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Sample records for paecilomyces lilacinus thom

  1. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    PubMed Central

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development. PMID:24031361

  2. Paecilomyces lilacinus eumycetoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Hendrick M; Mathekga, Keneiloe; Sein, Pyu Pyu; Nemutavhanani, Dick L

    2009-08-01

    Eumycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and bone caused by true fungi. Most commonly, it affects the foot or hand. Fungi commonly reported to cause eumycetoma are Madurella mycetomatis, Madurella grisea, Phialophora jeanselmei, Cephalosporium recifei, etc. There have been several previous reports of human invasive infections by Paecilomyces lilacinus causing endophthalmitis, keratitis, chronic sinusitis, skin and soft tissue infections, and catheter-related infections. We report a case of eumycetoma caused by P. lilacinus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. lilacinus causing eumycetoma of the foot in the English literature.

  3. A mutant of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) is a novel biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited (40.4-97.9%) the extension of the leaf spots caused by S. sclerotiorum A at all tested concentrations. The genomic DNA sequences of the inserted T-DNA flanking obtained from pt361 strain was cloned, verified as a glycoside hydrolase 31 family by homologous analysis with other fungal strains, and named PGH31 (2556bp). Secondary structure prediction showed a domain (Glycoside hydrolase31). Three years field trial confirmed that the cell-free filtrates or spores suspension of pt361 achieved significant (p < 0.05) suppression of oilseed rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) from the Chagas disease vector, Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in an endemic area in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Lastra, Claudia C López; Pelizza, Sebastian A; García, Juan J

    2006-11-01

    A survey for entomopathogenic fungi of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans was conducted in two provinces of Argentina from March-December 2003. Field-collected insects that died in the laboratory were individually maintained in moist chamber and incubated at 22 degrees C. Triatominae adults infected with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus were found at El Quebracho (27 degrees 34'S-64 degrees 31'W), Santiago del Estero province, Argentina, in December 2003. Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultured and isolated from infected insects in SDAY, PYG and MEA media. Pathogenicity tests were conducted and positive results were recorded. The median survival time (MST) of T. infestans exposed to a P. lilacinus conidial suspension was 12.8 days, and 100% mortality occurred at 30 days post-treatment. This is the first record of natural infection caused by P. lilacinus in T. infestans in the world.

  5. Paecilomyces lilacinus Vaginitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Ron; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus, an environmental mold found in soil and vegetation, rarely causes human infection. We report the first case of P. lilacinus isolated from a vaginal culture in a patient with vaginitis. PMID:14519255

  6. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores.

    PubMed

    Holland, R J; Gunasekera, T S; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M H

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability.

  7. [Contact lens-associated Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis].

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, N; Alnawaiseh, M; Zumhagen, L; Eter, N

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 23-year-old otherwise healthy female patient with contact lens-associated Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis. The clinical findings stabilized after initial local antimycotic and antibacterial treatment; however, in the further course of local therapy an extensive relapse occurred which required treatment by perforating keratoplasty à chaud due to a penetrating corneal ulcer. The patient responded well to subsequent treatment with systemic and local antimycotic medication. After a few months HLA-matched keratoplasty was performed. During the follow-up time of 14 months there were no signs of recurrence of the infection.

  8. Paecilomyces lilacinus as the cause of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rockhill, R C; Klein, M D

    1980-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated on two separate occasions from the left antrum of a patient with chronic maxillary sinusitis. The clinical presentation and characteristics of the fungus and the sinus debris histopathology are discussed. Images PMID:7430339

  9. Pulmonary Paecilomyces lilacinus Infection in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Pawloski, Danielle R; Brunker, Jill D; Singh, Kuldeep; Sutton, Deanna A

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair cat was referred for an intermittent cough and wheezing of 3 to 4 months' duration. Thoracic radiography revealed atelectasis of the right middle and caudal lung lobes with hyperinflation of the accessory lobe, consistent with bronchial obstruction. Bronchoscopy confirmed a narrowing of the right mainstem bronchial lumen; however, positive-pressure ventilation resulted in a severe pneumothorax. A lateral thoracotomy and right caudal lung lobectomy resulted in complete resolution of the pneumothorax and respiratory signs. Histopathology and culture of the lung revealed Paecilomyces lilacinus. The cat was placed on itraconazole therapy for 6 months. Since dismissal from the hospital, the cat has not exhibited clinical evidence of wheezing, coughing, or dyspnea and is neurologically normal.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1257 - Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1257 Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251... residues of the microbial pesticide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 when used in or on all agricultural...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1257 - Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1257 Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251... residues of the microbial pesticide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 when used in or on all agricultural...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1257 - Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1257 Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251... residues of the microbial pesticide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 when used in or on all agricultural...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1257 - Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1257 Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251... residues of the microbial pesticide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 when used in or on all agricultural...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1257 - Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1257 Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251; exemption from... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251... residues of the microbial pesticide Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 when used in or on all agricultural...

  15. Efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus in Suppressing Rotylenchulus reniformis on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of rice-cultured Paecilomyces lilacinus on Rotylenchulus reniformis were studied in both greenhouse and field microplot tests with 'Rutgers' tomato. Numbers of R. reniformis were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by P. lilacinus, with suppression in the initial greenhouse test ranging from 46 to 48% for two rice + P. lilacinus treatments; the rice-only treatment caused a nonsignificant reduction of 25%. In the second greenhouse test, total R. reniformis numbers were restricted (P ≤ 0.05) by 41% by the rice + P. lilacinus treatment, whereas the rice-only treatment had a slight negative effect (16% inhibition, NS). Total numbers of R. reniformis were suppressed 59 and 36% at midseason and harvest, respectively, in microplots infested with P. lilacinus. The fungus was recovered from egg masses via isolations in the second greenhouse test. Shoot and fruit growth of Rutgers tomato were restricted by R. reniformis in the initial greenhouse test irrespective of P. lilacinus treatment, but this nematode did not affect fresh shoot weights in the second greenhouse test, The nematode also limited shoot growth of Rutgers tomato in microplots, and P. lilacinus suppressed R. reniformis numbers sufficiently to prevent related impairment of shoot and fruit growth. This study indicated that P. lilacinus has detrimental effects on R. reniformis population development under both greenhouse and field microplot conditions. PMID:19279933

  16. Paecilomyces lilacinus septic olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Karl M; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2012-05-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a filamentous fungus that is a rare cause of infection in immunocompromised human hosts. We present a case of lilacinus septic olecranon bursitis in an otherwise healthy 78-year-old male. This patient's case was complicated by wound breakdown after bursectomy and appropriate anti-fungal treatment, requiring a local soft tissue rearrangement. This case demonstrates the need for appropriate and timely medical and surgical treatment in infections involving lilacinus, which are not isolated solely to systemically immunocompromised and medically-ill patient populations. In cases where the patient is systemically immumocompromised or has been rendered locally immunocompromised, it is essential to obtain a full culture work-up, including fungi.

  17. Purpureocillium, a new genus for the medically important Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Luangsa-Ard, Jennifer; Houbraken, Jos; van Doorn, Tineke; Hong, Seung-Beom; Borman, Andrew M; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Samson, Robert A

    2011-08-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus was described more than a century ago and is a commonly occurring fungus in soil. However, in the last decade this fungus has been increasingly found as the causal agent of infections in man and other vertebrates. Most cases of disease are described from patients with compromised immune systems or intraocular lens implants. In this study, we compared clinical isolates with strains isolated from soil, insects and nematodes using 18S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) sequences. Our data show that P. lilacinus is not related to Paecilomyces, represented by the well-known thermophilic and often pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii. The new genus name Purpureocillium is proposed for P. lilacinus and the new combination Purpureocillium lilacinum is made here. Furthermore, the examined Purpureocillium lilacinum isolated grouped in two clades based on ITS and partial TEF sequences. The ITS and TEF sequences of the Purpureocillium lilacinum isolates used for biocontrol of nematode pests are identical to those causing infections in (immunocompromised) humans. The use of high concentrations of Purpureocillium lilacinum spores for biocontrol poses a health risk in immunocompromised humans and more research is needed to determine the pathogenicity factors of Purpureocillium lilacinum. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical experience treating Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis in four patients

    PubMed Central

    Monden, Yu; Sugita, Minoru; Yamakawa, Ryoji; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2012-01-01

    Background Paecilomyces lilacinus is a saprobic fungus that occasionally causes keratitis in infected patients. Voriconazole, a triazole antifungal agent, is often administered to treat P. lilacinus keratitis, because it is resistant to many antifungal agents. However, some patients may not require voriconazole. Here, we report our experience of treating this infection and compare outcomes between patients treated with or without voriconazole. Subjects We retrospectively reviewed four cases of infectious keratitis caused by P. lilacinus and compared treatment course and outcomes among the four cases. Observations P. lilacinus was isolated from corneal cultures in all four cases. Three cases developed corneal perforation and underwent keratoplasty. Voriconazole was given in two cases with severe and refractory infection. Both required long-term treatment despite the effectiveness of voriconazole. They also had a medical history of diabetes and corticosteroid therapy. In two cases that were not treated with voriconazole, the eye conditions improved with a short treatment period (2–3 weeks). Neither of these cases had a medical history of diabetes, nor had they used corticosteroids. Conclusion Although voriconazole is the most useful antifungal agent for treating P. lilacinus keratitis, this infection can be resolved by other treatments. Voriconazole should be offered to patients with diabetes and/or prior corticosteroid use. PMID:22791978

  19. DNA markers for differentiating isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Tigano-Milani, M S; Samson, R A; Martins, I; Sobral, B W

    1995-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an agent for the potential biological control of soil nematodes. Arbitrarily primed PCR was used to fingerprint the genomes of 28 isolates of this fungus. Most (72%) of the isolates originated from soil of different regions of Brazil. Fourteen 10-mer oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence revealed 293 scorable binary characters. Distinct genotypes were obtained for each isolate. Cluster analysis showed a high level of variability among these genotypes. The similarity among pairwise comparisons of the isolates varied from 84.3% to 7.6%, with a mean of 63.5%. No clearly defined phenetic groups were identified by cluster or multivariate analyses. No correlation with geographical origin or host was detected. In addition, PCR with four pairs of consensus tRNA gene primers was performed on a subsample of 12 P. lilacinus isolates, three P. farinosus isolates, two P. fumosoroseus isolates, and one isolate of P. amoenoroseus. An inferred phylogeny based on 112 binary characters obtained by tRNA-PCR showed a monophyletic group which contained most of the P. lilacinus isolates. In contrast, three isolates of P. farinosus were not in a monophyletic group under the inferred phylogeny. These results suggest that tRNA fingerprinting could provide a valuable tool which could be used to develop the molecular taxonomy of Paecilomyces, as morphological characteristics of asexual structures cannot entirely resolve species.

  20. Paecilomide, a new acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Teles, Ana Paula C; Takahashi, Jacqueline A

    2013-05-06

    Fungi are some of the most important organisms in the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. This success is related to the advances in biotechnology and also to the possibility of working with techniques such as the "OSMAC" (one strain-many compounds) to achieve different fungal secondary metabolites profiles upon modifying the culturing conditions. Using this approach, the fungal species Paecilomyces lilacinus was cultivated in potato dextrose broth under 14 different fermentative conditions by adding the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium to the growing medium in order to provide biotic stress. S. typhimurium was added alive or after inactivation by autoclave or microwave irradiation in different stages of fungal growth. Extracts were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, a medium polarity solvent in order to avoid extracting culturing media components. Production of fatty acids of relevance for the pharmaceutical and food industries was enhanced by the modified fermentative conditions and they were identified and quantified. The extracts were evaluated for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and the more active extract (91±2.91% inhibition) was prepared in large scale. From this active P. lilacinus extract, a novel pyridone alkaloid, named Paecilomide, was isolated and its structure was elucidated by modern nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and mass spectrometric analyses. Paecilomide (1) was also evaluated for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, presenting 57.5±5.50% of acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing the nematophagous biological control strain Paecilomyces lilacinus 251 for paecilotoxin production.

    PubMed

    Khan, Alamgir; Williams, Keith; Nevalainen, Helena

    2003-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a nematophagous fungus currently developed as a biological control agent. In order to evaluate potential toxin production, culture extract and concentrated culture supernatant of P. lilacinus strain 251 were tested against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis was carried out to compare the chromatograms of P. lilacinus strain 251 with the chromatogram of known paecilotoxin. It was found that the 251 strain of P. lilacinus did not produce detectable levels of paecilotoxin or other toxins with antimicrobial activity.

  2. Conversion of food waste into biofertilizer for the biocontrol of root knot nematode by Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen; Zhang, You-Chi; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of converting food waste into nematocidal biofertilizer by nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (P. lilacinus) was investigated. The culture conditions of P. lilacinus were optimized through response surface methodology. Results showed that fermentation time, the amount of food waste, initial pH and temperature were most important factors for P. lilacinus production. The P. lilacinus production under optimized conditions was 10(9.6 ± 0.3) conidia mL⁻¹. After fermentation, the chemical oxygen demand concentration of food waste was efficiently decreased by 81.92%. Moreover, the property evaluation of the resultant food waste as biofertilizer indicates its high quality with reference to the standard released by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture. The protease activity and nematocidal ability of P. lilacinus cultured by food waste were 10.8% and 27% higher than those by potato dextrose agar, respectively.

  3. Paecilomyces lilacinus catheter-related fungemia in an immunocompromised pediatric patient.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, T Q; Ogden, A K; Tillman, J; Demmler, G J; Rinaldi, M G

    1992-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus catheter-related fungemia in an immunocompromised child is reported. The presence of a central venous catheter and the patient's immunocompromised status were felt to be predisposing factors for this unusual infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of P. lilacinus catheter-related fungemia, and our patient may be the youngest reported patient with this mycosis who was cured. Images PMID:1401021

  4. Multiple gene genealogical analyses of a nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Li, Heng; Bi, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2013-08-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a geographically widespread nematophagous fungus and a promising biological control agent against plant parasitic nematodes. However, relatively little is known about its patterns of genetic variation through its broad geographic and ecological contexts. In this study, we analyzed the genetic variation of 2 virulence-associated genes (PLS and PLC) and 4 housekeeping gene fragments (ITS, RPB1, RPB2, and β-tubulin) among 80 P. lilacinus specimens collected from 7 locations in China. Various degrees of polymorphism and haplotype diversity were observed among the six gene fragments. However, no genetic differentiation was observed among the geographic populations, consistent with extensive gene flow among these geographic populations of P. lilacinus in China. Our analysis also suggested that clonal reproduction was the predominant mode of reproduction in natural populations of P. lilacinus.

  5. Paecilomyces lilacinus causing debilitating sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gentle; Nash, Robert; Barai, Kushal; Rathod, Raksha; Singh, Arvind

    2012-03-26

    Since the discovery of the first documented case of Paecilomyces in 1963, only five cases of Paecilomyces sinusitis have been described to date and all of them have predisposing factors such as immunocompromised status or prior nasal surgery. We present the first case of Paecilomyces lilacinus sinusitis in a fit young woman with no identified predisposing factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known case in the UK and in Europe. A 20-year-old Iraqi woman who has lived in the UK for the past five years presented with rhinorrhea, hyposmia, and nasal obstruction. She was previously fit and well and had no significant medical history. Imaging revealed a fungal infection that was eventually revealed on cytological examination to be P. lilacinus. P. lilacinus is both a difficult and important organism to identify because it has intrinsic anti-fungal resistance. In our case, the infection was severe and recurrent, and the organism demonstrated resistance to common oral anti-fungal agents. There was a delay in its diagnosis, owing to its similarity in appearance to Penicillium and a difficulty in distinguishing between the two without specialized knowledge of fungal taxonomy. In the field of otolaryngology, Paecilomyces is relatively unknown. Our intention is to raise awareness of this organism as well as to describe the challenges in its management.

  6. Paecilomyces lilacinus causing debilitating sinusitis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Since the discovery of the first documented case of Paecilomyces in 1963, only five cases of Paecilomyces sinusitis have been described to date and all of them have predisposing factors such as immunocompromised status or prior nasal surgery. We present the first case of Paecilomyces lilacinus sinusitis in a fit young woman with no identified predisposing factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first known case in the UK and in Europe. Case presentation A 20-year-old Iraqi woman who has lived in the UK for the past five years presented with rhinorrhea, hyposmia, and nasal obstruction. She was previously fit and well and had no significant medical history. Imaging revealed a fungal infection that was eventually revealed on cytological examination to be P. lilacinus. Conclusions P. lilacinus is both a difficult and important organism to identify because it has intrinsic anti-fungal resistance. In our case, the infection was severe and recurrent, and the organism demonstrated resistance to common oral anti-fungal agents. There was a delay in its diagnosis, owing to its similarity in appearance to Penicillium and a difficulty in distinguishing between the two without specialized knowledge of fungal taxonomy. In the field of otolaryngology, Paecilomyces is relatively unknown. Our intention is to raise awareness of this organism as well as to describe the challenges in its management. PMID:22443718

  7. Efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus (strain 251) for the control of Radopholus similis in banana.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Sikora, R A; Kiewnick, S

    2004-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a common soil fungus that has been isolated from many different habitats around the world. It is well known as a facultative egg pathogen of sedentary nematodes and also an important option to control Radopholus similis juvenile and adults in banana. This nematode antagonistic fungus may be used in an integrated approach to control banana plant parasitic nematodes. Dose response and form of application experiments were conducted with burrowing nematode, R. similis, on banana using a commercial water dispersible granulate formulated P. lilacinus (strain 251) product. The results revealed that nematode activity decreased in the presence of this fungus. An important correlation between rates of application and the degree of control of R. simnilis penetration and banana root weight was observed. The best control was achieved in the treatment were plantlets and soil were pre-inoculated with P. lilacinus and reinoculated during transplantation. The results showed that the biocontrol agent P. lilacinus is an excellent candidate for an IPM program against nematodes such as Radopholus similis.

  8. Survival of Paecilomyces lilacinus in Selected Carriers and Related Effects on Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Enrique; Barker, K. R.; Nelson, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory and microplot experiments were conducted to determine the influence of carrier and storage of Paecilomyces lilacinus on its survival and related protection of tomato against Meloidogyne incognita. Spores of P. lilacinus were prepared in five formulations: alginate pellets (pellets), diatomaceous earth granules (granules), wheat grain, soil, and soil plus chitin. Fungal viability was high in wheat and granules, intermediate in pellets, and low in soil and chitin-amended soil stored at 25 ± 2 C. In 1985 P. lilacinus in field microplots resulted in about a 25% increase in tomato yield and 25% gall suppression, compared with nematodes alone. Greatest suppression of egg development occurred in plots treated with P. lilacinus in pellets, wheat grain, and granules. In 1986 carryover protection of tomato against M. incognita resulted in about a threefold increase in tomato fruit yield and 25% suppression of gall development, compared with plants treated with nematodes alone. Higher numbers of fungus-infected egg masses occurred in plots treated with pellets (32%) than in those treated with chitin-amended soil (24%), wheat (16%), granules (12%), or soil (7%). Numbers of fungal colony-forming units per gram of soil in plots treated with pellets were 10-fold greater than initial levels estimated at planting time in 1986. PMID:19287586

  9. White-spot disease of Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus *

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-liang; Zhang, Chu-long; Fang, Wei-huan; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Trionyx sinens) in culture farms using an artificial warming system in Zhejiang, China, often show typical signs of white-spot disease such as white spots on their bodies, skin lesions, anorexia and eventually death. The sick turtles were mostly 5~80 g in weight. A suspected fungal pathogen was isolated from the sick turtles and verified as Paecilomyces lilacinus by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of its ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Detailed morphological examinations were also conducted to confirm the white-spot disease. PMID:18600789

  10. Purification and properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus D218.

    PubMed

    Oda, Y; Osaka, H; Urakami, T; Tonomura, K

    1997-04-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase was purified to homogeneity from the culture filtrate of Paecilomyces lilacinus D218 by column chromatography on CM-Toyopearl 650M and hydroxylapatite. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 48,000 by SDS-PAGE. Maximal activity was observed near pH 7.0 and 45 degrees C. The Km and Vmax values for PHB were 0.13(mg/ml) and 3750 (U/mg protein), respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed PHB and p-nitrophenyl fatty acids but not polycaprolactone and triglycerides.

  11. Characteristics of Paecilomyces lilacinus infection comparing immunocompetent with immunosuppressed murine model.

    PubMed

    Brito, Marcelly Maria dos Santos; Lima, Mariana da Silva; Morgado, Fernanda Nazaré; Raibolt, Priscila; Menezes, Rodrigo; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Borba, Cintia de Moraes

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of Paecilomyces lilacinus infection were evaluated using two murine experimental models: immunocompetent and immunosuppressed. The evaluation criteria for characteristics of infection were clinical signs, weight loss, survival rates, histopathological alterations and the number of viable fungal cells re-isolated from different organs; and those for immunological status were in vitro lymphoproliferative response, cell surface phenotyping and IFN-γ production. Morphological evaluation showed that P. lilacinus isolates presented morphological characteristics consistent with those described in the literature. The immunocompetent mice could be infected by the fungi, but they did not develop the disease, unlike the immunosuppressed mice, which showed clinical signs of mycosis in an environment of suppressed cellular immune response. The hypothesis of latent infection reactivation in mice was not confirmed. The difference observed in the infection rate of the two fungi isolates points to an intrinsic variation between strains of P. lilacinus and led us to hypothesise that even in the presence of immunosuppressed environment, the fungus virulence can play a role in the pathogenesis of hyalohyphomycosis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Biodegradation of feather wastes and the purification and characterization of a concomitant keratinase from Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q Y; Liao, M D

    2014-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus strain PL-HN-16 was found to have the ability to degrade feathers. During the degradation process, the broth initially turned as sticky as gelatin and then turned into fluid that means the feathers can be hydrolyzed completely. Keratinolytic protein (Ker) of aforementioned strain was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, HiTrap Butyl FF chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. The Ker of P. lilacinus PL-HN-16 had molecular mass of 33 kDa, the optimum pH 8.0 and temperature optimum at 40 degrees C. It used the soluble keratin as substrate. The enzyme showed high activity and stability over a wide range of pH (6.0 to 10.0) and temperature (300C to 600C) values but was completely inhibited by PMSF. Ker of P. lilacinus PL-HN-16 exhibited stability toward SDS. These promising properties make the enzyme a potential candidate for future applications in biotechnological processes as keratin hydrolysis and dehairing during leather processing.

  13. Effect of Population Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Colonization of Polyfoam Rooting Cubes by Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, D. Kelly; Benson, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Suspensions of Pseudomonas cepacia (strain 5.5B) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (isolate 6.2F) were applied to polyfoam rooting cubes for control of stem rot of poinsettia caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The populations of antagonists and colonization of rooting cubes by R. solani were monitored during a 3-week period. Colonization of cubes by R. solani was reduced in cubes treated with P. cepacia, but the population of P. cepacia decreased by as much as 97% during the test period. Increased colonization by R. solani was correlated with a decline in population of P. cepacia. P. lilacinus was more persistent than P. cepacia in cubes, with only a 21% reduction observed during the 3-week period. Colonization of the P. lilacinus-treated cubes by R. solani was significantly less than colonization of infested controls. No correlation existed between population of P. lilacinus and colonization of cubes by R. solani. PMID:16349353

  14. [Influence of ionizing radiation on activity of enzymes of antioxidant defense of Paecilomyces lilaclvus (Thom) Samson].

    PubMed

    Tuhaĭ, T I

    2011-01-01

    The level of activity of antioxidant protection enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) under exposure to ionizing radiation and without it in strain Paecilomyces lilacinus, showing radioadaptive properties, and in control one has been investigated. It has been established that the researched strains are characterized by the high level activity of superoxide dismutase (200-800 AU/mg protein), extracellular and intracellular catalase (0.02-40 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) and peroxidase (0.2-4 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein). Ionizing radiation was the inducer of significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity of the control strain (from the lack of influence to the change of activity by an order) and showed considerably less influence on their activity in the strain, showing radioadaptive properties (the activity changes by 40-50%). The complex response of antioxidant enzymes in investigated strains under the exposure to ionizing radiation has been revealed.

  15. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the chitinase gene from the facultative pathogen Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Dong, L Q; Yang, J K; Zhang, K Q

    2007-12-01

    To PCR-amplify the full-length genomic-encoding sequence for one chitinase from the facultative fungal pathogen Paecilomyces lilacinus, analyse the DNA and deduced amino acid sequences and compare the amino acid sequence with chitinases reported from mycopathogens, entomopathogens and nematopathogens. The encoding gene (designated as PLC) was isolated using the degenerate PCR primers and the DNA-Walking method. The gene is 1458 bp in length and contains three putative introns. A number of sequence motifs that might play a role in its regulation and function had also been found. Alignment of the translation product (designated as Plc, molecular mass of 45.783 kDa and pI of 5.65) with homologous sequences from other species showed that Plc belongs to Class V chitinase within the glycosyl hydrolase family 18. The phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analysis using mega (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis) indicated that these chitinases from mycopathogens, entomopathogens and nematopathogens, the majority of which belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 18, were clustered into two well-supported subgroups corresponding to ascomycetes fungal and nonfungal chitinases (bacteria, baculoviruses). Our study showed that chitinases from mycoparasitic, entomopathogenic and nematophagous fungi are closely related to each other and reaffirmed the hypothesis that baculovirus chitinase is most likely to be of a bacterial origin - acquired by gene transfer. Bacterial and baculoviral chitinases in our study are potential pathogenicity factors; however, we still cannot ascribe any specific function to those chitinases from the fungi. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the chitinase gene and its translation product from Paecilomyces lilacinus, which constitutes the largest number of formulated biological nematicides reported so far, this is also the first study to analyse and resolve the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary relationships among the chitinases

  16. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of Paecilomyces lilacinus strains with biocontrol activity against root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, T S; Holland, R J; Gillings, M R; Briscoe, D A; Neethling, D C; Williams, K L; Nevalainen, K M

    2000-09-01

    Efficient selection of fungi for biological control of nematodes requires a series of screening assays. Assessment of genetic diversity in the candidate species maximizes the variety of the isolates tested and permits the assignment of a particular genotype with high nematophagous potential using a rapid novel assay. Molecular analyses also facilitate separation between isolates, allowing the identification of proprietary strains and trace biocontrol strains in the environment. The resistance of propagules to UV radiation is an important factor in the survival of a biocontrol agent. We have analyzed 15 strains of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus using these principles. Arbitrarily primed DNA and allozyme assays were applied to place the isolates into genetic clusters, and demonstrated that some genetically related P. lilacinus strains exhibit widespread geographic distributions. When exposed to UV radiation, some weakly nematophagous strains were generally more susceptible than effective isolates. A microtitre tray-based assay used to screen the pathogenic activity of each isolate to Meloidogyne javanica egg masses revealed that the nematophagous ability varied between 37%-100%. However, there was no clear relationship between nematophagous ability and genetic clusters. Molecular characterizations revealed sufficient diversity to allow tracking of strains released into the environment.

  17. Oxidation and ring cleavage of dibenzofuran by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Manuela; Hammer, Elke; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2004-09-01

    The ability of the imperfect soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus to transform the environmental pollutant dibenzofuran was investigated. Transformation of dibenzofuran and related derivatives lead to 14 products, which were identified by UV spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biotransformation was initiated by two separate hydroxylation steps, leading to the accumulation of 4-monohydroxylated and 4-dihydroxylateddibenzofurans. Hydroxylation at both aromatic rings produced 2,7-dihydroxydibenzofuran, 3,7-dihydroxydibenzofuran, and 2,8-dihydroxydibenzofuran. Further oxidation yields ring cleavage of dibenzofuran, which has not been described before for filamentous fungi. The ring fission products were identified as benzo[ b]furo[3,2-d]-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid and [2-(1-carboxy-methylidene)-benzofuran-3-ylidene]-hydroxy-acetic acid and its derivatives hydroxylated at carbon 7 and 8 at the non-cleaved ring. Other metabolites were riboside-conjugates of 2-hydroxydibenzofuran and 3-hydroxydibenzofuran. The results showed that P. lilacinus transforms the hydrophobic compound dibenzofuran by phase I/phase II reactions to produce hydroxylated products and excretable sugar conjugates.

  18. Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 on Overseeded Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Crow, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus is an important parasite of both warm-season bermudagrass and winter overseed grasses used on golf courses in the southeastern United States. Field trials were conducted to study the effects of a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 applied to overseed grasses during the winter and early spring on population density of B. longicaudatus and bermudagrass health in late spring after bermudagrass broke dormancy. These studies found that P. lilacinus reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus in most cases, but not below damaging levels. Multiple applications of 1 × 1010 spores/m2 were generally more effective than 2 × 1010 spores/m2 in reducing nematode numbers and improving turf roots. These results indicate that application of this formulation of P. lilacinus strain 251 to overseeded turf in the spring may be a useful integrated pest management tool for B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass, but is not sufficient as a stand-alone nematode management tactic. PMID:24115787

  19. The use of real-time PCR and species-specific primers for the identification and monitoring of Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Simon D; Clark, Ian M; Pande, Sonal; Hirsch, Penny R; Kerry, Brian R

    2005-01-01

    The Paecilomyces lilacinus is the most widely tested fungus for the control of root-knot and cyst nematodes. The fungus has also been implicated in a number of human and animal infections, difficulties in diagnosis often result in misdiagnosis or delays in identification leading to a delay in treatment. Here, we report the development of species-specific primers for the identification of P. lilacinus based on sequence information from the ITS gene, and their use in identifying P. lilacinus isolates, including clinical isolates of the fungus. The primer set generated a single PCR fragment of 130 bp in length that was specific to P. lilacinus and was also used to detect the presence of P. lilacinus from soil, roots and nematode eggs. Real-time PCR primers and a TaqMan probe were also developed and provided quantitative data on the population size of the fungus in two field sites. PCR, bait and culture methods were combined to investigate the presence and abundance of the fungus from two field sites in the United Kingdom where potato cyst nematode populations were naturally declining, and results demonstrated the importance of using a combination of methods to investigate population size and activity of fungi.

  20. Heterologous expression of VHb can improve the yield and quality of biocontrol fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, during submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin

    2014-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  1. Biological activity of Paecilomyces genus against Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Ciarmela, M L; Sarmiento, P L; Minvielle, M C

    2000-10-01

    Saprophytic soil fungi can exert ovicidal and ovistatic effects on helminths with differing degrees of efficiency. The representatives of such fungi from temperate regions, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson and P. marquandii (Masse) Hughes, exhibit recognized ovicidal activity on some nematodes. We evaluated the action in vitro of P. lilacinus and P. marquandii on the zoonotic canine roundworm eggs of Toxocara canis. Eggs exposed and unexposed to fungal samples were observed by both light and scanning electron microscopy on days 4, 7 and 14 post-inoculation. Ovicidal activity of P. lilacinus on T. canis eggs was considered to be high and that of P. marquandii to be intermediate.

  2. In Vitro Assay of Paecilomyces lilacinus Biocontrol Effects on Fasciola hepatica Eggs Illustrated in Scanning Electron Micrographs

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Faezeh; REZAIE, Sasan; KIA, Eshrat Beigom; MAHMOUDI, Mahmoud; KHODAVAISY, Sadegh; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; GHARAGOZLOU, Mohammad Javad; ROKNI, Mohammad Bagher; MOWLAVI, Gholamreza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. Drug resistance, high costs of treatment and economic losses in meat production have emerged the need of alternative control measures into consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal activity of Paecilomyces lilacinus fungus on F. hepatica eggs. Methods: P. lilacinus isolated from the soil of natural environment was challenged on F. hepatica eggs to observe the bio control effect of nematophagous fungi on trematode helminth eggs. The study was conducted in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in 2015. Within 21 d of experiment, destructive effects exhibited on the eggshells were investigated using optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The effective role of P. lilacinus on damaging the eggs of F. hepatica was noticed. Conclusion: This finding is promising for advantageous use of nematophagus fungi as a natural constituent in hyper endemic areas for certain helminthic infections like fascioliasis with diverse kinds of herbivores as egg passer hosts. PMID:28761457

  3. Toluene gas phase biofiltration by Paecilomyces lilacinus and isolation and identification of a hydrophobin protein produced thereof.

    PubMed

    Vigueras, Gabriel; Shirai, Keiko; Martins de Souza, Daniel; Martins, Daniel; Franco, Telma Teixeira; Fleuri, Luciana Francisco; Revah, Sergio

    2008-08-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus consumed toluene as the sole carbon source in a gas-phase biofilter packed with perlite obtaining an average elimination capacity of 50 g m(-3) h(-1), a removal efficiency of 53%, and a final biomass of 31.6 mg biomass g dry support(-1). Hydrophobin proteins from the mycelium produced in the biofilter were purified by formic acid extraction and precipitated by electrobubbling, and the molecular weight was found to be 10.6 +/- 0.3 kDa. The peptide mass fingerprinting analysis of the purified hydrophobin by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight resulted in the identification of two peptides that presented high homology with sequences of class I hydrophobin proteins from other ascomycetous fungi when compared against the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. The yield of hydrophobin (PLHYD) from P. lilacinus was 1.1 mg PLHYD g biomass(-1). These proteins modified the hydrophobicity of Teflon by lowering the contact angle from 130.1 (+/-2) degrees to 57.0 (+/-5) degrees supporting hot sodium dodecyl sulfate washing. This work is the first report about biodegradation of toluene by the nematophagous fungus P. lilacinus in a gas-phase biofilter and the identification of its hydrophobin protein.

  4. Case of Paecilomyces lilacinus infection occurring in necrotizing fasciitis-associated skin ulcers on the face and surrounding a tracheotomy stoma.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Eiko; Fujisawa, Akihiko; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Yoshitsugu, Kanako; Odo, Masashi; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Igata, Toshikatsu; Noguchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man undergoing treatment for hemophagocytic syndrome developed Paecilomyces lilacinus infection in skin ulcers on the face and in the tracheotomy stoma. While his bone marrow was suppressed by chemotherapy with dexamethasone, cyclosporin and etoposide for hemophagocytic syndrome, dental infection led to subacute necrotizing fasciitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the right side of the face, resulting in a large area of soft tissue defects. Etoposide was discontinued, and prophylactic treatment with itraconazole was initiated. The ulcers resulting from necrotizing fasciitis were treated conservatively using trafermin and alprostadil alfadex ointment 0.003 %, and near-complete re-epithelialization occurred, except on the right lower eyelid, right buccal mucosa and perioral area. However, 6 weeks later, pustules/crusts started to form and break down repeatedly, leading to expansion of tissue defects on the face. Direct microscopic examination revealed fungal elements, and fungal culture identified Paecilomyces lilacinus suspicious twice some other day. Based on DNA extraction from the isolated fungus, this fungal strain was identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus. Cyclosporin and itraconazole were discontinued, and treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and a tapering dose of steroids was initiated. Cure was achieved in approximately 2.5 months after treatment initiation, and no relapse has been observed. The most important factor that ultimately contributed to the resolution of fungal infection might have been release of immunosuppression by discontinuing cyclosporin and tapering steroids.

  5. Effect of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens fungal extracts on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs.

    PubMed

    Hofstätter, Bianca Delgado Menezes; Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; de Souza Silveira, Julia; Persici, Beatriz Maroneze; Pötter, Luciana; Silveira, Andressa; Antoniolli, Zaida Inês; Brayer Pereira, Daniela Isabel

    Ancylostoma species have demanded attention due to their zoonotic potential. The use of anthelmintics is the usual method to prevent environmental contamination by Ancylostoma eggs and larvae. Nematophagous fungi have been widely used in their biological control due to the fungus ability to capture and digest free nematode forms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of four different fungal extracts of Paecilomyces lilacinus (n=2), Trichoderma harzianum (n=1) and Trichoderma virens (n=1) isolates on the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. Fungal extracts consisted of fungal broth culture supernatant without filtration (crude extract) and filtered broth (filtered extract), macerated mycelium (crude macerate), and macerated mycelium submitted to filtration (filtered macerate). The Ancylostoma eggs were obtained from the feces of naturally infected dogs. In vitro assays were performed in five replicates and consisted of four treatments and one control group. The activity of the fungal extracts of each evaluated fungus differed (p<0.05) from those of the control group, showing significant ovicidal activity. The hatching of the eggs suffered reduction percentages of 68.43% and 47.05% with P. lilacinus, and 56.43% with T. harzianum, when crude macerate extract was used. The reduction with the macerate extract of T. virens was slightly lower (52.25%) than that for the filtered macerate (53.64%). The results showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatchability of Ancylostoma eggs. The ovicidal effect observed is likely to have been caused by the action of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents.

  7. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  8. Catalytic function of a newly purified exo-β-D-glucosaminidase from the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Cheng-Fu; Chen, Yi-Yun; Cheng, Chih-Yu; Li, Yaw-Kuen

    2013-04-02

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, was found to grow on chitosanase-detecting plates. Besides an endo-chitosanase, an exo-β-D-glucosaminidase was purified by cation-exchange chromatography from this microorganism cultivated in M9 minimal media containing 0.5% chitosan as the sole carbon source. The molecular weight of the enzyme is 95kDa; the optimum pH and temperature for activity are 6.0 and 45°C, respectively. The purified exo-β-D-GlcNase promotes the hydrolysis of 95% deacetylated chitosan from its non-reducing end and liberates 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (GlcN) as the sole product; however, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose (GlcNAc) was not detected when chitin was used as the substrate. The cleavage pattern confirmed using real-time mass spectrometry shows that exo-β-D-glucosaminidase cleaves the glycosidic bonds between GlcN-GlcN and GlcN-GlcNAc but not between GlcNAc-GlcN or GlcNAc-GlcNAc. In the presence of a 10% solution of various alcohols, many alkyl-β-D-glucosaminides were obtained, indicating that exo-β-D-glucosaminidase is a retaining enzyme. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comparative Study on the Biosorption of Cd2+ onto Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA and Mucoromycote sp. XLC

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Xu, Xingjian; Zhu, Wei; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungi XLA and XLC isolated from Cd-contaminated soil were identified morphologically and phylogenetically as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Mucoromycote sp., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cr6+ in minimum mineral (MM) medium agar plates were 29,786, 2945, 9425, 5080, 1785 and 204 mg·L−1 for XLA and 11,240, 884, 9100, 2540, 3060 and 51 mg·L−1 for XLC, respectively. Favorable biosorption conditions for adsorption of Cd2+ by the tested fungi were investigated. Efficient performances of the biosorbents were described using Langmuir isotherm model, and the predicted maximum biosorption capacities for Cd2+ were 77.61 mg·g−1 of XLA and 79.67 mg·g−1of XLC. Experiments on desorption potential of biosorbents validated their efficacy at a large scale. Results showed that XLA obtained a desorption rate of 84.7% by 2% EDTA and XLC gained a desorption rate of 78.9% by 0.1 M HCl. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that groups of C–N, COO– for XLA and C–N, CH2 and phosphate for XLC were the dominant binding sites for Cd2+ biosorption. Our results indicated that the fungus XLA, rather than XLC, could potentially be used as an inexpensive, eco-friendly and effective bioremediation agent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater. PMID:26184169

  10. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  11. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  12. Pulmonary Paecilomyces in a Diabetic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Abolghasemi, Sara; Tabarsi, Payam; Adimi, Parvaneh; Kiani, Arda; Dolatshahi, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Paecilomyces species are among the most frequent saprophytes. Two species namely Paecilomyces lilacinus and Paecilomyces variotii are the most frequently isolated species from humans. Fungemia, endocarditis peritonitis, osteomyelitis and rarely pneumonia have been reported. We report a 74-year old diabetic woman with Paecilomyces variotii pneumonia. Paecilomyces variotii is a rare cause of pneumonia and in our knowledge, our case is the first case of pleural effusion due to this fungus. PMID:27114730

  13. Pulmonary Paecilomyces in a Diabetic Patient.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, Sara; Tabarsi, Payam; Adimi, Parvaneh; Kiani, Arda; Dolatshahi, Samaneh; Mansouri, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Paecilomyces species are among the most frequent saprophytes. Two species namely Paecilomyces lilacinus and Paecilomyces variotii are the most frequently isolated species from humans. Fungemia, endocarditis peritonitis, osteomyelitis and rarely pneumonia have been reported. We report a 74-year old diabetic woman with Paecilomyces variotii pneumonia. Paecilomyces variotii is a rare cause of pneumonia and in our knowledge, our case is the first case of pleural effusion due to this fungus.

  14. [A comparative investigation of adaptation to oxidative stress factors a strain of mycelial fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus from Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station and strains of the same species from territories with basic level of radioactive pollution].

    PubMed

    Aslanidi, K B; Ivanova, A E; Gessler, N N; Egorova, A S; Belozerskaia, T A

    2009-01-01

    An oxidative stress resistance in Paecilomyces lilacinus strain from Chernobyl Atomic Energy Station (ChAES) as well as in P. lilacinus strains from zones with control level of radioactive pollution has been studied. It was shown that radial growth rate of the colony of the ChAES strain in a range of glucose concentrations 0.002%; 0.2%; 0.5%; 1.0% showed maximum on the medium with 0.2% glucose. It was 1.5 times higher than growth rate of the control strains. Adaptation slowdown reaction has been found as a result of the first 10-30 min H2O2 treatment most profound in the ChAES (No 1941) strain. Under 10(-3) mol/l H2O2 growth of No 1941 resumed with 20% loss in growth rate. Cessation of growth of the control strain (No 10) was observed under these conditions. It has been shown that in the strain from ChAES zone adaptation to low glucose content in the medium (0.2%) was coupled with an increased resistance to oxidative stress.

  15. Susceptibility Testing and Molecular Classification of Paecilomyces spp.▿

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Maria Victoria; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Mellado, Emilia; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In vitro susceptibility profiles of 58 Paecilomyces clinical isolates are reported. Amphotericin B, itraconazole, and echinocandins showed poor activity against Paecilomyces lilacinus, while the new triazoles were active against it. Paecilomyces variotii exhibited a different susceptibility pattern, being susceptible to most antifungal agents apart from voriconazole and ravuconazole. PMID:18519716

  16. Susceptibility testing and molecular classification of Paecilomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Maria Victoria; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Mellado, Emilia; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2008-08-01

    In vitro susceptibility profiles of 58 Paecilomyces clinical isolates are reported. Amphotericin B, itraconazole, and echinocandins showed poor activity against Paecilomyces lilacinus, while the new triazoles were active against it. Paecilomyces variotii exhibited a different susceptibility pattern, being susceptible to most antifungal agents apart from voriconazole and ravuconazole.

  17. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita inoculum density and application rate of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 on biocontrol efficacy and colonization of egg masses analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Kiewnick, S; Neumann, S; Sikora, R A; Frey, J E

    2011-01-01

    The fungal biocontrol agent, Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL251), was evaluated for its potential to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato at varying application rates and inoculum densities. Conversely to previous studies, significant dose-response relationships could not be established. However, we demonstrated that a preplanting soil treatment with the lowest dose of commercially formulated PL251 (2 × 10(5) CFU/g soil) was already sufficient to reduce root galling by 45% and number of egg masses by 69% when averaged over inoculum densities of 100 to 1,600 eggs and infective juveniles per 100 cm(3) of soil. To determine the role of colonization of M. incognita egg masses by PL251 for biocontrol efficacy, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a detection limit of 10 CFU/egg mass was used. Real-time PCR revealed a significant relationship between egg mass colonization by PL251 and the dose of product applied to soil but no correlation was found between fungal density and biocontrol efficacy or nematode inoculum level. These results demonstrate that rhizosphere competence is not the key mode of action for PL251 in controlling M. incognita on tomato.

  18. Phylogeny of mitosporic entomopathogenic fungi: is the genus Paecilomyces polyphyletic?

    PubMed

    Obornik, M; Jirku, M; Dolezel, D

    2001-09-01

    We analyzed sequences of the divergent domain at the 5' end of the large subunit rRNA gene from the mitosporic entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces sp., Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces farinosus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium lecanii, Verticillium psalliotae, Beauveria bassiana, Aschersonia sp., Aschersonia placenta, ascomycetous Cordyceps sp., and Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenetic analysis showed P. fumosorseus as the best characterized out of the analyzed species with the B. bassiana clade as its sister group. Two of the P. farinosus isolates were invariably placed within the Verticillium cluster, which also contained C. militaris. The only analyzed P. lilacinus isolate appeared on the root of the hyphomycetous fungi and was characterized as the most distinct from all the hyphomycetous fungi tested. Polyphyly of the genus Paecilomyces was well supported by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In all trees based on the small subunit rRNA gene sequences obtained from the GenBank, V. lecanii, V. psalliotae, P. fumosoroseus, P. tenuipes and B. bassiana form, together with that of C. militaris, the best supported cluster in the tree. The rest of Cordyceps spp. constitute a distinct clade. Phylogenetic relationships derived from both tested DNA regions show polyphyly of the genus Paecilomyces and close relationships among entomopathogenic species of the genera Verticillium, Paecilomyces, and Beauveria.

  19. Identification of Paecilomyces variotii in clinical samples and settings.

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Verweij, Paul E; Rijs, Anthonius J M M; Borman, Andrew M; Samson, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a commonly occurring species in air and food, but it is also associated with many types of human infections and is among the emerging causative agents of opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised hosts. Paecilomyces can cause hyalohyphomycosis, and two species, Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii, are the most frequently encountered organisms. In the present study, a set of 34 clinical isolates morphologically identified as P. variotii or P. lilacinus were formally identified by sequencing intergenic transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (including 5.8S rDNA) and a part of the beta-tubulin gene. Three isolates were identified as P. lilacinus, and five of the presumptive P. variotii isolates did not belong to the genus Paecilomyces but were identified as Talaromyces eburneus (anamorph, Geosmithia argillacea) or Hamigera avellanea (anamorph, Merimbla ingelheimense). Applying the most recent taxonomy, we found that the clinical P. variotii isolates could be identified as P. variotii sensu stricto (14 strains), P. formosus (11 strains), and P. dactylethromorphus (1 strain). These data indicate that P. formosus occurs in clinical samples as commonly as P. variotii. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of P. variotii, P. formosus, and P. dactylethromorphus are similar and that all strains tested were susceptible to amphotericin B in vitro. P. lilanicus, T. eburneus, and H. avellanea had different susceptibility profiles; and flucytosine and voriconazole were the least active of the antifungal drugs tested against these species. Our results indicate that correct species identification is important to help guide appropriate antifungal therapy.

