduce the pollution of those contaminants.

  18. Functional Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome: Poorly Understood and Frequently Missed? A Review of Clinical Features, Appropriate Investigations, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Hislop, Matthew; Kennedy, Dominic; Cramp, Brendan; Dhupelia, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Functional popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is an important and possibly underrecognized cause of exertional leg pain (ELP). As it is poorly understood, it is at risk of misdiagnosis and mismanagement. The features indicative of PAES are outlined, as it can share features with other causes of ELP. Investigating functional PAES is also fraught with potential problems and if it is performed incorrectly, it can result in false negative and false positive findings. A review of the current vascular investigations is provided, highlighting some of the limitations standard tests have in determining functional PAES. Once a clinical suspicion for PAES is satisfied, it is necessary to further distinguish the subcategories of anatomical and functional entrapment and the group of asymptomatic occluders. When definitive entrapment is confirmed, it is important to identify the level of entrapment so that precise intervention can be performed. Treatment strategies for functional PAES are discussed, including the possibility of a new, less invasive intervention of guided Botulinum toxin injection at the level of entrapment as an alternative to vascular surgery. PMID:26464888

  19. Occipital-temporal Reduction and Sustained Visual Attention Deficit in Prenatal Alcohol Exposed Adults.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihao; Ma, Xiangyang; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2008-03-01

    Visual attention problems have been reported in association with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). With related behavioral data documented in literature, further investigation of this PAE effect would benefit from integrating functional and anatomical imaging data to ascertain its neurobiological basis. The current study investigated the possible functional and anatomical bases for the PAE-related visual sustained attention deficit. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected while the subjects performed a sustained visual attention task. High resolution, three dimensional anatomical images were also collected for morphometric evaluation. In the alcohol-affected subjects, we observed a significant white and gray matter volume reduction in the occipital-temporal area. Meanwhile, their fMRI activations in the same region resided more superiorly than that of the controls resulting in reduced activation in the ventral occipital-temporal area. The location of this PAE functional abnormality approximately matches that of the significant structural reduction. In addition to the well documented corpus callosum abnormalities observed in PAE subjects, the present results reveal a teratogenic effect on the occipital-temporal area. Furthermore, as the occipital-temporal area plays an important role in visual attention, the current observation suggests a neurobiological underpinning for the PAE related deficit in sustained visual attention.

  20. The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Yang, Won-Kyung; Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of a P. aviculare ethanol extract (PAE) in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obese mice were investigated. The mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with PAE (400 mg/kg/day) for 6.5 weeks. The increased body weights, adipose tissue weight, and adipocyte area as well as serum total triglyceride, leptin, and malondialdehyde concentrations were decreased in PAE-treated HFD-induced obese mice relative to the same measurements in untreated obese mice. Furthermore, PAE significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, fatty acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2 in the white adipose tissue of obese mice. In addition, PAE treatment of 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that PAE exerts antiobesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice through the suppression of lipogenesis in adipose tissue and increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23431342

  1. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  2. Effects of Various Antibiotics Alone or in Combination with Doripenem against Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains Isolated in an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ozbek Celik, Berna; Mataraci-Kara, Emel; Yilmaz, Mesut

    2014-01-01

    Colistin, tigecycline, levofloxacin, tobramycin, and rifampin alone and in combination with doripenem were investigated for their in vitro activities and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) on Klebsiella pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of tested antibiotics in combination with doripenem were determined using a microbroth checkerboard technique. To determine the PAEs, K. pneumoniae strains in the logarithmic phase of growth were exposed for 1 h to antibiotics, alone and in combination. Recovery periods of test cultures were evaluated using viable counting after centrifugation. Colistin, tobramycin, and levofloxacin produced strong PAEs ranging from 2.71 to 4.23 h, from 1.31 to 3.82 h, and from 1.35 to 4.72, respectively, in a concentration-dependent manner. Tigecycline and rifampin displayed modest PAEs ranging from 1.18 h to 1.55 h and 0.92 to 1.19, respectively. Because it is a beta-lactam, PAEs were not exactly induced by doripenem (ranging from 0.10 to 0.18 h). In combination, doripenem scarcely changed the duration of PAE of each tested antibiotic alone. The findings of this study may have important implications for the timing of doses during K. pneumoniae therapy with tested antibiotics. PMID:25530961

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  4. Production of a biodegradable plastic-degrading enzyme from cheese whey by the phyllosphere yeast Pseudozyma antarctica GB-4(1)W.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Suzuki, Ken; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Kuze Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2014-08-01

    Cheese whey is a by-product of cheese production and has high concentrations of lactose (about 5%) and other nutrients. Pseudozyma antarctica produces a unique cutinase-like enzyme, named PaE, that efficiently degrades biodegradable plastics. A previous study showed that a combination of 1% oil and 0.5% lactose increased cutinase-like enzyme production by another species of yeast. In this study, to produce PaE from cheese whey, we investigated the effects of soybean oil on PaE production (expressed as biodegradable plastic-degrading activity) by P. antarctica growing on lactose or cheese whey. In flask cultures, the final PaE activity was only 0.03 U/ml when soybean oil was used as the sole carbon source, but increased to 1.79 U/ml when a limited amount of soybean oil (under 0.5%) was combined with a relatively high concentration of lactose (6%). Using a 5-L jar fermentor with lactose fed-batch cultivation and periodic soybean oil addition, about 14.6 U/ml of PaE was obtained after 5 days of cultivation. When the lactose was replaced with cheese whey, PaE production was 10.8 U/ml after 3 days of cultivation.

  5. Uptake and Metabolism of Phthalate Esters by Edible Plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianqiang; Wu, Xiaoqin; Gan, Jay

    2015-07-21

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are large-volume chemicals and are found ubiquitously in soil as a result of widespread plasticulture and waste disposal. Food plants such as vegetables may take up and accumulate PAEs from soil, potentially imposing human health risks through dietary intake. In this study, we carried out a cultivation study using lettuce, strawberry, and carrot plants to determine the potential of plant uptake, translocation, and metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and their primary metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). All four compounds were detected in the plant tissues, with the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranging from 0.16 ± 0.01 to 4.78 ± 0.59. However, the test compounds were poorly translocated from roots to leaves, with a translocation factor below 1. Further, PAEs were readily transformed to their monoesters following uptake. Incubation of PAEs and monoalkyl phthalate esters (MPEs) in carrot cell culture showed that DnBP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than DEHP, while the monoesters were transformed more quickly than their parent precursors. Given the extensive metabolism of PAEs to monoesters in both whole plants and plant cells, metabolism intermediates such as MPEs should be considered when assessing human exposure via dietary intake of food produced from PAE-contaminated soils.

  6. Fast microextraction of phthalate acid esters from beverage, environmental water and perfume samples by magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Bo; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-02-15

    In this work, magnetic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared by mixing the magnetic particles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed solutions. Due to their excellent adsorption capability towards hydrophobic compounds, the magnetic CNTs were used as adsorbent of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) to extract phthalate acid esters (PAEs), which are widely used in many consumable products with potential carcinogenic properties. By coupling MSPE with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method for the analysis of PAEs was established. Our results showed that the limits of detection (LODs) of 16 PAEs ranged from 4.9 to 38 ng L(-1), which are much lower compared to the previously reported methods. And good linearities of the detection method were obtained with correlation coefficients (R(2)) between 0.9821 and 0.9993. In addition, a satisfying reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the intra- and inter-day precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 11.7% and 14.6%, respectively. Finally, the established MSPE-GC/MS method was successfully applied to the determination of PAEs from bottled beverages, tap water and perfume samples. The recoveries of the 16 PAEs from the real samples ranged from 64.6% to 125.6% with the RSDs less than 16.5%. Taken together, the MSPE-GC/MS method developed in current study provides a new option for the detection of PAEs from real samples with complex matrices.

  7. Simultaneous GC-MS determination of eight phthalates in total and migrated portions of plasticized polymeric toys and childcare articles.

    PubMed

    Al-Natsheh, Mais; Alawi, Mahmoud; Fayyad, Manar; Tarawneh, Ibrahim

    2015-03-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in toys and child care articles that are made of plasticized plastic. The novel method was used to determine the total concentration of the PAEs in addition to the migrated PAEs values into artificial saliva, under conditions that simulate real life situations. The extraction method, which was developed for the first time to determine the total concentration of PAEs, utilized a novel optimization of four parameters involving the solvent, time, temperature and weight of sample. The PAEs were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, as extraction the solvent, and using the ultrasonic water bath shaker for 30min, at room temperature. Another extraction method was developed to determine the migrated PAEs into artificial saliva at pH 6.2 and 37°C, implementing a liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform. Both methods were subjected to validation steps in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, which ensured that all obtained results were well within the norms of acceptable limits and specifications. The analytes were separated at the following retention times: 4.99, 5.21, 5.31, 6.63, 7.41, 9.05min for di-"isobutyl" phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methoxyethyl)phthalate (DMEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), respectively. The chromatographic peaks corresponding to di-"isononyl" phthalate (DINP) and di-"isononyl" phthalate (DIDP), were separated, using the extracted ion chromatogram (EIC) mode within the time ranges of 8.05-12.10min for DINP and 8.50-14.50min for DIDP. The instrument detection limits for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP, DEHP, DnOP, DINP and DIDP were determined at 0.100, 0.100, 0.045, 0.035, 0.015, 0.370, 0.320, 0.260μg/ml, respectively. The calibration curve working ranges were determined at 0.5-25μg/ml for DIBP, DBP, DMEP, BBP and DEHP, 2-100μg/ml for

  8. The influence of facility agriculture production on phthalate esters distribution in black soils of northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pengjie; Wang, Lei; Sun, Guoqiang; Zhao, Jiaying; Zhang, Hui; Du, Na

    2015-02-15

    The current study investigates the existence of 15 phthalate esters (PAEs) in surface soils (27 samples) collected from 9 different facility agriculture sites in the black soil region of northeast China, during the process of agricultural production (comprising only three seasons spring, summer and autumn). Concentrations of the 15 PAEs detected significantly varied from spring to autumn and their values ranged from 1.37 to 4.90 mg/kg-dw, with a median value of 2.83 mg/kg-dw. The highest concentration of the 15 PAEs (4.90 mg/kg-dw) was determined in summer when mulching film was used in the greenhouses. Probably an increase in environmental temperature was a major reason for PAE transfer from the mulching film into the soil and coupled with the increased usage of chemical fertilizers in greenhouses. Results showed that of the 15 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were in abundance with the mean value of 1.12 ± 0.22, 0.46 ± 0.05, 0.36 ± 0.04, and 0.17 ± 0.01 mg/kg-dw, respectively; and their average contributions in spring, summer, and autumn ranged between 64.08 and 90.51% among the 15 PAEs. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated the concentration of these four main PAEs significantly differed among the facility agricultures investigated, during the process of agricultural production. In comparison with foreign and domestic results of previous researches, it is proved that the black soils of facility agriculture in northeast China show higher pollution situation comparing with non-facility agriculture soils.

  9. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  10. Aminoglycoside-derived amphiphilic nanoparticles for molecular delivery.

    PubMed

    Miryala, Bhavani; Godeshala, Sudhakar; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Christensen, Matthew D; Tian, Yanqing; Rege, Kaushal

    2016-10-01

    The development of effective drug carriers can lead to improved outcomes in a variety of disease conditions. Aminoglycosides have been used as antibacterial therapeutics, and are attractive as monomers for the development of polymeric materials in various applications. Here, we describe the development of novel aminoglycoside-derived amphiphilic nanoparticles for drug delivery, with an eye towards ablation of cancer cells. The aminoglycoside paromomycin was first cross-linked with resorcinol diglycidyl ether leading to the formation of a poly (amino ether), PAE. PAE molecules were further derivatized with methoxy-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) or mPEG resulting in the formation of mPEG-PAE polymer, which self-assembled to form nanoparticles. Formation of the mPEG-PAE amphiphile was characterized using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and FTIR spectroscopy. Self-assembly of the polymer into nanoparticles was characterized using dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analyses, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the pyrene fluorescence assay. mPEG-PAE nanoparticles were able to carry significant amounts of doxorubicin (DOX), presumably by means of hydrophobic interactions between the drug and the core. Cell-based studies indicated that mPEG-PAE nanoparticles, loaded with doxorubicin, were able to induce significant loss in viabilities of PC3 human prostate cancer, MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer, and MB49 murine bladder cancer cells; empty nanoparticles resulted in negligible losses of cell viability under the conditions investigated. Taken together, our results indicate that the mPEG-PAE nanoparticle platform is attractive for drug delivery in different applications, including cancer.

  11. Perillaldehyde, a Promising Antifungal Agent Used in Food Preservation, Triggers Apoptosis through a Metacaspase-Dependent Pathway in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Lu, Zhaoqun; Sun, Chunhui; Zhang, Man; Zhu, Aihua; Peng, Xue

    2016-10-05

    In the present study, we provide detailed insights into perillaldehyde (PAE)'s mechanisms of action on Aspergillus flavus and offer evidence in favor of the induction of an apoptosis-like phenotype. Specifically, PAE's antifungal mode of action was investigated through the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (MtΔψ) and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) level, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and metacaspase activation. This was done by way of fluorometry, measuring DNA fragmentation, and condensation by fluorescent microscopy. Furthermore, we searched for phenotypic changes characteristic of apoptosis by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry, determining the amount of cytochrome c released using Western blotting. Results indicated that cultivation of A. flavus in the presence of PAE caused depolarization of MtΔψ, rapid DNA condensation, large-scale DNA fragmentation, and an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) level. The percentage of early apoptotic cells with exposure of PS were 27.4% and 48.7%, respectively, after 9 h incubations with 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL of PAE. The percentage of stained cells with activated intracellular metacaspases exposed to PAE at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL compared with control subjects were increased by 28.4 ± 3.25% and 37.9 ± 4.24%, respectively. The above results has revealed that PAE induces fungal apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. In all, our findings provide a novel mechanism for exploring a possible antifungal agent used in food preservation.

  12. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Chronic Mild Stress Differentially Alter Depressive- and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Male and Female Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hellemans, Kim G. C.; Verma, Pamela; Yoon, Esther; Yu, Wayne K.; Young, Allan H.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is associated with numerous neuro behavioral alterations, as well as disabilities in a number of domains, including a high incidence of depression and anxiety disorders. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) also alters hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function, resulting in increased responsiveness to stressors and HPA dysregulation in adulthood. Interestingly, data suggest that pre-existing HPA abnormalities may be a major contributory factor to some forms of depression, particularly when an individual is exposed to stressors later in life. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to stressors in adulthood may unmask an increased vulnerability to depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in PAE animals. Methods Male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol (PAE), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitumfed control (C) treatment groups were tested in adulthood. Animals were exposed to 10 consecutive days of chronic mild stress (CMS), and assessed in a battery of well-validated tasks sensitive to differences in depressive- and / or anxiety-like behaviors. Results We report here that the combination of PAE and CMS in adulthood increases depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in a sexually dimorphic manner. PAE males showed impaired hedonic responsivity (sucrose contrast test), locomotor hyperactivity (open field), and alterations in affiliative and nonaffiliative social behaviors (social interaction test) compared to control males. By contrast, PAE and, to a lesser extent, PF, females showed greater levels of “behavioral despair” in the forced swim test, and PAE females showed altered behavior in the final 5 minutes of the social interaction test compared to control females. Conclusions These data support the possibility that stress may be a mediating or contributing factor in the psychopathologies reported in FASD populations. PMID:20102562

  13. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied.

  14. Pharmacokinetic comparisons of Paeoniflorin and Paeoniflorin-6'O-benzene sulfonate in rats via different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun; Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Ling Ling; Wei, Wei

    2016-12-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics study of Paeoniflorin (Pae) and its acylated derivative (CP-25) was performed. 2. The structure of CP-25 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The rats were injected with CP-25(6, 12, 24 mg/kg) and orally treated with CP-25 (32, 64, 128 mg/kg), respectively. An high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed to determine the plasma concentrations of Pae and CP-25. 3. The results of MS and NMR showed that the acylated product was Pae-6'O-benzene sulfonate (CP-25). The plasma levels in oral CP-25 groups were detectable, whereas those of Pae in the oral groups (25 and 50 mg/kg) were undetectable. More specifically, the Cmax values of oral CP-25 were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.44 μg/ml, and the corresponding t1/2β of CP-25 were 1.44, 2.12 and 2.11 h, respectively. In addition, the t1/2β values of intravenous CP-25 were 161.99, 152.81 and 153.76 min, respectively. 4. Compared with the venous pharmacokinetics parameters of Pae, those of the t1/2β, MRT, Vd and CL/F in the CP-25 groups increased noticeably. As expected, compared with oral parameters of Pae, those of t1/2a, t1/2β, AUC, MRT and Vd in the CP-25 group increased obviously. Finally, the absolute bioavailability of Pae and CP-25 were 3.6 and 10.6%, respectively. 5. Our results indicate that CP-25 is characterized by improved absorption, well distribution, lower clearance, long mean residence time, and moderate bioavailability in rats.

  15. Phthalate esters contamination in soil and plants on agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yong Ming; Teng, Ying

    2013-08-01

    The accumulation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in soil and plants in agricultural land near an electronic waste recycling site in east China has become a great threat to the neighboring environmental quality and human health. Soil and plant samples collected from land under different utilization, including fallow plots, vegetable plots, plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as green manure, fallow plots under long-term flooding and fallow plots under alternating wet and dry periods, together with plant samples from relative plots were analyzed for six PAE compounds nominated as prior pollutants by USEPA. In the determined samples, the concentrations of six target PAE pollutants ranged from 0.31-2.39 mg/kg in soil to 1.81-5.77 mg/kg in various plants (dry weight/DW), and their bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 5.8 to 17.9. Health risk assessments were conducted on target PAEs, known as typical environmental estrogen analogs, based on their accumulation in the edible parts of vegetables. Preliminary risk assessment to human health from soil and daily vegetable intake indicated that DEHP may present a high-exposure risk on all ages of the population in the area by soil ingestion or vegetable consumption. The potential damage that the target PAE compounds may pose to human health should be taken into account in further comprehensive risk assessments in e-waste recycling sites areas. Moreover, alfalfa removed substantial amounts of PAEs from the soil, and its use can be considered a good strategy for in situ remediation of PAEs.

  16. Chemotherapeutic effects of bioassay-guided extracts of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; He, Zheng Chun; Song, Li-Yan; Spencer, Shawn; Yang, Lei Xiang; Peng, Fang; Liu, Guang-Ming; Hu, Ming-Hui; Li, Hai Bo; Wu, Xiu-Mei; Zeng, Su; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Stöckigt, Joachim; Zhao, Yu; Qian, Jin Fu

    2011-09-01

    The organic extract of Periplaneta americana L. (Dictyoptera; Blattidae) has been traditionally used in southwestern China as an alternative medicine against disorders such as hepatitis, trauma, gastric ulcers, burns, and heart disease. The present study describes bioassay-guided purification and chemotherapeutic evaluation of the 60% ethanolic fraction of P americana organic extracts (PAE60). The most effective cytotoxic fraction was determined by way of repeated in vitro screenings against 12 distinct cultured human carcinoma cell lines: Eca 109, BGC823, HO8910, LS174T, CNE, HeLa, K562, PC-3, A549, BEL 7404, HL-60, and KB, followed by in vivo antitumor assays of the lead fraction (PAE60). The complexity of enriched active fraction was qualitatively evaluated using thin layer chromatography. Reconstituted PAE60 was effective at inhibiting HL-60, KB, CNE, and BGC823 cell growth with IC(50) values <20 µg mL-(1). PAE60 reduced tumor growth in S180-bearing immunocompetent mice by 72.62% after 10 days following oral doses of 500 mg kg d-(1) compared with 78.75% inhibition following 40 mg kg d-(1) of cyclophosphamide (CTX). Thymus and spleen indices of S180-bearing mice treated with PAE60 were significantly greater (P < .05) than CTX treatment groups, suggesting potential immunomodulation of antitumor host defenses by PAE60. Antiviral activity was also investigated and PAE60 inhibited herpes simplex type-2 replication (IC(50) = 4.11 ± 0.64 µg mL-(1)) with a selectivity index (CC(50) to IC(50) ratio) of 64.84 in Vero cells but was less effective on type-1 virus (IC(50) of 25.6 ± 3.16 µg mL-(1)). These results support future clinical trials on P. americana as an alternative or complementary medicinal agent.

  17. A comparison of the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure obtained via maternal self-reports versus meconium testing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal self-reports, used for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), may lack validity, necessitating the use of an objective biomarker. The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (products of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism) in meconium has been established as a novel biomarker of PAE. The purpose of the current study was to compare the prevalence of PAE as reported via maternal self-reports with the results of meconium testing, and to quantify the disparity between these two methods. Methods A systematic literature search for studies reporting on the prevalence of PAE, using maternal self-reports in combination with meconium testing, was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on eight studies, using the Mantel-Haenszel method, assuming a random effects model. A random effects meta-regression was performed to test for a difference. Results The pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by meconium testing was 4.26 (95% CI: 1.34-13.57) times the pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by maternal self-reports. Large variations across the studies in regard to the difference between estimates obtained from maternal self-reports and those obtained from meconium testing were observed. Conclusions If maternal self-reports are the sole information source upon which health care professionals rely, a number of infants who were prenatally exposed to alcohol are not being recognized as such. However, further research is needed in order to validate existing biomarkers, as well as discover new biomarkers, for the detection of PAE. PMID:24708684

  18. Prostatic Artery Embolization as a Primary Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Preliminary Results in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel; Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim Mauricio da; Oliveira Cerri, Luciana Mendes de; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb; Marcelino, Antonio Sergio Zafred; Freire, Geraldo Campos; Moreira, Airton Mota; Srougi, Miguel; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-04-15

    Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) typically occurs in the sixth and seventh decades, and the most frequent obstructive urinary symptoms are hesitancy, decreased urinary stream, sensation of incomplete emptying, nocturia, frequency, and urgency. Various medications, specifically 5-{alpha}-reductase inhibitors and selective {alpha}-blockers, can decrease the severity of the symptoms secondary to BPH, but prostatectomy is still considered to be the traditional method of management. We report the preliminary results for two patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH, successfully treated by prostate artery embolization (PAE). The patients were investigated using the International Prostate Symptom Score, by digital rectal examination, urodynamic testing, prostate biopsy, transrectal ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual urine volume complemented the investigation at 30, 90, and 180 days after PAE. The procedure was performed under local anesthesia; embolization of the prostate arteries was performed with a microcatheter and 300- to 500-{mu}m microspheres using complete stasis as the end point. One patient was subjected to bilateral PAE and the other to unilateral PAE; they urinated spontaneously after removal of the urethral catheter, 15 and 10 days after the procedure, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, US and MRI revealed a prostate reduction of 39.7% and 47.8%, respectively, for the bilateral PAE and 25.5 and 27.8%, respectively, for the patient submitted to unilateral PAE. The early results, at 6-month follow-up, for the two patients with BPH show a promising potential alternative for treatment with PAE.

  19. Rape (Brassica chinensis L.) seed germination, seedling growth, and physiology in soil polluted with di-n-butyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) pollution in agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products is becoming more and more widespread in China. PAEs polluted soil can lead to phytotoxicity in higher plants and potential health risks to human being. We evaluated the individual toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two representative PAEs, to sown rape (Brassica chinensis L.) seeds within 72 h (as germination stage) and seedlings after germination for 14 days by monitoring responses and trends of different biological parameters. No significant effects of six concentrations of PAE ranging from 0 (not treated/NT) to 500 mg kg(-1) on germination rate in soil were observed. However, root length, shoot length, and biomass (fresh weight) were inhibited by both pollutants (except root length and biomass under DEHP). Stimulatory effects of both target pollutants on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SODase) activity, ascorbate peroxidase (APXase) content, and polyphenoloxidase (PPOase) activity in shoots and roots (SODase activity in shoots excluded) were in the same trend with the promotion of proline (Pro) but differed with acetylcholinesterase activity (except in shoots under DnBP) for analyzed samples treated for 72 h and 14 days. Responses of representative storage compounds free amino acids (FAA) and total soluble sugar (TSS) under both PAEs were raised. Sensitivity of APXase and Pro in roots demonstrates their possibility in estimation of PAE phytotoxicity and the higher toxicity of DnBP, which has also been approved by the morphological photos of seedlings at day 14. Higher sensitivity of the roots was also observed. The recommended soil allowable concentration is 5 mg DnBP kg(-1) soil for the development of rape. We still need to know the phytotoxicity of DEHP at whole seedling stage for both the growing and development; on the other hand, soil criteria for PAE compounds are urgently required in

  20. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  1. Cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) aqueous leaf extract in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, J A O; Kamadyaapa, D R; Gondwe, M M; Moodley, K; Musabayane, C T

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) aqueous leaf extract (PAE) have been investigated in some experimental animal paradigms. The effects of PAE on myocardial contractile performance was evaluated on guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips, while the vasodilatory effects of the plant extract were examined on isolated portal veins and thoracic aortic rings of healthy normal Wistar rats in vitro. The hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant extract was examined in healthy normotensive and hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats in vivo. P americana aqueous leaf extract (25-800 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05-0.001), negative inotropic and negative chronotropic effects on guinea pig isolated electrically driven left and spontaneously beating right atrial muscle preparations, respectively. Moreover, PAE reduced or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the positive inotropic and chronotropic responses of guinea pig isolated atrial muscle strips induced by noradrenaline (NA, 10(-10)-10(-5) M), and calcium (Ca(2+), 5-40 mM). PAE (50-800 mg/ml) also significantly reduced (p < 0.05-0.001) or abolished, in a concentration-dependent manner, the rhythmic, spontaneous, myogenic contractions of portal veins isolated from healthy normal Wistar rats. Like acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-8)-10(-5) M), the plant extract (25- 800 mg/ml) produced concentration-related relaxations of isolated endothelium-containing thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline. The vasorelaxant effects of PAE in the isolated, endothelium-intact aortic rings were markedly inhibited or annulled by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-5) M), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Furthermore, PAE (25-400 mg/kg iv) caused dose-related, transient but significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in the systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rates of the anaesthetised normotensive and hypertensive rats used. The results of

  2. Growth and antioxidant defense responses of wheat seedlings to di-n-butyl phthalate and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate stress.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minling; Dong, Youming; Zhang, Ze; Song, Wenhua; Qi, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are vital environmental hormone-like chemicals that are noxious to plants, animals, and human beings. In this study, the influences of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the seed germination, root morphology, and various physiological changes of wheat seedlings were investigated by analyzing superoxide anion (O2(-)) accumulation, antioxidant enzyme activity, and lipid peroxidation. DBP and DEHP were found to obviously inhibit germination only at high concentrations, but significantly affected root morphology even at lower concentrations. Their toxic effects were the most severe on root elongation, followed by shoot elongation, and were the least severe on germination rate, indicating that root elongation was the best index for evaluating DBP and DEHP eco-toxicity. DBP and DEHP also enhanced O2(-) and malondialdehyde levels and membrane permeability, as well as produced changes in the antioxidant status and PAE content in the stem and leaf (combined tissues, hereafter shoot) and root tissues. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase increased at low and medium DBP and DEHP concentrations, but declined at high PAE concentrations. These results indicated that PAEs could exert oxidative damage in the early development stage of wheat, particularly at higher concentrations. DBP and DEHP accumulation was higher in the roots than in the shoot tissues, and their levels in these tissues increased with increasing PAE concentrations, supporting their more-serious toxic effects on roots than those on shoots. Further, the physicochemical properties of DBP rendered it more harmful than DEHP.

  3. Biodegradation of polyalcohol ethoxylate by a wastewater microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Sharvelle, Sybil E; Garland, Jay; Banks, M K

    2008-04-01

    Polyalcohol ethoxylate (PAE), an anionic surfactant, is the primary component in most laundry and dish wash detergents and is therefore highly loaded in domestic wastewater. Its biodegradation results in the formation of several metabolites and the fate of these metabolites through wastewater treatment plants, graywater recycling processes, and in the environment must be clearly understood. Biodegradation pathways for PAE were investigated in this project with a municipal wastewater microbial consortium. A microtiter-based oxygen sensor system was utilized to determine the preferential use of potential biodegradation products. Results show that while polyethylene glycols (PEGs) were readily degraded by PAE acclimated microorganisms, most of the carboxylic acids tested were not degraded. Biodegradation of PEGs suggests that hydrophobe-hydrophile scission was the dominant pathway for PAE biodegradation in this wastewater community. Ethylene glycol (EG) and diethylene glycol (DEG) were not utilized by microbial populations capable of degrading higher molecular weight EGs. It is possible that EG and DEG may accumulate. The microtiter-based oxygen sensor system was successfully utilized to elucidate information on PAE biodegradation pathways and could be applied to study biodegradation pathways for other important contaminants.

  4. Recent advances in photoacoustic endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Jong; Cho, Young-Seok

    2013-11-16

    Imaging based on photoacoustic effect relies on illuminating with short light pulses absorbed by tissue absorbers, resulting in thermoelastic expansion, giving rise to ultrasonic waves. The ultrasonic waves are then detected by detectors placed around the sample. Photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) is one of four major implementations of photoacoustic tomography that have been developed recently. The prototype PAE was based on scanning mirror system that deflected both the light and the ultrasound. A recently developed mini-probe was further miniaturized, and enabled simultaneous photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging. This PAE-endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) system can offer high-resolution vasculature information in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and display differences between optical and mechanical contrast compared with single-mode EUS. However, PAE for endoscopic GI imaging is still at the preclinical stage. In this commentary, we describe the technological improvements in PAE for possible clinical application in endoscopic GI imaging. In addition, we discuss the technical details of the ultrasonic transducer incorporated into the photoacoustic endoscopic probe.

  5. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B

    2016-02-01

    Designing culturally sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients' involvement in their treatment and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multilevel activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms and how they affect patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and value-based purchasing, patient-centered medical homes, and the community health benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients' abilities to manage their health, helping patients express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making.

  6. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1006 Is a Persulfide-Modified Protein That Is Critical for Molybdenum Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tombline, Gregory; Schwingel, Johanna M.; Lapek, John D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Darrah, Thomas; Maguire, Michael; Van Alst, Nadine E.; Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    A companion manuscript revealed that deletion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) PA1006 gene caused pleiotropic defects in metabolism including a loss of all nitrate reductase activities, biofilm maturation, and virulence. Herein, several complementary approaches indicate that PA1006 protein serves as a persulfide-modified protein that is critical for molybdenum homeostasis in Pae. Mutation of a highly conserved Cys22 to Ala or Ser resulted in a loss of PA1006 activity. Yeast-two-hybrid and a green-fluorescent protein fragment complementation assay (GFP-PFCA) in Pae itself revealed that PA1006 interacts with Pae PA3667/CsdA and PA3814/IscS Cys desulfurase enzymes. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) “top-down” analysis of PA1006 purified from Pae revealed that conserved Cys22 is post-translationally modified in vivo in the form a persulfide. Inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP)-MS analysis of ΔPA1006 mutant extracts revealed that the mutant cells contain significantly reduced levels of molybdenum compared to wild-type. GFP-PFCA also revealed that PA1006 interacts with several molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis proteins as well as nitrate reductase maturation factor NarJ and component NarH. These data indicate that a loss of PA1006 protein’s persulfide sulfur and a reduced availability of molybdenum contribute to the phenotype of a ΔPA1006 mutant. PMID:23409003

  7. Distribution profile, health risk and elimination of model atmospheric SVOCs associated with a typical municipal garbage compressing station in Guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guiying; Sun, Hongwei; Zhang, Zhengyong; An, Taicheng; Hu, Jianfang

    2013-09-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) air pollution caused by municipal garbage compressing process was investigated at a garbage compressing station (GCS). The most abundant contaminants were phthalate esters (PAEs), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs). ∑16PAHs concentrations ranged from 58.773 to 68.840 ng m-3 in gas and from 6.489 to 17.291 ng m-3 in particulate phase; ∑20OCPs ranged from 4.181 to 5.550 ng m-3 and from 0.823 to 2.443 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase, respectively; ∑15PAEs ranged from 46.498 to 87.928 ng m-3 and from 414.765 to 763.009 ng m-3 in gas and particulate phase. Lung-cancer risk due to PAHs exposure was 1.13 × 10-4. Both non-cancer and cancer risk levels due to OCPs exposure were acceptable. Non-cancer hazard index of PAEs was 4.57 × 10-3, suggesting safety of workers as only exposure to PAEs at GCS. At pilot scale, 60.18% of PAHs, 70.89% of OCPs and 63.2% of PAEs were removed by an integrated biotrickling filter-photocatalytic reactor at their stable state, and health risk levels were reduced about 50%, demonstrating high removal capacity of integrated reactor.

  8. Locally delivered salicylic acid from a poly(anhydride-ester): impact on diabetic bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wada, Keisuke; Yu, Weiling; Elazizi, Mohamad; Barakat, Sandrine; Ouimet, Michelle A; Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Fiorellini, Joseph P; Graves, Dana T; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2013-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) involves metabolic changes that can impair bone repair, including a prolonged inflammatory response. A salicylic acid-based poly(anhydride-ester) (SA-PAE) provides controlled and sustained release of salicylic acid (SA) that locally resolves inflammation. This study investigates the effect of polymer-controlled SA release on bone regeneration in diabetic rats where enhanced inflammation is expected. Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: diabetic group induced by streptozotocin (STZ) injection or normoglycemic controls injected with citrate buffer alone. Three weeks after hyperglycemia development or vehicle injection, 5mm critical sized defects were created at the rat mandibular angle and treated with SA-PAE/bone graft mixture or bone graft alone. Rats were euthanized 4 and 12weeks after surgery, then bone fill percentage in the defect region was assessed by micro-computed tomography (CT) and histomorphometry. It was observed that bone fill increased significantly at 4 and 12weeks in SA-PAE/bone graft-treated diabetic rats compared to diabetic rats receiving bone graft alone. Accelerated bone formation in normoglycemic rats caused by SA-PAE/bone graft treatment was observed at 4weeks but not at 12weeks. This study shows that treatment with SA-PAE enhances bone regeneration in diabetic rats and accelerates bone regeneration in normoglycemic animals.

  9. Characterization of five newly isolated bacteriophages active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, Magdalena; Mizak, Lidia; Parasion, Sylwia; Gryko, Romuald; Olender, Alina; Niemcewicz, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. It exhibits multiple mechanisms of resistance, including efflux pumps, antibiotic modifying enzymes and limited membrane permeability. The primary reason for the development of novel therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections is the declining efficacy of conventional antibiotic therapy. These clinical problems caused a revitalization of interest in bacteriophages, which are highly specific and have very effective antibacterial activity as well as several other advantages over traditional antimicrobial agents. Above all, so far, no serious or irreversible side effects of phage therapy have been described. Five newly purified P. aeruginosa phages named vB_PaeM_WP1, vB_PaeM_WP2, vB_PaeM_WP3, vB_PaeM_WP4 and vB_PaeP_WP5 have been characterized as potential candidates for use in phage therapy. They are representatives of the Myoviridae and Podoviridae families. Their host range, genome size, structural proteins and stability in various physical and chemical conditions were tested. The results of these preliminary investigations indicate that the newly isolated bacteriophages may be considered for use in phagotherapy.

  10. Newly Identified Thermostable Esterase from Sulfobacillus acidophilus: Properties and Performance in Phthalate Ester Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Xiang; Qiu, Yong-Jun; Li, Cheng-Yuan; Xing, Shuai; Zheng, Yi-Tao

    2014-01-01

    EstS1, a newly identified thermostable esterase from Sulfobacillus acidophilus DSM10332, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to enzymatically degrade phthalate esters (PAEs) to their corresponding monoalkyl PAEs. The optimal pH and temperature of the esterase were found to be 8.0 and 70°C, respectively. The half-life of EstS1 at 60°C was 15 h, indicating that the enzyme had good thermostability. The specificity constant (kcat/Km) of the enzyme for p-nitrophenyl butyrate was as high as 6,770 mM−1 s−1. The potential value of EstS1 was demonstrated by its ability to effectively hydrolyze 35 to 82% of PAEs (10 mM) within 2 min at 37°C, with all substrates being completely degraded within 24 h. At 60°C, the time required for complete hydrolysis of most PAEs was reduced by half. To our knowledge, this enzyme is a new esterase identified from thermophiles that is able to degrade various PAEs at high temperatures. PMID:25149523

  11. Acetylesterase-Mediated Deacetylation of Pectin Impairs Cell Elongation, Pollen Germination, and Plant Reproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Gou J. Y.; Liu C.; Miller, L. M.; Hou, G.; Yu, X.-H.; Chen, X.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  12. Occurrence and distribution of two phthalate esters in the sediments of the Anzali wetlands on the coast of the Caspian Sea (Iran).

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Nasrin; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Khodabandeh, Saber; Bahramifar, Nader

    2014-12-15

    This study provides the first data on distribution of phthalate Acid esters (PAEs) in surface sediment samples taken from Anzali Wetland, Iran. These samples were collected from 43 stations. Two PAEs consist of di(2-ethylhexylphthalate) (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were detected and the total concentrations of these two pollutants ranged from 0.25 to 43.12, 0.12 to 19.02μgg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Among all the 43 samples analyzed, no sample was found to be free of DEHP and DBP, which indicates these two phthalate esters were ubiquitous in sediments. The concentrations in the near urban regions were higher than other regions because of higher discharge of PAEs from plastic materials in urbanized areas. Concentrations of PAEs were positively correlated with total organic carbon (TOC). Generally the median concentrations of DEHP and DnBP in the sediments were 15 and 14 times higher than the ERL. These results show that the Anzali wetland are highly polluted by major PAE congeners consist of DEHP and DnBP.

  13. Conceptualization of a robust performance assessment and evaluation model for consolidating community water systems.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Jeffrey W; Louis, Garrick E

    2009-02-01

    Community water systems (CWS) face significant competing forces for change from decreasing water resource availability, stricter water quality regulations, decreasing federal subsidies, increasing public scrutiny, decreasing financial health, and increasing infrastructure replacement costs. These competing forces necessitate increasing consolidation responses among financially stressed CWS. Consolidation responses allow financially stressed CWS to increase levels of service by taking advantage of economy of scale benefits, such as eliminating service duplications across administration and operational functions. Consolidation responses also promote improved financial accountability among consolidating CWS, especially when operating as integral subsystems of a larger regional drinking water supply (RDWS) system. The goal of this paper is to propose a conceptual model for robust performance assessment and evaluation (PAE) among consolidating CWS. The objectives of this paper are to conceptualize methods for: (1) consistent performance assessment and (2) uniform summative performance evaluation among consolidating CWS. The expected outcome from implementing robust PAE among consolidating CWS is increased levels of service through transparent benchmarking and improved financial accountability. The proposed robust PAE model provides the basis for constructing decision support system (DSS) tools that estimate efficient solutions for allocating limited financial resources among consolidating CWS. The paper is a significant departure from current CWS PAE approaches in two ways. First, it provides a goal-oriented approach for robust PAE among consolidating CWS. Second, it constructs efficiency-based performance metrics to temporally and spatially monitor the degree of attainment of the RDWS systems' goal.

  14. Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalate esters emitted from plastic wastes recycling granulation plants in Xingtan Town, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, De-Yin; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Hong, Wei; Feng, Wei-Feng; Tao, Liang

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to investigate the main pollution characteristics of exhaust gases emitted from plastic waste recycling granulation plants, mainly volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs) were analyzed in Xingtan Town, the largest distribution center of plastic waste recycling in China. Both inside and outside the plants, the total concentrations of volatile monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), PAHs and PAEs ranged from 2000 to 3000 μg m-3, 450 to 1200 ng m-3, and 200 to 1200 ng m-3, respectively. Their concentration levels inside the plants were higher than those outside the plants, and PAHs and PAEs were mainly distributed in the gas-phase. Notably, highly toxic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) could be detected inside the plants, and harmful PAEs could be detected not only inside but also outside the plants, although PAEs are non-volatile. The exhaust gas composition and concentration were related to the plastic feedstock and granulation temperature.

  15. [Determination of trace phthalates in beer by gas chromatography coupled with solid-phase microextraction using a calix[6] arene fiber].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Yang, Cai; Ye, Changwen; Li, Xiujuan

    2009-05-01

    A method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC) for the determination of phthalates (PAEs) in beer using benzoxy-C[6]/OH-TSO coated fiber was developed. A Taguchi's L25 (5(6)) orthogonal array design was employed to evaluate potentially significant factors and screen the optimum conditions for each analyte to ensure the highest extraction efficiency. The extraction for the determination of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP) was carried out at 65 degrees C for 50 min with a constant stirring speed of 1,250 r/min, that of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and diamyl phthalate (DAP) was at 95 degrees C for 50 min with a speed of 624 r/min, and that of the other PAEs was at 105 degrees C for 60 min without agitation. Owing to the good selectivity and high sensitivity of this new calixarene fiber, the method enabled the quantification of PAEs at low microg/L level in beer media with good precisions and recoveries. The survey of three bottled beer samples showed that DBP and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) were the main PAEs found in beer and total phthalates concentrations were between 6.22 and 7.76 microg/L. The migration tests revealed that the high content of DEHP incorporated in PVC gaskets in the lids could be a potential source of PAEs contamination in bottled beer during transportation and storage.

  16. Determining Phthalic Acid Esters Using Terahertz Time Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shen, L.; Yang, F.; Han, F.; Hu, P.; Song, M.