  20. Studies onPaecilomyces marquandii from nematode suppressive chinampa soils.

    PubMed

    Marban-Mendoza, N; Garcia-E, R; Dicklow, M B; Zuckerman, B M

    1992-05-01

    Two applications of isolates ofPaecilomyces marquandii from suppressive chinampa soils or P. lilacinus from Peru, fungi that parasitize nematode eggs, generally gave better control of tomato root-knot due toMeloidogyne incognita than did a single application. The effects on root galling by each of thePaecilomyces isolates varied between experiments; however, the ovicidal potential of the three isolates did not differ significantly. Proteins specific for each of the isolates were demonstrated by SDS gel electrophoresis. The results indicate thatP. marquandii is one of the natural soil organisms that contribute to nematode suppression in the chinampa agricultural soils.

  1. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Paecilomyces Species

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, C.; Pujol, I.; Sala, J.; Guarro, J.

    1998-01-01

    The MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and flucytosine for 52 isolates of Paecilomyces species were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, largely based on the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (document M27-A). The fungal isolates tested included 16 P. variotii, 11 P. lilacinus, 9 P. marquandii, 6 P. fumosoroseus, 4 P. javanicus, and 2 P. viridis isolates and 1 isolate of each of the following species: P. carneus, P. farinosus, P. fulvus, and P. niveus. The MFCs and the MICs at which 90% of isolates were inhibited (MIC90s) for the six antifungal agents were remarkably high; the MIC50s indicated that amphotericin B, miconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole had good activities, while fluconazole and flucytosine demonstrated poor efficacy. The ranges of the MICs were generally wider and lower than those of the MFCs. There were significant susceptibility differences among the species. All species with the exception of P. variotii were highly resistant to fluconazole and flucytosine; P. variotii was susceptible to flucytosine. Amphotericin B and the rest of the azoles showed good activity against P. variotii, while all the antifungal agents assayed showed low efficacy against P. lilacinus. PMID:9660991

  2. Identification of Paecilomyces variotii in Clinical Samples and Settings▿

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, Jos; Verweij, Paul E.; Rijs, Anthonius J. M. M.; Borman, Andrew M.; Samson, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a commonly occurring species in air and food, but it is also associated with many types of human infections and is among the emerging causative agents of opportunistic mycoses in immunocompromised hosts. Paecilomyces can cause hyalohyphomycosis, and two species, Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii, are the most frequently encountered organisms. In the present study, a set of 34 clinical isolates morphologically identified as P. variotii or P. lilacinus were formally identified by sequencing intergenic transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (including 5.8S rDNA) and a part of the β-tubulin gene. Three isolates were identified as P. lilacinus, and five of the presumptive P. variotii isolates did not belong to the genus Paecilomyces but were identified as Talaromyces eburneus (anamorph, Geosmithia argillacea) or Hamigera avellanea (anamorph, Merimbla ingelheimense). Applying the most recent taxonomy, we found that the clinical P. variotii isolates could be identified as P. variotii sensu stricto (14 strains), P. formosus (11 strains), and P. dactylethromorphus (1 strain). These data indicate that P. formosus occurs in clinical samples as commonly as P. variotii. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of P. variotii, P. formosus, and P. dactylethromorphus are similar and that all strains tested were susceptible to amphotericin B in vitro. P. lilanicus, T. eburneus, and H. avellanea had different susceptibility profiles; and flucytosine and voriconazole were the least active of the antifungal drugs tested against these species. Our results indicate that correct species identification is important to help guide appropriate antifungal therapy. PMID:20519470

  3. In Vitro Interactions of Approved and Novel Drugs against Paecilomyces spp.

    PubMed Central

    Ortoneda, Montserrat; Capilla, Javier; Pastor, F. Javier; Pujol, Isabel; Yustes, Clara; Serena, Carolina; Guarro, Josep

    2004-01-01

    We have evaluated the in vitro activity of 15 combinations of antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, albaconazole, ravuconazole, terbinafine, and micafungin) against four isolates of Paecilomyces variotii and three of P. lilacinus. The interaction of terbinafine with the four azoles was synergistic for 53% of the combinations, while the interactions of both amphotericin B and micafungin with the rest of antifungal agents were mainly indifferent. PMID:15215136

  4. Paecilomyces Keratitis in Western India: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gadewar, Shveta Bhimashankar

    2017-01-01

    Cases of ocular trauma with vegetative matter are commonly encountered in ophthalmic practice in India. Many of these present with keratitis/corneal ulceration, of which fungi have a predominant share. We report a case of fungal keratitis and graft infection with Paecilomyces lilacinus, which was successfully treated with topical and systemic Voriconazole. A farmer presented with corneal ulcer and hypopyon in left eye following vegetative trauma during farming. A provisional diagnosis of fungal corneal ulcer was made based on clinical features and topical anti-fungal therapy with Natamycin was initiated. After deterioration, Therapeutic Penetrating Keratoplasty (TPK) was performed to prevent corneal perforation. Postoperatively, the graft responded well to treatment initially. Signs of graft infection appeared on the second postoperative day with perforation within 72 hours. Culture report of recipient corneal button obtained after first TPK revealed growth of P.lilacinus. A second TPK was performed and patient was started on local and oral Voriconazole. After one month follow up, the graft was clear of infection. To our knowledge, this is a rare case reported from western India, at least in recent years. With no definite consensus existing regarding management in such a scenario, extensive research is needed in this direction.

  5. Genetic variability of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates revealed by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Tigano-Milani, M S; Honeycutt, R J; Lacey, L A; Assis, R; McClelland, M; Sobral, B W

    1995-05-01

    Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina:Hyphomycetes) is a fungus that is potentially useful for the bio-control of economically important agricultural pests, such as whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Arbitrarily primed PCR and PCR with tRNA consensus primers were used to analyze genetic variability among 27 P. fumosoroseus isolates, 15 of which came from the same host, B. tabaci, one P. lilacinus isolate, used as an outgroup, 9 previously unidentified Paecilomyces isolates. Fifteen 10-mer oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence revealed 322 scorable binary characters. Principal coordinates and cluster analysis of characters showed that most of the P. fumosoroseus and Paecilomyces sp. isolates were in three phenetic groups with > 65% internal similarity. Two of the three arbitrary phenetic groups were closely related (76% similarity) with the third group quite different (only 14% similarity) from the first two. The phenetic groups did not correlate with geographical origin or host species. Genetic variability of isolates infecting whitefly in Florida was detected. Isolates from B. tabaci were represented in two of the three groups, and different genotypes were identified even when they were isolated from an epizootic population in India and Pakistan. There was no evidence of host-specific selection of genotypes, as has been shown in other entomopathogenic fungi. Three isolates morphologically classified as P. fumosoroseus were clustered in a phenetic group which displayed only 14% similarity to the other isolates of this species. Seven isolated that presented problems for morphological classification were found to be similar or, in three cases, identical to other P. fumosoroseus isolates that dit not present problems for morphological classification.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Complexities associated with the molecular and proteomic identification of Paecilomyces species in the clinical mycology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Barker, Adam P; Horan, Jennifer L; Slechta, E Susan; Alexander, Barbara D; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2014-07-01

    Paecilomyces species are emerging fungal pathogens. Morphological identifications are complicated by similarities among the members of the P. variotii complex as well as to some Rasamsonia and Hamigera species. The purpose of this study was to compare matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with molecular diagnostic standards (i.e., multilocus DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2, D1/D2 regions, and part of the β-tubulin gene) for the identification of Paecilomyces spp. encountered in two clinical mycology laboratories. A total of 77 clinical isolates identified morphologically as P. variotii (n = 21), P. lilacinus (n = 52), and Paecilomyces spp. not otherwise specified (n = 4) were included. In accord with the most recent taxonomy, all P. lilacinus isolates were confirmed as Purpureocillium lilacinum by both sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. Fungi phenotypically resembling P. variotii or Paecilomyces spp. were identified by molecular techniques as P. variotii sensu stricto (n = 12), P. formosus (n = 3), P. dactylethromorphus (n = 3), Rasamsonia argillacea (n = 4), or R. piperina (n = 1) and at the genus level as an isolate of a Hamigera sp. and a Paecilomyces sp. There was 92.2% (71/77) agreement between the molecular and proteomic methods only after supplementation of the MALDI-TOF MS database with type strains. Paecilomyces variotii-like organisms required multilocus DNA interrogations for differentiation and account for all of the fungi whose identification was missed by MALDI-TOF MS. Overall, MALDI-TOF MS was a rapid and reliable alternative to multilocus sequencing. However, significant augmentation of the commercially available database was required to reproducibly identify this group of important human pathogens. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For

  7. Paecilomyces variotii in peritoneal dialysate.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, A; Heron, L G; Pritchard, R C; Butcher, R H; Powell, H R; Disney, A P; Tosolini, F A

    1993-01-01

    Four cases of peritonitis caused by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces variotii in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are reported. Removal of the Tenckhoff catheter and antifungal chemotherapy led to resolution of symptoms in all cases. Possible contaminating events are discussed, and reported infections with P. variotii are reviewed. PMID:8408561

  8. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ≥ 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases. PMID:26217315

  9. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ≥ 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases.

  10. Tannase production by Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2007-07-01

    Surface response methodology was applied to the optimization of the laboratory scale production of tannase using a lineage of Paecilomyces variotii. A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effects of variables, including temperature ( degrees C), residue (%) (coffee husk:wheat bran), tannic acid (%) and salt solutions (%) on the production of tannase during 3, 5 and 7 days of fermentation. Among these variables, temperature, residues and tannic acid had significant effects on tannase production. The variables were optimized using surface response methodology. The best conditions for tannase production were: temperature (29-34 degrees C); tannic acid (8.5-14%); % residue (coffee husk:wheat bran 50:50) and incubation time of 5 days. The supplementation of external nitrogen and carbon sources at 0.4%, 0.8% and 1.2% concentration on tannase production were studied in the optimized medium. Three different nitrogen sources included yeast extract, ammonia nitrate and sodium nitrate along with carbon source (starch) were studied. Only ammonia nitrate showed a significant effect on tannase production. After the optimization process, the tannase activity increased 8.6-fold.

  11. Topological quantum computation of the Dold-Thom functor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, Juan

    2014-05-01

    A possible topological quantum computation of the Dold-Thom functor is presented. The method that will be used is the following: a) Certain 1+1-topological quantum field theories valued in symmetric bimonoidal categories are converted into stable homotopical data, using a machinery recently introduced by Elmendorf and Mandell; b) we exploit, in this framework, two recent results (independent of each other) on refinements of Khovanov homology: our refinement into a module over the connective k-theory spectrum and a stronger result by Lipshitz and Sarkar refining Khovanov homology into a stable homotopy type; c) starting from the Khovanov homotopy the Dold-Thom functor is constructed; d) the full construction is formulated as a topological quantum algorithm. It is conjectured that the Jones polynomial can be described as the analytical index of certain Dirac operator defined in the context of the Khovanov homotopy using the Dold-Thom functor. As a line for future research is interesting to study the corresponding supersymmetric model for which the Khovanov-Dirac operator plays the role of a supercharge.

  12. Paecilomyces variotii as an Emergent Pathogenic Agent of Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Bruna; Aquino, Valerio R.; Paz, Alessandra A.; Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zavascki, Alexandre; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2013-01-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a commonly occurring species in air and food, and it is also associated with many types of human infections. Pneumonia due to Paecilomyces variotii has been rarely reported in the medical literature. The authors report a 48-year-old patient with refractory lymphoma who underwent allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation and developed pneumonia due to Paecilomyces variotii. They also review the published case reports of pneumonia caused by this fungus. PMID:23819077

  13. Paecilomyces variotii as an Emergent Pathogenic Agent of Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Bruna; Aquino, Valerio R; Paz, Alessandra A; Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zavascki, Alexandre; Goldani, Luciano Z

    2013-01-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a commonly occurring species in air and food, and it is also associated with many types of human infections. Pneumonia due to Paecilomyces variotii has been rarely reported in the medical literature. The authors report a 48-year-old patient with refractory lymphoma who underwent allogenic hematopoietic cell transplantation and developed pneumonia due to Paecilomyces variotii. They also review the published case reports of pneumonia caused by this fungus.

  14. What is a lunar standstill? Problems of accuracy and validity in the Thom Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, L.

    North West European late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (EBA) monumental alignments on the sun's solstices and the moon's standstills were first systematically studied by Thom (Thom 1971). Later research, since labelled 'the Thom paradigm' (Ruggles 1999), has rejected Thom's eclipse prediction and calendrical theories for these ancient alignments, yet retained his definition of a lunar standstill as the 'geocentric extreme declination' of the moon (Heggie 1981a, Heggie 1981b, Hoskin 2001, Morrison 1980, North 1996, Ruggles 1999, Thom 1971). Thom suggested that prehistoric 'extrapolation devices' calculated this mid-transit property of the moon from observed horizon alignments, but subsequent research has found no evidence for such devices. While a mid-transit definition of a lunar standstill is an accurate specification of the phenomena, it is based upon the premises of modern heliocentric astronomy and is unlikely to provide valid interpretations of the monument builder's use of horizon 'astronomy'. This paper attempts to demonstrate that the current theories used to explain the late Neolithic/EBA function of lunar standstill alignments do not fit the horizon, and therefore megalithic user, properties of lunar standstills. It is argued that a recent model (Sims 2006b) is more consistent with the archaeology and 'astronomy' of horizon-aligned monuments, and with any ethnographic elaboration of the Thom paradigm.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-07-07

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  17. New tyrosinase inhibitors from Paecilomyces gunnii.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ruili; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Sha; Zhang, Wancun; Peng, Fan; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Chen, Longyun; Bao, Guanhu; Li, Chunru; Li, Zengzhi

    2014-12-10

    Through screening 50 strains of entomopathogenic fungi and rescreening of 7 strains of Paecilomyces gunnii, a methanol extract of liquid-cultivated mycelia of P. gunnii was found to have the strongest tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) guided by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was employed for the isolation and purification of the active components, and three new compounds with half inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.11, 0.17, and 0.14 mM against diphenolase were obtained from the extract, respectively. Their chemical structures were identified by HRMS, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy as paecilomycones A, B, and C. Structure and activity studies showed that the tyrosinase inhibition activities are positively related to the number of hydroxyl groups on the paecilomycones.

  18. Chemical Components of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Sung-Hee; Sung, Gyoo-Byung; Chung, In-Mo; Hur, Hyeon; Lee, Min-Woong; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2007-01-01

    The caterpillar-shaped Chinese medicinal mushroom (DongChongXiaCao) looks like a worm in the winter and like a grass in the summer. The fruiting body has been regarded as popular folk or effective medicines used to treat human diseases such as asthma, bronchial and lung inflammation, and kidney disease. The fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces tenuipes that formed on the living silkworm (Bombyx mori) host were used in this examination. This study was carried out to investigate the proximate composition, soluble sugar, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and contents of the bioactive ingredient including adenosine and D-mannitol in the fruiting-bodies. The moisture content was 57.56%. Soluble sugars found were glycerol, glucose, mannitol and sucrose, and the contents exceeded 24 mgg-1dry weight. Total free amino acid content was 17.09 mg g-1dry weight. Arginine, glycine, proline and tyrosine were main amino acids. The content of oleic acid in fatty acids was high. Adenosine was more abundant in fruiting bodies than corpus. PMID:24015100

  19. Postoperative keratitis due to Paecilomyces: a rare pediatric case

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Ebru; Ziyade, Nihan; Atici, Serkan; Eda, Kepenekli Kadayifçi; Türel, Özden; Toprak, Demet; Oray, Merih; Cerikcioglu, Nilgün; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections like Paecilomyces keratitis have emerged in childhood recently. The diagnosis and treatment of Paecilomyces keratitis is difficult and the outcome is usually poor. Corneal culture should be performed on fungal media such as Sabouraud glucose neopeptone agar (SDA) as soon as possible for diagnosis. We report a rare case of Paecilomyces keratitis in an immunocompetent child, which was unresponsive to amphotericin B. The case was managed by a multidisciplinary approach involving the departments of ophthalmology, microbiology and pediatric infectious diseases. We want to draw attention once again that fungal keratitis caused by unusual agents are increasing. Physicians should consider fungal causes of keratitis, in patients with some predisposing factors like ocular surgery and prolonged use of topical corticosteroids. PMID:28154672

  20. On the relationships of Paecilomyces sect. Isarioidea species.

    PubMed

    Luangsa-ard, J Jennifer; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Manoch, Leka; Samson, Robert A

    2005-05-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Paecilomyces sect. Isarioidea species were analysed using the beta-tubulin gene and ITS rDNA. Maximum parsimony analyses showed that the section does not form a natural taxonomic group and is polyphyletic within the Hypocreales. However, a group was recognized, designated as the Isaria clade, to be monophyletic comprising of the following Paecilomyces species: P. amoeneroseus, P. cateniannulatus, P. cateniobliquus, P. cicadae, P. coleopterorus, P. farinosus, P. fumosoroseus, P. ghanensis, P. javanicus and P. tenuipes. Some of these species have teleomorphs in Cordyceps.

  1. Structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Yu, Na; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2016-03-01

    The parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces sinensis, is used to produce Cordyceps materials as a succedaneum of natural Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) in China. In this work, a glycopeptide (CPS-II) was isolated and purified from Paecilomyces sinensis. The result of HPLC indicated that CPS-II was a glycopeptide. The estimated average molecular weight of CPS-II was 2 × 10(6) Da. FTIR, methylation, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and CD were used for its structural analysis. The glycopeptide CPS-II was mainly composed of (1 → 3), (1 → 4) connected glucose and galactose as the backbone, there are (1 → 2,3,6) connected glucose, (1 → 3,6) connected mannose, and (1 → 6) connected galactose. Cell proliferation assay and morphological observations indicated that in a certain range of concentrations and time, CPS-II can significantly improve the proliferation activity of RAW264.7 cells.

  2. Peritonitis due to Thermoascus taitungiacus (Anamorph Paecilomyces taitungiacus).

    PubMed

    Korzets, A; Weinberger, M; Chagnac, A; Goldschmied-Reouven, A; Rinaldi, M G; Sutton, D A

    2001-02-01

    The first case of human disease due to the thermophilic ascomycete Thermoascus taitungiacus (the teleomorph of Paecilomyces taitungiacus) is presented. T. taitungiacus was recovered from four dialysate fluid specimens of a 57-year-old patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Identification was based upon cylindrical conidia, reddish orange nonostiolate ascomata, lack of growth at 20 degrees C, thermotolerance, and ascospores that appeared pale yellow, elliptical, thick walled, and predominately echinulate by light microscopy but irregularly verrucose by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Peritonitis Due to Thermoascus taitungiacus (Anamorph Paecilomyces taitungiacus)

    PubMed Central

    Korzets, Asher; Weinberger, Miriam; Chagnac, Avry; Goldschmied-Reouven, Anna; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Sutton, Deanna A.

    2001-01-01

    The first case of human disease due to the thermophilic ascomycete Thermoascus taitungiacus (the teleomorph of Paecilomyces taitungiacus) is presented. T. taitungiacus was recovered from four dialysate fluid specimens of a 57-year-old patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Identification was based upon cylindrical conidia, reddish orange nonostiolate ascomata, lack of growth at 20°C, thermotolerance, and ascospores that appeared pale yellow, elliptical, thick walled, and predominately echinulate by light microscopy but irregularly verrucose by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:11158134

  4. White mold on cultivated morels caused by Paecilomyces penicillatus.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Lan; Peng, Wei-Hong; Miao, Ren-Yun; Tang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Liu, Li-Xu; Wang, Di; Gan, Bing-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Morchella (morel) includes prized edible and medical mushrooms in the world. Since 2012, commercial cultivation of morels in the field has developed rapidly in China. However, coupled with the rapid expansion of morel cultivation, diseases have been become serious threats to morel production. White mold is one of the most serious diseases on cultivated morels. This study aimed to confirm this pathogen by following Koch's postulates, and to identify it using molecular evidence. Our results indicated that healthy Morchella fruiting bodies inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. isolates produced typical white mold symptoms, and the internal transcribed spacer sequences of the Paecilomyces sp. were 99% similar to that recovered from an epitype of Paecilomyces penicillatus. Therefore, P. penicillatus was considered to be the causative agent of white mold. White mold occurred from the initial harvest to the storage and preservation process, and it produced white mold-like symptoms on the caps and stripes of Morchella. This is the first time that white mold has been reported on cultivated Morchella. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Galactomannans from the cell walls of species of Paecilomyces sect. Paecilomyces and their teleomorphs as immunotaxonomic markers.

    PubMed

    Domenech, J; Prieto, A; Barasoaín, I; Gómez-Miranda, B; Bernabé, M; Leal, J A

    1999-10-01

    An alkali-extractable and water-soluble fraction (F1S) was obtained from cell walls of Paecilomyces variotii and species of the related genera Talaromyces, Byssochlamys and Thermoascus. The structure of the main polysaccharide of these fractions was studied and found to consist of a core of (1 --> 6)-alpha-mannopyranose partially substituted at 0.2 by chains of galactofuranose and shorter chains of mannopyranose. The differences in the regularity of the branching points and the length of the galactofuranose side chains are useful to distinguish between species. These differences were detected by immunological methods, since highly specific polyclonal antibodies were raised against these polysaccharides. Mycelium of P. variotii CBS 990.73A was stained by indirect immunofluorescence. The polysaccharides studied in this work differ from the one described for species from section Isarioidea, and this is another indication of the heterogeneity of the genus Paecilomyces.

  6. Comparison of preparation techniques of mixed samples (fungi-helminth eggs) for scanning electron microscopy by critical point drying.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, P L; Ciarmela, María L; Sánchez Thevenet, P; Minvielle, M C; Basualdo, J A

    2006-09-01

    We compared three preparation techniques for critical point drying of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson with Toxocara canis (Werner) Johnston and Taenia hydatigena Linneo eggs by scanning electron microscopy. We evaluated filtration (first), centrifugation (second), and phytoplankton network (third) in critical point drying methods. The first and third methods were advantageous for T. canis eggs because they preserved the quantity and quality of samples to obtain better images definition. The best technique for T. hydatigena eggs was the addition of phytoplankton network in critical point drying which preserved these helminth eggs.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1306 - Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97 in or on all food commodities... Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1306 Section... TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1306...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1306 - Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97 in or on all food commodities... Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1306 Section... TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1306...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1306 - Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97 in or on all food commodities... Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) Apopka strain 97; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1306 Section... TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1306...

  10. Paecilopeptin, a new cathepsin S inhibitor produced by Paecilomyces carneus.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Hidefumi; Okuda, Toru

    2002-11-01

    Paecilopeptin, a novel cathepsin S inhibitor, was produced and isolated from the culture supernatant of the fungal strain, Paecilomyces carneus. A spectroscopic analysis revealed the planar structure of paecilopeptin to be acetyl-Leu-Val-CHO. The stereochemistry of the constituent amino acids was analysed by chiral HPLC after oxidation and 6N HCl hydrolysis of paecilopeptin. The total synthesis of paecilopeptin was completed in six steps. Paecilopeptin inhibited human cathepsin S with an IC50 value of 2.1 nM in vitro.

  11. Characterization of an Indonesian isolate of Paecilomyces reniformis.

    PubMed

    Kalkar, O; Carner, G R; Scharf, D; Boucias, D G

    2006-02-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus (IndGH 96), identified as Paecilomyces reniformis, was isolated from long-horned grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Sulawesi, Indonesia. The phenotypic and molecular data identified the IndGH 96 as a P. reniformis. We present the first comprehensive characterization of this species using morphological features, sequencing of the ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region, D1/D2 region of 28S of rDNA, and a portion of the tubulin gene, and laboratory bioassays. Distinguishing features include a hyphal body stage during vegetative growth and the production of distinctly curved, light-green conidia. High dosage bioassays showed that IndGH 96 was infectious to both long-horned and short-horned grasshoppers but not to the house cricket, Acheta domestica, or to the lepidopterans velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis or fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. Phenotypic and genetic analyses suggest that IndGH 96 and other isolates of P. reniformis are more closely related to Nomuraea rileyi than to other species of Paecilomyces.

  12. Reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by culture filtrate of Paecilomyces farinosus J3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Park, Chul-Hong; Son, Hyung-U; Heo, Jin-Chul; Nam, Sung-Hee; Lee, Kwang-Gil; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Yoon, Cheol-Sik; Kim, Jong-Myeung; Shin, Yong-Kyu; Kim, Si-Oh; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of a culture filtrate of Paecilomyces farinosus J3. Various anti-tumor assays using B16 melanoma cells were carried out. Paecilomyces farinosus J3 significantly decreased the wound healing capability, invasiveness and angiogenic activity, which was confirmed by wound healing, human umbilical vein endothelial cell and invasion assays. Paecilomyces farinosus J3 strongly inhibited cell migration, tube formation and the angiogenic process in a concentration-dependent manner. Zymographic analysis also indicated a reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a 92-kDa gelatinase. Taken together, the results indicate that the anti-tumor activities of Paecilomyces farinosus J3 originate from the reduction of MMP-9 expression in B16F10 cells.

  13. Reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by culture filtrate of Paecilomyces farinosus J3

    PubMed Central

    LEE, HYUN-JIN; PARK, CHUL-HONG; SON, HYUNG-U; HEO, JIN-CHUL; NAM, SUNG-HEE; LEE, KWANG-GIL; YEO, JOO-HONG; YOON, CHEOL-SIK; KIM, JONG-MYEUNG; SHIN, YONG-KYU; KIM, SI-OH; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of a culture filtrate of Paecilomyces farinosus J3. Various anti-tumor assays using B16 melanoma cells were carried out. Paecilomyces farinosus J3 significantly decreased the wound healing capability, invasiveness and angiogenic activity, which was confirmed by wound healing, human umbilical vein endothelial cell and invasion assays. Paecilomyces farinosus J3 strongly inhibited cell migration, tube formation and the angiogenic process in a concentration-dependent manner. Zymographic analysis also indicated a reduced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a 92-kDa gelatinase. Taken together, the results indicate that the anti-tumor activities of Paecilomyces farinosus J3 originate from the reduction of MMP-9 expression in B16F10 cells. PMID:22977510

  14. Seeing and Sculpting Nematic Liquid Crystal Textures with the Thom construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bryan; Alexander, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    Nematic liquid crystals are the foundation for modern display technology and also exhibit topological defects that can readily be seen under a microscope. Recently, experimentalists have been able to create and control several new families of interesting defect textures, including reconfigurably knotted defect lines around colloids (Ljubljana) and the ``toron,'' a pair of hedgehogs bound together with a ring of double-twist between them (CU Boulder). We apply the Thom construction from algebraic topology to visualize 3 dimensional molecular orientation fields as certain colored surfaces in the sample. These surfaces turn out to be a generalization to 3 dimensions of the dark brushes seen in Schlieren textures of two-dimensional samples of nematics. Manipulations of these surfaces correspond to deformations of the nematic orientation fields, giving a hands-on way to classify liquid crystal textures which is also easily computable from data and robust to noise.

  15. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii, in an immunocompetent patient, following intraocular lens implantation.

    PubMed

    Anita, K B; Fernandez, V; Rao, R

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 70-year-old man who was admitted for anterior endophthalmitis following an intraocular lens implantation. He had developed a fluffy growth resembling a fungal mass on the iris of the right eye. The mass was removed and sent for fungal studies to our department. Direct microscopy revealed hyphae. Further studies helped identify the fungus to belong to genus Paecilomyces. This is a rare case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in an immunocompetent person.

  16. Characterization of a hydrophobin of the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.

    PubMed

    Lunkenbein, Stefan; Takenberg, Meike; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2011-08-01

    The entomopathogenic ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus (alternative name Isaria farinosa) synthesized a hydrophobin, irrespective of being grown in submerged or surface culture. The protein was extracted using trifluoroacetic acid and purified using preparative HPLC and SDS-PAGE. Partial sequences were obtained using ESI-MS/MS. The peptides were used as a start to apply a 'template switching oligo' protocol to elucidate the complete open reading frame of P. farinosus hydrophobin 1 (pfah1). The deduced protein sequence comprised 107 amino acids (10.7 kDa) including a 16 amino acid long hydrophobic signal peptide, showed a calculated pI of 4.56, and was interrupted by one intron. Phylogenetic analyses revealed relationships to hydrophobins of the ascomycetes Magnaporthe grisea and Metarhizium anisopliae. Based on solubility, hydropathy pattern and phylogeny PfaH1 was assigned to the class Ia hydrophobins. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Influence of the molecular parameters of anionic acrylamide copolymers on the value of the Thoms effect in direct oil emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichkanov, S. V.; Shamsullin, A. I.; Myagchenkov, V. A.

    2007-05-01

    The influence of molecular parameters (molecular weight and polydispersity in molecular weight) on the value of the reduced Thoms effect in 10% direct oil emulsions has been analyzed with the example of the specimens of anionic acrylamide copolymer of different molecular weight, which were obtained by the ultrasonic-destruction method. The prospects of anionic acrylamide copolymers for use as admixtures reducing the drag of turbulent oil-emulsion flows have been noted for the complex heterophase system studied.

  18. Shielding design and radioprotection for Andromede and ThomX accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horodynski, Jean-Michel; Wurth, Sebastien

    2017-09-01

    The Institut de physique nucléaire - Institute of Nuclear Physics (IPN) and the Laboratoire de l'accélérateur linéaire - Laboratory of the linear accelerator (LAL) are about to build two accelerators at the University Paris-Sud, Orsay. Andromede is a new imaging mass spectrometry instrument for surface analysis: the electron positron emission microscope (EPEM) will analyse impacts on a surface made by nano-particles (Au404) in the keV to MeV range to study ion-surface interactions. ThomX is a compact X-ray source (energy up to 90 keV - flux up to 1013 photons.s-1) that will produce X-rays using Compton backscattering effect between an electron beam and a laser. In order to use these machines in the same area, hutches are designed to comply with French regulations for radiation protection. This paper presents the methods used to design the hutches, complying with safety objectives, technical issues and budget.

  19. Biotransformation of p-coumaric acid by Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Sachan, A; Ghosh, S; Mitra, A

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the biotransformation of p-coumaric acid into p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) by Paecilomyces variotii Bainier MTCC 6581. As a result of p-coumaric acid degradation by P. variotii, three phenolic metabolites, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (p-HBAld), p-HBA and protocatechuic acid were formed. These phenolics were detected using TLC and HPLC. The identity of p-HBA and p-HBAld was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. Various analyses showed that 10.0 mmol l(-1) concentration of p-coumaric acid produced a maximum amount of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 200 mg l(-1), into the medium at 37 degrees C with high-density cultures. A catabolic pathway of p-coumaric acid by the fungus P. variotii is suggested for the first time. During the process of p-coumaric acid degradation, p-HBA accumulated in the medium as the major degradation product. Microbial degradation of cinnamic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid has continued to be the focus of intensive study. The main goal was to identify the microbial species capable of converting these substances into commercially value-added products such as benzoic acid derivatives or aromatic aldehydes.

  20. Toxicology of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Against Paecilomyces catenlannulatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengbo; Gao, Zhimou; Fang, Lejin

    2015-07-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have been extensively investigated to fabricate the graphene in recent years. The migration of GO nanosheets into the environment could lead to the instability of biological system. In this study, the GO nanosheets were synthesized and were characterized by SEM, high resolution TEM, XRD, Raman, FTIR and XPS techniques. Toxicology testing of GO nanosheets against Paecilomyces catenlannulatus (P. catenlannulatus) was performed by measuring the efflux of cytoplasmic materials of P. catenlannulatus. Approximate 35 % of the bacteria could survive on the surface of GO nanosheets compared to the control sample (~92 %) within 3 h, indicating that GO nanosheets presented significantly antibacterial activities. It was observed that the concentration of RNA in the solution was obviously higher than that of control sample, which could be due to direct contact of the bacterial cell. The results showed that the damage of cell membrane of P. catenlannulatus was attributed to the direct contact of the P. catenlannulatus with the extremely sharp edges of GO nanosheets, which resulted in the P. catenlannulatus inactivation. The less resistant to the damage of cell membrane was observed with increasing of GO concentration and contact time.

  1. Novel spirocyclic trichothecanes, spirotenuipesine A and B, isolated from entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces tenuipes.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Miyagawa, Yasuhiro; Sahashi, Yuko; Inatomi, Satoshi; Haganuma, Asami; Nakahata, Norimichi; Oshima, Yoshiteru

    2004-01-23

    Entomopathogenic fungi forming fruiting bodies have been employed as tonics and antitussives from ancient times. Paecilomyces tenuipes, which is also called Isaria japonica, is a very popular entomopathogenic fungus and is often considered a health food in northeast Asian countries such as China, Korea, and Japan. We cultivated the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces tenuipes. Among the large-scale cultivations, fruiting body grown in barley grain contained two novel spirocyclic trichothecane derivatives, spirotenuipesine A (1) and B (2), and known trichothecane mycotoxins. Compounds 1 and 2 showed potent activity in neurotrophic factor biosynthesis in glial cells. The isolation of these compounds indicated that P. tenuipes is a promising source for producing various biologically active substances including trichothecanes. It is noteworthy that trichothecane mycotoxins are present in Paecilomyces tenuipes, which is typically used in medicinal health food.

  2. [Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Paecilomyces hepiali and Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Xiao, Wei; He, Hui-Xia; Zhu, Hui-Xin; Wang, Shu-Fang; Cheng, Ke-Di; Zhu, Ping

    2008-04-01

    Phylogenetic relationship between Paecilomyces hepiali and Cordyceps sinensis was studied by analyzing the sequence of rDNA-ITS. The samples of C. sinensis were collected from Hualong County in Qinghai Province and Kangding County in Sichuan Province in May and June, respectively. The rDNA-ITS fragments were obtained by PCR amplification with the template genomic DNA of the fresh stroma or caterpillar body of the collected samples and the cultured mycelium of P. hepiali, with the universal fungal primers ITS1/ITS4. The amplified fragments were cloned into pMD18-T Vector and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis was performed with these sequences and those from GenBank. The result showed that all of the 46 clones randomly chosen from the amplification of C. sinensis shared identical or almost identical rDNA-ITS regions and had over 99% identity with some rDNA-ITS sequences of Hirsutella sinensis and C. sinensis registered in GenBank, but all of them had only about 72% identity with that of P. hepiali. Two pairs of specific primers were designed based on the rDNA-ITS sequence of P. hepiali, then PCR and Nest-PCR were performed with the template genomic DNA of the stroma or caterpillar body of C. sinensis samples mentioned above. The apparent bands amplified by Nest-PCR were obtained from all of the samples, and the sequences showed 100% identity with the rDNA-ITS sequence of P. hepiali. In addition, another pair of specific primers were designed based on the rDNA-ITS sequence registered in GenBank as the marker of C. sinensis (accession no. AB067740) but the latter only shared 87.3% identity with that of H. sinensis (accession no. AJ309353). This pair of primers was used to amplify the C. sinensis samples by PCR, and the amplified sequence showed 100% identity with that of AB067740. The result indicated that H. sinensis is the main body of C. sinensis, while some other endoparasitic fungi such as P. hepiali commonly exist in the natural C. sinensis.

  3. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Formaldehyde-Resistant Fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis No. 5 (Anamorph Paecilomyces variotii No. 5) (NBRC109023)

    PubMed Central

    Ekino, Keisuke; Fukuda, Kohsai; Nomura, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Byssochlamys spectabilis no. 5 (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii no. 5) (NBRC109023) was isolated from a soil sample in 2001 in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This fungus is highly resistant to formaldehyde. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of P. variotii no. 5; this draft was produced with the intent of investigating the mechanism of formaldehyde resistance. This is the first report of the genome sequence of any Paecilomyces species. PMID:24407650

  5. Synchronous infection with Mycobacterium chelonae and Paecilomyces in a heart transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-E; Sung, H; Kim, M-N; Won, C-H; Chang, S-E; Lee, M-W; Choi, J-H; Moon, K-C

    2011-02-01

    A 41-year-old male who was 3 years status post heart transplant presented with a 3-month history of painful erythematous nodules and ulcers on his lower legs and right hand. First, Mycobacterium chelonae infection was revealed through several biopsies with molecular sequence analysis, and combination treatment, including clarithromycin, was started. During the treatment, lesions of the legs showed an improvement, but a fluctuant erythematous nodule on the thumb did not respond. Repetitive biopsy from the thumb ultimately identified Paecilomyces species and the patient was treated with itraconazole and terbinafine sequentially. Our case is the first report, to our knowledge, of synchronous infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and Paecilomyces in a solid organ transplant recipient. Our findings highlight the importance of recognizing cutaneous NTM infections or deep mycoses, as well as the importance of choosing an appropriate treatment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Biosorption of Arsenic(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Modified Fungal Biomass of Paecilomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Rodríguez, Ismael; Martínez-Juárez, Víctor M.; Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Moctezuma-Zárate, María de Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The biosorption of As(III) on iron-coated fungal biomass of Paecilomyces sp. was studied in this work. It was found that the biomass was very efficient removing the metal in solution, using Atomic Absorption, reaching the next percentage of removals: 64.5%. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 6.0, at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation, with 1 mg/L of modified fungal biomass. PMID:24235911

  7. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented.

  8. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  9. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  10. Precise Visualization Method for Cultural Heritage-The Case of High-Resolution Read Relief Image Map Used for Study of Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Shimoda, I.; Haraguchi, T.; Shimoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    To precisely visualize the Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia, we used a new method in field of cultural heritage study. Read Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) is a powerful method which has been used for geomorphological studies. In this study, using the LiDAR data conducted at the Angkor Archaeological Park in Cambodia in April 2012 (Evans et al., 2013), we visualized the Royal City of Angkor Thom and its vicinity (Shimoda et al., 2016). The RRIM provided a new visualization method of localizing, minute topographical changes in regions with large undulations over a wide area. It has proved to be effective in mapping, on a single wide-area map, the numerous buried remains that exist as comparable height differences or minute undulations measuring less than 1 meter in height, and provides a unique aerial view of their widespread distribution. Based on the RRIM map, past archaeological studies were referenced to reconstruct the layout of the water channel network system. Past studies revealed that a large number of ponds had been dug inside Angkor Thom. The RRIM expanded the investigation and revealed the existence of many ponds outside the royal capital indicating that a residential community had flourished outside the moat surrounded capital city.

  11. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a potential mycoparasite on Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Ascomycotina: Erysiphales).

    PubMed

    Kavková, Miloslava; Curn, Vladislav

    2005-01-01

    Hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus that is well known as saprophytic and entomopatogenic fungus was investigated for its mycoparasitism on the cucumber powdery mildew pathogen. Mycoparasitism was documented by using standard bioassay and SEM. Effects of mycoparasitism were evaluated in three types of experiments. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus was applied in the form of graded suspensions into a colony of powdery mildew on a leaf segment. Interaction between both fungi was observed as the percentage of colonized area vs. experimental time. In the second experiment, young cucumber plants were sprayed with a suspension of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus 24 h before inoculation of Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Pre-treatment with P. fumosoroseus reduced development and spreading of powdery mildew infection significantly 15 days post-inoculation in contrast to pre-treatments with sulfur fungicide and distilled water. The development of pure culture powdery mildew under determined experimental conditions was observed and compared with treated variants. In the third experiment, mildewed plants were treated with a suspension of P. fumosoroseus. The control treatments with sulfur fungicide and distilled water were tested. Effects of P. fumosoroseus on the dispersion of powdery mildew during a 21-day period were observed. P. fumosoroseus suppressed the development and spread of cucumber powdery mildew significantly during the time of the experiment. The mechanical and physical damages and disruptions of vegetative and fruiting structures of powdery mildew were recorded under light microscopy and S.E.M. Results were concluded in pursuance to differences between the natural behaviour and development of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants treated with P. fumosoroseus and non-treated plants.

  12. Accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid by Paecilomyces varioti.

    PubMed

    Ling, E T; Dibble, J T; Houston, M R; Lockwood, L B; Elliott, L P

    1978-06-01

    The biogenic acids 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid accumulate in decationized refiner's blackstrap molasses shake cultures of Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. The maximum accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid occurred in a medium which contained Cu2+ and Fe3+ at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mM, respectively. The maximum accumulation of succinic acid occurred in a culture medium which contained Cu2+ at a concentration of 0.01 mM and Fe3+ at a concentration of 1.0 mM.

  13. Accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid by Paecilomyces varioti.

    PubMed Central

    Ling, E T; Dibble, J T; Houston, M R; Lockwood, L B; Elliott, L P

    1978-01-01

    The biogenic acids 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid and succinic acid accumulate in decationized refiner's blackstrap molasses shake cultures of Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. The maximum accumulation of 1-trans-2,3-epoxysuccinic acid occurred in a medium which contained Cu2+ and Fe3+ at concentrations of 1.0 and 2.0 mM, respectively. The maximum accumulation of succinic acid occurred in a culture medium which contained Cu2+ at a concentration of 0.01 mM and Fe3+ at a concentration of 1.0 mM. PMID:567036

  14. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  16. Regulation of the growth of cotton bollworms by metabolites from an entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces cateniobliquus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong-Yang; Wang, Yan-Li; Tan, Jian-Lin; Zhu, Chun-Yan; Li, Dong-Xian; Huang, Rong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Niu, Xue-Mei

    2012-06-06

    Chemical investigation of one entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces cateniobliquus YMF1.01799 led to the isolation and identification of six metabolites, which include three new compounds (2-3, and 5) and three known metabolites. Their structures were established by spectroscopic studies such as 1D and 2D NMR and MS analysis. Insect growth experiments suggested that polyketide-derived compound 1 showed significant inhibitory effect on the growth of cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, while terpenoid-derived metabolite 5 promoted the growth of the larvae. The findings revealed that the entomopathogenic fungus P. cateniobliquus could produce different types of metabolites to regulate growth of the insect.

  17. Bacterial Communities in Pigmented Biofilms Formed on the Sandstone Bas-Relief Walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

  18. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  19. Microbial Community Analysis of Fresh and Old Microbial Biofilms on Bayon Temple Sandstone of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wensheng; Li, Hui; Wang, Wei-Dong; Katayama, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    The temples of Angkor monuments including Angkor Thom and Bayon in Cambodia and surrounding countries were exclusively constructed using sandstone. They are severely threatened by biodeterioration caused by active growth of different microorganisms on the sandstone surfaces, but knowledge on the microbial community and composition of the biofilms on the sandstone is not available from this region. This study investigated the microbial community diversity by examining the fresh and old biofilms of the biodeteriorated bas-relief wall surfaces of the Bayon Temple by analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that the retrieved sequences were clustered in 11 bacterial, 11 eukaryotic and two archaeal divisions with disparate communities (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria; Alveolata, Fungi, Metazoa, Viridiplantae; Crenarchaeote, and Euyarchaeota). A comparison of the microbial communities between the fresh and old biofilms revealed that the bacterial community of old biofilm was very similar to the newly formed fresh biofilm in terms of bacterial composition, but the eukaryotic communities were distinctly different between these two. This information has important implications for understanding the formation process and development of the microbial diversity on the sandstone surfaces, and furthermore to the relationship between the extent of biodeterioration and succession of microbial communities on sandstone in tropic region. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9707-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20593173

  20. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging.

  1. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefined and brown sugar or glycerol, in the presence of 50 mg/L of Cr (VI), the strain caused complete disappearance of Cr (VI), with the concomitant production of Cr (III) in the growth medium after 7 days of incubation, at 28°C, pH 4.0, 100 rpm, and an inoculum of 38 mg of dry weight. Decrease of Cr (VI) levels from industrial wastes was also induced by Paecilomyces biomass. These results indicate that reducing capacity of chromate resistant filamentous fungus Cr (VI) could be useful for the removal of Cr (VI) pollution. PMID:20634988

  2. A newly isolated Paecilomyces sp. WSH-L07 for laccase production: isolation, identification, and production enhancement by complex inducement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyu; Zhang, Dongxu; Hua, Zhaozhe; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2009-10-01

    Laccase can catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates. In this study, an easily detectable method was employed for screening laccase-producing microorganisms by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) as laccase-secretion indicator. A novel laccase-producing strain was isolated and identified as Paecilomyces sp. WSH-L07 according to the morphological characteristics and the comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene sequences. In further investigation, the production of laccase by Paecilomyces sp. WSH-L07 was greatly enhanced by the nontoxic inducers of copper sulphate and methylene blue. Under the induction of 50 microM copper sulphate and 20 microM methylene blue, the maximum laccase production was obtained. When these inducers were added into cultivation medium at 24 h and 12 h, respectively, an increment of about 100 times of laccase activity compared with that of in inducer-free medium and about two times of that of in single copper-supplemented medium was observed. Compared with other Paecilomyces species, Paecilomyces sp. WSH-L07 exhibit the better laccase-producing characteristics with an activity of 1,650 U/l on the eighth day, suggesting its potential ability for industrial application.

  3. A rational transformation conjugated to the Arnold-Thom Cat map. An application of the Schröder method to hyperbolic toral maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luévano, J.-R.

    2014-12-01

    We compute a vector-valued rational map conjugated to the Arnold-Thom Cat map by means of Schröder's method. The corresponding invariant density and the spectrum of Rényi information are analytically determined. We show that for the analogous n-dimensional case the invariant density is the product of n Cauchy densities. Hence, the spectrum of Rényi information is n times the corresponding Rényi information of a Cauchy density. We also work out two three-dimensional linear toral maps as an example of the general case.

  4. Isolation, inoculation to insect host, and molecular phylogeny of an entomogenous fungus Paecilomyces tenuipes.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, T; Sato, H; Kuriyama, H

    1997-11-01

    A parasitic fungus to moth larvae and pupae, Paecilomyces tenuipes, was isolated and cultured on liquid and agar media. Fruit bodies, or synnemata, with characteristics of P. tenuipes were successfully formed on the agar medium. When pupae of wax moth, Galleria mellonella, were incubated with the conidia, all the pupae were infected and the synnemata were formed out of them. Almost the entire length of 18S rDNA of P. tenuipes was amplified by PCR and directly sequenced. Molecular phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that it belongs to the subphylum Ascomycotina, the class Pyrenomycetes, the order Clavicipitales. This result is compatible with the suggestions that P. tenuipes may be the anamorph of an entomogenous fungus of the genus Cordyceps.

  5. Studies of macrophage immuno-modulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from Paecilomyces tenuipes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoming; Lu, Jianxin; Zhang, Yangde; He, Jiantai; Guo, Xunzhi; Tian, Gengyuan; Jin, Liqin

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the Paecilomyces sinensis polysaccharides (PtP) on the activity of macrophages and human monocytes. A water-soluble polysaccharide, with estimated molecular weight of 2.04x10(4) Da, was isolated from P. sinensis. The results indicate that PtP can increase the activity of LDH and ACP in AMphi and PMphi of rats and human mononuclear cells, and enhance the pinocytic activity of macrophages and TNF-alpha production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), suggesting that PtP had potent immunomodulatory properties and could be explored as a novel potential immunostimulants for the food and pharmaceutical purpose.