    2016-09-01

    In this report terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is applied for determining phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in standard materials. We reported the THz transmission spectrum in the frequency range of 0.2 to 2.0 THz for three PAEs: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate ester (DEHP). The study provided the refractive indices and absorption features of these materials. The absorption spectra of three PAEs were simulated by using Gaussian software with Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. For pure standard PAEs, the values of the refractive indices changed between 1.50 and 1.60. At 1.0 THz, the refractive indices were 1.524, 1.535, and 1.563 for DINP, DEHP, and DBP, respectively. In this experiment different concentrations of DBP were investigated using THz-TDS. Changes were measured in the low THz frequency range for refractive indices and characteristic absorption. The results indicated that THz-TDS is promising as a new method in determining PAEs in many materials. The results of this study could be used to support the practical application of THz-TDS in quality detection and food monitoring. In particular, this new technique could be used in detecting hazardous materials and other substances present in wine or foods.

  17. Personalized Strategies to Activate and Empower Patients in Health Care and Reduce Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Mullins, C. Daniel; Novak, Priscilla; Thomas, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Designing culturally-sensitive personalized interventions is essential to sustain patients’ involvement in their treatment, and encourage patients to take an active role in their own health and health care. We consider patient activation and empowerment as a cyclical process defined through patient accumulation of knowledge, confidence, and self-determination for their own health and health care. We propose a patient-centered, multi-level activation and empowerment framework (individual-, health care professional-, community-, and health care delivery system-level) to inform the development of culturally informed personalized patient activation and empowerment (P-PAE) interventions to improve population health, and reduce racial and ethnic disparities. We discuss relevant Affordable Care Act payment and delivery policy reforms, and how they impact patient activation and empowerment. Such policies include Accountable Care Organizations and Value Based Purchasing, Patient Centered Medical Homes, and the Community Health Benefit. Challenges and possible solutions to implementing the P-PAE are discussed. Comprehensive and longitudinal data sets with consistent P-PAE measures are needed to conduct comparative effectiveness analyses to evaluate the optimal P-PAE model. We believe the P-PAE model is timely and sustainable, and will be critical to engaging patients in their treatment, developing patients’ abilities to manage their health, helping patients to express concerns and preferences regarding treatment, empowering patients to ask questions about treatment options, and building up strategic patient-provider partnerships through shared decision making. PMID:25845376

  18. Effects of prenatal tobacco, alcohol and marijuana exposure on processing speed, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer.

    PubMed

    Willford, Jennifer A; Chandler, Lynette S; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-year-old adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Adolescents (age 16, n=320) participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on developmental outcomes were evaluated in this study. The computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (BCT) was used to assess each domain of function. Other important variables, such as demographics, home environment, and psychological characteristics of the mother and adolescent were also considered in the analyses. There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTE and PME were associated with deficits in visual-motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE, PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures of performance on the BCT.

  19. What Research Is Being Done on Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Russian Research Community?

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024

  20. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  1. Postantibiotic effect of disinfection treatment by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Odashima, Yu; Nakamura, Keisuke; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Meirelles, Luiz; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the postantibiotic effect (PAE) of the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2. Postantibiotic effect was induced in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus salivarius by exposing the bacteria to H2O2 at concentrations of 250-1000 mmol/l, laser irradiation at a wavelength of 405 nm, and the combination of both (photolysis of H2O2) for 10-30 seconds. The photolysis of H2O2 induced significantly longer PAE than other treatments. The PAE was augmented dependently on not only the concentration of H2O2 but the laser irradiation time. Electron spin resonance analysis showed that the hydroxyl radical was also generated dependently on both the concentration of H2O2 and the laser irradiation time, suggesting that the hydroxyl radicals contribute to the PAE. These results suggest that the disinfection treatment by photolysis of H2O2 induces PAE in S. aureus and S. salivarius even though they were treated for only 10-30 seconds.

  2. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  3. Parallel Synthesis of Poly(amino ether)-Templated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Transgene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated for numerous applications in medicine, sensing, and catalysis. In particular, gold nanoparticles have been investigated for separations, sensing, drug/nucleic acid delivery, and bioimaging. In addition, silver nanoparticles demonstrate antibacterial activity, resulting in potential application in treatments against microbial infections, burns, diabetic skin ulcers, and medical devices. Here, we describe the facile, parallel synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small set of poly(amino ethers), or PAEs, derived from linear polyamines, under ambient conditions and in absence of additional reagents. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were dependent on PAE concentration and chemical composition. In addition, yields were significantly greater in case of PAEs when compared to 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine), which was used as a standard catonic polymer. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced the kinetics and the yield of both gold and silver nanoparticles, likely by means of a coreduction effect. PAE-templated gold nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to deliver plasmid DNA, resulting in transgene expression, in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer and MB49 murine bladder cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that chemically diverse poly(amino ethers) can be employed for rapidly templating the formation of metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. The simplicity of synthesis and chemical diversity make PAE-templated nanoparticles useful tools for several applications in biotechnology, including nucleic acid delivery. PMID:25084138

  4. Acetylesterase-mediated deacetylation of pectin impairs cell elongation, pollen germination, and plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gou, Jin-Ying; Miller, Lisa M; Hou, Guichuan; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Pectin is a major component of the primary cell wall of higher plants. Some galacturonyl residues in the backbone of pectinaceous polysaccharides are often O-acetylated at the C-2 or C-3 position, and the resulting acetylesters change dynamically during the growth and development of plants. The processes involve both enzymatic acetylation and deacetylation. Through genomic sequence analysis, we identified a pectin acetylesterase (PAE1) from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa). Recombinant Pt PAE1 exhibited preferential activity in releasing the acetate moiety from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) pectin in vitro. Overexpressing Pt PAE1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) decreased the level of acetyl esters of pectin but not of xylan. Deacetylation engendered differential changes in the composition and/or structure of cell wall polysaccharides that subsequently impaired the cellular elongation of floral styles and filaments, the germination of pollen grains, and the growth of pollen tubes. Consequently, plants overexpressing PAE1 exhibited severe male sterility. Furthermore, in contrast to the conventional view, PAE1-mediated deacetylation substantially lowered the digestibility of pectin. Our data suggest that pectin acetylesterase functions as an important structural regulator in planta by modulating the precise status of pectin acetylation to affect the remodeling and physiochemical properties of the cell wall's polysaccharides, thereby affecting cell extensibility.

  5. Effects of Prenatal Tobacco, Alcohol and Marijuana Exposure on Processing Speed, Visual-Motor Coordination, and Interhemispheric Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Willford, Jennifer A.; Chandler, Lynette S.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in motor control are often reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Less is known about the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) and prenatal marijuana exposure (PME) on motor coordination, and previous studies have not considered whether PTE, PAE, and PME interact to affect motor control. This study investigated the effects of PTE, PAE, and PME as well as current drug use on speed of processing, visual-motor coordination, and interhemispheric transfer in 16-year-old adolescents. Data were collected as part of the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Adolescents (age 16, n=320) participating in a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal substance exposure on developmental outcomes were evaluated in this study. The computerized Bimanual Coordination Test (BCT) was used to assess each domain of function. Other important variables, such as demographics, home environment, and psychological characteristics of the mother and adolescent were also considered in the analyses. There were significant and independent effects of PTE, PAE, and PME on processing speed and interhemispheric transfer of information. PTEand PME were associated with deficits in visual motor coordination. There were no interactions between PAE, PTE, and PME. Current tobacco use predicted deficits in speed of processing. Current alcohol and marijuana use by the offspring were not associated with any measures of performance on the BCT. PMID:20600845

  6. Changes in Mood in New Enrollees at a Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE)

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Stephanie M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Austin, Shane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine changes in mood after 9 months of enrollment in a Program of All- Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). DESIGN Cohort Study SETTING Alexian Brothers PACE–St. Louis, Missouri PARTICIPANTS Newly enrolled patients aged 55 or older, living in the PACE service area, eligible for nursing home care, and able to live safely in the community with continuous care for at least 9 months (n=182). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 score at the pre- admission evaluation (PAE) and the 9 month evaluation (9ME). RESULTS Of the 182 patients evaluated, 27% (n=49) met the definition of depression as defined by the GDS-15 score of ≥6 at the PAE. At the 9ME, only 11% of patients met the depression criteria (p<0.001). Of the patients who met the criteria for depression at the PAE, 80% of patients (n=39) no longer met this criteria at the 9ME (p=0.029). Similar findings were observed by age, sex, and race. Greater improvement was observed among those who were depressed at the PAE; the depressed cohort improved by 5.0 points (p<0.001) on the GDS-15 scale from the PAE to the 9ME, whereas the non-depressed cohort improved by 0.6 points (p=0.003). CONCLUSION The use of PACE as an alternative intervention may be a good option to improve mood in older adults. PMID:26260643

  7. Enzymatic degradation of polyester films by a cutinase-like enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica: surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Kikkawa, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shun; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2013-10-01

    Enzymatic degradation of polyester films by a cutinase-like enzyme from Pseudozyma antarctica JCM10317 (PaE) was analyzed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The adsorption of PaE and the degradation rate for polyester films were quantitatively monitored by a positive and negative SPR signal shifts, respectively. The decrease in SPR signal and the erosion depth of amorphous poly(L-lactide) (a-PLLA) film measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) had a linear relationship, and the weight loss was estimated from the AFM data combined with a density of a-PLLA film. Furthermore, SPR sensorgrams for various polyester films showed that degradation rate of poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) which contain C6 units was higher than that of other polyesters such as poly(butylene succinate) and a-PLLA. These results suggest that C6 is the preferred chain length as substrates for PaE.

  8. Formulation of salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) microspheres for short- and long-term salicylic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rosario-Meléndez, Roselin; Ouimet, Michelle A.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of salicylate-based poly(anhydride-ester) (PAE) microspheres was optimized by altering polymer concentration and homogenization speed to improve the overall morphology. The microspheres were prepared using three salicylate-based PAEs with different chemical compositions comprised of either a heteroatomic, linear aliphatic, or branched aliphatic moiety. These PAEs broadened the range of complete salicylic acid release to now include days, weeks and months. The molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity index (PDI) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the formulated polymers were compared to the unformulated polymers. In general, the Mw and PDI exhibited decreased and increased values, respectively, after formulation, whereas the Tg changes did not follow a specific trend. Microsphere size and morphology were determined using scanning electron microscopy. These microspheres exhibited smooth surfaces, no aggregation, and size distributions ranging from 2-34 m in diameter. In vitro release studies of the chemically incorporated salicylic acid displayed widely tunable release profiles. PMID:23420391

  9. Direct Observation of the Surface Segregation of Cu in Pd by Time-Resolved Positron-Annihilation-Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Schreckenbach, K.

    2010-11-12

    Density functional theory calculations predict the surface segregation of Cu in the second atomic layer of Pd which has not been unambiguously confirmed by experiment so far. We report measurements on Pd surfaces covered with three and six monolayers of Cu using element selective positron-annihilation-induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) which is sensitive to the topmost atomic layer. Moreover, time-resolved PAES, which was applied for the first time, enables the investigation of the dynamics of surface atoms and hence the observation of the segregation process. The time constant for segregation was experimentally determined to {tau}=1.38(0.21) h, and the final segregated configuration was found to be consistent with calculations. Time-dependent PAES is demonstrated to be a novel element selective technique applicable for the investigation of, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, corrosion, or surface alloying.

  10. Studies of Oxidation of the Cu(100) Surface Using Low Energy Positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Fazleev, N. G.; Maddox, W. B.; Nadesalingam, M.; Rajeshwar, K.; Weiss, A. H.

    2009-03-10

    Changes in the surface of an oxidized Cu(100) single crystal resulting from vacuum annealing have been investigated using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES). PAES measurements show a large increase in the intensity of the positron annihilation induced Cu M{sub 2,3}VV Auger peak as the sample is subjected to a series of isochronal anneals in vacuum up to annealing temperature 300 deg. C. The intensity then decreases monotonically as the annealing temperature is increased to {approx}600 deg. C. Experimental PAES results are analyzed by performing calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons taking into account the charge redistribution at the surface, surface reconstructions, and electron-positron correlations effects. Possible explanation for the observed behavior of the intensity of positron annihilation induced Cu M{sub 2,3}VV Auger peak with changes of the annealing temperature is proposed.

  11. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time.

  12. Self-Assembly of Coiled-coil Tetramers in the 1.40 A Structure of a Leucine-zipper Mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,Y.; Zheng, Q.; Liu, J.; Cheng, C.; Kallenbach, N.; Lu, M.

    2007-01-01

    The hydrophobic core of the GCN4 leucine-zipper dimerization domain is formed by a parallel helical association between nonpolar side chains at the a and d positions of the heptad repeat. Here we report a self-assembling coiled-coil array formed by the GCN4-pAe peptide that differs from the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper by alanine substitutions at three charged e positions. GCN4-pAe is incompletely folded in normal solution conditions yet self-assembles into an antiparallel tetraplex in crystals by formation of unanticipated hydrophobic seams linking the last two heptads of two parallel doublestranded coiled coils. The GCN4-pAe tetramers in the lattice associate laterally through the identical interactions to those in the intramolecular dimer-dimer interface. The van der Waals packing interaction in the solid state controls extended supramolecular assembly of the protein, providing an unusual atomic scale view of a mesostructure.

  13. An Early Assessment of Accountable Care Organizations Efforts to Engage Patients and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Shortell, Stephen M.; Sehgal, Neil; Bibi, Salma; Ramsay, Patricia P.; Neuhauser, Linda; Colla, Carrie H.; Lewis, Valerie A.

    2017-01-01

    Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) have incentives to meet quality and expenditure targets and share in resulting savings. Achieving these goals will require ACOs to engage more actively with patients and their families. The extent to which ACOs do so is currently unknown. Using mixed-methods including a national survey, phone interviews and site-visits; we examine the extent to which ACOs actively engage patients and their families, explore challenges involved; and consider approaches for dealing with those challenges. Results indicate that greater ACO use of patient activation and engagement (PAE) activities at the point-of-care may influence more positive leadership perceptions of the impact of PAE investments on ACO costs, quality, and outcomes of care. We identify a number of important practices associated with greater PAE, including high-level leadership commitment, goal-setting supported by adequate resources, extensive provider training and use of inter-disciplinary care teams, and frequent monitoring and reporting on progress. PMID:26038349

  14. What Happens When Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Become Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eileen M.; Riley, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    The range of structural abnormalities and functional deficits caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) are referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The disabilities associated with FASDs are said to be lifelong, but we know relatively little regarding outcomes beyond childhood and adolescence. Many of physical, brain, and neurobehavioral features that are present in children with FASDs will endure to adulthood. However, some features may diminish or change over time. Furthermore, secondary disabilities, such as school drop outs, trouble with the law, and substance/alcohol abuse problems are common in young adults with FASDs. The health consequences associated with PAE in the human adult are unknown, but animal models suggest that they may be more susceptible to chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, immune dysfunction, and cancer. More research is needed to understand the lasting effects of PAE on adults and the developmental trajectories of FASDs. PMID:26543794

  15. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique’s benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument’s flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system. PMID:24887743

  16. An evaluation of the response modulation hypothesis in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Richard F; Rucklidge, Julia J

    2006-08-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=18) and normal controls (n=23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter trials of a computerized go/no go task with mixed incentives, and this effect remained significant or marginally significant even after common variance associated with variables that covary with ADHD (i.e., IQ, oppositional-defiant/conduct disorder [ODD/CD] symptoms, anxious/depressed mood) was removed. While a moderate inverse association was observed between PAE frequency and the amount of time spent viewing response feedback following punishment, both categorical (diagnostic) and dimensional analyses of ADHD symptomatology indicated that ADHD and reflection on punishment feedback are uniquely associated with PAE commission. Findings from this study are discussed in relation to models of disinhibition applicable to youth with ADHD.

  17. Graphene nanoplatelets as a highly efficient solid-phase extraction sorbent for determination of phthalate esters in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, FeiFang; Ji, Shunli; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-03-01

    Graphene nanoplatelet (GN) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent in combination with high performance liquid chromatography has been used for the determination of five phthalate esters (PAEs) in aqueous solution. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Comparative studies showed that GN was superior to other common SPE sorbents in terms of recovery and adsorption capacity. Under optimization conditions, detection limits of 0.09-0.33 ng mL(-1) were achieved for five PAEs and enrichment factors of 402-711 for the analytes were obtained. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of PAEs in tap water and drink samples with recoveries ranging from 87.7% to 100.9%.

  18. Diel distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina (USA) and its relation to cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, E.R.; Noble, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    We used prepositioned area electrofishers (PAEs, 10X1.5 m) to assess diel differences in distribution of age-0 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, in August 1992-1993 in a paired sampling design. PAEs were placed parallel to shore in an embayment of an unvegetated reservoir (B. E. Jordan Lake, North Carolina, USA). The catch per unit effort (CPUE=fish/PAE) was significantly higher at night than during the day in both years, indicating that age-0 largemouth bass exhibit nocturnal inshore movements. Age-0 largemouth bass captured inshore during day were smaller than those captured at night, indicating that movement patterns may change ontogenetically. Inshore-offshore movements of age-0 largemouth bass were significantly reduced in the presence of cover, suggesting that diel movements were influenced by specific habitat components. Diel movements likely were related to foraging, resting and predator avoidance behavior and could affect population dynamics and introduce bias in assessment programs.

  19. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  20. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  1. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  2. Suppression of polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in vitro: a study of the mechanisms and the correlation with ring abscess in pseudomonal keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ijiri, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Kamata, R.; Nishino, N.; Okamura, R.; Kambara, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria, or the culture supernatants of an elastase non-producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elicited a chemotactic response from polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) in vitro. The chemoattractive capacity was diminished under the presence of Boc-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe, a receptor antagonist of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) which is a bacterial chemotactic peptide to PMN. This indicated that the chemoattractant derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was a fMLP-like molecule(s). In contrast, culture supernatants of an elastase producing strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced negligible chemotactic response from PMN. Indeed, an inhibitory effect of the culture supernatants or of purified Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE) on PMN chemotaxis was observed when fMLP was used as a chemoattractant. Another fMLP-induced function of PMN, respiratory burst activation, was also diminished by pretreatment of PMN with PAE. PAE hydrolysed fMLP at the Met-Leu bond and diminished the chemoattractant capacity. In addition, a receptor analysis with fML-3H-P demonstrated a decrease in numbers of fMLP receptors on PMN without changing the dissociation constant values after the treatment of the cells with PAE. In the primary structure of the fMLP receptor previously reported, a preferential amino acid sequence for cleavage by PAE was identified in what was believed to be an extracellular portion of the receptor molecule. These results suggested that PAE could diminish PMN infiltration in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vivo by cleavage of the fMLP-like pseudomonal chemotactic ligand and the receptors on PMN. Images Figure 4 PMID:7734333

  3. Novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer micelles loading curcumin: preparation, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Li; Shen, Yuanyuan; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaofen; Li, Mingna; Guo, Shengrong; Huang, Shengtang

    2013-01-01

    A novel 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(anhydride-esters) amphiphilic copolymer (4-arm PEG-b-PAE) was synthesized by esterization of 4-arm poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(anhydride-esters) which was obtained by melt polycondensation of α -, ω -acetic anhydride terminated poly(L-lactic acid). The obtained 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was characterized by (1)H-NMR and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration of 4-arm PEG-b-PAE was 2.38 μg/mL. The curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles were prepared by a solid dispersion method and the drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency of the micelles were 7.0% and 85.2%, respectively. The curcumin-loaded micelles were spherical with a hydrodynamic diameter of 151.9 nm. Curcumin was encapsulated within 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles amorphously and released from the micelles, faster in pH 5.0 than pH 7.4, presenting one biphasic drug release pattern with rapid release at the initial stage and slow release later. The hemolysis rate of the curcumin-loaded 4-arm PEG-b-PAE micelles was 3.18%, which was below 5%. The IC50 value of the curcumin-loaded micelles against Hela cells was 10.21 μg/mL, lower than the one of free curcumin (25.90 μg/mL). The cellular uptake of the curcumin-loaded micelles in Hela cell increased in a time-dependent manner. The curcumin-loaded micelles could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of Hela cells.

  4. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  5. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T.C. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications. PMID:26690232

  6. Impact of sample size on variation of adverse events and preventable adverse events: systematic review on epidemiology and contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Astrid; Albers, Bernhard; Schrappe, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To perform a systematic review of the frequency of (preventable) adverse events (AE/PAE) and to analyse contributing factors, such as sample size, settings, type of events, terminology, methods of collecting data and characteristics of study populations. Review methods Search of Medline and Embase from 1995 to 2007. Included were original papers with data on the frequency of AE or PAE, explicit definition of study population and information about methods of assessment. Results were included with percentages of patients having one or more AE/PAE. Extracted data enclosed contributing factors. Data were abstracted and analysed by two researchers independently. Results 156 studies in 152 publications met our inclusion criteria. 144/156 studies reported AE, 55 PAE (43 both). Sample sizes ranged from 60 to 8 493 876 patients (median: 1361 patients). The reported results for AE varied from 0.1% to 65.4%, and for PAE from 0.1% to 33.9%. Variation clearly decreased with increasing sample size. Estimates did not differ according to setting, type of event or terminology. In studies with fewer than 1000 patients, chart review prevailed, whereas surveys with more than 100 000 patients were based mainly on administrative data. No effect of patient characteristics was found. Conclusions The funnel-shaped distribution of AE and PAE rates with sample size is a probable consequence of variation and can be taken as an indirect indicator of study validity. A contributing factor may be the method of data assessment. Further research is needed to explain the results when analysing data by types of event or terminology. PMID:20679137

  7. Metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent of porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of six phthalate esters from drinking water: a combination of experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Conglu; Yang, Zhao; Dai, Xinpeng; Cheng, Maosheng; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-08-07

    An attractive metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) material was synthesized at the nanoscale and applied as a sorbent in the porous membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE) device for the pre-concentration of phthalate esters (PAEs) in drinking water samples for the first time. Parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as the selection of sorbent materials, pH adjustment, the effect of salt, magnetic-stirring extraction time, the desorption solvent and the desorption time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection from gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis for PAEs varied from 0.004 to 0.02 μg L(-1). The linear ranges were from 0.1 to 50 μg L(-1) or from 0.2 to 50 μg L(-1) for the analytes with the relative standard deviations fluctuating from 0.8 to 10.9% (n = 5). The enrichment factors (EFs) for the target PAEs were varied from 143 to 187. MIL-101(Cr) exhibited remarkable advantages compared to activated carbon and MIL-100(Fe). On the other hand, the computational method was first used to predict the adsorption of MIL-101(Cr) towards PAEs. The molecular interactions and the free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and PAEs were observed and calculated in terms of the molecular modeling method. MIL-101(Cr) showed high potential in the analysis of PAEs at trace levels in drinking water. The computational result was consistent with the detected enrichment factors. The computational modeling accurately predicted the extraction efficiency of MOF-based material towards the target analytes. Therefore, the combination of experimental and computational study provided a new strategy on the trace contaminant analysis.

  8. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  9. Clinical, Laboratorial, and Urodynamic Findings of Prostatic Artery Embolization for the Treatment of Urinary Retention Related to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. A Prospective Single-Center Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Alberto A.; Carnevale, Francisco C. Motta Leal Filho, Joaquim M. da; Yoshinaga, Eduardo M.; Cerri, Luciana M. O.; Baroni, Ronaldo H.; Marcelino, Antonio S. Z.; Cerri, Giovanni G.; Srougi, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study was designed to describe the clinical, laboratorial, and urodynamic findings of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in patients with urinary retention due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).MethodsA prospective study of 11 patients with urinary retention due to BPH was conducted. Patients underwent physical examination, prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement, transrectal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. International prostate symptom score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), and urodynamic testing were used to assess the outcome before and after 1 year.ResultsClinical success was 91 % (10/11 patients) with a mean follow-up of 22.3 months (range, 12-41 months). At the first year follow-up, the mean IPSS score was 2.8 points (p = 0.04), mean QoL was 0.4 points (p = 0.001), mean PSA decreased from 10.1 to 4.3 ng/mL (p = 0.003), maximum urinary flow (Qmax) improved from 4.2 to 10.8 mL/sec (p = 0.009), and detrusor pressure (Pdet) decreased from 85.7 to 51.5 cm H{sub 2}O (p = 0.007). Before PAE, Bladder Outlet Obstruction Index (BOOI) showed values >40 in 100 % of patients. After PAE, 30 % of patients were >40 (obstructed), 40 % were between 20 and 40 (undetermined), and 30 % were <20 (unobstructed). Patients with a BOOI <20 had higher PSA values at 1-day after PAE.ConclusionsClinical and urodynamic parameters improved significantly after PAE in patients with acute urinary retention due to BPH. Total PSA at day 1 after PAE was higher in patients with unobstructed values in pressure flow studies.

  10. Evidence on the Effect of DoD Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    CD (inside back cover): McCrillis.pdf Table A-1 Main Database_090814.xlsx Table A-2 Memo Entries_090814.xlsx Table A-4 CLC , DLC, and NQC PAUC...evidence we have on this possibility is presented and discussed in the section in Appendix A entitled “Comparison of the PA&E and CLC PAUC Growth...the data. Calibrated Learning Curve ( CLC ) There were twenty-nine MDAPs for which we did not have a PA&E estimate and did not have estimated learning

  11. Optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Rao, Bin; Yao, Junjie; Yeh, Cheng-Hung; Danielli, Amos; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has become a major experimental tool of photoacoustic tomography, with unique imaging capabilities for various biological applications. However, conventional imaging systems are all table-top embodiments, which preclude their use in internal organs. In this study, by applying the OR-PAM concept to our recently developed endoscopic technique, called photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE), we created an optical-resolution photoacoustic endomicroscopy (OR-PAEM) system, which enables internal organ imaging with a much finer resolution than conventional acoustic-resolution PAE systems. OR-PAEM has potential preclinical and clinical applications using either endogenous or exogenous contrast agents. PMID:25798315

  12. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope for use in the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. K.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We have successfully developed a fully-sheathed, flexible shaft-based, mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The endoscopic system uses a single element ultrasonic transducer and flexible shaft-based proximal actuation mechanism, and it has a 2.5 m long and 3.2 mm diameter catheter section, which can be accommodated in the 3.7 mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo imaging capability of the PAE system.

  13. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  14. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  15. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  16. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  17. 24 CFR 401.560 - Property management standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... standards must require the project management to: (1) Protect the physical integrity of the property over... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Property management standards. 401... management standards. (a) General. Each PAE is required by section 518 of MAHRA to establish...

  18. [Analysis of phthalate esters in plastic-packaging bags on-line sample stacking-microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Minyi; Chen, Guonan

    2012-09-01

    Two convenient, effective, and reproducible methods using microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC)-normal stacking mode (NSM) and reversed electrode polarity stacking mode (REPSM) were developed for the on-line sample stacking of phthalate esters (PAEs). REPSM coupled with MEEKC increased the sensitivity of 937.5 to 7,143 times for four PAEs compared to the conventional MEEKC. The separating conditions in the MEEKC method were studied, and many factors influencing the two sample stacking processes were investigated in detail. The optimum sample matrices for the two stacking methods were as follows: 30 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC) and 30.0 mmol/L borate (pH 8.5). Additionally, sample injections as large as 3.45 kPa x 40 s and 3.45 kPa x 90 s were applied for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The linear relationship and reproducibility were also examined. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) of the PAEs were in the ranges of 0.021 - 0.33 mg/L and 0.7 - 4 microg/L for NSM-MEEKC and REPSM-MEEKC, respectively. The proposed REPSM-MEEKC has been successfully applied to determine PAEs in plastic-packaging bags, and the spiked recoveries were in the range of 89.1% - 105.6% with satisfactory results.

  19. An Evaluation of the Response Modulation Hypothesis in Relation to Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Richard F.; Rucklidge, Julia J.

    2006-01-01

    Several hypotheses related to Newman's (e.g., Patterson & Newman, 1993) response modulation hypothesis were examined among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 18) and normal controls (n = 23). Consistent with predictions, youth with ADHD committed more passive avoidance errors (PAEs) than controls during the latter…

  20. Relationships between self-determination theory and theory of planned behavior applied to physical activity and exercise behavior in chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jessica M; Iwanaga, Kanako; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Cotton, Brandi Parker; Deiches, Jon; Morrison, Blaise; Moser, Erin; Chan, Fong

    2017-01-22

    This study examined the relationships between self-determination theory (SDT) and theory of planned behavior (TpB) applied to physical activity and exercise behavior (PA&E) in people with chronic pain. Two hundred and eleven adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain (28 males and 183 females, age range 18 to 82 years, mean age 43 years) were recruited from online support groups and clinic networks in the United States. Participants completed SDT measures relevant to PA&E on perceived autonomy support, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, as well as TpB measures relevant to PA&E on intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Correlational techniques and canonical correlation analysis were performed to examine the relationships and variance within and between theoretical dimensions. Overall, the SDT set accounted for 37% of the TpB variance and the TpB set accounted for 32% of the SDT set variance. The results indicate there are statistical similarities and differences between concepts in SDT and TpB models for PA&E. Using both empirical guidance and clinical expertise, researchers and practitioners should attempt to select and integrate non-redundant and complementary components from SDT, TpB, and other related health behavior theories.

  1. Feasibility Study of 5.56 MM Folded Ammunition/Weapon System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    DeflectLon at Nodes Located on I.D ............ .. 18 II. Comparison of Internal Diameter Deflections ........... ... 19 Ili. Hardness Readings of Heat...4 2. Ammunition/Weapon System Comparison ......... ............ 5 3. Conventional vs Folded Packing Volume... Comparisons ..... . 4. Ca rtr Ig Compnrtsnris ..l.s ....... ................... . .... List of Illustrations - Cont’d Figure Pae 5. Design Analysis

  2. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on social, cognitive and affective behavioral domains: Insights from rodent models

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Kristin; Brigman, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are characterized by deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. However, the combination and severity of impairments are highly dependent upon maternal ethanol consumption patterns, which creates a complex variety of manifestations. Rodent models have been essential in identifying behavioral endpoints of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, experimental model outcomes are extremely diverse based on level, pattern, timing, and method of ethanol exposure, as well as the behavioral domain assayed and paradigm used. Therefore, comparisons across studies are difficult and there is currently no clear comprehensive behavioral phenotype of PAE. This lack of defined cognitive and behavioral phenotype is a contributing factor to the difficulty in identifying FASD individuals. The current review aims to critically examine preclinical behavioral outcomes in the social, cognitive, and affective domains in terms of the PAE paradigm, with a special emphasis on dose, timing, and delivery, to establish a working model of behavioral impairment. In addition, this review identifies gaps in our current knowledge and proposes future areas of research that will advance knowledge in the field of PAE outcomes. Understanding the complex behavioral phenotype, which results from diverse ethanol consumption will allow for development of better diagnostic tools and more critical evaluation of potential treatments for FASD. PMID:26992695

  3. Prenatal amphetamine exposure effects on dopaminergic receptors and transporter in postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gonzalo; de Jesús Gómez-Villalobos, María; Rodríguez-Sosa, Leonardo

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the influence of prenatal amphetamine exposure (PAE) on dopamine (DA) receptors, and dopamine transporter (DAT) in various striatal and limbic subregions and locomotor activity induced by novel environmental conditions and amphetamine at two postnatal ages, 35 days old (prepubertal) and 60 days old (postpubertal). Experiments were carried out on pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were daily injected with either d-amphetamine sulfate (1 mg/kg) or saline solution (0.9%) for 11 days, from gestation day 11-21. In PAE rats compared to control we found the following: at pre-pubertal age, an enhancement of DA D1 in the dorsolateral area of the caudate-putamen (CPu), CPu-ventral and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) with a decrement of the DA D3 receptors in NAcc, olfactory tubercle (OT), and the islands of Calleja (IoC); whereas at postpubertal age, an increase in the levels of DAT in the NAcc and fundus of the CPu, and OT along with a decrease in the expression of DA D2 receptors only in the NAcc shell were found in PAE rats compared to control. In addition, amphetamine induces a marked decrease in locomotor activity at postpubertal age in rats with PAE. These results suggest a differential effect of amphetamines on the DAT mechanism of the nervous system during embryonic development of animals with implications in behavior and drug addictions at adulthood age.

  4. Tear Strength and Tensile Strength of Model Filled Elastomers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-10

    Keenan Attn: Professor T. Litovitz Sandia LaboratoriesInstitute of Polymer Science 1 Division 2513 University of Alron P.O. Box 5800 Akron, OH 44325 P.O...909 Piscataway, NJ 08854. Attn: Prof. K.D. Pae Naval Weapons Support Center I Code 5042 Crane , Indian.a 47522 Attn: Dr. 3. Douda

  5. Novel time-of-flight spectrometer for the analysis of positron annihilation induced Auger electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Legl, Stefan

    2006-10-15

    Positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) has several advantages over conventional Auger-electron spectroscopy such as extremely high surface sensitivity and outstanding signal-to-noise ratio at the Auger-transition energy. In order to benefit from these prominent features a low-energy positron beam of high intensity is required for surface sensitive PAES studies. In addition, an electron energy analyzer is required, which efficiently detects the Auger electrons with acceptable energy resolution. For this reason a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed at the intense positron source NEPOMUC that allows PAES studies within short measurement time. This TOF-PAES setup combines a trochoidal filter and a flight tube in a Faraday cage in order to achieve an improved energy resolution of about 1 eV at high electron energies up to E{approx_equal}1000 eV. The electron flight time is the time between the annihilation radiation at the sample and when the electron hits a microchannel plate detector at the end of the flight tube.

  6. Ionic liquids modified graphene oxide composites: a high efficient adsorbent for phthalates from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinguang; Zhang, Yinglu; Huang, Zuteng; Lu, Dingkun; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, more than 30% of erasers were found to contain a PAE content that exceeded the 0.1% limit established by the Quality and Technology Supervision Bureau of Jiangsu Province in China. Thus, strengthening the supervision and regulation of the PAE content in foods and supplies, in particular, remains necessary. Graphene oxide (GO) and its composites have drawn great interests as promising adsorbents for polar and nonpolar compounds. However, GO-based adsorbents are typically restricted by the difficult separation after treatment because of the high pressure in filtration and low density in centrifugation. Herein, a series of novel ionic liquids modified graphene oxide composites (GO-ILs) were prepared as adsorbents for phthalates (PAEs) in eraser samples, which overcame the conventional drawbacks. These novel composites have a combination of the high surface area of graphene oxide and the tunability of the ionic liquids. It is expected that the GO-ILs composites can be used as efficient adsorbents for PAEs from aqueous solution. This work also demonstrated a new technique for GO-based materials applied in sample preparation.

  7. Students Protest Lack of Representation at Spellings Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Student lobbyists have sent Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings a letter scolding her for what they see as a minimizing of student representation at the higher-education summit held last week. The Department of Education responded by saying that students had indeed been invited to participate. The letter, which was signed by Jennifer S. Pae,…

  8. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-20

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  9. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the following: (a) The responsibilities of each partner regarding the Restructuring Plan; (b) The resources...

  10. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... project is covered by a PRA in a lawsuit, administrative proceeding, or other contested matter. (2... company or entity's management and policies. For purposes of this definition, a general partner of...

  11. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... project is covered by a PRA in a lawsuit, administrative proceeding, or other contested matter. (2... company or entity's management and policies. For purposes of this definition, a general partner of...

  12. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... project is covered by a PRA in a lawsuit, administrative proceeding, or other contested matter. (2... company or entity's management and policies. For purposes of this definition, a general partner of...

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (82nd, New Orleans, Louisiana, August 3-8, 1999). International Communication, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Communication, Part 2 section of the Proceedings contains the following 8 papers: "Split Images: Arab and Asian Political Leaders' Portraits in Major U.S. News Magazines" (Hye-Kyeong Pae); "Public Relations Functions and Models: U.S. Practitioners in International Assignments" (Alan R. Freitag); "The…

  14. Kinetics of phenolic and phthalic acid esters biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The kinetic of phenolic and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) biodegradation in membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal landfill leachate was investigated. Laboratory-scale MBR was fed with mixture of fresh and stabilized landfill leachate containing carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 10, 6, 3 and operated under different solid retention time (SRT) of 90, 15 and 5 d. Batch experiments using MBR sludge obtained from each steady-state operating condition revealed highest biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.059-0.092 h(-1) of the phenolic and PAEs compounds at C/N of 6. Heterotrophic bacteria were the major group responsible for biodegradation of compounds whereas the presence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) helped accelerating their removals. Heterotrophic nitrifying bacteria found under high ammonia condition had an important role in enhancing the biodegradation of phenols and PAEs by releasing phenol hydroxylase (PH), esterase (EST) and phthalate dioxygenase (PDO) enzymes and the presence of AOB helped improving biodegradation of phenolic and PAEs compounds through their co-metabolism.

  15. Determination of phthalates in crude extracts of sewage sludges by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Berset, J D; Etter-Holzer, R

    2001-01-01

    A simple solvent extraction by ethyl acetate without subsequent cleanup was used to determine 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs), including bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), in sewage sludge samples from different catchment areas. The compounds were separated on a gas chromatographic capillary column with a nonpolar HT-8 stationary phase. For most of the PAEs, internal standard quantification with deuterated dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and deuterated DEHP was best achieved by using electron ionization mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode. Because of its high concentrations in the sludges, DEHP was quantified in the full-scan acquisition mode. Molecular weight and ester-type information for the PAEs was obtained in the positive chemical ionization mode with methane as the reagent gas. Finally, selected sewage sludges containing different amounts of industrial wastewater were analyzed by the proposed method. DEHP was the most abundant compound found at 21-114 mg/kg x dm, followed by the lower-molecular weight PAEs diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, and DBP and the higher-molecular weight compounds butylbenzyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, and dinonyl phthalate, which were present mostly at <1 mg/kg x dm.

  16. Progress in GaAs Metamorphic HEMT Technology for Microwave Applications. High Efficiency Ka-Band MHEMT Power MMICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.; Dugas, D.; Chu, K.; Nichols, K.; Duh, K. H.; Fisher, J.; MtPleasant, L.; Xu, D.; Gunter, L.; Vera, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of GaAs metamorphic HEMT (MHEMT) technology for microwave applications. Commercialization has begun, while efforts to further improve performance, manufacturability and reliability continue. We also report the first multi-watt MHEMT MMIC power amplifiers, demonstrating up to 3.2W output power and record power-added efficiency (PAE) at Ka-band.

  17. The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on social, cognitive and affective behavioral domains: Insights from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Kristin; Brigman, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) are characterized by deficits in working memory, response inhibition, and behavioral flexibility. However, the combination and severity of impairments are highly dependent upon maternal ethanol consumption patterns, which creates a complex variety of manifestations. Rodent models have been essential in identifying behavioral endpoints of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). However, experimental model outcomes are extremely diverse based on level, pattern, timing, and method of ethanol exposure, as well as the behavioral domain assayed and paradigm used. Therefore, comparisons across studies are difficult and there is currently no clear comprehensive behavioral phenotype of PAE. This lack of defined cognitive and behavioral phenotype is a contributing factor to the difficulty in identifying FASD individuals. The current review aims to critically examine preclinical behavioral outcomes in the social, cognitive, and affective domains in terms of the PAE paradigm, with a special emphasis on dose, timing, and delivery, to establish a working model of behavioral impairment. In addition, this review identifies gaps in our current knowledge and proposes future areas of research that will advance knowledge in the field of PAE outcomes. Understanding the complex behavioral phenotype, which results from diverse ethanol consumption will allow for development of better diagnostic tools and more critical evaluation of potential treatments for FASD.

  18. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal. PMID:28216654

  19. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  20. Ionic liquids modified graphene oxide composites: a high efficient adsorbent for phthalates from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinguang; Zhang, Yinglu; Huang, Zuteng; Lu, Dingkun; Zhu, Anwei; Shi, Guoyue

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, more than 30% of erasers were found to contain a PAE content that exceeded the 0.1% limit established by the Quality and Technology Supervision Bureau of Jiangsu Province in China. Thus, strengthening the supervision and regulation of the PAE content in foods and supplies, in particular, remains necessary. Graphene oxide (GO) and its composites have drawn great interests as promising adsorbents for polar and nonpolar compounds. However, GO-based adsorbents are typically restricted by the difficult separation after treatment because of the high pressure in filtration and low density in centrifugation. Herein, a series of novel ionic liquids modified graphene oxide composites (GO-ILs) were prepared as adsorbents for phthalates (PAEs) in eraser samples, which overcame the conventional drawbacks. These novel composites have a combination of the high surface area of graphene oxide and the tunability of the ionic liquids. It is expected that the GO-ILs composites can be used as efficient adsorbents for PAEs from aqueous solution. This work also demonstrated a new technique for GO-based materials applied in sample preparation. PMID:27910926

  1. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health.

  2. Nanosuspension of Phyllanthus amarus extract for improving oral bioavailability and prevention of paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan Mishra, Shanti; Pandey, Himanshu; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2013-09-01

    Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) is commonly used for traditional Indian medicine and as dietary adjuncts for the treatment of numerous physiological disorders including hepatic disorders. Due to the poor water solubility of its major constituents such as lignans and flavonoids, its absorption upon oral administration could be limited. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extract of P. amarus (PAE) and its nanoparticles (PAN) on paracetamol induced acute liver toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. An oral dose of PAE at 125 and 250 mg kg-1 and PAN at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 showed a significant hepatoprotective effect relatively to the same extent (P < 0.001) by reducing levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and bile salts. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat hepatic biopsy examinations. Moreover, the results also indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of 50 mg kg-1 PAN was effectively better than 125 mg kg-1 PAE (P < 0.001), and an oral dose of PAN that is five times less than PAE could exhibit similar levels of outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that the nanoparticles system can be applied to overcome other poorly water soluble herbal medicines and furthermore to decrease the treatment dosage.

  3. 24 CFR 401.411 - Guidelines for determining exception rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... narrative explanation of special need. (b) How are exception rents calculated? (1) Exception rents must be... of special need submitted by the PAE, subject to the 5 percent limitation in section 514(g)(2)(A) of... operating the project as described in paragraph (b) of this section and that the housing needs of...

  4. 24 CFR 401.411 - Guidelines for determining exception rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... narrative explanation of special need. (b) How are exception rents calculated? (1) Exception rents must be... of special need submitted by the PAE, subject to the 5 percent limitation in section 514(g)(2)(A) of... operating the project as described in paragraph (b) of this section and that the housing needs of...

  5. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  6. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  7. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  8. 24 CFR 401.301 - Partnership arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partnership arrangements. 401.301 Section 401.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...) § 401.301 Partnership arrangements. If the PAE is in a partnership, the PRA must specify the...

  9. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  10. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  11. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  12. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  13. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  14. 24 CFR 401.552 - Servicing of second mortgage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Servicing of second mortgage. 401... second mortgage. HUD or its designee will be responsible for servicing the second mortgage, including... the PAE's consent, as servicer for the second mortgage....

  15. Flight Plan Filing by Speech Recognition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    alrpsert. compter: Harry . tey agis. Seers Beat*&. Saew- Pap Alpha 1am eight eaer. comters Safer feel om heard. Computer: Pae Alpha Tam Lm start Ueer: 4...Charlie guifars Enter. I .. : Charie lph Ech ener.Comminf-t Alpha Delta Chaehi. Unifore It-t? User: Ye. C- poter : Carlie Alpha [cha fete,? U..; At

  16. 24 CFR 401.300 - What is a PRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a PRA? 401.300 Section 401.300 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... What is a PRA? A PRA is an agreement between HUD and a PAE that delineates rights and...

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phthalic acid esters in the soil-radish (Raphanus sativus) system with sewage sludge and compost application.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Wu, Qi-Tang; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-01

    We studied the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in a latosolic red soil and radish (Raphanus sativus) with application of sewage sludge at rates of 10, 20 and 40 g kg(-1) soil or compost at rate of 10 g kg(-1) soil. In radish the concentrations of individual PAHs and PAEs varied from non-detectable to 803 microg kg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) and from non-detectable to 2048 microg kg(-1) d.w., respectively. Compared to the control, higher application rates of sewage sludge resulted in pronounced increases in shoot, root and soil concentrations of PAHs and PAEs. PAE concentrations in radish grown in soil spiked with sludge compost were higher while the PAH concentrations were comparable to those receiving 10 g kg(-1) of sewage sludge. However, the root biomass of radish in soil amended with compost was significantly higher and the shoot-to-root ratio was significantly lower than in the other treatments. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs, the ratio of contaminant concentration in plant tissue to the soil concentration) of di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in both shoots and roots and of total PAH concentrations in roots were less than 1.0, but some BCFs for individual PAHs were high with a maximum value of 80.

  18. Patient Safety Concerns as a Result of Nursing Shortage Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-10

    Hospital, Fort Sam Houston, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sill, Reynolds Army Community Hospital. The GCOD division collects the data from of all its...M2 Systems Data Dictionary (2005). M2 data dictionary, PA&E website. Dragoo, Jessie (1998). Mentoring a Novice Chief Nurse Executive. Journal of

  19. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE.

  20. Novel oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of pederin-producing endosymbionts of Paederus riparius rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Kador, Matthias; Horn, Marcus A; Dettner, Konrad

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts from female Paederus rove beetles are hitherto uncultured, phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas sp., and produce the polyketide pederin, which exhibits strong cytotoxic effects and antitumoral activities. The location of such endosymbionts inside beetles and on beetles' eggs is hypothesized based on indirect evidence rather than elucidated. Thus, an endosymbiont-specific and a competitor oligonucleotide probe (Cy3-labelled PAE444 and unlabelled cPAE444, respectively) were designed and utilized for FISH with semi-thin sections of Paederus riparius eggs. Cy3-PAE444-positive cells were densely packed and covered the whole eggshell. Hundred percent of EUB338-Mix-positive total bacterial cells were PAE444 positive, indicating a biofilm dominated by Paederus endosymbionts. Analysis of different egg deposition stadiums by electron microscopy and pks (polyketide synthase gene, a structural gene associated with pederin biosynthesis)-PCR supported results obtained by FISH and revealed that the endosymbiont-containing layer is applied to the eggshell inside the efferent duct. These findings suggest that P. riparius endosymbionts are located inside unknown structures of the female genitalia, which allow for a well-regulated release of endosymbionts during oviposition. The novel oligonucleotide probes developed in this study will facilitate (1) the identification of symbiont-containing structures within genitalia of their beetle hosts and (2) directed cultivation approaches in the future.

  1. On the Feasibility of a Generalized Linear Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    generealized linear program by applying the same algorithm to a "phase-one" problem without requiring that the initial basic feasible solution to the latter be non-degenerate. secUrMTY C.AMlIS CAYI S OP ?- PAeES( UII -W & ,

  2. Anticonvulsant effect of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (Avocado) leaf aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Ojewole, John A O; Amabeoku, George J

    2006-08-01

    Various morphological parts of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) (avocado) are widely used in African traditional medicines for the treatment, management and/or control of a variety of human ailments, including childhood convulsions and epilepsy. This study examined the anticonvulsant effect of the plant's leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, picrotoxin (PCT)- and bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures in mice. Phenobarbitone and diazepam were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs for comparison. Like the reference anticonvulsant agents used, Persea americana leaf aqueous extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) significantly (p < 0.05-0.001) delayed the onset of, and antagonized, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The plant's leaf extract (PAE, 100-800 mg/kg i.p.) also profoundly antagonized picrotoxin (PCT)-induced seizures, but only weakly antagonized bicuculline (BCL)-induced seizures. Although the data obtained in the present study do not provide conclusive evidence, it would appear that 'avocado' leaf aqueous extract (PAE) produces its anticonvulsant effect by enhancing GABAergic neurotransmission and/or action in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that Persea americana leaf aqueous extract possesses an anticonvulsant property, and thus lends pharmacological credence to the suggested ethnomedical uses of the plant in the management of childhood convulsions and epilepsy.

  3. Subcellular distribution and uptake mechanism of di-n-butyl phthalate in roots of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Yang, Xiuhong; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Chao, Yuanqing; Qiu, Rongliang

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate acid esters (PAEs) are of particular concern due to their potential environmental risk to human and nonhuman organisms. Although uptake of PAEs by plants has been reported by several researchers, information about the intracellular distribution and uptake mechanisms of PAEs is still lacking. In this study, a series of hydroponic experiments using intact pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings was conducted to investigate how di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently identified PAEs in the environment, enters and is distributed in roots. DnBP was transported into subcellular tissues rapidly in the initial uptake period (<12 h). More than 80% of DnBP was detected in the cell walls and organelles, which suggests that DnBP is primarily accumulated in these two fractions due to their high affinity to DnBP. The kinetics of DnBP uptake were fitted well with the Michaelis-Menten equation, suggesting that a carrier-mediated process was involved. The application of 2,4-dinitrophenol and sodium vanadate reduced the uptake of DnBP by 37 and 26%, respectively, while aquaporin inhibitors, silver and glycerol, had no effect on DnBP uptake. These data demonstrated that the uptake of DnBP included a carrier-mediated and energy-dependent process without the participation of aquaporins.

  4. In-Plasma Photo-Assisted Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Demetre

    2015-09-01

    A methodology to precisely control the ion energy distribution (IED) on a substrate allowed the study of silicon etching as a function of ion energy at near-threshold energies. Surprisingly, a substantial etching rate was observed, independent of ion energy, when the ion energy was below the ion-assisted etching threshold (~ 16 eV for etching silicon with chlorine plasma). Careful experiments led to the conclusion that this ``sub-threshold'' etching was due to photons, predominately at wavelengths <1700 Å. Among the plasmas investigated, photo-assisted etching (PAE) was lowest in Br2/Ar gas mixtures and highest in HBr/Cl2/Ar. Above threshold etching rates scaled with the square root of ion energy. PAE rates scaled with the product of surface halogen coverage (measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Ar emission intensity (7504 Å). Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM) revealed that photo-etched surfaces were very rough, quite likely due to the inability of the photo-assisted process to remove contaminants from the surface. In-plasma PAE may be be a complicating factor for processes that require low ion energies, such as atomic layer etching. On the other hand PAE could produce sub-10 nm high aspect ratio (6:1) features by highly selective plasma etching to transfer nascent nanopatterns in silicon. Work supported by DOE Plasma Science Center and NSF.

  5. Novel time-of-flight spectrometer for the analysis of positron annihilation induced Auger electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenschmidt, Christoph; Legl, Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger-electron spectroscopy (PAES) has several advantages over conventional Auger-electron spectroscopy such as extremely high surface sensitivity and outstanding signal-to-noise ratio at the Auger-transition energy. In order to benefit from these prominent features a low-energy positron beam of high intensity is required for surface sensitive PAES studies. In addition, an electron energy analyzer is required, which efficiently detects the Auger electrons with acceptable energy resolution. For this reason a novel time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer has been developed at the intense positron source NEPOMUC that allows PAES studies within short measurement time. This TOF-PAES setup combines a trochoidal filter and a flight tube in a Faraday cage in order to achieve an improved energy resolution of about 1eV at high electron energies up to E ≈1000eV. The electron flight time is the time between the annihilation radiation at the sample and when the electron hits a microchannel plate detector at the end of the flight tube.

  6. 24 CFR 401.2 - What special definitions apply to this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sufficiency plan, nonprofit organization, qualified mortgagee, portfolio restructuring agreement.... PCA means a physical condition assessment of a project prepared by a PAE under § 401.451. PRA means a portfolio restructuring agreement as defined in section 512(9) of MAHRA. Priority purchaser means...

  7. An in vivo model for evaluation of the postantibiotic effect.

    PubMed

    Odenholt, I; Holm, S E; Cars, O

    1988-01-01

    A new experimental model to evaluate the postantibiotic effect (PAE) in vivo was developed using subcutaneously implanted tissue cages in rabbits with normal host defence mechanisms. The rabbits received benzylpenicillin i.v. in a dose giving a free penicillin concentration of 10 X MIC in the tissue cage fluid (TCF). A log-phase suspension of group A streptococci was injected into the tissue cages exposing them to penicillin in vivo. After 2 h bacterial samples were withdrawn, treated with penicillinase and transferred to 2 tissue cages in untreated rabbits. Simultaneously, unexposed streptococci were implanted in 2 other cages in the same animals. By repeated sampling of TCF, growth curves of the streptococci exposed to penicillin and the controls could be compared and a PAE of 1.6-2.4 h demonstrated. The PAE was of the same magnitude as that found in vitro. The model has several advantages for the demonstration of PAE in vivo: repeated samplings are easy to perform percutaneously, the effect of subinhibitory antibiotic concentrations are avoided, interindividual variations are eliminated since each animal is its own control, and the experiments can be performed in animals with undisturbed host defence mechanisms.

  8. 24 CFR 401.310 - Conflicts of interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (MARK-TO-MARKET) Participating Administrative Entity (PAE) and Portfolio Restructuring Agreement (PRA... project is covered by a PRA in a lawsuit, administrative proceeding, or other contested matter. (2... company or entity's management and policies. For purposes of this definition, a general partner of...

  9. 24 CFR 401.410 - Standards for determining comparable market rents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... needed to ensure comparability of properties. (c) Methodology for determining comparable market rents. If... may: (1) Use non-comparable housing stock within that market from which adjustments can be made; or (2... it finds reasonable, from which adjustments can be made. (d) Using FMR as last resort. If the PAE...

  10. Wind Tunnel Development of a Funnel for Ships 63-64 for the Broken Hill Proprietary Company Limited.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    PERSONAL AUTHORs 5. DOCUMENT DATE: November, 1979 TRIMBLE, T.H. 6. TYPE OF REPORT AND PERIOD COVERED: 7. CORPORATE AUTHOR(s): S. REFERENCE NUMBERS...April 1974 end April 1976, which information was commnicated in full to the Broken Hill Proprietary Cooleny Limited in De@emr 1976. CONTENTS PAE NO

  11. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  12. Clinical Results After Prostatic Artery Embolization Using the PErFecTED Technique: A Single-Center Study

    SciTech Connect

    Amouyal, Gregory Thiounn, Nicolas Pellerin, Olivier; Yen-Ting, Lin; Giudice, Costantino Del; Dean, Carole; Pereira, Helena; Chatellier, Gilles Sapoval, Marc

    2016-03-15

    BackgroundProstatic artery embolization (PAE) has been performed for a few years, but there is no report on PAE using the PErFecTED technique outside from the team that initiated this approach.ObjectiveThis single-center retrospective open label study reports our experience and clinical results on patients suffering from symptomatic BPH, who underwent PAE aiming at using the PErFecTED technique.Materials and MethodsWe treated 32 consecutive patients, mean age 65 (52–84 years old) between December 2013 and January 2015. Patients were referred for PAE after failure of medical treatment and refusal or contra-indication to surgery. They were treated using the PErFecTED technique, when feasible, with 300–500 µm calibrated microspheres (two-night hospital stay or outpatient procedure). Follow-up was performed at 3, 6, and 12 months.ResultsWe had a 100 % immediate technical success of embolization (68 % of feasibility of the PErFecTED technique) with no immediate complications. After a mean follow-up of 7.7 months, we observed a 78 % rate of clinical success. Mean IPSS decreased from 15.3 to 4.2 (p = .03), mean QoL from 5.4 to 2 (p = .03), mean Qmax increased from 9.2 to 19.2 (p = .25), mean prostatic volume decreased from 91 to 62 (p = .009) mL. There was no retrograde ejaculation and no major complication.ConclusionPAE using the PErFecTED technique is a safe and efficient technique to treat bothersome LUTS related to BPH. It is of interest to note that the PErFecTED technique cannot be performed in some cases for anatomical reasons.

  13. A Polymeric Prodrug of 5-Fluorouracil-1-Acetic Acid Using a Multi-Hydroxyl Polyethylene Glycol Derivative as the Drug Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Macromolecular prodrugs obtained by covalently conjugating small molecular drugs with polymeric carriers were proven to accomplish controlled and sustained release of the therapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been extensively used due to its low toxicity, low immunogenicity and high biocompatibility. However, for linear PEG macromolecules, the number of available hydroxyl groups for drug coupling does not change with the length of polymeric chain, which limits the application of PEG for drug conjugation purposes. To increase the drug loading and prolong the retention time of 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), a macromolecular prodrug of 5-Fu, 5-fluorouracil-1 acid-PAE derivative (5-FA-PAE) was synthesized and tested for the antitumor activity in vivo. Methods PEG with a molecular weight of 38 kDa was selected to synthesize the multi-hydroxyl polyethylene glycol derivative (PAE) through an addition reaction. 5-fluorouracil-1 acetic acid (5-FA), a 5-Fu derivative was coupled with PEG derivatives via ester bond to form a macromolecular prodrug, 5-FA-PAE. The in vitro drug release, pharmacokinetics, in vivo distribution and antitumor effect of the prodrug were investigated, respectively. Results The PEG-based prodrug obtained in this study possessed an exceedingly high 5-FA loading efficiency of 10.58%, much higher than the maximum drug loading efficiency of unmodified PEG with the same molecular weight, which was 0.98% theoretically. Furthermore, 5-FA-PAE exhibited suitable sustained release in tumors. Conclusion This study provides a new approach for the development of the delivery to tumors of anticancer agents with PEG derivatives. PMID:25389968

  14. Betaine supplementation reduces congenital defects after prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko

    2016-03-01

    Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.

  15. A comprehensive alanine-scanning mutagenesis study reveals roles for salt bridges in the structure and activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase.

    PubMed

    Bian, Fei; Yue, Shousong; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Xiaowei; Chen, Gao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between salt bridges and stability/enzymatic activity is unclear. We studied this relationship by systematic alanine-scanning mutation analysis using the typical M4 family metalloprotease Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (PAE, also known as pseudolysin) as a model. Structural analysis revealed seven salt bridges in the PAE structure. We constructed ten mutants for six salt bridges. Among these mutants, six (Asp189Ala, Arg179Ala, Asp201Ala, Arg205Ala, Arg245Ala and Glu249Ala) were active and four (Asp168Ala, Arg198Ala, Arg253Ala, and Arg279Ala) were inactive. Five mutants were purified, and their catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km), half-lives (t1/2) and thermal unfolding curves were compared with those of PAE. Mutants Asp189Ala and Arg179Ala both showed decreased thermal stabilities and increased activities, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp189-Arg179 stabilizes the protein at the expense of catalytic efficiency. In contrast, mutants Asp201Ala and Arg205Ala both showed slightly increased thermal stability and slightly decreased activity, suggesting that the salt bridge Asp201-Arg205 destabilizes the protein. Mutant Glu249Ala is related to a C-terminal salt bridge network and showed both decreased thermal stability and decreased activity. Furthermore, Glu249Ala showed a thermal unfolding curve with three discernable states [the native state (N), the partially unfolded state (I) and the unfolded state (U)]. In comparison, there were only two discernable states (N and U) in the thermal unfolding curve of PAE. These results suggest that Glu249 is important for catalytic efficiency, stability and unfolding cooperativity. This study represents a systematic mutational analyses of salt bridges in the model metalloprotease PAE and provides important insights into the structure-function relationship of enzymes.

  16. In vitro activity, postantibiotic effect and human monocyte activity of grepafloxacin against Legionella species.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jacques; St-Pierre, Claude

    1999-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity, postantibiotic effect (PAE) and human monocyte activity of grepafloxacin compared with sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and rifampicin against 181 strains of Legionella pneumophila, nine strains of L. micdadei, 10 strains of L. dumoffii, seven strains of L. longbeachae and seven other Legionella strains. METHODS: MICs were determined by standard agar dilution using buffered yeast extract (BYE) agar. PAE and human monocyte activity were determined by standard culture techniques. RESULTS: Grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin and rifampicin were the most active agents against L. pneumophila (MIC90 PAE of grepafloxacin against erythromycin-susceptible L. pneumophila (2.62 h) was higher than that of sparfloxacin (0.88 h), erythromycin (0.93 hours) and clarithromycin (0.72 h). Against erythromycin-resistant L. pneumophila, the PAE of grepafloxacin (4.18 h) was higher than those of all the other antibiotics tested. Grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin inhibited the growth of all L. pneumophila strains and other erythromycin-resistant Legionella spp. in human monocytes. However, only grepafloxacin and ciprofloxacin prevented regrowth or killed L. pneumophila after removal of extracellular antibiotic. CONCLUSIONS: Grepafloxacin showed effective antibacterial activity against the Legionella spp. tested, and has a PAE and activity within human monocytes that suggest it may be useful in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by Legionella spp.

  17. Photophysics of metalloazurins

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.E.; Fleming, G.R. ); Longworth, J.W. )

    1990-08-07

    The fluorescence lifetimes of Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I), Hg(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) azurin Pae from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Cu(II), Cu(I), and Hg(II) azurin Afe from Alcaligenes faecalis were measured at 295 K by time-correlated single-photon counting. In addition, fluorescence lifetimes of Cu(II) azurin Pae were measured between 30 and 160 K and showed little change in value. Ultraviolet absorption difference spectra between metalloazurin Pae and apoazurin Pae were measured, as were the fluorescence spectra of metalloazurins. Forster electronic energy transfer rates were calculated for both metalloazurin Pae and metalloazurin Afe derivatives; both enzymes contain a single tryptophyl residue which is located in a different position in the two azurins. Intramolecular distances and orientations were derived from an x-ray crystallographic structure and a molecular dynamic simulation of the homologous azurin Ade from Alcaligenes denitrifcans, which contains both tryptophyl sites. This study illustrates the application of Forster electronic energy transfer calculations to intramolecular transfers in structurally well characterized molecular systems and demonstrates its ability to predict observed fluorescence quenching rates when the necessary extensive structural, electronic transition assignment, and spectroscopic data are available. The agreement between Forster calculations and quenching rates derived from fluorescence lifetime measurements suggests there are limited changes in conformation between crystal structure and solution structures, with the exception of the tryptophyl residue of azurin Afe, where a conformation derived from a molecular simulation in water was necessary rather than that found in the crystal structure.

  18. Control of enzymatic degradation of biodegradable polymers by treatment with biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, derived from Pseudozyma spp. yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Tokuma; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Suzuki, Ken; Watanabe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Kitamoto, Dai; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    Cutinase-like esterase from the yeasts Pseudozyma antarctica (PaE) shows strong degradation activity in an agricultural biodegradable plastic (BP) model of mulch films composed of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA). P. antarctica is known to abundantly produce a glycolipid biosurfactant, mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL). Here, the effects of MEL on PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs were investigated. Based on PBSA dispersion solution, the degradation of PBSA particles by PaE was inhibited in the presence of MEL. MEL behavior on BP substrates was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using a sensor chip coated with polymer films. The positive SPR signal shift indicated that MEL readily adsorbed and spread onto the surface of a BP film. The amount of BP degradation by PaE was monitored based on the negative SPR signal shift and was decreased 1.7-fold by MEL pretreatment. Furthermore, the shape of PBSA mulch films in PaE-containing solution was maintained with MEL pretreatment, whereas untreated films were almost completely degraded and dissolved. These results suggest that MEL covering the surface of BP film inhibits adsorption of PaE and PaE-catalyzed degradation of BPs. We applied the above results to control the microbial degradation of BP mulch films. MEL pretreatment significantly inhibited BP mulch film degradation by both PaE solution and BP-degradable microorganism. Moreover, the degradation of these films was recovered after removal of the coated MEL by ethanol treatment. These results demonstrate that the biodegradation of BP films can be readily and reversibly controlled by a physical approach using MEL.

  19. Dating Kaali Crater (Estonia) based on charcoal emplaced within proximal ejecta blanket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Huber, Matthew S.; Wisniowski, Tomasz; Paavel, Kristiina; Jõeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Plado, Jüri; Kriiska, Aivar; Wilk, Jakob; Zanetti, Michael; Geppert, Wolf D.; Kulkov, Alexander; Steier, Peter; Pirkovic, Irena

    2015-04-01

    The Kaali impact field consists of nine identified craters located on the Saaremaa Island in Estonia. The largest crater is 110 m in diameter (centered around 58°22'21.94"N, 22°40'09.91" E). It was formed by impact of an IAB iron meteoroid into Silurian dolomite target rocks covered by up to a few meters of glacial till (Veski et al. 2007). The age of the Kaali impact structure is still a matter of debate, and the estimates provided by different authors vary considerably between ~6400 BC (Raukas et al. 1995, Moora et al. 2012) and ~400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001). These ages were derived by 14C dating of marker horizons, characterized by a slightly elevated iridium content within the nearby Piila bog yielding a calibrated age of 800-400 BC (Rasmussen et al. 2000, Veski et al. 2001) and occurrences of glassy siliceous material in the Piila bog (~6400 BC: Raukas et al. 1995) or iron microspherules in an organic-rich layer of the Reo gravel pit (6400 BC: Moora et al. 2012). However, the source of the foreign material within those layers was never unequivocally connected with the Kaali crater. 14C dating of material from post-impact organic sediments within Kaali impact craters yielded ages between 1800-1500 BC (Saarse et al. 1991, Veski et al. 2004) and 1450-400 BC (Aaloe et al. 1963). These dates underestimate the age of impact as organic sediments within the crater started to form at unknown period after the impact. On the other hand, Veski et al. (2004) suggested a reservoir effect that might have caused artificially "aging" of the organic matter because the crater was emplaced within Silurian dolomite which is rich in old carbon. The aim of this study is to determine the age of the Kaali crater by 14C dating of organic material covered by the continuous layer of proximal ejecta. This research was conducted in conjunction with a new structural investigation of Kaali Main (Zanetti et al. 2015). Ten samples collected from different locations

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure delays the development of the cortical barrel field in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Margret, Cecilia P; Li, Cheng X; Chappell, Tyson D; Elberger, Andrea J; Matta, Shannon G; Waters, Robert S

    2006-06-01

    In-utero alcohol exposure produces sensorimotor developmental abnormalities that often persist into adulthood. The rodent cortical barrel field associated with the representation of the body surface was used as our model system to examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on early somatosensory cortical development. In this study, pregnant female rats were intragastrically gavaged daily with high doses of alcohol (6 gm/kg body weight) throughout the first 20 days of pregnancy. Blood alcohol levels were measured in the pregnant dams on gestational days 13 (G13) and G20. The ethanol treated group (EtOH) was compared to the normal control chowfed (CF) group, nutritionally matched pairfed (PF) group, and cross-foster (XF) group. Cortical barrel development was examined in pups across all treatment groups from G25, corresponding to postnatal day 2 (P2), to G32 corresponding to P9. The EtOH and control group pups were weighed, anesthetized, and perfused. Brains were removed and weighed with, and without cerebellum and olfactory bulbs, and neocortex was removed and weighed. Cortices were then flattened, sectioned tangentially, and stained with a metabolic marker, cytochrome oxidase (CO) to reveal the barrel field. Progression of barrel development was distinguished into three categories: (a) absent, (b) cloudy barrel-like pattern, and (c) well-formed barrels with intervening septae. The major findings are: (1) PAE delayed barrel field development by one or more days, (2) the barrel field first appeared as a cloudy pattern that gave way on subsequent days to an adult-like pattern with clearly demarcated intervening septal regions, (3) the barrel field developed differentially in a lateral-to-medial gradient in both alcohol and control groups, (4) PAE delayed birth by one or more days in 53% of the pups, (5) regardless of whether pups were born on G23 (normal expected birth date for non-alcohol controls) or as in the case for the alcohol-delayed pups born as

  1. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  2. Synergy between penicillin and gentamicin against enterococci.

    PubMed

    Winstanley, T G; Hastings, J G

    1990-04-01

    The role of active uptake in aminoglycoside activity against penicillin-treated enterococci was studied by viable counts and ATP determinations. Penicillin and gentamicin gave synergistic bactericidal and post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) which were partially reduced by sodium azide, an electron transport inhibitor, and totally blocked in the presence of both sodium azide and EDTA, which chelates divalent cations. EDTA and gentamicin showed marked synergy in both 'killing curve' and PAE experiments. This synergy was completely inhibited by sodium azide. The data indicate that the activity of gentamicin against enterococci that have been damaged by penicillin or EDTA is energy-dependent. This is consistent with present theories of gentamicin uptake via transportation drive by a protonmotive force.

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  4. Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco C.; Antunes, Alberto A.

    2013-12-15

    Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

  5. Determination of phthalate esters in distillates by ultrasound-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (USVADLLME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Zanasi, Luca; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-04-15

    A method for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) by Ultrasound-Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-Extraction (USVADLLME) approach was optimised and applied for the first time to a historical series of brandies. These contaminants are widely spread in the environment as a consequence of about half century of use in different fields of applications. The concern about these substances and the recent legal restrictions of China in distillates import need a quick and sensitive method for their quantification. The proposed method, moreover, is environmentally oriented due to the disposal of micro-quantities of solvent required. In fact, sub-ppm-limits of detection were achieved with a solvent volume as low as 160μL. The analysed samples were within the legal limits, except for some very ancient brandies whose contamination was probably due to a PAEs concentration effect as a consequence of long ageing and for the use of plastic pipelines no more operative.

  6. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    PubMed

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments.

  7. In vitro study of the post-antibiotic effect and the bactericidal activity of Cefditoren and ten other oral antimicrobial agents against upper and lower respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dubois, J; St-Pierre, C

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro post-antibiotic effect (PAE) and batericidal activity of cefditoren was compared to that of cefixime, cefuroxime, loracarbef, cefaclor, amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, clarithromycin, azithromycin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin against ATCC culture strains and clinical respiratory isolates. A PAE > 1 h was observed for cefditoren and generally for the macrolides against Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-lactamase-negative Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes, whereas the other beta-lactams showed mixed results. Cefditoren was the only beta-lactam showing significant bactericidal activity (>3 log reduction of viable cells) within 4 h against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Only cefditoren and ciprofloxacin showed significant bactericidal activity against beta-lactamase-negative (after 24 h) and beta-lactamase-positive strains of H. influenzae (after 12 h). Against beta-lactamase-positive strains of M. catarrhalis, cefditoren was the only agent to show significant bactericidal activity at 6 h (versus cefuroxime and ciprofloxacin at 12 h).

  8. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  9. Integration of PK/PD for dose optimization of Cefquinome against Staphylococcus aureus causing septicemia in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Hao, Haihong; Huang, Lingli; Sanders, Pascal; Wang, Xu; Chen, Dongmei; Tao, Yanfei; Xie, Shuyu; Xiuhua, Kuang; Li, Juan; Dan, Wan; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-01-01

    Cefquinome is a fourth generation cephalosporin with antimicrobial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of our study was to observe the ex-vivo activity of cefquinome against Staphylococcus aureus strains by using bovine serum from intravenously treated cattle. Cefquinome kinetics were measured by liquid chromatography and UV detection. In vitro post antibiotic effects (PAEs) and mutant prevention concentrations were determined with S. aureus strain ATCC 12598. Cefquinome exhibited time-dependent killing and produced in vitro PAEs increasing with concentration and time of exposure. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was established to simulate the efficacy of cefquinome for different dosage regimens. A dosage of 2 mg/kg every 12 h for 3 days was expected to reach a bactericidal activity against S. aureus in case of septicemia. PMID:26136730

  10. A high efficiency C-band internally-matched harmonic tuning GaN power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Zhao, B. C.; Zheng, J. X.; Zhang, H. S.; Zheng, X. F.; Ma, X. H.; Hao, Y.; Ma, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a high efficiency C-band gallium nitride (GaN) internally-matched power amplifier (PA) is presented. This amplifier consists of 2-chips of self-developed GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with 16 mm total gate width on SiC substrate. New harmonic manipulation circuits are induced both in the input and output matching networks for high efficiency matching at fundamental and 2nd-harmonic frequency, respectively. The developed amplifier has achieved 72.1% power added efficiency (PAE) with 107.4 W output power at 5 GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this amplifier exhibits the highest PAE in C-band GaN HEMT amplifiers with over 100 W output power. Additionally, 1000 hours' aging test reveals high reliability for practical applications.

  11. The Substitution of Ion Vapor Deposited (IVD) Aluminum for Cadmium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-25

    lia nk d4ametor .- 0.497 n., arvrg aooaing thca .-O- 00031 1. 47IFLW-920 nut. Average ooslng thckness - 0.00040 in. d Tstwastoevaluate Ow. *fleet a ! a ...ii t IECURITY CLASSIFICATION O5F THIS PAE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE a . REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS...Unclassified_________________________ a . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION/,AVAILABILITY OF REPORT b. DECLASSIFICATION /DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for

  12. Comparative study of bactericidal activities, postantibiotic effects, and effects of bacterial virulence of penicillin G and six macrolides against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fuursted, K; Knudsen, J D; Petersen, M B; Poulsen, R L; Rehm, D

    1997-04-01

    In this report, we present MIC, bactericidal activity, postantibiotic effect (PAE), and in vivo infectivity data for postantibiotic-phase pneumococci. We compared and evaluated penicillin G and six macrolides, erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, roxithromycin, and spiramycin, against 10 strains of pneumococci with various levels of susceptibility to penicillin. All of the agents, except azithromycin, exhibited a bactericidal effect (a > or = 3 log10 decrease in the number of CFU per milliliter) after 4 h of exposure to a concentration equal to 10 times the MIC, displaying the following hierarchy: spiramycin = penicillin G = erythromycin = dirithromycin = clarithromycin = roxithromycin > azithromycin. The bactericidal rate of penicillin G was significantly lower for resistant strains (MIC, > or = 2 microg/ml), while bactericidal rates of macrolides were unaffected by penicillin susceptibility. A PAE was induced in all of the strains by all of the antibiotics after exposure for 1 h to a concentration equivalent to 10 times the MIC. The mean duration of PAEs varied between 2.3 and 3.9 h, showing the following hierarchy: spiramycin = dirithromycin = clarithromycin = erythromycin = roxithromycin > azithromycin > penicillin G. Virulence studies were performed with immunocompetent mice by intraperitoneal inoculation of virulent, penicillin-susceptible serotype 3 pneumococci which had been pre-exposed to penicillin G or a macrolide for 1 h. A significant decrease in the virulence of postantibiotic-phase pneumococci was induced only by erythromycin, azithromycin, dirithromycin, and spiramycin, displaying 5.9-, 7.1-, 4.2-, and 3.6-fold increases in the 50% lethal dose (LD50) compared to a control suspension, respectively. No significant correlation could be demonstrated between the LD50 and the MIC, bactericidal activity, or PAE duration. These results suggest that antimicrobial interaction with host defenses in terms of virulence might be a

  13. Certification Test CNU-399/E Maverick Missile Container,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    simulta- ieously and leave hanging or I hour. Fed-Std-lUI eak Test; 1. Presauce Watec Nethod 5009.1 neumatic hcesuc4, 1.00 test only to NaG"SeC...at Water "* I nothod 50P;J neumatic )cessuce, I .OOPVI ambient con- Manometse Pae 6.1, 6.3 (Vacium pressure, 1.OOPSI dition from Leakage must be less

  14. Labyrinth Seal Analysis. Volume 3. Analytical and Experimental Development of a Design Model for Labyrinth Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    114 ix LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (continued) Fiure Pae 51 Vortex formation between vertical knives in a straight seal with KP/KH = 0.5...117 52 Vortex formation between vertical knives in a straight seal with KP/KH = 2.0 .. ..... ... ................. 118 53 Pressure...acceleration of the flow entering the seal and away frtm the , vortex pumping of the rotor. The upstream I.C. therOcouple is deeply itmersed near the

  15. Aviation Epidemiology Data Register: Gender-Specific Attrition From the Trained U.S. Army Aviator Cohort of 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    T. MASON LTC, MC, MFS Director, Aircrew Protection Division Released for publication: •WI.#W-0 ••.D.,j Ph. D. IDDA.IDEVDAIDH,. KARNEY Ch an, cientific ...Chief, Science Support Center 205-255-6907 SGRD-UAX SI D0 Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous editions are obsolete. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAE...Chairman Executive Director, U.S. Army Human National Transportation Safety Board Research and Engineering Directorate 800 Independence Avenue, S.W. ATTN

  16. Recycled Materials - Applications to Air Force Pavements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    an unlimited supply of natural materials. Since the embargo, the law of supply and demand had pushed the price of asphalt to $180 per ton* by early...are a number of reasons for planing the pae,.-%nt surface ( Lawing , 1976). The pavement surface over a bridge can be re- moved by planing before...Donald :. 979. "Recyc.in, Aschalt Pavements," Federal Highway Admistration Demonstration roject N-. 39, Sherburne, Vt., 38 pp. Ga-nnon, Charles R., et

  17. Optimization of paeonol-loaded poly(butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules by central composite design with response surface methodology together with the antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jingjing; Zhang, Yangxin; Hu, Qiming; Zeng, Decheng; Hua, Fang; Meng, Wei; Wang, Weiyun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2017-02-08

    With the aim to enhance dissolution rate and bioavailability of paeonol, paeonol-loaded poly(butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules (Pae@PNCs) were prepared by interfacial spontaneous polymerization for the first time. Herein, a rotatable central composite design (RCCD) with three-factor five-level was applied to evaluate the optimization experiments. To the maximum percentage encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and minimum particle size (nm) of the Pae@PNCs, a quadratic polynomial model was generated to predict and evaluate the independent variables with respect to the dependent variables. RSM model goodness fitting were confirmed by the ANOVA Table (P<0.05) through variance analysis, which predicted values of EE (%) and particle size (R(2) and adjusted R(2) were close to 1, respectively) in good agreement with experimental values. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface, three-dimensional model graphs and plots, the optimal result for the preparation of Pae@PNCs were found to be: pH (2.34), Poloxamer F-68 (0.80% m/v) and ethyl acetate/α-BCA ratio (16.67 v/v) for the highest EE% (73.58±2.76%) and the smallest particle size (42.06±1.20nm). The release profiles and antibacterial activity in vitro from the optimal Pae@PNCs were performed. The results indicated that it has slow and well-controlled release, and has strong antibacterial activity in vitro than paeonol. This understanding can help to predict the conditions of optimization of poly(butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles formation and to improve paeonol bioavailability and pharmacological properties.

  18. Profit Regulation of Defense and Prizes for Innovation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    AD-A253 965 Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for Innovation William P. Rogerson ,TIC ELECTE S AUG 191992 AD Ubi doewment bas bn...0004. ULbrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Rogerson, William P. (William Paul), 1955- Profit regulation of defense contractors and prizes...Published 1992 by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 R-3635-PA&E Profit Regulation of Defense Contractors and Prizes for

  19. The Comparative Efficiency of Four Types of Endodontic Files and Reamers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-29

    Efficiency of SumsinoPae Four Types of Endodontic Files and Reamers Submber oaper S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7AUTHOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...an reveree aide Ii neceeary end Identify by block number) Comparative efficiency of endodontic files; endodontic instrumentation; instrumentation...sections of bovine bone. Each canal was instrumented to a size 80 using four types of endodontic instruments: Hedstrom S files; K-files; reamers; and the

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination rates for the mother, fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1)  h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.

  1. Positron annihilation induced Auger electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.; Jibaly, M.; Lei, Chun; Mehl, D.; Mayer, R.; Lynn, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    We report on measurements of Auger electron emission from Cu and Fe due to core hole excitations produced by the removal of core electrons by matter-antimatter annihilation. Estimates are developed of the probability of positrons annihilating with a 3p electron in these materials. Several important advantages of Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) for surface analysis are suggested. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  2. New monolith technology for automated anion-exchange purification of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Thayer, J R; Flook, K J; Woodruff, A; Rao, S; Pohl, C A

    2010-04-15

    Synthetic nucleic acid analysis often employs pellicular anion-exchange (AE) chromatography because it supports very high efficiency separations while offering means to control secondary structure, retention and resolution by readily modifiable chromatographic conditions. However, these pellicular anion-exchange (pAE) phases do not offer capacity sufficient for lab-scale oligonucleotide (ON) purification. In contrast, monolithic phases produce fast separations at capacities exceeding their pellicular counterparts, but do not exhibit capacities typical of fully porous, bead-based, anion-exchangers. In order to further increase monolith capacity and obtain the selectivity and mass transfer characteristics of pellicular phases, a surface-functionalized monolith was coated with pAE nanobeads (latexes) usually employed on the pellicular DNAPac phase. The nanobead-coated monolith exhibited chromatographic behaviors typical of polymer AE phases. Based on this observation the monolithic substrate surface porosity and latex diameters were co-optimized to produce a hybrid monolith harboring capacity similar to that of fully porous bead-based phases and peak shape approaching that of the pAE phases. We tested the hybrid monolith on a variety of previously developed pAE capabilities including control of ON selectivity, resolution of derivatized ONs, the ability to resolve RNA ONs harboring aberrant linkages at different positions in a single sequence and separation of phosphorothioate diastereoisomers. We compared the yield and purity of an 8 mg ON sample purified on both the new hybrid monolith and a benchmark AE column based on fully porous monodisperse beads. This comparison included an assessment of the relative selectivities of both columns. Finally, we demonstrated the ability to couple AE ON separations with ESI-MS using an automated desalting protocol. This protocol is also useful for preparing ONs for other assays, such as enzyme treatments, that may be sensitive to

  3. Seamounts, Direct Blast and Volume Reverberation Upgrades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-30

    Highway. Suits 1204. Arlington, VA 22202-4302. "n to the Office of Management and Budget. Peperworik Reduction Project (0704-0188). Washington. DC 2050M. 1...Subtitle. 5. Funding Numbers. Seamounts, Direct Blast And Volume Reverberation Upgrades proram Eemen No 3 7 85N Project No R02017 6. Author(s). L...Section Pae 1 INTRODUCTION ................................. 1-1 2 ASERT: DATA PREPARATION FOR ASTRAL ........... 2-1 2.1 Overview and Purpose of

  4. Organophosphorus flame retardants and phthalate esters in indoor dust from different microenvironments: Bioaccessibility and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    He, Ruiwen; Li, Yunzi; Xiang, Ping; Li, Chao; Zhou, Chunyang; Zhang, Shujun; Cui, Xinyi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-05-01

    Incidental ingestion of indoor dust is an important pathway for human exposure to organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). However, little is known about their bioaccessibility in indoor dust. In this study, indoor dust samples were collected from houses, offices, public microenvironments (PMEs), and university dorms, and physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was used to measure the bioaccessibility of OPFRs and PAEs in these dust samples. Total concentrations of OPFRs in dust samples ranged from 0.01 to 63.2 μg g(-1), with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (median = 0.30 μg g(-1)) than those in houses (3.12), offices (5.94), and PMEs (11.6). Total PAEs ranged from 5.49 to 2161 μg g(-1) with significantly lower concentrations in dorm dust (379 μg g(-1)) than those in the other three types of dust (767, 515, and 731 μg g(-1)). When subject to PBET, the bioaccessibility of OPFRs ranged from 8.18% (triphenyl phosphate) to 54.5% (Tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) for OPFRs, and from 1.21% (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP) to 81.1% (dimethyl phthalate) for PAEs. Estimated exposure doses for adults and infants to OPFRs via dust ingestion were much lower than the reference doses (RfD), but intake dose of DEHP for infants was higher than the RfD of 20 μg kg(-1) d(-1). However, the DEHP intake dose did not exceed the RfD after incorporating bioaccessibility into risk assessment. Our data indicated the importance of considering contaminant bioaccessibility during risk assessment of indoor dust.