  6. Paecilomyces variotii peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Uzunoglu, E; Sahin, A M

    2017-03-28

    Paecilomyces variotii (P. variotii) is an extremely rare cause of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. When diagnosed, it usually portends poor prognosis. Patient's survival depends on early laboratory diagnosis and proper treatment. We herein report a P. variotii peritonitis in a patient on CAPD which is a quite rare clinical entity. Laboratory diagnosis was confirmed via both morphological analysis and DNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 guidelines. After laboratory diagnosis, the patient was treated succesfully with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole combination and the peritoneal catheter was removed. This case is worthy of reporting since P. variotii is an uncommon cause of peritonitis and leads to dilemmas in both laboratory diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  7. Paeciloside A, a new antimicrobial and cytotoxic polyketide from Paecilomyces sp. strain CAFT156.

    PubMed

    Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Nwemeguela Kenla, Timothee J; Dittrich, Birger; Douanla-Meli, Clovis; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2012-06-01

    Paeciloside A (1) and eight known compounds, acremoauxin A (2), farinosones A (3) and B (4), 1,5-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-arabitol (5), ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide, cerebroside C, and adenosine, were isolated from cultures of Paecilomyces sp. CAFT156, an endophytic fungus occurring in Enantia chlorantha Oliv (Annonaceae) leaves. The structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated using MS, UV, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, while its absolute configuration was established by subsequent single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using copper Kα radiation and invariom nonspherical scattering factors. Paeciloside A (1) and compounds 2, 4, and 5 displayed inhibitory effects on two gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 40 µg per paper disk and moderate cytotoxicity towards brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina). This study presents the first report on an endophytic fungus isolated from E. chlorantha Oliv and its natural products.

  8. Paecilomyces tabacinus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Culture characteristics - (in the dark, 25 °C after 7 d): Colonies on MEA 30–31 mm diam, velutinous to slightly floccose, mycelium white, sporulation abundant, cream-buff [R30; Ridgway (1912)], exudate clear, small droplets dominate, soluble pigments not observed, reverse cream-buff to chamois (R30)...

  9. Protein increase and lysine production by a Paecilomyces variotii strain grown on two-phase olive mill waste.

    PubMed

    Giannoutsou, E P; Katsifas, E A; Geli, A; Karagouni, A D

    2012-03-01

    Two-phase olive-mill waste, the so-called "ecological", has been treated with a Paecilomyces variotii isolate in solid state fermentation experiments. The growth of the microorganism was estimated by measuring the production of carbon dioxide, using gas chromatography. A 46% increase of the protein content was achieved at the fermented product, after molasses addition at the initial mixture. The amino acid profile of the produced protein, as far as the essential amino acids are concerned, was significantly improved, resulting in a product that has the potential to be used as animal feed. Furthermore, it contains lysine, one of the essential amino acids that did not exist at the original product and is produced during fermentation. This is the first report on solid state fermentation of the two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) as a substrate, using a Paecilomyces variotii strain.

  10. A masquerader? Paecilomyces must be distinguished from Penicillium in fungal keratitis: a report of two contrasting cases.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Arsham; Nguyen, Alexander T; Harocopos, George; Lubniewski, Anthony J; Huang, Andrew J W

    2015-08-18

    We describe the clinical outcomes of two contrasting cases of fungal keratitis due to Paecilomyces spp. The first case involving a 58-year-old woman was complicated by an initial laboratory misidentification as Penicillium and consequently a delay in treatment with an optimised antifungal regimen. The patient had a protracted clinical course that required a total of four penetrating keratoplasties. However, an accurate diagnosis was promptly made in the second case, a 46-year-old woman, which resulted in a satisfactory outcome after penetrating keratoplasty. Our principal aim was to highlight a diagnostic challenge relating to the accurate microbial identification of Paecilomyces spp. This can be difficult given its morphological similarity to Pencillium, and confusion over the two genera has resulted in misdiagnoses reported previously. Our report aims to raise awareness of this potential laboratory misidentification, which can affect clinical decision-making in guiding antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Isolation and nature of intracellular alpha-aminoadipic acid-containing peptides from Paecilomyces persicinus P-10.

    PubMed Central

    Eriquez, L A; Pisano, M A

    1979-01-01

    Small intracellular peptides containing alpha-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, and a valine moiety were obtained from mycelia of Paecilomyces persicinus P-10 by ethanol or trichloroacetic acid extraction. After performic acid oxidation and ion-exchange chromatography, analysis of the peptide fractions by two-dimensional thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography revealed the presence of three related peptides, as sulfonic acid derivatives, each containing alpha-aminoadipic acid. Each peptide was isolated in chromatographically pure form by semipreparative thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography. The purified peptides were subjected to differential hydrolysis, dansylation, and combined dansylation-phenylisothiocyanate sequence analysis. Based on these studies, the structures of the isolated peptides were determined to be (i) glycl-delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinyl-beta-hydroxyvaline, (ii) glycyl-delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinylvaline, and (iii) delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinylvaline. The peptides isolated from Paecilomyces are similar to the alpha-aminoadipic acid-cysteine-valine moiety complex peptides isolated from Cephalosporium. PMID:574371

  12. Biosorption of acidic textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by Paecilomyces sp. isolated from acidic mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Ahmet; Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Özel, Yasemin Kevser; Kocabıyık, Erçin

    2013-07-01

    Removal of textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by biosorption onto a dead fungal biomass isolated from acidic mine drainage in the Çanakkale Region of Turkey was investigated. The fungus was found to be a promising biosorbent and identified as Paecilomyces sp. The optimal conditions for bioremediation were as follows: pH, 2.0; initial dyestuff concentration, 50 mg l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85 and Reactive Orange 12, and 75 mg l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; biomass dosage, 2 g l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85, 3 g l(-1) for Reactive Orange 12, 4 g l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; temperature, 25 °C; and agitation rate, 100 rpm. Zeta potential measurements indicated an electrostatic interaction between the binding sites and dye anions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that amine, hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amide bonds were involved in the dyestuff biosorption. A toxicity investigation was also carried out before and after the biosorption process. These results showed that the toxicities for the reactive dyestuffs in aqueous solutions after biosorption studies decreased. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium, and isotherm constants were evaluated for each dyestuff. Equilibrium data of biosorption of RY85 and RO12 dyestuffs fitted well to both models at the studied concentration and temperature.

  13. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-01-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 107 conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 104 conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm. PMID:25606011

  14. PfaH2: a novel hydrophobin from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Katerina; Takenberg, Meike; Lunkenbein, Stefan; Woche, Susanne K; Nimtz, Manfred; Berger, Ralf G

    2013-01-01

    The pfah2 gene coding for a novel hydrophobin PfaH2 from the ascomycete Paecilomyces farinosus was identified during sequencing of random clones from a cDNA library. The corresponding protein sequence of PfaH2 deduced from the cDNA comprised 134 amino acids (aa). A 16 aa signal sequence preceded the N-terminus of the mature protein. PfaH2 belonged to the class Ia hydrophobins. The protein was isolated using trifluoroacetic acid extraction and purified via SDS-PAGE and high-performance liquid chromatography. The surface activity of the recently described PfaH1 and of PfaH2 was compared by the determination of contact angles (CAs) on glass slides and Teflon tape, and the CA of distilled water droplets was measured on glass slides coated with hydrophobin PfaH1 or PfaH2. Surprisingly, both hydrophobins adsorbed to hydrophilic surfaces and changed their physicochemical properties to a similar quantitative extent, although little aa sequence homology was found. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Polyphasic taxonomy of the heat resistant ascomycete genus Byssochlamys and its Paecilomyces anamorphs.

    PubMed

    Samson, R A; Houbraken, J; Varga, J; Frisvad, J C

    2009-06-01

    Byssochlamys and related Paecilomyces strains are often heat resistant and may produce mycotoxins in contaminated pasteurised foodstuffs. A comparative study of all Byssochlamys species was carried out using a polyphasic approach to find characters that differentiate species and to establish accurate data on potential mycotoxin production by each species. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS region, parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes, macro- and micromorphological examinations and analysis of extrolite profiles were applied. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genus Byssochlamys includes nine species, five of which form a teleomorph, i.e. B. fulva, B. lagunculariae, B. nivea, B. spectabilis and B. zollerniae, while four are asexual, namely P. brunneolus, P. divaricatus, P. formosus and P. saturatus. Among these, B. nivea produces the mycotoxins patulin and byssochlamic acid and the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid. Byssochlamys lagunculariae produces byssochlamic acid and mycophenolic acid and thus chemically resembles B. nivea. Some strains of P. saturatus produce patulin and brefeldin A, while B. spectabilis (anamorph P. variotii s.s.) produces viriditoxin. Some micro- and macromorphological characters are valuable for identification purposes, including the shape and size of conidia and ascospores, presence and ornamentation of chlamydospores, growth rates on MEA and CYA and acid production on CREA. A dichotomous key is provided for species identification based on phenotypical characters.

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of a chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces javanicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Kumar, H G Ashok; Kumar, Senthil; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2007-07-01

    Paecilomyces javanicus is an entomopathogenic fungus of coleopteran and lepidopteran insects. Here we report on cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of a chitinase from P. javanicus. A strong chitinase activity was detected in P. javanicus cultures added to chitin. The full-length cDNA, designated PjChi-1, was cloned from mycelia by using both degenerate primer/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The 1.18-kb cDNA gene contains a 1035-bp open reading frame and encodes a 345-amino acid polypeptide with a deduced molecular mass of 37 kDa. A conserved motif for chitinase activity -F82DGIDIDWE90- was present in deduced amino acid sequence. Both RT-PCR and Northern analysis revealed that the expression of the PjChi gene was constitutive at low level, but enhanced to high level when chitin was the substrate. Fungal inhibitory assay showed that PjChi-1 inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic fungi such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus nidulans, and Rhizoctonia solani.

  17. Purification and characterization of chitinases from Paecilomyces variotii DG-3 parasitizing on Meloidogyne incognita eggs.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van-Nam; Oh, In-Jae; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Kil-Yong; Kim, Young-Cheol; Park, Ro-Dong

    2009-02-01

    Two extracellular chitinases were purified from Paecilomyces variotii DG-3, a chitinase producer and a nematode egg-parasitic fungus, to homogeneity by DEAE Sephadex A-50 and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The purified enzymes were a monomer with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa (Chi32) and 46 kDa (Chi46), respectively, and showed chitinase activity bands with 0.01% glycol chitin as a substrate after SDS-PAGE. The first 20 and 15 N-terminal amino acid sequences of Chi32 and Chi46 were determined to be Asp-Pro-Typ-Gln-Thr-Asn-Val-Val-Tyr-Thr-Gly-Gln-Asp-Phe-Val-Ser-Pro-Asp-Leu-Phe and Asp-Ala-X-X-Tyr-Arg-Ser-Val-Ala-Tyr-Phe-Val-Asn-Trp-Ala, respectively. Optimal temperature and pH of the Chi32 and Chi46 were found to be both 60 degrees C, and 2.5 and 3.0, respectively. Chi32 was almost inhibited by metal ions Ag(+) and Hg(2+) while Chi46 by Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) at a 10 mM concentration but both enzymes were enhanced by 1 mM concentration of Co(2+). On analyzing the hydrolyzates of chitin oligomers [(GlcNAc)( n ), n = 2-6)], it was considered that Chi32 degraded chitin oligomers as an exo-type chitinase while Chi46 as an endo-type chitinase.

  18. Purification and biochemical characterization of a thermostable extracellular glucoamylase produced by the thermotolerant fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Michelin, Michele; Ruller, Roberto; Ward, Richard J; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2008-01-01

    An extracellular glucoamylase produced by Paecilomyces variotii was purified using DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The purified protein migrated as a single band in 7% PAGE and 8% SDS-PAGE. The estimated molecular mass was 86.5 kDa (SDS-PAGE). Optima of temperature and pH were 55 degrees C and 5.0, respectively. In the absence of substrate the purified glucoamylase was stable for 1 h at 50 and 55 degrees C, with a t (50) of 45 min at 60 degrees C. The substrate contributed to protect the enzyme against thermal denaturation. The enzyme was mainly activated by manganese metal ions. The glucoamylase produced by P. variotii preferentially hydrolyzed amylopectin, glycogen and starch, and to a lesser extent malto-oligossacarides and amylose. Sucrose, p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside, methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, pullulan, alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin, and trehalose were not hydrolyzed. After 24 h, the products of starch hydrolysis, analyzed by thin layer chromatography, showed only glucose. The circular dichroism spectrum showed a protein rich in alpha-helix. The sequence of amino acids of the purified enzyme VVTDSFR appears similar to glucoamylases purified from Talaromyces emersonii and with the precursor of the glucoamylase from Aspergillus oryzae. These results suggested the character of the enzyme studied as a glucoamylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase).

  19. Formosusin A, a novel specific inhibitor of mammalian DNA polymerase β from the fungus Paecilomyces formosus.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki-Fukudome, Hiroe; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Takemoto, Kenji; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    Variotin (1) and three novel compounds, formosusin A (2), B (3), and C (4), were isolated from the cultures of the fungus Paecilomyces formosus, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 is (6Z,8E,10E)-variotin, a new cis-olefin analog of compound 1. Compound 2 selectively inhibited the activity of mammalian DNA polymerase β (pol β) in vitro, with an IC50 of 35.6μM. By contrast, compounds 1, 3, and 4 did not influence the activity of pol β. These four compounds showed no effect on the activities of other 10 mammalian pols (i.e., pols α, γ, δ, ε, η, ι, κ, λ, and μ, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase). These compounds also did not inhibit the activities of fish, insect, plant, and prokaryotic pols and other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. These results suggested that compound 2 could be a selective inhibitor of mammalian pol β. The compound 2-induced inhibition of rat pol β activity was competitive and non-competitive with respect to the DNA template-primer substrate and the dNTP substrate, respectively. On the basis of these results, the relationship between the three-dimensional structure and pol β inhibitory mechanism of compound 2 is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization for production of exopolysaccharides with antitumor activity in vitro from Paecilomyces hepiali.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Lu, Junwen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Fan, Jialong; Abid, Muhammad; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, optimal medium for the growth of mycelia and the production of exopolysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHEPS) in submerged culture was investigated. As a result, the maximum production of mycelia (12.98 ± 0.14 g/L) and PHEPS (5.33 ± 0.11 g/L) were achieved under the optimal medium of sucrose 46.08 g/L, yeast extract 4.71 g/L, (NH₄)₂SO₄ 5.72 g/L, KH₂PO₄ 1.70 g/L, CaCl₂ 0.50 g/L, MgSO₄ 0.50 g/L, potato extract 1% and malt extract 1%. Furthermore, the antitumor activity of PHEPS in vitro was evaluated by using three cell lines of human liver tumor HepG2 cells, breast cancer MCF-7 cells and cervical cancer Hela cells. It was found that PHEPS exhibited relative higher anti-proliferative activity against HepG2 cells than MCF-7 cells and Hela cells. At a concentration of 500 μg/mL and 72 h treatment, the inhibition rate of PHEPS on HepG2 cells reached to 62.58%. All these results suggested that PHEPS could be explored as novel natural antitumor agent with great potential application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Purification and characterization of a novel chitinase gene from Paecilomyces thermophila expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kopparapu, Narasimha Kumar; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Shuping; Yan, Qiaojuan; Liu, Zhuqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2012-01-10

    A novel chitinase gene (PtChiA) from the thermophilic fungus Paecilomyces thermophila was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as an intracellular soluble protein. The gene sequence alignment indicates that PtChiA belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 18 and has an open reading frame comprising of 1473 bp nucleotide sequences with five introns. PtChiA encodes 400 amino acids without any predicted signal peptide. PtChiA was purified by Ni-IDA chromatography. It displayed an acidic optimum pH of 4.5 and broad pH stability (pH 4.0-10.5). The enzyme exhibited an optimal temperature of 50°C and was stable up to 40°C. PtChiA was strongly inhibited by anionic detergent SDS, and also by metal ions Hg(2+) and Mn(2+). It did not exhibit any antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi. It has the ability to hydrolyze colloidal chitin into chito-oligomers suggesting its use in conversion of chitin waste into chito-oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of macrophages by polysaccharide isolated from Paecilomyces cicadae through toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Yeon Jin; Lee, Hong Kyung; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Kim, Ji Sung; Yoon, Mi Jung; Kang, Jong Soon; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2012-09-01

    Paecilomyces cicadae have been reported to have immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of polysaccharide (PCP) isolated from P. cicadae on the macrophages. PCP increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and the gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 cells. To investigate the membrane receptor, we examined the effect of PCP on primary macrophages isolated from wild type C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice having mutant-TLR4. PCP induced NO production and cytokine gene expression in macrophages from C3H/HeN, but not from tlr4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice, which suggests that TLR4 is the membrane receptor for PCP. PCP induced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50/p65, which are the main signaling molecules downstream from TLR4. Among them, p38 and NF-κB signaling played a crucial role in PCP-induced NO production by macrophages. These results indicate that PCP activates macrophages through the TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immobilization of Paecilomyces variotii tannase and properties of the immobilized enzyme.

    PubMed

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Lopes, Fernanda Cristina Rezende; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2011-01-01

    Tannase produced by Paecilomyces variotii was encapsulated in sodium alginate beads and used for the effective hydrolysis of tannic acid; the efficiency of hydrolysis was comparable to that of the free enzyme. The alginate beads retained 100% of their efficiency in the first three rounds of successive use and 60% in rounds 4 and 5. The response surface methodology showed that the best conditions to hydrolysis of tannic acid by immobilized tannase were: sodium alginate 5.2%, CaCl₂ 0.55 M and 9 h to curing time. The optimized process resulted in 2.4 times more hydrolysed tannic acid than that obtained before optimization. The optimum pH for the actions of both the encapsulated and the free enzymes was 5.5. The optimum temperature of the reaction was determined to be 40 °C for the free enzyme and 60 °C for the immobilized form. The immobilization process improved the stability at low pH.

  4. Phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells induced by polysaccharide isolated from Paecilomyces cicadae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Sook; Kim, Jee Youn; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Shin, Bo Ram; Kang, Jong Soon; Kim, Hwan Mook; Kim, Yong Ook; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang Bae

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces cicadae Miquel Samson is the anamorph of Cordyceps cicadae Shing and is used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. In the present study, we examined the effects of P. cicadae polysaccharide (PCP) on dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Phenotypic maturation of DCs by PCP was confirmed by the elevated expressions of CD80, CD86, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I, and MHC-II molecules and functional maturation by increased expression of interleukin-12, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, enhanced allogenic T cell stimulation, and decreased endocytosis. PCP induced the maturation of DCs from C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice but not from Toll-like receptor (tlr) 4⁻/⁻ knockout mice and TLR4-mutated C3H/HeJ mice, which suggests that TLR4 is the membrane receptor for PCP. PCP increased the degradation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) α/β, which enhanced the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50/p65 and induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are signaling molecules downstream of TLR4. These results indicate that PCP induces DC maturation through TLR4 signaling.

  5. Purification and characterization of alcohol oxidase from Paecilomyces variotii isolated as a formaldehyde-resistant fungus.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsuya; Morikawa, Yutaka; Hayashi, Naohiro

    2008-01-01

    Paecilomyces variotii IRI017 was isolated as a formaldehyde-resistant fungus from wastewater containing formaldehyde. The fungus grew in a medium containing 0.5% formaldehyde and had consumed formaldehyde completely after 5 days. Alcohol oxidase was purified from the fungus grown on methanol. A 20-fold purification was achieved with a yield of 44%. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 73 and 450 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography, respectively, suggesting that the enzyme consists of six identical subunits. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the subunit was TIPDEVDIII. The enzyme showed an absorption spectrum typical of a flavoprotein and had a noncovalently bound flavin different from FAD, FMN, and riboflavin. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was pH 6-10. The enzyme was stable in the pH range of pH 5-10. The enzyme retained full activity after incubation at 50 degrees C for 30 min. The enzyme oxidized not only methanol but also lower primary alcohols and formaldehyde. The K (m) values for methanol, ethanol, and formaldehyde were 1.9, 3.8, and 4.9 mmol l(-1), respectively.

  6. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Mingxia; Xie, Minhao; Dai, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHMPs) were investigated. As results, the optimal parameters for extraction of PHMPs were obtained by a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extracting time 190 min and ratio of water to material 43 mL/g. The analysis of monosaccharide composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that PHMPs was composed of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in molar ratio of 46.07:0.59:2.25:1.29:1.42:18.82:26.17:1.13:2.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PHMPs had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mice, as evident by higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and level of total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower levels of malondialdehyde in serums and livers compared to the d-galactose-treated group. These results suggested that PHMPs could be explored as promising natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production, Purification of Exo-Polygalacturonase from Soil Isolate Paecilomyces variotii NFCCI 1769 and Its Application.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitinkumar P; Patil, Kanchankumar P; Chaudhari, Bhushan L; Chincholkar, Sudhir B

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce exo-polygalacturonase from potent soil isolate by submerged fermentation and its application for fruit juice treatment. Pectinase producing strains were selectively isolated from pectin industry waste. A selected isolate C2 was found to produce significant amount of exo-polygalacturonase. The isolate was identified as Paecilomyces variotii on the basis of morphological characteristics and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The exo-polygalacturonase produced by the isolate was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, size exclusion chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme had MW of 39.4 kD based on SDS PAGE. Under partially optimized conditions, purified exo-polygalacturonase showed specific activity of 98.49 U/mg protein at pH 6.0 and 30°C. The enzyme was comparatively stable from 10 to 30°C and the activity decreased with increasing temperature. Purified enzyme brought about considerable reduction in viscosity of fruit juice samples.

  8. Toxicologic assessment of Paecilomyces tenuipes in rats: renal toxicity and mutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Che, Jeong-Hwan; Yun, Jun-Won; Cho, Eun-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Yun-Soon; Kim, Woo Ho; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Woo-Chan; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes is entomogenous fungus that is called snow-flake Dongchunghacho in Korea. Although it is widely used in traditional medicines, its safety has not yet been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity of P. tenuipes. The acute oral LD50 of P. tenuipes extract in rats was estimated to be greater than 2000mg/kg of body weight. In the subchronic study, the oral treatment of rats with 500, 1000 or 2000mg/kg P. tenuipes extract daily for 13weeks did not induce any dose-related changes (body weight, food consumption, clinical observation, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry and organ weight). In contrast, histopathological observation revealed that P. tenuipes extract induced karyomegaly in outer medulla of kidney in all treated rats. Importantly, P. tenuipes extract exerted the mutagenic potential in Ames assay. Since karyomegalic alterations have been known to be associated with carcinogenicity, our finding on the mutagenicity of P. tenuipes extract supports the possibility on the potential involvement of P. tenuipes in carcinogenicity at least partially. In conclusion, the subchronic oral exposure of P. tenuipes may induce kidney abnormality at the concentration higher than 500mg/kg body weight, although further studies using other animal models are needed to identify the toxicity of P. tenuipes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Mycelial Extracts from the Medicinal Fungus Paecilomyces hepiali (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Li, Yi; Wang, Wen-Jing; Imoulan, Abdessamad; Yao, Yi-Jian

    2017-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepialid, a fungus originating in the Tibetan Plateau, has been used as a substitute for Ophiocordyceps sinensis because the primary chemical compounds and pharmacological effects of P. hepialid are similar to those of O. sinensis. P. hepialid has been developed into a dietary supplement and pharmaceutical products. The antioxidant activity of extracts using 2 solvents (water and ethanol) from mycelia obtained from 2 cultivation modes (solid-state and submerged cultivation) were evaluated in this study. Four strains of P. hepialid obtained from Qinghai, Sichuan, and Yunnan Provinces were included; the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of mycelial extracts were compared. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of strains were found to be affected by the cultivation mode and extraction solvent. The ethanol extracts of solid-state cultivation of strain 2138, obtained from Sichuan Province, exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The results showed that different strains might require different cultivation modes and extraction solvents for better antioxidant activity. However, solid-state cultivation and ethanol extraction are generally recommended based on the analyses conducted. Strain 2138 may be a good candidate for the purpose of producing functional foods. The results suggest that strain selection is important when P. hepialid is used to manufacture pharmaceutical products.

  10. 4-acetoxyscirpendiol of Paecilomyces tenuipes inhibits Na(+)/D-glucose cotransporter expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ocki; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Lee, Dong-Hee

    2005-03-31

    Cordyceps, an entomopathogenic fungus, contains many health-promoting ingredients. Recent reports indicate that the consumption of cordyceps helps reduce blood-sugar content in diabetics. However, the mechanism underlying this reduction in circulatory sugar content is not fully understood. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces tenuipes, and 4-beta acetoxyscirpendiol (4-ASD) was eventually isolated and purified. Na(+)/Glucose transporter-1 (SGLT-1) was expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and the effect of 4-ASD on SGLT-1 was analyzed utilizing a voltage clamp and by performing 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DOG) uptake studies. 4-ASD was shown to significantly inhibit SGLT-1 activity compared to the non-treated control in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of the derivatives of 4-ASD (diacetoxyscirpenol or 15-acetoxyscirpendiol), SGLT-1 activity was greatly inhibited in an 4-ASD-like manner. Of these derivatives, 15-acetoxyscirepenol inhibited SGLT-1 as well as 4-ASD, whereas diacetoxyscirpenol was slightly less effective. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that 4-ASD in P. tenuipes may lower blood sugar levels in the circulatory system. We conclude that 4-ASD and its derivatives are effective SGLT-1 inhibitors.

  11. Composting of food waste subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment and inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. FA13.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Mimoto, Hiroshi; Tran, Quyen Ngoc Minh; Oinuma, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Food waste collected from restaurants, convenience stores, and food-processing factories was mixed with sawdust and subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30min to prepare compost raw material. Furan compounds such as 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural were produced at concentration levels of approximately 8 and 0.5mg/g-ds, respectively, through hydrothermal pretreatment. The furan compounds inhibited the activity of composting microorganisms, thus delaying the start of organic matter degradation during composting. A newly identified fungus, Paecilomyces sp. FA13, which possesses the ability to degrade furan compounds, was isolated and used as an inoculum for the composting of the raw material prepared by hydrothermal pretreatment. By inoculating the FA13 into the compost raw material at 10(5)CFU/g-ds, the degradation of furan compounds was accelerated. As a result, bacterial activity, which contributed to composting, was enhanced, significantly promoting the start of vigorous degradation of organic materials.

  12. Cuticular lipids and silverleaf whitefly stage affect conidial germination of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus.

    PubMed

    James, R R; Buckner, J S; Freeman, T P

    2003-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus are generalist entomopathogenic fungi that infect the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii). We found second and third instar whiteflies to be the most susceptible larval stage to both fungi. Conidia of B. bassiana germinated most readily on the cuticle of second instars (54% germinated) and P. fumosoroseus germination was highest on third instar cuticle (45%). Fourth instars (the ultimate instar) had low susceptibility to these pathogens, and spore germination on the cuticle of fourth instars was very low for B. bassiana (7%) and intermediate for P. fumosoroseus (33%). Cuticular lipids were found to have toxic or inhibitory effects on conidia of B. bassiana and P. fumosoroseus when the spores were germinated on nutrient agar in the presence of the lipids. In the absence of added nutrients, P. fumosoroseus conidial germination increased in the presence of the lipids. To test if the inhibitory effects of the lipids were due solely to hydrophobicity (preventing water from coming into contact with the conidia) we tested the effects of synthetic long-chain wax esters. The synthetic wax esters inhibited germination of P. fumosoroseus to a degree that was similar to the effect of the cuticular lipid extracts, but the synthetic lipids did not have a significant effect on B. bassiana. Thus, the thick coating of long-chain wax esters produced by whitefly nymphs affect spore germination of fungal pathogens, but whether they play a significant role in defense against disease is not clear.

  13. Paecilonic acids A and B, bicyclic fatty acids from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii J08NF-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hong, Jongki; Yin, Jun; Liu, Juan; Liu, Yonghong; Choi, Jae Sue; Jung, Jee H

    2016-05-01

    Two new bicyclic fatty acids, paecilonic acids A and B (1 and 2), were isolated from the culture broth of the marine fungus Paecilomyces variotii derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. Compounds 1 and 2 share the same molecular formula and possess a 6,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane core skeleton. The planar structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic analysis, which included NMR and ESI-MS/MS. Relative and absolute configurations were determined by analyzing coupling constants, NOESY correlations, and optical rotations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Kidney Toxicity Induced by 13 Weeks Exposure to the Fruiting Body of Paecilomyces sinclairii in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mihye; Kim, Young-Won; Min, Jeong-Ran; Kwon, Min; Han, Beom-Suk; Kim, Jeong-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces sinclairiis (PS) is known as a functional food or human health supplement. However concerns have been raised about its kidney toxicity. This study was performed to investigate the kidney toxicity of PS by 13 week-oral administration to rats. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and kidney damage biomarkers including beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GST-α), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), calbindin, clusterin, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and osteopontin were measured during or after the treatment of PS. BUN, creatinine and kidney damage biomarkers in serum were not changed by PS. However, kidney cell karyomegaly and tubular hypertrophy were observed dose-dependently with higher severity in males. KIM-1, TIMP-1 and osteopontin in kidney and urine were increased dose dependently in male or at the highest dose in female rats. Increased urinary osteopontin by PS was not recovered at 2 weeks of post-exposure in both genders. Cystatin C in kidney was decreased at all treatment groups but inversely increased in urine. The changes in kidney damage biomarkers were more remarkable in male than female rats. These data indicate that the PS may provoke renal cell damage and glomerular filtration dysfunction in rats with histopathological lesions and change of kidney damage biomarkers in kidney or urine. Kidney and urinary KIM-1 and cystatin C were the most marked indicators, while kidney weight, BUN and creatinine and kidney damage biomarkers in serum were not influenced. PMID:24278608

  15. Kidney Toxicity Induced by 13 Weeks Exposure to the Fruiting Body of Paecilomyces sinclairii in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mihye; Kim, Young-Won; Min, Jeong-Ran; Kwon, Min; Han, Beom-Suk; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Sang-Hee

    2012-09-01

    Paecilomyces sinclairiis (PS) is known as a functional food or human health supplement. However concerns have been raised about its kidney toxicity. This study was performed to investigate the kidney toxicity of PS by 13 week-oral administration to rats. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and kidney damage biomarkers including beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GST-α), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), calbindin, clusterin, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and osteopontin were measured during or after the treatment of PS. BUN, creatinine and kidney damage biomarkers in serum were not changed by PS. However, kidney cell karyomegaly and tubular hypertrophy were observed dose-dependently with higher severity in males. KIM-1, TIMP-1 and osteopontin in kidney and urine were increased dose dependently in male or at the highest dose in female rats. Increased urinary osteopontin by PS was not recovered at 2 weeks of post-exposure in both genders. Cystatin C in kidney was decreased at all treatment groups but inversely increased in urine. The changes in kidney damage biomarkers were more remarkable in male than female rats. These data indicate that the PS may provoke renal cell damage and glomerular filtration dysfunction in rats with histopathological lesions and change of kidney damage biomarkers in kidney or urine. Kidney and urinary KIM-1 and cystatin C were the most marked indicators, while kidney weight, BUN and creatinine and kidney damage biomarkers in serum were not influenced.

  16. Mutualistic association of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 offers thermotolerance to Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Shin, Jae-Ho; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-02-01

    We investigated in this study the influence of an endophytic fungus, Paecilomyces formosus LHL10, on the thermotolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) upon exposure to high (38°C) and low (8°C) temperature stresses. The results showed that endophyte-inoculated plants had significantly higher plant growth attributes under high-temperature stress. However, they were either low or insignificant in non-inoculated control and inoculated plants with 8°C treatments. Lower stress-promulgated water deficit and cellular membrane damage were observed in endophyte-treated plants after 38°C treatment than in control plants under 8°C stress. Total polyphenol, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation activities were reduced in endophyte-associated plants after exposure to 38°C as compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. The concentration of saturated fatty acids (palmitic-C16:0; stearic-C18:0) was lower in endophyte-treated plants with or without low-temperature stress, but after 8°C treatment increased compared with controls. Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic-C18:1; linoleic-C18:2; linolenic-C18:3 acids) were similar at normal conditions; however, at 38°C, C18:2 and C18:3 were decreased, and C18:1 was increased in endophyte-treated plants compared with controls, while the inverse relationship was found at 8°C. Low levels of abscisic acid in P. formosus-associated plants after 38°C treatments revealed stress tolerance compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. In contrast, salicylic acid was pronounced in endophyte-treated plants after low-temperature stress as compared to other treatments. The results provide evidence that the response to P. formosus association was beneficial at normal growth temperature and had varying effects in response to temperature stress.

  17. Sexual reproduction as the cause of heat resistance in the food spoilage fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii).

    PubMed

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial beta-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed.

  18. Sexual Reproduction as the Cause of Heat Resistance in the Food Spoilage Fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis (Anamorph Paecilomyces variotii)▿

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, Jos; Varga, János; Rico-Munoz, Emilia; Johnson, Shawn; Samson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Paecilomyces variotii is a common cosmopolitan species that is able to spoil various food- and feedstuffs and is frequently encountered in heat-treated products. However, isolates from heat-treated products rarely form ascospores. In this study we examined by using molecular techniques and mating tests whether this species can undergo a sexual cycle and form ascospores. The population structure of this species was examined by analyzing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and the 5.8S rRNA gene, as well as partial β-tubulin, actin, and calmodulin gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that P. variotii is a highly variable species. Partition homogeneity tests revealed that P. variotii has a recombining population structure. In addition to sequence analyses, mating experiments indicated that P. variotii is able to form ascomata and ascospores in culture in a heterothallic manner. The distribution of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes showed a 1:1 ratio in the progeny of the mating experiments. From the sequence analyses and mating data we conclude that P. variotii is the anamorph of Talaromyces spectabilis and that it has a biallelic heterothallic mating system. Since Paecilomyces sensu stricto anamorphs group within Byssochlamys, a new combination Byssochlamys spectabilis is proposed. PMID:18192427

  19. [Transformation of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii and the causes of host cell lysis at the boundary with a fungal mycelium-containing Echinococcus capsule].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Lazareva, N B; Samylina, I A; Ashurov, A A; Gabchenko, A K; Chebyshev, N V

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on animal species. The experiments used 30-day chicks, 80 rats, and 70 rabbits. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients with echinococcus complicated by paecilomycosis were meticulously examined. The fungi of the genus Paecilomyces undergo two transformation directions: the saprotrophic mycelial form of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii transforms to the tissue parasitic one as a globular form of spherules that transforms to the mycelial form in larval Echinococcus infection because the cyst capsule is a favorable environment for growth of fungal mycelia. The growth and aggressiveness of larval Echinococcus in the human lung are associated with the fact that fungal mycelial fibrous tunic contains Paecilomyces that have been first used to isolate active hyaluronidase that lyses host cells. Pulmonary echinococcosis complicated by the tissue form of paecilomycosis can be complicated by the mycelial form of the fungus of the genus Paecilomyces, by afflicting the nails and skin of patients, which requires particular treatment after surgery for hydatid disease. The chicks that had been brooded in an incubator and grown under special conditions to rule out fungal infection were first contaminated with the fungal mycelium labeled with methionine, sodium sulfate, sodium phosphate, or iodine. Each chick received 0.5 g of the labeled fungal mycelium. Regardless of the contamination mode, all the chicks from 3 groups were infected with Paecilomyces; the spherules exhibited labeled isotopes. Thus, it has been first conclusively proven that the diagnosis of paecilomycosis based on the blood detection of fungal globular spherules is valid and easy-to-use in any health care facility.

  20. Paecilomyces niveus Stolk & Samson, 1971 (Ascomycota: Thermoascaceae) as a pathogen of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley, 1841) (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zawadneak, M A C; Pimentel, I C; Robl, D; Dalzoto, P; Vicente, V; Sosa-Gómez, D R; Porsani, M; Cuquel, F L

    2015-11-01

    Nasonovia ribisnigri is a key pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Brazil that requires alternative control methods to synthetic pesticides. We report, for the first time, the occurrence of Paecilomyces niveus as an entomopathogen of the aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri in Pinhais, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of mummified aphids were collected from lettuce crops. The fungus P. niveus (PaePR) was isolated from the insect bodies and identified by macro and micromorphology. The species was confirmed by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) rDNA. We obtained a sequence of 528 bp (accession number HQ441751), which aligned with Byssochlamys nivea strains (100% identities). In a bioassay, 120 h after inoculation of N. ribisnigri with pathogenic P. niveus had an average mortality of 74%. The presence of P. niveus as a natural pathogen of N. ribisnigri in Brazil suggests that it may be possible to employ P. niveus to minimize the use of chemical insecticides.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoqing; Wang, Yaxi; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Hua, Chengwei

    2008-08-01

    In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a thermostable 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanase produced by Paecilomyces thermophila is described. The purified 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanase was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6(3)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.54, c = 87.62 A. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.54 A and gave a data set with an overall R(merge) of 7.3% and a completeness of 94.6%. The Matthews coefficient (V(M)) and the solvent content are 2.38 A(3) Da(-1) and 48%, respectively.

  2. Characterization of Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae in Korea Based on the Morphological Characteristics and Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2016-12-01

    During fungal diversity surveys of the order Eurotiales in Korea, two fungal strains, EML-DG33-1 and EML-NCP50, were isolated from samples of rat dung and fig tree leaf collected at a garden located in Gwangju in 2014. To complete the National Species List of Korea, it is a prerequisite to verify whether many questionable species, which were previously recorded but not confirmed, indeed present in Korea. Herein, the isolates were confirmed as undescribed species, Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae based on the combination of morphological and phylogenetic analyses of multigenes including the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II subunit 2.

  3. High-level expression of a xylanase gene from the thermophilic fungus Paecilomyces thermophila in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangsen; Katrolia, Priti; Jia, Huiyong; Yang, Shaoqing; Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2012-11-01

    A xylanase gene from Paecilomyces thermophila was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant xylanase (xynA) was predominantly extracellular; in a 5 l fermentor culture, the total extracellular protein was 8.1 g l(-1) with an activity of 52,940 U ml(-1). The enzyme was purified to homogeneity with a recovery of 48 %. The recombinant xynA was optimally active at 75 °C, as measured over 10 min, and at pH 7. The enzyme was stable up to 80 °C for 30 min. It hydrolyzed birchwood xylan, beechwood xylan and xylooligosaccharides to produce xylobiose and xylotriose as the main products.

  4. Characterization of Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae in Korea Based on the Morphological Characteristics and Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong; Paul, Narayan Chandra

    2016-01-01

    During fungal diversity surveys of the order Eurotiales in Korea, two fungal strains, EML-DG33-1 and EML-NCP50, were isolated from samples of rat dung and fig tree leaf collected at a garden located in Gwangju in 2014. To complete the National Species List of Korea, it is a prerequisite to verify whether many questionable species, which were previously recorded but not confirmed, indeed present in Korea. Herein, the isolates were confirmed as undescribed species, Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae based on the combination of morphological and phylogenetic analyses of multigenes including the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II subunit 2. PMID:28154482

  5. Water relations of Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, xerophilic fungi isolated from Indonesian dried fish.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, K A; Hocking, A D

    1988-08-01

    The water relations of four xerotolerant fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus candidus and Aspergillus sydowii, isolated from dried salt fish, were examined at 25 degrees C, on media in which water activity (aW) was controlled by NaCl or a glucose/fructose mixture. All fungi were less tolerant of NaCl than glucose/fructose at low aW. P. variotii grew 2 to 3 times faster on glucose/fructose media than on NaCl. The minimum aW permitting germination varied from 0.753 for E. amstelodami and, 0.776 for A. candidus and A. sydowii to 0.793 for P. variotii. At low aW germination was not always followed by growth. In most cases the minimum for growth was 0.02 aW units above that for germination.

  6. Studies on the Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Paecilomyces hepiali Water Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Teng, Lirong; Liu, Yange; Hu, Wenji; Chen, Wenqi; Hu, Xi; Wang, Yingwu

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is a fungus widely used in Asian countries for various potential pharmacological activities. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the Paecilomyces hepiali mycelium water extract (PHC) in diabetic rat, which is established by eight-week high-fat diet administration followed by one-week tail intravenous injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). After four-week 0.12 g/kg metformin and PHC at doses of 0.08, 0.4, and 2.0 g/kg treatment, an increment of body weight, a decrement of plasma glucose, low levels of total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats were observed. PHC promotes glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin, pyruvate kinase activity, and increasing the synthesis of glycogen. PHC normalized the disturbed levels of superoxide dismutase, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and glutathione peroxidase in kidney. The inhibitory effects on the levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and kidney revealed the protection of PHC against diabetic nephropathy. Compared with nontreated diabetic rats, four-week PHC treatment resulted in a decrement on nuclear factor kappa B expression in kidney. These results show that Paecilomyces hepiali possesses antidiabetic and antinephritic effects which are related to the modulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity. PMID:27034961

  7. Studies on the Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Paecilomyces hepiali Water Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Teng, Lirong; Liu, Yange; Hu, Wenji; Chen, Wenqi; Hu, Xi; Wang, Yingwu; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is a fungus widely used in Asian countries for various potential pharmacological activities. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the Paecilomyces hepiali mycelium water extract (PHC) in diabetic rat, which is established by eight-week high-fat diet administration followed by one-week tail intravenous injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). After four-week 0.12 g/kg metformin and PHC at doses of 0.08, 0.4, and 2.0 g/kg treatment, an increment of body weight, a decrement of plasma glucose, low levels of total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats were observed. PHC promotes glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin, pyruvate kinase activity, and increasing the synthesis of glycogen. PHC normalized the disturbed levels of superoxide dismutase, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and glutathione peroxidase in kidney. The inhibitory effects on the levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and kidney revealed the protection of PHC against diabetic nephropathy. Compared with nontreated diabetic rats, four-week PHC treatment resulted in a decrement on nuclear factor kappa B expression in kidney. These results show that Paecilomyces hepiali possesses antidiabetic and antinephritic effects which are related to the modulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity.

  8. Biochemical characterization of a novel thermostable beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase (lichenase) from Paecilomyces thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoqing; Qiaojuan, Yan; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Fan, Guangsen; Wang, Lan

    2008-07-09

    The purification and characterization of a novel extracellular beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from the thermophilic fungus Paecilomyces thermophila J18 were studied. The strain produced the maximum level of extracellular beta-glucanase (135.6 U mL(-1)) when grown in a medium containing corncob (5%, w/v) at 50 degrees C for 4 days. The crude enzyme solution was purified by 122.5-fold with an apparent homogeneity and a recovery yield of 8.9%. The purified enzyme showed as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of 38.6 kDa. The molecular masses were 34.6 kDa and 31692.9 Da when detected by gel filtration and mass spectrometry, respectively, suggesting that it is a monomeric protein. The enzyme was a glycoprotein with a carbohydrate content of 19.0% (w/w). Its N-terminal sequence of 10 amino acid residues was determined as H2N-A(?)GYVSNIVVN. The purified enzyme was optimally active at pH 7.0 and 70 degrees C. It was stable within pH range 4.0-10.0 and up to 65 degrees C, respectively. Substrate specificity studies revealed that the enzyme is a true beta-1,3-1,4-D-glucanase. The K m values determined for barley beta-D-glucan and lichenan were 2.46 and 1.82 mg mL(-1), respectively. The enzyme hydrolyzed barley beta-D-glucan and lichenan to yield bisaccharide, trisaccharide, and tetrasaccharide as the main products. Circular dichroism studies indicated that the protein contains 28% alpha-helix, 24% beta-sheet, and 48% random coil. Circular dichroism spectroscopy is also used to investigate the thermostability of the purified enzyme. This is the first report on the purification and characterization of a beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Paecilomyces sp. These properties make the enzyme highly suitable for industrial applications.

  9. Use of response surface methodology for selection of nutrient levels for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, J B; Lima, U A; Taqueda, M E S; Guaragna, F G

    2003-03-01

    Eucalyptus hemicellulose was hydrolyzed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolyzate was used as the substrate to produce single-cell protein by growing Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 for 72 or 96 h. The influences of rice bran, ammonium sulfate and fermentation time were verified by a 23 full-factorial central composite design. At the optimum process conditions, the cell concentration was 12.06 g/l, which was obtained when the microorganisms were cultivated for 89 h in a medium composed of 10 g/l rice bran, 2.0 g/l nitrogen and 1.1 g/l sodium phosphate. The mathematical model Y = 10.65 + 2.40X2 + 2.36X3 + 1.16X2X3 - 2.10X2(2) - 1.06X3(2) describes biomass production by P. variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolyzate with a determination coefficient of R2 = 0.9561, where X2 and X3 are ammonium sulfate and fermentation time, respectively.

  10. Disseminated mycosis in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a new fungus related to Paecilomyces viridis.

    PubMed

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C; Kokotovic, Branko; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3 mm in diameter were grossly visible in the liver and other organs. Histopathology revealed fungal elements that were spherical to ovoid in shape, fragments of slender to irregularly swollen hyphae, and occasional conidia produced on phialides. Fungal isolates were initially suspected on the basis of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon isolates to be a related undescribed anamorphic species within the family Clavicipitaceae that includes many insect pathogens. Chamaeleomyces granulomatis gen. et sp. nov. is given as the name for the newly described fungus, and P. viridis is transferred to the new genus as Chamaeleomyces viridis comb. nov. Chamaeleomyces species are distinguished by having basally swollen phialides tapering to a narrow neck, conidia in fragile chains, and pale green to greenish-gray colonies. Both species are dimorphic, producing a transitory yeast stage characterized by ovoid-to-subglobose or subcylindrical yeast-like cells. Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons.

  11. Effect of aeration and agitation on the production of mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharides in an enthomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces sinclairii.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Hwang, H J; Xu, C P; Choi, J W; Yun, J W

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of aeration rate and agitation intensity on the production of mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide (EPS) in Paecilomyces sinclairii. The P. sinclairii was cultivated under various aeration and agitation conditions in a 5 l stirred-tank bioreactor. The highest mycelial biomass (30.5 g l-1) and EPS production (11.5 g l-1) were obtained at a high aeration rate (3.5 v.v.m.) and at a high agitation speed (250 rev min-1). The apparent viscosities (6000-8000 cP) of fermentation broth increased rapidly towards the end of fermentations at high aeration and agitation conditions. The high level of dissolved oxygen achieved at a high aeration rate (3.5 v.v.m.) associated with higher hyphal density eventually resulted in enhanced EPS production. Agitation intensity was also proved to be a critical factor influencing on both the mycelial biomass and EPS production: high agitation speeds up to 250 rev min-1 were preferred to the yields of biomass and EPS production. The critical effects of aeration and agitation in the culture process of P. sinclairii were found, which is widely applicable to other kinds of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes in their submerged culture processes.

  12. Disseminated Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) Caused by Chamaeleomyces granulomatis, a New Fungus Related to Paecilomyces viridis▿

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Lynne; Gibas, Connie Fe C.; Kokotovic, Branko; Bertelsen, Mads F.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of disseminated granulomatous disease occurred in a group of veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) in a zoo collection. An adult female and six offspring developed large granulomas in multiple organs and were euthanized. At necropsy, roughly spherical yellow-to-white nodules 1 to 3 mm in diameter were grossly visible in the liver and other organs. Histopathology revealed fungal elements that were spherical to ovoid in shape, fragments of slender to irregularly swollen hyphae, and occasional conidia produced on phialides. Fungal isolates were initially suspected on the basis of morphology results to represent Paecilomyces viridis, a species known only from one outbreak of fatal mycosis in carpet chameleons (Furcifer lateralis). Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal rRNA (rDNA) sequence data revealed the Danish chameleon isolates to be a related undescribed anamorphic species within the family Clavicipitaceae that includes many insect pathogens. Chamaeleomyces granulomatis gen. et sp. nov. is given as the name for the newly described fungus, and P. viridis is transferred to the new genus as Chamaeleomyces viridis comb. nov. Chamaeleomyces species are distinguished by having basally swollen phialides tapering to a narrow neck, conidia in fragile chains, and pale green to greenish-gray colonies. Both species are dimorphic, producing a transitory yeast stage characterized by ovoid-to-subglobose or subcylindrical yeast-like cells. Chamaeleomyces species appear to be rare but aggressive pathogens of chameleons. PMID:20660211

  13. Antioxidant and immunostimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps sp.

    PubMed

    Shin, K H; Lim, S S; Lee, S H; Lee, Y S; Cho, S Y

    2001-04-01

    Cordyceps is negative for its many biological activities and a tonic for restoring vital functions in traditional Chinese medicine. In an effort to evaluate the pharmacological effects, including the antiaging effect of the fruiting bodies of the cultivated Paecilomyces japonica fungus, a new type of Cordyceps sp. was investigated. This investigation was focused on ultimately revealing its biologically active principles, its effects on free-radical scavenging enzymes, lipid peroxidation, as well as its immunological functions. As a result, both water and methanol extracts were found to cause not only significant increases in rat liver cytosolic SOD, catalase, and GSEH-px activities, but also a significant decrease in MDA production in TBA reactant assay in rats. The extracts also showed immunostimulating activity as measured by carbon clearance, weight-loaded forced swimming performances, and immobilizing stress in mice. Using bioassay-guided systematic fractionation of the extracts, two pure compounds were isolated as active principles from low molecular-weight fraction, a protein-bound polysaccharide was isolated that showed a marked increase in the liver enzyme activities, as well as a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  14. Immunostimulatory activity of glycopeptides from Paecilomyces sinensis under normal and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressive conditions in mice models.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Meng, Meng; Sun, Huiqing; Li, Yang; Ren, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yongmin

    2016-08-10

    The present study was designed to evaluate immune-modulating effects of the glycopeptide from Paecilomyces sinensis (CPS-II) by using mouse peritoneal macrophage and cytoxan (CTX) induced immunosuppression models. Our results from phagocytotic and mononuclear phagocytic system function assays showed that CPS-II stimulated phagocytosis of the phagocytes. A splenocyte proliferation assay showed that CPS-II acted to combine Concanavalin A (ConA) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in splenocyte proliferation. The results demonstrated that CPS-II increased the indices of the thymus and spleen. Hematological and histopathological analysis revealed the protective effect of CPS-II against CTX induced immunosuppression. CPS-II also significantly increased the expression of CD4(+) and CD8(+) splenic T lymphocytes, which were suppressed by CTX in peripheral blood. The expressions of serum cytokines related to immune function, including TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ, were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of the transcription factor NF-κB in the spleen was enhanced after CPS-II-treatment. In conclusion, our results indicated that CPS-II was involved in immunostimulatory actions leading to its modulatory effects on immunosuppression, and one possible mechanism of action was to activate NF-κB.

  15. Cloning and expression of a Paecilomyces thermophila xylanase gene in E. coli and characterization of the recombinant xylanase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing; Hua, Chengwei; Li, Lite

    2010-01-01

    A cDNA library of Paecilomyces thermophila was constructed, and the gene encoding xylanase (designated Pt xynA) was isolated from the library. Pt xynA consisted of 681 bp, and the translated protein encoded 226 amino acids. This is the first functional gene cloned from P. thermophila. The gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and the recombinant xylanase (XynA) was purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA and Sephadex G50. XynA showed an optimum activity at 75 degrees C and pH 7.0. Its residual activity was more than 60% after being treated at 85 degrees C for 30 min. K(m) values of XynA for birchwood xylan, beechwood xylan and oat-spelt xylan were 4.4, 3.6 and 9.7 mg ml(-1), respectively. The enzyme has an endohydrolytic mode of action and can hydrolyse xylotriose to xylobiose through transglycosylation. These results indicate the XynA is a thermostable enzyme and has great potential in various industries.

  16. Antifungal activity of nano and micro charcoal particle polymers against Paecilomyces variotii, Trichoderma virens and Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Jin; Cha, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hern; Choi, Shin Sik

    2016-01-25

    This study investigates the antifungal activity of a polymer integrated with nano-porous charcoal particles against Paecilomyces variotii, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma virens, which are all filamentous fungi. The charcoal polymers were prepared by combining charcoal powders with plastic resin under a vacuum to form charcoal particle protrusions on the polymer surface. The mycelial growth of P. variotii and T. virens exhibited a reduction of 10 and 30%, respectively, after the conidia were pre-treated with charcoal polymers, and in particular, no mycelial growth was found in C. globosum during 5 days of culture. The adsorption of Ca(2+) into charcoal was suggested to inhibit growth due to the reduction in the flux of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) into the hyphae. In 5 h, about 15 mM of Ca(2+) were removed from CaCl2 solution with 0.2 g/mL of polymers, and the nano-sized pores of the charcoals on the polymer were responsible for the Ca(2+) adsorption.

  17. Effects of Paecilomyces tenuipes cultivated in egg yolk on lipid metabolism in rats on a high fat-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Mong; Park, Nam Sook; Jin, Byung Rae; Kang, Han-Seok; Jung, Jee Hyung; Park, Eunju

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the fruiting bodies of cultivated Paecilomyces tenuipes grown on egg yolk (PTE) on lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Forty 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet (control) or a high fat/high cholesterol diet with 1%, 3%, or 5% PTE for 5 weeks. PTE was found to significantly lower plasma total lipid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the atherogenic index, compared with the control. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol were also significantly lower than in the control group. The hypolipidemic activity of PTE was increased with increasing concentrations, and plasma lipid peroxidation was significantly lower in the 3% and 5% PTE groups than in the control or 1% PTE group. Plasma total radical trapping antioxidant potential, erythrocytic antioxidant enzyme, and leukocytic DNA damage were not significantly different among the groups. Our results indicate that P. tenuipes cultivated on egg yolk can improve lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in rats fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet.

  18. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G. S.; Zuckerman, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, cv. Montello, were transplanted into the soils 3 to 4 days later. All the bacterial and fungal antagonists applied without a soil amendment, except the B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus treatment, reduced root galling and increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated organic soil, but not in the fumigated soil. All three amendments were also effective against M. hapla and reduced root galling in fumigated and unfumigated soils. Wheat mash amendment increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated soil. In general, no antagonist × amendment interaction was detected. Soil populations of B. thuringiensis were maintained at ≥4.0 log10 colony-forming units/g organic soil during the first 14 days after planting. However, viable cells of B. thuringiensis were not detected after 49 days. PMID:19270951

  19. A sialic acid-specific lectin from the mushroom Paecilomyces Japonica that exhibits hemagglutination activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hun; Ryu, Chang Soo; Kim, Ha Na; Na, Young Jun; Park, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hahyung

    2004-12-01

    The mushroom Paecilomyces japonica, grown on the silkworm larvae, has been used in Asia as a nutraceutical, tea, and Chinese medicine. In the present study, a sialic acid-specific lectin has been purified from the mushroom P. japonica using affinity chromatography on a fetuin-agarose column. Electrophoretical analyses indicated that this lectin, designated P. japonica agglutinin (PJA), is an acidic protein with a molecular mass of 16 kDa, and has no intermolecular disulfide bonds. PJA induced hemagglutination activity in human ABO, mouse, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes. This activity was inhibited by sialic acid and sialoglycoproteins, but not by any other carbohydrates. PJA was stable at pH 4.0-8.0, and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. The activity of PJA was independent of EDTA and divalent cations. In addition, PJA exerts cytotoxic effects on the following cancer cell lines: human stomach cancer SNU-1, human pancreas cancer AsPc-1, and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231.

  20. Growth of Paecilomyces variotii in B0 (diesel), B100 (biodiesel) and B7 (blend), degradation and molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Gassen, J; Bento, F M; Frazzon, A P G; Ferrão, M F; Marroni, I V; Simonetti, A B

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of biodiesel to diesel may allow the fuel to be more susceptible to microorganism growth, especially during incorrect storage. To evaluate the effect of adding biodiesel in pure diesel on the growth of Paecilomyces variotii, microcosms containing pure diesel (B0), blend diesel/biodiesel (B7) and pure biodiesel (B100) were used. In microcosm with minimal mineral medium and B0, B7 or B100, after 60 days, the biomass (dry weight) formed at interface oil-water in B7 and B100 was significantly higher when compared to that of B0. Infrared analysis showed reduction of the carbonile fraction in B7 and B100 suggesting formation of intermediate compounds in B7. To monitor possible contamination of fuel storage tank by P. variotii samples were collected and analysed by specific-PCR assay for detection of P. variotii spores in the aqueous phase. This method was able to detect a minimum of 103 spores ml-1, corresponding to 0.0144 ng µl-1 of DNA. Specificity was tested against Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudallescheria boydii.

  1. Thom, Alexander (1894-1945)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    British engineer and archaeo-astronomer, born in Scotland, became professor of engineering science at Oxford University. Accurately surveyed the megalithic sites in Britain and the megalithic lunar observatories, identifying their shapes and astronomical alignments. He claimed to have discovered in the dimensions of the circles, as apparently used by the megalithic constructors, quanta of length ...

  2. Paeciloquinones A, B, C, D, E and F: new potent inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinases produced by Paecilomyces carneus. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, F; Fredenhagen, A; Mett, H; Lydon, N B; Delmendo, R; Jenny, H B; Peter, H H

    1995-03-01

    Paeciloquinones A to F as well as versiconol have been isolated as inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase from the culture broth of the fungus Paecilomyces carneus P-177. The novel anthraquinones inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase in the micromolar range. Two compounds, paeciloquinones A and C, are potent and selective inhibitors of the v-abl protein tyrosine kinase with an IC50 of 0.4 microM. Dependent on the fermentation conditions, partially different sets of paeciloquinones may be produced. An HPLC method allows separation of all major active components.

  3. Characterization of a thermostable extracellular beta-glucosidase with activities of exoglucanase and transglycosylation from Paecilomyces thermophila.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yan, Qiaojuan; Zhu, Huifang

    2008-01-23

    The purification and characterization of a novel extracellular beta-glucosidase from Paecilomyces thermophila J18 was studied. The beta-glucosidase was purified to 105-fold apparent homogeneity with a recovery yield of 21.7% by DEAE 52 and Sephacryl S-200 chromatographies. Its molecular masses were 116 and 197 kDa when detected by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration, respectively. It was a homodimeric glycoprotein with a carbohydrate content of 82.3%. The purified enzyme exhibited an optimal activity at 75 degrees C and pH 6.2. It was stable up to 65 degrees C and in the pH range of 5.0-8.5. The enzyme exhibited a broad substrate specificity and significantly hydrolyzed p-nitrophenyl-beta- d-glucopyranoside ( pNPG), cellobiose, gentiobiose, sophorose, amygdalin, salicin, daidzin, and genistin. Moreover, it displayed substantial activity on beta-glucans such as laminarin and lichenan, indicating that the enzyme has some exoglucanase activity. The rate of glucose released by the purified enzyme from cellooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP) ranging between 2 and 5 decreased with increasing chain length. Glucose and glucono-delta-lactone inhibited the beta-glucosidase competitively with Ki values of 73 and 0.49 mM, respectively. The beta-glucosidase hydrolyzed pNPG, cellobiose, gentiobiose, sophorose, salicin, and amygdalin, exhibiting apparent Km values of 0.26, 0.65, 0.77, 1.06, 1.39, and 1.45 mM, respectively. Besides, the enzyme showed transglycosylation activity, producing oligosaccharides with higher DP than the substrates when cellooligosaccharides were hydrolyzed. These properties make this beta-glucosidase useful for various biotechnological applications.

  4. Identification of Molecular Variants in Mitochondrial DNAs of Members of the Genera Beauveria, Verticillium, Paecilomyces, Tolypocladium, and Metarhizium.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, D D; Khachatourians, G G

    1993-12-01

    A set of five mitochondrial (mt) probes derived from a strain of Beauveria bassiana was used to evaluate the similarity of mtDNAs from 15 additional isolates of this fungus and five genera of other entomopathogenic fungi. The probes and genes encoded for (shown in parentheses) were pBbmtE2 (NADI, ATP6), pBbmtE3 (ATP6, small rRNA [srRNA]), pBbmtE4 (srRNA, CO3, NAD6), pBbSE1 (NAD6, tRNA, large rRNA [lrRNA]), and pBbXS1 (lrRNA). The probes produced identical hybridization patterns in EcoRI-digested DNA from nearly all isolates of B. bassiana and Beauveria caledonica. Similar patterns were also observed with Beauveria densa. The isolates of B. caledonica and B. densa DNAs could be differentiated from each other and from B. bassiana on the basis of a HindIII digestion and probing with pBbmtE3. Probe pBbmtE2 produced either a 5.0-kb or a 4.1-kb band in all of the B. bassiana isolates. This observation was used to categorize the mtDNA of B. bassiana into two types, designated A and B. Hybridization of the five probes produced distinct banding patterns in Beauveria brongniartii, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, Tolypocladium nivea, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii, and Paecilomyces farinosus. Hybridizations carried out with multiple probes simultaneously present produced unique patterns which characterized the B. bassiana group from all other fungi tested. These results are discussed in terms of how mtDNA polymorphisms in B. bassiana may relate to natural population structures, mt transmission in deuteromycetes, and the use of mtDNA polymorphisms in structural analysis of mtDNA.

  5. Correlation of Biological Activity and Reactor Performance in Biofiltration of Toluene with the Fungus Paecilomyces variotii CBS115145

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Inés; Hernández, Sergio; Auria, Richard; Revah, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    A biofiltration system inoculated with the mold Paecilomyces variotii CBS115145 showed a toluene elimination capacity (EC) of around 250 g/m3 of biofilter/h, which was higher than the values usually reported for bacteria. P. variotii assimilated m- and p-cresols but not the o isomer. Initial toluene hydroxylation occurred both on the methyl group and through the p-cresol pathway. These results were corroborated by detecting benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and p-cresol as volatile intermediates. In liquid cultures with toluene as a substrate, the activity of toluene oxygenase (TO) was 5.6 nmol of O2/min/mg of biomass, and that of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase was 16.2 nmol of NADH/min/mg of protein. Toluene biodegradation determined from the TO activity in the biofilter depended on the biomass distribution and the substrate concentration. The specific enzymatic activity decreased from 6.3 to 1.9 nmol of O2/min/mg of biomass along the reactor. Good agreement was found between the EC calculated from the TO activity and the EC measured on the biofilter. The results were confirmed by short-time biofiltration experiments. Average EC measured in different biofiltration experiments and EC calculated from the TO activity showed a linear relation, suggesting that in the biofilters, EC was limited by biological reaction. As the enzymatic activities of P. variotii were similar to those reported for bacteria, the high performance of the fungal biofilters can possibly be explained by the increased transfer of the hydrophobic compounds, including oxygen, from the gas phase to the mycelia, overcoming the transfer problems associated with the flat bacterial biofilms. PMID:16085815

  6. Identification of Molecular Variants in Mitochondrial DNAs of Members of the Genera Beauveria, Verticillium, Paecilomyces, Tolypocladium, and Metarhizium

    PubMed Central

    Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Khachatourians, George G.

    1993-01-01

    A set of five mitochondrial (mt) probes derived from a strain of Beauveria bassiana was used to evaluate the similarity of mtDNAs from 15 additional isolates of this fungus and five genera of other entomopathogenic fungi. The probes and genes encoded for (shown in parentheses) were pBbmtE2 (NADI, ATP6), pBbmtE3 (ATP6, small rRNA [srRNA]), pBbmtE4 (srRNA, CO3, NAD6), pBbSE1 (NAD6, tRNAVal, Ile, Ser, Trp, Pro, large rRNA [lrRNA]), and pBbXS1 (lrRNA). The probes produced identical hybridization patterns in EcoRI-digested DNA from nearly all isolates of B. bassiana and Beauveria caledonica. Similar patterns were also observed with Beauveria densa. The isolates of B. caledonica and B. densa DNAs could be differentiated from each other and from B. bassiana on the basis of a HindIII digestion and probing with pBbmtE3. Probe pBbmtE2 produced either a 5.0-kb or a 4.1-kb band in all of the B. bassiana isolates. This observation was used to categorize the mtDNA of B. bassiana into two types, designated A and B. Hybridization of the five probes produced distinct banding patterns in Beauveria brongniartii, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, Tolypocladium nivea, Metarhizium anisopliae, Verticillium lecanii, and Paecilomyces farinosus. Hybridizations carried out with multiple probes simultaneously present produced unique patterns which characterized the B. bassiana group from all other fungi tested. These results are discussed in terms of how mtDNA polymorphisms in B. bassiana may relate to natural population structures, mt transmission in deuteromycetes, and the use of mtDNA polymorphisms in structural analysis of mtDNA. Images PMID:16349124

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shaoqing; Wang, Yaxi; Jiang, Zhengqiang Hua, Chengwei

    2008-08-01

    The crystal of a 1,3-1,4-β-glucanase produced by Paecilomyces thermophila belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.54, c = 87.62 Å. In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a thermostable 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase produced by Paecilomyces thermophila is described. The purified 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.54, c = 87.62 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.54 Å and gave a data set with an overall R{sub merge} of 7.3% and a completeness of 94.6%. The Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) and the solvent content are 2.38 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and 48%, respectively.

  8. Cloning and expression of the endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase gene from Paecilomyces sp. FLH30 and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hua, Chengwei; Yi, Huaxi; Jiao, Lingxia

    2011-01-01

    The cDNA encoding β-1,3(4)-glucanase, named PsBg16A, from Paecilomyces sp. FLH30 was cloned, sequenced, and over expressed in Pichia pastoris, with a yield of about 61,754 U mL⁻¹ in a 5-L fermentor. PsBg16A has an open reading frame of 951 bp encoding 316 amino acids, and the deduced amino acid sequence of PsBg16A revealed that it belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 16. The purified recombinant PsBg16A had a pH optimum at 7.0 and a temperature optimum at 70 °C, and randomly hydrolyzed barley β-glucan, lichenin, and laminarin, suggesting that it is a typical endo-1,3(4)-β-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.6) with broad substrate specificity for β-glucans.

  9. Detoxification of castor bean residues and the simultaneous production of tannase and phytase by solid-state fermentation using Paecilomyces variotii.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we introduce a biological detoxification method that converts toxic waste from castor beans into animal feed material. This method simultaneously induces the production of tannase and phytase by Paecilomyces variotii; both enzymes have high levels of activity and have the potential to be used in feedstuffs because they decrease overall anti-nutritional factors. The maximum tannase and phytase activities obtained were 2600 and 260 U/g after 48 and 72 h, respectively. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of the fermented castor cake extracts revealed a reduction in ricin bands during fermentation, and the bands were no longer visible after 48 h. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated by MTT testing on RAW cells, and a progressive increase in cellular viability was obtained, reaching almost 100% after 72 h of fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoqing; Wang, Yaxi; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Hua, Chengwei

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a thermostable 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase produced by Paecilomyces thermophila is described. The purified 1,3–1,4-β-glucanase was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6322, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.54, c = 87.62 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.54 Å and gave a data set with an overall R merge of 7.3% and a completeness of 94.6%. The Matthews coefficient (V M) and the solvent content are 2.38 Å3 Da−1 and 48%, respectively. PMID:18678950

  11. Optimization of the Solid-state Fermentation and Properties of a Polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson and Its Antioxidant Activities In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xueyong; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Chang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS) produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Plackett–Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD) was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS) generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%), rhamnose (32.1%), xylose (14.5%) and arabinose (10.2%). Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75×106 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw) and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg2)z1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel) Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants. PMID:24498337

  12. [Toxinogenic moulds in silage. V. - Production of byssochlamic acid in liquid medium with by Byssochlamys nivea Westling, Byssochlamys fulva Olliver and Smith and Paecilomyces varioti Bainier isolated in forages (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Escoula, L

    1975-01-01

    The toxinogenesis of 10 strains of Byssochlamys nivea, 4 of Byssochlamys fulva and 8 of Paecilomyces varioti is studied in Czapek's enriched liquid medium (8 p. 1000 glucose + 2p. 1000 yeast extract) at 26 degrees C. 60 p. 100 of Byssochlamys nivea filtrates, 100 p. 100 of Byssochlamys fulva filtrates and 37 p. 100 of Paecilomyces varioti filtrates contain byssochlamic acid after 60 days of culture at 26 degrees C. The concentrations observed vary from 40 to 540 p.p.m. In these moulds, patuline-production ability has also been tested (Escoula, 1975 c). There seems to be no relation between the production of patuline and of byssochlamic acid in these three species.

  13. [Improvement of catalytic capability of Paecilomyces thermophila J18 thermostable beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase under acidic condition by directed evolution].

    PubMed

    Li, Yinan; Jia, Huiyong; Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Yang, Shaoqing

    2011-12-01

    Directed evolution was used to improve the performance of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase (designated as PtLicl6A) from Paecilomyces thermophila J18 under acidic condition. A mutant library was constructed by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling, and positive clones were screened by Congo red staining. More than 1 500 mutants were selected. One mutant (PtLic16AM1) exhibited an optimal activity at pH 5.5, while the optimal pH of the wild-type enzyme was 7.0. The mutant PtLic16AM1 kept the high specific activity and thermotolerence of the wild-type enzyme. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant enzyme has four sense substitutions which caused four amino acid substitutions - namely T58S, Y110N, G195E and D221G.. Homology modeling showed that among the four amino acid substitutions, Y110N was near the active site of the enzyme, while the other three was distant. T58S and G195E may play key roles in the change of optimal pH. This study provided a new perspective of obtaining applicable 3-1,3-1,4-glucanase for industrial use.

  14. Ubiquinone systems in fungi. V. Distribution and taxonomic implications of ubiquinones in Eurotiales, Onygenales and the related plectomycete genera, except for Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, and their related teleomorphs.

    PubMed

    Kuraishi, H; Itoh, M; Katayama, Y; Ito, T; Hasegawa, A; Sugiyama, J

    2000-02-01

    The ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) systems were determined for 176 teleomorphic isolates, 14 anamorphic isolates, and three samples of fruit-bodies of Dendrosphaera eberhardtii, which belonged to Eurotiales, Onygenales, and related taxa. In Eurotiales, Ascosphaera had Q-9, whereas Bettsia had Q-10. All isolates of Monascaceae had the Q-10 system, whereas those of four genera of Pseudeurotiaceae had the Q-10(H2) system. The Q-10(H2) system was found in genera of Trichocomaceae, except for Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and their related taxa. However, Thermoascus had the Q-9 system. In Onygenales, members of Arthrodermataceae had Q-9, and those of Gymnoascaceae had Q-10(H2). Isolates of Myxotrichaceae were characterized by Q-10(H2) with few exceptions, which had Q-10. The quinones of Onygenaceae belonged to complex systems, i.e., Q-9, 0-10 and 0-10(H2), and a combination of two systems. Families Onygenaceae and Trichocomaceae are likely a phylogenetic heterogeneity. Ubiquinone analysis provides a very useful criterion of great promise for classifying eurotialean taxa and also for identifying their isolates.

  15. Improvement of insulin resistance and insulin secretion by water extracts of Cordyceps militaris, Phellinus linteus, and Paecilomyces tenuipes in 90% pancreatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo Bong; Park, Chun Hee; Choi, Mi Kyung; Jun, Dong Wha; Park, Sunmin

    2004-11-01

    The effect of supplementation with Phellinus linteus (P. linteus), Paecilomyces tenuipes (P. tenuipes), and Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) mushroom water extracts on the insulin secretion and insulin resistance of 90% pancreatectomized (Px) male Sprague Dawley rats was investigated. Px rats were daily administered 0.5 g of P. linteus, P. tenuipes, and C. militaris aqueous extracts or a placebo per 1 kg body weight with a 40% fat diet for 8 weeks. Fasting serum glucose levels were lower in rats receiving C. militaris than in the control group. Insulin secretion at the elevated serum glucose levels was lowest in rats that consumed P. tenuipes in hyperglycemic clamp. Whole body glucose disposal rates increased in C. militaris but decreased in P. tenuipes compared to those in the control group in euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The GLUT4 content and fraction velocity of glycogen synthase in the soleus and quadriceps muscles increased in the rats treated with C. militaris, but P. tenuipes decreased both. In sum, a water extract of C. militaris ameliorates insulin resistance by enhancing glucose utilization in skeletal muscles.

  16. Anti-tumour and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps spp.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kuk Hyun; Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Yeon Sil; Jung, Sang Hoon; Cho, Sae Yun

    2003-08-01

    The anti-tumor and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica (PJ), grown on silk-worm larvae and of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a wild form of Cordyceps Fungi, were investigated. Ethanol extracts of both fungi, when administered for 9 consecutive days, at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p., caused a significant increase in life span and a significant decrease in tumor weights and volumes, in mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 tumor cells. Both fungal extracts were demonstrated to exhibit phagocytosis enhancing activity as measured by carbon clearance in mice. PJ extracts, when administered i.p. at 50 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days, exhibited a significant enhancement of phagocytosis, its potency as expressed by the regression coefficient ratio, RCtr/RCc, being 1.64 (the phagocytosis index = 2). This was approximately the same for that of zymosan (RCtr/RCc = 1.55, PI = 2), a typical phagocytosis enhancer, whereas CS extracts exhibited a moderate phagocytosis enhancing activity at the same dose level (RCtr/RCc = 1.30, PI = 1). Both fungal extracts caused a significant increase in an acid phosphatase activity, representing lysosomal enzymes, in macrophages at 20 and 100 micro g/ml in vitro, in compliance with in vivo results. These results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of both fungi might be related to an immuno-stimulating function. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. High-level of xylanase production by the thermophilic Paecilomyces themophila J18 on wheat straw in solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, S Q; Yan, Q J; Jiang, Z Q; Li, L T; Tian, H M; Wang, Y Z

    2006-10-01

    The production of extracellular xylanase by a newly isolated thermophilic fungus, Paecilomyces themophila J18, on the lignocellulosic materials was studied in solid-state fermentation (SSF). The strain grew well at 50 degrees C and produced a high-level of xylanase activity using the selected lignocellulosic materials, especially wheat straw. Production of xylanase by P. themophila J18 on wheat straw was enhanced by optimizing the particle size of wheat straw, nitrogen source, initial moisture level, growth temperature and initial pH of the culture medium. Under the optimized conditions, yield as high as 18,580 Ug(-1) of carbon source of xylanase was achieved. No CMCase activity was observed. The xylanase exhibited remarkable stability and retained more than 50% of its original activity at 70 degrees C for 4h at pH 7.0-8.0. Therefore, P. themophila J18 could to be a promising microorganism for thermostable, cellulase-free xylanase production in SSF.

  18. Biochemical properties of a novel glycoside hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase (PtBglu1) from Paecilomyces thermophila expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoqing; Hua, Chengwei; Yan, Qiaojuan; Li, Yinan; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2013-01-30

    A novel β-glucosidase gene (PtBglu1) from the thermophilic fungus, Paecilomyces thermophila, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PtBglu1 contained an open reading frame of 1440-bp nucleotides and encoded a protein of 479 amino acids which showed significant similarity to other fungal β-glucosidases from glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 1. The recombinant β-glucosidase (PtBglu1) was secreted at high level of 190.2 U mL(-1) in high cell density fermentor (5L). PtBglu1 was purified to homogeneity, and was found to be a glycoprotein with molecular mass of 56.7 kDa. The purified PtBglu1 showed optimum catalytic activity at pH 6.0 and 55 °C. The enzyme exhibited broad substrate specificity with highest activity toward pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside, followed by pNP-β-D-galactopyranoside and cellobiose. The K(m) values for pNP-β-D-glucopyranoside, cellobiose, gentiobiose and salicin were 0.55 mM, 1.0 mM, 1.74 mM and 6.85 mM, respectively. These properties make PtBglu1 a potential candidate for various industrial applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of different photoperiods on the growth, infectivity and colonization of Trinidadian strains of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, using a glass slide bioassay.

    PubMed

    Avery, Pasco B; Faull, Jane; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2004-01-01

    Growth, infectivity and colonization rates for blastospores and conidia of Trinidadian strains T, T10, and T11 of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith were assessed for activity against late fourth-instar nymphs of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae) under two different photoperiods (24 and 16 hour photophase). A glass-slide bioassay and a fungal development index, modified for both blastospores and conidia, were used to compare the development rates of the fungal strains on the insect hosts. Fewer adult whiteflies emerged from nymphs treated with blastospores and reared under a 16:8 hour light:dark photoperiod than a 24:0 hour photoperiod. Eclosion times of whitefly adults that emerged from nymphs treated with the different strains of conidia were similar over the 8 day experimental period at both light regimes. The percent eclosion of adult whiteflies seems to be directly correlated with the speed of infection of the blastospore or conidial treatment and the photoperiod regime. The longer photophase had a significant positive effect on development index for blastospores; however, a lesser effect was observed for the conidia at either light regime. Blastospore strain T11 offered the most potential of the three Trinidadian strains against T. vaporariorum fourth-instar nymphs, especially under constant light. The glass-slide bioassay was successfully used to compare both blastospores and conidia of P. fumosoroseus. It can be used to determine the pathogenicity and the efficacy of various fungal preparations against aleyrodid pests.

  20. Comparative study of metal induced phospholipid modifications in the heavy metal tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii and implications for the fungal membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Słaba, Mirosława; Bernat, Przemysław; Różalska, Sylwia; Nykiel, Justyna; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    In this work we compared the effect of five heavy metals: Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cu on phospholipid composition of the ubiquitous soil fungus Paecilomyces marquandii, originating from a strongly metal polluted area and characterized by high tolerance to these elements. Cd, Ni and Cu caused an increase in phosphatidylcholine (PC). Only Pb decreased PC content, which was accompanied by a significant rise in the phosphatidic acids (PA) level, probably due to activation of phospholipase D which hydrolyzes PC to PA. This could result in membrane fluidity disturbance, and thus affect its integrity. The assessment of propidium iodide influx showed strong disturbance of membrane integrity for Cu and Pb stressed mycelia, whereas mycelia treated with Ni were impermeable to this dye. The results obtained revealed a strong Cu and Pb toxicity involving disruption of membrane integrity. Pb action was reflected by lipid composition, whereas changes in Cu treated mycelia did not completely elucidate its harmful effect on the membrane, which was most probably caused by Cu induced lipid peroxidation. Zn did not induce quantitative changes in PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) but caused changes in phospholipid lipid saturation, which appears to be important for fungus adaptation to the presence of metals. The enhanced PC content balanced by higher PC saturation can help in the maintenance of proper membrane fluidity and result in alleviating the Cd and Ni induced stress. These results will allow to clarify the mechanism of Pb toxicity and help to elucidate the cellular basis of fungal membrane adaptation to heavy metals.

  1. Culture conditions and medium components for the production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharides with Paecilomyces japonica in liquid culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Seok; Jung, Woo Chul; Park, Seok Jae; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the liquid culture conditions were optimized for maximal production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharide by Paecilomyces japonica. The effects of medium composition, C/N ratio and physical parameters were investigated. From these experiments, 30 g glucose, 20 g yeast extract, 0.5 g KH2PO4, and 0.1 g CuCl2 2H2O in 1-l distilled water were found to be the most suitable carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively. The optimal temperature, initial pH, agitation, and aeration were determined to be 27°C, uncontrolled pH, 400 rpm, and 1.0 vvm, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the maximum mycelial growth and polysaccharides production were 23.1 g/l and 2.5 g/l, respectively. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nucleotide excision repair and photoreactivation in the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria nivea, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and Verticillium lecanii.

    PubMed

    Chelico, L; Haughian, J L; Khachatourians, G G

    2006-05-01

    To compare the DNA repair capabilities of the entomopathogenic fungus (EPF) bassiana to the EPF Beauveria brongniartii, Beauveria nivea, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus, Verticillium lecanii, and the fungi Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa. Germination of B. bassiana conidiospores following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was used to show that nucleotide excision repair and photoreactivation decrease the post-UV germination delay. These two modes of repair were characterized and compared between the aforementioned EPF, A. niger and N. crassa using a physiological assay where per cent survival post-UV irradiation was scored as colony forming units. The results showed B. bassiana and M. anisopliae are the most UV-tolerant EPF. The DNA repair capabilities indicated that EPF do not have all DNA repair options available to fungi, such as A. niger and N. crassa. A key factor detrimental to the survival of EPF in agro-ecosystems is UV light from solar radiation. The EPF literature pertaining to UV irradiation is varied with respect to methodology, UV source, and dose, which prevented comparisons. Here we have characterized the fungi by a standard method and established the repair capabilities of EPF under optimal conditions.

  3. Activity of the endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus in decolourisation and the reduction of reactive dyes' cytotoxicity in fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Lígia Maria Crubelati; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito; Kava, Vanessa; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2017-02-01

    The current study investigates the potential for discolouration and degradation of Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Black 5 textile dyes by endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus as well as the potential cytotoxicity of products or by-products generated by the treatments in fish erythrocytes. It was observed at 30 days that both endophytes showed biodegradation activity with 0.1 g mL(-1) of dyes. P. formosus showed highest extracellular and intracellular protein content levels after the 15th day, and Phlebia sp. stands out for production of extracellular laccase, indicating that this enzyme may be associated with the decolouration capacity. The dyes showed toxic effects in fishes at 0.01 g mL(-1) concentration, resulting in the appearance of micronuclei in erythrocyte cells. When degraded dyes treated by endophytes were tested, the frequency of micronuclei reduced approximately 20%, indicating the effectiveness of these endophytic in the treatment of textile dyes with less environmental impact, thus indicating a potential for application of these fungi in bioremediation process.

  4. The effect of selected allelochemicals on germination of conidia and blastospores and mycelial growth of the entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes).

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A

    1998-01-01

    Selected allelochemicals that protect plants from invasion by plant pathogenic fungi were investigated for their activity against the entomopathogenic fungus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. The alkaloids tomatine, solanine, and camptothecin; the furanocoumarin, xanthotoxin; and the phenolic, tannic acid were tested for their effects on germination of conidia and blastospores and growth of mycelia. The LC50 values (corresponding to 50% inhibition of germination) for tomatine, solanine, camptothecin, xanthotoxin and tannic acid were 51.6, 95.9, 55.9, 83.0 and 72.8 mg/l respectively. When blastospores were placed on media containing a concentration of the individual allelochemicals that inhibit germination in approximately 50% of conidia, all but blastospores on tomatine had significantly less germination than did aerial conidia. Growth rates of mycelia were slowest in the camptothecin medium, followed by those of tomatine and xanthotoxin and were not significantly different from controls in the media containing solanine and tannic acid. A multitude of biotic and abiotic factors are responsible for specificity and degree of pathogenicity of entomopathogens. The effect of crop plant chemistry on the efficacy of entomopathogens should be quantified further in order to maximize their potential when used concomitantly with resistant plant varieties.

  5. Long-term preservation, regeneration, and cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson (Ascomycetes), an entomopathogenic fungus inoculated into the silkworm larva of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hee; Li, Chun Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Kang, Seok Woo; Lee, Kwang Gill; Yeo, Joo Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Ji Young; Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Ki Man

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes reportedly have anticancer and immune activities, along with various other medicinal uses. Cultured products with P. tenuipes are certified for use in food in South Korea, and processed goods containing this fungus have been developed in many countries, particularly South Korea, Japan, and China. Research on mass production technology-procured raw materials for the manufacture of P. tenuipes is very important; however, cultures of the fungus have been unstable. This study identified stable cultivation conditions, focusing on growth inhibition and revitalization. Moisture regulation and preservation of pupae inoculated with P. tenuipes were used to control growth inhibition and revitalization. When inoculated silkworm pupae were dehydrated to 4% moisture and preserved freeze-dried or at -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C, or 4 degrees C, the mycelia in their bodies were able to survive for 14 d. Inoculated silkworm pupae were rehydrated for 3 h and the mycelia within their bodies were recovered at 94.3-96.3%. Silkworm pupae at 4% moisture were able to survive for 135 d at temperatures < 4 degrees C and for 1 y after freeze-drying. Optimal conditions for synnemata induction were 25 degrees C and 100-300 1x.

  6. Change in kidney damage biomarkers after 13 weeks of exposing rats to the complex of Paecilomyces sinclairii and its host Bombyx mori larvae.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mihye; Kim, Young-Won; Min, Jeong-Ran; Kwon, Min; Han, Beom-Suk; Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Sang-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Complex of Paecilomyces sinclairii and host larvae, Bombyx mori, is a well known health food; however, concerns about nephrotoxicity have been raised. Kidney toxicity was investigated after 13 weeks of administering the complex orally to rats with parameters including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and kidney damage biomarkers, beta-2-microglobulin (β2m), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GST-α), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), calbindin, clusterin, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and osteopontin. Dose-dependent kidney cell karyomegaly and tubular hypertrophy were observed, with higher severity in males. There was a dose-dependent increase in KIM-1 and TIMP-1 levels in kidney and urinary KIM-1, cystatin C, β2m, and osteopontin levels. KIM-1 and TIMP-1 increased in male kidneys had not recovered by 2 weeks after stopping exposure. Cystatin C in kidney was significantly lowered in all treatment groups at 13 weeks of administration. All the changes were more noticeable in males. These data indicate that the complex damage renal tubule cells with histopathological lesions and changes in biomarker levels. Kidney and urinary KIM-1 and cystatin C were the most markedly affected and early increased indicators among biomarkers tested, whereas BUN and creatinine were not affected. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found affecting A. cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15 percent infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one M. anisopliae detect...

  8. Engineering a thermostable β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Paecilomyces thermophila to improve catalytic efficiency at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Jia, Huiyong; Li, Yinan; Liu, Yuchun; Yan, Qiaojuan; Yang, Shaoqing; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2012-05-31

    To fulfill the need for acid-tolerant and thermostable β-1,3-1,4-glucanases, an error-prone PCR and DNA-shuffling approach was employed to enhance the activity of thermostable β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from Paecilomyces thermophila (PtLic16A) at acidic pH. Mutant PtLic16AM2 was selected and characterized, and showed optimal activity at pH 5.0, corresponding to an acidic shift of 2.0 pH units relative to the wild-type enzyme. Other properties of PtLic16A such as temperature optimum and substrate specificity that are beneficial for industrial applications did not change. Based on the substituted residues of PtLic16AM2, three site-directed mutations, D56G, D221G and C263S, were designed to study these residues' roles. The amino acid residues at positions 56 and 263 were found to be important in determining optimal pH activity. Activity of the D221G variant showed no significant difference from the wild-type. Thus, it appears that the change in optimal pH for PtLic16AM2 was mainly caused by the combination of substitutions D56G and C263S. This study provides a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase (PtLic16AM2) with high potential for industrial applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A new process for simultaneous production of tannase and phytase by Paecilomyces variotii in solid-state fermentation of orange pomace.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-03-01

    The production of enzymes such as tannases and phytases by solid-state fermentation and their use in animal feed have become a subject of great interest. In the present work, Paecilomyces variotii was used to produce tannase and phytase simultaneously. Solid-state fermentation, a process initially designed for tannase production, was implemented here using orange pomace as substrate. Orange pomace is the waste product of the large orange juice industry in Brazil, and it has also been used as an ingredient in animal feed. In addition to enzymatic production, biotransformation of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the orange pomace were analyzed after fermentation. Fermentation conditions, namely moisture level and tannic acid concentration rate, were studied using CCD methodology. The response surface obtained indicated that the highest tannase activity was 5,000 U/gds after 96 h at 59% (v/w) and 3% (w/w) and that of phytase was 350 U/gds after 72 h at 66% (v/w) and 5.8% (w/w) of moisture level and tannic acid concentration, respectively. The amount of tannase production was similar to the levels achieved in previous studies, but this was accomplished with a 7% (w/w) reduction in the amount of supplemental tannic acid required. These results are the first to show that P. variotii is capable of producing phytase at significant levels. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of orange pomace when tested against the free radical ABTS was increased by approximately tenfold as a result of the fermentation process.

  10. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul L.; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P. formosus LHL10 significantly increased plant biomass and growth attributes as compared to non-inoculated control plants with or without Ni contamination. LHL10 enhanced the translocation of Ni from the root to the shoot as compared to the control. In addition, P. formosus LHL10 modulated the physio-chemical apparatus of soybean plants during Ni-contamination by reducing lipid peroxidation and the accumulation of linolenic acid, glutathione, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Stress-responsive phytohormones such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were significantly down-regulated in fungal-inoculated soybean plants under Ni stress. LHL10 Ni-remediation potential can be attributed to its phytohormonal synthesis related genetic makeup. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase for indole-acetic acid and geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase (P450-4), C13-oxidase (P450-3) for gibberellins synthesis. In conclusion, the inoculation of P. formosus can significantly improve plant growth in Ni-polluted soils, and assist in improving the phytoremediation abilities of economically important crops. PMID:28611799

  11. Endophytic Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 Augments Glycine max L. Adaptation to Ni-Contamination through Affecting Endogenous Phytohormones and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Saqib; Khan, Abdul L; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P. formosus LHL10 significantly increased plant biomass and growth attributes as compared to non-inoculated control plants with or without Ni contamination. LHL10 enhanced the translocation of Ni from the root to the shoot as compared to the control. In addition, P. formosus LHL10 modulated the physio-chemical apparatus of soybean plants during Ni-contamination by reducing lipid peroxidation and the accumulation of linolenic acid, glutathione, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Stress-responsive phytohormones such as abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were significantly down-regulated in fungal-inoculated soybean plants under Ni stress. LHL10 Ni-remediation potential can be attributed to its phytohormonal synthesis related genetic makeup. RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of indole-3-acetamide hydrolase, aldehyde dehydrogenase for indole-acetic acid and geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, ent-kaurene oxidase (P450-4), C13-oxidase (P450-3) for gibberellins synthesis. In conclusion, the inoculation of P. formosus can significantly improve plant growth in Ni-polluted soils, and assist in improving the phytoremediation abilities of economically important crops.

  12. Virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity during propagule production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita

    2007-03-01

    To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.

  13. Adaptive alterations in the fatty acids composition under induced oxidative stress in heavy metal-tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii cultured in ascorbic acid presence.

    PubMed

    Słaba, Mirosława; Gajewska, Ewa; Bernat, Przemysław; Fornalska, Magdalena; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the heavy metal-tolerant fungus Paecilomyces marquandii to modulate whole cells fatty acid composition and saturation in response to IC50 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu was studied. Cadmium and nickel caused the most significant growth reduction. In the mycelia cultured with all tested metals, with the exception of nickel, a rise in the fatty acid unsaturation was noted. The fungus exposure to Pb, Cu, and Ni led to significantly higher lipid peroxidation. P. marquandii incubated in the presence of the tested metals responded with an increase in the level of linoleic acid and escalation of electrolyte leakage. The highest efflux of electrolytes was caused by lead. In these conditions, the fungus was able to bind up to 100 mg g(-1) of lead, whereas the content of the other metals in the mycelium was significantly lower and reached from 3.18 mg g(-1) (Cu) to 15.21 mg g(-1) (Zn). Additionally, it was shown that ascorbic acid at the concentration of 1 mM protected fungal growth and prevented the changes in the fatty acid composition and saturation but did not alleviate lipid peroxidation or affect the increased permeability of membranes after lead exposure. Pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the copper-stressed cells manifested strong growth inhibition and enhanced metal accumulation as a result of membrane damage. Toxic metals action caused cellular modulations, which might contributed to P. marquandii tolerance to the studied metals. Moreover, these changes can enhance metal removal from contaminated environment.

  14. The Weberian Legacy of Thom Greenfield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie

    1996-01-01

    Traces through Thomas Greenfield's work his use of Max Weber's interpretive social analysis, including Weber's view of the individual unit of analysis, value topologies, comparative history methods, and analytical ideal topologies. Compares Greenfield's and Weber's metaphysical assumptions, ontological perspectives, and epistemological frameworks.…

  15. The Weberian Legacy of Thom Greenfield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie

    1996-01-01

    Traces through Thomas Greenfield's work his use of Max Weber's interpretive social analysis, including Weber's view of the individual unit of analysis, value topologies, comparative history methods, and analytical ideal topologies. Compares Greenfield's and Weber's metaphysical assumptions, ontological perspectives, and epistemological frameworks.…

  16. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Jung, Hee-Young; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-01-12

    Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host plant growth and alleviate

  17. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host

  18. Varioloid A, a new indolyl-6,10b-dihydro-5aH-[1]benzofuro[2,3-b]indole derivative from the marine alga-derived endophytic fungus Paecilomyces variotii EN-291.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiao-Ming; Mao, Xin-Xin; Mándi, Attila; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-01-01

    A new indolyl-6,10b-dihydro-5aH-[1]benzofuro[2,3-b]indole derivative, varioloid A (1), was isolated from the marine alga-derived endophytic fungus Paecilomyces variotii EN-291. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the absolute configuration was determined by time-dependent density functional theory-electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations. A similar compound, whose planar structure was previously described but the relative and absolute configurations and (13)C NMR data were not reported, was also identified and was tentatively named as varioloid B (2). Both compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxicity against A549, HCT116, and HepG2 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.6 to 8.2 µg/mL.