  5. Accomplishing Shipyard Work for the United States Navy; Institutions, Systems and Operations. Volume 2. Appendixes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    bending) Lathe (spinning, engine) Spot welders Rotary bender Milling machine Drills, upright Bending machine Driverless train Welding Shop. This shop...conjunction with conversion, alteration, and repair ( CAR ) shipwork versus just CAR work. This is understood to be a sub-task of your major study of depot...ys , t -v. Commgn Encl. (1) Analysis - Comparative Data for New Construction Versus CAR Copy to: OSD (PA&E) J,-1 Prepared by: John P. McGough Code

  6. Investigation of the Factors Involved in the Development of a Continuously-Variable Receiver (Model XCS-2) for the 225-400 MC Frequency Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-09-19

    Serial No. ’ Navy De-rartment - Office of FYaval Research ITAVAL RESEARCH LABORATORY 1Tashington, D.C. * * * mI-HI E -ADIO DIViI0SIO.- .RECEIVER...Superintendent Ship-Shore Radio Division Commodore H. A. Director, Naval Schade, USIT Research Laboratory Preliminary Paces..... a-d Nhombered Pa--es...5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Research Laboratory ,4555

  7. Delayed presentation and treatment of popliteal artery embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Cambria, R P; Ridge, B A; Brewster, D C; Moncure, A C; Darling, R C; Abbott, W M

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reviewing a 10-year experience with popliteal artery embolism (PAE), two distinct patterns of clinical presentation were identified. In addition to those patients presenting with typical acute (symptom duration less than 7 days) arterial ischemia, a second group was identified who presented with more chronic symptoms. The present study was conducted to contrast the clinical factors and treatment of these two temporal patterns of presentation with PAE. Sixty PAEs in 58 patients were documented by the combination of angiography and/or exploration of the popliteal artery. Acute presentation (AP) was seen in 41 (68%) of these and delayed presentation (DP) was noted in 19 (32%) patients. Delayed presentation patients typically presented with a history of sudden onset of claudication or rest pain and a median symptom duration of 30 days. Eighty per cent of AP patients presented with immediately threatened limbs. Angiography was generally diagnostic of chronic popliteal embolism. In the acute group, 90% were treated with embolectomy alone, while 20% of the DP group required bypass grafting. However in two thirds of the DP group, embolectomy alone performed through a direct popliteal approach was possible. Current results with overall limb salvage (92%) and mortality (7%) represents a substantial improvement compared to the authors' previous experience with PAE. The current study suggests that as many as one third of patients with popliteal artery embolism may present in delayed fashion with chronic symptoms. Furthermore most of these patients can be treated with direct popliteal embolectomy alone with favorable results. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2064471

  8. The Quantitation of Cellular Kinetics for the Modelling of Chemically-Induced Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    unlimited - HARRY G. ARMSTRONG AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY HUMAN SYSTEMS DIVISION AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE...patented lnuintlon that may in any way be related thereto. Please do not request copies of this report from the Harry G. Armsrong Aerospace Medical...FOR THE COMMANDER ,AMES USAF, BSC Deputy Director, Toxic Hazards Division Harry G. Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory REPOT DOUMETATIN PAE

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M; Weinberg, Joanne; Devlin, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE.

  10. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dae Sik, Kim; Yu Seung, Kim; Gilles, Robertson; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  11. Spatial distributions, source apportionment and ecological risk of SVOCs in water and sediment from Xijiang River, Pearl River Delta.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiao; An, Taicheng; Li, Guiying; Wei, Chaohai

    2017-03-09

    Xijiang River is an important drinking water source in Guangxi Province, China. Along the Xijiang River and surrounding tributary, the pollution profile of three important groups of semi-volatile organic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and phthalate esters (PAEs), was analyzed. Relatively low levels of PAHs (64-3.7 × 10(2) ng L(-1)) and OCPs (16-70 ng L(-1)), but high levels of PAEs (7.9 × 10(2)-6.8 × 10(3) ng L(-1)) occurred in the water. Comparatively, low levels of OCPs (39-1.8 × 10(2) ng g(-1)) and PAEs (21-81 ng g(-1)), but high levels of PAHs (41-1.1 × 10(3) ng g(-1)) were found in sediment. Principal component analyses for source identification indicated petroleum-derived residues or coal and biomass combustion, and vehicular emission was the main sources for PAHs. The OCPs sources of each category were almost independent, whereas the new input of HCHs and p,p'-DDTs probably existed in some areas. PAEs were mainly originated from personal care products of urban sewage, plastic and other industrial sources. Ecological risk through the risk quotient analysis indicated a small or significant potential adverse effect on fish, daphnia and green algae. Nevertheless, the integrated risk of all pollutants should be taken into account in future study.

  12. CAEDS--Computer-Aided Engineering and Architectural Design System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ATTN: DAR-CO-S ATTN; KUSA-’HHC-CFC/Engr ATTN: DAEN- CP NARADOM, ATTN: DMONA-F 071141I UPA 0 Jap (USAgI) TT8: DAN-HP Ch, PR De -PR 94343 .WTCO, Pae. Dliv...Arnold Air Porno Station, Tn 37389 Fort Blvoir 22060 A nn: DAN-RM Port enntng 31905 AnN: DAtN-ZC Western Area Ofice. CE Port Bls. 79916 ATTN: lUAEN

  13. Development and application of an SPME/GC method for the determination of trace phthalates in beer using a calix[6]arene fiber.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chang-Wen; Gao, Jie; Yang, Cai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Li, Xiu-Juan; Pan, Si-Yi

    2009-05-08

    A simple, low-cost and sensitive method for the determination of phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in beer has been developed based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography using a novel sol-gel calixarene-contained fiber. Generally speaking, matrix interference is one of the most important problems that researchers have to face when quantifying trace compounds in the complicated beer samples. In order to reproduce the influence of the matrix, synthetic beer solutions were popularly used, while they could not represent the real beer matrix absolutely. Owing to the good selectivity and high sensitivity of this new calixarene fiber, matrix interference from the beer samples was effectively avoided and low limits of detection (LODs) could be achieved. As a result, the SPME was performed in real beer matrices. Five experimental parameters including extraction temperature, extraction time, stirring speed, salt concentration and ultrasonic time were evaluated and optimized by means of a Taguchi's L25 (5(6)) orthogonal array experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, LODs of 0.003-3.429 microg L(-1) were obtained and the relative standard deviation values were < or =13.51% for all of the eight PAEs. The method was validated using standard addition methodology and recovery values were between 86.3% and 109.3%. The survey of three bottled beer samples showed that dibutyl-phthalate ester and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate ester (DEHP) were the main PAEs found in beer. The concentration of DEHP was as high as 5.24 microg L(-1). In order to investigate the source of phthalates contamination in beer, the composition of phthalates in the plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gaskets of the lids was analyzed. Results revealed that the high content of DEHP incorporated in PVC gaskets could be a potential source of PAEs in bottled beers during transportation and storage.

  14. Land Mine Options in Future Crisis and Conflicts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-09

    EDITION OF INOVS IS OSSOLETE SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PA;.E ("~en Cae. FnIr,,d) -. *A SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Or THIS PAGC(Whmf’ Data Eant*~d... energy . Yet such is the case, for there does exist a type of weapon which has determined the success or failure of military conflict in other and...the nuclear threshold - low intensity conflict emphasis then the question that naturally follows is - How can land mines contribute to strategic goals

  15. Characterization and Comparative Genomic Analyses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phage PaoP5: New Members Assigned to PAK_P1-like Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mengyu; Le, Shuai; Jin, Xiaolin; Li, Gang; Tan, Yinling; Li, Ming; Zhao, Xia; Shen, Wei; Yang, Yuhui; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hongbin; Li, Shu; Rao, Xiancai; Hu, Fuquan; Lu, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    As a potential alternative to antibiotics, phages can be used to treat multi-drug resistant bacteria. As such, the biological characteristics of phages should be investigated to utilize them as effective antimicrobial agents. In this study, phage PaoP5, a lytic virus that infects Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, was isolated and genomically characterized. PaoP5 comprises an icosahedral head with an apex diameter of 69 nm and a contractile tail with a length of 120 nm. The PaoP5 genome is a linear dsDNA molecule containing 93,464 base pairs (bp) with 49.51% G + C content of 11 tRNA genes and a 1,200 bp terminal redundancy. A total of 176 protein-coding genes were predicted in the PaoP5 genome. Nine PaoP5 structural proteins were identified. Three hypothetical proteins were determined as structural. Comparative genomic analyses revealed that seven new Pseudomonas phages, namely, PaoP5, K8, C11, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab02, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab08, vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab10, and vB_PaeM_C2-10_Ab15, were similar to PAK_P1-like viruses. Phylogenetic and pan-genome analyses suggested that the new phages should be assigned to PAK_P1-like viruses, which possess approximately 100 core genes and 150 accessory genes. This work presents a detailed and comparative analysis of PaoP5 to enhance our understanding of phage biology. PMID:27659070

  16. Characterization of PM2.5 in Guangzhou, China: uses of organic markers for supporting source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingzhi; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ma, Shexia; Cao, Junji; Dai, Wenting; Liu, Suixin; Shen, Zhenxing; Huang, Rujin; Wang, Gehui; Han, Yongming

    2016-04-15

    Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including n-alkanes (n-C14-n-C40), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and hopanes were quantified in fine particulate (PM2.5), which were collected in urban area of Guangzhou, China in winter and summer in 2012/2013. The pollutants levels were well comparable with the data obtained in previous studies in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region but much lower than most northern Chinese megacities. The contribution of EC to PM2.5 and OC/EC ratio suggest that the pollution sources were relatively consistent in GZ between the two seasons. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was the most abundant PAHs, which were 4.9 and 1.0ng/m(3) on average, accounting for 10.7% and 9.1% to the total quantified PAHs in winter and summer, respectively. The total concentrations of PAEs ranged from 289.1 to 2435ng/m(3) and from 102.4 to 1437ng/m(3), respectively, in winter and summer. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) was the most dominant PAEs. The ambient levels of PAEs could be partly attributed to the widespread uses of the household products, municipal garbage compressing, sewage, and external painting material on the building. Source apportionment for OC with chemical mass balance (CMB) model demonstrated coal combustion, vehicle emission, cooking, and secondary organic compounds (SOC) formation were the four major pollution sources. Both of the indices of n-alkanes and diagnostic PAHs ratios support that anthropogenic sources such as vehicle emission and coal combustion were the significant pollution sources with some extents from epicuticular waxes by terrestrial plants. The ratio of hopanes to EC proved the influences from vehicle emission, and displayed a certain degree of the air aging in the Guangzhou ambient air.

  17. An Expert System Model of Organizational Climate and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    SECURITY CL ASSIFICAT ION OF THIS PAE(When D tered)FL c , flflII&~LIA~lfLI AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONS* REPORT DOJC.UpIEflhILFPAG BEFORE COMPLETING FOR M...State University; M.S., Air Force Institute of Technology Chairman of Advisory Comnqittee: Dr. James K. Hennigan Application of computer technology has...x I d IRUCTI ON: RESEARCH OVERVIEW .... ............... . . I Ndture of the problem ....... ................ . .. Research purpose

  18. Comparison of Raman Scattering Methods for Combustion Dynamics Measurements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    CM PENNEY, and S WARSHAW F49620-77-C-0094 S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. AREA...OPTICAL DIAGNOSTICS RAMAN SCATTERING LUMINOSITY TEMPERATURE CARS (CO!ERENT ANTI-STOKES SOOT DENSITY RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY) 20. ABSTRACT (Continue an...OF THIS PA*E (SMn .. L.. # SMCUWITY CLASIFICATION OF THIS PAOC(3Wsm Datae. CARS (coherent anti-Stokes Raman spect~9sopy!) to Aiimp),q, f.0U*5. l and

  19. Automation of the Marine Corps Planning Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Manual, 2013) ....61 Figure 36. Truck Availability (from PAE Manual, 2013) .................................................62 Figure 37. Rest and...Indirect Fire  Air Strike  Air Assault  Expeditionary Operations  SIGACTS  PMESII  War Gaming  Logistic Report  Truck Availability  Rest...available for these nodes without overloading or paralyzing them with irrelevant 41 information. Furthermore, many of the nodes in the system are

  20. [Determination of six phthalate acid esters in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid-phase extraction using single-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhonghai; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaosong

    2014-07-01

    An analytical method based on solid-phase extraction with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for the simultaneous determination of six phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in camellia oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The samples were diluted by hexane and then cleaned up with a glass SWCNTs solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The PAEs were measured by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, using external standard method for quantitative analysis. The important factors affecting extraction efficiency, such as the dilution volume of hexane, the type of adsorbent material, the dosage of SWCNTs, the volume of wash solution, the type and volume of elution solution were optimized. The optimal conditions were as follows: the dilution volume of hexane was 5 mL, the dosage of SWCNTs was 0.6 g, the wash solution was 20 mL hexane, and the elution solution was 5 mL toluene. The six PAEs had a good linear range from 0.05 mg/L to 1.0 mg/L, with the correlation coefficients (r) all above 0.999 9. The average recoveries of the six targets in spiked camellia oil (from 0.05 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg) ranged from 86.4% to 111.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 4.2% to 10.4%. The developed method is accurate, quick and suitable for the determination of the six PAEs in camellia oil.

  1. Effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on the performance of paper diagnostics for blood typing.

    PubMed

    McLiesh, Heather; Sharman, Scot; Garnier, Gil

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect that two common types of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking might have on the performance of paper diagnostics using blood typing as an example. The results were analyzed in terms of red blood cells (RBC) retention and antibody-antigen specificity. Two questions were addressed: (1) can poly(amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) typically used for paper wet strength affect the diagnostic performance? (2) can high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) employed as retention aid enhance or affect the selectivity and sensitivity of paper diagnostics? A series of paper varying in type of fibers and drying process were constructed with PAE and tested for blood typing performance. Residual PAE has no significant effect on blood typing paper diagnostics under normal conditions. Positives are unaffected with PAE, while negatives lose slight sharpness as some RBCs are unselectively retained. CPAM, the most common retention aid, can also be used to retain cells and biomolecules on paper. Paper towel was treated with CPAM solutions varying in polymer concentration and charge density and tested for blood typing. We found that CPAM dried on paper can retain RBC. CPAM affects the negative tests by retaining non-specifically individual RBC on fibers. RBC retention increases non-linearly with the CPAM charge density and concentration. As expected, wet CPAM retain RBCs at concentrations higher than 0.1wt%. As paper diagnostics are becoming a reality, more realistic papers than the Whatman filter paper will be engineered. This study provides guidance on how best use the required polymeric wet-strength and retention agents.

  2. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE.

  3. Occurrence and fate of phthalate esters in full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plants and their impact on receiving waters along the Songhua River in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dawen; Li, Zhe; Wen, Zhidan; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence and fate of six phthalates: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) were investigated as phthalates passed through three full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment processes, and ultimately into the recipient Songhua River water in Harbin (China). The six phthalates were detected in the majority of aqueous and solid samples, with DEHP being the most abundant compound. The overall removal efficiency of ΣPAEs in the Cyclic Activated Sludge Technology (CAST) process was over 72%, while both the A/O and A/A/O processes achieved approximately 30% removal. The better performance of the CAST process relative to the Anoxic/Oxic (A/O) and Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (A/A/O) processes was attributed to the indoor-conditions of the CAST plants, which effectively maintained the temperature of the treatment system. The fate of PAEs within two different types of WWTPs (CAST and A/A/O) were assessed qualitatively using mass balances. The results suggested that PAEs removal resulted from both biotransformation and adsorption, of which the former was particularly significant in the CAST process, while the latter was more significant in the A/A/O process. Substantial levels of several PAEs were detected in the Songhua River, especially downstream of the WWTPs, which means that the discharge from WWTPs has a strong impact on the water quality of the Songhua River during cold winter conditions.

  4. Gas Delivery System and Beamline Studies for the Test Beam Facility of the Collider Detector at Fermilab.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    deviation in the distribution of differences between these two values taken for different locations A, B, and C as a function of incident hadron ...1PAE COUNT %,Final FROM77b1 TOa2] 8712 243 , 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 17. COSATI CODES -8...show that the MT beamline has the necessary flexibility to satisfy most GC -P requirements now. ELECTE 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21

  5. Welfare Reform: Bibliographies of Case Management and Agency/Client Contracting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-11

    use in considering pro- posed welfare legislation. The bibliographies identify 109 literature cita - tions for case management as applied in the social...subject to copyright state- ments, as follows. (c) APA -these citations are reprinted with the permission (fee waived) of the American Psychological...management of reality rather than on * symptomatology, foster their clients’ community adjustment. (12 ref) (c) APA V4 Pae9GOHD84 SWlaeRfrmBbigahe 444 *4

  6. 2006 Defense Economics Conference: The Defense Department’s Future in a Changing Macroeconomic Environment. Held in Alexandria, Virginia on September 21, 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    defense spending needed to increase. Th e magnitude of the increase was very controversial, however. We in PA&E [at the time] thought of the issue as a...concerned only with the economic consequences of higher defense spending , and obscured rather than illuminated the controlling question of how much defense ...the United States should buy. Th e arguments off ered on the economic eff ects of higher defense spending generally were of little or no

  7. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters methyl metabolism and programs serotonin transporter and glucocorticoid receptor expression in brain

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Ying Fai; Sulistyoningrum, Dian C.; O'Neill, Ryan; Innis, Sheila M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) programs the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in HPA dysregulation and hyperresponsiveness to stressors in adulthood. Molecular mechanisms mediating these alterations are not fully understood. Disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, a source of methyl donors for epigenetic processes, contributes to alcoholic liver disease. We assessed whether PAE affects one-carbon metabolism (including Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA) and programming of HPA function genes (Nr3c1, Nr3c2, and Slc6a4) in offspring from ethanol-fed (E), pair-fed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) dams. At gestation day 21, plasma total homocysteine and methionine concentrations were higher in E compared with C dams, and E fetuses had higher plasma methionine concentrations and lower whole brain Mtr and Mat2a mRNA compared with C fetuses. In adulthood (55 days), hippocampal Mtr and Cbs mRNA was lower in E compared with C males, whereas Mtr, Mat2a, Mthfr, and Cbs mRNA were higher in E compared with C females. We found lower Nr3c1 mRNA and lower nerve growth factor inducible protein A (NGFI-A) protein in the hippocampus of E compared with PF females, whereas hippocampal Slc6a4 mRNA was higher in E than C males. By contrast, hypothalamic Slc6a4 mRNA was lower in E males and females compared with C offspring. This was accompanied by higher hypothalamic Slc6a4 mean promoter methylation in E compared with PF females. These findings demonstrate that PAE is associated with alterations in one-carbon metabolism and has long-term and region-specific effects on gene expression in the brain. These findings advance our understanding of mechanisms of HPA dysregulation associated with PAE. PMID:26180184

  8. PDGF induces reorganization of vimentin filaments.

    PubMed

    Valgeirsdóttir, S; Claesson-Welsh, L; Bongcam-Rudloff, E; Hellman, U; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H

    1998-07-30

    In this study we demonstrate that stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) leads to a marked reorganization of the vimentin filaments in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells ectopically expressing the PDGF beta-receptor. Within 20 minutes after stimulation, the well-spread fine fibrillar vimentin was reorganized as the filaments aggregated into a dense coil around the nucleus. The solubility of vimentin upon Nonidet-P40-extraction of cells decreased considerably after PDGF stimulation, indicating that PDGF caused a redistribution of vimentin to a less soluble compartment. In addition, an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of vimentin was observed. The redistribution of vimentin was not a direct consequence of its tyrosine phosphorylation, since treatment of cells with an inhibitor for the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Src, attenuated phosphorylation but not redistribution of vimentin. These changes in the distribution of vimentin occurred in conjunction with reorganization of actin filaments. In PAE cells expressing a Y740/751F mutant receptor that is unable to bind and activate phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase), the distribution of vimentin was virtually unaffected by PDGF stimulation. Thus, PI3-kinase is important for vimentin reorganization, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in actin reorganization. The small GTPase Rac has previously been shown to be involved downstream of PI3-kinase in the reorganization of actin filaments. In PAE cells overexpressing dominant negative Rac1 (N17Rac1), no change in the fine fibrillar vimentin network was seen after PDGF-BB stimulation, whereas in PAE cells overexpressing constitutively active Rac1 (V12Rac1), there was a dramatic change in vimentin filament organization independent of PDGF stimulation. These data indicate that PDGF causes a reorganization of microfilaments as well as intermediate filaments in its target cells and suggest an important role for Rac downstream of PI3-kinase in

  9. A solid-phase microextraction fiber with carbon nanoparticles as sorbent material prepared by a simple flame-based preparation process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Feng, Juanjuan; Qiu, Huamin; Fan, Lulu; Li, Leilei; Luo, Chuannan

    2013-07-26

    A novel carbon nanoparticles-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared via a simple and low-cost flame-based preparation process, with stainless steel wire as support. Surface characteristic of the fiber was studied with scanning electron microscope. A nano-scaled brushy structure was observed. Coupled to gas chromatography (GC), the fiber was used to extract phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Analytical performances of the proposed method were investigated under the optimum extraction conditions (extraction temperature, 40°C; content of KCl, 30% (w/v); extraction time, 50min for PAEs and 40min for PAHs) and compared with other reports for the same analytes. Calibration ranges were 0.06-500μgL(-1) for di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and 0.1-300μgL(-1) for di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP). For the eight PAHs, good linearity was obtained ranging from 0.01 to 150μgL(-1). Limits of detection were 0.005μgL(-1) for three PAEs and 0.001-0.003μgL(-1) for eight PAHs. The fiber exhibited excellent stability. It can be used for 100 times with RSDs of extraction efficiency less than 22.4%. The as-established SPME-GC method was applied to determine PAEs in food-wrap and PAHs in cigarette ash and snow water, and satisfactory results were obtained. The carbon nanoparticles-coated SPME fiber was efficient for sampling of organic compounds from aqueous samples.

  10. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper.

  11. Positron spectroscopy of 2D materials using an advanced high intensity positron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A.; Chirayath, V.; Lim, Z.; Gladen, R.; Chrysler, M.; Fairchild, A.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.

    An advanced high intensity variable energy positron beam(~1eV to 20keV) has been designed, tested and utilized for the first coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements on 6-8 layers graphene on polycrystalline Cu sample. The system is capable of simultaneous Positron annihilation induced Auger electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and CDB measurements giving it unparalleled sensitivity to chemical structure at external surfaces, interfaces and internal pore surfaces. The system has a 3m flight path up to a micro channel plate (MCP) for the Auger electrons emitted from the sample. This gives a superior energy resolution for PAES. A solid rare gas(Neon) moderator was used for the generation of the monoenergetic positron beam. The positrons were successfully transported to the sample chamber using axial magnetic field generated with a series of Helmholtz coils. We will discuss the PAES and coincidence Doppler broadening measurements on graphene -Cu sample and present an analysis of the gamma spectra which indicates that a fraction of the positrons implanted at energies 7-60eV can become trapped at the graphene/metal interface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.

  12. Post-antibiotic effect of orbifloxacin against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Kataoka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-03-20

    Orbifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone drug used widely in companion animal medicine. In this study, we firstly determined post-antibiotic effects (PAEs) and post-antibiotic sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) effects (PA-SMEs) of orbifloxacin for two strains each of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from dogs, and these parameters were compared with those of enrofloxacin. At twice the MIC, the PAEs of orbifloxacin ranged from -0.28-0.93 h (mean, 0.29 h) for E. coli and -0.18-1.18 h (mean, 0.37 h) for P. aeruginosa. These parameters were not significantly different for E. coli and shorter for P. aeruginosa, compared to enrofloxacin (P < 0.05). Continued exposure to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 the MIC of orbifloxacin resulted in average PA-SMEs of 0.55, 1.11, and 2.03 h, respectively, for E. coli, and 1.04, 1.40, and 2.47 h, respectively, for P. aeruginosa. These PA-SMEs, which had no significant differences with those of enrofloxacin, were significantly longer than the corresponding PAEs (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the PA-SME of orbifloxacin for E. coli and P. aeruginosa can be meaningfully prolonged by increase of sub-MICs.

  13. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for protein structure prediction with immune operators.

    PubMed

    Judy, M V; Ravichandran, K S; Murugesan, K

    2009-08-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are often well suited for optimisation problems involving several conflicting objectives. It is more suitable to model the protein structure prediction problem as a multi-objective optimisation problem since the potential energy functions used in the literature to evaluate the conformation of a protein are based on the calculations of two different interaction energies: local (bond atoms) and non-local (non-bond atoms) and experiments have shown that those types of interactions are in conflict, by using the potential energy function, Chemistry at Harvard Macromolecular Mechanics. In this paper, we have modified the immune inspired Pareto archived evolutionary strategy (I-PAES) algorithm and denoted it as MI-PAES. It can effectively exploit some prior knowledge about the hydrophobic interactions, which is one of the most important driving forces in protein folding to make vaccines. The proposed MI-PAES is comparable with other evolutionary algorithms proposed in literature, both in terms of best solution found and the computational time and often results in much better search ability than that of the canonical GA.

  14. Occurrence and potential causes of androgenic activities in source and drinking water in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Zhang, Xiaowei; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-09-17

    The increased incidences of disorders of male reproductive tract as well as testicular and prostate cancers have been attributed to androgenic pollutants in the environment. Drinking water is one pathway of exposure through which humans can be exposed. In this study, both potencies of androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists were determined in organic extracts of raw source water as well as finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water in eastern China. Ten of 13 samples of source water exhibited detectable AR antagonistic potencies with AR antagonist equivalents (Ant-AR-EQs) ranging from <15.3 (detection limit) to 140 μg flutamide/L. However, no AR agonistic activity was detected in any source water. All finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water exhibited neither AR agonistic nor antagonistic activity. Although potential risks are posed by source water, water treatment processes effectively removed AR antagonists. Boiling and pouring of water further removed these pollutants. Phthalate esters (PAEs) including diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were identified as major contributors to AR antagonistic potencies in source waters. Metabolites of PAEs exhibited no AR antagonistic activity and did not increase potencies of PAEs when they coexist.

  15. Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy of Inner Shell Transitions Using Time-Of Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuping; Jiang, Neng; Weiss, A. H.

    2003-03-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) has been shown to have unique advantages over conventional electron collision induced Auger techniques, including the ability to eliminate the secondary electron background and selectively probe the top-most atomic layer on the sample surface. Here we report on the development of a new time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer which combines features high efficiency magnetic transport and parrallel energy measurment with high resolution by using an innovative timing method. The new TOF-PAES system, was used to make the first quantitative comparative measurements of the Auger intensities associated with the annihilation of positrons with the deep core levels (1s) of S KLL (180eV), C KLL (270eV), N KLL (360eV), and O KLL (510eV). Experimental results of Auger probabilities at outer core level (3s, 3P) of Cu M2,3VV (60eV), M1VV (105eV) are compared with the theoretical value of Jensen and Weiss. Quantitatively study the surface adsorbate process on Cu is performed and concentration changes of surface components are obtained. These results demonstrate that TOF-PAES can be used to obtain quantitative,top-layer specific, information from chemically important elements including those with relatively deep core levels (e.g. C and O).

  16. Determination of phthalate esters in liquor samples by vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Leng, Geng; Chen, Wenjin; Zhang, Mingfang; Huang, Fang; Cao, Qiming

    2014-03-01

    A novel method using vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed for the extraction of phthalate esters (PAEs) in Chinese liquor samples prior to analysis by GC-MS. In the proposed method, a high-density extraction solvent (carbon tetrachloride) was dispersed into samples with the aid of a surfactant (Triton X-100) and vortex agitation, resulting in a short extraction equilibrium (30 s). After centrifugation, a single microdrop of solvent was easily collected for GC-MS analysis. Key factors that affected the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, linearity was found in the range from 0.05 to 50 μg/L. Coefficients of determination varied from 0.9938 to 0.9971. LODs, based on an S/N of 3, ranged from 4.9 to 13 ng/L. Enrichment factors varied from 140 to 184. Reproducibility and recoveries were assessed by testing a series of three liquor samples that were spiked with different concentration levels. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of PAEs in 16 Chinese liquor samples. In this work, high-density-solvent vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced-emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction was applied for the first time for the extraction of PAEs in Chinese liquor samples and was proved to be simple, rapid, and sensitive.

  17. A dry powder combination of pyrazinoic acid and its n-propyl ester for aerosol administration to animals.

    PubMed

    Durham, P G; Young, E F; Braunstein, M S; Welch, J T; Hickey, A J

    2016-12-05

    Combining the advantage of higher efficacy due to local pulmonary administration of pyrazinoic acid (POA) and potent effect of pyrazinoic acid ester (PAE) delivered as an aerosol would aid in tuberculosis therapy. A combination spray dried dry powder, composed of POA, PAE (n-propyl POA), maltodextrin and leucine, was prepared for aerosol delivery to animals. Solid-state characteristics of morphology (scanning electron microscopy) crystallinity (X-ray powder diffraction), thermal properties (thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry) and moisture content (Karl Fisher) were evaluated. Particle size distributions, by volume (laser diffraction) for the dispersed powder and by mass (inertial impaction) were determined. Efficient delivery of the powder to a nose only animal exposure chamber employed a novel rotating brush/micro-fan apparatus. Spherical, crystalline particles were prepared. The volume median diameter, ∼1.5μm, was smaller than the mass median aerodynamic diameter, ∼3.0μm, indicating modest aggregation. Drug content variations were observed across the particle size distribution and may be explained by PAE evaporative losses. Delivery to the nose-only exposure chamber indicated that boluses could be administered at approximately 3min intervals to avoid aerosol accumulation and effect uniform dose delivery with successive doses suitable for future pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies.

  18. Thermally stable ionic liquid-based sol-gel coating for ultrasonic extraction-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography determination of phthalate esters in agricultural plastic films.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Shao, Xiao; Shu, Jian-jun; Liu, Ming-ming; Liu, Han-lan; Feng, Xiong-han; Liu, Fan

    2012-01-30

    A novel sol-gel-coated ionic liquid-based ([AMIM][N(SO(2)CF(3))(2)]-OH-TSO) fiber was successfully applied for the determination of phthalate esters (PAEs) in agricultural plastic films by ultrasonic extraction (UE) combined with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography (SPME-GC) due to its high thermal stability, specific selectivity and extraction efficiency. The extractant for UE and the adsorption time for SPME were optimized to achieve higher extraction efficiency. The desorption temperature and time were also optimized to avoid the carryover effect of previous extraction, and ultimately improve the precision and accuracy of the method. The [AMIM][N(SO(2)CF(3))(2)]-OH-TSO fiber showed comparable, or even higher response to most of the investigated PAEs than the commercial PDMS, PDMS-DVB and PA fibers. The carryover problem, often encountered when using commercial fibers, had been eliminated when desorption was performed at 360°C for 8 min. The proposed SPME-GC method showed good linearity over three to four orders of magnitude, and low limits of detection ranged from 0.003 to 0.063 μg L(-1). The relative standard deviation values obtained were below 10%, and the recoveries were in the ranges of 90.2-111.4%. Some of the PAEs studied were detected at very high concentration in these agricultural plastic film samples, resulting in a potential risk of crop damage, environmental contamination and human health exposure.

  19. Effect of composting on the removal of semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Lü, Huixiong; Zeng, Qiao-Yun; Wu, Qi-Tang; Li, Yan-Wen

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the occurrence and removal of semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in the compost of sewage sludge, three different composting treatments, including manual turned compost (MTC), intermittent aerated compost (IAC), and naturally aerated compost (NAC) were conducted. Thirty SVOCs in composts were Soxhlet-extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. After 56 days of composting, the total concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑PAHs) ranged from 0.55 to 8.20 mg kg(-1) dry weight, decreasing in order of IAC>MTC>NAC. The total concentrations of six phthalic acid esters (∑PAEs), five chlorobenzenes or three nitroaromatic compounds were less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Compared with the initial concentrations in sewage sludge, a significant reduction of ∑PAHs, ∑PAEs and chlorobenzenes was observed. The removal rates of ∑PAHs and ∑PAEs ranged from 54.6% to 75.9% and from 58.3% to 90.6%, respectively. Compared with different composting processes, MTC showed the highest potential for removal of SVOCs.

  20. Analysis of levels of support and resonance demonstrated by an elite singing teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Ronald C.; Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Poulimenos, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    This was a study of levels of singing expertise demonstrated by an elite operatic singer and teacher. This approach may prove advantageous because the teacher demonstrates what he thinks is important, not what the nonsinging scientist thinks should be important. Two pedagogical sequences were studied: (1) the location of support-glottis (poor), chest (better), abdomen (best); (2) locations of resonance-hard palate/straight tone (poor), mouth (better), sinus/head (best). Measures were obtained for a single frequency (196 Hz), the vowel /ae/, and for mezzo-forte loudness using the /pae pae pae/ technique. Sequence differences: The support sequence was characterized by formant frequency lowering suggestive of vocal tract lengthening. The resonance sequence was characterized by flow (AC, mean flow) and abduction increases. Sequence similarities: The best locations had the widest F2 bandwidths. The better and best locations had the largest dB difference between F2 and F3. Although acoustic power increased through the sequences, the acoustic efficiency was not a discriminating factor. Open and speed quotients were not differentiating. The flow resistance was highest and aerodynamic power the lowest for the first of each sequence. Combined data: The maximum flow declination rate correlated highly with the AC flow (r=-0.92) and SPL (r=0.901).

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticides and plasticisers in the Selangor River basin and possible pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Santhi, Veerasingam Armugam; Mustafa, Ali Mohd

    2013-02-01

    A study on the quality of water abstracted for potable use was conducted in the Selangor River basin from November 2008 to July 2009. Seven sampling sites representing the intake points of water treatment plants in the basin were selected to determine the occurrence and level of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), six phthalate esters (PAEs) and bisphenol A (BPA). Results indicated OCPs were still detected regularly in 66.1 % of the samples with the Σ(15)OCPs ranging from 0.6-25.2 ng/L. The first data on PAEs contamination in the basin revealed Σ(6)PAEs concentrations were between 39.0 and 1,096.6 ng/L with a median concentration of 186.0 ng/L while BPA concentration ranged from <1.2 to 120.0 ng/L. Although di-n-butyl phthalate was detected in all the samples, concentrations of di-ethyl(hexyl)phthalate were higher. Sampling sites located downstream recorded the highest concentrations, together with samples collected during the dry season. Comparison of the detected contaminants with the Department of Environment Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) showed some agreement between the concentration and the current classification of stream water. While the results suggest that the sites were only slightly polluted and suitable to be used as drinking water source, its presence is cause for concern especially to the fragile firefly "Pteroptyx tener" ecosystem located further downstream.

  2. Monitoring and removal of residual phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gordon C C; Yen, Chia-Heng; Wang, Chih-Lung

    2014-07-30

    This study monitored the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 8 phthalate esters (PAEs) and 13 pharmaceuticals present in the drinking water of Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. The simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration (EC/EF) process was used to remove the contaminants. To this end, a monitoring program was conducted and a novel laboratory-prepared tubular carbon nanofiber/carbon/alumina composite membrane (TCCACM) was incorporated into the EC/EF treatment module (collectively designated as "TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module") to remove the abovementioned compounds from water samples. The monitoring results showed that the concentrations of PAEs were lower in water samples from drinking fountains as compared with tap water samples. No significant differences were found between the concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the two types of water samples. Under optimal operating conditions, the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module yielded the lowest residual concentrations, ranging from not detected (ND) to 52ng/L for PAEs and pharmaceuticals of concern in the tap water samples. Moreover, the performance of the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module is comparable with a series of treatment units employed for the drinking fountain water treatment system. The relevant removal mechanisms involved in the TCCACM-EC/EF treatment module were also discussed in this work.

  3. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and <1.0-382 ng/g, respectively. The OCPs residuals originated from both historical usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security.

  4. Functional approach to high-throughput plant growth analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Method Taking advantage of the current rapid development in imaging systems and computer vision algorithms, we present HPGA, a high-throughput phenotyping platform for plant growth modeling and functional analysis, which produces better understanding of energy distribution in regards of the balance between growth and defense. HPGA has two components, PAE (Plant Area Estimation) and GMA (Growth Modeling and Analysis). In PAE, by taking the complex leaf overlap problem into consideration, the area of every plant is measured from top-view images in four steps. Given the abundant measurements obtained with PAE, in the second module GMA, a nonlinear growth model is applied to generate growth curves, followed by functional data analysis. Results Experimental results on model plant Arabidopsis thaliana show that, compared to an existing approach, HPGA reduces the error rate of measuring plant area by half. The application of HPGA on the cfq mutant plants under fluctuating light reveals the correlation between low photosynthetic rates and small plant area (compared to wild type), which raises a hypothesis that knocking out cfq changes the sensitivity of the energy distribution under fluctuating light conditions to repress leaf growth. Availability HPGA is available at http://www.msu.edu/~jinchen/HPGA. PMID:24565437

  5. Synergism and postantibiotic effect of tobramycin and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    D'Arrigo, Manuela; Ginestra, Giovanna; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Furneri, P M; Bisignano, G

    2010-04-01

    The application of antimicrobial combinations may address the rising resistance to established classes of both systemic and topical agents and their clinical relevance is related to the presence of a significant postantibiotic effect (PAE). We investigated the effectiveness in vitro of the association between tobramycin and tea tree oil (TTO) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentrations, the bacterial killing and the PAE of tobramycin and TTO were determined both singly and in combination against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. A synergistic interaction was observed against both strains tested: the mean PAEs were 1.3 and 1.7h for tobramycin against E. coli and S. aureus respectively, 10.8h for tobramycin and TTO (0.05%) against E. coli, 10.4h and 17.4h against S. aureus for tobramycin and TTO (0.25 and 0.50%, respectively). Longer PASMEs were observed with S. aureus after TTO/tobramycin exposure. In vitro interactions can improve the antimicrobial effectiveness of the antibiotic and may contribute for the development of novel topical agents for the treatment of skin lesions including conjunctiva and respiratory infections by inhalation.

  6. Seasonal fate and gas/particle partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds in indoor and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Gaspéri, Johnny; Blanchard, Martine; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Mandin, Corinne; Chevreuil, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Fifty-eight semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were investigated simultaneously in three indoor (apartment, nursery and office building) and one outdoor environment in the centre of Paris (France). All of these compounds except tetrabromobisphenol A were quantified in the gaseous and particulate phases in all three environments, and at a frequency of 100% for the predominant compounds of each SVOC class. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were the most abundant group (di-iso-butyl phthalate: 29-661 ng m-3, diethyl phthalate: 15-542 ng m-3), followed by 4-nonylphenol (1.4-81 ng m-3), parabens (methylparaben: 0.03-2.5 ng m-3), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (0.002-0.26 ng m-3) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) (0.001-0.23 ng m-3). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (as ∑8PAHs) ranged from 0.17 to 5.40 ng m-3, polychlorinated biphenyls (as ∑7PCBi) from 0.06 to 4.70 ng.m3 and polybromodiphenyl ethers (as ∑8PBDEs) from 0.002 to 0.40 ng m-3. For most pollutants, significantly higher concentrations were observed in the nursery compared to the apartment and office. Overall, the indoor air concentrations were up to ten times higher than outdoor air concentrations. Seasonal variations were observed for PAEs, PCBs and PAHs. SVOCs were predominantly identified in the gaseous phase (>90%), except for some high-molecular-weight PAEs, PAHs and PCBs.

  7. Meta-analysis of gene expression patterns in animal models of prenatal alcohol exposure suggests role for protein synthesis inhibition and chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Rogic, Sanja; Wong, Albertina; Pavlidis, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can result in an array of morphological, behavioural and neurobiological deficits that can range in their severity. Despite extensive research in the field and a significant progress made, especially in understanding the range of possible malformations and neurobehavioral abnormalities, the molecular mechanisms of alcohol responses in development are still not well understood. There have been multiple transcriptomic studies looking at the changes in gene expression after PAE in animal models, however there is a limited apparent consensus among the reported findings. In an effort to address this issue, we performed a comprehensive re-analysis and meta-analysis of all suitable, publically available expression data sets. Methods We assembled ten microarray data sets of gene expression after PAE in mouse and rat models consisting of samples from a total of 63 ethanol-exposed and 80 control animals. We re-analyzed each data set for differential expression and then used the results to perform meta-analyses considering all data sets together or grouping them by time or duration of exposure (pre- and post-natal, acute and chronic, respectively). We performed network and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to further characterize the identified signatures. Results For each sub-analysis we identified signatures of differential expressed genes that show support from multiple studies. Overall, the changes in gene expression were more extensive after acute ethanol treatment during prenatal development than in other models. Considering the analysis of all the data together, we identified a robust core signature of 104 genes down-regulated after PAE, with no up-regulated genes. Functional analysis reveals over-representation of genes involved in protein synthesis, mRNA splicing and chromatin organization. Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that existing studies, despite superficial dissimilarity in findings, share features that allow us

  8. Pharmacodynamic studies of trovafloxacin and grepafloxacin in vitro against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Odenholt, I; Cars, T; Lowdin, E

    2000-07-01

    Grepafloxacin and trovafloxacin are two novel fluoroquinolones with extended Gram-positive bacterial spectra compared with older quinolones. The aim of the present study was to investigate the different pharmacodynamic parameters of grepafloxacin in comparison with those of trovafloxacin. The following studies were performed against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: (i) determination of the rate and extent of killing at a concentration corresponding to the 1 h non-protein-bound human serum level following an oral dose of 800 mg grepafloxacin and 300 mg trovafloxacin; (ii) determination of the rate and extent of killing of the two quinolones at different concentrations; (iii) determination of the post-antibiotic effects (PAEs); (iv) determination of the post-antibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs); (iv) determination of the rate and extent of killing in an in vitro kinetic model. It was shown that both grepafloxacin and trovafloxacin exhibited concentration-dependent killing against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Grepafloxacin exhibited a slower bactericidal effect against all the Gram-positive strains investigated in comparison with trovafloxacin in spite of a similar C(max)/MIC in the static experiments and a similar AUC/MIC ratio in the kinetic experiments. No major differences in the extent and rate of killing were noted against the Gram-negative strains, which were killed almost completely after 3 h except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A PAE of both quinolones was noted for all strains investigated. Trovafloxacin induced longer PAEs against the Gram-positive strains but shorter PAEs in comparison with those of grepafloxacin against the Gram-negative strains. A prolonging of the PAEs was noted for all bacteria when exposed to sub-MICs in the post-antibiotic phase. With a similar AUC/MIC of 310 for the penicillin-sensitive strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 143 for the penicillin-resistant strain, the time for 99.9% eradication for

  9. High-level recombinant protein production by the basidiomycetous yeast Pseudozyma antarctica under a xylose-inducible xylanase promoter.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Morita, Tomotake; Koike, Hideaki; Yarimizu, Tohru; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Koitabashi, Motoo; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2016-04-01

    Yeast host-vector systems are useful tools for the production of recombinant proteins. Here, we report the construction of a new high-level expression plasmid pPAX1-neo for the basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma antarctica. pPAX1-neo harbours a xylose-inducible expression cassette under control of the xylanase promoter and terminator of P. antarctica T-34, a selection cassette of neomycin/G418 with an Escherichia coli neomycin resistance gene under control of the homocitrate synthase promoter of strain T-34, and an autonomously replicating sequence fragment of Ustilago maydis (UARS). Biodegradable plastic (BP)-degrading enzymes of P. antarctica JCM10317 (PaE) and Paraphoma-related fungal strain B47-9 (PCLE) were used as reporter proteins and inserted into pPAX1-neo, resulting in pPAX1-neo::PaCLE1 and pPAX1-neo::PCLE, respectively. Homologous and heterologous BP-degrading enzyme production of transformants of P. antarctica T-34 were detected on agar plates containing xylose and emulsified BP. Recombinant PaE were also produced by transformants of other Pseudozyma strains including Pseudozyma aphidis, Pseudozyma rugulosa, and Pseudozyma tsukubaensis. To improve the stability of transformed genes in cells, the UARS fragment was removed from linearized pPAX1-neo::PaCLE1 and integrated into the chromosome of the P. antarctica strain, GB-4(0), which was selected as a PaE producer in xylose media. Two transformants, GB-4(0)-X14 and X49, had an 11-fold higher activity compared with the wild type strain in xylose-containing liquid media. By xylose fed-batch cultivation using a 3-L jar fermentor, GB-4(0)-X14 produced 73.5 U mL(-1) of PaE, which is 13.4-fold higher than that of the wild type strain GB-4(0), which produced 5.5 U mL(-1) of PaE.

  10. Studies Of Oxidation And Thermal Reduction Of The Cu(100) Surface Using Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fazleev, N. G.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Maddox, W.; Weiss, A. H.

    2011-06-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements from the surface of an oxidized Cu(100) single crystal show a large increase in the intensity of the annihilation induced Cu M2,3VV Auger peak as the sample is subjected to a series of isochronal anneals in vacuum up to annealing temperature 300 deg. C. The PAES intensity then decreases monotonically as the annealing temperature is increased to {approx}550 deg. C. Experimental positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons are estimated from the measured intensities of the positron annihilation induced Cu M{sub 2,3}VV and O KLL Auger transitions. PAES results are analyzed by performing calculations of positron surface states and annihilation probabilities of the surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons taking into account the charge redistribution at the surface and various surface structures associated with low and high oxygen coverages. The variations in atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface are found to affect localization and spatial extent of the positron surface state wave function. The computed positron binding energy and annihilation characteristics reveal their sensitivity to charge transfer effects, atomic structure and chemical composition of the topmost layers of the oxidized Cu(100) surface. Theoretical positron annihilation probabilities with Cu 3p and O 1s core electrons computed for the oxidized Cu(100) surface are compared with experimental ones. The obtained results provide a demonstration of thermal reduction of the copper oxide surface after annealing at 300 deg. C followed by re-oxidation of the Cu(100) surface at higher annealing temperatures presumably due to diffusion of subsurface oxygen to the surface.

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K; Parnell, Scott E; Sulik, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  12. Degradation of Phthalate Esters by Fusarium sp. DMT-5-3 and Trichosporon sp. DMI-5-1 Isolated from Mangrove Sediments.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhu-Hua; Pang, Ka-Lai; Wu, Yi-Rui; Gu, Ji-Dong; Chow, Raymond K K; Vrijmoed, L L P

    2012-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are important industrial compounds mainly used as plasticizers to increase flexibility and softness of plastic products. PAEs are of major concern because of their widespread use, ubiquity in the environment, and endocrine-disrupting toxicity. In this study, two fungal strains, Fusarium sp. DMT-5-3 and Trichosporon sp. DMI-5-1 which had the capability to degrade dimethyl phthalate esters (DMPEs), were isolated from mangrove sediments in the Futian Nature Reserve of Shenzhen, China, by enrichment culture technique. These fungi were identified on the basis of spore morphology and molecular typing using 18S rDNA sequence. Comparative investigations on the biodegradation of three isomers of DMPEs, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dimethyl isophthalate (DMI), and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were carried out with these two fungi. It was found that both fungi could not completely mineralize DMPEs but transform them to the respective monomethyl phthalate or phthalate acid. Biochemical degradation pathways for different DMPE isomers by both fungi were different. Both fungi could transform DMT to monomethyl terephthalate (MMT) and further to terephthalic acid (TA) by stepwise hydrolysis of two ester bonds. However, they could only carry out one-step ester hydrolysis to transform DMI to monomethyl isophthalate (MMI). Further metabolism of MMI did not proceed. Only Trichosporon sp. was able to transform DMP to monomethyl phthalate (MMP) but not Fusarium sp. The optimal pH for DMI and DMT degradation by Fusarium sp. was 6.0 and 4.5, respectively, whereas for Trichosporon sp., the optimal pH for the degradation of all the three DMPE isomers was at 6.0. These results suggest that the fungal esterases responsible for hydrolysis of the two ester bonds of PAEs are highly substrate specific.

  13. Extracellular esterases of phylloplane yeast Pseudozyma antarctica induce defect on cuticle layer structure and water-holding ability of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hirokazu; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Tabata, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Suzuki, Ken; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-08-01

    Aerial plant surface (phylloplane) is a primary key habitat for many microorganisms but is generally recognized as limited in nutrient resources. Pseudozyma antarctica, a nonpathogenic yeast, is commonly isolated from plant surfaces and characterized as an esterase producer with fatty acid assimilation ability. In order to elucidate the biological functions of these esterases, culture filtrate with high esterase activity (crude enzyme) of P. antarctica was applied onto leaves of tomato and Arabidopsis. These leaves showed a wilty phenotype, which is typically associated with water deficiency. Furthermore, we confirmed that crude enzyme-treated detached leaves clearly lost their water-holding ability. In treated leaves of both plants, genes associated to abscisic acid (ABA; a plant stress hormone responding osmotic stress) were activated and accumulation of ABA was confirmed in tomato plants. Microscopic observation of treated leaf surfaces revealed that cuticle layer covering the aerial epidermis of leaves became thinner. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis exhibited that fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon chains were released in larger amounts from treated leaf surfaces, indicating that the crude enzyme has ability to degrade lipid components of cuticle layer. Among the three esterases detected in the crude enzyme, lipase A, lipase B, and P. antarctica esterase (PaE), an in vitro enzyme assay using para-nitrophenyl palmitate as substrate demonstrated that PaE was the most responsible for the degradation. These results suggest that PaE has a potential role in the extraction of fatty acids from plant surfaces, making them available for the growth of phylloplane yeasts.

  14. Fast analysis of phthalates in freeze-dried baby foods by ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-ion trap/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Mario Vincenzo; Avino, Pasquale; Notardonato, Ivan

    2016-11-25

    This paper is focused on the determination of phthalates (PAEs), compounds "plausibly" endocrine disruptors, in baby food products by means of a method based on ultrasound-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with GC-IT/MS (UVALLME-GC-IT/MS). Particularly, the whole procedure allows the determination of six phthalates such as DMP, DEP, DBP, iBcEP, BBP and DEHP. After dissolution of 0.1g product sample and addition of anthracene as Internal Standard, 250μL of n-heptane are used as extraction solvent. The solution, held for 5min on the vortex mixer and for 6min in an ultrasonic bath at 100W for favoring the solvent dispersion and consequently the analyte extraction, is centrifuged at 4000rpm for 30min. About 100μL of heptane are recovered and 1μL is injected into the GC-IT/MS. All the analytical parameters investigated are deeply discussed: under the best conditions, the percentage recoveries range between 96.2 and 109.2% with an RSD ≤10.5% whereas the Limit of Detections (LODs) and the Limit of Quantifications (LOQs) are below 11 and 20ngg(-1), respectively, for all the PAEs except for iBcEP (23 and 43ngg(-1), respectively). The linear dynamic range of this procedure is between 10 and 5000ngg(-1) with R(2) ≥0.92. The method has been applied to real commercial freeze-dried samples (chicken and turkey meats) available on the Italian pharmaceutical market: three PAEs were preliminary identified, i.e. DEP (14ngg(-1)), DBP (11ngg(-1)) and DEHP (64ngg(-1)).

  15. Click Cross-Linking-Improved Waterborne Polymers for Environment-Friendly Coatings and Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianqing; Peng, Kaimei; Guo, Jinshan; Shan, Dingying; Kim, Gloria B; Li, Qiyao; Gerhard, Ethan; Zhu, Liang; Tu, Weiping; Lv, Weizhong; Hickner, Michael A; Yang, Jian

    2016-07-13

    Waterborne polymers, including waterborne polyurethanes (WPU), polyester dispersions (PED), and polyacrylate emulsions (PAE), are employed as environmentally friendly water-based coatings and adhesives. An efficient, fast, stable, and safe cross-linking strategy is always desirable to impart waterborne polymers with improved mechanical properties and water/solvent/thermal and abrasion resistance. For the first time, click chemistry was introduced into waterborne polymer systems as a cross-linking strategy. Click cross-linking rendered waterborne polymer films with significantly improved tensile strength, hardness, adhesion strength, and water/solvent resistance compared to traditional waterborne polymer films. For example, click cross-linked WPU (WPU-click) has dramatically improved the mechanical strength (tensile strength increased from 0.43 to 6.47 MPa, and Young's modulus increased from 3 to 40 MPa), hardness (increased from 59 to 73.1 MPa), and water resistance (water absorption percentage dropped from 200% to less than 20%); click cross-linked PED (PED-click) film also possessed more than 3 times higher tensile strength (∼28 MPa) than that of normal PED (∼8 MPa). The adhesion strength of click cross-linked PAE (PAE-click) to polypropylene (PP) was also improved (from 3 to 5.5 MPa). In addition, extra click groups can be preserved after click cross-linking for further functionalization of the waterborne polymeric coatings/adhesives. In this work, we have demonstrated that click modification could serve as a convenient and powerful approach to significantly improve the performance of a variety of traditional coatings and adhesives.

  16. Analysis of phthalic acid diesters, monoester, and other plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride household products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Isama, Kazuo; Matsuoka, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of six phthalic acid diesters (PAEs) [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP)], two non-phthalic plasticizers [di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutylate (TMPDIB)], and mono 2-ethylhexyl phthalate(MEHP) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) household products that children often places in their mouths and/or contact with their skin (41 products, 47 samples) in Japan. The detection frequencies of the studied compounds were as follows: DEHP (79 %), DINP-2 (13 %), DINP-1 (11 %), DBP (8.5 %), DEHA (8.5 %), DIDP (4.3 %), and DNOP (2.1 %). Concentrations of these compounds ranged from 0.021 % to 48 %. BBP and TMPDIB were not detected in the all samples. Most samples contained DEHP and DINP at high concentrations over 0.1 %. High concentrations of PAEs were detected in PVC household products that appear appealing to children and can possibly be licked and chewed by them. Di(2-ethylhexyl) terephtalete, diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, acetyl tributyl citrate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) 4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate used as substitute plasticizers were also detected in several samples. MEHP was present in 70 % of the samples, with concentrations ranging from trace amounts to 140 μg/g. The ratios of MEHP against DEHP were 6.2 × 10(-4) to 1.6 × 10(-1) %. MEHP in the household products investigated in this study was most probably an impurity in DEHP. The high concentrations of PAEs detected in products that children often place in their mouth reveal the importance of replacing plasticizers in common household products, and not just children's toys, with safer alternatives.

  17. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and behavioral dysfunction following early binge-like prenatal alcohol exposure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wieczorek, Lindsay; Fish, Eric W.; O’Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Parnell, Scott E.; Sulik, Kathleen K.

    2015-01-01

    The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some of the prenatal alcohol (ethanol) exposure (PAE)-induced behavioral abnormalities. Included among the previous investigations are those illustrating that maternal alcohol treatment limited to very early stages of pregnancy (i.e., gestational day [GD]7 in mice; equivalent to the third week post-fertilization in humans) can cause structural abnormalities in areas such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and other forebrain regions integral to controlling stress and behavioral responses. The current investigation was designed to further examine the sequelae of prenatal alcohol insult at this early time period, with particular attention to HPA axis-associated functional changes in adult mice. The results of this study reveal that GD7 PAE in mice causes HPA axis dysfunction, with males and females showing elevated corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, respectively, following a 15-min restraint stress exposure. Males also showed elevated CORT levels following an acute alcohol injection of 2.0 g/kg, while females displayed blunted ACTH levels. Furthermore, analysis showed that anxiety-like behavior was decreased after GD7 PAE in female mice, but was increased in male mice. Collectively, the results of this study show that early gestational alcohol exposure in mice alters long-term HPA axis activity and behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. PMID:25709101

  18. Obesogenic Neighborhood Environments, Child and Parent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Brian E.; Sallis, James F.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Couch, Sarah C.; Zhou, Chuan; Colburn, Trina; Cain, Kelli L.; Chapman, James; Glanz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying neighborhood environment attributes related to childhood obesity can inform environmental changes for obesity prevention. Purpose To evaluate child and parent weight status across neighborhoods in King County/Seattle and San Diego County differing in GIS-defined physical activity environment (PAE) and nutrition environment (NE) characteristics. Methods Neighborhoods were selected to represent high (favorable) versus low (unfavorable) on the two measures, forming four neighborhood types (low on both measures, low PAE/high NE, high PAE/low NE, and high on both measures). Weight and height of children aged 6–11 years and one parent (n=730) from selected neighborhoods were assessed in 2007–2009. Differences in child and parent overweight and obesity by neighborhood type were examined, adjusting for neighborhood-, family-, and individual-level demographics. Results Children from neighborhoods high on both environment measures were less likely to be obese (7.7% vs 15.9% OR=0.44, p=0.02) and marginally less likely to be overweight (23.7% vs 31.7%; OR=0.67, p=0.08) than children from neighborhoods low on both measures. In models adjusted for parent weight status and demographic factors, neighborhood environment type remained related to child obesity (high vs low on both measures; OR=0.41, p<0.03). Parents in neighborhoods high on both measures (versus low on both) were marginally less likely to be obese (20.1% vs 27.7%; OR=0.66; p=0.08), although parent overweight did not differ on this variable. The lower odds of parent obesity in neighborhoods with environments supportive of physical activity and healthy eating remained in models adjusted for demographics (high vs low on the environment measures; OR=0.57, p=0.053). Conclusions Findings support the proposed GIS-based definitions of obesogenic neighborhoods for children and parents that consider both physical activity and nutrition environment features. PMID:22516504

  19. Pelvic Arterial Anatomy Relevant to Prostatic Artery Embolisation and Proposal for Angiographic Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Assis, André Moreira de Moreira, Airton Mota Paula Rodrigues, Vanessa Cristina de; Harward, Sardis Honoria; Antunes, Alberto Azoubel Srougi, Miguel; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo describe and categorize the angiographic findings regarding prostatic vascularization, propose an anatomic classification, and discuss its implications for the PAE procedure.MethodsAngiographic findings from 143 PAE procedures were reviewed retrospectively, and the origin of the inferior vesical artery (IVA) was classified into five subtypes as follows: type I: IVA originating from the anterior division of the internal iliac artery (IIA), from a common trunk with the superior vesical artery (SVA); type II: IVA originating from the anterior division of the IIA, inferior to the SVA origin; type III: IVA originating from the obturator artery; type IV: IVA originating from the internal pudendal artery; and type V: less common origins of the IVA. Incidences were calculated by percentage.ResultsTwo hundred eighty-six pelvic sides (n = 286) were analyzed, and 267 (93.3 %) were classified into I–IV types. Among them, the most common origin was type IV (n = 89, 31.1 %), followed by type I (n = 82, 28.7 %), type III (n = 54, 18.9 %), and type II (n = 42, 14.7 %). Type V anatomy was seen in 16 cases (5.6 %). Double vascularization, defined as two independent prostatic branches in one pelvic side, was seen in 23 cases (8.0 %).ConclusionsDespite the large number of possible anatomical variations of male pelvis, four main patterns corresponded to almost 95 % of the cases. Evaluation of anatomy in a systematic fashion, following a standard classification, will make PAE a faster, safer, and more effective procedure.

  20. Ifenprodil infusion in agranular insular cortex alters social behavior and vocalizations in rats exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Bird, Clark W; Barto, Daniel; Magcalas, Christy M; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Donaldson, Tia; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2017-03-01

    Moderate exposure to alcohol during development leads to subtle neurobiological and behavioral effects classified under the umbrella term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Alterations in social behaviors are a frequently observed consequence of maternal drinking, as children with FASDs display inappropriate aggressive behaviors and altered responses to social cues. Rodent models of FASDs mimic the behavioral alterations seen in humans, with rats exposed to ethanol during development displaying increased aggressive behaviors, decreased social investigation, and altered play behavior. Work from our laboratory has observed increased wrestling behavior in adult male rats following prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and increased expression of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in the agranular insular cortex (AIC). This study was undertaken to determine if ifenprodil, a GluN2B preferring negative allosteric modulator, has a significant effect on social behaviors in PAE rats. Using a voluntary ethanol exposure paradigm, rat dams were allowed to drink a saccharin-sweetened solution of either 0% or 5% ethanol throughout gestation. Offspring at 6-8 months of age were implanted with cannulae into AIC. Animals were isolated for 24h before ifenprodil or vehicle was infused into AIC, and after 15min they were recorded in a social interaction chamber. Ifenprodil treatment altered aspects of wrestling, social investigatory behaviors, and ultrasonic vocalizations in rats exposed to ethanol during development that were not observed in control animals. These data indicate that GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in AIC play a role in social behaviors and may underlie alterations in behavior and vocalizations observed in PAE animals.

  1. A Conscript Military Force as a Credible Defense System for a Small Nation: The Case of Singapore and Taiwan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    AND SCIENCE by DANIEL ONG BOON HWEE, MAJ, SAF B. Soc. SC. (ECONS) Hons, National University of Singapore, 1984 i _D7I ELECTE FOT 65 1988 " Fort...APR edition may be used until exhausted. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAE All other editions are obsolete. iD-9 UNCLASSIFIED 0tc0TY GEA-StPI&ATWW OP...militia and the all -volunteer armed forces. The best example of a rilitia system is that of the Swiss Militia Army, and it is not surprising that the

  2. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  3. Design of an Ultra-High Efficiency GaN High-Power Amplifier for SAR Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrivikraman, Tushar; Hoffman, James

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development of a high-power amplifier for use with a remote sensing SAR system. The amplifier is intended to meet the requirements for the Sweep-SAR technique for use in the proposed DESDynI SAR instrument. In order to optimize the amplifier design, active load-pull technique is employed to provide harmonic tuning to provide efficiency improvements. In addition, some of the techniques to overcome the challenges of load-pulling high power devices are presented. The design amplifier was measured to have 49 dBm of output power with 75% PAE, which is suitable to meet the proposed system requirements.

  4. Army Recruiting Resourcing System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Sheridan, Illinois 60037-6090 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMO No. 070虨 I.& Mrw ung U btOfl tOf thti (CM .; 9 Of nOMToMt,0* Mt e,,tiSO w &rIK" 1 OUr...are those of the author and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army policy or position, unless so designated by other...changes in policies , regulations, or statutes that affect recruiting. Those interviewed within the DA staff (DCSPER, PA&E, and DAB personnel) believe there

  5. Mandatory Procedures for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPS) and Major Automated Information System (MAIS) Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-05

    ACQUISITION STRATEGY 32 C2.8. SUPPORT STRATEGY 34 DoD 5000.2-R, April 5, 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS 5 C2.9. BUSINESS STRATEGY 40 C3. CHAPTER 3 TEST AND...AL1.1.110. PA&E Program Analysis and Evaluation AL1.1.111. PAUC Program Acquisition Unit Cost AL1.1.112. PBBE Performance-Based Business Environment...Simulation-Based Acquisition AL1.1.132. SBIR Small Business Innovation Research AL1.1.133. SEI Software Engineering Institute AL1.1.134. SSAA System

  6. Computer-Aided Techniques for Providing Operator Performance Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    the researcher’s ingenuity and the time he has available for the study, and (3) the research process and all associated manual effort must be repeated...ever need to see during the entire mission, or (2) allow various CRT "pAes" to be manually selected. The first technique is objectionable due to the...update the re gression. Four candidato updatente efunctions are generated for each maneuver sector: i q = (X, a, 0M .. ) ! ~FO(Xo.,,,O..,,) " ~ F( 0

  7. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report. Certificate Number: 890720N1. 10124, Alsys Limited, AlsysCOMP 023 Version 4.2, IBM 370 3084Q. Completion of On-Site Testing: 20 July 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-20

    Report AVF-VSR-90502/.5 Alsys Limited AlsysCOMP 023 Version 4.2 Chapter I .Page i of s INTRODUCTION Organization (AVO). On-site testing was completed 20...Pae 4 of S INTRODUCTION Class E tests are expected to execute successfully and check implementation-dependent options and resolutions of ambiguities...made by the AVF in Validation summary Repout AVF.VSR.9002/󈧽 AMsys Limited AlsysCOMP_023 Version 4.2 Chapter 3 - Page S of 9 TEST INFORMATION cases

  8. Increasing the Utility of the Human Resource Management (HRM) Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    action plans. DDo 1473 torIioN DO INov is OeSOL"tE Unclassified (PaeSECUITY CLASICATION OF T0I1 PAU rfo’ .o.o 0111 Unclassified Block 20 continued... food service? (modified 217) 673 To what extent are you satisfied with the quality of food in your organization? (modified 218) 674 Which one aspect of... food service do you feel needs the most improvement in this organization: 1. No improvements are required. 2. Sanitation. 3. Food preparation. 4

  9. Internal and External Performance Measurement Methodologies for Database Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    DOCUMENTATION PAE EFORE COMPLETING F(RM IREPOR7 NuMaR CESINSC1_S OME 4 TIT-E arid S,~belt!-5 T P C E -Q A E , Z R Sv It S t0 JsC I AU TiOR,, 8. CONTRACT OR...ti’ar.is tc Drs. Hsiao, Kerr, ar.c S3tra-wsEr fcr .- vi. FrovidEJl mucL o: tit uidaLce ne d (= in deve-lo-ir.g t his f 0o E Ct. hi tl.z2E arll patiEnC(e

  10. The cooperative dynamics of the H-bond system in 2-propanol/water mixtures: Steric hindrance effects of nonpolar head group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takaaki; Buchner, Richard

    2003-11-01

    We have determined the complex dielectric spectra of 2-propanol/water mixtures employing time domain reflectometry for the entire mixing range in 0.1⩽ν/GHz⩽25 at 20 °C, 25 °C, and 30 °C. At the specific concentrations, a frequency range was expanded up to 89 GHz with the help of waveguide interferometry. The excess activation free energy, ΔGE, enthalpy, ΔHE, and entropy, ΔSE, and their partial molar quantities, ΔGiE, ΔHiE, and ΔSiE [i=2-propanol (2PA) and water (W)] were derived from the relaxation time of the cooperative process, τ1. In the water-rich region, ΔHE and ΔSE exhibit conspicuous behavior with large positive values, which suggests an increase of the "time averaged" number and the strength of H-bonds. τ1 becomes considerably larger for 2-propanol/water than that for 1-propanol/water, resulting in ˜10% larger maxima of ΔH and ΔS. This indicates that the steric hindrance caused by the nonpolar group is more efficient for the branched isopropyl unit than that for the linear n-propyl moiety in preventing "disturbing fifth neighbor water molecules" from acting as new H-bond partners for a hydroxyl group of alcohols. The two pertinent maxima in ΔH2PAE and ΔS2PAE at X(molar fraction of 2-propanol)˜0.03 and ˜0.07 support the view that around X˜0.05, water molecules are pushed out of the first coordination shell of the nonpolar group into the bulk due to solute-solute association, commonly called hydrophobic interaction. In X⩾0.15, ΔH2PAE and ΔS2PAE become nearly zero, suggesting the generation of zigzag H-bonded alcohol chains similar to the pure alcohol. The analysis of the effective correlation factor, geff, revealed a strong structural perturbation effect of water in 0.5⩽X⩽1.0.

  11. Investigations into the Performance of a Distributed Routing Protocol for Packet Switching Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    SWITCHING :-ONCEPr The purpose of aiy communicitions network is to provide paths for the transmission of iaformation. It is desirable that the process ...pa.e switchin; concept requires that each station (rode) iLn the network be capable of processing cer-tainT data corcerning the structare of tha...network. rhis is necessary so --hat the correct :cuti-ng ca.2 be assigned to each packet as it is released oy the nole into the network. T~ process can be

  12. Group Technology Assessment: U.S. Army Materiel Command.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    isV oesot0EE SaCUmTYV CLASSIFICATION OF T HIS PAGE (POm Ont. 5nEftlv~) %~ SECUftITY CL.ASSaPICATION OF THIS PA@E& hMO Date Enteed The findings of this...time and effort. Therefore, GT identifies and exploits the underlying sameness of members of a universe to provide economies of scale. This general...three also shared in a contract with Pennsylvania State University dealing with a Group Tech- nology Scheduling Software Program. Other aspects of

  13. Effect of Physical Aging on Mechanical Behavior of an Elastomeric Glass under Combined Pressure and Temperature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Technical Report No. 7 C.- 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Effect of Physical Aging on...Mechanical Behavior of an Elastomeric Glass Under Combined Pressure and Temperature G. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) S . CONTRACT OR GRANT...NUMBER( s ) K. Vijayan and K. D. Pae NOOO14-82-K-0608 9. PERFORMING r" GANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK High PrE 3,ure

  14. Carboxylesterase-involved metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingqi; Chen, Siyuan; Chao, Yuanqing; Huang, Xiongfei; Wang, Shizhong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and accumulation by plants is a significant pathway in the migration and transformation of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the mechanisms of PAE metabolism in plants. Here, we investigated the metabolism of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), one of the most frequently detected PAEs, in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) seedlings via a series of hydroponic experiments with an initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1). DnBP hydrolysis occurred primarily in the root, and two of its metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and phthalic acid (PA), were detected in all plant tissues. The MnBP concentration was an order of magnitude higher than that of PA in shoots, which indicated MnBP was more readily transported to the shoot than was PA because of the former's dual hydrophilic and lipophilic characteristics. More than 80% of MnBP and PA were located in the cell water-soluble component except that 96% of MnBP was distributed into the two solid cellular fractions (i.e., cell wall and organelles) at 96 h. A 13-20% and 29-54% increase of carboxylesterase (CXE) activity shown in time-dependent and concentration-dependent experiments, respectively, indicated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. The level of CXE activity in root subcellular fractions was in the order: the cell water-soluble component (88-94%) > cell wall (3-7%) > cell organelles (3-4%), suggesting that the cell water-soluble component is the dominant locus of CXE activity and also the domain of CXE-catalyzed hydrolysis of DnBP. The addition of triphenyl phosphate, a CXE inhibitor, led to 43-56% inhibition of CXE activity and 16-25% increase of DnBP content, which demonstrated the involvement of CXEs in plant metabolism of DnBP. This study contributes to our understanding of enzymitic mechanisms of PAE transformation in plants.

  15. Li-ion battery operated power amplifier MMICs utilizing SrTiO 3 capacitors and heterojunction FETs for PDC and CDMA cellular phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, N.; Yamaguchi, K.; Nishimura, T. B.; Takemura, K.; Miyasaka, Y.

    1999-04-01

    Highly efficient two-stage 1 W power amplifier MMICs utilizing SrTiO 3 capacitors and Si-doped AlGaAs/InGaAs/Si-doped AlGaAs FETs have been developed for Li-ion battery operated digital cellular phones. For the personal digital cellular (PDC) applications, a power amplifier MMIC with 2.0×2.4 mm 2 area includes all bias and matching circuits. The MMIC delivered a 950 MHz π/4-shifted QPSK output signal power ( Pout) of 0.8 W (29.0 dBm), a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 30% and an associated gain ( Ga) of 26.4 dB with an adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACPR) of -50.5 dBc at 50 kHz off-center frequency under 3.4 V drain bias operation. The power performance showed good agreement with a simulated one when series resistances in the output matching circuit and the drain bias circuit for the second-stage FET were taken into account. When the circuits were removed from the MMIC, it exhibited PAE of 42.4% and Pout of 1.0 W (30.0 dBm) with Ga of 29.8 dB at the PDC criteria. These results revealed that a low loss in the output passive circuits of a power amplifier MMIC is essential. Then, a power amplifier MMIC for the IS-95 application at 840 MHz was designed and evaluated without the output circuit. The MMIC with 2.0×1.5 mm 2 area delivered Pout of 0.93 W (29.7 dBm), PAE of 48.6% and Ga of 28.4 dB with ACPR of -42 dBc at 0.9 MHz off-center frequency under 3.5 V operation. Even operated at a reduced supply voltage of 1.2 V, a high PAE of 46.9% was obtained. These results indicate that the developed power amplifier MMICs and its approach are promising for small-size and lightweight digital cellular phones with long talk time.

  16. Psychological and Physical Performance Factors Associated with Attrition in Explosive Ordnance Disposal Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-10

    S55aI61t;YCSGFICATIO" of "Igs P#.G! (Man VMS. antopao__________ REPOT DOUMETATIN P E AD INSýUCTIOKSREPOR OOCM~l4ATI~4 PAE UgORK COMPLSIT01 PORN 1...public events (rock concerts, sports events) are very exciting. 2. As a child , I was always reading. 3. Happirass Is more important than fame. 4. I e...to talk to people. 21. As a child , school was easy for me. 22. 1 enjoy working crossword puzzles. 23. 1 was a slow learner in school. 24. 1 have a

  17. Low Noise Amplifiers Based on Lattice Engineered Substrates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34 Improvement of the interface quality during thermal oxidation of -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 .1 -0.5 0 0.5 Al/sub 0.98/Ga/sub 0.02/As layers due to the...Partially oxidized pHEMTs showed improved power added efficiencies (PAEs) in comparison to fully oxidized or unoxidized devices and negligible charge...lattice- matched material system. The current aperture in the devices presented in this paper were produced by the partial oxidation of a high

  18. Soviet Developments in High Temperature Ceramics No. 1, January-December 1975

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-25

    PAE?.(V P^mn 12 . REPORT DATE February 25, 1976 13. NUMBER OF PAGES -39- 1$. SECURITY CLASS, (ol ihn rmpoti) UNCLASSIFIED IS...combinations of magnesia with zirconia or zirconia and chrome spinel have been tested with some success in insulation of channel walls in pilot MHD plants...v. 25, no. 11, 1P74, 337-340. (RZhKh J9M, 10/75, no. 10M85). (Translation) Data are presented on the main characteristics of

  19. Ethylglucuronide in maternal hair as a biomarker of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Hilda L; Hund, Lauren; Shrestha, Shikhar; Rayburn, William F; Leeman, Lawrence; Savage, Daniel D; Bakhireva, Ludmila N

    2015-09-01

    While direct ethanol metabolites, including ethylglucuronide (EtG), play an important role for the confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), their utility is often limited by their short half-lives in blood and urine. Maternal hair allows for a retrospective measure of PAE for up to several months. This study examined the validity of hair EtG (hEtG) relative to self-reporting and five other biomarkers in 85 pregnant women. Patients were recruited from a UNM prenatal clinic, which provides care to women with substance abuse and addiction disorders. The composite index, which was based on self-reported measures of alcohol use and allowed us to classify subjects into PAE (n = 42) and control (n = 43) groups, was the criterion measure used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of hEtG. Proximal segments of hair were collected at enrollment (average 22.0 gestational weeks) and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. At the same visit, maternal blood and urine specimens were collected for analysis of GGT, %dCDT, PEth, uEtG, and uEtS. The study population included mostly opioid-dependent (80%) patients, a large proportion of ethnic minorities (75.3% Hispanic/Latina, 8.2% American Indian, 4.7% African-American), and patients with low education (48.2% < high school). The mean maternal age at enrollment was 26.7 ± 4.8 years. Hair EtG demonstrated 19% sensitivity and 86% specificity. The sensitivities of other biomarkers were comparable (5-20%) to hEtG but specificities were higher (98-100%). Hair EtG sensitivity improved when combined with other biomarkers, especially with GGT (32.5%) and PEth (27.5%). In addition, validity of hEtG improved in patients with less frequent shampooing and those who did not use hair dyes/chemical treatments. These data suggest that hEtG alone is not a sufficiently sensitive or specific biomarker to be used separately for the identification of PAE, but might be useful in a battery along with other maternal biomarkers.

  20. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M Manir; Yeh, Jan-Ying; Tang, Yi-Chia; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei; Ou, Bor-Rung

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen and progestins have adverse effects, and many of these adverse effects are caused by progestins. Due to this, many women choose to use botanical alternatives for hormone replacement therapy, which does not trigger steroidogenic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to screen these herbs for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was carried out to investigate the cytotoxic effect of herb extract on PAE cells. Among the 13 herbs, Dipsacus asperoides extract exhibited progestogenic activity, and 10 species - Cortex eucommiae, Folium artemisiae argyi, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala koidz, Scutellaria baicalensis, Cuscuta chinensis, Euscaphis japonica, Ailanthus altissima, and Dioscorea opposita - were recognized to have anti-progestogenic like activities. Extract of Dipsacus asperoides demonstrated dose-dependent progestogenic activity, and the progestogenic activity of 100 (mu)g/mL extracts was equivalent to 31.45 ng/mL progesterone activity. Herbs extracts that exhibited anti-progestogenic-like activity also inhibited the 314.46 ng/mL progesterone activity in a dose-response manner. None of the herb extracts shown significant toxic effect on PAE cells at 40-100 (mu)g/mL compared to control. This discovery will aid selection of suitable herbs for hormone replacement therapy.

  1. Development of magnetic graphene @hydrophilic polydopamine for the enrichment and analysis of phthalates in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianying; Song, Guoxin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic graphene @hydrophilic polydopamine composites were successfully fabricated via a simple solvothermal reaction and self-polymerization of dopamine. Benefit from the excellent characteristics of strong magnetic responsivity, super-hydrophilicity and abundant π-electron system, the prepared material showed great potential as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) sorbent. In this work, six kinds of phthalates (PAEs) were selected as the target analytes to evaluate the extraction ability of the adsorbents combined with MSPE-GC-MS. And various extraction parameters were optimized by selecting the pH value of samples, the amount of sorbents, adsorption and desorption time, the type and volume of eluting solution. Meanwhile, the whole extraction process could be finished in 30 min. Under the optimized conditions, validations of the method were evaluated as well. And the results presented excellent linearity with a wide range of 50-20,000 μg/L (R(2)>0.9991). The detection of limits were in the range from 0.05-5 μg/L (S/N=3). Therefore, the novel magnetic graphene@polydopamine composites were successfully used as the sorbents for the enrichment and analysis of PAEs in real water samples. This proposed method provided a simple, efficient and sensitive approach for the determination of aromatic compounds in real environmental samples.

  2. [Comparison of the in vitro post-antibiotic effect of C14 macrolides (erythromycin and roxithromycin) and C16 macrolides (josamycin and spiramycin) against Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Rolin, O; Bouanchaud, D H

    1989-05-01

    In vitro post-antibiotic effect (PAE) induced by erythromycin, roxithromycin, josamycin and spiramycin has been compared on Staphylococcus aureus. Three MLSB sensitive and three MLSB inducible resistant S. aureus strains have been used. delta t was the time required for culture to increase by 1 log10 after drug removal in comparison with controls. For erythromycin and roxithromycin delta t ranged from 6 minutes at 1 x MIC to 48 minutes at 4 x MIC (average of the six strains at 4 x MIC: 33 minutes). For josamycin and spiramycin, delta t ranged from 36 at 1/2 x MIC to 138 minutes at 4 x MIC (average at 4 x MIC: 101 minutes). No difference was observed between MLSB sensitive and MLSB inducible resistant S. aureus strains. In our experimental conditions, PAEs observed with josamycin and spiramycin (16-membered-ring macrolides) were 2.5 to 3 times longer than those observed with erythromycin and roxithromycin (14-membered-ring macrolides). These results added to biological differences previously observed between 14-membered-ring and 16-membered-ring macrolides.

  3. Histopathology of Growth Anomaly Affecting the Coral, Montipora capitata: Implications on Biological Functions and Population Viability

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John H. R.; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1–93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8–67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2–29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8–46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7–49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  4. Measurement of the spectra of low energy electrons resulting from Auger transitions induced by the annihilation of low energy positrons implanted at The Ag (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, Karthik; Joglekar, Prasad; Weiss, A. H.; Fazleev, N. G.

    2013-04-01

    A few percent of positrons bound to a solid surface annihilate with core electrons resulting in highly excited atoms containing core holes. These core holes may be filled in an auto-ionizing process in which a less tightly bound electron drops into the hole and the energy difference transferred to an outgoing "Auger electron." Because the core holes are created by annihilation and not impact it is possible to use very low energy positron beams to obtain annihilation induced Auger signals. The Auger signals so obtained have little or none of the large impact induced secondary electron background that interferes with measurements of the low energy Auger spectra obtained using the much higher incident energies necessary when using electron or photon beams. Here we present the results of measurements of the energy spectrum of low energy electrons emitted as a result of Positron Annihilation Induce Auger Electron Emission [1] from a clean Ag (100) surface. The measurements were performed using the University of Texas Arlington Time of Flight Positron Annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectrometer (T-O-F-PAES) System [2]. A strong double peak was observed at ˜35eV corresponding to the N2VV and N3VV Auger transitions in agreement with previous PAES studies [3].

  5. White Matter Deficits Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Cognitive Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jia; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Taylor, Paul A.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Dodge, Neil C.; Stanton, Mark E.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ±1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster. HE children showed lower FA and higher MD in a subset of these regions. Significant correlations were observed between three continuous alcohol measures and DTI values at cluster peaks, indicating that WM damage in several regions is dose dependent. Lower FA in the regions of interest was attributable primarily to increased radial diffusivity rather than decreased axonal diffusivity, suggesting poorer axon packing density and/or myelination. Multiple regression models indicated that this cortical WM impairment partially mediated adverse effects of PAE on information processing speed and eyeblink conditioning. PMID:27219850

  6. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal volume, verbal learning, and verbal and spatial recall in late childhood.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Karen A; Sheard, Erin D; Nash, Kelly; Rovet, Joanne

    2008-11-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) show deficits in verbal learning and spatial memory, as well as abnormal hippocampal development. The relationship between their memory and neuroanatomic impairments, however, has not been directly explored. Given that the hippocampus is integral for the synthesis and retrieval of learned information and is particularly vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, we assessed whether reduced learning and recall abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are associated with abnormal hippocampal volumes. Nineteen children with FASDs and 18 typically developing controls aged 9 to 15 years were assessed for verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images were analyzed for total intracranial volume and for right and left hippocampal volumes. Results revealed smaller left hippocampi and poorer verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall performance in children with FASDs than controls, as well as positive correlations between selective memory indices and hippocampal volumes only in the FASD group. Additionally, hippocampal volumes increased significantly with age in controls only, suggesting that PAE may be associated with long-term abnormalities in hippocampal development that may contribute to impaired verbal learning and verbal and spatial recall.

  7. Pharmacokinetic Profiles of Active Components After Oral Administration of a Kampo Medicine, Shakuyakukanzoto, to Healthy Adult Japanese Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sadakane, Chiharu; Watanabe, Junko; Fukutake, Miwako; Nisimura, Hiroaki; Maemura, Kazuya; Kase, Yoshio; Kono, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT), a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been used by patients with muscle cramps and abdominal pains. In this trial, we analyzed plasma concentrations of active components after SKT was administered as a single oral dose of 2.5 or 5.0 g/day per person. The study was a randomized, open-label, two-arm, two-period, crossover trial conducted in healthy Japanese volunteers. Albiflorin (ALB), paeoniflorin (PAE), glycycoumarin (GCM), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), glycyrrhetic acid (GA), and glycyrrhetic acid-3-O-monoglucuronide were targeted, and the plasma concentration of each component was measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated, and the linearity was assessed. All targeted components were detected in the plasma after oral administration of SKT. ALB, PAE, GCM, and ILG were detected at an early stage. The linearity was observed for the maximum plasma concentration of GCM, ILG, and GA and for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of GA. In this trial, we demonstrated for the first time in humans that these components were absorbed into the blood after oral administration of SKT. The results of this pharmacokinetic trial in humans are also important and useful for understanding the mechanism of action of SKT, verifying the active components predicted in basic research, and conducting pharmacokinetics and safety studies in the future.