  19. Activity of some hypocrealean fungi collected in a Cerrado ecosystem against Rhodnius spp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luiz F N; Silva, Ionizete G; Luz, Christian

    2011-04-01

    The hypocrealean invertebrate-pathogenic fungi Lecanicillium psalliotae, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pochonia chlamydosporia isolated from soils in Central Brazil were tested against palm-dwelling Rhodnius neglectus, R. nasutus, R. prolixus, and R. robustus; all of these insects are vectors of Chagas disease. Particularly R. neglectus and R. nasutus, which are both important secondary intruders of human habitations were susceptible to all three of the fungi tested, and fungi sporulated successfully on the cadavers. This is the first report of activity of L. psalliotae, P. lilacinus and P. chlamydosporia against Rhodnius spp., and these fungi have interest for integrated control of triatomine vectors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of Methylthio-s-Triazine for Growth of Soil Fungi 1

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Don S.; Rieck, Walter L.; Lynd, J. Q.

    1970-01-01

    Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus tamarii Kita, and Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries utilized the methylthio moiety of 2,4-bis(isopropylamino) -6-methyl-mercapto-s-triazine (prometryne) as a sulfur nutrient source. Other soil fungal isolates not affected by prometryne concentrations to 1 mg/ml culture included: Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn, Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn, Trichoderma viride Persoon ex Fries, Alternaria tenuis Nees ex Corda, Penicillium funiculosum Thom, and Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. PMID:16349873

  1. A resolution honoring the lifetime achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-09-13

    09/13/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5584-5585; text as passed Senate: CR S5585; text of measure as introduced: CR S5583) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. A resolution honoring the achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-08-01

    08/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5196) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. The Leadership for Dignity of All: Thom's "Resolved Christianity."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thom, Douglas J.

    This book explores the spiritual dimension of leadership. Its discussion of leadership includes formal leading within education. The book has six chapters. The first two chapters trace the development of leadership thought/theory and practice and discuss phenomena that are present on a continuing basis in society and particularly within…

  4. A resolution honoring the lifetime achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-09-13

    09/13/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. A resolution honoring the lifetime achievements of E. Thom Rumberger.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2011-09-13

    Senate - 09/13/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Agreed to in SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Screening for Indian isolates of egg-parasitic fungi for use in biological control of fascioliasis and amphistomiasis in ruminant livestock.

    PubMed

    De, S; Sanyal, P K; Sarkar, A K; Patel, N K; Pal, S; Mandal, S C

    2008-09-01

    Wild isolates of the egg-parasitic fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium, obtained from the organic environment of Durg, Chhattisgarh, India, were subjected to screening for in vitro growth using different media types, range of incubation temperature and pH, and their predatory activity to the eggs of Fasciola gigantica and Gigantocotyle explanatum. Maximum growth of P. lilacinus was obtained in corn-meal agar compared to any other media types. The preferred medium for growth of V. chlamydosporium was corn-meal agar, followed by potato-dextrose agar. After initial growth for 16 h of incubation, no growth was observed in water agar for both the fungi. Six different temperatures--4 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 26 degrees C, 34 degrees C and 40 degrees C--were used to observe growth profiles of the fungi in corn-meal agar medium. While no and very little growth of P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium was observed at 4 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, growth profiles of both the fungi were optimal at 26-40 degrees C. A range of pH (pH 4-8) supported growth of both P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium. Full-grown plates of the fungi baited with viable eggs of F. gigantica and G. explanatum revealed that V. chlamydosporium was more vigorous in its egg-parasitic ability compared to P. lilacinus. Distortion of the eggs started on day 2-3 of egg baiting in culture plates of V. chlamydosporium, with complete distortion by day 7. On the contrary, P. lilacinus exhibited very limited egg-parasitic ability and some of the baited eggs even showed development of miracidia.

  7. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani with complete reduction of Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra.

  8. In Vitro Antifungal Activities of the New Triazole UR-9825 against Clinically Important Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Javier; Ortoneda, Montserrat; Pastor, Francisco Javier; Guarro, Josep

    2001-01-01

    We used a modified reference microdilution method (the M-38P method) to evaluate the in vitro activities of the new triazole UR-9825 in comparison with those of amphotericin B against 77 strains of opportunistic filamentous fungi. UR-9825 was clearly more active than amphotericin B against all fungi except Fusarium solani and Scytalidium spp. Notably, UR-9825 had low MICs for Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces lilacinus (MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited, 0.125 μg/ml for both species). PMID:11502542

  9. Phylogenetic analysis on the bacteria producing non-volatile fungistatic substances.

    PubMed

    Li, ZhiFang; Zou, ChangSong; He, YueQiu; Mo, MingHe; Zhang, KeQin

    2008-06-01

    This study characterized the soil bacteria producing non-volatile fungistatic substances. Among the 2,100 colonies of soil bacteria randomly isolated from seven agricultural soil samples, 518 isolates (24.67% of total) showed fungistatic activity toward nematophagous fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride by producing non-volatile substances. A phylogenetic analysis based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rDNA sequence placed the 518 bacteria in three groups of the domain Bacteria: Actinomycetales, Bacillales, and Gammaproteobacteria. Three genera, Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas, were the most frequently encountered groups.

  10. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  11. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Soil Fungi of High Altitudes of Eastern Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Lamabam Sophiya

    2012-01-01

    Fifty three fungi isolated from soils of different microhabitats of eastern Himalayan range (3,400~3,600 msl) were screened for mycosynthesis of silver nanaoparticles (AgNPs) and their efficacy as antimicrobials were assessed in combination with commonly used antibiotics. Three isolates Aspergillus terreus SP5, Paecilomyces lilacinus SF1 and Fusarium sp. MP5 identified based on morphological and 18S rRNA gene sequences were found to synthesize AgNPs. These nanoparticles were characterized by visual observation followed by UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis. The AgNPs synthesized by Aspergillus terreus SP5, Paecilomyces lilacinus SF1 and Fusarium sp. MP5 showed absorbance maxima at 412, 419, and 421 nm respectively in the visible region. Transmission electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of spherical AgNPs of 5~50 nm size. The antimicrobial activity of the mycosynthesized nanoparticles were investigated alone and in combination with commonly used antibiotics for analysis of growth inhibition zone against test organisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC96, Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, Salmonella enterica MTCC735 and Enterococcus faecalis MTCC2729. The mycosynthesized nanoparticles showed potent antibacterial activity and interestingly their syngergistic effect with erythromycin, methicillin, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin was significantly higher as compared to inhibitions by AgNPs alone. The present study indicates that silver nanoparticles synthesized using soil borne indigenous fungus of high altitudes show considerable antimicrobial activity, deserving further investigation for potential applications. PMID:22783131

  12. Antifungal properties of crude extracts of five Egyptian medicinal plants against dermatophytes and emerging fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Antifungal properties of the crude extracts of five medicinal plants (Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, and Teucrium polium) were tested against dermatophytes and emerging fungi. Ethanol extract of Ballota undulate was the most effective against all tested fungi. Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotii, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ballota undulate ethanol extract against C. albicans, P. lilacinus, and P. variotii was 25 mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed that Ballota undulate ethanol extract contains 35 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon along with some other essential oils, which could be involved in antifungal activity. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have proved that Ballota undulate ethanol extract exhibits fungicidal effect on P. lilacinus through alterations in hyphal structures including budding of hyphal tip, anomalous structure, such as swelling, decrease in cytoplasmic content, with clear separation of cytoplasm from cell wall in hyphae. SEM clearly showed distorted mycelium, squashed and flattened conidiophores bearing damaged metullae. Eventually, the mycelia became papillated, flattened, and empty. Puncturing and squashing of hyphae as well as complete cell wall disruption were clear signs of complete death of hyphae.

  13. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from Northern Thailand and their production in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Mar, Thet Thet; Suwannarach, Nakarin; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2012-12-01

    Spore productivity in six entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from insect cadavers at four locations in Chiang Mai province was evaluated in five cereal grains: white-rice, wheat, rye, corn and sorghum. According to sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions of these isolates, they were closely related to Beauveria bassiana (2 isolates), Metarhizium flavoviride (1 isolate), Metarhizium anisopliae (1 isolate), Paecilomyces lilacinus (1 isolate) and Isaria tenuipes (1 isolate). Among all fungal isolates, the maximum amount of spores (530.0 × 10(9) conidia/g) was yielded P. lilacinus CMUCDMT02 on sorghum grain followed by white-rice (399.3 × 10(9) conidia/g). Moreover, the highest number of spore in M. flavoviride was 102.8 × 10(9) conidia/g sorghum whereas white-rice yielded the greatest amount of spore for B. bassiana CMUCDMF03 (141.0 × 10(9) conidia/g) after 60 days incubation. The fungal growth rate was found highest in corn for all strains and rye showed the lowest with the exception of P. lilacinus CMUCDMT02 among the tested grains. Spore viability was over 80 % for all isolates that had been inoculated for 60 days. Fungal conidia suspension of P. lilacinus obtained highest virulence against Bactrocera spp. at a concentration of 1 × 10(6) spore/ml. The strains isolated, exhibited good production of conidia suggesting a promising strategy for the mass production of inoculum as biocontrol agents with low production cost.

  14. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  15. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  16. Cyclopiazonic acid production by Penicillium camemberti Thom and natural occurrence of this mycotoxin in cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Le Bars, J

    1979-01-01

    Every Penicillium camemberti strain freshly isolated from 20 commercial cheese brands produced cyclopiazonic acid in two culture media at 25, 13, and 4 degrees C; the toxin yield was greatly dependent on the strain and environmental parameters (medium, temperature, and incubation time). The toxigenic ability appeared as a log-normal distribution. This mycotoxin was found in the crust (0.05 to 0.1 microgram/g in three samples, 0.1 to 0.2 microgram/g in five samples, and 0.4, 1, and 1.5 microgram/g in three other samples) but not in the inner part. When its acute toxicity is considered, doses eventually ingested by consumers are very low (lower than 4 microgram). Means for prevention are discussed. A highly toxigenic strength and rate appear to be necessary features leading to natural contamination in cheeses. The distribution of toxigenic ability makes possible without delay a choice of weakly toxic strains. PMID:526014

  17. Comments on James D. Brown and Thom Hudson's "The Alternatives in Language Assessment."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Anthony; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom

    1999-01-01

    Anthony Bruton comments on Brown and Hudson's article "The Alternatives in Language Assessment," (v32 n4 Win 1998). Raises questions about some of their definitions and categories and suggests additional items that need to be considered by test takers. Brown and Hudson reply with clarifications of terms and definition of the scope of their paper.…

  18. Molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of Calotropis procera (Ait.) latex on Aspergillus terreus (Thom).

    PubMed

    Qari, Sameer H

    2008-10-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the genotoxic effect of latex of Calotropis procera. Dense conidial suspensions of Aspergillus terreus Thorn were treated with different concentrations of Calotropis latex and assayed for percentage survival, auxotrophic mutants, DNA and total protein contents and further subjected to RAPD and SDS-PAGE tests. It was found that latex of Calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. Percentage survival decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of auxotrophic mutants increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most auxotrophic mutants were amino acid requiring mutants. DNA and total protein contents of each mutant was significantly lower than wild type of Aspergillus terreus. RAPD demonstrated polymorphic genetic bands which were the electrophoretic products of PCR for all mutants compared with the wild type strain. SDS-PAGE results expressed a polymorphism of protein bands as well. All these results indicated the mutagenicity of latex of Calotropis procera.

  19. Study of the Interactions Between Penicillium Oxalicum Currie & Thom And Alternaria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler

    PubMed Central

    Sempere, F.; Santamarina, M.P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research was the analysis of the possible antagonistic effect of Penicillium oxalicum over the pathogen rice fungus A. alternata under different conditions of temperature, water activity and culture media. The macroscopic study of the dual growth revealed that according to the Index of Dominance P. oxalicum was more competitive that A. alternata at 25°C whereas at 15°C was this species. Microscopic analysis showed that P. oxalicum was a mycoparasite of A. alternata at all conditions tested. The antagonist penetrated into A. alternata and disintegrated its conidiophores and conidia. The results suggests that P. oxalicum may be a possible biological control agent of the rice pathogens in a future. PMID:24031546

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of FHB stars aligned with HVCs (Thom+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Christlieb, N.

    2006-06-01

    We present a catalog of 430 field horizontal branch (FHB) stars, selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey (HES), which fortuitously align with high column density neutral hydrogen (HI) high-velocity cloud (HVC) gas. These stars are ideal candidates for absorption-line studies of HVCs, attempts at which have been made for almost 40 years with little success. A parent sample of 8321 HES FHB stars (Christlieb et al., 2005, Cat. ) was used to extract HI spectra along each line of sight, using the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (Putman et al., 2002, Cat. ). All lines of sight aligned with high-velocity HI emission with peak brightness temperatures greater than 120mK were examined. The HI spectra of these 430 probes were visually screened and cross-referenced with several HVC catalogs. (1 data file).

  1. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  2. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of Central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walmirton B; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian

    2012-08-13

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting Amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one Metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in Central Brazil from October 2009 to March 2011. Fungi were isolated from soils with Rhipicephalus sanguineus as surrogate baits. No fungi were found in ticks or soils during the driest months (May to August). Testing pathogenicity of fungi all R. sanguineus females were killed regardless of the isolate and fungi sporulated abundantly on the cadavers. A. cajennense was less susceptible to infection with P. lilacinum within 20 days than R. sanguineus. All three fungal species probably act as natural antagonists of A. cajennense particularly in the rainy season and have interest for integrate control of vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  3. Evaluation of multiplexed PCR and liquid-phase array for identification of respiratory fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Daelynn R; Gu, Zhengming; Walsh, Thomas J; Hayden, Randall T

    2012-10-01

    Invasive fungal infections are the cause of serious morbidity and high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Early laboratory diagnostic options remain limited; however, rapid detection and accurate identification may improve outcome. Herein, multiplexed PCR followed by liquid-phase array was evaluated for detection and identification of common respiratory fungal pathogens, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus microsporus, Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium solani. The limit of detection ranged 0.1-1 ng of DNA, depending on the fungus being tested. Primer cross-reactivity was seen for some fungi: Aspergillus flavus primers detected Aspergillus oryzae; Scedosporium apiospermum primers detected Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Aspergillus terreus primers detected S. apiospermum. PCR followed by liquid-phase array is potentially useful for the identification of clinically relevant fungal pathogens.

  4. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  5. Bioweathering of chrysotile by fungi isolated in ophiolitic sites.

    PubMed

    Daghino, Stefania; Martino, Elena; Vurro, Emanuela; Tomatis, Maura; Girlanda, Mariangela; Fubini, Bice; Perotto, Silvia

    2008-08-01

    Asbestos minerals are commonly found in serpentine rocks and because of the hazard to human health, research has recently focused on possible detoxification strategies. Some fungal species that inhabit serpentine sites (two disused chrysotile asbestos mines in the Western Alps) have been isolated and characterized in order to obtain data on their biodiversity and bioweathering abilities on chrysotile fibres. The three dominant species (Verticillium leptobactrum, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Aspergillus fumigatus) have proved to be able to actively remove iron from chrysotile fibres, V. leptobactrum being the most efficient. A wide range of serpentinicolous fungi release siderophores, iron-chelating compounds, that could play a role in iron extraction from fibres. Iron removal had been correlated previously with a decrease in the toxic potential of fibres, and a biotechnological application of fungi can be envisaged for asbestos detoxification.

  6. Diversity of keratinophilic fungi on human hairs and nails at four governorates in upper egypt.

    PubMed

    Gherbawy, Youssuf A M H; Maghraby, Thanaa A; El-Sharony, Hassan M; Hussein, Mohmaed A

    2006-12-01

    The mycobiota of 160 hair and nail samples collected from 4 different governorates in upper Egypt were estimated using soil plate method for isolating keratinophilic and dermatophytic fungi. Twenty-three fungi were recorded on both hair and nail samples collected from the four governorates. Highest fungal diversity (20) was collected from Red Sea samples followed by Qena (18) and Aswan (17) while lowest fungal diversity was recorded from Sohage samples. The common genera were Aphanoascus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Chrysosporium. The most prevalent species belonging to these genera were: A. fulvescens, Aphanoascus sp. A. flavus link, A. flavus var. columnaris, P. chrysogenium. P. lilacinus and C. sulfureum. True dermatophytes such as Nannizzia fulva appeared in 20~30% of the male samples.

  7. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus.

    PubMed

    Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T

    1990-10-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare.

  8. Polyphasic analysis of Purpureocillium lilacinum isolates from different origins and proposal of the new species Purpureocillium lavendulum.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Haybrig; Cano, Josep; Gené, Josepa; García, Dania; Hernández, Margarita; Guarro, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Purpureocillium is a genus recently proposed to accommodate Paecilomyces lilacinus, a well studied species that has biotechnological properties and an ability to cause human infections. Since contradictory data have been reported on the intraspecific genetic variability of P. lilacinum, we have carried out a polyphasic study of a set of clinical and environmental isolates of this species. Detailed morphological examination and sequence analysis of four different loci, including the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer, the domains D1 and D2 of the 28S rDNA, EF-1a and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb1), showed that P. lilacinum formed a well supported phylogenetic clade with low intraspecific variability. The new species Purpureocillium lavendulum, which has vinaceous colonies similar to those of P. lilacinum, is proposed. It is characterized by the lack of growth at 35 C, the production of a yellow diffusible pigment and by subglobose or limoniform conidia.

  9. Identification of fungi associated with rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan D; Lawrence, Kathy S; Morgan-Jones, Gareth; Ramírez, Camilo A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification.

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan D.; Lawrence, Kathy S.; Morgan-Jones, Gareth; Ramírez, Camilo A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification. PMID:22736864

  11. Analysis of the effect of soil saprophytic fungi on the eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis.

    PubMed

    Cazapal-Monteiro, Cristiana F; Hernández, José A; Arroyo, Fabián L; Miguélez, Silvia; Romasanta, Ángel; Paz-Silva, Adolfo; Sánchez-Andrade, Rita; Arias, María S

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a soil-transmitted helminth mainly found in raccoons (Procyon lotor) which can also affect other domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as humans, when the eggs released in the feces of parasitized raccoons are accidentally ingested. Three assays have been conducted to assess the effect of three saprophytic fungi, Mucor circinelloides, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Verticillium sp., on the eggs of B. procyonis. Firstly, their ovicidal effect was in vitro ascertained by placing 1 mL with 2 × 10(6) spores of each fungus in Petri plates with water-agar (2 %) and simultaneously adding 200 eggs of Baylisascaris/plate. Two in vivo probes were carried out, by spraying the fungal spores (3 mL containing about 2 × 10(6) spores/mL) on the feces of raccoons and coatis (Nasua narica) passing eggs of B. procyonis in a zoological park; the other assay consisted of evaluating the activity of the fungi after adding sand to fecal samples from raccoons. An ovicidal type 3 activity characterized by morphological damage of the eggshell with hyphal penetration, internal egg colonization, and embryo alteration was observed for all the tested fungi. In the plate assays, viability of Baylisascaris eggs reduced significantly by 53-69 % with Mucor, 45-62 % with Paecilomyces, and 52-67 % with Verticillium. A similar ovicidal effect was detected in the feces with sand. These results demonstrate the usefulness of spraying spores of M. circinelloides, Pa. lilacinus, or Verticillium sp. on the feces of animals infected by Baylisascaris to decrease the numbers of viable eggs and, thus, the risk of infection.

  12. [Antagonistic interactions between saprotrophic fungi and geohelminths. 1. Saprotrophic fungi in the biological control of phytopathogenic geohelminths].

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    The state of knowledge on the possible antagonism between soil saprotrophic fungi and phytopathogenic nematodes of the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, and Globodera is reviewed basing on the literature and our own research. Mycelial colonisation of various developmental stages of these geohelminths is the most common factor thought to reduce their populations in nature. The following parasitic fungi can be found on the cysts, eggs, as well as the larvae of the nematodes: Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Fusarium spp., and Penicillium spp. The fungi invade the nematodes, such as Heterodera, Globodera, or Meloidogyne, "passively" penetrating through the natural orifices of the cysts, eggs, and larvae of the host. Equally frequent, however, is a biochemical action of the fungi prior to colonisation, which is linked with production of mycotoxirls or hydrolytic enzymes. Such an active way of fungal penetration of various stages of the phytopathogenic nematodes has been observed in Pochonia chlamydosporia, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, P. frequentans, Sclerotinia rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium spp. Triacylglycerols (TAG), phenols, as well as trichothecene, T-2, have been found in the metabolites extracted from mycelia of these species. Predation by fungi is also a factor that may reduce a population of phytopathogenic nematodes. This form of antagonism is characteristic for nematicidal fungi of the genera Arthrobotrys and Dactylella. These fungi form shrinking rings and hooks in their mycelia by which the fungus entangles and paralyses a migrating form of nematode. Despite the fact that the antagonism between fungi and nematodes is a commonly occurring phenomenon observed in the soil, the nematicidal and nematotoxic properties of fungi have not a wide application in biological plant protection. Up till now, only the bionematicides based on Arthrobotrys robusta (Royal 300 and

  13. Viability of Heterodera glycines Exposed to Fungal Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in Florida were tested on J2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. Each fungal species was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and malt extract broth. No toxic activity was observed for fungi grown in Czapek-Dox broth. Filtrates from Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, and Fusarium solani grown in malt extract broth were toxic to J2, whereas filtrates from Exophiala pisciphila, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Pyrenochaeta terrestris, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and sterile fungi 1 and 2 were not toxic to J2. Filtrates of P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, and N. vasinfecta grown in malt extract broth reduced egg viability, whereas F. oxysporum and P. terrestris filtrates had no effect on egg viability. PMID:19270965

  14. Human exposure to airborne fungi from genera used as biocontrol agents in plant production.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Hansen, Vinni Mona; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The fungi Trichoderma harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride, Paeciliomyces fumosoroseus, P. lilacinus, Verticillium/lecanicillium lecanii, Ulocladium oudemansii, U. atrum and Beauveria bassiana are used or considered to be used for biocontrol of pests and plant diseases. Human exposure to these fungi in environments where they may naturally occur or are used as biocontrol agents has not been directly investigated to date. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of human exposure to fungi from the relevant genera. The subject of fungal taxonomy due to the rapid development of this issue is also discussed. B. bassiana, V. lecanii, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, P. lilacinus and U. oudemansii were infrequently present in the air and thus people in general seem to be seldom exposed to these fungi. However, when V. lecanii was present, high concentrations were measured. Fungi from the genera Trichoderma, Paecilomyces and Ulocladium were rarely identified to the species level and sometimes high concentrations were reported. T. viride and U. atrum were detected frequently in different environments and sometimes with a high frequency of presence in samples. Thus, people seem to be frequently exposed to these fungi. Sequence data have led to recent revisions of fungal taxonomy, and in future studies it is important to specify the taxonomy used for identification, thus making comparisons possible.

  15. Fungistatic intensity of agricultural soil against fungal agents and phylogenetic analysis on the actinobacteria involved.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li Zhi; Kun, Xu Chuan; Song, Zou Chang; Qin, Xi Jia; Qiu, He Yue; Qun, Duan Chang; He, Mo Ming

    2011-04-01

    A total of 287 agricultural soil samples collected from 26 provinces or autonomous regions of China were tested on their ability to suppress the conidial germination of nine biocontrol fungal agents. These soil samples showed great differences in the degree to inhibit the germination of conidia (22.8% < mean inhibition rate < 97.5%), but all exhibited fungistatic activities above the moderate levels (mean inhibition rate > 50%) to most of tested fungi. Ten soil samples that have stronger fungistatic intensity (germination inhibition rate > 68.3%) to the target fungi, Trichoderma viride and Paecilomyces lilacinus, were selected to evaluate their soil actinobacteria involved fungistasis in soil. Of the 1,000 isolates from those soil samples, 345 actinobacteria exhibited fungistatic activity to conidial germination of T. viride and P. lilacinus with germination inhibition rates higher than 10%. Sequences encoding 16S rRNA gene of the 345 actinobacteria were analyzed by ARDRA and resulted 44 different ARDRA types. Fifty-six isolates, at least one from each unique ARDRA type, were selected for 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results indicated that the actinobacteria involved in the soil fungistasis had close phylogenetic relationship with the members of Sterptomycetaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae, and Nocardiacea.

  16. Effects of carbon concentration and carbon to nitrogen ratio on the growth and sporulation of several biocontrol fungi.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Sun, Man H; Liu, Xing Z; Che, Yong S

    2007-01-01

    Effects of carbon concentration and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio on six biocontrol fungal strains are reported in this paper. All fungal strains had extensive growth on the media supplemented with 6-12 gl(-1) carbon and C:N ratios from 10:1 to 80:1, and differed in nutrient requirements for sporulation. Except for the two strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, all selected fungi attained the highest spore yields at a C:N ratio of 160:1 when the carbon concentration was 12 gl(-1) for Metarhizium anisopliae SQZ-1-21, 6 gl(-1) for M. anisopliae RS-4-1 and Trichoderma viride TV-1, and 8 gl(-1) for Lecanicillium lecanii CA-1-G. The optimal conditions for P. lilacinus sporulation were 8 gl(-1) carbon with a C:N ratio of 10:1 for M-14 and 12 gl(-1) carbon with a C:N ratio of 20:1 for IPC-P, respectively. The results indicated that the influence of carbon concentration and C:N ratio on fungal growth and sporulation is strain dependent; therefore, consideration for the complexity of nutrient requirements is essential for improving yields of fungal biocontrol agents.

  17. Oxidative ring cleavage of low chlorinated biphenyl derivatives by fungi leads to the formation of chlorinated lactone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sietmann, Rabea; Gesell, Manuela; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder

    2006-07-01

    The yeast Trichosporon mucoides and the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus as biphenyl oxidizing organisms are able to oxidize chlorinated biphenyl derivatives. Initial oxidation of derivatives chlorinated at C4 position started at the non-halogenated ring and went on up to ring cleavage. The products formed were mono- and dihydroxylated 4-chlorobiphenyls, muconic acid derivatives 2-hydroxy-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-muconic acid and 2-hydroxy-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-muconic acid as well as the corresponding lactones 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid. Altogether T. mucoides formed 12 products and P. lilacinus accumulated five products. Whereas the rate of the first oxidation step at 4-chlorobiphenyl seems to be diminished by the decreased bioavailability of the compound, no considerable differences were observed between the degradation of 4-chloro-4'-hydroxybiphenyl and 4-hydroxybiphenyl. Twofold chlorinated biphenyl derivatives did not serve as substrates for oxidation by either organism with the exception of 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl, transformed by the yeast Trichosporon mucoides to two monohydroxylated derivatives. The results show, that soil fungi may contribute to the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated biphenyls accumulating from anaerobic dehalogenation of PCB by bacteria.

  18. Disseminated fungal infection in two species of captive sharks.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Berliner, Aimee L; Cavin, Julie M; Clauss, Tonya M; Dove, Alistair D M; Sutton, Deanna A; Wickes, Brian L; Camus, Alvin C

    2011-12-01

    In this report, two cases of systemic mycosis in captive sharks are characterized. These cases were progressive and ultimately culminated in terminal disease. Paecilomyces lilacinus, an uncommon pathogen in human and veterinary medicine, was associated with areas of necrosis in the liver, heart, and gill in a great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran). Fungal growth was observed from samples of kidney, spleen, spinal fluid, and coelomic cavity swabs. Dual fungal infection by Exophiala pisciphila and Mucor circinelloides was diagnosed in a juvenile zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum). Both fungi were present in the liver, with more severe tissue destruction associated with E. pisciphila. E. pisciphila also produced significant necrosis in the spleen and gill, while M. circinelloides was associated with only minimal tissue changes in the heart. Fungal cultures from liver, kidney, and spleen were positive for both E. pisciphila and M. circinelloides. Identification of P. lilacinus and M. circinelloides was based on colonial and hyphal morphology. E. pisciphila was identified by sequence analysis of the 28S rRNA D1/D2 region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 18S and 28S rRNA subunit. These cases, and a lack of information in the literature, highlight the need for further research and diagnostic sampling to further characterize the host-pathogen interaction between elasmobranchs and fungi.

  19. Pigment identification, antioxidant activity, and nutrient composition of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) Miers ex Hook. f & Thoms fruit.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Imtiyaj; Harsha, P S C Sri; Giridhar, P; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-05-01

    The stem, leaf, and root of Tinospora cordifolia (willd.) have been highly exploited for medicinal preparations; however, the nutritional and nutraceutical potential of its attractive red berries (fruits) have not so far been studied. Pigments, berberine (107.0 mg/100 g) and lycopene (50.8 mg/100 g), were identified in the deseeded fruit. Total phenol content in the fruit was 3.2 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. The IC(50) of DPPH· (82, and 468 ppm) and OH· (100, and 1,000 ppm) scavenging activity, and the EC(50) of reducing power (2,616, and 1,472 ppm) of hexane and methanol extracts, respectively, were observed. Oxygen radical absorbance capacities of the fruit extracts (150 and 300 ppm) were 1,107 and 2,614 μM trolox equivalent/g, respectively. Nutrient composition including carbohydrate (18.4%), proteins (1.5%), lipids (6%) of which ∼62% was unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins like ascorbic acid (0.24 μg), niacin (0.7 mg), and tocopherols (2.4 mg) in 100 g fruits were determined. Potassium content was 1.2 g/100 g dry tissue of berries. These findings show that components of T. cordifolia fruit could be bioactive and used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics.

  20. Genes for all metals--a bacterial view of the periodic table. The 1996 Thom Award Lecture.

    PubMed

    Silver, S

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial chromosomes have genes for transport proteins for inorganic nutrient cations and oxyanions, such as NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Co2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and other trace cations, and PO4(3-), SO4(2-) and less abundant oxyanions. Together these account for perhaps a few hundred genes in many bacteria. Bacterial plasmids encode resistance systems for toxic metal and metalloid ions including Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+, Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. Most resistance systems function by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. A few involve enzymatic (mostly redox) transformations. Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. The Cd(2+)-resistance cation pump of Gram-positive bacteria is membrane P-type ATPase, which has been labeled with 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP and drives ATP-dependent Cd2+ (and Zn2+) transport by membrane vesicles. The genes defective in the human hereditary diseases of copper metabolism, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease, encode P-type ATPases that are similar to bacterial cadmium ATPases. The arsenic resistance system transports arsenite [As(III)], alternatively with the ArsB polypeptide functioning as a chemiosmotic efflux transporter or with two polypeptides, ArsB and ArsA, functioning as an ATPase. The third protein of the arsenic resistance system is an enzyme that reduces intracellular arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)], the substrate of the efflux system. In Gram-negative cells, a three polypeptide complex functions as a chemiosmotic cation/protein exchanger to efflux Cd2+, Zn2+ and Co2+. This pump consists of an inner membrane (CzcA), an outer membrane (CzcC) and a membrane-spanning (CzcB) protein that function together.

  1. Effect of Carbon, Nitrogen Sources and Water Activity on Growth and Ochratoxin Production of Aspergillus carbonarius (Bainier) Thom

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Abeer; Fathi Abd-Allah, Elsayed; Sultan Al-Obeed, Rashid; Abdullah Alqarawi, Abdulaziz; Alwathnani, Hend Awad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. The production of OTA is influenced by environmental conditions and nutritional requirements. The postharvest application of bunches of table grape fruit (TGF), with water activity of 0.8 aw, was highly effective for controlling OTA contamination in vitro and in vivo (table grape). Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions and nutritional requirements on growth and OTA production by Aspergillus carbonarius, as well as, the impact of water activity on OTA production and growth characters of A. carbonarius. Furthermore, we also examined the influence of the application of different levels of water activity (aw 0.8) on the preservation of the general appearance of TGF and control of their contamination with OTA. Materials and Methods: The growth and OTA production by A. carbonarius were studied using glucose-ammonium nitrate salt broth medium. Effect of water activity was studied using glycerol (0.80, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.98 aw). The bunches of table grape fruits were immersed in glycerol solution (equivalent to 0.80 aw) and placed as a double layer in cardboard boxes (25 × 35 × 10 cm). The boxes were stored at 20°C for 15 days to simulate local market conditions. Results: The maximum OTA production by A. carbonarius was observed on broth medium after eight days of incubation at 20°C, with pH 4, and fructose and ammonium nitrate supplementation as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The water activity (0.9, 0.85 aw) caused significant decrease in OTA production by A. carbonarius. The postharvest application of water activity (0.8 aw) was highly effective for maintenance of the table grape quality, which was expressed as weight loss, firmness and decay, while it also controlled OTA contamination of fruits under concept of local market conditions. Conclusions: Our results reported that deterioration of TGF by A. carbonarius could be minimized by application of aw. Our experiments were performed under conditions of local markets, which support the economy of many thousands of families in Egypt, especially in the poor rural areas. In future adequate research is required to use these technologies commercially. PMID:25825649

  2. Recovery of viability and radiation resistance by heat-injured conidia of Penicillium expansum Lk. ex Thom.

    PubMed

    Baldy, R W; Sommer, N F; Buckley, P M

    1970-05-01

    Spores heated in water at 54 C for up to 1 hr were plated on nutrient agar immediately or held for 3 days in aerated water at 23 C and then plated. Under these conditions, holding was optimal for recovery, increasing survival percentage up to 20-fold over values for immediate plating. Recovery was prevented partially or completely, however, when spores were held in any of the following solutions: glucose, potassium phosphate, ammonium or sodium acetate, sodium azide, or 2,4-dinitrophenol, or in the sodium or potassium salts of pyruvate, and tricarboxylic acid cycle acids. Both anaerobiosis and incubation at 0 C prevented recovery. Survivors of a heat treatment were more sensitive to gamma radiation than were unheated spores. Conditions which affected the recovery of viability had the same effect on restoration of radiation resistance. Thus, many of the processes for restoration of radiation resistance seem involved also in recovery of viability after heating. After a 99% inactivating treatment (about 30 min at 54 C), heated spores respired as fast as unheated spores, or faster. Malate, citrate, succinate, and acetate stimulated respiration in unheated spores and inhibited it in heated spores.

  3. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Avnish K.; Kumar, Kaushal; Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, Hari S.

    2010-01-01

    T. cordifolia (Guduchi) is a large, glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem found throughout India. It is a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes, such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Various properties of T. cordifolia, described in ancient texts of Ayurveda, like Rasayana, Sangrahi, Balya, Agnideepana, Tridoshshamaka, Dahnashaka, Mehnashaka, Kasa-swasahara, Pandunashaka, Kamla-Kushta-Vataraktanashaka, Jwarhara, Krimihara, Prameha, Arshnashaka, Kricch-Hridroganashak, etc., are acquiring scientific validity through modern research adopting "reverse pharmacological" approach. Potential medicinal properties reported by scientific research include anti-diabetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, antimalarial, hepato-protective, immuno-modulatory and anti-neoplastic activities. This review brings together various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia described in Ayurveda, along with phytochemical and pharmacological reports. PMID:20814526

  4. Comparative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Ahmad S; Dawabah, Ahmed A M; Al-Nadhari, Saleh N; Al-Yahya, Fahad A

    2017-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to compare the relative efficacy of different approaches to managing Meloidogyne incognita on green bean. These approaches included chemical (fumigant, non-fumigant, seed dressing, and seed dip), biological (the egg-parasitic fungus, Paecilomyces lilacinus and the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp.), physical (soil solarization), and cultural (chicken litter and urea) methods. Accordingly, nine different control materials and application methods plus nematode-infected and non-infected controls were compared. Two important parameters were considered: plant response (plant growth and root galling) and nematode reproduction (production of eggs and the reproduction factor Rf). The results showed that the use of chicken litter as an organic fertilizer severely affected the growth and survival of the plants. Therefore, this treatment was removed from the evaluation test. All of the other eight treatments were found to be effective against nematode reproduction, but with different levels of efficacy. The eight treatments decreased (38.9-99.8%) root galling, increased plant growth and suppressed nematode reproduction. Based on three important criteria, namely, gall index (GI), egg mass index (EMI), and nematode reproduction factor (RF), the tested materials and methods were categorized into three groups according to their relative control efficacy under the applied test conditions. The three groups were as follows: (1) the relatively high effective group (GI = 1.0-1.4, Rf = 0.07-0.01), which included the fumigant dazomet, the non-fumigant fenamiphos, soil solarization, and seed dip with fenamiphos; (2) the relatively moderate effective group (GI = 3.4-4.0, Rf = 0.24-0.60), which included seed dressing with fenamiphos and urea; and (3) the relatively less effective group (GI = 5.0, Rf = 32.2-37.2), which included P. lilacinus and Glomus sp.

  5. Spatial relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes and nematophagous fungi in Florida citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ekta; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; El-Borai, Fahiem E; Duncan, Larry W

    2017-03-01

    Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied except Arthrobotrys musiformis and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions. Paecilomyces lilacinus and Gamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P=0.03) and on the ridge (P=0.02), respectively. Redundancy analysis revealed seven abiotic and biotic factors as significantly related to the NF occurrence. Multiple regression of fungi on these variables explained 78%, 66%, 48%, 36%, 23% and 4% of the variation in Catenaria sp., A. musiformis, A. dactyloides, P. lilacinus, A. oligospora and G. gepharopagum, respectively. When the data from citrus were pooled with those reported previously from natural areas and subjected to principle component analysis, the first two principle components explained 43% of the variation in NF communities. The surveys (citrus vs natural areas) were discriminated by PC2 (P<0.001) and the ecoregion by PC1 (P<0.002), and all but one NF species were related (P<0.01) to one or both components. NF communities tended to have more species and greater diversity in the flatwoods, where EPN richness and diversity were the least. However, the strength of associations between individual EPN and NF species as measured by SADIE reflected the associations between each species and ground water depth, suggesting that ecoregion preferences affected the species associations. Within each ecoregion, significant relationships between the individual NF and EPN species measured by stepwise regression tended to be positive. The results did not support the hypothesis that NF modulate the spatial patterns of EPN species between or within these two

  6. [The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of microscopic mycelial fungi isolated from habitats with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Aslanidi, K B; Karpenko, Iu V; Belozerskaia, T A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide ( 10(-9)-10(-1) M) on the mycelial growth of the fungi Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Mucor hiemalis, and Paecilomyces lilacinus has been studied. The growth of fungi isolated from habitats with a background level of radioactive contamination was stopped by H2O2 concentrations equal to 10(-3) and 10(-2) M, whereas the growth of fungi that were isolated from habitats with high levels of radioactive contamination was only arrested by 10(-1) M H2O2. The response of the different fungi to hydrogen peroxide was of three types: (1) a constant growth rate of fungal hyphae at H2O2 concentrations between 10(-9) and 10(-4) M and a decrease in this rate at 10(-3) M H2O2, (2) a gradual decrease in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased, and (3) an increase in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased from 10(-7) to 10(2)-5 M. The melanin-containing species A. alternata and C. cladosporioides exhibited all three types of growth response to hydrogen peroxide, whereas the light-pigmented species M. hiemalis and P. lilacinus showed only the first type of growth response. A concentration of hydrogen peroxide equal to 10(-1) M was found to be lethal to all of the fungi studied. The most resistant to hydrogen peroxide was found to be the strain A. alternata 56, isolated from the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  7. Sporulation of several biocontrol fungi as affected by carbon and nitrogen sources in a two-stage cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Liu, Xingzhong

    2010-12-01

    The development of fungal biopesticides requires the efficient production of large numbers spores or other propagules. The current study used published information concerning carbon concentrations and C:N ratios to evaluate the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on sporulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus (IPC-P and M-14) and Metarhizium anisopliae (SQZ-1-21 and RS-4-1) in a two-stage cultivation system. For P. lilacinus IPCP, the optimal sporulation medium contained urea as the nitrogen source, dextrin as the carbon source at 1 g/L, a C:N ratio of 5:1, with ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O at 10 mg/L and CaCl(2) at 3 g/L. The optimal sporulation medium for P. lilacinus M-14 contained soy peptone as the nitrogen source and maltose as the carbon source at 2 g/L, a C:N ratio of 10:1, with ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O at 250 mg/L, CuSO(4)·5H(2)O at 10 mg/L, H(3)BO(4) at 5 mg/L, and Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O at 5 mg/L. The optimum sporulation medium for M. anisopliae SQZ-1-21 contained urea as the nitrogen source, sucrose as the carbon source at 16 g/ L, a C:N ratio of 80:1, with ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O at 50 mg/L, CuSO(4)·5H(2)O at 50 mg/L, H(3)BO(4) at 5 mg/L, and MnSO(4)·H(2)O at 10 mg/L. The optimum sporulation medium for M. anisopliae RS-4-1 contained soy peptone as the nitrogen source, sucrose as the carbon source at 4 g/L, a C:N ratio of 5:1, with ZnSO(4)·7H(2)O at 50 mg/L and H(3)BO(4) at 50 mg/L. All sporulation media contained 17 g/L agar. While these results were empirically derived, they provide a first step toward low-cost mass production of these biocontrol agents.

  8. The role of a phospholipase (PLD) in virulence of Purpureocillium lilacinum (Paecilomyces lilacinum).

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-08-01

    Phospholipases are key enzymes in pathogenic fungi that cleave host phospholipids, resulting in membrane destabilization and host cell penetration. However, understanding the role of phospholipases on the virulence of the filamentous fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum has been still rather limited. In this study, pld gene was characterized. It encodes the protein phospholipase D (PLD) in P. lilacinum. This gene, 3303 bp open reading frame fragment (ORF), encodes a protein of 1100 amino acids with high similarity to the same gene from Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus fumigatus. Secondary structure prediction showed two PLD phosphodiesterase domains (437-464 bp and 885-912 bp). The pld gene was significantly regulated during infection of Meloidogyne incognita eggs by P. lilacinum. The expression of pld gene using RT-PCR was the highest at 36 and 48 h, which introduce evidence that the presence of M. incognita may induce the expression of the pld gene in P. lilacinum. In addition, maltose and l-alanine were found to increase the expression of pld gene. An acidic environment (pH 3.0-4.0) and moderate temperatures (27-29 °C) are favorable for pld expression in P. lilacinum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Paecilomyces variotii potential in bioethanol production from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Zerva, Anastasia; Savvides, Alexander L; Katsifas, Efstathios A; Karagouni, Amalia D; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G

    2014-06-01

    The ascomycete Paecillomyces variotii was evaluated for the first time as a candidate species for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) approaches. The examined strain (ATHUM 8891) revealed all the necessary phenotypic characteristics required for 2nd generation biofuel production. The fungus is able to efficiently ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol, with yields close to the theoretical maximum. Nitrogen supplementation greatly affected ethanol production with nitrate-nitrogen presenting the best results. Notably, ethanol yield on xylose fermentation was higher than that of glucose, while in co-fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures no distinguished diauxic behavior was observed. Furthermore, the fungus seems to possess the necessary enzyme factory for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, as it was able to grow and produce ethanol on common agro-industrial derivatives. Overall, the results of our study indicate that P. variotii is a new and possibly powerful candidate for CBP applications.

  10. Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2012-09-01

    The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the

  11. The genera of Hyphomycetes - 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Seifert, K A; Gams, W

    2011-12-01

    This supplement to the taxonomic monograph The Genera of Hyphomycetes summarises information on 23 accepted new genera and c. 160 species described in 2011. These include three dematiaceous genera (Funbolia, Noosia, Pyrigemmula, all related to Dothideomycetes), a bulbil-producing genus, Spiroplana (Pleosporales), and two endophytic genera, the sterile Periglandula (Clavicipitaceae), and the hyaline, sympodial Micronematobotrys (Pyronemataceae). Slow-growing, morphologically-reduced, darkly pigmented fungi continue to be the source of new taxa, including the new genus Atramixtia (Dothioraceae). Eight new genera of darkly pigmented chlamydospore-like anamorphs were described from marine or subtidal environments (Glomerulispora, Halozoön, Hiogispora, Matsusporium, Moheitospora, Moleospora, Moromyces), mostly associated with subclades of the Lulworthiales. Several genera that are morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distinct from genera of the Capnodiales (Pseudopassalora, Scleroramularia) were introduced, as well as segregates from the classical concepts of Alternaria (Sinomyces), Chalara and Phialophora (Brachyalara, Infundichalara, Lasiadelphia), and Paecilomyces (Purpureocillium for the former Paecilomyces lilacinus complex). In addition, in anticipation of the new nomenclatural rules, newly configured formerly-teleomorph genera were proposed as segregates from classical hyphomycete genera in the Hypocreales, namely Acremonium (Cosmospora), Fusarium (Cyanonectria, Dialonectria, Geejayessia, Macroconia, Stylonectria), and Volutella (Pseudonectria) and the Trichocomaceae, Eurotiales, Penicillium (Talaromyces for the former Penicillium subg. Biverticillium). Standardized generic mini-diagnoses are provided for the accepted new genera, along with details of distribution, substrates, numbers of new species and phylogenetic affinities within the Dikarya. GenBank accession numbers for ITS DNA-barcodes are provided where available. New information on generic

  12. Pathogenicity and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia caused by Aphanomyces laevis and Phoma herbarum isolated from farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Ali, Esam H; Hashem, Mohamed; Al-Salahy, M Bassam

    2011-03-16

    Identified (n = 17) and unidentified (n = 1) fish-pathogenic fungal species from 10 genera of Oomycetes and soil fungi were isolated from 40 infected freshwater fish samples of the species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Nile tilapia) and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish). Samples were collected from various fish farms in the Nile Delta, Egypt. Nile tilapia were tested in aquaria for their susceptibility to the commonest Oomycetes species, Aphanomyces laevis and Achlya klebsiana, and also against the 2 most prevalent pathogenic soil fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Phoma herbarum. Two techniques were used: water bath exposure and intramuscular (subcutaneous) injection. Water bath exposure to the 2 species of Oomycetes caused greater mortalities of O. niloticus niloticus than intramuscular injection, but the reverse was true of the soil fungal species. Regardless of the infection method, the 2 Oomycetes species were more potent pathogens than the soil fungal species. In both gills and mytomal muscles of fish infected by A. laevis and P. herbarum, we measured and compared with controls the oxidative stress parameters total peroxide (TP), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as levels of the antioxidants vitamin E and glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Infection by these 2 fungal species through either spore suspension or spore injection significantly increased oxidative damage in gills and induced marked decrease in most studied antioxidants. In addition, both routes showed similar effects and A. laevis depressed the antioxidants CAT, vitamin E and GSH more than P. herbarum.

  13. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil in Isfahan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Naeimi, B; Diba, K

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of keratophilic fungi in Isfahan province, Iran. The present research has been conducted on soil samples collected from 16 townships of Isfahan province. For isolate geophilic dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi, the keratin baiting technique has been applied. Of 800 soil samples examined, 588 (73.5%) keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The present studied recognized 727 isolates including 16 species of 11 genus, as follows: Chrysosporium keratinophilum (31.4%), C. pannicola (16.9%), C. tropicum (15.4%), Microsporum gypseum (12.4%), Chrysosporium spp. (9.9%), C. indicum (7%), Sepedonium spp. (3.3%), Malbranchia spp. (1%), Trichophyton terrestre (0.8%), T. ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus (0.4%), Engyodontium album and Acremonium spp. (0.3%), Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp. and Ulocladium spp. (0.1%). In this study, E. album was isolated for the first time in this country (Iran). The frequency these keratinophilic fungi are discussed in relation to different agents such as soil pH. This study contributes to the knowledge of keratophilic fungi in Iran. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Culture-Proven Thorn-Associated Infections in Arizona: 10-Year Experience at Mayo Clinic.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Sierra C; Budavari, Adriane I; Kusne, Shimon; Zhang, Nan; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Blair, Janis E

    2017-01-01

    Thorn injuries are common in the desert Southwest; however, the frequency and microbiology of thorn-associated infections have not been systematically described. Most information comes from case reports describing infections from atypical or environmental microorganisms. Our aim was to summarize the spectrum of thorn-associated infections. We conducted a retrospective review of electronic health records for patients presenting to our institution from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2014 for treatment of thorn-associated injuries and then focused on the patients with cultures. Of 2758 records reviewed, 1327 patients had thorn-associated injuries; however, only 58 (4.4%) had cultures. Of these patients, 37 (64%) had positive findings; 5 had polymicrobial infection. The most commonly identified organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 22, 59.0%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species (n = 8, 21.6%). Other pathogens included Nocardia species (n = 3, 8.1%), Streptococcus species (n = 2, 5.4%), Gram-negative bacteria (n = 2, 5.4%), Aspergillus species (n = 2, 5.4%), Paecilomyces lilacinus (n = 1, 2.7%), and Candida species (n = 1, 2.7%). There were no infections caused by Pantoea agglomerans, Sporothrix schenckii, or Coccidioides spp. In contrast to most published case reports, we found that typical cutaneous microorganisms, such as Staphylococcus species, caused the majority of culture-positive, thorn-related infections.

  15. Evaluation of Etest performed in Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose for antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Pinto, E; Lago, M; Branco, L; Vale-Silva, L A; Pinheiro, M D

    2014-04-01

    Although reference broth microdilution protocol is currently available for filamentous fungi antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST), simpler alternatives as Etest(®) tend to be favoured in clinical routine, making their validation of utmost importance. In this study, Etest(®) method using 2% glucose supplemented Muller-Hinton agar was compared to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 protocol for filamentous fungi AFST. The echinocandins, caspofungin and anidulafungin, the azoles voriconazole and posaconazole, and the polyene amphotericin B were tested against 48 Aspergillus spp., seven Fusarium spp., one Beauveria bassiana and three Paecilomyces lilacinus isolates. The majority of the isolates were susceptible to the antifungals tested, and the overall level of agreement between the CLSI and Etest methods was 71.9% for one dilution and 99.7% when using two dilutions. Since interpretative breakpoints for filamentous fungi employing the CLSI or Etest methods are not available yet, the established epidemiological cut-off values for Aspergillus spp. were used to distinguish wild-type isolates from those with acquired resistance mechanisms. Forty-five Aspergillus strains did not evidence resistance mutations.

  16. Tropical soil microflora of spice-based cropping systems as potential antagonists of root-knot nematodes.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Santhosh J; Beena, B; Ramana, K V

    2005-03-01

    Suppression of plant parasitic nematodes with nematode predators, parasites or antagonists is an eco-friendly approach than the toxic chemicals. In a study, soil borne fungi from the rhizosphere of major spice crops were collected from diverse cropping systems prevailing in three southern states of India. A series of in vitro studies were conducted using 73 freshly collected fungal isolates and 76 isolates obtained from other sources. Out of this 67 isolates were not parasitic on females of root-knot nematodes whereas 115 isolates, though colonized the egg masses, did not show any signs of parasitism on nematode eggs. Fifty-nine isolates showed 50-90% inhibition in egg hatch. Pochonia chlamydospora, Verticillium lecanii, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and few isolates of Trichoderma spp. showed >25% parasitism on root-knot nematode eggs. The most promising isolates in this study were one isolate each of Aspergillus (F.45), Fusarium (F.47), and Penicillium (F.59); three each isolates of Trichoderma (F.3, F.52, and F.60) and Pochonia (F.30 and Vc.3) Verticillium (Vl); and two isolates of fungi that could not be identified (F.28 and F.62). Parasitism by Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus ustus, Drechslera sp., Humicola sp., and Scopulariopsis sp. on root-knot nematode eggs or females, reported in the present study, are new reports.

  17. Topical voriconazole therapy of Purpureocillium lilacinum keratitis that occurred in disposable soft contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Yamada, Norihiro; Fukuchi, Mariko; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe 2 cases of keratitis caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) that occurred in disposable contact lens users, which were successfully treated with topical voriconazole. Case 1 was a healthy 44-year-old woman, who wore weekly disposable contact lenses and had developed a superficial corneal infection in her right eye. For diagnosis, corneal scraping and molecular identification of the cultured pathogen were performed. A corneal smear revealed the presence of fungi. The pathogen was identified as P. lilacinum by traditional morphological identification of fungal culture, and this identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. Therapy with topical fluconazole, topical pimaricin (natamycin), and oral itraconazole were ineffective. Topical voriconazole showed a significant effect, and the keratitis was successfully treated. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman with bilateral recurrent peripheral corneal ulcers by meibomian gland dysfunction, who used therapeutic bandage contact lenses on her left eye. However, a corneal abscess with hypopyon occurred in the eye after 3 months. The microbial smear examination showed the presence of fungi and the fungal culture, and the DNA sequence of ITS region revealed that the causative agent was P. lilacinum. The susceptibility testing against antifungal agents showed that voriconazole was effective. The lesion improved gradually by topical voriconazole. As a conclusion, P. lilacinum keratitis can occur in disposable soft contact lens wearer. Early and accurate detection of the pathogenic organism is essential. Topical voriconazole was effective against P. lilacinum keratitis.

  18. Management of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Pittosporum tobira Under Greenhouse, Field, and On-farm Conditions in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Baidoo, Richard; Mengistu, Tesfamariam; McSorley, Robert; Stamps, Robert H.; Brito, Janete; Crow, William T.

    2017-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are important pests of cut foliage crops in Florida. Currently, effective nematicides for control of these nematodes on cut foliage crops are lacking. Hence, research was conducted at the University of Florida to identify pesticides or biopesticides that could be used to manage these nematodes. The research comprised on-farm, field, and greenhouse trials. Nematicide treatments evaluated include commercial formulations of spirotetramat, furfural, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) strain 251. Treatment applications were made during the spring and fall seasons according to manufacturer’s specifications. Efficacy was evaluated based on J2/100 cm3 of soil, J2/g of root, and crop yield (kg/plot). Unlike spirotetramat, which did not demonstrate any measurable effects on Meloidogyne incognita J2 in the soil, furfural and P. lilacinum were marginally effective in reducing the population density of M. incognita on Pittosporum tobira. However, nematode reduction did not affect yield significantly. Although furfural and P. lilacinum have some potential for management of M. incognita on cut foliage crops, their use as a lone management option would likely not provide the needed level of control. Early treatment application following infestation provided greater J2 suppression compared to late application, suggesting the need for growers to avoid infested fields. PMID:28706312

  19. Management of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Pittosporum tobira Under Greenhouse, Field, and On-farm Conditions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Baidoo, Richard; Mengistu, Tesfamariam; McSorley, Robert; Stamps, Robert H; Brito, Janete; Crow, William T

    2017-06-01

    Root-knot nematodes are important pests of cut foliage crops in Florida. Currently, effective nematicides for control of these nematodes on cut foliage crops are lacking. Hence, research was conducted at the University of Florida to identify pesticides or biopesticides that could be used to manage these nematodes. The research comprised on-farm, field, and greenhouse trials. Nematicide treatments evaluated include commercial formulations of spirotetramat, furfural, and Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) strain 251. Treatment applications were made during the spring and fall seasons according to manufacturer's specifications. Efficacy was evaluated based on J2/100 cm(3) of soil, J2/g of root, and crop yield (kg/plot). Unlike spirotetramat, which did not demonstrate any measurable effects on Meloidogyne incognita J2 in the soil, furfural and P. lilacinum were marginally effective in reducing the population density of M. incognita on Pittosporum tobira. However, nematode reduction did not affect yield significantly. Although furfural and P. lilacinum have some potential for management of M. incognita on cut foliage crops, their use as a lone management option would likely not provide the needed level of control. Early treatment application following infestation provided greater J2 suppression compared to late application, suggesting the need for growers to avoid infested fields.

  20. Carbon requirements of some nematophagous, entomopathogenic and mycoparasitic hyphomycetes as fungal biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, ManHong; Liu, XingZhong

    2006-05-01

    Thirty-three carbon sources were evaluated for their effects on spore germination, hyphal growth and sporulation of 11 fungal biocontrol agents, i.e. the nematophagous fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis, H. minnesotensis and Arkansas Fungus 18, the entomopathogenic fungi Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma viride. Variations in carbon requirements were found among the fungal species or strains tested. All strains studied except for T. viride grew on most carbon sources, although B. bassiana had more fastidious requirements for spore germination. Monosaccharides and disaccharides were suitable for fungal growth. For most isolates, D-glucose, D-mannose, sucrose and trehalose were superior to pectin and soluble starch among the polysaccharides and lactic acid among the organic acids. Both ethanol and methanol could accelerate growth of most isolates but not biomass. D-mannose, D-fructose and D-xylose were excellent carbon sources for sporulation, while D-glucose, sucrose, cellobiose, trehalose, chitin, dextrin, gelatin and lactic acid were better for some isolates. Neither sorbic acid nor linoleic acid could be utilized as a single carbon source. These findings provided a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of different fungal biocontrol agents that can benefit the mass production process.

  1. In vitro susceptibility of nematophagous fungi to antiparasitic drugs: interactions and implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J N; Maia, F S; Ferreira, G F; Mendes, J F; Gonçalves, C L; Villela, M M; Pereira, D I B; Nascente, P S

    2016-10-03

    The fast anthelmintic resistance development has shown a limited efficiency in the control of animal's endoparasitosis and has promoted research using alternative control methods. The use of chemicals in animal anthelmintic treatment, in association with nematophagous fungi used for biological control, is a strategy that has proven to be effective in reducing the nematode population density in farm animals. This study aims to verify the in vitro susceptibility of the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus against the antiparasitic drugs albendazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, levamisole and closantel by using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). MICs ranged between 4.0 and 0.031 µg/mL for albendazole, thiabendazole and ivermectin, between 0.937 and 0.117 µg/mL for levamisole, and between 0.625 and 0.034 µg/mL for closantel. The results showed that all antiparasitic drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on nematophagous fungi, which could compromise their action as agents of biological control. D. flagrans was the most susceptible species to all drugs.

  2. Inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in mouse lungs exposed to purified toxins from building isolated Penicillium brevicompactum Dierckx and P. chrysogenum Thom.

    PubMed

    Rand, Thomas G; Giles, S; Flemming, J; Miller, J David; Puniani, Eva

    2005-09-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that building-associated Penicillium spores and spore extracts can induce significant inflammatory responses in lung cells and animal models of lung disease. However, because spores and spore extracts comprise mixtures of bioactive constituents often including toxins, it is impossible to resolve which constituent mediates inflammatory responses. This study examined dose-response (0.5 nM, 2.5 nM, 5.0 nM, 12.5 nM/g body weight (BW) animal) and time-course (3, 6, 24 and 48 h post instillation (PI)) relationships associated with inflammatory and cytotoxic responses in mouse lungs intratracheally instilled with pure brevianamide A, mycophenolic acid, and roquefortine C. High doses (5.0 nM and/or 12.5 nM/g BW animal) of brevianamide A and mycophenolic acid, the dominant metabolites of P. brevicompactum, and roquefortine C, the dominant metabolite of P. chrysogenum, induced significant inflammatory responses within 6 h PI, expressed as differentially elevated macrophage, neutrophil, MIP-2, TNF, and IL-6 concentrations in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of intratracheally exposed mice. Macrophage and neutrophil numbers were maximal at 24 h PI; responses of the other inflammatory markers were maximal at 6 h PI. Except for macrophage numbers in mycophenolic acid-treatment animals, cells exhibited significant dose-dependent-like responses; for the chemo-/cytokine markers, dose dependency was lacking except for MIP-2 concentration in brevianamide A-treatment animals. It was also found that brevianamide A induced cytotoxicity expressed as significantly increased LDH concentration in mouse BALF, at concentrations of 12.5 nM/g BW animal and at 6 and 24 h PI. Albumin concentrations, measured as a nonspecific marker of vascular leakage, were significantly elevated in the BALF of mice treated with 12.5 nM/g nM brevianamide A/animal from 6 to 24 h PI and in > or =5.0 nM/g mycophenolic acid-treated animals at 6 to 24 h PI. These results suggest that these three toxins from Penicillium species common on damp materials in residential housing provoke compound-specific toxic responses with different toxicokinetics. Moreover, that these toxins can stimulate significant inflammatory responses in vivo might help explain some of the indoor effects associated with Penicillium spore exposures in indoor environments.

  3. High-level expression of extracellular secretion of a β-xylosidase gene from Paecilomyces thermophila in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chao; Jia, Huiyong; Yan, Qiaojuan; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2011-01-01

    A novel β-xylosidase gene (designated as PtXyl43) from thermophilic fungus Paecilomycesthermophila was cloned and extracellularly expressed in Escherichia coli. PtXyl43 belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 43 has an open reading frame of 1017 bp, encoding 338 amino acids without a predicted signal peptide. No introns were found by comparison of the PtXyl43 genomic DNA and cDNA sequences. The recombinant β-xylosidase (PtXyl43) was secreted into the culture medium in E. coli with a yield of 98.0 U mL(-1) in shake-flask cultures. PtXyl43 was purified 1.2-fold to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 61.5% from the cell-free culture supernatant. It appeared as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with a molecular mass of approx 52.3 kDa. The enzyme exhibited an optimal activity at 55 °C and pH 7.0, respectively. This is the first report on the cloning and expression of a GH family 43 β-xylosidase gene from thermophilic fungi. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  5. Study of the production of alkaline keratinases in submerged cultures as an alternative for solid waste treatment generated in leather technology.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Chesini, Mariana; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2013-01-01

    Six nonpathogenic fungal strains isolated from alkaline soils of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Acremonium murorum, Aspergillus sidowii, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Neurospora tetrasperma, Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), and Westerdikella dispersa) were tested for their ability to produce keratinolytic enzymes. Strains were grown on feather meal agar as well as in solid-state and submerged cultures, using a basal mineral medium and "hair waste" as sole sources of carbon and nitrogen. All the tested fungi grew on feather meal agar, but only three of them were capable of hydrolyzing keratin, producing clear zones. Among these strains, P. lilacinum produced the highest proteolytic and keratinolytic activities, both in solid-state and submerged fermentations. The medium composition and culture conditions for the keratinases production by P. lilacinum were optimized. Addition of glucose (5 g/l) and yeast extract (2.23 g/l) to the basal hair medium increased keratinases production. The optimum temperature and initial pH for the enzyme production were 28℃ and 6.0, respectively. A beneficial effect was observed when the original concentration of four metal ions, present in the basal mineral medium, was reduced up to 1:10. The maximum yield of the enzyme was 15.96 Uc/ml in the optimal hair medium; this value was about 6.5-fold higher than the yield in the basal hair medium. These results suggest that keratinases from P. lilacinum can be useful for biotechnological purposes such as biodegradation (or bioconversion) of hair waste, leading to a reduction of the environmental pollution caused by leather technology with the concomitant production of proteolytic enzymes and protein hydrolyzates.

  6. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  7. Air-borne fungi in the air of Barcelona (Spain). III. The genus Aspergillus Link.

    PubMed

    Calvo, A; Guarro, J; Suarez, G; Ramirez, C

    1980-05-01

    During a survey on the presence of species of the genus Aspergillus in the air of the city of Barcelona (Spain), the following species were identified: Aspergillus flavus Link, A. niger van Tieghem, A. fumigatus Fresenius, A. clavatus Desmazières, A. terreus Thom, A. chevalieri (Mang.) Thom et Church, A. niveus Bloch, emend. Thom et Church, A. ochraceus Wilhelm, A. versicolor (Vuillemin) Tiraboschi, and A. amstelodami (Mang.) Church et Thom.

  8. Middle School Teacher and Administrator Perceptions of the Whole Child Professional Development Program Based on the PA School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Cohort Training System and the Thom Stecher and Associates Adult Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonio, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Whole child education is the process of supporting the social and emotional needs of students. By supporting the various non-academic needs of students, the social distractions and disadvantages are reduced and the academic needs have a greater opportunity to flourish. Whole child education is designed to foster a sense of social justice as the…

  9. Ameliorative effect of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (Poir.) Hook. f. & Thoms. roots (ACP) on APAP/CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats and in vitro free radical scavenging property

    PubMed Central

    Shine, Varghese Jancy; Latha, Panikamparambil Gopalakrishnan; Suja, Somasekharan Nair Rajam; Anuja, Gangadharan Indira; Raj, Gopan; Rajasekharan, Sreedharan Nair

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of alkaloid extract of Cyclea peltata (C. peltata) against paracetamol/carbon tetra chloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats. Methods In vivo paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in Wistar rats, in vitro free radical scavenging studies, HPTLC estimation of tetrandrine and direct analysis in real time- mass spectrometry of alkaloid extract of C. peltata were used for the validation. Results The results showed that pretreatment with alkaloid extract of C. peltata caused significant reduction of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum cholesterol, liver malondialdehyde levels. The reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase levels in liver were increased with alkaloid extract of C. peltata treatment. These results were almost comparable to silymarin and normal control. Histopathological studies also substantiated the biochemical findings. The in vitro hydroxyl, superoxide and DPPH scavenging study of alkaloid extract of C. peltata showed significant free radical scavenging property. Conclusions The hepatoprotective property of alkaloid extract of C. peltata against paracetamol/carbon tetrachloride may be due the synergistic action of alkaloids especially tetrandrine, fangchinoline through free radical scavenging and thus preventing oxidative stress. PMID:25182286

  10. Hypoglycaemic effects of fermented mycelium of Paecilomyces farinosus (G30801) on high-fat fed rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huai-En; Jian, Chien-Huei; Chen, Shu-Fen; Chen, Tse-Min; Lee, Son-Tay; Chang, Chun-Sheng; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Paceilomyces farinosus is an entomogenous fungus with a powerful insecticidal activity against the larvae of Lipidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. However, the hypoglycaemic activity of P. farinosus extract has not been studied. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of P. farinosus (G30801) in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes given a high-fat and compared with normal rats. Rats fed with high fat diet for 2 months and injected with (30 or 50 mg STZ/kg bw) showed raised level of plasma triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, D-glucose concentration and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) %. The STZ-induced type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in rats was further confirmed using glucose tolerance test and insulin-glucose tolerance test. P. farinosus (G30801) was fermented in different media [soybean (S), black bean (B), and rice (R)] and their extracts were tested for hypoglycaemic effect using T1DM and T2DM rats. STZ (30 and 50 mg/kg bw) could successfully induce T2DM and T1DM in rats, respectively. No change in blood glucose levels were noted in P. farinosus (R medium) treated normal rats (P < 0.05). In addition, STZ-high fat fed diabetic (T1DM and T2DM) rats when treated with P. farinosus (R medium) showed decreased blood glucose level as compared with P. farinosus extracted from B and S medium. Our findings showed hypoglycaemic effect of fermented P. farinosus (G30801) in experimental diabetes rat model fed with high fat diet.

  11. [The effect of infestation by mixed culture of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus on reduction in numbers of experimental culture Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zukowski, K; Bajan, C; Popowska-Nowak, E

    1999-01-01

    In this paper results of infestation of Blatella germanica L with mixed culture of insecticidal fungi belonging to one two species are presented. In the first stage of experiment the insects were infested first with B. bassiana spores and later with P. farinosus spores (strains L and P) was used as first and B. bassiana as second with time sequence of only 24 and 72 hours. Out of one species cultures tests were done alternately with strains L and P of P. farinosus. The control insects were always infested with fungi applied to cockroach in the first place. From comparison of data it results that irrespective of the time that elapsed from application of the first pathogen to the time of application of the second pathogen the number of dead individuals was always higher in experimental series than in control i.e. when only one pathogen was applied. After 30 days of experiment the highest mortality in females amounted to, 3.3% and in males--80.0% whereas in the control it amounted 6.6% and 20.0%. Respectively, after feeding on diet infested only with one pathogen. After 50 years the highest mortality amounted to 20% in females and 100% in males with control of 30% and 53.3% in meals and females, respectively. When the sequence of pathogen application was reversed, mortality after 30 day amounted to 53.3% in females and 36.7% in meals with corresponding numbers in controls beginning 26.6% and 26.6%, respectively. After elapse of 50 days the highest mortality in females was 90% and in males--100% with control showing mortality of 36.7% and 63.3% respectively. From comparison of numerical data complied in Table 1 it results that most advantageous time span between first and second infestation with fungi is 48 h. Mortality of cockroaches infested with fungi of two different species was higher than in insects infested with one species of fungi.

  12. Potential of topic applications, leaf residues and soil drenches of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for management of the Diaprepes root weevil: laboratory and greenhouse investigations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaprepes root weevil, (DRW) Diaprepes abbreviatus is a key pest of citrus and ornamental plants in Florida and Texas. DRW larvae burrow through the soil feeding on roots which when girdled causes secondary infection of the structural roots or root crown by Phytopthora spp. wherein mature citrus tre...

  13. Improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of Papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay K; Ghosh, Sumit; Shanker, Karuna; Kalra, Alok

    2014-11-01

    Elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. Culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niveoglaucus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less Papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. Besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide were also applied for improved sanguinarine production. Maximum biomass accumulation (growth index (GI) = 293.50 ± 14.82) and sanguinarine production (0.090 ± 0.008 % dry wt.) were registered by addition of 3.3 % v/v T. harzanium culture filtrate. Interestingly, it was further enhanced (GI = 323.40 ± 25.30; 0.105 ± 0.008 % dry wt.) when T. harzanium culture filtrate was employed along with 50 μM shikimate. This was also supported by real-time (RT) (qPCR), where 8-9-fold increase in cheilanthifoline synthase (CFS), stylopine synthase (STS), tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-methyltransferase (TNMT), and protopine 6-hydroxylase (P6H) transcripts was observed. Among abiotic elicitors, while hydrogen peroxide and carbon dioxide registered low level of sanguinarine accumulation, maximum sanguinarine content was detected by 250 μM salicylic acid (0.058 ± 0.003 % dry wt.; GI = 172.75 ± 13.40). RT (qPCR) also confirms the downregulation of sanguinarine pathway on CO2 supplementation. Various parameters ranging from agitation speed (70 rpm), impeller type (marine), media volume (2 l), inoculum weight (100 g), and culture duration (9 days) were optimized during upscaling in 5-l stirred tank bioreactor to obtain maximum sanguinarine production (GI = 434.00; 0.119 ± 0.070 % dry wt.). Addition of 3.3 % v/v T. harzanium culture filtrate and 50-μM shikimate was done on the 6th day of bioreactor run.

  14. Comparison of the E-test with the NCCLS M38-P Method for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Common and Emerging Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Espinel-Ingroff, Ana

    2001-01-01

    The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M38-P method describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic antifungal activities (MICs) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds). The present study evaluated the in vitro fungistatic activities of itraconazole and amphotericin B by the E-test and the NCCLS M38-P microdilution method against 186 common and emerging pathogenic molds (123 isolates of Aspergillus spp. [five species], 16 isolates of Fusarium spp. [two species], 4 Paecilomyces lilacinus isolates, 5 Rhizopus arrhizus isolates, 15 Scedosporium spp., 18 dematiaceous fungi, and 5 Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolates). The agreement between the methods for amphotericin B MICs ranged from 70% for Fusarium solani to ≥90% for most of the other species after the first reading; agreement was dependent on both the incubation time and the species being evaluated. Major discrepancies between the amphotericin B MICs determined by the E-test and the NCCLS M38-P method were demonstrated for three of the five species of Aspergillus tested and the two species of Fusarium tested. This discrepancy was more marked after 48 h of incubation; the geometric mean MICs determined by the E-test increased between 24 and 48 h from between 1.39 and 3.3 μg/ml to between 5.2 and >8 μg/ml for Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans. The agreement between the itraconazole MICs determined by the E-test and the NCCLS M38-P method ranged from 83.3% for A. nidulans to ≥90% for all the other species tested; the overall agreement was higher (92.7%) than that for amphotericin B (87.9%). The agreement was less dependent on the incubation time. Clinical trials need to be conducted to establish the role of the results of either the E-test or the NCCLS M38-P method in vitro for molds with the two agents as predictors of clinical outcome. PMID:11283057

  15. Theme: SAE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Supervised Experience" (Morgan et al.); "SAE [Supervised Agricultural Experience]: Putting Agricultural Education into Context" (Camp); "Agricultural Internships" (Sherman); "Remember Those Records" (Chase, Thom); "Developing SAE Programs for All Agriscience Students" (Prelesnik); "A Marriage Made in...?" (Biondo); and "Involving…

  16. Science and Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    ORNL Director Thom Mason explains the groundbreaking work in neutron sciences, supercomputing, clean energy, advanced materials, nuclear research, and global security taking place at the Department of Energy's Office of Science laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn.

  17. Science and Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Mason, Thomas

    2016-07-12

    ORNL Director Thom Mason explains the groundbreaking work in neutron sciences, supercomputing, clean energy, advanced materials, nuclear research, and global security taking place at the Department of Energy's Office of Science laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn.

  18. Theme: SAE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth, Ed.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Supervised Experience" (Morgan et al.); "SAE [Supervised Agricultural Experience]: Putting Agricultural Education into Context" (Camp); "Agricultural Internships" (Sherman); "Remember Those Records" (Chase, Thom); "Developing SAE Programs for All Agriscience Students" (Prelesnik); "A Marriage Made in...?" (Biondo); and "Involving…

  19. Integrating Operational Energy Implications into System-Level Combat Effects Modeling: Assessing the Combat Effectiveness and Fuel Use of ABCT 2020 and Current ABCT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    of lines ABCT passage of lines Objective Peter Objective Jeff Objective Thom Objective Hardy Objective Rich Axis punch Axis hit Axis scratch Axis...Armor Quill Infantry ABCT passage of lines ABCT passage of lines Objective Peter Objective Jeff Objective Thom Objective Hardy Objective Rich Axis...Objective Jeff and a terrain feature that is approximately 80 kilometers distant. In this MCO scenario, an ABCT conducted a deliberate attack to seize an

  20. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki towards entomopathogenic fungal volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Termites adjust their response to entomopathogenic fungi according to the profile of the fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study first demonstrated the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) towards the Formosan s...

  1. Effect of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) on the brown citrus aphid: Preliminary assessment of a compatibility study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy (=T. citricida) is a serious pest of citrus as the vector which spreads Citrus Tristeza virus. Recently, an entomopathogenic strain of fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (= Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) was discove...

  2. The interaction between additives, yeast and patulin production in grass silage.

    PubMed

    Dutton, M F; Westlake, K; Anderson, M S

    1984-08-30

    Both laboratory-prepared and sterile farm silage was found to support growth of Paecilomyces sp. and patulin production. The formation of patulin was affected by the levels of yeast present in the silage, and it was found that there was an inverse relationship between yeast population levels and patulin concentration. The commercial silage additive, "Sylade' had a greater lethal effect on yeast and fungi than "Add F', the latter allowing the formation of patulin by Paecilomyces sp. in the silage.

  3. Fungal metabolism of n-alkylbenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isolates of Paecilomyces, Verticillium, Beauveria, and Penicillium species were tested for ability to metabolize a variety of n-alkylbenzenes. Minimum side chain lengths were required for metabolism of these substrates. These were C/sub 4/ for the Paecilomyces sp., C/sub 8/ for the Verticillium sp., and C/sub 9/ for the other two isolates. Growth on dodecylbenzene yielded benzoic and phenylacetic acids as transient intermediates, and these acids supported growth of the isolates.

  4. Correlation of Culture with Histopathology in Fungal Burn Wound Colonization and Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    remaining cultures grew Alternaria species, Candida albicans and Paecilo- myces species without recovery of a Zygomycete. Finally, those surgical specimens... Candida albicans only—1 Aspergillus sp + Trichosporon sp + Candida glabrata—1 Aspergillus sp + Fusarium sp + Mucor sp—1 Aspergillus sp + Fusarium sp—1...Fusarium sp + Paecilomyces sp—1 Mucor sp + Aspergillus sp—1 Alternaria sp only—1 Candida albicans only—1 Paecilomyces sp only—1 Yeast-like organisms (Yeast

  5. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    PubMed

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.

  6. The source and distribution of thermogenic dissolved organic matter in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, T.; Suryaputra, I. G. N. A.; Paeng, J.

    2009-04-01

    Thermogenic organic matter (ThOM) is abundant in the environment. ThOM is produced at elevated temperature and pressure in deep sediments and earth's crust, and it is also a residue of fossil fuel and biomass burning ("black carbon"). Because of its refractory character, it accumulates in soils and sediments and, therefore, may sequester carbon from active cycles. It was hypothesized that a significant component of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) might be thermogenic. Here we present a detailed data set on the distribution of thermogenic DOM in major water masses of the deep and surface ocean. In addition, several potential sources of thermogenic DOM to the ocean were investigated: active seeps of brine fluids in the deep Gulf of Mexico, rivers, estuaries and submarine groundwaters. Studies on deep-sea hydrothermal vents and aerosol deposition are ongoing. All DOM samples were isolated from seawater via solid phase extraction (SPE-DOM). ThOM was quantified in the extracts as benzene-polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) after nitric acid oxidation via high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). BPCAs are produced exclusively from fused ring systems and are therefore unambiguous molecular tracers for ThOM. In addition to BPCA determination, the molecular composition and structure of ThOM was characterized in detail via ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). All marine and river DOM samples yielded significant amounts of BPCAs. The cold seep system in the deep Gulf of Mexico, but also black water rivers (like the Suwannee River) were particularly rich in ThOM. Up to 10% of total dissolved organic carbon was thermogenic in both systems. The most abundant BPCA was benzene-pentacarboxylic acid (B5CA). The molecular composition of BPCAs and the FT-ICR-MS data indicate a relatively small number (5-8) of fused aromatic rings per molecule. Overall, the molecular BPCA patterns were very similar independent of the source of ThOM

  7. Comparative research of chemical constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Panax ginseng and its endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Han, Ting; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Bao-Kang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of ether extracts of an endophytic fungus Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Panax ginseng were reported, and the comparative analysis of the constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of the ether extracts from this fungus and its host ginseng were also conducted. By means of GC/MS technique, 51 compounds of Panax ginseng and 38 compounds of Paecilomyce sp. were determined. It is attractive that the extracts derived from Paecilomyce sp. and ginseng samples contained the same compound falcarinol, a natural pesticide and anti-cancer agent. The ether extracts of Paecilomyce sp., tested at 7.8 microg/ml, completely inhibited the visible growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Furthermore, both extracts were tested against four human pathogenic fungi and showed the IC(80) of Paecilomyce sp. was 4 microg/ml against Trichophyton rubrum, equally to the control. Finally, the in vitro antitumor experience showed that the most of the IC(50) values were all being below 20 microg/ml.

  8. First report of Penicillium crustosum causing blue mold on stored apple fruit in Serbia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium crustosum Thom causes blue mold on pome fruits and is also regularly found on cheese, nuts and soil. The fungus produces an array of mycotoxins that impact human health, including penitrem A, roquefortine C, terrestric acid, and cyclopenol. In January and February 2013, decayed apples, ‘...

  9. Utilization of Educational Television for Teaching of the Handicapped. Proceedings of the Institute on Educational Television for Teaching the Handicapped, August, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sarah R., Ed.

    Proceedings of the Educational Television Institute include the following topics: the potential of instructional television by Richard Barnes and Mitchel Chetel; the school television production center at Port Jefferson High School in New York State, described by Joseph Thom; Peter Derr's comments on classroom television; applied instructional…

  10. Friday Harbor Marina Expansion Study--San Juan Island, Washington: Final Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Juan Marina Inc. Don F. Brown Self Steve F. Brown San Juan Marina Inc. Thoms Chittenden Self Alex D. Crichton Self Alan C,-mings KGMI-Bellingham Lois...Self Susan E. Risser Self Noble W. Starr Self Thomas C. Starr Self Corinne R. Towne Se"I Michael P. Vouri Bellingham Marine Industries June M. Vynne Self

  11. English 30, Part A: Written Response. Grade 12 Diploma Examination, June 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Student Evaluation Branch.

    This booklet presents the Written Response part of the English 30 Grade 12 Diploma examination in Alberta, Canada. After instructions for students, the booklet presents the first part of the examination in which students respond to Thom Gunn's poem "Tamer and Hawk," which addresses the nature and effect of a ruling passion in an…

  12. Surface Roughness Lengths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    m trees 110 - 170 Thom 1972 Pine forest - 20 m trees 128 DeBruin and Moore 1985 Forested plateau, rolling 120 - 130 Ming et al. 1983 Rolling terrain...H. A. R., and C. J. Moore , 1985 , "Zero-Plane Displacement and Roughness Length for Tall Vegetation, Derived from a Simple Mass Conservation

  13. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded/Live Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Society for Marine Mammalogy 2013 Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals in New Zealand . Dr. Fahlman’s graduate student Lauren Gonzalez...3. Ward, C., et al., Complement activation involvement in decompression sickness of rabbits . Undersea Biomed Res., 1990. 17: p. 51-66. 4. Thom, S

  14. Genetic diversity of Talaromyces species isolated from maize in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Talaromyces species isolated from maize in the U.S., primarily between 1970 and 2014 were grown up from lyophilized storage to identify potential seed endophytes. These isolates had been predominantly identified as Penicillium funiculosum following the taxonomic system of Raper & Thom (1949), althou...

  15. An eye to the tax man: Do forest owners understand tax provisions?

    Treesearch

    Tom Straka; John L. Greene

    2004-01-01

    In the March 2004 issue of Forest Products Equipment, Thom J. McEvoy noted that, "stumpage buyers who are able to brief prospective clients on the tax implications of a pending sale are often far more likely to win a client's business than even buyers who offer higher stumpage rates." This is because woodland owners know that it is...

  16. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R T; Latch, G C

    1977-03-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin.

  17. Production of the Tremorgenic Mycotoxins Verruculogen and Fumitremorgin B by Penicillium piscarium Westling

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R. T.; Latch, G. C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgin B were isolated from Penicillium piscarium Westling. The coexistence of these tremorgens in culture has previously been reported for one other unrelated fungal species, Aspergillus caespitosus Raper and Thom, and lends further support to the suggestion that the tremorgens have a common biosynthetic origin. PMID:16345234

  18. Pathogenicity Of Nosema fumiferanae (Thomson) (Microsporida) In Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura Fumiferana (Clemens), And Implications Of Diapause Conditions

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Gerald L. Nordin

    1988-01-01

    A standardized bioassay procedure was used to determine median lethal doses (LD 50) of the microsporidium, Nosema fumiferanae (Thom.), on newly molted fourth- and fifth-instar eastern spruce budworm larvae (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)). The LD50 for fifth-instar larva was 1.23 x 10...

  19. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot,…

  20. Problematising the Intellectual Gaze of the Educational Administration Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Whereas epistemological debates raged in educational administration during the Theory Movement, or inspired by intervention from Thom Greenfield, Richard Bates or Colin Evers and Gabriele Lakomski, epistemology and the quest for the scientific study of educational administration has somewhat diminished in the era of managerialism and the pursuit…

  1. AFIT/AFOSR Workshop on the Role of Wavelets in Signal Processing Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-28

    10 Papers Thom as P . Barnwell III ......................................................... 15 A Time...179 Multi-Resolution Estimation for Image Processing and Fusion P . P . Vaidyanathas...for this case, and discusses their regularity TIME-SCALE ANALYSIS OF SELF-SIMILAR SIGNALS P . Flandrin Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon In a number of

  2. Kanawha River Basin Sediment Data

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data set contains sediment size data collected at research sites using a Wolman Pebble Count method.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Collins , S., M. Thoms, and J. Flotemersch. Hydrogeomorphic zones characterize riverbed sediment patterns within a river network. River Systems. E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, GERMANY, 21(4): 203-213, (2015).

  3. Problematising the Intellectual Gaze of the Educational Administration Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eacott, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Whereas epistemological debates raged in educational administration during the Theory Movement, or inspired by intervention from Thom Greenfield, Richard Bates or Colin Evers and Gabriele Lakomski, epistemology and the quest for the scientific study of educational administration has somewhat diminished in the era of managerialism and the pursuit…

  4. Depth Psychology and Giftedness: Bringing Soul to the Field of Talent Development and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, F. Christopher; Piirto, Jane

    2005-01-01

    While the field of gifted education has relied on educational, cognitive, counseling, behavioral, developmental and socialpsychology, the domain of depth psychology offers special insights into giftedness, especially with regard to individuation. The notion of passion, or the thom (J. S. Piirto, 1999, 2002), the incurable mad spot (F. C. Reynolds…

  5. Work Analysis and Expertise [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Darlene Russ-Eft at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "The Setting of Goals for Skill Acquisition" (Howard J. Klein, Peg Thoms) reports a study of hospital managers that found that goal manipulation did not lead to significant main…

  6. Guidance for Protection and Restoration of Nearshore Ecosystems of Puget Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Nearshore Habitat Program, Washington State Department of Natural Resources. Olympia, Washington . 60 p. plus appendices. Borde, A. B., R. M Thom, S... Washington . United States Geological Survey, Hydrologic Investigations Atlas, HA-617. Denver, Colorado. Bottom, D. L., C. A. Simenstad, A. M. Baptista, D...PARTNERSHIP Technical Report 2 Implementing adaptive management in Washington State and British Columbia. Reviews in

  7. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot,…

  8. Depth Psychology and Giftedness: Bringing Soul to the Field of Talent Development and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, F. Christopher; Piirto, Jane

    2005-01-01

    While the field of gifted education has relied on educational, cognitive, counseling, behavioral, developmental and socialpsychology, the domain of depth psychology offers special insights into giftedness, especially with regard to individuation. The notion of passion, or the thom (J. S. Piirto, 1999, 2002), the incurable mad spot (F. C. Reynolds…

  9. Interaction within the Civil-Military Nexus: An Enduring Dilemma for Professional Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-02

    Shakespeare , The Life of Henry V, ed. John R. Brown (New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1988), 115-116. 60 Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates, Remarks...Office, 1992. Shakespeare , William. The Life of Henry V. Edited by John R. Brown. New York, NY: Penguin Group, 1988. Shanker, Thom. New Strategy

  10. "Playing Attention": Contemporary Aesthetics and Performing Arts Audience Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Monica

    2004-01-01

    This essay draws on the contemporary aesthetic theories of four writers -Hans-Georg Gadamer, Paul Ricoeur, Paul Thom, and James O. Young-who represent both the continental and analytic contemporary philosophical schools of thought. Each writer offers valuable perspectives on issues in aesthetic education pertaining to a key question in my…

  11. Morphosis: Diamond Ranch High School. Source Books in Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This book represents the first installment in a series based on the Herbert Baumer seminars hosted at the Knowlton School of Architecture at Ohio State University. These publications will focus on a single work by a particular architect and on special topics in contemporary architecture. The book opens with an interview with Thom Mayne, principal…

  12. Architecting a Net-Centric Operations System of Systems for Multi-Domain Awareness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    IG_c4.2.6.asp (accessed September 2008). [25] M. Hause and F. Thom, Rebuilding the Tower of Babel —The Case for UML with Real-time Extensions, INCOSE...Defense Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 2. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California

  13. Proceedings of the Annual Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference (6th, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, April 8-10, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Tennessee State Univ., Murfreesboro.

    This proceedings of the sixth annual Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference contains the following papers: "They're Not Just Big Kids: Motivating Adult Learners" (Karen Jarrett Thoms); "A Computer Integrated Biology Laboratory Experience" (James B. Kring); "Building Web Sites for Mathematics Courses: Some Answers to…

  14. Relationship between antimold activity and molecular structure of cinnamaldehyde analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shujun; Kong, Xianchao

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling of the antimold activity of cinnamaldehyde analogues against of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii was presented. The molecular descriptors of cinnamaldehyde analogues were calculated by the CODESSA program, and these descriptors were selected by best multi-linear regression method (BMLR). Satisfactory multilinear regression models of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii were obtained with R(2)=0.9099 and 0.9444, respectively. The models were also satisfactorily validated using internal validation and leave one out validation. The QSAR models provide the guidance for further synthetic work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Degradation of organic sulfur compounds by a coal-solubilizing fungus

    SciTech Connect

    Faison, B.D.; Clark, T.M.; Lewis, S.N.; Sharkey, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Ma, C.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Paecilomyces sp. TLi, a coal-solubilizing fungus, was shown to degrade organic sulfur-containing coal substructure compounds. Dibenzothiophene was degraded via a sulfur-oxidizing pathway to 2.2'-biphenol. No further metabolism of the biphenol was observed. Ethyl phenyl sulfide and phenyl sulfide were degraded to the corresponding sulfones. A variety of products were formed from benzyl sulfide, presumably via free radical intermediates. Phenyl disulfide and benzyl disulfide were cleaved to the corresponding thiols and other single-ring products. It was concluded that degradation of organic sulfur compounds by Paecilomyces involves an oxidative attack localized at the sulfur atom. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. [Isolation and fermentation culture of fungi from Cordyceps soofifera].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dong-qing; Ding, Zhi-shan; Lin, Mei-ai; Pan, Pei-lei; Chen, Yi-tao

    2006-02-01

    To study the fungi isolated from Cordyceps sobolifera and its fermentation culture. The fungi was isolated and identified by its hypha and spores. Three liquid media were used in the culture. Pure culture was gained and the fungi was identified to be Paecilomyces cicadae. The fungi can grow best in liquid media: egg 110 g + silkworm powder 30 g + VB1 2 tahlets + MgSO4 x 7H2O 0.5 g + K2HPO4 1 g + H2O 1000 ml, in which every litre can produce 135 g wet hypha after cultured 4 d. Paecilomyces cicadae from Cordyceps sobolifera can be cultured in liquid media.

  17. Survival of Some Medically Important Fungi on Hospital Fabrics and Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Alice N.; Orloff, Mary M.

    2001-01-01

    Tests of the survival of Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., a Fusarium sp., a Mucor sp., and a Paecilomyces sp. on hospital fabrics and plastics indicated that viability was variable, with most fungi surviving at least 1 day but many living for weeks. These findings reinforce the need for appropriate disinfection and conscientious contact control precautions. PMID:11526178

  18. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two entomopathogenic fungi and one bacterium were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST) after exposure in liquid, and for their propensity to repel FST. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Isaria fumosorosea) strain 3581 at 109 spores/ml caused 82.5% m...

  19. Combined effect of microbial and chemical control agents on subterranean termites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subterranean termites are responsible for several billion dollars in damage in the United States annually, including control and repair costs. Formosan subterranean termites (FST) cause a large proportion of this damage. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) has been previously shown to control...

  20. Virulence of Hypocreales fungi to pecan aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for aphids in commercial orchards. As a preliminary step to this end we determined the virulence of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus to three pecan aphids Monellia caryella, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and Monelliopsis pecanis under laboratory conditions. Ra...

  1. Isaria poprawskii sp. nov. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitacae), a new entomopathogenic fungus from Texas affecting sweet potato whitefly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isaria poprawskii is described as a new entomopathogenic species similar to Isaria javanica (=Paecilomyces javanicus). It was discovered ont he sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), USA. Morphological and DNA examinations indicated the dist...

  2. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  3. Use of real-time O2 concentration measurements in shake-flask fermentations of the bioinsecticidal fungus Isaria fumosorosea for improved yields of blastospores

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroseus (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. For use in spray applications as a biological control agent against insect pests, the yeast-like (blastospore) mode of growth is preferred....

  4. Screening of entomopathogenic Deuteromycetes for activities on targets involved in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Li, Z; Schubert, B; Huang, B; Stoyanova, S; Hamburger, M

    2003-12-01

    A selection of 32 fungal strains, belonging to 8 genera of entomopathogenic Deuteromycetes collected in various provinces of China, were screened for activities on targets involved in degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The strains were grown under various fermentation conditions, and a total of 256 different extracts were obtained. The bioassays included functional screens for NMDA antagonistic activity in stably transfected fibroblasts, for neuritogenic activities in PC-12 cells, and tests for MAO inhibitory and radical scavenging properties. Several extracts with promising activities were identified. Some Paecilomyces extracts induced pronounced axonal-like outgrowths in PC-12 cells. In Paecilomyces militaris RCEF 0095, the neuritogenic activity could be linked to yellow pigments. Three Beauveria and Paecilomyces strains showed radical scavenging properties, which could be localized in the extract by a bioautographic assay on TLC. An extract obtained from the mycelium of Paecilomyces tenuipes RCEF 0275 showed moderate MAO inhibitory activity, whereas extracts of Sporothrix chondracris RCEF 0187 antagonized NMDA receptor mediated cell toxicity.

  5. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  6. Avellanin C, an inhibitor of quorum-sensing signaling in Staphylococcus aureus, from Hamigera ingelheimensis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hamigera is one of the least studied genera of Eurotiales in terms of secondary metabolism compared with metabolically prolific genera such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Monascus and Talaromyces.1 Although thousands of metabolites are known from Aspergillus and Penicillium,2 only 20–30 ...

  7. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  8. Cultural Resources Collection Analysis Albeni Falls Project, Northern Idaho.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    testing project for a Bonneville Power Administration power line corridor from Libby Dam, Montana to the Albeni Falls Dam (Gough 1984); reports on major...archaeological projects above and below Libby Dam on the Kootenai River (Roll 1982, Roll and Smith 1982, Thoms 1984); and recent publications on the...the Kootenai region. In Cultural resource investigations of the Bonneville Power Administration’s Libby Integration project, S. Gough, ed

  9. Contribution to the knowledge of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina. Southernmost record in the world.

    PubMed

    Manfrino, Romina G; González, Alda; Barneche, Jorge; Tornesello Galván, Julieta; Hywell-Jones, Nigel; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2017-03-23

    The aim of this study was to identify entomopathogenic fungi infecting spiders (Araneae) in a protected area of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. The Araneae species identified was Stenoterommata platensis. The pathogens identified were Lecanicillium aphanocladii Zare & W. Gams, Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Houbraken, Hywel Jones & Samson and Ophiocordyceps caloceroides (Berk & M.A. Curtis). This study constitutes the southernmost records in the world and contributes to expanding the knowledge of the biodiversity of pathogenic fungi of spiders in Argentina.