  8. Some phonatory and resonatory characteristics of the rock, pop, soul, and Swedish dance band styles of singing.

    PubMed

    Borch, D Zangger; Sundberg, Johan

    2011-09-01

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/ in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  9. Gene expression for peroxisome-associated enzymes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, M.S.; Nemali, M.R.; Reddy, J.K.

    1986-03-05

    Administration of hypolipidemic compounds leads to marked proliferation of peroxisomes and peroxisome-associated enzymes (PAE) in the livers of rodents and non-rodent species. The increase peroxisome-associated enzymes such as fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation system and catalase is shown to be due to an increase in the levels of mRNA. In this experiment they have examined hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), induced in male F-344 rats by ciprofibrate (0.025%, w/w for 60 weeks), for gene expression of PAE. Total RNA was purified from HCC as well as from control and ciprofibrate (0.025% for 2 weeks) fed rat livers. Northern blot analysis was performed using (32/sub p/)cDNA probes for albumin, fatty acetyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme and catalase. mRNA levels in HCC for albumin, fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation enzymes and catalase were comparable with those levels observed in the livers of rats given ciprofibrate for 2 weeks. In control livers the mRNAs for ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were low. Albumin mRNA levels in all the 3 groups were comparable. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether the increased level of mRNAs for the ..beta..-oxidation enzymes in HCC is due to the effect of ciprofibrate or to the gene amplification.

  10. Biomarkers for the Detection of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Review.

    PubMed

    Bager, Heidi; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer; Husby, Steffen; Bjerregaard, Lene

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing literature. Studies were selected to give an overview on clinically relevant neonatal and maternal biomarkers. The direct biomarkers fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate, and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were found to be the most appropriate biomarkers in relation to detection of PAE. To review each biomarker in a clinical context, we have compared the advantages and disadvantages of each biomarker, in relation to its window of detectability, ease of collection, and the ease and cost of analysis of each biomarker. The biomarkers PEth, FAEEs, and EtG were found to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth.

  11. Changes in attachment representations for young people in long-term therapeutic foster care.

    PubMed

    Dallos, Rudi; Morgan-West, Kate; Denman, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on a 1-year follow-up study exploring changes in attachment security of children placed in long-term therapeutic foster care over three data collection time points. A group of eight children (age 14 to 17) were assessed over a period of 1 year using a modified version of the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT). Interviews were also conducted to explore the young people's and the carers' experiences of the placements and their personal perspectives of changes. The findings indicated some positive changes in the young people's attachment security over time, for example, a reduction in extreme reactions and a trust that adults could understand their feelings (PAE - parental accurate empathy). However, despite this PAE, the young people did not expect adults to enact this by offering them support, and this lack of expectation persisted over the 1-year period. Specific differences in relation to placement success were suggested in that young people for whom their placements broke down indicated more initial fearful and aggressive representations of adults. Overall, young people emphasised positive aspects of their placements as including being treated as adults, listened to and made to feel safe.

  12. Toxicological Characterization of Phthalic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Du Yeon; Lee, In Kyung

    2011-01-01

    There has been growing concern about the toxicity of phthalate esters. Phthalate esters are being used widely for the production of perfume, nail varnish, hairsprays and other personal/cosmetic uses. Recently, exposure to phthalates has been assessed by analyzing urine for their metabolites. The parent phthalate is rapidly metabolized to its monoester (the active metabolite) and also glucuronidated, then excreted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of phthalic acid (PA), which is the final common metabolic form of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). The individual PA isomers are extensively employed in the synthesis of synthetic agents, for example isophthalic acid (IPA), and terephthalic acid (TPA), which have very broad applications in the preparation of phthalate ester plasticizers and components of polyester fiber, film and fabricated items. There is a broad potential for exposure by industrial workers during the manufacturing process and by the general public (via vehicle exhausts, consumer products, etc). This review suggests that PA shows in vitro and in vivo toxicity (mutagenicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc.). In addition, PA seems to be a useful biomarker for multiple exposure to PAEs in humans. PMID:24278572

  13. An Optimized 2.4GHz RF Power Amplifier Performance for WLAN System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mohammed H.; Chakrabarty, C. K.; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Hock, Goh C.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, the design of RF power amplifiers (PAs) for modern wireless systems are faced with a difficult tradeoff for example, cellphone; battery lifetime is largely determined by the power efficiency of the PA and high spectral efficiency which have ability to transmit data at the highest possible rate for a given channel bandwidth. This paper presents the design a multi stage class AB power Amplifier with high power added efficiency (PAE) and acceptable linearity for the WLAN applications. The open-circuited third harmonic control circuit enhances the efficiency of the PA without deteriorating the linearity of class-AB mode of the PA. The voltage and current waveforms are simulated to evaluate the appropriate operation for the modes. The effectiveness of the proposed controller has been verified by comparing proposed method with another methods using simulation study under a variety of conditions. The proposed circuit operation for a WLAN signals delivers a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 37.6% is measured at 31.6-dBm output power while dissipating 34.61 mA from a 1.8V supply. Finally, the proposed PA is show a good and acceptable result for the WLAN system.

  14. Intervention for individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: treatment approaches and case management.

    PubMed

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) do not meet the full criteria for FAS, but instead are diagnosed with partial FAS, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), or alcohol related birth defects (ARBD). The entire continuum of effects from PAE is increasingly being referred to under the umbrella term of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). An extensive body of research has documented major cognitive, behavioral, adaptive, social, and emotional impairments among individuals with FASDs. Although FAS was identified in the U.S. over 35 years ago, the development, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions for individuals with FASDs have lagged behind significantly. Encouragingly, however, in recent years there has been a marked increase in efforts to design and test interventions to remediate the impairments associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This article will review treatment needs and considerations for individuals with FASDs and their families, current empirically tested treatment approaches, case management issues, and suggestions for future directions in research on the treatment of FASDs.

  15. X-ray Analysis of Self-assembled Nano-Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Li; Turrisi, Riccardo; Emery, Jonathan; Hersam, Mark; Marks, Tobin; Bedzyk, Michael

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) are viewed as the new generation thin-film transistors (TFT) for future low-cost, printable, flexible electronics. A class of materials called self-assembled nano-dielectrics (SAND) with phosphoric acid-based-electron (PAE) building blocks sandwiched between ultrathin layers of high- k inorganic oxide materials has been synthesized. These materials show exceptional large capacitance, insulating properties, and are also suitable for ambient atmosphere fabrication. The hybrid nature of these materials combines the distinct properties of both the organic and inorganic components and can be incorporated into the low-operating voltage semiconductor-based OTFT. Despite the great performance and flexibility of SANDs, fundamental aspects of dielectric behavior remain unexplored. Particularly, the behaviors of the Br counteranions that exist within PAE building blocks are poorly understood. Therefore, long-period X-ray Standing Wave (LP-XSW), which is a powerful technique sensitive to heavy atom distributions, was used to characterize SAND deposited on synthetic Si/Mo multilayer substrates. The elemental distributions of Br and reference elements were extracted from the analysis of XSW data. These accurate measurements are important for better understanding of counteranions distributions, charge transportation, dipole-semiconductors interactions, and future device modeling and engineering.

  16. A review of the physical features of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Miguel; Jones, Kenneth Lyons

    2017-01-01

    The fetal alcohol spectrum of disorders (FASD) includes four diagnostic categories for the clinical consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the unborn child. Physical features are necessary for the diagnosis of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial pFAS. Moreover, these features are specific and a diagnosis of FAS can be made even in the absence of knowledge of PAE. Not only growth deficits, microcephaly and the 3 facial features (short palpebral fissures, smooth philtrum and narrow vermillion of the upper lip) are characteristic, since other dysmorphic features particularly in the hands are key to the recognition of FAS. Most features can be explained by the damage to the brain during pregnancy and can be replicated in animal models. Many different diagnostic guidelines are used for the diagnosis of FASD and the physical features are considered differently in each of them. There is a need for universal clinical criteria for the diagnosis of FASD if our goal is to favor universal recognition.

  17. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the stability of paper-immobilized antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun; Yiu, Brian; Obermeyer, Jaclyn; Filipe, Carlos D M; Brennan, John D; Pelton, Robert

    2012-02-13

    The stability of a paper-immobilized antibody was investigated over a range of temperatures (40-140 °C) and relative humidities (RH, 30-90%) using both unmodified filter paper and the same paper impregnated with polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) as supports. Antibody stability decreased with increasing temperature, as expected, but also decreased with increasing RH. At 40 °C, the half-life was more than 10 days, with little dependence on RH. However, at 80 °C, the half-life varied from ~3 days at low RH to less than half an hour at 90% RH, demonstrating that hydration of the antibody promotes unfolding. Antibody stability was not influenced by the PAE paper surface treatment. This work shows that antibodies are good candidates for development of bioactive paper as they have sufficient stability at high temperature to withstand printing and other roll-to-roll processing steps, and sufficient low temperature stability to allow long-term storage of bioactive paper materials.

  18. Bamboo charcoal as a novel solid-phase microextraction coating material for enrichment and determination of eleven phthalate esters in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ru-Song; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia

    2013-05-01

    This study demonstrates the potential of bamboo charcoal as a novel and inexpensive solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coating material for enrichment and determination of organic pollutants in water samples. Bamboo charcoal was prepared and used as a SPME coating material. Eleven phthalate esters (PAEs) were used as model analytes, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for separation and detection. Important extraction conditions (ionic strength, stirring rate, and extraction time) and desorption conditions (desorption temperature and time) were systematically investigated and optimized. Linearity of 0.1-100 μg L(-1) and correlation coefficients of 0.9992-0.9998 were obtained under optimum conditions. Inter-day and intra-day repeatability were 2.15-9.93 % and 1.89-9.85 %, respectively, and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility was 5.42-9.66 %. On the basis of a chromatographic signal-to-baseline noise ratio of three, the limits of detection reached 0.004-0.023 μg L(-1). Satisfactory results were achieved when the bamboo coating was used for determination of 11 PAEs in real water samples. The experimental results indicate that bamboo charcoal has significant potential as a SPME coating material for rapid enrichment and sensitive determination of organic pollutants in environmental samples.

  19. Characterisation and genome sequence of the lytic Acinetobacter baumannii bacteriophage vB_AbaS_Loki.

    PubMed

    Turner, Dann; Wand, Matthew E; Briers, Yves; Lavigne, Rob; Sutton, J Mark; Reynolds, Darren M

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in healthcare and community settings. While over 100 of Acinetobacter phages have been described in the literature, relatively few have been sequenced. This work describes the characterisation and genome annotation of a new lytic Acinetobacter siphovirus, vB_AbaS_Loki, isolated from activated sewage sludge. Sequencing revealed that Loki encapsulates a 41,308 bp genome, encoding 51 predicted open reading frames. Loki is most closely related to Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and more distantly related to Burkholderia phage KL1, Paracoccus phage vB_PmaS_IMEP1 and Pseudomonas phages vB_Pae_Kakheti25, vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26 and PA73. Loki is characterised by a narrow host range, among the 40 Acinetobacter isolates tested, productive infection was only observed for the propagating host, A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Plaque formation was found to be dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ ions and adsorption to host cells was abolished upon incubation with a mutant of ATCC 17978 encoding a premature stop codon in lpxA. The complete genome sequence of vB_AbaS_Loki was deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under the accession number LN890663.

  20. On-chip power-combining techniques for watt-level linear power amplifiers in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhixiong, Ren; Kefeng, Zhang; Lanqi, Liu; Cong, Li; Xiaofei, Chen; Dongsheng, Liu; Zhenglin, Liu; Xuecheng, Zou

    2015-09-01

    Three linear CMOS power amplifiers (PAs) with high output power (more than watt-level output power) for high data-rate mobile applications are introduced. To realize watt-level output power, there are two 2.4 GHz PAs using an on-chip parallel combining transformer (PCT) and one 1.95 GHz PA using an on-chip series combining transformer (SCT) to combine output signals of multiple power stages. Furthermore, some linearization techniques including adaptive bias, diode linearizer, multi-gated transistors (MGTR) and the second harmonic control are applied in these PAs. Using the proposed power combiner, these three PAs are designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.18 μm RFCMOS process. According to the measurement results, the proposed two linear 2.4 GHz PAs achieve a gain of 33.2 dB and 34.3 dB, a maximum output power of 30.7 dBm and 29.4 dBm, with 29% and 31.3% of peak PAE, respectively. According to the simulation results, the presented linear 1.95 GHz PA achieves a gain of 37.5 dB, a maximum output power of 34.3 dBm with 36.3% of peak PAE. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076030).

  1. Properties of a Newly Identified Esterase from Bacillus sp. K91 and Its Novel Function in Diisobutyl Phthalate Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhenrong; Li, Junjun; Yang, Yunjuan; Mu, Yuelin; Tang, Xianghua; Xu, Bo; Zhou, Junpei; Huang, Zunxi

    2015-01-01

    The widely used plasticizer phthalate esters (PAEs) have become a public concern because of their effects on environmental contamination and toxicity on mammals. However, the biodegradation of PAEs, especially diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), remains poorly understood. In particular, genes involved in the hydrolysis of these compounds were not conclusively identified. In this study, the CarEW gene, which encodes an enzyme that is capable of hydrolyzing ρ-nitrophenyl esters of fatty acids, was cloned from a thermophilic bacterium Bacillus sp. K91 and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 using the pEASY-E2 expression system. The enzyme showed a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of approximately 53.76 kDa and pI of 4.88. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 45°C, with ρ-NP butyrate as the best substrate. The enzyme was fairly stable within the pH range from 7.0 to 8.5. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) were employed to detect the catabolic pathway of DiBP. Two intermediate products were identified, and a potential biodegradation pathway was proposed. Altogether, our findings present a novel DiBP degradation enzyme and indicate that the purified enzyme may be a promising candidate for DiBP detoxification and for environmental protection. PMID:25746227

  2. Digit ratios predict polygyny in early apes, Ardipithecus, Neanderthals and early modern humans but not in Australopithecus.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Emma; Rolian, Campbell; Cashmore, Lisa; Shultz, Susanne

    2011-05-22

    Social behaviour of fossil hominoid species is notoriously difficult to predict owing to difficulties in estimating body size dimorphism from fragmentary remains and, in hominins, low canine size dimorphism. Recent studies have shown that the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D : 4D), a putative biomarker for prenatal androgen effects (PAEs), covaries with intra-sexual competition and social systems across haplorrhines; non-pair-bonded polygynous taxa have significantly lower 2D : 4D ratios (high PAE) than pair-bonded monogamous species. Here, we use proximal phalanx ratios of extant and fossil specimens to reconstruct the social systems of extinct hominoids. Pierolapithecus catalaunicus, Hispanopithecus laietanus and Ardipithecus ramidus have ratios consistent with polygynous extant species, whereas the ratio of Australopithecus afarensis is consistent with monogamous extant species. The early anatomically modern human Qafzeh 9 and Neanderthals have lower digit ratios than most contemporary human populations, indicating increased androgenization and possibly higher incidence of polygyny. Although speculative owing to small sample sizes, these results suggest that digit ratios represent a supplementary approach for elucidating the social systems of fossil hominins.

  3. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  4. Characterisation and genome sequence of the lytic Acinetobacter baumannii bacteriophage vB_AbaS_Loki

    PubMed Central

    Wand, Matthew E.; Briers, Yves; Lavigne, Rob; Sutton, J. Mark; Reynolds, Darren M.

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in healthcare and community settings. While over 100 of Acinetobacter phages have been described in the literature, relatively few have been sequenced. This work describes the characterisation and genome annotation of a new lytic Acinetobacter siphovirus, vB_AbaS_Loki, isolated from activated sewage sludge. Sequencing revealed that Loki encapsulates a 41,308 bp genome, encoding 51 predicted open reading frames. Loki is most closely related to Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and more distantly related to Burkholderia phage KL1, Paracoccus phage vB_PmaS_IMEP1 and Pseudomonas phages vB_Pae_Kakheti25, vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26 and PA73. Loki is characterised by a narrow host range, among the 40 Acinetobacter isolates tested, productive infection was only observed for the propagating host, A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Plaque formation was found to be dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ ions and adsorption to host cells was abolished upon incubation with a mutant of ATCC 17978 encoding a premature stop codon in lpxA. The complete genome sequence of vB_AbaS_Loki was deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under the accession number LN890663. PMID:28207864

  5. Analysis of marine sediment, water and biota for selected organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Ray, L.E.; Giam, C.S.

    1981-12-01

    The concentrations of various organic pollutants (benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined in samples of water, sediment and biota (flounder, killifish, shrimp, crabs, and squid) from San Luis Pass, Texas. Sediment was also analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and various pesticides. Only PCP was detectable in water. In sediment, the relative concentrations were PAEs >> BaP > (PCBs approx. HCB) > PCP. In biota, BaP was not detectable in any animal; HCB was highest in crabs and PCP was highest in all others (flounder, killifish, shrimp and squid). The relative concentrations of HCB and PCP were different in the different organisms. The differences between the relative concentrations in the biota and in sediment are discussed. The results of this study are compared to values measured at other sites. This study is part of a larger effort to identify and quantitate pollutants in various Texas estuaries and to serve as a basis for monitoring marine pollution.

  6. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis.

  7. Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Hardware Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L.; Khan, P.; Silva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in wide-bandgap (WBG) gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology, there is considerable interest in developing efficient solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) as an alternative to the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for space applications. This article documents proof-of-concept hardware used to validate power-combining technologies that may enable a 120-W, 40 percent power-added efficiency (PAE) SSPA. Results in previous articles [1-3] indicate that architectures based on at least three power combiner designs are likely to enable the target SSPA. Previous architecture performance analyses and estimates indicate that the proposed architectures can power combine 16 to 32 individual monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with >80 percent combining efficiency. This combining efficiency would correspond to MMIC requirements of 5- to 10-W output power and >48 percent PAE. In order to validate the performance estimates of the three proposed architectures, measurements of proof-of-concept hardware are reported here.

  8. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Solomon, Benjamin R; Ulibarri, Adam L; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism.

  9. Executive function and cortical thickness in youths prenatally exposed to cocaine, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Prapti; Warner, Tamara D.; Kan, Eric C.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Small and detrimental, albeit inconsistent, effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) during early childhood have been reported. The teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol (PAE) and tobacco exposure (PTE) on neurobehavior are more firmly established than PCE. We tested if co-exposure to all three drugs could be related to greater differences in brain structure than exposure to cocaine alone. Participants (n=42, PCE=27; age range = 14–16 years) received an executive function battery prior to a T1-weighted 3T structural MRI scan. Cortical thickness was measured using FreeSurfer (v5.1). Fetal drug exposure was quantified through maternal self-reports usage during pregnancy. Using general linear modeling, we found no main effects of PCE on cortical thickness, but significant main effects of PAE and PTE in superior and medial frontal regions, after co-varying for the effects of age, sex, and each drug of exposure. Significant alcohol-by-tobacco interactions, and significant cocaine-by-alcohol interactions on cortical thickness in medial parietal and temporal regions were also observed. Poly-drug exposure and cognitive function also showed significant interactions with cortical thickness: lower cortical thickness was associated with better performance in PCE-exposed adolescents. Results suggest that although children with PCE have subtle but persistent brain cortical differences until mid-to-late adolescence. PMID:25743199

  10. Serotonin Receptors in the Medulla Oblongata of the Human Fetus and Infant: The Analytic Approach of the International Safe Passage Study

    PubMed Central

    Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Paterson, David S.; Broadbelt, Kevin G.; Dan Zaharie, S.; Hewlett, Richard H.; Dempers, Johan J.; Burger, Elsie; Wadee, Shabbir; Schubert, Pawel; Wright, Colleen; Sens, Mary Ann; Nelsen, Laura; Randall, Bradley B.; Tran, Hoa; Geldenhuys, Elaine; Elliott, Amy J.; Odendaal, Hein J.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2016-01-01

    The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases). 5-HT1A binding was compared to a reference dataset from the San Diego medical examiner’s system. There was no adverse effect of postmortem interval ≤100 h. The distribution and quantitated values of 5-HT1A binding in Safe Passage Study cases were essentially identical to those in the reference dataset, and virtually identical between stillbirths and live born fetal cases in grossly non-macerated tissues. The pattern of binding was present at mid-gestation with dramatic changes in binding levels in the medullary 5-HT nuclei over the second half of gestation; there was a plateau at lower levels in the neonatal period and into infancy. This study demonstrates feasibility of 5-HT1A binding analysis in the medulla in the Safe Passage Study. PMID:27634962

  11. [Variations in the epidemiolgy of adverse events: methodology of the Harvard Medical Practice Design].

    PubMed

    Lessing, C; Schmitz, A; Schrappe, M

    2012-02-01

    The Harvard Medical Practice (HMP) Design is based on a multi-staged retrospective review of inpatient records and is used to assess the frequency of (preventable) adverse events ([P]AE) in large study populations. Up to now HMP studies have been conducted in 9 countries. Results differ largely from 2.9% to 3.7% of patients with AE in the USA up to 16.6% in Australia. In our analysis we systematically compare the methodology of 9 HMP studies published in the English language and discuss possible impacts on reported frequencies. Modifications in HMP studies can be individualised from each stage of planning, conducting, and reporting results. In doing so 2 studies from the USA with lowest rates of AE can be characterised by their context of liability and the absence of screening for nosocomial infections. Studies with a high proportion of AE are marked by an intense training of reviewers. Further conclusions are hindered by divergences in defining periods of observation, by presenting frequencies as cumulative prevalences, and differences in the reporting of study results. As a consequence future HMP studies should go for complete, consistent and transparent coverage. Further research should concentrate on advancing methods for collecting data on (P)AE.

  12. Postural responses to unexpected perturbations of balance during reaching

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Hari; Leonard, Julia A.; Ting, Lena H.; Stapley, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To study the interaction between feedforward and feedback modes of postural control, we investigated postural responses during unexpected perturbations of the support surface that occurred during forward reaching in a standing position. We examined postural responses in lower limb muscles of 9 human subjects. Baseline measures were obtained when subjects executed reaching movements to a target placed in front of them (R condition) and during postural responses to forward and backward support-surface perturbations (no reaching, P condition) during quiet stance. Perturbations were also given at different delays after the onset of reaching movements (RP conditions) as well as with the arm extended in the direction of the target, but not reaching (P/AE condition). Results showed that during perturbations to reaching (RP), the initial automatic postural response, occurring around 100 ms after the onset of perturbations, was relatively unchanged in latency or amplitude compared to control conditions (P and P/AE). However, longer latency postural responses were modulated to aid in the reaching movements during forward perturbations but not during backward perturbations. Our results suggest that the nervous system prioritizes the maintenance of a stable postural base during reaching, and that later components of the postural responses can be modulated to ensure the performance of the voluntary task. PMID:20035321

  13. 44% efficiency operation of power heterojunction FET at near pinch-off for 3.5 V wide-band CDMA cellular phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, T. B.; Iwata, N.; Bito, Y.; Hau, G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes 1.95 GHz power performance of a double-doped AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction FET (HJFET) operated at 3.5 V drain bias voltage for Wide-band CDMA (W-CDMA) cellular phone systems. An HJFET with a novel multilayer cap and a narrow recess structure showed a low on-resistance ( Ron) of 1.4 ohm mm. With an optimum output impedance matching at a reduced quiescent drain current of 80 mA (less than 1% of the maximum drain current), the HJFET exhibited a high power added efficiency (PAE) of 44.2% with an output power of 600 mW (28.0 dBm) and an adjacent channel leakage power ratio (ACPR) of -43 dBc at 5 MHz off-center frequency. This high PAE obtained was ascribed to an ACPR dip behavior with respect to the input power at around the W-CDMA criteria. Through an ACPR simulation with measured AM-AM and AM-PM conversion characteristics, the AM-AM conversion characteristic was found to dominate the W-CDMA ACPR rather than the AM-PM conversion.

  14. Restriction-modification systems as genomic parasites in competition for specific sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, K; Naito, T; Handa, N; Kobayashi, I

    1995-01-01

    Restriction-modification (RM) systems are believed to have evolved to protect cells from foreign DNA. However, this hypothesis may not be sufficient to explain the diversity and specificity in sequence recognition, as well as other properties, of these systems. We report that the EcoRI restriction endonuclease-modification methylase (rm) gene pair stabilizes plasmids that carry it and that this stabilization is blocked by an RM of the same sequence specificity (EcoRI or its isoschizomer, Rsr I) but not by an RM of a different specificity (PaeR7I) on another plasmid. The PaeR7I rm likewise stabilizes plasmids, unless an rm gene pair with identical sequence specificity is present. Our analysis supports the following model for stabilization and incompatibility: the descendants of cells that have lost an rm gene pair expose the recognition sites in their chromosomes to lethal attack by any remaining restriction enzymes unless modification by another RM system of the same specificity protects these sites. Competition for specific sequences among these selfish genes may have generated the great diversity and specificity in sequence recognition among RM systems. Such altruistic suicide strategies, similar to those found in virus-infected cells, may have allowed selfish RM systems to spread by effectively competing with other selfish genes. Images Fig. 5 PMID:7479944

  15. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

    2008-04-15

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <140 microg kg(-1) d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers.

  16. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  17. Physical and chemical indices of cucumber seedling leaves under dibutyl phthalate stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Du, Na; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Jiaying; Sun, Guoqiang; Wang, Pengjie

    2015-03-01

    Phthalic acid ester (PAE) pollution to soil can lead to phytotoxicity in plants and potential health risks to human being. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) as a kind of PAE has a large usage amount and large residues in soil. To analyze antioxidant responses of plants to DBP stress, effects of varying DBP concentrations on cucumber seedlings growth had been investigated. Malonaldehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), chlorophyll, proline, glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSH) contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) were studied. The results showed that H2O2 content increased in cucumber seedlings with the increase of DBP concentration. The chlorophyll content in the higher DBP significantly declined compared to the control. In the present study, a disturbance of the GSH redox balance was evidenced by a marked decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio in cucumber seedlings subjected DBP stress. Our results indicated that DBP treatment not only inhibited antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity in seedlings' leaves but might also induce chlorophyll degradation or reduce the synthesis of chlorophyll. Moreover, it could also enhance the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induced membrane lipid peroxidation. DBP also altered the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells, damaged membrane structure of chloroplast and mitochondrion, and increased the number and size of starch grains in chloroplasts reducing the photosynthetic capacity.

  18. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Xiangjing; Cai, Zhonghua

    2009-05-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of H. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  19. Exactification of the Poincaré asymptotic expansion of the Hankel integral: spectacularly accurate asymptotic expansions and non-asymptotic scales.

    PubMed

    Galapon, Eric A; Martinez, Kay Marie L

    2014-02-08

    We obtain an exactification of the Poincaré asymptotic expansion (PAE) of the Hankel integral, [Formula: see text] as [Formula: see text], using the distributional approach of McClure & Wong. We find that, for half-integer orders of the Bessel function, the exactified asymptotic series terminates, so that it gives an exact finite sum representation of the Hankel integral. For other orders, the asymptotic series does not terminate and is generally divergent, but is amenable to superasymptotic summation, i.e. by optimal truncation. For specific examples, we compare the accuracy of the optimally truncated asymptotic series owing to the McClure-Wong distributional method with owing to the Mellin-Barnes integral method. We find that the former is spectacularly more accurate than the latter, by, in some cases, more than 70 orders of magnitude for the same moderate value of b. Moreover, the exactification can lead to a resummation of the PAE when it is exact, with the resummed Poincaré series exhibiting again the same spectacular accuracy. More importantly, the distributional method may yield meaningful resummations that involve scales that are not asymptotic sequences.

  20. Toxicity effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate to Eisenia fetida at enzyme, cellular and genetic levels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li’ke; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a dominant phthalic acid ester (PAE) that has aroused public concern due to its resistance to degradation and its toxicity as an endocrine-disrupting compound. Effects of different concentrations of DEHP on Eisenia fetida in spiked natural soil have been studied in the body of the earthworm by means of soil cultivation tests 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after exposure. The results indicated that, in general, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, metallothionein (MT) content, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) and all the tested geno-toxicity parameters are promoted as time elapses and with increasing concentration of DEHP. However, peroxidase (POD) activity, neutral red retention time (NRRT) and mitochondrial membrane potential difference values were found to decrease even at a low concentration of DEHP of 1 mg kg-1 soil (p<0.05). Clear toxic effects of DEHP on E. fetida have been generally recognized by means of the disturbance of antioxidant enzyme activity/content and critical proteins, cell membrane and organelle disorder and DNA damage estimated by length of tail, tail DNA ratio, and tail moment parameters. A concentration of DEHP of 3 mg kg-1 may be recommended as a precaution against the potential risk of PAEs in soils and for indicating suitable threshold values for other soil animals and soil micro-organisms. PMID:28319143

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Christina R.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15–17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15-17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics analysis

  3. Photoacoustic endoscopy probe using a coherent fibre-optic bundle and Fabry-Pérot ultrasound sensor (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Rehman; Beard, Paul C.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-03-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) probes for the clinical assessment of pathologies in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, guiding minimally invasive laparoscopic surgeries and applications in foetal medicine. However, most previous PAE probes integrate mechanical scanners and piezoelectric transducers at the distal end which can be technically complex, expensive and pose challenges in achieving the necessary level of miniaturisation. We present two novel all-optical forward-viewing endoscopic probes operating in widefield tomography mode that have the potential to overcome these limitations. In one configuration, the probe comprises a transparent 40 MHz Fabry-Pérot ultrasound sensor deposited at the tip of a rigid, 3 mm diameter coherent fibre-optic bundle. In this way, the distal end of coherent fibre bundle acts as a 2D array of wideband ultrasound detectors. In another configuration, an optical relay is used between the distal end face of flexible fibre bundle and the Fabry-Pérot sensor to enlarge the lateral field of view to 6 mm x 6 mm. In both configurations, the pulsed excitation laser beam is full-field coupled into the fibre bundle at the proximal end for uniform backward-mode illumination of the tissue at the probe tip. In order to record the photoacoustic waves arriving at the probe tip, the proximal end of the fibre bundle is optically scanned in 2D with a CW wavelength-tunable interrogation laser beam thereby interrogating different spatial points on the sensor. A time-reversal image reconstruction algorithm was used to reconstruct a 3D image from the detected signals. The 3D field of view of the flexible PAE probe is 6 mm x 6 mm x 6 mm and the axial and lateral spatial resolution is 30 µm and 90 µm, respectively. 3D imaging capability is demonstrated using tissue phantoms, ex vivo tissues and in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first forward-viewing implementation of a photoacoustic

  4. Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs with BEAMS, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas B.; Dirks, James A.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2008-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops official “benefits estimates” for each of its major programs using its Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation (PAE) Team. PAE conducts an annual integrated modeling and analysis effort to produce estimates of the energy, environmental, and financial benefits expected from EERE’s budget request. These estimates are part of EERE’s budget request and are also used in the formulation of EERE’s performance measures. Two of EERE’s major programs are the Building Technologies Program (BT) and the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) supports PAE by developing the program characterizations and other market information necessary to provide input to the EERE integrated modeling analysis as part of PAE’s Portfolio Decision Support (PDS) effort. Additionally, PNNL also supports BT by providing line-item estimates for the Program’s internal use. PNNL uses three modeling approaches to perform these analyses. This report documents the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits using one of those methods: the Building Energy Analysis and Modeling System (BEAMS). BEAMS is a PC-based accounting model that was built in Visual Basic by PNNL specifically for estimating the benefits of buildings-related projects. It allows various types of projects to be characterized including whole-building, envelope, lighting, and equipment projects. This document contains an overview section that describes the estimation process and the models used to estimate energy savings. The body of the document describes the algorithms used within the BEAMS software. This document serves both as stand-alone documentation for BEAMS, and also as a supplemental update of a previous document, Methodological Framework for Analysis of Buildings-Related Programs: The GPRA Metrics Effort

  5. Fate of emerging and priority micropollutants during the sewage sludge treatment: Case study of Paris conurbation. Part 1: Contamination of the different types of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Patureau, D; Vulliet, E; Delgenes, N; Danel, A; Deshayes, S; Eudes, V; Guerin, S; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2017-01-01

    This article provides data on the contamination of different kinds of sludge (raw, centrifuged, digested, thermally dried sludge and sludge cake) from Paris conurbation by 71 various pollutants including pharmaceutical products (PHPs), hormones, perfluorinated acids (PFAs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), alkylphenols (APs), phthalates (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Very high contents of LAS (0.1-10g/kg dry matter - DM) compared to other compounds were found in all types of sludge followed by DEHP (10-100mg/kg DM) and fluoroquinolones (1-100mg/kg DM). APs were measured at intermediary contents in Parisian sludge, lying in the 2-20mg/kg DM range. Finally, hormones, PAHs, PCBs, PAEs, PFAs and the remaining PHPs were all found at contents lower than 1mg/kg DM. For most compounds (PHPs, PFOS, DEHP, PAHs), no significant differences in the micropollutant contents were found for similar types of sludge from different WWTP in Paris, highlighting the homogeneity of sludge contamination in downstream Paris catchment. The variability of concentration is rather high (coefficient of variation >100%) for several PHPs, PFAs or PCBs while it is moderate (<100%) or low (<50%) for fluoroquinolones, hormones, PAHs, APs or LAS. In addition, digestion seems to have a buffer effect as variabilities are lower in digested sludge for PHPs, PFAs, APs and PCBs. During sludge treatment (centrifugation, digestion, thermal drying, sludge conditioning+press filtration), the hormones, LAS, APs, PAHs, DEHP and PCBs concentrations increased, while those of PHPs and PFAs decreased. In the case of digestion, the increase of content can be explained by no pollutant removal or a lower removal than DM removal (concentration phenomenon) whereas the decrease underlines that the compound is more removed than the DM. In any case, these concentration variations presuppose the mechanisms of dissipation that could be attributed to volatilization, biotic or

  6. High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    High-performance polymers that have improved processing characteristics, and a method of making them, have been invented. One of the improved characteristics is low (relative to corresponding prior polymers) melt viscosities at given temperatures. This characteristic makes it possible to utilize such processes as resin-transfer molding and resin-film infusion and to perform autoclave processing at lower temperatures and/or pressures. Another improved characteristic is larger processing windows that is, longer times at low viscosities. Other improved characteristics include increased solubility of uncured polymer precursors that contain reactive groups, greater densities of cross-links in cured polymers, improved mechanical properties of the cured polymers, and greater resistance of the cured polymers to chemical attack. The invention is particularly applicable to poly(arylene ether)s [PAEs] and polyimides [PIs] that are useful as adhesives, matrices of composite materials, moldings, films, and coatings. PAEs and PIs synthesized according to the invention comprise mixtures of branched, linear, and star-shaped molecules. The monomers of these polymers can be capped with either reactive end groups to obtain thermosets or nonreactive end groups to obtain thermoplastics. The synthesis of a polymeric mixture according to the invention involves the use of a small amount of a trifunctional monomer. In the case of a PAE, the trifunctional monomer is a trihydroxy- containing compound for example, 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene (THB). In the case of a PI, the trifunctional monomer is a triamine for example, triamino pyrimidine or melamine. In addition to the aforementioned trifunctional monomer, one uses the difunctional monomers of the conventional formulation of the polymer in question (see figure). In cases of nonreactive end caps, the polymeric mixtures of the invention have melt viscosities and melting temperatures lower than those of the corresponding linear polymers of equal

  7. Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for western Europe over the period 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, A.; Gheusi, F.; Delmas, R.; Ordó\\ Nez, C.; Sarrat, C.; Zbinden, R.; Thouret, V.; Athier, G.; Cousin, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The PAES (French acronym for synoptic scale atmospheric pollution) network focuses on the chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx/y and aerosols) of the lower troposphere (0-3000 m). Its high-altitude surface stations located in different mountainous areas in France complete the low-altitude rural MERA stations (the French contribution to the european program EMEP, European Monitoring and Evaluation Program). They are representative of pollution at the scale of the French territory because they are away from any major source of pollution. This study deals with ozone observations between 2001 and 2004 at 11 stations from PAES and MERA, in addition to 16 elevated stations located in mountainous areas of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. The set of stations covers a range of altitudes between 115 and 3550 m. The comparison between recent ozone mixing ratios with those of the last decade found in the literature for two high-elevation sites (Pic du Midi, 2877 m and Jungfraujoch, 3580 m) leads to a trend that has slowed down compared to old trends but remains positive. This could be attribuable to the reduction of ozone precursors at European scale, that however do not compensate an ozone increase at the global scale. Averaged levels of ozone increase with elevation in good agreement with data provided by the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service airCraft), showing a highly stratified ozone field in the lower troposphere, with a transition at about 1000 m asl between a sharp gradient (30 ppb/km) below but a gentler gradient (3 ppb/km) above. Ozone variability also reveals a clear transition between boundary-layer and free-tropospheric regimes at the same altitude. Below, diurnal photochemistry accounts for about the third of the variability in summer, but less than 20% above - and at all levels in winter - where ozone variability is mostly due to day-to-day changes (linked to weather conditions or

  8. Changes in Rabbit Sperm Motion Characteristics during Incubation and Its Use in the Assessment of Chemical Cytotoxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    other types of motion. After 5 to 6 hr of incubation, the percentage of motile sperm was reduced by 50 -90%, and much fewer progressive sperm exhibited...sperm cells; but only triethyl phosphite (TEP) also reduced Vc, fin, and aalh to values that were 50 % or less of the control value. Figures 1 and 2...were 50 % of the control values. 11 a004 00 to a044 to 0 r6 E) z Si 0 04 JC 00 4- Q E- 4 - a0 0 m-dm 0 I O.) -W 0I1J PAe x-W.0 -W 0 44 12 aOP 4 00 S55

  9. Backscat Lidar Simulation Version 4.0: Technical Documentation and Users Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-10

    S.A., Gallery. W.O. Good., R.E.. Kneizvs. F.X.. N/ill. J.D., Rothmian, L.S.. Shettle. E.P.. Voiz. F.E. (1 985) ’Optical arid Infrared Properties of the... Infrared Handbook, Infrared Information and Analysis Center, ERIM. Washington. D.C. Kingston, R.H. (1978) Detecron 7of Optical and Inf,’ared Radiation...thLe Sauna (_" ot OIhaPpaa PPritila~d10l Ism JasrSmlidIrFr ~~~ihn~~LSCerai[)l~ IDsL F1pae a hen ~a ~y CUAUR1T ATUSHUIC CONDITIOM: Pr~opagation Profile

  10. Power SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) Fabricated by Fully Self-Aligned Double Mesa Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Liang-Hung; Mohammadi, Saeed; Ma, Zhen-Qiang; Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Strohm, Karl M.; Luy, Johann-Friedrich; Downey, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multifinger SiGe HBTs have been fabricated using a novel fully self-aligned double-mesa technology. With the novel process technology, a common-emitter 2x2x30 sq micrometer device exhibits high maximum oscillating frequency (f(sub max)) and cut-off frequency (f(sub T)) of 78 and 37 GHz, respectively. In class-A operation, a multifinger device with l0x2x30 sq micrometer emitter is expected to provide an output power of 25.6 dBm with a gain of 10 dB and a maximum power added efficiency (PAE) of 30.33% at 8 GHz.

  11. Rapid screening and identification of multi-class substances of very high concern in textiles using liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Luo, Xin; Niu, Zengyuan; Ye, Xiwen; Tang, Zhixu; Yao, Peng

    2015-03-20

    A new analytical method was established and validated for the analysis of 19 substances of very high concern (SVHCs) in textiles, including phthalic acid esters (PAEs), organotins (OTs), perfluorochemicals (PFCs) and flame retardants (FRs). After ultrasonic extraction in methanol, the textile samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-LTQ/Orbitrap). The values of LOQ were in the range of 2-200mg/kg. Recoveries at two levels (at the LOQ and at half the limit of regulation) ranged from 68% to 120%, and the repeatability was lower than 13%. This method was successfully applied to the screening of SVHCs in commercial textile samples and is useful for the fast screening of various SVHCs.

  12. Hearing light from an incandescent bulb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Du, Li; Zhang, Youtian; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun; Gao, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an interesting experiment to turn the vibratory light from an incandescent light bulb into audible sound. Inspired by research on the photoacoustic effect (PAE) using lasers, we construct a similar device in an undergraduate physics laboratory with everyday articles including light bulbs, glass beakers and soot. Using our device, a distinct sound is detected and analysed experimentally. Particular attention is paid to the attenuation effect of the acoustic signal, which can be explained by modifying the existing theory and using the adiabatic boundary condition according to the incident light source we use. This demonstration is a comprehensive experiment with the combination of sound, light and heat. The modification on the model can help undergraduate students gain an intuitive understanding of different boundary conditions.

  13. Operation REDWING Commander Task Group 7.3, Operation Plan Number 1-56.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1956-01-24

    Delete NOES. Insert cut-out #3, enclosure (3) to cover entire page. E-l-B-4 After "Channel 23" in title, insert "(NOTE 1)" 3m F3/7.3/10: vb A4-303...UTTER Chief of Staff DISTRIMON: (se Pae 6) ANCsoloiE F73/7.3/l0: vb A4-3(3) DISTRIBUTION: No. of JTF OEVEN ACTIVITIES Copies OTO 7.3 (Original) 1 CJTP...COMTRAPAC 1 COMPHIBrRAPAC 1 COPHIBGRUEkSTFAC 1 C0OPODEVFOR 2 C(OWk~aIJNG 4 2 00, NAVSTA KWAJALEIN 2 6- NCLL’ ( FF3/7.3/10: vb A4-303) DISTRIBUTION

  14. 0.5 μm Silicon-on-Sapphire Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor for RF Power Amplifier Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Kenneth; Chen, Kevin J.; Lam, Sang; Chan, Mansun

    2003-08-01

    0.5 μm thin-film silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are investigated for applications in RF power amplifiers. Detailed static and pulsed I-V characteristics are measured to distinguish between fully depleted and partially depleted SOS MOSFETs. We have performed the first detailed large-signal load-pull characterization of SOS MOSFETs at 2 GHz with a Maury load-pull system with automated tuners. The maximum output power (Pout) of 18 dBm, maximum gain (G) of 12.5 dB and maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of 55% were achieved. Third-order intermodulation (IM3) and adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) were measured to characterize the linearity of an SOS MOSFET power amplifier. For the optimum design of RF power amplifiers, impedance matching information is essential as revealed by the large-signal load-pull measurements.

  15. Exertional leg pain: teasing out arterial entrapments.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thomas T; Kapur, Rahul; Harwood, Marc I

    2007-12-01

    Vascular causes of exertional lower extremity pain are relatively rare, but may be the answer in athletes refractory to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes of the lower extremities. It is important to differentiate these vascular causes from chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and stress fractures in order to develop appropriate treatment plans, avoid complications, and return athletes to play expeditiously. Important vascular etiologies to be considered are popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), endofibrotic disease, popliteal artery aneurysm, cystic adventitial disease, and peripheral arterial dissections. The diagnostic workup involves angiography or noninvasive vascular studies such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance angiography in both the neutral and provocative positions. Treatment of these vascular abnormalities typically involves surgical correction of the vascular anomaly.

  16. Quantitative photoacoustic elastography in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Gong, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2016-06-01

    We report quantitative photoacoustic elastography (QPAE) capable of measuring Young's modulus of biological tissue in vivo in humans. By combining conventional PAE with a stress sensor having known stress-strain behavior, QPAE can simultaneously measure strain and stress, from which Young's modulus is calculated. We first demonstrate the feasibility of QPAE in agar phantoms with different concentrations. The measured Young's modulus values fit well with both the empirical expectation based on the agar concentrations and those measured in an independent standard compression test. Next, QPAE was applied to quantify the Young's modulus of skeletal muscle in vivo in humans, showing a linear relationship between muscle stiffness and loading. The results demonstrated the capability of QPAE to assess the absolute elasticity of biological tissue noninvasively in vivo in humans, indicating its potential for tissue biomechanics studies and clinical applications.

  17. The Evolution of the American Modern Light Field Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-09

    of traverse. 12"Arti lory l)ivision Nottes ", Ar3•)rdtiiwo’., 1, 4 (lanna ry-March, 1921), 220. TI PAE I 62 dogi•,vn, (Although the Caliber Boar:d had...thle $21 t.’wployment of thle 105 111il limuter howitzer. From this study, the School con- cutided t hit 01 th09 O’ mill imeter how it zer was not at...8217 ,I4 1920’N •.M ,MI, hillt novrൖut In.,t, prO(du(:.t 10)11\\ 75 mitlimeter Model 1897A2 75 mill imeter (Modified for All-’Purpose Gun high s eed

  18. A digitally controlled power amplifier with neutralization capacitors for Zigbee™ applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Jia; Shengxi, Diao; Xuejuan, Zhang; Zhongqian, Fu; Fujiang, Lin

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a single chip CMOS power amplifier with neutralization capacitors for Zigbee™ system according to IEEE 802.15.4. A novel structure with digital interface is adopted, which allows the output power of a PA to be controlled by baseband signal directly, so there is no need for DAC. The neutralization capacitors will increase reverse isolation. The chip is implemented in SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Measurement shows that the proposed power amplifier has a 13.5 dB power gain, 3.48 dBm output power and 35.1% PAE at P1dB point. The core area is 0.73 × 0.55 mm2.

  19. In Vitro and In Vivo Antibacterial Activities of Patchouli Alcohol, a Natural-occurring Tricyclic Sesquiterpene against Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y F; Lian, D W; Chen, Y Q; Cai, Y F; Zheng, Y F; Fan, P L; Ren, W K; Fu, L J; Li, Y C; Xie, J H; Cao, H Y; Tan, B; Su, Z R; Huang, P

    2017-03-20

    This study further evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and potential underlying mechanism of patchouli alcohol (PA), a tricyclic sesquiterpene. In in vitro assay, the capacities of PA to inhibit and kill H. pylori were tested on three standard strains at different pH values and 12 clinical isolates. The effects of PA on H. pylori adhesion (and its alpA, alpB and babA genes), motility (and its flaA and flaB genes), ultrastructure and flagellation were investigated. Moreover, the H. pylori resistance and post-antibiotic effect (PAE) of PA were determined. Furthermore, the in vivo effects of PA on H. pylori eradication and gastritis were examined. Results showed that MICs of PA against three standard strains (pH 5.3-9) and twelve clinical isolates were 25-75 and 12.5-50 μg/ml, respectively. The killing kinetics of PA were time- and concentration- dependent, and its MBCs were 25-75 μg/ml. Besides, H. pylori adhesion, motility, ultrastructure and flagellation were significantly suppressed. PA also remarkably inhibited the expression of adhesion genes (alpA and alpB), and motility genes (flaA and flaB). Furthermore, PA treatment caused a long PAE and less bacterial resistance as compared with clarithromycin and metronidazole. The in vivo study showed that PA can effectively eradicate H. pylori, inhibit gastritis, and suppress the expression of inflammatory mediators (Cox-2, Il-1β, Tnf-α and Inos). In conclusion, PA can efficiently kill H. pylori, interfere with its infection process and attenuate gastritis with less bacterial resistance, making it a potential candidate for new drug development.

  20. Antipneumococcal Activity of ABT-773 Compared to Those of 10 Other Agents

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Todd A.; Ednie, Lois M.; Hoellman, Dianne M.; Pankuch, Glenn A.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    MICs, time-kills, and postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of ABT-773 (a new ketolide) and 10 other agents were determined against 226 pneumococci. Against 78 ermB- and 44 mefE-containing strains, ABT-773 MICs at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC50s) and MIC90s were 0.016 to 0.03 and 0.125 μg/ml, respectively. Clindamycin was active only against macrolide-resistant strains containing mefE (MIC50, 0.06 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Activities of pristinamycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) and vancomycin (MIC90, 0.25 μg/ml) were unaffected by macrolide or penicillin resistance, while β-lactam MICs rose with those of penicillin G. Against 19 strains with L4 ribosomal protein mutations and two strains with mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA, ABT-773 MICs were 0.03 to 0.25 μg/ml, while macrolide and azalide MICs were all ≥16.0 μg/ml. ABT-773 was bactericidal at twice the MIC after 24 h for 8 of 12 strains (including three strains with erythromycin MICs greater than or equal to 64.0 μg/ml). Kill kinetics of erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin against macrolide-susceptible strains were slower than those of ABT-773. ABT-773 had longer PAEs than macrolides, azithromycin, clindamycin, or β-lactams, including against ermB-containing strains. ABT-773, therefore, shows promising in vitro activity against macrolide-susceptible as well as -resistant pneumococci. PMID:10858350

  1. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants.

    PubMed

    Kable, J A; Coles, C D; Keen, C L; Uriu-Adams, J Y; Jones, K L; Yevtushok, L; Kulikovsky, Y; Wertelecki, W; Pedersen, T L; Chambers, C D

    2015-11-01

    The potential of micronutrients to ameliorate the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) was explored in a clinical trial conducted in Ukraine. Cardiac orienting responses (ORs) during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 6 to 12 month-olds to assess neurophysiological encoding and memory. Women who differed in prenatal alcohol use were recruited during pregnancy and assigned to a group (No study-provided supplements, multivitamin/mineral supplement, or multivitamin/mineral supplement plus choline supplement). Heart rate was collected for 30 s prior to stimulus onset and 12 s post-stimulus onset. Difference values (∆HR) for the first 3 trials of each condition were aggregated for analysis. Gestational blood samples were collected to assess maternal nutritional status and changes as a function of the intervention. Choline supplementation resulted in a greater ∆HR on the visual habituation trials for all infants and for the infants with no PAE on the dishabituation trials. The latency of the response was reduced in both conditions for all infants whose mothers received choline supplementation. Change in gestational choline level was positively related to ∆HR during habituation trials and levels of one choline metabolite, dimethylglycine (DMG), predicted ∆HR during habituation trials and latency of responses. A trend was found between DMG and ∆HR on the dishabituation trials and latency of the response. Supplementation did not affect ORs to auditory stimuli. Choline supplementation when administered together with routinely recommended multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements during pregnancy may provide a beneficial impact to basic learning mechanisms involved in encoding and memory of environmental events in alcohol-exposed pregnancies as well as non- or low alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Changes in maternal nutrient status suggested that one mechanism by which choline supplementation may positively impact brain development is

  2. Working memory and visuospatial deficits correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) exhibit deficits in measures of eye movement control that probe aspects of visuospatial processing and working memory. The goal of the present study was to examine, in a large cohort of children with FASD, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but not FASD, and typically developing control children, the relationship between performance in eye movement tasks and standardized psychometric tests that assess visuospatial processing and working memory. Participants for this dataset were drawn from a large, multi-site investigation, and included children and adolescents aged 5-17 years diagnosed with an FASD (n=71), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=20), and typically developing controls (n=111). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery and a series of saccadic eye movement tasks. The FASD group performed worse than controls on the psychometric and eye movement measures of working memory and visuospatial skills. Within the FASD group, digit recall, block recall, and animal sorting were negatively correlated with sequence errors on the memory-guided task, and arrows was negatively correlated with prosaccade endpoint error. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggest that psychometric tests and eye movement control tasks may assess similar domains of cognitive function, and these assessment tools may be measuring overlapping brain regions damaged due to prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests and are able to assess multiple domains of cognition simultaneously, thereby allowing for an efficient and accurate assessment.

  3. Degradation of Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate by a Novel Gordonia alkanivorans Strain YC-RL2.

    PubMed

    Nahurira, Ruth; Ren, Lei; Song, Jinlong; Jia, Yang; Wang, Junhuan; Fan, Shuanghu; Wang, Haisheng; Yan, Yanchun

    2017-03-01

    One bacterial strain, YC-RL2, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil, could utilize environmental hormone Di(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a sole carbon source for growth. Strain YC-RL2 was identified as Gordonia alkanivorans by 16S rRNA gene analysis and Biolog tests. The effects of environmental factors which might affect the degrading process were optimized at 30 °C and pH 8.0. Strain YC-RL2 showed superior halotolerance and could tolerate up to 0-5% NaCl in trace element medium supplemented with DEHP, although the DEHP degradation rates slowed as NaCl concentration increased. It also showed an outstanding performance in a wide range of pH (6.0-11.0). Meanwhile, strain YC-RL2 was able to withstand high concentrations of DEHP (from 100 to 800 mg/L), and the degradation rates were all above 94%. The DEHP intermediates were detected by HPLC-MS, and the degradation pathway was deduced tentatively. DEHP was transformed into phthalic acid (PA) via mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and PA was further utilized for growth via benzoic acid (BA). The enzyme expected to catalyze the hydrolysis of MEHP to PA was identified from strain YC-RL2. Further investigation found that the enzyme could catalyze the transformation of a wide range of monoalkyl phthalates to PA. This study is the first report about species G. alkanivorans which could degrade several kinds of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), and indicates its application potential for bioremediation of PAE-polluted sites.

  4. Biodegradation of phthalic acid esters by a newly isolated Mycobacterium sp. YC-RL4 and the bioprocess with environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lei; Jia, Yang; Ruth, Nahurira; Qiao, Cheng; Wang, Junhuan; Zhao, Baisuo; Yan, Yanchun

    2016-08-01

    Bacterial strain YC-RL4, capable of utilizing phthalic acid esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon source for growth, was isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. Strain YC-RL4 was identified as Mycobacterium sp. by 16S rRNA gene analysis and Biolog tests. Mycobacterium sp. YC-RL4 could rapidly degrade dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) under both individual and mixed conditions, and all the degradation rates were above 85.0 % within 5 days. The effects of environmental factors which might affect the degrading process were optimized as 30 °C and pH 8.0. The DEHP metabolites were detected by HPLC-MS and the degradation pathway was deduced tentatively. DEHP was transformed into phthalic acid (PA) via mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and PA was further utilized for growth via benzoic acid (BA) degradation pathway. Cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) assays illuminated that the strain YC-RL4 was of higher hydrophobicity while grown on DEHP and CSH increased with the higher DEHP concentration. The degradation rates of DEHP by strain YC-RL4 in different environmental samples was around 62.0 to 83.3 % and strain YC-RL4 survived well in the soil sample. These results suggested that the strain YC-RL4 could be used as a potential and efficient PAE degrader for the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

  5. Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R; Berres, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the "classic" fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology and include genes important for neural crest development, including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol's effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol's CNS pathologies.

  6. Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort: Study design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Lowe, Jean R.; Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Stephen, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background While intervention is the leading factor in reducing long-term disabilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), early identification of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains challenging. Deficits in higher-order cognitive domains (e.g. executive function) might be more specific to FASD than global neurodevelopmental tests, yet these functions are not developed in very young children. Measures of early sensorimotor development may provide early indications of atypical brain development during the first two years of life. Methods This paper describes the novel methodology of the Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort study of 120 maternal-infant pairs with a goal to identify early indices of functional brain impairment associated with PAE. The cohort is established by recruiting women early in pregnancy and classifying them into one of three study groups: patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who consume alcohol during pregnancy (Group 1), patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who abstain from alcohol during pregnancy (Group 2), and healthy controls (Group 3). After the initial prenatal assessment (Visit 1), patients are followed to Visit 2 occurring at delivery, and two comprehensive assessments of children at six (Visit 3) and 20 months (Visit 4) of age. ENRICH recruitment started in November 2013 and 87 women were recruited during the first year. During Year 1, the biospecimen (maternal whole blood, serum, urine, dry blood spots of a newborn) collection rate was 100% at Visit 1, and 97.6% for those who completed Visit 2. Discussion The tiered screening approach, evaluation of confounders, neurocognitive and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) outcomes, and ethical considerations are discussed. PMID:26491726

  7. Sampling characteristics and calibration of snorkel counts to estimate stream fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Pollock, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Snorkeling is a versatile technique for estimating lotic fish population characteristics; however, few investigators have evaluated its accuracy at population or assemblage levels. We evaluated the accuracy of snorkeling using prepositioned areal electrofishing (PAE) for estimating fish populations in a medium-sized Appalachian Mountain river during fall 2008 and summer 2009. Strip-transect snorkel counts were calibrated with PAE counts in identical locations among macrohabitats, fish species or taxa, and seasons. Mean snorkeling efficiency (i.e., the proportion of individuals counted from the true population) among all taxa and seasons was 14.7% (SE, 2.5%), and the highest efficiencies were for River Chub Nocomis micropogon at 21.1% (SE, 5.9%), Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum at 20.3% (SE, 9.6%), and darters (Percidae) at 17.1% (SE, 3.7%), whereas efficiencies were lower for shiners (Notropis spp., Cyprinella spp., Luxilus spp.) at 8.2% (SE, 2.2%) and suckers (Catostomidae) at 6.6% (SE, 3.2%). Macrohabitat type, fish taxon, or sampling season did not significantly explain variance in snorkeling efficiency. Mean snorkeling detection probability (i.e., probability of detecting at least one individual of a taxon) among fish taxa and seasons was 58.4% (SE, 6.1%). We applied the efficiencies from our calibration study to adjust snorkel counts from an intensive snorkeling survey conducted in a nearby reach. Total fish density estimates from strip-transect counts adjusted for snorkeling efficiency were 7,288 fish/ha (SE, 1,564) during summer and 15,805 fish/ha (SE, 4,947) during fall. Precision of fish density estimates is influenced by variation in snorkeling efficiency and sample size and may be increased with additional sampling effort. These results demonstrate the sampling properties and utility of snorkeling to characterize lotic fish assemblages with acceptable efficiency and detection probability, less effort, and no mortality, compared with traditional

  8. Nutrients, heavy metals and phthalate acid esters in solar greenhouse soils in Round-Bohai Bay-Region, China: impacts of cultivation year and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqun; Tian, Tian; Gao, Lihong; Tian, Yongqiang

    2016-07-01

    Solar greenhouse is a common facility type used for horticultural crop production in China. However, most solar greenhouse fields have been degraded due to continuous cropping and excessive fertilizer use. Therefore, we investigated solar greenhouse soils covering a wide range of cultivation years and environmental conditions in Round-Bohai Bay-Region to test the effects of cultivation year and biogeography on nutrients, heavy metals, and phthalate acid esters (PAEs). In general, soil pH decreased while soil electrical conductivity (EC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, mineral nitrogen (MN), Olsen-P, and NH4OAc-K contents increased as time of cultivation increased. However, this trend was influenced by sampling sites. Among sampling sites, Jiangsu showed a relatively low soil pH and high Olsen-P content, while Hebei showed a relatively high soil EC value, NO3 (-)-N, NH4 (+)-N, MN, and NH4OAc-K contents. Liaoning was characterized by relatively high soil OM and TN contents. The nutrient level indexes in evaluation of soil quality on Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K exceeded the standard seriously. The maximum values of the heavy metals Cd, Cu, and Zn were 4.87, 2.78, and 1.15 times higher than the threshold values, respectively. There was a rising trend on the heavy metal contents with the increasing cultivation years, and this trend was significantly influenced by sampling sites. Both Cu and Zn had relative high heavy metal indexes in evaluation of soil pollution. The PAEs were not detected in almost all sampling soils. Overall, the excessive fertilizer application was an important cause of nutrient accumulation and heavy metal pollution, resulting in soil degradation in solar greenhouses.

  9. Effect of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) on germination, antioxidant system, and chloroplast ultrastructure in Cucumis sativus L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Xin; Wang, Lei; Du, Na; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Erinle, Kehinde O; Wang, Pengjie; Zhou, Changjian; Duan, Shuwei

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products, such as phthalic acid esters (PAEs), are becoming widespread in China, and they have become a threat to human health and the environment. However, little information is available on the influence of PAEs on vegetable crops. In this study, effects of different dimethyl phthalate (DMP) treatments (0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L(-1)) on seed germination and growth of cucumber seedlings were investigated. Although germination rate showed no significant difference compared to control, seed germination time was significantly delayed at DMP greater than 50 mg L(-1). Concentrations of DMP greater than 30 mg L(-1) reduced cucumber lateral root length and number. The measurement of five physiological indexes in cucumber leaves with increasing DMP concentration revealed a decrease in leaf chlorophyll content, while proline and H2O2 contents increased. Peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities increased in cucumber plants under 30 and 50 mg L(-1) DMP treatments compared to control; while after a 7-day treatment, these activities were seriously reduced under 100 and 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatments. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographic images, the control and 30 mg L(-1) DMP treatments caused no change to leaf chloroplast shape with well-structured thylakoid membrane and parallel pattern of lamellae. At concentrations higher than 30 mg L(-1), DMP altered the ultrastructure of chloroplast, damaged membrane structure, disordered the lamellae, and increased the number and volume of starch grains. Moreover, the envelope of starch grains began to degrade under 200 mg L(-1) DMP treatment.

  10. Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide-based ionic liquids grafted on graphene oxide-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for extraction and enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in potatoes and phthalate esters in food-wrap.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiudan; Guo, Yong; Liang, Xiaojing; Wang, Xusheng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Licheng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    A class of novel, environmental friendly ionic liquids (ILs) were synthesized by on-fiber preparation strategy and modified on graphene oxide (GO)-coated stainless steel wire, which was used as a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for efficient enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalate esters (PAEs). Surface characteristic of the ILs and polymeric-ILs (PILs) fibers with the wave-structure were inspected by scanning electron microscope. The successfully synthesis of bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (NTf2(-))-based ILs were also characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer analysis. Through the chromatograms of the proposed two ILs (1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C2NH2MIm(+)Br(-)), C2NH2MIm(+)NTf2(-)) and two PILs (polymeric 1-vinyl-3-hexylimidazolium bromide (poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))), poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-)))-GO-coated fibers for the extraction of analytes, NTf2(-)-based PIL demonstrated higher extraction capacity for hydrophobic compounds than other as-prepared ILs. Analytical performances of the proposed fibers were investigated under the optimized extraction and desorption conditions coupled with gas chromatography (GC). Compared with the poly(VHIm(+)Br(-))-GO fiber, the poly(VHIm(+)NTf2(-))-GO SPME fiber brought wider linear ranges for analytes with correlation coefficient in the range of 0.9852-0.9989 and lower limits of detection ranging from 0.015-0.025μgL(-1). The obtained results indicated that the newly prepared PILs-GO coating was a feasible, selective and green microextraction medium, which could be suitable for extraction and determination of PAHs and PAEs in potatoes and food-wrap sample, respectively.

  11. Investigations of AlGaN/GaN MOS-HEMT with Al2O3 deposition by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bo-Yi; Hsu, Wei-Chou; Liu, Han-Yin; Lee, Ching-Sung; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Sun, Wen-Ching; Wei, Sung-Yen; Yu, Sheng-Min; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) grown on SiC substrate by using the non-vacuum ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition (USPD) method. The Al2O3 was deposited as gate dielectric and surface passivation simultaneously to effectively suppress gate leakage current, enhance output current density, reduce RF drain current collapse, and improve temperature-dependent stabilities performance. The present MOS-HEMT design has shown improved device performances with respect to a Schottky-gate HEMT, including drain-source saturation current density at zero gate bias (IDSS: 337.6 mA mm-1 → 462.9 mA mm-1), gate-voltage swing (GVS: 1.55 V → 2.92 V), two-terminal gate-drain breakdown voltage (BVGD: -103.8 V → -183.5 V), unity-gain cut-off frequency (fT: 11.3 GHz → 17.7 GHz), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax: 14.2 GHz → 19.1 GHz), and power added effective (P.A.E.: 25.1% → 43.6%). The bias conditions for measuring fT and fmax of the studied MOS-HEMT (Schottky-gate HEMT) are VGS = -2.5 (-2) V and VDS = 7 V. The corresponding VGS and VDS biases are -2.5 (-2) V and 15 V for measuring the P.A.E. characteristic. Moreover, small capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis is obtained in the Al2O3-MOS structure by using USPD. Temperature-dependent characteristics of the present designs at 300-480 K are also studied.

  12. ApnI, a Transmembrane Protein Responsible for Subtilomycin Immunity, Unveils a Novel Model for Lantibiotic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yun; Li, Cong-Zhi; Zhu, Yi-Guang; Wang, Peng-Xia; Qi, Qing-Dong; Fu, Jing-Jing; Peng, Dong-Hai; Ruan, Li-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Subtilomycin was detected from the plant endophytic strain Bacillus subtilis BSn5 and was first reported from B. subtilis strain MMA7. In this study, a gene cluster that has been proposed to be related to subtilomycin biosynthesis was isolated from the BSn5 genome and was experimentally validated by gene inactivation and heterologous expression. Comparison of the subtilomycin gene cluster with other verified related lantibiotic gene clusters revealed a particular organization of the genes apnI and apnT downstream of apnAPBC, which may be involved in subtilomycin immunity. Through analysis of expression of the apnI and/or apnT genes in the subtilomycin-sensitive strain CU1065 and inactivation of apnI and apnT in the producer strain BSn5, we showed that the single gene apnI, encoding a putative transmembrane protein, was responsible for subtilomycin immunity. To our knowledge, evidence for lantibiotic immunity that is solely dependent on a transmembrane protein is quite rare. Further bioinformatic analysis revealed the abundant presence of ApnI-like proteins that may be responsible for lantibiotic immunity in Bacillus and Paenibacillus. We cloned the paeI gene, encoding one such ApnI-like protein, into CU1065 and showed that it confers resistance to paenibacillin. However, no cross-resistance was detected between ApnI and PaeI, even though subtilomycin and paenibacillin share similar structures, suggesting that the protection provided by ApnI/ApnI-like proteins involves a specific-sequence recognition mechanism. Peptide release/binding assays indicated that the recombinant B. subtilis expressing apnI interacted with subtilomycin. Thus, ApnI represents a novel model for lantibiotic immunity that appears to be common. PMID:25085495

  13. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) promotes endothelial apoptosis via a caspase-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian Hua; Anand-Apte, Bela

    2015-04-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP3) is a tumor suppressor and a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. TIMP3 exerts its anti-angiogenic effect via a direct interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (KDR) and inhibition of proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells (ECs). TIMP3 has also been shown to induce apoptosis in some cancer cells and vascular smooth muscle cells via MMP inhibition and caspase-dependent mechanisms. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms of TIMP3-mediated apoptosis in endothelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that mice developed smaller tumors with decreased vascularity when injected with breast carcinoma cells overexpressing TIMP3, than with control breast carcinoma cells. TIMP3 overexpression resulted in increased apoptosis in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB435) in vivo but not in vitro. However, TIMP3 could induce apoptosis in ECs in vitro. The apoptotic activity of TIMP3 in ECs appears to be independent of MMP inhibitory activity. Furthermore, the equivalent expression of functional TIMP3 promoted apoptosis and caspase activation in ECs expressing KDR (PAE/KDR), but not in ECs expressing PDGF beta-receptor (PAE/β-R). Surprisingly, the apoptotic activity of TIMP3 appears to be independent of caspases. TIMP3 inhibited matrix-induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) tyrosine phosphorylation and association with paxillin and disrupted the incorporation of β3 integrin, FAK and paxillin into focal adhesion contacts on the matrix, which were not affected by caspase inhibitors. Thus, TIMP3 may induce apoptosis in ECs by triggering a caspase-independent cell death pathway and targeting a FAK-dependent survival pathway.

  14. Oxidative Stress, Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Earthworm Eisenia fetida at Different Di-n-Butyl Phthalate Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tingting; Chen, Li’ke; Wu, Longhua; Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil, the environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern recently. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), an extensively used PAE compound to Eisenia fetida have been investigated in spiked natural brown yellow soil (Alfisol) for soil contact test. The toxicity of DnBP to E. fetida on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and the apoptosis of coelomocytes and DNA damage at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day of the incubation have been paid close attention to. In general, SOD activity and ROS content were significantly induced, opposite to total protein content and POD activity, during the toxicity test of 28 days especially under concentrations higher than 2.5 mg kg-1. The reduction in neutral red retention (NRR) time along with the increase of dead coelomocytes as the increasing of DnBP concentrations, indicating severe damage to cell viability under varying pollutant stress during cultivation, which could also be proved by comet assay results for exerting evident DNA damage in coelomocytes. DnBP in spiked natural soil could indeed cause damage to tissues, coelomocytes and the nucleus of E. fetida. The key point of the apparent change in different indices presented around 2.5 mg DnBP kg-1 soil, which could be recommended as the threshold of DnBP soil contamination, so that further investigation on threshold values to other soil animals or microorganisms could be discussed. PMID:26982081

  15. In vitro pharmacodynamics of gamithromycin against Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides Small Colony.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John D; Goh, Shan; McKellar, Quintin A; McKeever, Declan J

    2013-09-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides Small Colony (MmmSC) is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), which is responsible for major economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control relies on live attenuated vaccines, which are of limited efficacy, and antimicrobials are now being assessed as an alternative or adjunct to vaccination. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro effector kinetics of the macrolide antimicrobial, gamithromycin, against MmmSC in artificial medium and adult bovine serum. Furthermore, it was determined if any differences in gamithromycin activity between these two matrices were mirrored by the older macrolides, tylosin and tilmicosin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin against MmmSC strains B237 and Tan8 were determined in artificial medium and serum. Time-kill curves were constructed at concentrations corresponding to multiples of the MIC for all three macrolides in artificial medium and for gamithromycin in serum. Data were fitted to sigmoid Emax models. Post-antibiotic effects (PAE) were established by exposing strain B237 to antimicrobials at 10× MIC for 1h and monitoring mycoplasma growth thereafter. MICs for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin were 64-, 8- and 64-fold lower, respectively, in serum than in artificial medium at an inoculum size of 10(6)cfu/mL B237. A similar pattern emerged for Tan8. All three antimicrobials were mycoplasmastatic with maximum effects of -0.44, -0.32 and -0.49log10(cfu/mL) units for gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin, respectively, against B237 in artificial medium. Tylosin and tilmicosin elicited longer PAEs than gamithromycin. In conclusion, gamithromycin, tylosin and tilmicosin all demonstrated in vitro efficacy against MmmSC and represent potential candidates for clinical studies to assess their therapeutic effect against CBPP.

  16. Rapid determination of phthalate esters in alcoholic beverages by conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yingying; Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong

    2014-02-01

    A very simple, fast and environmentally friendly sample extraction method was proposed for the analysis of phthalate esters (PAEs, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)) in alcoholic beverages by using conventional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The samples were extracted by 160 μL 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the presence of appropriate amount of ethanol and 10% (w/v) sodium chloride solution; the enriched analytes in sedimented phases were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum conditions, a satisfactory linearity (in the range of 0.02-1 μg mL(-1) for white spirits and 0.01-0.5 μg mL(-1) for red wines with the correlation coefficients (r) varying from 0.9983 to 1), acceptable recovery rates (88.5-103.5% for white spirits and 91.6-104.6% for red wines), good repeatability (RSD ≤ 8.0%) and low detection limits (3.1-4.2 ng mL(-1) for white spirits and 1.5-2.2 ng mL(-1) for red wines) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of the four PAEs in 30 white spirits and 11 red wines collected locally, and the DBP content in 63% (19:30) white spirits exceeded the specific migration limit of 0.3 mg kg(-1) established by international regulation.

  17. Neural Crest Development in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R.; Berres, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the “classic” fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species, and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology, and include genes important for neural crest development including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol’s effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol’s CNS pathologies

  18. Biogeography of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus Wied-Neuwied, 1825 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): Distribution, Endemism, and Area Relationships in South America

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, André Luiz Gomes; de Britto, Marcelo Ribeiro; Fernandes, Daniel Silva

    2013-01-01

    Based on comprehensive distributional records of the 23 species currently assigned to the lizard genus Tropidurus, we investigated patterns of endemism and area relationships in South America. Two biogeographic methods were applied, Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) and Brooks Parsimony Analysis (BPA). Two areas of endemism were detected by PAE: the first within the domains of the semiarid Brazilian Caatinga, which includes seven endemic species, and the second in the region of the Serranía de Huanchaca, eastern Bolivia, in which three endemic species are present. The area cladograms recovered a close relationship between the Atlantic Forest and areas of the South American open corridor. The results revealed a close relationship among the provinces Caatinga (Cerrado, Parana Forest (Pantanal+Chaco)). The uplift of the Brazilian Central Plateau in the Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene (4-2 Myr BP) has been interpreted as a major event responsible for isolation and differentiation of biotas along these areas. However, we emphasize that without the establishment of a temporal framework concerning the diversification history of Tropidurus it is premature to correlate cladogenetic events with specific time periods or putative vicariant scenarios. The limiting factors hampering the understanding of the biogeographic history of this genus include (1) the absence of temporal references in relation to the diversification of distinct clades within Tropidurus; (2) the lack of an appropriate taxonomic resolution of the species complexes currently represented by widely distributed forms; and (3) the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis. We suggest that these three important aspects should be prioritized in future investigations. PMID:23527261

  19. Carbon monoxide observations from ground stations in France and Europe and long trends in the free troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, A.; Gheusi, F.; Attié, J.-L.; Delmas, R.; Zbinden, R.; Athier, G.; Cousin, J.-M.

    2008-02-01

    Continuous CO measurements performed at 3 high-altitude stations in France are analyzed for the first time. Data are provided by the new PAES (Pollution Atmospherique à l'Echelle Synoptique) network since 2002 for the Puy de Dôme and 2004 for the Pic du Midi and the Donon. CO measurements of 5 another European stations have been analysed to put the PAES stations in an European perspective. The January 2002-April 2005 CO mean levels of surface stations capture the stratification revealed by climatological CO profiles from the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service Aircraft). The deviation between the free tropospheric reference MOZAIC and surface data above 2000 m is less than 10% and this deviation can be explained in term of spatial variability, as evidenced by MOPITT CO retrievals at 700 hPa. This suggests that, averaged at a seasonal time scale (4 months), surface data at stations above 2000 m are representative of background CO concentration. This paper focuses then on trends since the 1980s-1990s. The comparison between old (1982-1983) and recent CO mixing ratio (2005) at the Pic du Midi leads to a 10% decrease, consistent with the continuous data series at Zugspitze (ZSP) from 1991 to 2004. This decrease was found to be mainly due to a negative trend of January-April mean levels. The decrease in CO sources over France and Europe appears to be responsible for that trend. The stable values of June-September mean levels suggest that the summertime oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere related to OH radicals is important enough to counterbalance any CO inputs into the troposphere. Our study shows a recent change in CO evolution since 2000 over Western Europe, with a slowed down decrease in CO concentration. Studying specifically the interactions between CO, CH4 and OH turns out to be needed, however, to find definitive explanations to those observations.

  20. The immunogenicity of viral haemorragic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV) DNA vaccines can depend on plasmid regulatory sequences.

    PubMed

    Chico, V; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Falco, A; Tafalla, C; Perez, L; Coll, J M; Estepa, A

    2009-03-18

    A plasmid DNA encoding the viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV)-G glycoprotein under the control of 5' sequences (enhancer/promoter sequence plus both non-coding 1st exon and 1st intron sequences) from carp beta-actin gene (pAE6-G(VHSV)) was compared to the vaccine plasmid usually described the gene expression is regulated by the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter (pMCV1.4-G(VHSV)). We observed that these two plasmids produced a markedly different profile in the level and time of expression of the encoded-antigen, and this may have a direct effect upon the intensity and suitability of the in vivo immune response. Thus, fish genetic immunisation assays were carried out to study the immune response of both plasmids. A significantly enhanced specific-antibody response against the viral glycoprotein was found in the fish immunised with pAE6-G(VHSV). However, the protective efficacy against VHSV challenge conferred by both plasmids was similar. Later analysis of the transcription profile of a set of representative immune-related genes in the DNA immunized fish suggested that depending on the plasmid-related regulatory sequences controlling its expression, the plasmid might activate distinct patterns of the immune system. All together, the results from this study mainly point out that the selection of a determinate encoded-antigen/vector combination for genetic immunisation is of extraordinary importance in designing optimised DNA vaccines that, when required for inducing protective immune response, could elicit responses biased to antigen-specific antibodies or cytotoxic T cells generation.

  1. Paternity analysis in Excel.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Dionísio, F Miguel; Fonseca, Luís; Pires, Ana M

    2007-12-01

    Paternity analysis using microsatellite information is a well-studied subject. These markers are ideal for parentage studies and fingerprinting, due to their high-discrimination power. This type of data is used to assign paternity, to compute the average selfing and outcrossing rates and to estimate the biparental inbreeding. There are several public domain programs that compute all this information from data. Most of the time, it is necessary to export data to some sort of format, feed it to the program and import the output to an Excel book for further processing. In this article we briefly describe a program referred from now on as Paternity Analysis in Excel (PAE), developed at IST and IBET (see the acknowledgments) that computes paternity candidates from data, and other information, from within Excel. In practice this means that the end user provides the data in an Excel sheet and, by pressing an appropriate button, obtains the results in another Excel sheet. For convenience PAE is divided into two modules. The first one is a filtering module that selects data from the sequencer and reorganizes it in a format appropriate to process paternity analysis, assuming certain conventions for the names of parents and offspring from the sequencer. The second module carries out the paternity analysis assuming that one parent is known. Both modules are written in Excel-VBA and can be obtained at the address (www.math.ist.utl.pt/~fmd/pa/pa.zip). They are free for non-commercial purposes and have been tested with different data and against different software (Cervus, FaMoz, and MLTR).

  2. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance

  3. The Structure of the Kaali Impact Crater (Estonia) based on 3D Laser Scanning, Photogrammetric Modelling and Strike and Dip Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Michael; Wilk, Jakob; Joeleht, Argo; Välja, Rudolf; Losiak, Anna; Wisniowski, Tomek; Huber, Matthew; Pavel, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Plado, Jüri; Geppert, Wolf Dietrich; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri

    2015-04-01

    Realworks software. A DEM, Hillshade, Slope Map and Contour Map were created in ESRI ArcScene software. Photogrammetry: Photogrammetric techniques from images of key outcrops were used to create texture, photorealistic 3D representations using Agisoft PhotoScan software. Acknowledgements: We extend our sincerest gratitude to the Estonian National Heritage Board for permission to dig and make measurements at the crater. References: [1] I.Kolkun (1922) Üldine geologia. Tallin, 170. [2] J. A.Reinwald (1933) Publications of the Geological Institution of the University of Tartu, 30:1-20. [3] J.A.Reinwald (1928) thesis; Univ of Tartu [4] L.J.Spencer (1938) Miner. Mag., 25:75-80. [5] A.Aaloe (1959) ENSV TA Geoloogia Instituudi Uurimused, 2:105-117. [6] A.Raukas et al. (2002) Impact Studies 2005, 341-355.

  4. Production of bioinspired and rationally designed polymer hydrogels for controlled delivery of therapeutic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hye

    Hydrogel systems for controlled delivery therapeutic growth factors have been developed in a wide spectrum of strategies: these systems aim for the release of growth factors via a passive diffusion, electrostatic interaction, degradation of hydrogels, and responsiveness to external stimuli. Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), was employed for a targeted delivery system of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to endothelial cells overexpressing a relevant receptor VEGFR-2. Addition of dimeric VEGF to 4-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) immobilized with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) afforded a non-covalently assembled hydrogel via interaction between heparin and VEGF, with storage modulus 10 Pa. The release of VEGF and hydrogel erosion reached maximum 100 % at day 4 in the presence of VEGFR-2 overexpressing pocine aortic endothelial cell (PAE/KDR), while those of 80% were achieved via passive release at day 5 in the presence of PAE cell lacking VEGFR-2 or in the absence of cell, indicating that the release of VEGF was in targeted manner toward cell receptor. The proliferation of PAE/KDR in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel was greater by ca. 30% at day 4 compared to that of PAE, confirming that the release of VEGF was in response to the cellular demand. The phosphorylation fraction of VEGFR-2 on PAE/KDR was greater in the presence of [PEG-LMWH/VEGF] hydrogel, increasing from 0.568 at day 1 to 0.790 at day 4, whereas it was maintained at 0.230 at day 4 in the presence of [PEG-LMWH] hydrogel. This study has proven that this hydrogel, assembled via bio-inspired non-covalent interaction, liberating VEGFon celluar demand to target cell, eroding upon VEGF release, and triggering endothelial cell proliferation, could be used in multiple applications including targeted delivery and angiogenesis. Heparin has been widely exploited in growth factor delivery systems owing to its ability to bind many growth factors through the flexible

  5. Influence des interactions du couple ciment/adjuvant dispersant sur les proprietes des betons: Importance du mode d'introduction des adjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baalbaki, Moussa

    1998-12-01

    Les travaux de recherche de cette these de doctorat ont porte sur les phenomenes d'incompatibilite (ou de compatibilite) ciment/adjuvant dispersant en mettant l'accent sur l'influence du mode d'introduction des adjuvants sur les proprietes des betons frais et durcis. Les aspects physiques et chimiques de l'interaction ciment/adjuvant a ete relies aux proprietes des betons en tenant compte du rapport E/C, de la teneur en C3A du ciment ainsi que du type d'adjuvant dispersant. Le programme experimental propose debute par une etude rheologique et mecanique sur pate et sur beton. Le comportement du superplastifiant a base de polynaphtalene (PNS) depend surtout de son interaction avec les premiers produits d'hydratation du ciment. Cette interaction du superplastifiant PNS avec le ciment est remarquablement differente dans le cas ou l'ajout du PNS est differe de quelques minutes. Lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit directement avec l'eau de gachage, on remarque la formation d'un gel blanc compose d'ettringite, de CaCO 3 et de polynaphtalene et ce compose organo-mineral est presque inexistant lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est ajoute en mode differe. Ce gel organo-mineral se forme a partir de la solution entre les aluminates de calcium hydrates, les sulfates et le PNS, et est responsable de la perte d'affaissement du beton. Les analyses au microscope electronique a balayage montrent que l'introduction du superplastifiant PNS en mode S1 (ajout direct) engendre la precipitation d'une plus grande quantite d'ettringite et de produit organo-mineral. Cette ettringite finement cristallisee, abondante et enchevetree aura pour consequence de diminuer les proprietes rheologiques des betons et des pates. Ce phenomene ne s'observe pas lorsque le superplastifiant PNS est introduit en mode differe. Le mode d'introduction du superplastifiant a base de polyacrylate (PAE) n'affecte nullement le comportement rheologique du beton. Par ailleurs, le gel organo-mineral n'apparait pas

  6. Influence of altitude on ozone levels and variability in the lower troposphere: a ground-based study for western Europe over the period 2001-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, A.; Gheusi, F.; Delmas, R.; Ordóñez, C.; Sarrat, C.; Zbinden, R.; Thouret, V.; Athier, G.; Cousin, J.-M.