  10. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Benthic Invertebrate Studies in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    invertebrates of the central California coast. Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley. 716 p. Tegelberg, H. C. 1969. A new Pacific razor clam species, Siliqua...favors: Drs. Ron Thom and John Armstrong, U.S. Army Corps of EnFineers; Dr. David Armstrong, University of ashinrton; Diane Carter, Grays Harbor College...Harbor, ashinfton, 1980-El...................... 102 49. Clam abundance for subtidal stations by season, Cr ’s Harbor, !ashinrtcn, 1980-l

  11. Project on National Security Reform: Vision Working Group Report and Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Bridges Martin Buoncristiani King-Thom Chung vi Michael Freeling Dr. C. T. Hess Christopher T. Hill E. Leonard Jossem William Kemperer V. Ramanathan...assumptions, problems, causes, and consequences. Scenario-Based Planning. Originally developed by Herman Kahn at the RAND Corporation in Santa...relation to policy and planning) was coined by Herman Kahn at the RAND Corporation in the 1950s as part of the strategic and military work he was

  12. Pivot to the Homeland - An Escalated Maritime Interdictions Approach Towards Combating Transnational Criminal Networks in the Western Hemisphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-03

    ranked 14th in homicides (27 per 100,000) peaking in 2012. This surge in murder rates in Puerto Rico correlates to the rerouting of drug flow to the...2012, http://www.justf.org/files/primarydocs/Testimony-Michel.pdf (accessed December 19, 2014). 11 Michael S. Schmidt , Thom Shanker, "Smugglers Go...September 5, 2014). 9 U.S. Open Borders, ‘Operation Hammer ’, a multinational effort against drug trafficking, February 8, 2012, http://usopenborders.com

  13. The Strategic Consequences of Using Military Commissions to Adjudicate US Prisoners in the Global War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-05

    April 2007 . 23 Neal K. Katyal and Laurence H. Tribe, “Waging War, Deciding Guilt; Trying the Military Tribunals,” Yale Law Journal, 111 (2002): 1259...94DB404482; Internet; accessed 22 April 2007 . 72 Ibid. 73 Ibid. 23 74 Thom Shanker and Jacques Steinberg , “THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ...College, Carlisle Barracks, PA 17013- USAWC CLASS OF 2007 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  14. Production of mycophenolic acid by Penicillium roqueforti strains.

    PubMed Central

    Lafont, P; Debeaupuis, J P; Gaillardin, M; Payen, J

    1979-01-01

    Sixteen strains of Penicillium roqueforti Thom, isolated from blue-molded cheeses, were studied. In vitro, all of these strains produced mycophenolic acid, some on the order of 0.8 to 4 mg/g od dry culture. The greatest yields were obtained after 10 days of incubation of cultures at 15 degrees C. However, under some experimental conditions, mycophenolic acid was not alone responsible for the toxicity of culture extracts to chicken embryos. PMID:453818

  15. Easier Said Than Done: Making the Transition Between Combat Operations and Stability Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    militaristic takeover; Japanese historian Sabura Ienaga described it this way: “Every facet of the curriculum was permeated with Emperor worship and...The Yoshida Memoirs: The Story of Japan in Crisis (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962), 9-10. 34. Sabura Ienaga, Japan’s Last War: World War II and the...0,2933,128504,00.html, 82 83 last accessed 12 August 2004; Thom Shanker, New York Times article “Azerbai- jan Gives No Hint of Sending More Troops

  16. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  17. Sandals on the Ground: Why the Awakening, not the Surge, was Decisive in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    and Richard A. Oppel , Jr, “Elite U.S. Units Step Up Drive In Kandahar Before Attack,” New York Times, 26 April 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/26...officials who support the government‟s security efforts.” Thom Shanker, Helene Cooper and Richard A. Oppel , Jr, “Elite U.S. Units Step Up Drive In

  18. Preliminary data on ASP2215: tolerability and efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Thom, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Claire Thom speaks to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor: Claire Thom joined Astellas in 2013 as the Therapeutic Area Head for Oncology in Global Development. In that role, she also serves as the STAR leader for Oncology for Astellas. Prior to Astellas, she spent 12 years with Takeda. Her last position was Senior Vice President, Portfolio Management, Drug Development Management and Medical Informatics and Strategic Operations within the Medical Division (the Division within Millennium responsible for oncology clinical drug development within Takeda). During her 4 years at Millennium, at various times, she had responsibility within the Medical Division for leading portfolio management, business operations (medical finance, annual and mid-range financial planning, space planning and operations, headcount resourcing, development goals process), clinical development operations (clinical operations, programming, data management, statistics, medical writing, clinical outsourcing), drug development management (project management), medical informatics (technology support for the division) and the strategic project management office for the division. Prior to joining Millennium, Claire Thom spent 18 months working in Osaka, Japan, during which she was responsible for developing the oncology strategy for Takeda that culminated in the acquisition of Millennium. Before going to Japan, she held positions of varying responsibility within the Takeda US development organization including the management of regulatory affairs, safety, biometrics and data management, clinical research and quality assurance. Claire Thom has particular expertise in organizational design and efficiency; she has successfully worked through integrations across multiple functions and redesigned business processes. She has a PharmD from University of Illinois (IL, USA) and over 20 years of pharmaceutical experience including positions in medical affairs and new product planning (over 11 years at Searle

  19. Catastrophe Theory: State of the Art and Potential Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-31

    program that forms the basis of modern catastrophe theory. I refer, of course, to Apollonius of Perga (262- 200 B.C.), who wrote his famous treatise On...the staff was Apollonius of Perga . Apollonius (1952) established his mathematical fame (during the Middle Ages he was referred to by the title "The...Conies at the Museum at Alexandria ( Apollonius , 1952). In the current generation there has appeared another great geometer, Rene Thom (1972), who

  20. Fungal volatiles associated with moldy grain in ventilated and non-ventilated bin-stored wheat.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R N; Tuma, D; Abramson, D; Muir, W E

    1988-01-01

    The fungal odor compounds 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone were monitored in nine experimental bins in Winnipeg, Manitoba containing a hard red spring wheat during the autumn, winter and summer seasons of 1984-85. Quality changes were associated with seed-borne microflora and moisture content in both ventilated and non-ventilated bins containing wheat of 15.6 and 18.2% initial moisture content. All three odor compounds occurred in considerably greater amounts in bulk wheat in non-ventilated than in ventilated bins, particularly in those with wheat having 18.2% moisture content. The presence of these compounds usually coincided with infection of the seeds by the fungi Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Aspergillus repens DeBarry, A. versicolor (Vuill.) Tiraboschi, Penicillium crustosum Thom, P. oxalicum Currie and Thom, P. aurantiogriesum Dierckx, and P. citrinum Thom. High production of all three odor compounds in damp wheat stored in non-ventilated bins was associated with heavy fungal infection of the seeds and reduction in seed germinability. High initial moisture content of the harvested grain accelerated the production of all three fungal volatiles in non-ventilated bins.

  1. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-03-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to (239)Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state.

  2. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Microphysics Within Winter Storms Using Field Data and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, B.; Molthan, A.; Yu, R.; Nesbitt, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Snow prediction within models is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Cold-­season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment over southern Ontario, as well as a few years (12 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-­2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically­pointing Ku band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. The GCPEx presentation will focus on verification using aircraft spirals through warm frontal snow band event on 18 February 2012. All the BMPs realistically simulated the structure of the band and the vertical distribution of snow/ice aloft, except the SBU-YLIN overpredicted slightly and Thompson (THOM) underpredicted somewhat. The Morrison (MORR) scheme produced the best slope size distribution for snow, while the Stony Brook (SBU) underpredicted and the THOM slightly overpredicted. Those schemes that have the slope intercept a function of temperature (SBU and WSM6) tended to perform better for that parameter than others. There was a large amount of super-cooled water near the center of the band, which was underpredicted by all schemes. Meanwhile, for the 15 cases at SBNY, which include moderate and heavy riming events, the non-spherical snow assumption (THOM and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU schemes are comparable to

  3. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Microphysics Within Winter Storms Using Field Data and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Molthan, Andrew; Yu, Ruyi; Nesbitt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Snow prediction within models is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment over southern Ontario, as well as a few years (12 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. The GCPex presentation will focus on verification using aircraft spirals through warm frontal snow band event on 18 February 2012. All the BMPs realistically simulated the structure of the band and the vertical distribution of snow/ice aloft, except the SBU-YLIN overpredicted slightly and Thompson (THOM) underpredicted somewhat. The Morrison (MORR) scheme produced the best slope size distribution for snow, while the Stony Brook (SBU) underpredicted and the THOM slightly overpredicted. Those schemes that have the slope intercept a function of temperature (SBU and WSM6) tended to perform better for that parameter than others, especially the fixed intercept in Goddard. Overall, the spread among BMPs was smaller than in other studies, likely because there was limited riming with the band. For the 15 cases at SBNY, which include moderate and heavy riming events, the non-spherical snow assumption (THOM and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic

  4. [Species diversity and seasonal change of entomogenous fungi in Langya Mountains Nature Reserve].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Jun; Huang, Bo; Wang, Meng; Wu, Shi-Zhen; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Zou, Yun-Ding; Li, Zeng-Zhi

    2007-09-01

    672 specimens of entomogenous fungi belonging to 20 species, 8 genera and 4 families were collected from 20 sampling quadrates in the Langya Mountains Nature Reserve of East Anhui. The dominant species were Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces farinosus, P. cateinannulatus, B. brongniartii and P. fumosoroseus, and B. bassiana was most dominant, with the relative abundance of 73.8%. The entomogenous fungi in the Reserve were high in amount but low in diversity. The amount of isolates and the abundance of each species were the highest in summer and decreased with decreasing air temperature and rainfall, while the Pielou evenness changed from relatively low to relatively high. Paecilomyces spp. had a less seasonal fluctuation of quantity than Beauveria spp.

  5. [Beta-glucan content and hydration properties of filamentous fungi].

    PubMed

    Kiianko, M V; Canel, R S; Ludemann, V; Pose, G; Wagner, J R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate and identify filamentous fungi from several sources to study the dietary fiber and beta-glucan content. The fungal hydration properties such as water absorption and water holding capacities were also evaluated. Total dietary fiber of isolates exhibited a noticeable variability from 16 to 53% and the highest values were obtained for the genera Paecilomyces and Penicillium, a fact consistent with a higher content of beta-glucans (24 and 17%, respectively), higher than previously reported for Basidiomycetes and yeast. We observed a large decrease (75%) in the water holding capacity when the mycelia were dried. Isolates of filamentous fungi with greater water holding capacity also exhibited greater absorption capacity. Paecilomyces variotii and Penicillium nalgiovense had the best hydration properties. Our results contribute to the search for new unconventional ingredients providing a high protein and beta-glucans content. The addition of these dried mycelia could change the hydration properties in the food system.

  6. Incidence and detection of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi from maize with particular reference to Thermoascus species.

    PubMed

    Wareing, P W

    1997-04-01

    A number of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi were isolated from shipments of food-aid grain, and from large bag stacks of maize stored in sub-Saharan Africa. Thermotolerant fungi included Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and Paecilomyces varioti; thermophilic fungi included Thermomyces lanuginosus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Thermoascus aurantiacus and T. crustaceous. Temperature profiles for Thermoascus spp. indicated that isolates of T. aurantiacus grew up to 60 degrees C, and T. crustaceous to 55 degrees C, whereas Paecilomyces could not grow above 50 degrees C. Thermoascus species isolated from grains conformed to published morphological descriptions. Problems associated with the detection and interpretation of fungal spoilage in relation to heat-damaged grain are discussed.

  7. [Beauvericin: chemical and biological aspects and occurrence].

    PubMed

    Klarić, Maja Segvić; Pepeljnjak, Stjepan

    2005-12-01

    Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide produced by Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Paecilomyces tenuipes, Polyporus sulphurous, and a variety of Fusarium species. This mycotoxin shows antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and apoptotic activity. It is the most potent specific inhibitor of cholesterol acyltransferase and possesses ionophoric properties. BEA increases ion permeability in biological membranes by forming a complex with essential cations (Ca2+, Na+, K+), which may affect the ionic homeostasis. BEA has been frequently found in maize samples in Europe, USA and Africa and co-contamination with other Fusarium toxins such as fumonisins, and moniliformin was also found. There is only one report of BEA occurrence and co-occurrence with fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2 and ochratoxin A in Croatia. Biological activity of BEA may increase the toxicity of other mycotoxins that co-occur with BEA in food. The role of BEA in the development of human and animal mycotoxicosis is still unknown.

  8. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  9. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Incidence of heat-resistant molds in eastern orchards and vineyards.

    PubMed

    Splittstoesser, D F; Kuss, F R; Harrison, W; Prest, D B

    1971-02-01

    Over 70% of the samples of fruit, vegetation, and soil obtained in surveys of New York orchards and vineyards were contaminated with heat-resistant molds. The counts generally were low, under one per gram. Byssochlamys fulva was the most common isolate. Other isolates were identified as B. nivea, Paecilomyces varioti, Aspergillus fischeri, A. fischeri var. spinosus, A. fumigatus, Penicillium vermiculatum, and P. ochro-chloron.

  11. [Technical support in the testing of microoganisms for their ability to accumulate strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions]. Final reports, Task order No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-15

    This report describes the binding of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solution in a variety of microorganisms. Data is provided on the absorption by Ashbya gossyppi, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Candida sp. Ml13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scenedesmus obliqus, Streptococcus mutans, Anabaena flosaquae, Escherichia coli, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus luteus, Zoogloea ramigera, Coelastrum proboscideum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Paecilomyces marquandi, and Caulobacter fusiformis.

  12. New Filamentous Fungus Sagenomella chlamydospora Responsible for a Disseminated Infection in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Gené, Josepa; Blanco, José L.; Cano, Josep; García, Marta E.; Guarro, Josep

    2003-01-01

    A filamentous fungus that caused a fatal systemic infection in a dog has been identified as the new species Sagenomella chlamydospora. When the case was initially reported, the fungus was identified as Paecilomyces sp. This study emphasizes how difficult can be the identification of the causative agent of an infection when an uncommon microorganism is involved. This is the first time that this genus has been involved in animal infections, including humans. PMID:12682169

  13. Incidence of Heat-Resistant Molds in Eastern Orchards and Vineyards 1

    PubMed Central

    Splittstoesser, D. F.; Kuss, F. R.; Harrison, Wanda; Prest, Dorothy B.

    1971-01-01

    Over 70% of the samples of fruit, vegetation, and soil obtained in surveys of New York orchards and vineyards were contaminated with heat-resistant molds. The counts generally were low, under one per gram. Byssochlamys fulva was the most common isolate. Other isolates were identified as B. nivea, Paecilomyces varioti, Aspergillus fischeri, A. fischeri var. spinosus, A. fumigatus, Penicillium vermiculatum, and P. ochro-chloron. PMID:5544294

  14. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    PubMed

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  15. Variability in the production of extracellular enzymes by entomopathogenic fungi grown on different substrates

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Valério, Henrique Maia; Feltrin, Thaisa; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha

    2012-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are important controllers of pest-insects populations in agricultural production systems and in natural environment. These fungi have enzymatic machinery which involve since the recognition and adherence of spores in their hosts culminating with infection and death of these insects. The main objective of this study was to analyzed extracellular enzyme production of the fungi strains Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces sp when cultured on substrates. These fungi were grown in minimal media containing specific substrates for the analysis of different enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, esterases, lipases, proteases (gelatin and caseinase), pectinases and cuticles of Musca domestica larvae and adults. All the assays were performed with and without the presence of dextrose in the culture media. The quantification of enzyme activity was performed by the ratio of halo / colony (H/C) and the results subjected to variance analysis level of 5% (ANOVA) followed by post-Tukey test. All strains were positive for lipase and also they showed a high significant enzyme production for gelatin at concentrations of 4 and 1%. B. bassiana and Paecilomyces sp. were positive for amylase, pectinase and caseinase, and only Paecilomyces sp. showed cellulase activity. PMID:24031896

  16. Late Quaternary floodplain development along the Stung Sen River in the Lower Mekong Basin, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagumo, Naoko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Kubo, Sumiko

    2013-09-01

    The Stung Sen River, the biggest tributary to Lake Tonle Sap in the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia, is characterized by large seasonal changes of water discharge under the Asian monsoon climate and seasonal changes in water level that reach at least 7 m and are controlled by the water level of the lake. The Stung Sen River floodplain consists of two geomorphic units: meander belt along the river channel and backmarsh. Coupled observations of outcrops along the river channel and arrays of sediment cores across the floodplain north of Kampong Chheuteal village and Kampong Thom City, c. 150 km and c. 70 km, respectively, reveal that floodplain environmental changes at c. 11 ka were possibly associated with the Holocene onset of the southeast Asian monsoon and probably with the emergence of Lake Tonle Sap. These observations also show that the present backmarsh-meander belt system was established about 5.5 ka along with the unique Mekong-Tonle Sap connection, characterized by a reversal in flow direction during the monsoon season. The meander belt materials are replaced as the river channel shifts on a decadal to centennial timescale. Backmarsh sediments at sites Kampong Chheuteal and Kampong Thom had a constant accumulation rate of about 0.5 mm/y during the Holocene, contrasting with rates of 0.1 mm/y during the late Pleistocene. At around 11 ka, a sand layer was deposited over all of the valley around Kampong Chheuteal, while wetlands enlarged around Kampong Thom, probably because of increased rainfall triggered by an enhancement of the Asian summer monsoon. This 11 ka horizon has since been covered by clayey sediments keeping pace with the accumulation of lacustrine sediments in Lake Tonle Sap.

  17. Isotope geochemistry and fluid inclusion study of skarns from Vesuvius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilg, H.A.; Lima, A.; Somma, R.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    We present new mineral chemistry, fluid inclusion, stable carbon and oxygen, as well as Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope data of Ca-Mg-silicate-rich ejecta (skarns) and associated cognate and xenolithic nodules from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex, Italy. The typically zoned skarn ejecta consist mainly of diopsidic and hedenbergitic, sometimes "fassaitic" clinopyroxene, Mg-rich and Ti-poor phlogopite, F-bearing vesuvianite, wollastonite, gehlenite, meionite, forsterite, clinohumite, anorthite and Mg-poor calcite with accessory apatite, spinell, magnetite, perovskite, baddeleyite, and various REE-, U-, Th-, Zr- and Ti-rich minerals. Four major types of fluid inclusions were observed in wollastonite, vesuvianite, gehlenite, clinopyroxene and calcite: a) primary silicate melt inclusions (THOM = 1000-1050??C), b) CO2 ?? H2S-rich fluid inclusions (THOM = 20-31.3??C into the vapor phase), c) multiphase aqueous brine inclusions (THOM = 720-820??C) with mainly sylvite and halite daughter minerals, and d) complex chloride-carbonate-sulfate-fluoride-silicate-bearing saline-melt inclusions (THOM = 870-890??C). The last inclusion type shows evidence for immiscibility between several fluids (silicate melt - aqueous chloride-rich liquid - carbonate/sulfate melt?) during heating and cooling below 870??C. There is no evidence for fluid circulation below 700??C and participation of externally derived meteoric fluids in skarn formation. Skarns have considerably variable 206Pb/204Pb (19.047-19.202), 207Pb/204Pb (15.655-15.670), and 208Pb/204Pb (38.915-39.069) and relatively low 143Nd/144Nd (0.51211-0.51244) ratios. The carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of skarn calcites (??13CV-PDB = -5.4 to -1.1???; ??18OV-SMOW = 11.7 to 16.4???) indicate formation from a 18O- and 13C-enriched fluid. The isotope composition of skarns and the presence of silicate melt inclusion-bearing wollastonite nodules suggests assimilation of carbonate wall rocks by the alkaline magma at moderate depths (< 5

  18. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, B.; Molthan, A.; Yu, R.; Stark, D.; Yuter, S. E.; Nesbitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Cold-season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is ~0.25 m s-1 too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were ~0.25 m s-1 too slow, while the SBU

  19. Taking a geometric look at the socio-political functioning schemes of the living. Catastrophe theory and theoretical sociology.

    PubMed

    Morier, Clément

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this communication is to consider morphological processes in sociology, mainly through the study of the stability of forms of sociality. At the same time, it aims to study the regulation of constraints, related to an increasingly conflictual environment, through political organization. We use a specific theoretical framework: the catastrophe theory developed by René Thom in topology, further developed by Claude Bruter from a physics point of view, and reworked by Jacques Viret in biology. The idea is to show the existence of archetypal processes organizing social forms.

  20. Enumeration of curves with one singular point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Somnath; Mukherjee, Ritwik

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we obtain an explicit formula for the number of curves in P2, of degree d, passing through (d(d + 3) / 2 - k) generic points and having a singularity X, where X is of type Ak≤7 ,Dk≤7 or Ek≤7. Our method comprises of expressing the enumerative problem as the Euler class of an appropriate bundle and using a purely topological method to compute the degenerate contribution to the Euler class. These numbers have also been computed by M. Kazarian using the existence of universal formulas for Thom polynomials.

  1. Iran’s Reemergence as a Major Player in Global Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-21

    occupy and force the shah from the throne in 1941. America’s influence came in the form of a CIA-led overthrow of Mossadeq by rallying the population... game of brinksmanship.”41 This move was too much for Khamenei. Afterward, Friedman reported, “The supreme leader now fears the president could...Thom Shanker, “Iran Encounter Grimly Echoes ’02 War Games ,” The New York Times, January 12, 2008. U.S. Department of the Army

  2. Study of Mechanisms of an Anti-Apoptotic Protein, BI-1, in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    animals, plants, and yeast. Gene. 2003 323:101-13. 4. Roth W, Kermer P , Krajewska M, Welsh K, Davis S, Krajewski S, Reed JC. Bifunctional apoptosis...HR, Xu C, Bailly-Maitre B, Krajewska M, Krajewski S, Banares S, Cui J, Digicaylioglu M, Ke N, Kitada S, Monosov E, Thom as M, Kress CL, Babendure JR...inhibitor (BAR) protects neurons from diverse cell death pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2003 Oct;10(10):1178-87. 5. Zhang H, Xu Q, Krajewski S

  3. Evaluation of Model Microphysics Within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Molthan, Andrew; Yu, Ruyi; Stark, David; Yuter, Sandra; Nesbitt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Coldseason Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is 0.25 meters per second too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were 0.25 meters per second too

  4. Evaluation of Model Microphysics within Precipitation Bands of Extratropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colle, Brian A.; Yu, Ruyi; Molthan, Andrew L.; Nesbitt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies evaluating the bulk microphysical schemes (BMPs) within cloud resolving models (CRMs) have indicated large uncertainties and errors in the amount and size distributions of snow and cloud ice aloft. The snow prediction is sensitive to the snow densities, habits, and degree of riming within the BMPs. Improving these BMPs is a crucial step toward improving both weather forecasting and climate predictions. Several microphysical schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model down to 1.33-km grid spacing are evaluated using aircraft, radar, and ground in situ data from the Global Precipitation Mission Coldseason Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx) experiment, as well as a few years (15 winter storms) of surface measurements of riming, crystal habit, snow density, and radar measurements at Stony Brook, NY (SBNY on north shore of Long Island) during the 2009-2012 winter seasons. Surface microphysical measurements at SBNY were taken every 15 to 30 minutes using a stereo microscope and camera, and snow depth and snow density were also recorded. During these storms, a vertically-pointing Ku-band radar was used to observe the vertical evolution of reflectivity and Doppler vertical velocities. A Particle Size and Velocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer was also used to measure the surface size distribution and fall speeds of snow at SBNY. For the 15 cases at SBNY, the WSM6, Morrison (MORR), Thompson (THOM2), and Stony Brook (SBU-YLIN) BMPs were validated. A non-spherical snow assumption (THOM2 and SBU-YLIN) simulated a more realistic distribution of reflectivity than spherical snow assumptions in the WSM6 and MORR schemes. The MORR, WSM6, and SBU-YLIN schemes are comparable to the observed velocity distribution in light and moderate riming periods. The THOM2 is approx 0.25 m/s too slow with its velocity distribution in these periods. In heavier riming, the vertical Doppler velocities in the WSM6, THOM2, and MORR schemes were approx 0.25 m/s too slow, while the

  5. The New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-14

    go by without inspecting a missile.” See Elaine M . Grossman, “U.S. Treaty-Monitoring Presence at Russian Missile Plant Winding Down,” Global...Issues, by Amy F. Woolf. See, also David E . Sanger and Thom Shanker, “U.S. Faces Choice of New Weapons for Fast Strikes,” New York Times, April 23...nuclear weapons see CRS Report RL32572, Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons, by Amy F. Woolf. 52 Press Release of Senator Richard Lugar. “Lugar: Romney

  6. Field Measurement and Model Evaluation Program for Assessment of the Environmental Effects of Military Smokes: The Atterbury-87 Field Study of Smoke Dispersion Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Application," Atmosoheric Science and Power Production, Randerson, D. (ed.), U S Dept. of Commerce, DOE/TIC- 27601 (DE84005177), 584-619. Batchelor, G. K...Dept. of Commerce, DOE/TIC- 27601 (DE84005177), 85-103. I Meyers, R. M., W. D. Ohmstede and R. T. Cederwall, 1985: "A Model of Finite Velocity...DOE/TIC- 27601 (DE84005177), 1-31. I Raupach, M. R. and A. S. Thom, 1981: "Turbulence in and Above Plant Canopies," Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 13, 97-129. I

  7. Phosphonitrilic Fluoroelastomer Coated Fabrics for Collapsible Fuel Storage Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    DE3OIR-PL 1 DPXM-PR 1 DRXKM- PPD * ~iqR-~.AP 1 DR1OR-R, Dr. G. Thom"s 1 DRZME-RA, Dr. V. L. Davidaobn 5 D1W ..RA, Dr. R. E. Singler S! ...JANSwlId 021 o /~o FIRESTONE1j~ TIEARBBRC CEN~~_TRLRSACLARAOES 1 41 The findings kn this rupwn 3re not to be contrued ms an oi Department of the Army...materials proved to be better processable materials. These DD 1 , 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 6S IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

  8. Preliminary Analysis of SOAR Cable Landing Sites at San Clemente Island,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    Contiguous United States", Simiu, Changery and Filliben, NBS Building Science Series 118, U.S. Department of Commerce, March, 1979. (5) "Proceedings of...Technical Meeting Concerning Wind Loads on Buildings and Structures", 27-28 Jan, 1969, NBS Building Science Series 30, Marshall and Thom - Editors...20Q,000 197 949 REAlderman to )175 955 R.E Aldeqrman 10,000 J975 9497 C.K.ownsend S-0 97 9560 1 98e64 J.P Randall 50017 9499 C.K.Townsend 2000 197

  9. Rational approximation schemes for bi-continuous semigroups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara, Patricio

    2008-08-01

    This paper extends the Hille-Phillips functional calculus and rational approximations results due to R. Hersh, T. Kato, P. Brenner, and V. Thomée to generators of bi-continuous semigroups. The method yields error estimates for rational time-discretization schemes for such semigroups, in particular for dual semigroups, Feller semigroups such as the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck semigroup, the heat semigroup, semigroups induced by nonlinear flows, implemented semigroups, and evolution semigroups. Furthermore, the results provide error estimates for a new class of inversion formulas for the Laplace transform.

  10. A New Equation for the Aerodynamics of Pan Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, W.; Roderick, M. L.; Hobbins, M. T.; Wong, S.; Groeneveld, P. J.; Sun, F.; Farquhar, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    This research is a response to worldwide observations reporting a decline in pan evaporation over the last 30 to 50 years. We constructed an instrumented US Class A pan that replicates an operational pan at Canberra Airport in Australia. The aim of the experimental setup was to investigate the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. We monitored the water level (to determine the evaporation rate), (short- and long-wave) radiation, temperature (air, water surface, bulk water, inner and outer pan wall), atmospheric pressure, air vapour pressure and the wind speed at a standard reference height (2 m above ground level). All these measurements are recorded at five-minute intervals for a 3-year period (2007-2010). Here, we present a framework for quantifying vapour transfer by coupling Fick's First Law of Diffusion with boundary layer theory (assuming that water surface temperature measurements are available). This approach adequately represented pan evaporation measurements over short time intervals (half-hourly) under non-steady state conditions. It involved estimating the boundary layer thickness and other properties of air above the evaporating surface for a pan. Our results are consistent with the "envelope of theoretical curves" concept for the wind function proposed by Thom et al. (1981). Reference: Thom, A. S., J. L. Thony, and M. Vauclin (1981), On the proper employment of evaporation of evaporation pans and atmometers in estimating potential transpiration, Quart. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 107(453), 711-736, doi: 10.1002/qj.49710745316.

  11. Discrete compatibility in finite difference methods for viscous incompressible fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Huaxiong Huang; Wetton, B.R.

    1996-07-01

    Thom`s vorticity condition for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is generally known as a first-order method since the local truncation error for the value of boundary vorticity is first-order accurate. In the present paper, it is shown that convergence in the boundary vorticity is actually second order for steady problems and for time-dependent problems when t > 0. The result is proved by looking carefully at error expansions for the discretization which have been previously used to show second-order convergence of interior vorticity. Numerical convergence studies confirm the results. At t = 0 the computed boundary vorticity is first-order accurate as predicted by the local truncation error, Using simple model problems for insight we predict that the size of the second-order error term in the boundary condition blows up like C/{radical}t as t {r_arrow} 0. This is confirmed by careful numerical experiments. A similar phenomenon is observed for boundary vorticity computed using a primitive method based on the staggered marker-and-cell grid. 27 refs., 15 tabs.

  12. (GTG)5 microsatellite regions in citrinin-producing Penicillium.

    PubMed

    Di Conza, José Alejandro; Nepote, Andrea Fabiana; González, Ana María; Lurá, María Cristina

    2007-03-01

    Morphological and cultural characteristics, as well as biochemical properties, are the main criteria used in fungal taxonomy and in the standard description of fungi species. Sometimes, however, this criterion is difficult to apply due to fungal phenotypic variations. This is particularly true in the genus Penicillium. The aims of this work were to determine (GTG)5 microsatellite sequence in potentially citrinin-producing Penicillium strains and to investigate if this sequence could be useful to characterize such fungi. Penicillium citrinum Thom and Penicillium chrysogenum Thom were isolated from different foods. The identification of the isolates at species level was carried out according to classical taxonomy. The production of citrinin was determined by thin layer chromatography. This study proved that microsatellite regions exist as short repeated sequences in all tested strains. The patterns were very similar for all P. citrinum isolates and it was possible to group them in function of the quantity of citrinin produced. Yet, not similar clusters were obtained when P. chrysogenum isolates were analyzed.

  13. Bader's topological analysis of the electron density in the pressure-induced phase transitions/amorphization in α-quartz from the catastrophe theory viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Marcello; Sciascia, Luciana

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the Bader's topological analysis of the electron density, coupled with Thom's catastrophe theory, was used to characterize the pressure-induced transformations in α-quartz. In particular, ab initio calculations of the α-quartz structures in the range 0-105 Gpa have been performed at the HF/DFT exchange-correlation terms level, using Hamiltonians based on a WC1LYP hybrid scheme. The electron densities calculated throughout the ab initio wave functions have been analysed by means of the Bader's theory, seeking for some catastrophic mechanism in the sense of Thom's theory. The analysis mainly showed that there is a typical fold catastrophe feature involving an O-O interaction at the quartz-coesite transition pressure, while the amorphization of α-quartz is coincident with an average distribution of the gradient field of the electron density around the oxygen atom which is typically observed in the free atoms. This approach is addressed to depict a phase transition from a novel viewpoint, particularly useful in predicting the stability of a compound at extreme conditions, especially in the absence of experimental data.

  14. [A qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes and a systematic supportive learning instruction of spelling disorder].

    PubMed

    Corvacho Del Toro, Irene M

    2016-09-01

    This paper explains how a qualitative analysis of spelling mistakes (Oldenburger Fehleranalyse, Thomé & Thomé, 2014) may be used to select learning materials according to individual needs. The pre-post design with control group serves to evaluate the effects of an intervention that is systematic and learning supportive for pupils with a diagnosed spelling disorder (ages 12 to 14; 6th-8th grade). Therapists of the experimental group were instructed to apply a series of linguistic and psycholinguistic criteria when creating the material for instruction and when carrying out the therapy. Therapists of the control group carried out the intervention without attending to these criteria, although they did have knowledge about the pupil’s profile in spelling mistakes. The intervention included 20 sessions. The ANOVA shows improvement for both groups (HSP, May 2012): (F(1, 14) = 15,05, p = .002, η2 = .518). For the experimental group it is stronger, and the difference in achievement gain is significant (F(1, 14) = 4,70, p = .048; η2 = .25). These results support a combination of qualitative analysis and a high qualification for therapists that relates specifically to orthography and its instruction. For some pupils the changes in the qualitative profiles reveal persistent support requirements in phonology or grammar instruction.

  15. A Voyage around the Recumbent Stone Circles of North-East Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2015-05-01

    This paper details new archaeoastronomical research undertaken at the Recumbent Stone Circles (RSCs) of Scotland. Research to date has concentrated on the recumbent arrangement and the major theorists such as Thom, Ruggles and Burl, proposed that the recumbent and pillars are aligned to the lunar standstills or the passage of the moon over the recumbent. This research took a different voyage around the circles, which included checking all the stones of the circle for solar and stellar alignments as well as lunar alignments. It looks at nine RSCs, using both new plans drawn up by RCAHMS and plans published by Thom. The research was prompted by preliminary research, reported on at SEAC 2010, which detailed fieldwork completed at three sites. Because of the earlier focus on the recumbent, the RSCs have generally been interpreted in terms of a lunar narrative. By contrast, the aims of this research were to examine the circle in its entirety examining each circle stone for possible solar, lunar and stellar alignments using the dates of 2500 BC and 2000 BC. The results for all the circle stones showed that there were just as many solar as lunar alignments and that some stellar alignments may have been important symbolically.

  16. [Molecular identification for the asexual stage of Taishan cordyceps].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Mei; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Xian-Zhong; Su, Yan-You; Wang, Yanfei

    2010-09-01

    From gene lever identified the asexual stage of Taishan cordyceps. Using rDNA ITS regions as molecular targets, PCR amplification, sequencing, and comparing with the other ITS region sequences of known. Through the Blast search of GenBank, the ITS sequence is same as the sequence of Paecilomyces tenuipes (100% ). The asexual stage of Taishan cordyceps was proved through molecular biology method for the first time. The results showed that the asexual stage of Taishan cordyceps. should be Isariafarinosa, not be Hirsutella sinensis.

  17. Diversity of microorganisms in decaying maize stalks revealed by a molecular method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Xia; Zhang, Han-Bo

    2007-08-01

    Microbial diversity in decaying maize stalk was characterized by constructing and analyzing rRNA gene clone library. Total 47 OTUs were obtained from 82 bacterial clones, including Proteobacteria (64.6%), Actinobacteria (30.5%), Bacteroidetes (2.4%) and Firmicutes (2.4%). Most proteobacterial clones were members of Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Eighty-four percent of Actinobacteria was related to Microbacterium. Only 14 OTUs were identified from 124 fungal clones, including Ascomycota (88%) and Basidiomycota (12%). Sixty percent of Ascomycota were members of Eupenicillium and Paecilomyces but all Basidiomycota were close to Kurtzmanomyces nectairei.

  18. Mathematical modelling of the combined effect of water activity, pH and redox potential on the heat destruction.

    PubMed

    Reichart, O; Mohácsi-Farkas, C

    1994-12-01

    Heat destruction of seven foodborne microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Paecilomyces varioti and Neosartoria fischeri) as a function of the temperature, pH, redox potential and water activity was studied in synthetic heating media. Several mathematical models were developed for describing the heat destruction rate, most of them resulted in a good correlation between the fitted and measured values. The determination coefficients of the model-fitting were the best in case of lactobacilli and moulds (0.96-0.99) and the worst in case of the yeasts (0.81-0.88).

  19. Colonization of peritoneal catheter with a thermophilic fungus, Thermoascus crustaceus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oz, Yasemin; Kiraz, Nuri; Ozkurt, Sultan; Soydan, Mehmet

    2010-12-01

    Thermoascus crustaceus is a thermophilic fungus and the teleomorph form of Paecilomyces crustaceus. Thermoascus spp. have been rarely isolated from human mycoses as etiological fungal agents. We believe that our patient is the first case of catheter colonization with Thermoascus crustaceus. In a 50-year-old male patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis, the mold was isolated from three separate, consecutive dialysate fluid specimens and peritoneal catheter tip. The patient had slight clinical findings and he was treated by early catheter removal without antifungal treatment. Therefore this case was considered as the colonization of the peritoneal catheter rather than peritonitis. Consequently, we think that the human pathogen fungal spectrum will continue to enlarge.

  20. [Application of Bacillus-antagonists for biocontrol of fungi degrading raw wood].

    PubMed

    Melent'ev, A I; Helisto, P; Kuz'mina, L Iu; Galimzianova, N F; Aktuganov, G E; Korpela, T

    2006-01-01

    Species composition of micromycete complexes colonizing aspen, birch, and pine wood was studied. Calculation of the Sorens-Tchekanovsky similarity coefficients showed that these complexes shared a high degree of similarity. They were dominated by the representatives of the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Trichoderma, and Rhizopus. Some antagonistic bacilli inhibited growth and development of wood-decay fungi in vitro and led to the formation of spheroplasts on growing hyphae. A study of possible involvement of bacillary mycolytic enzymes in the inhibition of wood-decay fungi demonstrated selectivity of their lytic effect, which was determined by the genus and species of micromycetes and did not correlate with their relative resistance to antagonists.

  1. Specificity of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan.

    PubMed Central

    Swanink, C M; Meis, J F; Rijs, A J; Donnelly, J P; Verweij, P E

    1997-01-01

    The specificity of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan was tested with exoantigens of 29 fungi cultured from clinical specimens. Cross-reactivity was observed with Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium digitatum, and Paecilomyces variotii. Furthermore, 40 serum samples obtained from bacteremic patients with hematologic malignancies were retrospectively tested by sandwich ELISA. False-positive reactions with the serum were reproducible but did not correspond with the results of culture of specific microorganisms. Moreover, the microorganisms cultured from the blood showed no reactivity by the sandwich ELISA. PMID:8968919

  2. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of 5 species of triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A M; Junqueira, A C; Costa, G L; Celano, V; Oliveira, P C; Coura, J R

    2001-01-01

    A study of the mycobiota in the digestive tract of 5 important species of triatomines, Triatoma brasiliensis, T infestans, T. sordida, T. pseudomaculata and T. vitticeps, was made. The digestive tracts of 164 adults and 535 nymphs of those triatomines were studied and 393 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (19 species), Aspergillus (17 species) and Acremonium (5 species) and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium felluttanum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium waksmanii, Aspergillus awamori and Paecilomyces variotii. Among the isolated fungi, we found species that are recognized as entomopathogenic and pathogenic for humans and animals.

  3. Antifungal activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and standard antifungal agents against clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Alexander, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans.

  4. Notes on Cordyceps species Collected from the Central Region of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bhushan

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to explore the Cordyceps species and other entomopathogenic fungal flora around Kathmandu Valley and a few high altitude locations of Nepal. In this paper, we report eight Cordyceps species as new to Nepal: C. gracilis, C. ishikariensis, C. liangshanensis, C. martialis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa, C. sphecocephala and C. tricentri. We also mention a few allied genera such as Beauveria, Hirsutella and Paecilomyces from Nepal. Further collections from different ecological regions of Nepal will show the richness of entomopathogenic fungal floral diversity of Nepal. PMID:24049507

  5. Isolation and characterization of bacterial endophytes of Chelidonium majus L.

    PubMed

    Goryluk, Agata; Rekosz-Burlaga, Hanna; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria from stems of Chelidonium majus L. (greater celandine) and to evaluate their antifungal properties. In total, 34 bacterial endophyte strains were isolated. The fungistatic effects of these bacteria on the growth of five moulds (Alternaria alternata, Chaetonium sp., Paecilomyces variotti, Byssochlamys fulva, Aureobasidium pullulans) and one species of black yeast (Exophiala mesophila) were tested. The majority of the bacterial isolates were found to inhibit the growth of fungi and those with the strongest antifungal properties were further characterized. Of the twelve isolates examined, 11 were species of Bacillus thuringiensis and one was Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

  6. Bioremoval of arsenic (V) from aqueous solutions by chemically modified fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, J F; Acosta-Rodríguez, I; Téran-Figueroa, Y; Rodríguez-Pérez, A S

    2017-07-01

    The biosorption of arsenic (V) on nine chemically modified biomasses (with iron oxide coated) of mycelia fungi: Aspergillus flavus III, IV and V, Aspergillus fumigatus I-II, Paecilomyces sp., Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp-1 and 2 was studied in this work. This study provides evidence that the biomasses of the fungi A. flavus, IV, III and V, Paecilomyces sp., and A. fumigatus I were very efficient at removing 1 mg/L of the metal in solution, using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), achieving the following percentage of removals: 97.1, 92.3, 90.3, 89.0, and 83.4%, respectively. The results of adsorption were obtained at pH 6.0, 30 °C after 24 h of incubation, with 1 g/100 mL of fungal biomass. These results suggest the excellent potential of almost all isolated strains for bioremediation and removal of metals from contaminated sites.

  7. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

  8. Topological Hopf-Chern insulators and the Hopf superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    We introduce new three-dimensional (3D) topological phases of two-band models using the Pontryagin-Thom construction. In symmetry class A these are the infinitely many Hopf-Chern topological insulators, which are hybrids of layered Chern insulators and Hopf insulators. Being constructed by a modification of the experimentally observed Chern insulators, these provide promising candidates for the observation of a genuinely 3D topological phase in class A . In symmetry class C , there is a Z2 classification with the nontrivial topological phase, the Hopf superconductor, being realized by a construction that doubles a Hopf insulator in momentum space. For these new topological phases we introduce concrete tight-binding Hamiltonians and investigate their energy spectra in the presence of a boundary, revealing gapless surface modes in accordance with the bulk-boundary correspondence.

  9. Fungal mediated silver nanoparticle synthesis using robust experimental design and its application in cotton fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velhal, Sulbha Girish; Kulkarni, S. D.; Latpate, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    Among the different methods employed for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the biological method is most favorable and quite well established. In microorganisms, use of fungi in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has a greater advantage over other microbial mediators. In this study, intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Aspergillus terrerus (Thom) MTCC632 was carried out. We observed that synthesis of silver nanoparticles depended on factors such as temperature, amount of biomass and concentration of silver ions in the reaction mixture. Hence, optimization of biosynthesis using these parameters was carried out using statistical tool `robust experimental design'. Size and morphology of synthesized nanoparticles were determined using X-ray diffraction technique, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Nano-embedded cotton fabric was further prepared and studied for its antibacterial properties.

  10. The overproduction of 2,4-DTBP accompanying to the lack of available form of phosphorus during the biodegradative utilization of aminophosphonates by Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Lenartowicz, Paweł; Kafarski, Paweł; Lipok, Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Although information about the ability of some filamentous fungi to biodegrade organophosphonates is available, the knowledge about accompanying changes in fungal metabolism is very limited. The aim of our study was to determine the utilization of the chosen, structurally diverse aminophosphonates by Aspergillus terreus (Thom), in the context of the behaviour of this fungus while growing in unfavourable conditions, namely the lack of easily available phosphates. We found that all the studied compounds were utilized by fungus as nutritive sources of phosphorus, however, their effect on the production of fungal biomass depended on their structure. We also observed an interesting change in the metabolism of A. terreus; namely the overproduction of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (2,4-DTBP), which is known to possess fungistatic activity. In the case of our study, the biosynthesis of this compound was induced by phosphorus starvation, caused either by the lack of that element in the medium, or the poor degradation of phosphonate.

  11. Production of Patulin by Penicillium expansum

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Noel F.; Buchanan, Jack R.; Fortlage, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty-seven isolates of Penicillium expansum Lk. ex Thom obtained from Europe, Australia, and North America from seven different fruit hosts all produced patulin in culture. Six isolates were essentially nonpathogenic in apple fruits. In culture, patulin generally accumulated to much higher levels than in apple fruits. At all temperatures permitting fungus growth, patulin was produced. However, only small amounts were observed near the maximal temperature for growth (30 C). At 0 C, patulin accumulated but slowly in culture. Modified atmospheres suppressed both fungus growth and patulin accumulation in apples. After varying incubation periods to obtain similar total growth, the patulin concentration was low in modified atmospheres and high in air. PMID:4425020

  12. Native fungi as metal remediators: Silver myco-accumulation from metal contaminated waste-rock dumps (Libiola Mine, Italy).

    PubMed

    Cecchi, Grazia; Marescotti, Pietro; Di Piazza, Simone; Zotti, Mirca

    2017-03-04

    Metal contamination constitutes a major source of pollution globally. Many recent studies emphasized the need to develop cheap and green technologies for the remediation or reclamation of environmental matrices contaminated by heavy metals. In this context, fungi are versatile organisms that can be exploited for bioremediation activities. In our work, we tested silver (Ag) bioaccumulation capabilities of three microfungal strains (Aspergillus alliaceus Thom & Church, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai, Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers, Samuels, Seifert & W. Gams) isolated from a silver polluted site. The aim was to select silver tolerant native strains and test their potential silver uptake. Among the three species tested, T. harzianum was the most efficient strain to tolerate and accumulate silver, showing an uptake capability of 153 mg L(-1) taken at the Ag concentration of 330 mg L(-1). Our study highlights the potential use of native microfungi spontaneously growing in sulphide-rich waste rock dumps, for silver bioaccumulation and bioremediation.