    2007-08-01

    The PAES (French acronym for synoptic scale atmospheric pollution) network focuses on the chemical composition (ozone, CO, NOx/y and aerosols) of the lower troposphere (0-3000 m). Its high-altitude surface stations located in different mountainous areas in France complete the low-altitude rural MERA stations (the French contribution to the european program EMEP, European Monitoring and Evaluation Program). They are representative of pollution at the scale of the French territory because they are away from any major source of pollution. This study deals with ozone observations between 2001 and 2004 at 11 stations from PAES and MERA, in addition to 16 elevated stations located in mountainous areas of Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy and Spain. The set of stations covers a range of altitudes between 115 and 3550 m. The comparison between recent ozone mixing ratios to those of the last decade at Pic du Midi (2877 m), as well as trends calculated over 14-year data series at three high-altitude sites in the Alps (Jungfraujoch, Sonnblick and Zugspitze) reveal that ozone is still increasing but at a slower rate than in the 1980s and 1990s. The 2001-2004 mean levels of ozone from surface stations capture the ozone stratification revealed by climatological profiles from the airborne observation system MOZAIC (Measurement of OZone and water vapour by Airbus In-service airCraft) and from ozone soundings above Payerne (Switzerland). In particular all data evidence a clear transition at about 1000-1200 m a.s.l. between a sharp gradient below (of the order of +30 ppb/km) and a gentler gradient (+3 ppb/km) above. The same altitude (1200 m) is also found to be a threshold regarding how well the ozone levels at the surface stations agree with the free-tropospheric reference (MOZAIC or soundings). Below the departure can be as large as 40%, but suddenly drops within 15% above. For stations above 2000 m, the departure is even less than 8%. Ozone variability also reveals a clear

  7. VHSV G glycoprotein major determinants implicated in triggering the host type I IFN antiviral response as DNA vaccine molecular adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Garcia-Valtanen, P; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Chico, V; Gomez-Casado, E; Coll, J M; Estepa, A

    2014-10-14

    We have recently identified the two major determinants of the glycoprotein G of the viral hemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (gpGVHSV), peptides p31 and p33 implicated in triggering the host type I IFN antiviral response associated to these rhabdoviral antigens. With the aim to investigate the properties of these viral glycoprotein regions as DNA molecular adjuvants, their corresponding cDNA sequences were cloned into a plasmid (pMCV1.4) flanked by the signal peptide and transmembrane sequences of gpGVHSV. In addition, a plasmid construct encoding both sequences p31 and p33 (pMCV1.4-p31+p33) was also designed. In vitro transitory cell transfection assays showed that these VHSV gpG regions were able to induce the expression of type I IFN stimulated genes as well as to confer resistance to the infection with a different fish rhabdovirus, the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). In vivo, zebrafish intramuscular injection of only 1μg of the construct pMCV1.4-p31+p33 conferred fish protection against SVCV lethal challenge up to 45 days post-immunization. Moreover, pMCV1.4-p31+p33 construct was assayed for molecular adjuvantcity's for a DNA vaccine against SVCV based in the surface antigen of this virus (pAE6-GSVCV). The results showed that the co-injection of the SVCV DNA vaccine and the molecular adjuvant allowed (i) a ten-fold reduction in the dose of pAE6-Gsvcv without compromising its efficacy (ii) an increase in the duration of protection, and (iii) an increase in the survival rate. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which specific IFN-inducing regions from a viral gpG are used to design more-efficient and cost-effective viral vaccines, as well as to improve our knowledge on how to stimulate the innate immune system.

  8. Di-n-butyl phthalate causes estrogenic effects in adult male Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis).

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Harpreet; Kumar, Anupama; Ogino, Yukiko; Gregg, Adrienne; Chapman, John; McLaughlin, Mike J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are a class of synthetic industrial chemicals commonly found in the aquatic environment worldwide. PAEs have been recognised as anti-androgens in male mammals but little is known about their endocrine disrupting effects in fish. This study investigated the effects of 7-day exposures to nominal (measured) concentrations of 125 (62), 250 (140), 500 (230) and 1,000 (383) μg/L of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) on the biomarkers of reproduction in adult male Murray River rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) using molecular, biochemical and histological endpoints. None of the tested concentrations of DnBP had any effect on survival or the vital body indices of the fish. The sizes of spermatogonia, Type A and B spermatocytes and spermatids were significantly smaller relative to the controls after treatment with DnBP. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in fish treated with 250-1,000 μg/L of DnBP in comparison to the unexposed fish. At the end of the exposure period, the expressions of the transcripts for the androgen receptors α and β were significantly elevated in the livers of the fish treated with 500 and 1,000 μg/L of DnBP. In addition, there was also an increase in the circulating concentrations of vitellogenin in the plasma in the higher treatment groups. An induction in the activity of aromatase was noted in the brains of 1,000 μg/L DnBP-treated fish. This was accompanied by an increase in the hepatic expression of the genes (here and later, whenever the phrase gene expression is used as a synonym for gene transcription although it is acknowledged that it is also regulated, e.g., by translation, mRNA stability and protein stability) encoding for the oestrogen receptors α and β and choriogenin L. Collectively, an increase in the proportion of spermatogonia in the testes, the upregulation of the genes for the oestrogen receptors and choriogenin in the liver, an induction in the brain

  9. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  10. Assessment of toxic metals and phthalates in children's toys and clays.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira I; Sabra, Rayan; Jurdi, Mey; Taleb, Robin I

    2013-10-01

    Toxic metals and phthalates are introduced in the manufacturing of plastic toys and modeling clays. In Lebanon, inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays (sold in dollar stores) are affordable and popular, and there is no legislation to monitor or regulate such toys. This study aimed to assess the quality of inexpensive plastic toys and modeling clays imported in Lebanon. Metal concentrations in toys, namely, zinc [not detectable (ND) to 3,708 μg/g], copper (ND to 140), chromium (ND to 75 μg/g), tin (ND to 39 μg/g), and cadmium (Cd) (ND to 20 μg/g), were lower than the European Union (EU) Directive limits, whereas lead (ND to 258 μg/g) in 10% of samples and antimony (Sb) (ND to 195 μg/g) in 5% of samples were greater than the EU limits. In modeling clays, most of the metals were lower than the EU Directive limits except for Cd and arsenic (As). Cd was detected in 83% of samples, with a mean level of 9.1 μg/g, which is far greater than the EU Directive limit (1.9 μg/g). The As mean level of 4.5 μg/g was greater than the EU limit (4.0 μg/g) and was detected in 9% of samples. Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were found in 60% of children's toys and 77% of modeling clays. Phthalic acid butyl ester had the highest-level PAE encountered and was ≤59.1 % in one type of clay. However, among children's toys, di(4-octyl) ester terephthalic acid was the highest encountered phthalate at a concentration of 25.7%. The community survey indicated that 82% of households purchase their toys from inexpensive shops and that only 17% of parents were aware of the health hazard of such toys. Consequently, an intervention plan was proposed for the provision of safe toys to children.

  11. The evolution of endothermy in Cenozoic mammals: a plesiomorphic-apomorphic continuum.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry Gordon

    2012-02-01

    The evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals was one of the most important events in the evolution of the vertebrates. Past tests of hypotheses on the evolution of endothermy in mammals have relied largely on analyses of the relationship between basal and maximum metabolic rate, and artificial selection experiments. I argue that components of existing hypotheses, as well as new hypotheses, can be tested using an alternative macrophysiological modeling approach by examining the development of endothermy during the Cenozoic. Recent mammals display a 10°C range in body temperature which is sufficiently large to identify the selective forces that have driven the development of endothermy from a plesiomorphic (ancestral) Cretaceous or Jurassic condition. A model is presented (the Plesiomorphic-Apomorphic Endothermy Model, PAE Model) which proposes that heterothermy, i.e. bouts of normothermy (constant body temperature) interspersed with adaptive heterothermy (e.g. daily torpor and/or hibernation), was the ancestral condition from which apomorphic (derived), rigid homeothermy evolved. All terrestrial mammal lineages are examined for existing data to test the model, as well as for missing data that could be used to test the model. With the exception of Scandentia and Dermoptera, about which little is known, all mammalian orders that include small-sized mammals (<500 g), have species which are heterothermic and display characteristics of endothermy which fall somewhere along a plesiomorphic-apomorphic continuum. Orders which do not have heterothermic representatives (Cetartiodactyla, Perissodactyla, Pholidota, and Lagomorpha) are comprised of medium- to large-sized mammals that have either lost the capacity for heterothermy, or in which heterothermy has yet to be measured. Mammalian heterothermy seems to be plesiomorphic and probably evolved once in the mammalian lineage. Several categories of endothermy are identified (protoendothermy, plesioendothermy, apoendothermy

  12. A Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Architecture Performance Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L.; Khan, P.; Silva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in wide-bandgap (WBG) gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology, there is considerable interest in developing efficient solidstate power amplifiers (SSPAs) as an alternative to the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for space applications. This article documents the results of a study to investigate power-combining technology and SSPA architectures that can enable a 120-W, 40 percent power-added efficiency (PAE) SSPA. Results of the study indicate that architectures based on at least three power combiner designs are likely to enable the target SSPA. The proposed architectures can power combine 16 to 32 individual monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with >80 percent combining efficiency. This corresponds to MMIC requirements of 5- to 10-W output power and >48 percent PAE. For the three proposed architectures [1], detailed analysis and design of the power combiner are presented. The first architecture studied is based on a 16-way septum combiner that offers low loss and high isolation over the design band of 31 to 36 GHz. Analysis of a 2-way prototype septum combiner had an input match >25 dB, output match >30 dB, insertion loss <0.02 dB, and isolation >30 dB over the design band. A 16-way design, based on cascading this combiner in a binary fashion, is documented. The second architecture is based on a 24-way waveguide radial combiner. A prototype 24-way radial base was analyzed to have an input match >30 dB (under equal excitation of all input ports). The match of the mode transducer that forms the output of a radial combiner was found to be >27 dB. The functional bandwidth of the radial base and mode transducer, which together will form a radial combiner/divider, exceeded the design band. The third architecture employs a 32-way, parallel-plate radial combiner. Simulation results indicated an input match >24 dB, output match >22 dB, insertion loss <0.23 dB, and adjacent port isolation >20 dB over the design band. All

  13. Reactivation of immobilized acetylcholinesterase-tabun complex by pralidoxime, its isomers, and homologs.

    PubMed

    Hoskovcová, Monika; Halámek, Emil; Kobliha, Zbynek; Tusarová, Ivana

    2010-06-01

    Reactivation efficacy of three homologous and three isomeric series of pralidoxime-type reactivators with aldoxime group in position 2, 3 and 4 of the heterocycle was tested in reactivation of tabun-inhibited AChE. The experiments were performed with immobilized and stabilized porcine brain AChE. The enzyme activity was measured by Ellman method. Reactivation efficacy was determined by measurement of indicator fabric coloration intensity as a measure of AChE activity. Of the studied group of nine reactivators, isomers with the functional group in position 2 were the most effective. The highest value (30 %) for reactivation of inhibited AChE was found for 2PAE after treatment for 15 min at concentration 0.5 mg/cm(3). The efficacy of the isomers decreased in the order ortho > para > meta. No marked effect on the efficacy of the reactivators was observed on prolongation of the reactivation time. The reactivators efficacy decreased with decreasing concentration of their solutions.

  14. [Sustainability of an innovative school food program: a case study in the northeast of Brazil].

    PubMed

    Melo, Mariana Navarro Tavares de; Sá, Ronice Maria Pereira Franco de; Melo, Djalma Agripino de

    2016-06-01

    The Brazilian School Food Program (PNAE) is intersectoral innature. It encourages social participation and local economies and is considered here as a health promotionpractice. In the Northeastern State of Pernambuco, the city of Tabira acquired international renownin 2012 for the management of its school food program (PAE). This study analyzed the positive and negative factors related to the sustainability of the innovations in Tabira to understand the processes related to the continuity of the innovative actions implemented. The research used a qualitative approach with a case study strategy. A focus group, semi-structured interviews with key actors and document analysis were performed. The data were processed using content analysis and the techniques of thematic analysis. Positive organizational and socio-political factors were: the program institutionalization, the efficient use of financial resources, municipalized management, high community participation and the use of local resources. Negative factors were: weak inter-sectoral coordination and training and poor professional qualification. The strong political engagement at the local level showed both positive and negative impacts on sustainability.

  15. Design of high reliability RF-LDMOS by suppressing the parasitic bipolar effect using enhanced p-well and double epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiangming, Xu; Jingfeng, Huang; Han, Yu; Wensheng, Qian; Zhengliang, Zhou; Bo, Han; Yong, Wang; Pengfei, Wang; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-06-01

    A laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) device design with an enhanced p-well and double p-epitaxial structure is investigated for device ruggedness improvement while keeping its high device performance under high frequency. Based upon the device design, radio-frequency (RF) LDMOS transistors for GSM (global system for mobile communication) application have been fabricated by using 0.35 μm CMOS technologies. Experimental data show that the proposed device achieves a breakdown voltage of 70 V, output power of 180 W. The RF linear gain is over 20 dB and the power added efficiency (PAE) is over 70% with the frequency of 920 MHz. In particular, it can pass the 20 : 1 voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) load mismatch biased at drain DC supply voltage of 32 V and output power at 10-dB gain compression point (P10dB). The device ruggedness has been remarkably improved by using the proposed device structure. Project supported by the Chinese National Key Project (No. 2012ZX02502).

  16. Wideband LTE power amplifier with integrated novel analog pre-distorter linearizer for mobile wireless communications.

    PubMed

    Uthirajoo, Eswaran; Ramiah, Harikrishnan; Kanesan, Jeevan; Reza, Ahmed Wasif

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, a new circuit to extend the linear operation bandwidth of a LTE (Long Term Evolution) power amplifier, while delivering a high efficiency is implemented in less than 1 mm2 chip area. The 950 µm × 900 µm monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in a 2 µm InGaP/GaAs process. An on-chip analog pre-distorter (APD) is designed to improve the linearity of the PA, up to 20 MHz channel bandwidth. Intended for 1.95 GHz Band 1 LTE application, the PA satisfies adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and error vector magnitude (EVM) specifications for a wide LTE channel bandwidth of 20 MHz at a linear output power of 28 dBm with corresponding power added efficiency (PAE) of 52.3%. With a respective input and output return loss of 30 dB and 14 dB, the PA's power gain is measured to be 32.5 dB while exhibiting an unconditional stability characteristic from DC up to 5 GHz. The proposed APD technique serves to be a good solution to improve linearity of a PA without sacrificing other critical performance metrics.

  17. Device and Design Optimization for AlGaN/GaN X-Band-Power-Amplifiers with High Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Jutta; van Raay, Friedbert; Quay, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Rudolf; Mikulla, Michael; Seelmann-Eggebert, Matthias; Bronner, Wolfgang; Schlechtweg, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver; Thumm, Manfred

    2010-03-01

    The design, realization and characterization of dual-stage X-band high-power and highly-efficient monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) with AlGaN/GaN high electronic mobility transistors (HEMTs) is presented. These high power amplifiers (HPAs) are based on a precise investigation of circuit-relevant HEMT behavior using two different field-plate variants and its effects on PA performance as well as optimization of HPA driver stage size which also has a deep impact on the entire HPA. Two broadband (3 GHz) MMICs with different field-plate variants and two narrowband (1 GHz) PAs with different driver- to final-stage gate-width ratio are realized with a maximum output power of 19-23 W, a maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of ≥40%, and an associated power gain of 17 dB at X-band. Furthermore, two 1 mm test transistors of the same technology with the mentioned field-plate variants and a 1 mm test MMIC support VSWR-ratio tests of 6:1 and 4:1, respectively.

  18. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation of Endothelial Cell Receptor Tyrosine Kinase VEGFR-2.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Kevin Brown; Leon, Deborah R; Meyer, Rosana D; Rahimi, Nader; Costello, Catherine E

    2017-02-03

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is an important receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays critical roles in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. The extracellular domain of VEGFR-2 is composed of seven immunoglobulin-like domains, each with multiple potential N-glycosylation sites (sequons). N-glycosylation plays a central role in RTK ligand binding, trafficking, and stability. However, despite its importance, the functional role of N-glycosylation of VEGFR-2 remains poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to characterize N-glycosylation sites in VEGFR-2 via enzymatic release of the glycans and concomitant incorporation of (18)O into formerly N-glycosylated sites followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis to determine N-glycosylation site occupancy and the site-specific N-glycan heterogeneity of VEGFR-2 glycopeptides. The data demonstrated that all seven VEGFR-2 immunoglobulin-like domains have at least one occupied N-glycosylation site. MS/MS analyses of glycopeptides and deamidated, deglycosylated (PNGase F-treated) peptides from ectopically expressed VEGFR-2 in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells identified N-glycans at the majority of the 17 potential N-glycosylation sites on VEGFR-2 in a site-specific manner. The data presented here provide direct evidence for site-specific, heterogeneous N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation site occupancy on VEGFR-2. The study has important implications for the therapeutic targeting of VEGFR-2, ligand binding, trafficking, and signaling.

  19. Homogalacturonan-modifying enzymes: structure, expression, and roles in plants

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Fabien; Wattier, Christopher; Rustérucci, Christine; Pelloux, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the changes affecting the plant cell wall is a key element in addressing its functional role in plant growth and in the response to stress. Pectins, which are the main constituents of the primary cell wall in dicot species, play a central role in the control of cellular adhesion and thereby of the rheological properties of the wall. This is likely to be a major determinant of plant growth. How the discrete changes in pectin structure are mediated is thus a key issue in our understanding of plant development and plant responses to changes in the environment. In particular, understanding the remodelling of homogalacturonan (HG), the most abundant pectic polymer, by specific enzymes is a current challenge in addressing its fundamental role. HG, a polymer that can be methylesterified or acetylated, can be modified by HGMEs (HG-modifying enzymes) which all belong to large multigenic families in all species sequenced to date. In particular, both the degrees of substitution (methylesterification and/or acetylation) and polymerization can be controlled by specific enzymes such as pectin methylesterases (PMEs), pectin acetylesterases (PAEs), polygalacturonases (PGs), or pectate lyases-like (PLLs). Major advances in the biochemical and functional characterization of these enzymes have been made over the last 10 years. This review aims to provide a comprehensive, up to date summary of the recent data concerning the structure, regulation, and function of these fascinating enzymes in plant development and in response to biotic stresses. PMID:25056773

  20. Studies of high coverage oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using low energy positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazleev, N. G.; Maddox, W. B.; Weiss, A. H.

    2012-02-01

    The study of oxidation of single crystal metal surfaces is important in understanding the corrosive and catalytic processes associated with thin film metal oxides. The structures formed on oxidized transition metal surfaces vary from simple adlayers of chemisorbed oxygen to more complex structures which result from the diffusion of oxygen into subsurface regions. In this work we present the results of theoretical studies of positron surface and bulk states and annihilation probabilities of surface-trapped positrons with relevant core electrons at the oxidized Cu(100) surface under conditions of high oxygen coverage. Calculations are performed for various high coverage missing row structures ranging between 0.50 and 1.50 ML oxygen coverage. The results of calculations of positron binding energy, positron work function, and annihilation characteristics of surface trapped positrons with relevant core electrons as function of oxygen coverage are compared with experimental data obtained from studies of oxidation of the Cu(100) surface using positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES).

  1. Evaluation of high temperature structural adhesives for extended service, phase 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Hale, J. N.; Dumars, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of 3 experimental polymers from NASA-Langley and a commercially produced polymer from Mitsui Toatsu Chemicals as high temperature structural adhesives is presented. A polyphenylquinoxaline (PPQ), polyimide (STPI/LaRC-2), and a polyarylene ether (PAE-SO2) were evaluated as metal-to-metal adhesives. Lap shear, crack extension, and climbing drum peel specimens were fabricated from all three polymers and tested after thermal, combined thermal/humidity, and stressed hydraulic fluid (Skydrol) exposure. The fourth polymer, LARC-TPI was evaluated as an adhesive for titanium honeycomb sandwich structure. All three experimental polymers performed well as metal-to-metal adhesives from 219 K (-65 F) to 505 K (450 F), including humidity exposure. Structural adhesive strength was also maintained at 505 K for a minimum of 3000 hours. LaRC-TPI was evaluated as a high temperature (505 K) adhesive for titanium honeycomb sandwich structure. The LaRC-TPI bonding process development concentrated on improving the honeycomb core-to-skin bond. The most promising approach of those evaluated combined a LaRC-TPI polymer solution with a semi-crystalline LaRC-TPI powder for adhesive film fabrication and fillet formation.

  2. Lopap, a prothrombin activator from Lonomia obliqua belonging to the lipocalin family: recombinant production, biochemical characterization and structure–function insights

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Cleyson Valença; Andrade, Sonia Aparecida; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Ramos, Celso Raul Romero; Ho, Paulo Lee; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Using a cDNA library made from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristles, we identified a transcript with a 603 bp open reading frame. The deduced protein corresponds to Lopap, a prothrombin activator previously isolated by our group from the bristles of this species. The mature protein is composed by 185 amino acids and shares similarity with members of the lipocalin family. The cDNA encoding the mature form was amplified by PCR, subcloned into pAE vector and used to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. As for the native Lopap, the recombinant fusion protein shows enzymatic activity, promotes prothrombin hydrolysis, generates fragments similar to prethrombin-2 and fragment 1.2 as intermediates, and generates thrombin as the final product. In addition, structural bioinformatics studies indicated several interesting molecular features, including the residues that could be responsible for Lopap's serine protease-like activity and the role of calcium binding in this context. Such catalytic activity has never been found in other members of the lipocalin family. This is the first report describing the recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a Lonomia obliqua lipocalin, as well as the structural features that could be responsible for its serine protease-like catalytic activity. PMID:16734589

  3. Efficient EM Simulation of GCPW Structures Applied to a 200-GHz mHEMT Power Amplifier MMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Roca, Yolanda; Amado-Rey, Belén; Wagner, Sandrine; Leuther, Arnulf; Bangert, Axel; Gómez-Alcalá, Rafael; Tessmann, Axel

    2017-01-01

    The behaviour of grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW) structures in the upper millimeter-wave range is analyzed by using full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulations. A methodological approach to develop reliable and time-efficient simulations is proposed by investigating the impact of different simplifications in the EM modelling and simulation conditions. After experimental validation with measurements on test structures, this approach has been used to model the most critical passive structures involved in the layout of a state-of-the-art 200-GHz power amplifier based on metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (mHEMTs). This millimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) has demonstrated a measured output power of 8.7 dBm for an input power of 0 dBm at 200 GHz. The measured output power density and power-added efficiency (PAE) are 46.3 mW/mm and 4.5 %, respectively. The peak measured small-signal gain is 12.7 dB (obtained at 196 GHz). A good agreement has been obtained between measurements and simulation results.

  4. Investigation of the enzymology and pharmacology of novel substrates and inhibitors of dopamine beta-monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, S.F.

    1987-01-01

    Dopamine beta-monooxygenase (DBM) was shown to catalyze the selenoxidation of 2-(phenylseleno)ethylamines, selenium-containing analogues of dopamine, by the normal monooxygenase pathway. The compounds 2-(phenylseleno)-ethylamine (PAESe), 2-(4'-hydroxyphenylseleno)ethylamine (pOH PAESe), and 1-(phenylseleno)-2-propylamine (Me PAESe) were synthesized and fully characterized as DBM substrates. Two other classes of compounds were investigated as potential alternate substrates for DBM. The possibility of stereoselective sulfonylation of 2-(phenylsulfenyl)- ethylamine (PAESO) was considered. A unique class of compounds, 2-(phenylthio)ethanols were designed and synthesized as DBM substrates but were found to be a novel class of potent competitive inhibitors of DBM with respect to tyramine. Preliminary experiments were also performed in an effort to demonstrate that the potent antihypertensive and indirect-acting sympathomimetic activity of 2-(phenylthio)ethylamine (PAES) was a result of DBM-oxygenation of this compound in vivo. The specific reserpine-sensitive uptake of (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine into rat brain synaptosomes was demonstrated as was the synaptosomal conversion of (/sup 3/H)-dopamine to (/sup 3/H)-norepinephrine.

  5. Large Preferred Region for Packaging of Bacterial DNA by phiC725A, a Novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa F116-Like Bacteriophage

    PubMed Central

    Pourcel, Christine; Midoux, Cédric; Hauck, Yolande; Vergnaud, Gilles; Latino, Libera

    2017-01-01

    Bacteriophage vB_PaeP_PAO1_phiC725A (short name phiC725A) was isolated following mitomycin C induction of C7-25, a clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain carrying phiC725A as a prophage. The phiC725A genome sequence shows similarity to F116, a P. aeruginosa podovirus capable of generalized transduction. Likewise, phiC725A is a podovirus with long tail fibers. PhiC725A was able to lysogenize two additional P. aeruginosa strains in which it was maintained both as a prophage and in an episomal state. Investigation by deep sequencing showed that bacterial DNA carried inside phage particles originated predominantly from a 700-800kb region, immediately flanking the attL prophage insertion site, whether the phages were induced from a lysogen or recovered after infection. This indicates that during productive replication, recombination of phage genomes with the bacterial chromosome at the att site occurs occasionally, allowing packaging of adjacent bacterial DNA. PMID:28060939

  6. Photopolymerization of phosphoric acid ester-based self-etch dental adhesives

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to gain more understanding on the photopolymerization mechanism and the role of individual monomers in the polymerization behavior of a PAE-based self-etch adhesive system with the presence of HAp and water. The photo-polymerization process of the model adhesive system (2MP / HEMA) was monitored by using real-time attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) technique. The effect of monomer ratio, HAp incorporation, and water content were investigated. The degree of conversion (DC) and the polymerization rate (PR) of the adhesives were determined to evaluate the polymerization efficacy. The results showed that the DC and PR increased consistently as the 2MP content increased from 30% to 70%, while they declined drastically as the 2MP content was further elevated to 100%. The incorporation of HAp considerably increased the DC and PR; however, the increase in water content was found to have negative influence on the photopolymerization. PMID:23370865

  7. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides.

    PubMed

    Preston, S L; Briceland, L L

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the rationale behind dosing aminoglycosides as a single daily dose versus traditional dosing approaches, we conducted a MEDLINE search to identify all pertinent articles, and also reviewed the references of all articles. Single daily dosing of aminoglycosides is not a new concept, having been examined since 1974. The advantages of this regimen include optimum concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, longer dosing intervals due to the postantibiotic effect (PAE), and prevention of bacterial adaptive resistance. Because of longer dosing intervals, toxicity may also be delayed or reduced. Costs may be reduced due to decreased monitoring and administration. Clinically, the regimen has been implemented in various patient populations with reported success. Questions remain, however, about optimum dose, peak and trough serum concentrations, and dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment or neutropenia. More clinical experience with this method in large numbers of patients has to be published. Pharmacists can be instrumental in monitoring patients receiving once-daily therapy and by educating health care professionals as to the rationale behind the therapy.

  8. Phage lytic enzymes: a history.

    PubMed

    Trudil, David

    2015-02-01

    There are many recent studies regarding the efficacy of bacteriophage-related lytic enzymes: the enzymes of 'bacteria-eaters' or viruses that infect bacteria. By degrading the cell wall of the targeted bacteria, these lytic enzymes have been shown to efficiently lyse Gram-positive bacteria without affecting normal flora and non-related bacteria. Recent studies have suggested approaches for lysing Gram-negative bacteria as well (Briersa Y, et al., 2014). These enzymes include: phage-lysozyme, endolysin, lysozyme, lysin, phage lysin, phage lytic enzymes, phageassociated enzymes, enzybiotics, muralysin, muramidase, virolysin and designations such as Ply, PAE and others. Bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria, do not contribute to antimicrobial resistance, are easy to develop, inexpensive to manufacture and safe for humans, animals and the environment. The current focus on lytic enzymes has been on their use as anti-infectives in humans and more recently in agricultural research models. The initial translational application of lytic enzymes, however, was not associated with treating or preventing a specific disease but rather as an extraction method to be incorporated in a rapid bacterial detection assay (Bernstein D, 1997).The current review traces the translational history of phage lytic enzymes-from their initial discovery in 1986 for the rapid detection of group A streptococcus in clinical specimens to evolving applications in the detection and prevention of disease in humans and in agriculture.

  9. Auger mediated positron sticking on graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirayath, V. A.; Chrysler, M.; McDonald, A.; Lim, Z.; Shastry, K.; Gladen, R.; Fairchild, A.; Koymen, A.; Weiss, A.

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) measurements on 6-8 layers graphene grown on polycrystalline copper and the measurements on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) sample have indicated the presence of a bound surface state for positrons. Measurements carried out with positrons of kinetic energies lower than the electron work function for graphene or HOPG have shown emission of low energy electrons possible only through the Auger mediated positron sticking (AMPS) process. In this process the positron makes a transition from a positive energy scattering state to a bound surface state. The transition energy is coupled to a valence electron which may then have enough energy to get ejected from the sample surface. The positrons which are bound to surface state are highly localized in a direction perpendicular to surface and delocalized parallel to it which makes this process highly surface sensitive and can thus be used for characterizing graphene or graphite surfaces for open volume defects and surface impurities. The measurements have also shown an extremely large low energy tail for the C KVV Auger transition at 263eV indicative of another physical process for low energy emission. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR 1508719 and DMR 1338130.

  10. CP-25, a novel compound, protects against autoimmune arthritis by modulating immune mediators of inflammation and bone damage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan; Jia, Xiaoyi; Wei, Fang; Wang, Chun; Sun, Xiaojing; Xu, Shu; Yang, Xuezhi; Zhao, Yingjie; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Huaxun; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2016-05-17

    Paeoniflorin-6'-O-benzene sulfonate (code: CP-25), a novel ester derivative of paeoniflorin (Pae), was evaluated in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) to study its potential anti-arthritic activity. AA rats were treated with CP-25 (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg) from days 17 to 29 after immunization. CP-25 effectively reduced clinical and histopathological scores compared with the AA groups. CP-25-treated rats exhibited decreases in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α) coupled with an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 in the serum. CP-25 treatment inhibited M1 macrophage activation and enhanced M2 macrophage activation by influencing cytokine production. Decreases in Th17-IL-17 and the Th17-associated transcription factor RAR-related orphan receptor gamma (ROR-γt) dramatically demonstrated the immunomodulatory effects of CP-25 on abnormal immune dysfunction. In addition, CP-25 suppressed the production of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, which supported its anti-osteoclastic effects. The data presented here demonstrated that CP-25 significantly inhibited the progression of rat AA by reducing inflammation, immunity and bone damage. The protective effects of CP-25 in AA highlight its potential as an ideal new anti-arthritic agent for human RA.

  11. On-line tests of organic additives for the inhibition of the precipitation of silica from hypersaline geothermal brine IV. Final tests of candidate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Lorensen, L.E.; Frey, W.P.; Snell, E.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Brine Treatment Test System at Niland, Imperial Valley, California, has been used to evaluate a number of cationic polymers and surfactants as scale control agents. An initial group of compounds was narrowed to four on the basis of their activity as silica precipitation inhibitors. Three of these and certain combinations of compounds were then given a 40-h test to determine their effectiveness in retarding scales formed at 220, 125, and 90/sup 0/C. The best single compound was Corcat P-18 (Cordova Chemical Co. polyethylene imine, M.W. approx. = 1800). It had no effect on the scale at 220/sup 0/C, but it reduced the scales at 125 and 90/sup 0/C by factors of 4 and 18, respectively, and it also has activity as a corrosion inhibitor. Other promising compounds are PAE HCl (Dynapol poly(aminoethylene, HCl salt)), which also somewhat reduces the 220/sup 0/C scale; Ethoquad 18/25 (Armak methyl polyoxyethylene(15) octadecylammonium chloride); and Mirapol A-15 (a Miranol Chemical polydiquaternary compound). The best additive formulation for the brines of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field appears to be a mixture of one of these silica precipitation inhibitors with a small amount of hydrochloric acid and a phosphonate crystalline deposit inhibitor. Speculations are presented as to the mechanism of inhibition of silica precipitation and recommendations for further testing of these additives.

  12. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure during pregnancy disturbs temporal sex determination regulation in mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongan; Liu, Wei; Yang, Qing; Yu, Mingxi; Zhang, Zhou

    2015-10-02

    Animal researches and clinical studies have supported the relevance between phthalates exposure and testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). These disorders may comprise common origin in fetal life, especially during sex determination and differentiation, where the mechanism remains unclear. The present study evaluated the disturbances in gene regulatory networks of sex determination in fetal mouse by in utero Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure. Temporal expression of key sex determination genes were examined during the critical narrow time window, using whole-mount in situ hybridization and quantitative-PCR. DEHP exposure resulted in significant reduction in mRNA of Sry during sex determination from gestation day (GD) 11.0 to 11.5 in male fetal mice, and the increasing of Sry expression to threshold level on GD 11.5 was delayed. Meanwhile, Gadd45g and Gata4, the upstream genes of Sry, and downstream gene Sox9 were also significantly downregulated in expression. In fetal females, the expression of Wnt4 and beta-catenin were up-regulated by DEHP exposure. Taken together, the results suggest that the potential mechanism of gonadal development disorder by DEHP may origin from repression of important male sex determination signaling pathway, involving Gadd45g → Gata4 → Sry → Sox9. The results would promote a better understanding of the association between phthalate esters (PAEs) exposure and the reductive disorder.

  13. Reliable, rapid and simple method for the analysis of phthalates in sediments by ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by head space-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, V; Moscoso-Pérez, C; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a new reliable, simple and fast method for the determination of six PAEs in sediments, based on ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination (GC-MS), is proposed. The extraction parameters were studied, and the most favourable conditions were selected. The analytical features of the method were calculated: matrix effect, accuracy (ranged from 90% to 111%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD <10%), detection and quantification limits of the method (ranged from 0.001µgg(-1) (DOP) to 0.142µgg(-1) (DEP)), and satisfactory results were obtained. Major advantages of this approach are low consumption of reagents and solvents, no clean-up or evaporation steps were required and minimum sample manipulation. In addition, cross contamination from glassware, solvents and samples is minimized, thus procedural blanks are keeping to a minimum.. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples from Galician coast (NW Spain). The proposed method allows the application in routine laboratory conditions and its implementation in environmental monitoring studies under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  14. Integration of the instrument control electronics for the ESPRESSO spectrograph at ESO-VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mégevand, D.; Riva, M.; Santin, P.

    2016-07-01

    ESPRESSO, the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations of the ESO - Very Large Telescope site, is now in its integration phase. The large number of functions of this complex instrument are fully controlled by a Beckhoff PLC based control electronics architecture. Four small and one large cabinets host the main electronic parts to control all the sensors, motorized stages and other analogue and digital functions of ESPRESSO. The Instrument Control Electronics (ICE) is built following the latest ESO standards and requirements. Two main PLC CPUs are used and are programmed through the TwinCAT Beckhoff dedicated software. The assembly, integration and verification phase of ESPRESSO, due to its distributed nature and different geographical locations of the consortium partners, is quite challenging. After the preliminary assembling and test of the electronic components at the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste and the test of some electronics and software parts at ESO (Garching), the complete system for the control of the four Front End Unit (FEU) arms of ESPRESSO has been fully assembled and tested in Merate (Italy) at the beginning of 2016. After these first tests, the system will be located at the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) until the Preliminary Acceptance Europe (PAE) and finally shipped to Chile for the commissioning. This paper describes the integration strategy of the ICE workpackage of ESPRESSO, the hardware and software tests that have been performed, with an overall view of the experience gained during these project's phases.

  15. Properties and evolution of an alcohol dehydrogenase from the Crenarchaeota Pyrobaculum aerophilum.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Annalisa; Rosso, Francesco; Barbarisi, Alfonso; Labella, Tullio; D'Auria, Sabato

    2010-08-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that belongs to the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) superfamily was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrobaculum aerophilum. The P. aerophilum ADH gene (Pae2687) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (PyAeADHII) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The PyAeADHII belongs to a medium chain class because its monomer size is 330 residues and even if it is structurally similar to other enzymes belonging to MDR superfamily, it lacks key residues involved in the coordination of the catalytic Zn ion and in the binding of alcoholic substrates typical of other ADHs. Consistently, PyAeADHII does not show activity on a large number of alcohols, aldheydes or ketones. It is active only when alpha-tetralone is used as a substrate. The enzyme has a strict requirement for NADP(H) as the coenzyme and has remarkable thermophilicity, displaying activity at temperatures up to 95 degrees C. The study of the metabolic pathways of P. aerophilum can provide information on the evolution of genes and enzymes and may be crucial for understanding the evolution of eukaryotic cells.

  16. Low energy positron beam system for the investigation of 2D and porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysler, M. D.; Chirayath, V. A.; Mcdonald, A. D.; Gladen, R. W.; Fairchild, A. J.; Koymen, A. R.; Weiss, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    An advanced variable energy positron beam (~2 eV to 20 keV) has been designed, tested and utilized for coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) measurements at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). A high efficiency solidified rare gas (Neon) moderator was used for the generation of a slow positron beam. The gamma rays produced as a result of the annihilation of positrons with the sample electrons are measured using a high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) detector. Modifications to the system, currently underway, permits simultaneous measurements utilizing Positron annihilation induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and CDB. The tendency of positrons to become trapped in an image potential well at the surface will allow the new system to be used in measurements of the chemical structure of surfaces, internal or external and interfaces. The system will utilize a time of flight (TOF) technique for electron energy measurements. A 3m flight path from the sample to a micro-channel plate (MCP) in the new system will give it superior energy resolution at higher electron energies as compared to previous TOF systems utilizing shorter flight paths.

  17. AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor on Sapphire Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sanghyun; Ghose, Kaustav; Zhao, Guang Yuan; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFETs) were designed, simulated and fabricated. DC, S-parameter and power measurements were also performed. Drift-diffusion simulations using DESSIS compared AlN/GaN MISFETs and Al32Ga68N/GaN Heterostructure FETs (HFETs) with the same geometries. The simulation results show the advantages of AlN/GaN MISFETs in terms of higher saturation current, lower gate leakage and higher transconductance than AlGaN/GaN HFETs. First results from fabricated AlN/GaN devices with 1μm gate length and 200μm gate width showed a maximum drain current density of ˜380mA/mm and a peak extrinsic transconductance of 85mS/mm. S-parameter measurements showed that currentgain cutoff frequency (fT) and maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) were 5.85GHz and 10.57GHz, respectively. Power characteristics were measured at 2GHz and showed output power density of 850mW/mm with 23.8% PAE at VDS=15V. To the authors knowledge this is the first report of a systematic study of AlN/GaN MISFETs addressing their physical modeling and experimental high-frequency characteristics including the power performance.

  18. Dispersion, High-Frequency and Power Characteristics of AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors with in-situ MOCVD Deposited Si3N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sanghyun; Cho, Eunjung; Aroshvili, Giorgi; Jin, Chong; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Considine, Laurence

    The paper presents a systematic study of in-situ passivated AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFETs) with submicron gates. DC, high frequency small signal, large signal and low frequency dispersion effects are reported. The DC characteristics are analyzed in conjunction with the power performance of the device at high frequencies. Studies of the low frequency characteristics are presented and the results are compared with those of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). Small signal measurements showed a current gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency of 49.9GHz and 102.3GHz respectively. The overall characteristics of the device include a peak current density of 335mA/mm, peak extrinsic transconductance of 130mS/mm, a maximum output power density of 533mW/mm with peak power added efficiency (P.A.E.) of 41.3% and linear gain of 17dB. The maximum frequency dispersion of transconductance and output resistance of the fabricated MISFETs is 20% and 21% respectively.

  19. Environmental distribution and associated human health risk due to trace elements and organic compounds in soil in Jiangxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yanguo; Li, Jiao; Wu, Jin; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Chen, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    The government of China launched its first national soil quality and pollution survey (NSQPS) during April 2006 to December 2013. Data gathered in several earlier soil surveys were rarely used to understand the status of pollution. In this study, the dataset collected at the provincial level was analyzed for the first time. Concentrations, distribution, diversity, and human health risks of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) and organic pollutants (benzene hexachloride (BHCs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs)) in surface soil samples collected across Jiangxi province,China were presented. The results showed that, the proportion of contaminants with concentrations higher than their corresponding regulatory reference value ranged from 0.12% to 17%. It is worth note that, the local residents are exposed to moderate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks at some sites. The comprehensive analysis of soil pollutants provide baseline information for establishing a long-term soil environmental monitoring program in Jiangxi province, China.

  20. The impact of long term exposure to phthalic acid esters on reproduction in Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongyong; Yang, Yuanjin; Gao, Yong; Wang, Xianfeng; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-08-01

    The environmental risk of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) is of great concern. We investigated the reproductive impairment of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) on Chinese rare minnow, an endemic fish inhabiting the upper streams of the Yangtze River. Chinese rare minnow larvae were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DEHP (0, 4.2, 13.3, and 40.8 μg/L) for 6 months. Plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol levels decreased in females, accompanied by downregulation of cyp19a and cyp17 gene transcription in ovary. Increases in plasma testosterone concentration were observed in males, accompanied by downregulation of cyp19a gene transcription in testes. Hepatic VTG gene transcription was upregulated in males and females. Exposure to DEHP reduced egg production and inhibited oocyte maturation in females and retarded spermiation in males. Decreased egg protein content was measured in F1 embryos. These results indicate that long-term exposure to low concentrations of DEHP (13.3 μg/L) causes endocrine disruption and impairs fish reproduction.