  13. KSC-06pd0755

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-28

    VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, CALIF. - CloudSat and CALIPSO ¯ Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ¯ thunders skyward after launch at approximately 6:02 a.m. EDT atop a Boeing Delta II rocket. The two satellites will eventually circle approximately 438 miles above Earth in a sun-synchronous polar orbit, which means they will always cross the equator at the same local time. Their technologies will enable scientists to study how clouds and aerosols form, evolve and interact. CloudSat is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif. JPL developed the radar instrument with hardware contributions from the Canadian Space Agency. CALIPSO is collaboration between NASA and France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Langley Research Center, in Hampton, Va., is leading the CALIPSO mission and providing overall project management, systems engineering, and payload mission operations. Photo credit: Boeing/Thom Baur

  14. Improving Deployment-Related Primary Care Provider Assessments of PTSD and Mental Health Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    questionnaire . Arch Womens Ment Health, 10(6), 277‐283.  Davis, D. (1998). Does CME work? An analysis of the effect of educational activities on physician...Thom, D., & MaCurdy, T. (1997). Effects of a self‐administered previsit  questionnaire  to  enhance awareness of patients’ concerns in primary care. J...Murphy, F. M. (2003). Post‐Traumatic Stress  Disorder and  Chronic  Fatigue Syndrome‐like Illness among Gulf War Veterans: A Population‐ based Survey

  15. Automated Procedure for Evaluating Sites for Suitability as Helicopter Landing Zones. Volume 1. Descriptions and Instructions for Use of Computer Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    1-1 t I 1 SI to ca 0 03 0) cd h H 43 Ü W a Si/1 O »H^. *r 1 ^ p CO a) S o o O CO I 1 01 cncorococuojfoH coir \\ oi en...CO CO Q\\ O H H «£> CVJ -* \\£ CO O l> H CVJ 00 OCO ITxOlAHH fss^ssiRÄS* SiR» ifMA IAVO coir \\coi/\\«* co co co co co.* Jt...LINtl ON SMP« • mg i coNiraucT A OIAOONAL LWH IMPALLCI PITH THOM aatMNTtFaoa TH| CALCUkATtO XALUt O» -J ■ >« ’ ON THt UM VtBTlCAl. A>l

  16. HPLC quantification of seven quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids in six species of the family Papaveraceae.

    PubMed

    Suchomelová, Jana; Bochoráková, Hana; Paulová, Hana; Musil, Pavel; Táborská, Eva

    2007-05-09

    The content of the seven quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBA) sanguinarine (SA), chelerythrine (CHE), chelirubine (CHR), chelilutine (CHL), sanguilutine (SL), sanguirubine (SR) and macarpine (MA) was determined in the underground part of six plant species of the family Papaveraceae (Sanguinaria canadensis L., Dicranostigma lactucoides HOOK.f.et THOMS, Chelidonium majus L., Macleaya cordata (Willd.), Macleaya microcarpa (Maxim) and Stylophorum lasiocarpum (Oliv.)). HPLC method with reversed phase column Synergi Max-RP C-12 Phenomenex was used, mobile phase consisted of heptanesulfonic acid (0.01 mol/l) with triethanolamine (0.1 mol/l) in redistilled water, pH 2.5, acetonitrile gradient 25-60% during 25 min. Detection was performed at 280 nm. The highest content of SA and CHE was found in the roots of D. lactucoides (1.99%, resp. 3.43% of the dried roots). In rhizomes of S. canadensis was their content more then two times lower.

  17. P24 Plasma Physics Summer School 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory Summer lecture series for students

    SciTech Connect

    Intrator, Thomas P.; Bauer, Bruno; Fernandez, Juan C.; Daughton, William S.; Flippo, Kirk A.; Weber, Thomas; Awe, Thomas J.; Kim, Yong Ho

    2012-09-07

    This report covers the 2012 LANL summer lecture series for students. The lectures were: (1) Tom Intrator, P24 LANL: Kick off, Introduction - What is a plasma; (2) Bruno Bauer, Univ. Nevada-Reno: Derivation of plasma fluid equations; (3) Juan Fernandez, P24 LANL Overview of research being done in p-24; (4) Tom Intrator, P24 LANL: Intro to dynamo, reconnection, shocks; (5) Bill Daughton X-CP6 LANL: Intro to computational particle in cell methods; (6) Kirk Flippo, P24 LANL: High energy density plasmas; (7) Thom Weber, P24 LANL: Energy crisis, fission, fusion, non carbon fuel cycles; (8) Tom Awe, Sandia National Laboratory: Magneto Inertial Fusion; and (9) Yongho Kim, P24 LANL: Industrial technologies.

  18. The Cusp Catastrophe Model as Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Mixture Structural Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Witkiewitz, Katie; Grasman, Raoul P. P. P.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophe theory (Thom, 1972, 1993) is the study of the many ways in which continuous changes in a system’s parameters can result in discontinuous changes in one or several outcome variables of interest. Catastrophe theory–inspired models have been used to represent a variety of change phenomena in the realm of social and behavioral sciences. Despite their promise, widespread applications of catastrophe models have been impeded, in part, by difficulties in performing model fitting and model comparison procedures. We propose a new modeling framework for testing one kind of catastrophe model — the cusp catastrophe model — as a mixture structural equation model (MSEM) when cross-sectional data are available; or alternatively, as an MSEM with regime-switching (MSEM-RS) when longitudinal panel data are available. The proposed models and the advantages offered by this alternative modeling framework are illustrated using two empirical examples and a simulation study. PMID:25822209

  19. Chemical constituents of Meconopsis horridula and their simultaneous quantification by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Wu, Haimei; Zheng, Feng; Liu, Wenyuan; Feng, Feng; Xie, Ning

    2014-09-01

    Meconopsis horridula Hook.f. Thoms has been used as a traditional Tibetan medicine to clear away heat, relieve pain, and mobilize static blood. In this study, a reliable method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was established for the identification of components in this herb. A total of 40 compounds (including 17 flavonoids, 15 alkaloids, and eight phenylpropanoids) were identified or tentatively identified. Among them, 17 components were identified in the herb for the first time. Compound 39 appears to be a novel compound, which is confirmed as 3-(kaempferol-8-yl)-2,3-epoxyflavanone by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Moreover, seven major constituents were simultaneously quantified by the developed high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method. The quantitative method was validated and quality parameters were established. The study provides a comprehensive approach for understanding this herbal medicine.

  20. The cusp catastrophe model as cross-sectional and longitudinal mixture structural equation models.

    PubMed

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Witkiewitz, Katie; P P P Grasman, Raoul; Maisto, Stephen A

    2015-03-01

    Catastrophe theory (Thom, 1972, 1993) is the study of the many ways in which continuous changes in a system's parameters can result in discontinuous changes in 1 or several outcome variables of interest. Catastrophe theory-inspired models have been used to represent a variety of change phenomena in the realm of social and behavioral sciences. Despite their promise, widespread applications of catastrophe models have been impeded, in part, by difficulties in performing model fitting and model comparison procedures. We propose a new modeling framework for testing 1 kind of catastrophe model-the cusp catastrophe model-as a mixture structural equation model (MSEM) when cross-sectional data are available; or alternatively, as an MSEM with regime-switching (MSEM-RS) when longitudinal panel data are available. The proposed models and the advantages offered by this alternative modeling framework are illustrated using 2 empirical examples and a simulation study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Inverse Compton for Compton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, Pekka

    2016-04-01

    A novel concept for a high resolution Compton spectrometer is introduced. 88 keV radiation from an Inverse Compton Compact Source is focused using crossed cylindrically bent Laue-type Si perfect crystals, and dispersed on the sample with a constant energy gradient. Dispersion is compensated exactly at a Ge crystal analyzer, so that the same wavelength shift is observed for all wavelengths of the incident beam. The ThomX source is used as a concrete example. Detailed dimensions and flux estimates at successive locations of the spectrometer are given, and the performance is compared with the dispersion compensating spectrometer at ID15 of the ESRF. The momentum resolution is better than 0.1 atomic units in both cases. The intensity of scattering with the compact source is an order of magnitude smaller, but still adequate for high resolution Compton profile measurements.

  2. Activation of C-H bond in methane by Pd atom from the bonding evolution theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Nizovtsev, Anton S

    2013-08-15

    We report detailed study focused on the electron density redistribution during the simple oxidative addition reaction being the crucial stage of various catalytic processes. The bonding evolution theory based on the electron localization function and Thom's catastrophe theory shows that activation of methane's C-H bond by Pd atom consist of six elementary steps. The important feature revealed is the pronounced reorganization of Pd's outer core maxima corresponding to N-shell electrons of metal. Electronic rearrangements identified in this model reaction are likely to be the case in the more complex reactions of the same type involving transition metal compounds and, in principle, can be observed by modern ultrafast spectroscopy and diffraction techniques.

  3. An Asymptotically Orthonormal Polynomial Family.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    denote the a neiro r n e be the compemnt of 0. thom2.1. Asme that L1 - In continuous on l .1 and that -is of bounded variation on d"i Iml - I er sam O...of Curtie. or # of bounded variation on IvI - 1, Curtiss shows that J- R -1 iS * (2.10) a (a - #(0 )) - -1 + O(h(n)), h(n) - o(1), a * for any z aQ and...uniformly for z belonging to any closed subset of Q. again it is straightforward to show that If is of bounded variation for some 0 , O then h(n) a

  4. Enzymatic browning and biochemical alterations in black spots of pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.].

    PubMed

    Avallone, Sylvie; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Brillouet, Jean-Marc; Teisson, Claude

    2003-08-01

    Penicillium funiculosum Thom. was consistently isolated from pineapple-infected fruitlet (black spots). Polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and laccase activities were determined in extracts from contiguous and infected fruitlets. Healthy fruitlets showed a rather high level of polyphenol oxidase (optimum pH 7.0), and this activity was tremendously increased (X 10) in contiguous infected fruitlets. Furthermore, infected fruitlets also exhibited laccase activity (optimum pH 4.0), while peroxidase was rather constant in both fruitlets. Browning reactions were attributed to qualitative and quantitative modifications of the enzymatic equipment (polyphenol oxidase and laccase) (p < 0.0001). In infected fruiltets, sucrose and L-malic acid were present at significantly lower amounts than in healthy ones, likely owing to fungal metabolism (p < 0.0001), whereas cell wall material was three times higher, which could be viewed as a defense mechanism to limit expansion of the mycelium.

  5. A new class of problems in the calculus of variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekeland, Ivar; Long, Yiming; Zhou, Qinglong

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates an infinite-horizon problem in the one-dimensional calculus of variations, arising from the Ramsey model of endogeneous economic growth. Following Chichilnisky, we introduce an additional term, which models concern for the well-being of future generations. We show that there are no optimal solutions, but that there are equilibrium strateges, i.e. Nash equilibria of the leader-follower game between successive generations. To solve the problem, we approximate the Chichilnisky criterion by a biexponential criterion, we characterize its equilibria by a pair of coupled differential equations of HJB type, and we go to the limit. We find all the equilibrium strategies for the Chichilnisky criterion. The mathematical analysis is difficult because one has to solve an implicit differential equation in the sense of Thom. Our analysis extends earlier work by Ekeland and Lazrak.

  6. Effects of weather factors on dengue fever incidence and implications for interventions in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngjo; Tang, Choon Siang; McIver, Lachlan; Hashizume, Masahiro; Chan, Vibol; Abeyasinghe, Rabindra Romauld; Iddings, Steven; Huy, Rekol

    2016-03-08

    Dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are sensitive to their environment. Temperature, rainfall and humidity have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle. Therefore changes in these conditions may contribute to increasing incidence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between weather factors and dengue incidence in three provinces in Cambodia, in order to strengthen the evidence basis of dengue control strategies in this high-burden country. We developed negative binomial models using monthly average maximum, minimum, mean temperatures and monthly cumulative rainfall over the period from January 1998 to December 2012. We adopted piecewise linear functions to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between dengue incidence and weather factors for simplicity in interpreting the coefficients. We estimated the values of parameters below cut-points defined in terms of the results of sensitivity tests over a 0-3 month lagged period. Mean temperature was significantly associated with dengue incidence in all three provinces, but incidence did not correlate well with maximum temperature in Banteay Meanchey, nor with minimum temperature in Kampong Thom at a lag of three months in the negative binomial model. The monthly cumulative rainfall influence on the dengue incidence was significant in all three provinces, but not consistently over a 0-3 month lagged period. Rainfall significantly affected the dengue incidence at a lag of 0 to 3 months in Siem Reap, but it did not have an impact at a lag of 2 to 3 months in Banteay Meanchey, nor at a lag of 2 months in Kampong Thom. The association between dengue incidence and weather factors also apparently varies by locality, suggesting that a prospective dengue early warning system would likely be best implemented at a local or regional scale, rather than nation-wide in Cambodia. Such spatial down-scaling would also enable dengue control measures to be better targeted, timed and implemented.

  7. The comparison of assessment of pigeon semen motility and sperm concentration by conventional methods and the CASA system (HTM IVOS).

    PubMed

    Klimowicz, M D; Nizanski, W; Batkowski, F; Savic, M A

    2008-07-01

    The aim of these experiments was to compare conventional, microscopic methods of evaluating pigeon sperm motility and concentration to those measured by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA system). Semen was collected twice a week from two groups of pigeons, each of 40 males (group I: meat-type breed; group II: fancy pigeon) using the lumbo-sacral and cloacal region massage method. Ejaculates collected in each group were diluted 1:100 in BPSE solution and divided into two equal samples. One sample was examined subjectively by microscope and the second one was analysed using CASA system. The sperm concentration was measured by CASA using the anti-collision (AC) system and fluorescent staining (IDENT). There were not any significant differences between the methods of evaluation of sperm concentration. High positive correlations in both groups were observed between the sperm concentration estimated by Thom counting chamber and AC (r=0.87 and r=0.91, respectively), and between the sperm concentration evaluated by Thom counting chamber and IDENT (r=0.85 and r=0.90, respectively). The mean values for CASA measurement of proportion of motile spermatozoa (MOT) and progressive movement (PMOT) were significantly lower than the values estimated subjectively in both groups of pigeons (p< or =0.05 and p< or =0.01, respectively). Positive correlations in MOT and PMOT were noted between both methods of evaluation. The CASA system is very rapid, objective and sensitive method in detecting subtle motility characteristics as well as sperm concentration and is recommended for future research into pigeon semen.

  8. Air quality and thermal comfort levels under extreme hot weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, D. K.; Melas, D.; Kambezidis, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological (T and RH values) and air pollution data (PM10, NO2 and O3 concentrations) observed in Athens, Thessaloniki and Volos were analyzed to assess the air quality and the thermal comfort conditions and to study their synergy, when extreme hot weather prevailed in Greece during the period 2001-2010. The identification of a heat wave day was based on the suggestion made by the IPCC to define an extreme weather event. According to it, a heat wave day is detected when the daily maximum hourly temperature value exceeds its 90th percentile. This temperature criterion was applied to the data recorded at the cities center. Air quality was assessed at three sites in Athens (city center, near the city center, suburb), at two sites in Thessaloniki (city center, suburb) and at one site in Volos (city center), while thermal comfort conditions were assessed at the cities center. Mean pollution levels during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were calculated in order to examine the impact of the extreme hot weather on air quality. For this purpose, the distributions of the common air quality index and the exceedances of the air quality standards in force during the heat wave days and the non-heat wave days were also studied. Additionally, the variation of the daily maximum hourly value of Thom's discomfort index was studied in order to investigate the effect of extreme hot weather on people's thermal comfort. Moreover, the values of the common air quality index and Thom's discomfort index were comparatively assessed so as to investigate their synergy under extreme hot weather.

  9. Strain-Specific Proteogenomics Accelerates Discovery of Natural Products Via Their Biosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Jessica C.; Goering, Anthony W.; Doroghazi, James R.; Metcalf, William W.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of proteomics for direct detection of expressed pathways producing natural products has yielded many new compounds, even when used in a screening mode without a bacterial genome sequence available. Here we quantify the advantages of having draft DNA-sequence available for strain-specific proteomics using the latest in ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for both proteins and the small molecules they generate. Using the draft sequence of Streptomyces lilacinus NRRL B-1968, we show a >10-fold increase in the number of peptide identifications vs. using publicly available databases. Detected in this strain were six expressed gene clusters with varying homology to those known. To date, we have identified three of these clusters as encoding for the production of griseobactin (known), rakicidin D (an orphan NRPS/PKS hybrid cluster), and a putative thr and DHB-containing siderophore produced by a new non-ribosomal peptide sythetase gene cluster. The remaining three clusters show lower homology to those known, and likely encode enzymes for production of novel compounds. Using an interpreted strain-specific DNA sequence enables deep proteomics for the detection of multiple pathways and their encoded natural products in a single cultured bacterium. PMID:24242000

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of histopathologic and cytopathologic examination of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akeesha A; Hazen, Kevin C

    2013-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of histopatho-logic and cytopathologic examination (HCE) of Aspergillus species (spp), we performed an 11-year retrospective review to correlate surgical/cytology cases with a diagnosis of Aspergillus spp with their concurrent fungal culture results. Diagnostic accuracy was defined as the percentage of cases with culture-proven Aspergillus spp divided by the number of cases diagnosed as Aspergillus spp on HCE that had growth on fungal culture. Ninety surgical/cytology cases with concurrent fungal culture were reviewed, 58 of which grew a fungal organism. Of these 58 cases, 45 grew an Aspergillus spp, whereas 13 grew an organism other than Aspergillus spp, including both common (Scedosporium, Fusarium, and Paecilomyces spp) and uncommon mimickers (Trichosporon loubieri), resulting in a diagnostic accuracy of 78%. The low diagnostic accuracy indicates that several fungal organisms can morphologically mimic Aspergillus spp and can only be distinguished by fungal culture and DNA sequencing.

  11. A beauvericin hot spot in the genus Isaria.

    PubMed

    Luangsa-Ard, J Jennifer; Berkaew, Pitchapa; Ridkaew, Rungpet; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L; Isaka, Masahiko

    2009-12-01

    Beauvericin is a naturally occurring cyclohexadepsipeptide originally described from Beauveria bassiana but also reported from several Fusarium species as well as members of the genus Isaria. Twenty-six isolates of Isaria species and its Cordyceps teleomorph, and ten taxonomically close strains including Beauveria, Nomuraea and Paecilomyces species were sequenced and tested for beauvericin production. Trees using ITS rDNA and beta-tubulin sequence data were constructed and used to infer the phylogenetic distribution of beauvericin production. A group comprising Isaria tenuipes and its known teleomorph Cordyceps takaomontana, Isaria cicadae and its Cordyceps teleomorph, Isaria japonica and Isaria fumosorosea, showed positive beauvericin production which correlated well with combined ITS rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogenies. The results suggested that beauvericin can serve as a chemotaxonomic marker for these limited species of the I. tenuipes complex.

  12. Rasamsonia argillacea species complex: taxonomy, pathogenesis and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Giraud, Sandrine; Favennec, Loïc; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Since 2010, colonizations/infections by Rasamsonia argillacea species complex, previously known as Geosmithia argillacea, have been regularly reported in literature. We reviewed all available cases focusing on pathogenesis and clinical relevance. The number of cases may be underestimated, as these fungi are frequently misidentified as Penicillium or Paecilomyces species. Major underlying conditions that predispose for infections by the R. argillacea species complex include cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). While the pathogenic role of the colonization of CF lungs is still under debate, these molds are the causative agent of pneumonia and/or invasive infections in CGD patients. Given their thermotolerance and their resistance to various antifungals, especially the azole drugs, a special attention should be paid to the chronic colonization of the airways by these fungi in CF and CGD patients.

  13. Two antifungal components isolated from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by bioassay-guided purification.

    PubMed

    Lau, Kit-Man; Fu, Lai-Hong; Cheng, Ling; Wong, Chun-Wai; Wong, Yin-Lai; Lau, Ching-Po; Han, Simon Quan-Bin; Chan, Paul Kay-Sheung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Hui, Mamie; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli have long been used as Chinese medicines to treat various ailments such as asthma, eczema and dermatomycosis. In previous studies, their antifungal activities were demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to isolate active antidermatophytic compounds from their ethanolic extracts by means of bioassay-guided purification. Guided by the inhibitory activities on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Paecilomyces variotii, bakuchiol was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Fructus Psoraleae whilst macrocarpal C was isolated from the n-hexane fraction of Folium Eucalypti Globuli. Both pure compounds could effectively inhibit the growth of dermatophytes in vitro. This is the first paper to report the isolation and identification of active antidermatophytic compounds from Fructus Psoraleae and Folium Eucalypti Globuli by the bioassay-guided purification.

  14. Toxin producing micromycetes on imported products of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raudoniene, Vita; Sveistyte, Laima

    2005-01-01

    Recently the food of people is profusely supplemented with vegetables and fruit imported from various regions. Investigations on the mycological state of imported foodstuffs revealed that the marketed vegetables, fresh, dried and frozen fruit are contaminated with propagules of various micromycetes. The obtained results allow the conclusion that vegetables and fruit can become a good substrate for mycotoxin producing micromycetes. The micromycetes develop on everyday products and can become the cause of slow toxicoses, which are characterized by a diversity of symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. Therefore, contamination of food products with micromycetes of the Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Paecilomyces, Trichotecium, Rhizopus genera should receive particular attention. It should be noted that a strain growing on a particular type of vegetable or fruit could synthesize and excrete different toxic secondary metabolites.

  15. [Biomass production and biological purification of distillation slops in a 2-step process].

    PubMed

    Waehner, R S; Giulietti, A M; Fraile, E R

    1983-01-01

    In order to lower the chemical demand (COD) of slops from cane molasses alcohol a treatment of two steps which allows the production of single cell protein of Candida utilis and Paecilomyces variotii has been performed. Its use reduces the treatment cost. In the first step the slops without sterilization supplemented with ammonium sulphate (5 g.l-1) and dipotassium phosphate (0.5 g.l-1) was inoculated with C. utilis and P. variotii. The yield was 24 and 18 g.l-1 of dry biomass and COD reduction of 36 and 75% respectively. In the second step, the remainder effluents were treated with Aspergillus niger. The final COD reduction attained was 93 and 92% respectively.

  16. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC–MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  17. A study on the toxicity of spontaneously molded bread.

    PubMed

    Tyllinen, H; Raevuori, M; Karppanen, E; Garry-Andersson, A S

    1977-12-01

    Molds of geni Penicillium, Aspergillus and Paecilomyces were found in spontaneously molded Finnish bread. Patulin was detected in 91% of 23 samples analysed in concentrations ranging from 27 to 138 microgram/kg. The toxin was found in dark bread in higher amounts than in white. Neither aflatoxins (12 samples) nor ochratoxin A (10 samples) were detected. Penicillic acid was found in one of five samples. No significant changes were found in the haemoglobin or leucocyte counts of rats kept on feed containing extracts of the molded bread. Extracts from bread contaminated with A niger were more toxic and less palatable than extracts from the other samples. The feeding test indicated a relatively low toxicity of molded bread.

  18. Influence of Fungal Odor on Grooming Behavior of the Termite, Coptotermes formosanus

    PubMed Central

    Yanagawa, Aya; Yokohari, Fumio; Shimizu, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    The termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) protects itself from entomopathogenic fungus by mutual grooming behavior. C. formosanus removes foreign organisms, such as fungal conidia, from the body surface of its nestmates by mutual grooming behavior and eating them. The conidia removal rate from the body surface differed according to the isolate of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria brongniartii 782, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus K3, and Metarhizium anisopliae 455), and the removal rate of the fungal isolates seemed to depend on feeding preference, which was detrmined using paper discs moistened with a fungal suspension. In addition, it was found that C. formosanus without antennae groomed their nestmates more frequently than those with antennae. Consequently, it seems that C. formosanus antennae detect substances without touching, such as via odor, and it affects the efficiency of grooming behavior. The results of single sensillum recording support the hypothesis that C. formosanus are capable of distinguishing three species of fungi by their odors. PMID:21073347

  19. Ergothioneine Contents in Fruiting Bodies and Their Enhancement in Mycelial Cultures by the Addition of Methionine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wi Young; Ahn, Jin Kwon; Ka, Kang-Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    The levels of ergothioneine (ERG), which have been shown to act as an excellent antioxidant, were determined in both fruiting bodies and mycelia of various mushroom species. We found that ERG accumulated at different levels in fruiting bodies of mushrooms and showed up to a 92.3-fold difference between mushrooms. We also found that ERG accumulated at higher levels in mycelia than in fruiting bodies of economically important mushroom species such as Ganoderma neo-japonicum, G. applanatum and Paecilomyces tenuipes. The addition of 2 mM methionine (Met) to mycelial culture medium increased the ERG contents in most mushroom species tested, indicating that Met is a good additive to enhance the ERG levels in a variety of mushroom species. Taking these results into consideration, we suggest that the addition of Met to the mycelial culture medium is an efficient way to enhance the antioxidant properties in economically important mushroom species. PMID:23983506

  20. [Antibiosis shown by a strain of Byssochlamys nivea Westling, 1909. II. Activity spectrum].

    PubMed

    Percebois, G

    1975-02-28

    A strain of Byssochlamys nivea cultivated in a liquid medium (Saccharose: 50 g: NaNo3: 2 g; KH2PO4: 1 g; KCL: 0.5 g; MgSO4, 7H2O: 0.5 g; water to 1000 ml) produces, at 24 degrees C, an antibiotic substance which appears after several days of growth (10-12 days). Among 43 strains of Bacteria Gram (minus) belonging to 10 genera none was resistant. The most was susceptible, save Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Moraxella glucidolytica. On the the great bulk of the Bacteria (Gram +) tested was little influenced, except certain strains of Bacillus. The filtrate is ineffectual against Mycobacteria and Fungi (yeast or mould) at the concentration used. This substance seemed to be different of those produced by Byssochlamys fluva (byssochlamic acid) and by some species of Paecilomyces (P. varioti, P. persicinus, P. elegans, P. variabilis, P. fusidioides).

  1. A model for the combined effects of temperature and salt concentration on growth rate of food spoilage molds.

    PubMed Central

    Cuppers, H G; Oomes, S; Brul, S

    1997-01-01

    We modeled mold growth on a solid culture medium at various temperatures and NaCl concentrations by using five common food spoilage molds (Penicillium roqueforti, Trichoderma harzianum, Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus niger, and Emericella nidulans). For the description of the growth rate (expressed as the increase in colony diameter per unit of time) as a function of temperature and NaCl concentration, a six-parameter model has been developed. The model combines either the Rosso-type or the Ratkowsky-type temperature dependence with the NaCl concentration dependence derived from the relationship between the growth rate and square root of (1 - water activity), as proposed by Gibson and coworkers (A. M. Gibson, J. Baranyi, J. I. Pitt, M. J. Eyles, and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:419-431, 1994). The model will be of use to food microbiologists whose aim is to predict the likelihood of fungal spoilage. PMID:9327540

  2. Incidence of heat-resistant fungi in Nsukka, southern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugwuanyi, J O; Obeta, J A

    1991-06-01

    A total of 42 soil samples collected from different parts of Nsukka, Southern Nigeria, and 20 freshly plucked mango fruits were screened for the presence of heat-resistant fungi. Each soil sample, suspended in sterile water, and washings from each mango fruit were separately heated at 70 degrees C for 1 h before plating on double-strength potato dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol and incubating at approx. 28 degrees C. Approximately 98% of all soil samples and 17% of mango fruits contained heat-resistant fungi which were identified as Neosartorya fischeri, N. fischeri var. spinosa, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum and Paecilomyces varioti which has not been reported in tropical soil. Neosartorya spp. were predominant and occurred in all positive samples. Fungal counts ranged from non-detectable to 200 colony-forming units per 10 g of soil. Most isolates appeared to grow faster at 35 degrees C than at 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C.

  3. A model for the combined effects of temperature and salt concentration on growth rate of food spoilage molds.

    PubMed

    Cuppers, H G; Oomes, S; Brul, S

    1997-10-01

    We modeled mold growth on a solid culture medium at various temperatures and NaCl concentrations by using five common food spoilage molds (Penicillium roqueforti, Trichoderma harzianum, Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus niger, and Emericella nidulans). For the description of the growth rate (expressed as the increase in colony diameter per unit of time) as a function of temperature and NaCl concentration, a six-parameter model has been developed. The model combines either the Rosso-type or the Ratkowsky-type temperature dependence with the NaCl concentration dependence derived from the relationship between the growth rate and square root of (1 - water activity), as proposed by Gibson and coworkers (A. M. Gibson, J. Baranyi, J. I. Pitt, M. J. Eyles, and T. A. Roberts, Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23:419-431, 1994). The model will be of use to food microbiologists whose aim is to predict the likelihood of fungal spoilage.

  4. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  5. [What is the source of mycelial fungi in expressed human milk?].

    PubMed

    Novak, Franz Reis; Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra de; Santos, Manoel J S; Wanke, Bodo

    2002-01-01

    The authors characterized the genera of mycelial fungi found in samples of expressed human milk received through home collection by the Human Milk Bank of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 821 samples of expressed human milk were taken randomly from bottles collected at home by the milk donors themselves and were investigated for molds, yeasts, and mesophilic microorganisms. The analyses showed the occurrence of molds and yeasts in 43 (5.2%) of the samples, with counts reaching 103CFU/ml. Some 48 strains of mycelial fungi were identified by standard laboratory techniques, including: Aspergillus Niger group (6.3%), Aspergillus sp. (4.2%), Paecilomyces sp. (12.6%), Penicillium sp. (60.4%), Rhizopus sp. (2.0%), and Syncephalastrum sp. (14.5%). The authors discuss the importance of donor hands' asepsis prior to collecting human milk.

  6. Simultaneous extraction of oil and antioxidant compounds from oil palm fruit (Elaeis guineensis) by an aqueous enzymatic process.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Camilo B; Macedo, Gabriela A; Macedo, Juliana A; da Silva, Luiza Helena M; da C Rodrigues, Antonio Manoel

    2013-02-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) fruit was treated with enzymes to facilitate simultaneous recovery of oil and bioactive compounds. Tannase from Paecilomyces variotii, cellulase and pectinase were evaluated for their influence on oil recovery and antioxidant capacity (DPPH), oxidative stability (Rancimat), fatty acid profile, total phenols, total carotenoids and tocols of the oil. Maximum oil recovery (90-93% total oil) was obtained with central composite design using 4% of enzyme preparation (w/w) as 80 U of tannase, 240 U of cellulase and 178 U of pectinase, pH 4, ratio of solution to pulp of 2:1 and 30 min of incubation at 50 °C. Tannase improved the phenolic compounds extraction by 51% and pectinase plus cellulase improved carotene extraction by 153%. Samples treated with tannase showed a 27% and 53% higher antioxidant capacity for the lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Susceptibility of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: vespidae) to generalist entomopathogenic fungi and their potential for wasp control.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J; Harcourt, S J; Glare, T R; Rose, E A; Nelson, T J

    2000-05-01

    The pathogenicity of Vespula vulgaris wasp workers and larvae to a range of fungi was determined. All fungi were isolated in New Zealand and included isolates from Vespula, known generalist insect pathogens, and isolates generally nonpathogenic to insects. Workers and larvae were highly susceptible to pathogenic isolates at high spore concentrations (>1.75 x 10(5) cfu/individual). Eight isolates, two of Metarhizium anisopliae, five of Beauveria bassiana, and one of Aspergillus flavus were pathogenic while a single isolate of M. flavouiride var. novazealandicum, Cladosporium sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were not. The transfer of spores between workers, and between workers and larvae, was also investigated using several different application methods. Transfer of spores occurred between treated and untreated individuals, and for some of the application methods sufficient spores were transferred to cause mortality of the nontreated individuals. These findings are related to the potential of fungi for the control of wasps.

  8. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  9. Species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) by airborne fungi from a compost facility.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Schwalbe, R; Möller, M; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    1999-08-01

    Thirteen airborne fungal species frequently isolated in composting plants were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), i.e., Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium clavigerum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium cyclopium, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium verruculosum, and Tritirachium oryzae. Air samples from pure cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with GC/MS. Various hydrocarbons of different chemical groups and a large number of terpenes were identified. Some compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and 1-octen-3-ol were produced by a number of species, whereas some volatiles were specific for single species. An inventory of microbial metabolites will allow identification of potential health hazards due to an exposure to fungal propagules and metabolites in the workplace. Moreover, species-specific volatiles may serve as marker compounds for the selective detection of fungal species in indoor domestic and working environments.

  10. [Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].

    PubMed

    Kurakov, A V; Lavrent'ev, R B; Nechitaĭlo, T Iu; Golyshin, P N; Zviagintsev, D G

    2008-01-01

    The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea. Acremonium sp., Gliocladium penicilloides, Trichoderma aureoviride, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride. T. koningii, Lecanicillum lecanii, and Tolypocladium inflatum) and Eurotiales (Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, and Paecilomyces lilacimus), as well as to the phylum Zygomycota, to the order Mucorales (Actinomucor elegans, Absidia glauca, Mucor circinelloides, M. hiemalis, M. racemosus, Mucor sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Zygorrhynchus moelleri, Z. heterogamus, and Umbelopsis isabellina) and the order Mortierellales (Mortierella sp.). As much as 10-30% of the total amount of fungal mycelium remains viable for a long time (one month) under anaerobic conditions.

  11. Histopathological clues in the diagnosis of fungal infection by Scedosporium in a case of endophthalmitis starting as conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Lopez-Medrano, Ramiro; Fuster-Foz, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous fungal infections can result in disastrous episodes if improperly diagnosed and treated, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Although dermatopathologists are highly familiar with some filamentous fungi - such as Aspergillus and Zygomycetes - they are not so aware of other less common species. We report a case of ocular infection by Scedosporium apiospermum that started as conjunctivitis and resulted in Phthisis bulbi and subsequent exeresis of the left eye. We describe some of the main morphological features of the fungus as well as the important morphological clues for the differential diagnosis with some similar species, such as Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Zygomycetes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum), phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum) and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 107 spores/mL); A) Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B) An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C) a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition. PMID:24031807

  13. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-02-05

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  14. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, K F; Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Andersen, B; Thrane, U; Frisvad, J C

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and thin layer chromatography. All six isolates of C. globosum produced the toxic chaetoglobosins A and C, at levels of up to 50 and 7 microg/cm2 respectively. The quantities of secondary metabolites produced by Penicillia were generally low, and no toxin production was detected from any of the five isolates of Pen. chrysogenum. Both isolates of Pen. polonicum produced 3-methoxy-viridicatin, verrucosidin, and verrucofortine. Two of five isolates of Pen. brevicompactum produced mycophenolic acid. From five out of six isolates of Alternaria spp., altenariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were detected. From Ulocladium spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Asp. ustus no known mycotoxins were detected, although the latter two are known mycotoxin producers. Asp. niger produced several naphtho-gamma-pyrones and tetra-cyclic compounds. All investigated species, especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C. globosum produced the chaetoglobosins A and C, and Pen. chrysogenum produced the antibiotic meleagrin.

  15. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  17. Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-13

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study

  18. Numerical weather prediction of Great Salt Lake effect precipitation at convection-permitting grid spacings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, John Daniel

    This dissertation examines Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations of Great Salt Lake Effect (GSLE) precipitation. An evaluation of banded and nonbanded GSLE-event simulations shows that WRF has low skill predicting GSLE precipitation. An object-based verification method is used in this evaluation to quantify a precipitation bias that contributes to WRF models' low skill. We also analyze WRF simulations of the 27 October 2010 banded GSLE event to evaluate the sensitivity of precipitation prediction to the choice of microphysics parameterization (MP). WRF simulations of 11 banded and eight nonbanded GSLE events are evaluated with subjective, traditional, and object-based verification. Subjectively, a majority of simulations of banded GSLE events produce realistic precipitation features, whereas a majority of simulations of nonbanded GSLE events do not. Simulations of both banded and nonbanded GSLE events record low equitable threat scores, but simulations of banded GSLE events outperform simulations of nonbanded events. Verification using the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation (MODE) developed by Davis et al. shows that simulations of banded and nonbanded GSLE events exhibit a southward (rightward and downstream relative to the flow) bias in event total precipitation location that limits forecast skill. WRF simulations of the 27 October 2010 GSLE event are sensitive to the choice of MP. Precipitation simulated using the Thompson MP scheme (THOM) verifies best against radar-estimated precipitation and gauge observations. The Goddard, Morrison, and WRF double-moment 6-class (WDM6) schemes produce more precipitation than THOM, with WDM6 producing the most. Analyses of hydrometeor mass tendencies show that WDM6 creates more graupel and total precipitation than the other schemes and indicate that the rate of graupel and snow production can strongly influence the precipitation efficiency in simulations of lake-effect storms. These results show that

  19. Streptomyces palmae sp. nov., isolated from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Sujarit, Kanaporn; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2016-10-01

    Actinomycete strain CMU-AB204T was isolated from oil palm rhizosphere soil collected in Chiang Mai University (Chiang Mai, Thailand). Based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the organism was considered to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Whole cell-wall hydrolysates consisted of ll-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose and galactose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H6), MK-9(H2) and MK-8(H4). The fatty acid profile contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major components. The principal phospholipids detected were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain CMU-AB204T was 70.9 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain CMU-AB204T was closely related to Streptomyces orinoci JCM 4546T (98.7 %), Streptomyces lilacinus NBRC 12884T (98.5 %), Streptomyces abikoensis CGMCC 4.1662T (98.5 %), Streptomyces griseocarneus JCM 4905T (98.4 %) and Streptomyces xinghaiensis JCM 16958T (98.3 %). Phylogenetic trees revealed that the new strain had a distinct taxonomic position from closely related type strains of the genus Streptomyces. Spiny to hairy spores clearly differentiated strain CMU-AB204T from the five most closely related Streptomyces species, which produced smooth spores. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, it is proposed that strain CMU-AB204T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, namely Streptomyces palmae sp. nov. The type strain is CMU-AB204T (=JCM 31289T=TBRC 1999T).

  20. Generality of models that predict the distribution of species: conservation activity and reduction of model transferability for a threatened bustard.

    PubMed

    Gray, Thomas N E; Borey, Ro; Hout, Seng Kim; Chamnan, Hong; Collar, Nigel J; Dolman, Paul M

    2009-04-01

    Predictive models can help clarify the distribution of poorly known species but should display strong transferability when applied to independent data. Nevertheless, model transferability for threatened tropical species is poorly studied. We built models predicting the incidence of the critically endangered Bengal Florican (Houbaropsis bengalensis) within the Tonle Sap (TLS) floodplain, Cambodia. Separate models were constructed with soil, land-use, and landscape data and species incidence sampled over the entire floodplain (12,000 km(2)) and from the Kompong Thom (KT) province (4000 km(2)). In each case, the probability of Bengal Florican presence within randomly selected 1 x 1 km squares was modeled by binary logistic regression with multimodel inference. We assessed the transferability of the KT model by comparing predictions with observed incidence elsewhere in the floodplain. In terms of standard model-validation statistics, the KT model showed good spatial transferability. Nevertheless, it overpredicted florican presence outside the KT calibration region, classifying 491 km(2) as suitable habitat compared with 237 km(2) predicted as suitable by the TLS model. This resulted from higher species incidence within the calibration region, probably owing to a program of conservation education and enforcement that has reduced persecution there. Because both research and conservation activity frequently focus on areas with higher density, such effects could be widespread, reducing transferability of predictive distribution models.

  1. Spatial heterogeneity of mitochondrial DNA and allozymes among populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, M.A.; Nelson, M.; Pac, D.

    1991-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  2. Small covers of graph-associahedra and realization of cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaifullin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    An oriented connected closed manifold M^n is called a URC-manifold if for any oriented connected closed manifold N^n of the same dimension there exists a nonzero-degree mapping of a finite-fold covering \\widehat{M}^n of M^n onto N^n. This condition is equivalent to the following: for any n-dimensional integral homology class of any topological space X, a multiple of it can be realized as the image of the fundamental class of a finite-fold covering \\widehat{M}^n of M^n under a continuous mapping f\\colon \\widehat{M}^n\\to X. In 2007 the author gave a constructive proof of Thom's classical result that a multiple of any integral homology class can be realized as an image of the fundamental class of an oriented smooth manifold. This construction yields the existence of URC-manifolds of all dimensions. For an important class of manifolds, the so-called small covers of graph-associahedra corresponding to connected graphs, we prove that either they or their two-fold orientation coverings are URC-manifolds. In particular, we obtain that the two-fold covering of the small cover of the usual Stasheff associahedron is a URC-manifold. In dimensions 4 and higher, this manifold is simpler than all the previously known URC-manifolds. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  3. Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paula Denise

    This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.

  4. "Blind people don't run": Escaping the "nursing home specter" in Children of Nature and Cloudburst.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Sally

    2015-08-01

    The paper compares two films, Children of Nature (Börn náttúrunnar, Iceland, Friðrik Þór Friðriksson, 1991) and Cloudburst (Canada, Thom Fitzgerald, 2010), which share remarkable similarities, despite their difference in historical and geographical origin. In focusing on these two examples, the paper shows the extent to which a widespread fear of long-term residential care evident in popular discourse motivates larger commentaries about growing old. Each narrative presents a romance catalyzed by the threat of long-term residential care. In both stories, the couples are depicted as fugitives from the law, escaping what is perceived as a fate worse than death in order to pursue death on their own terms. The paper explores the structure and significance of how they leave and what they accomplish while they are away. The films offer examples of a broader cultural discourse that is damaging, while they are also heartening in their satisfying representation of the possibility of escape. Through that, they indicate the importance of choice and desire to transforming residential care in a manner that could also transform popular understandings of the "nursing home."

  5. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as “Hair Waste”

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Crespo, Juan M.; García, Sabrina S.; Zapiola, José M.; Luna, María F.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876. PMID:26697226

  6. ConnesFusionTensorProduct/Photon GluonFusion in Mitochondria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wh-Maksoed, Prodi Of Physics Ui, Depok 16415-Indonesia; Ssi, Wh-Maksoed

    2016-05-01

    As in AJ Wassermann distinguished of classical invariant theory & quantum invariant theory subfactor, in S. Palcoux:``From Neveu-Schwarz Subfactors & Connes Fusion'' described the subfactor theory & Witt-algebra whereas Andreas Thom's explanation about ConnesFusionTensorProduct/CFTP related Connes fusion to composition of homomorphism (i). classical tensor product O-X adds the changes,(ii). Relative tensor product H-X preserve the changes. For photonGluonFusion/PGF defined:''photon is the gauge boson of QED, the simplest of all boson'' devotes to CFT as ``quantum field theory which are invariant under conformal transformation & in 2D there are infinite dimensional algebra. Alain Connes states theirselves Connes fusion as ``associative tensor operation'' to be in coincidences with ``their dynamic behavior driven by the balance in mitochondrial fusion & fission (Carveney, 2007) from Peter Alexander Williams: ``Retinal neuronal remodeling in a model of Optic Atrophy'', Dec, 2011. Great acknowledged to the VicePresident of the R.I, HE.Mr. Drs. M. JUSUF KALLA.

  7. Salidroside stimulates the accumulation of HIF-1α protein resulted in the induction of EPO expression: a signaling via blocking the degradation pathway in kidney and liver cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Zhen-Xia; Guo, Ava Jiang-Yang; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuang; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Lau, David Tai-Wei; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-03-15

    Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma (Rhodiola), the root and rhizome of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to increase the body resistance to mountain sickness in preventing hypoxia; however, the functional ingredient responsible for this adaptogenic effect has not been revealed. Here, we have identified salidroside, a glycoside predominantly found in Rhodiola, is the chemical in providing such anti-hypoxia effect. Cultured human embryonic kidney fibroblast (HEK293T) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were used to reveal the mechanism of this hematopoietic function mediated by salidroside. The application of salidroside in cultures induced the expression of erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA from its transcription regulatory element hypoxia response element (HRE), located on EPO gene. The application of salidroside stimulated the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein, but not HIF-2α protein: the salidroside-induced HIF-1α protein was via the reduction of HIF-1α degradation but not the mRNA induction. The increased HIF-1α could account for the activation of EPO gene. These results supported the notion that hematopoietic function of Rhodiola was triggered, at least partially, by salidroside. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Susceptibility of Adults of the Cerambycid Beetle Hedypathes betulinus to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Purpureocillium Lilacinum

    PubMed Central

    Schapovaloff, M. E.; Alves, L. F. A.; Fanti, A. L.; Alzogaray, R. A.; Lastra, C. C. López

    2014-01-01

    The cerambycid beetle Hedypathes betulinus (Klug) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) causes severe damage to yerba mate plants (Ilex paraguariensis (St. Hilaire) (Aquifoliales: Aquifoliaceae)), which results in large losses of production. In this study, the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi of the species Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), and Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Luangsa-ard, Hywel-Jones, Houbraken and Samson (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) on yerba mate were evaluated. Fifteen isolates of B. bassiana, two of M. anisopliae, and seven of P. lilacinum on H. betulinus adults were analyzed under laboratory conditions. The raw mortality rate caused by B. bassiana isolates varied from 51.1 to 86.3%, and their LT50 values varied between 8.7 and 13.6 d. The isolates of M. anisopliae caused 69.6–81.8% mortality, and their LT50 values varied between 7.4 and 7.9 d. In contrast, isolates of P. lilacinum were not pathogenic. M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates were pathogenic against H. betulinus adults, suggesting that they may be useful in biological control programs for insect pests of yerba mate. PMID:25368071

  9. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A; Friess, Daniel A; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests.

  10. Old Wine, New Flasks: Reflections on Science and Jewish Tradition (by Roald Hoffmann and Shira Leibowitz Schmidt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, George B.; Kauffman, Laurie M.

    1998-09-01

    Freeman: New York, 1997. xii + 362 pp. Figs., diagrams, photographs, 20 color plates. 19.0 x 24.2 cm. ISBN 0-7167-2899-0. $28.95. For several millennia science and religion seem to have been at odds. Cases in point are the persecution of Galileo by the Roman Catholic Church for his defense of Copernicus' heliocentric theory, the expulsion of Spinoza by the Amsterdam Jewish community, the Thoms H. Huxley-Bishop Wilberforce confrontation over evolution, and the Scopes "monkey trial." Recently, however, a rapprochement seems to be in progress. A spate of books, symposia, college courses, societies, and journals aim at establishing a dialogue between the two previously adversarial fields of human activity. In December 1997, The Science Channel, a Web site (http://channels.reed-elsevier.com), even featured an "editorial debate" on "Science and Religion," in which seven internationally renowned authorities, including Roald Hoffmann-Nobel laureate, Cornell University chemistry professor, author, and poet-participated and discussed the book under review here.

  11. Plant Growth Promotion Activity of Keratinolytic Fungi Growing on a Recalcitrant Waste Known as "Hair Waste".

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Crespo, Juan M; García, Sabrina S; Zapiola, José M; Luna, María F; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2015-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum (Thom) Samsom is one of the most studied fungi in the control of plant parasitic nematodes. However, there is not specific information on its ability to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria, fungi, or yeast. This work reports the production of several antifungal hydrolytic enzymes by a strain of P. lilacinum when it is grown in a medium containing hair waste. The growth of several plant-pathogenic fungi, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium culmorum, was considerably affected by the presence of P. lilacinum's supernatant. Besides antifungal activity, P. lilacinum demonstrates the capability to produce indoleacetic acid and ammonia during time cultivation on hair waste medium. Plant growth-promoting activity by cell-free supernatant was evidenced through the increase of the percentage of tomato seed germination from 71 to 85% after 48 hours. A 21-day plant growth assay using tomato plants indicates that crude supernatant promotes the growth of the plants similar to a reference fertilizer (p > 0.05). These results suggest that both strain and the supernatant may have potential to be considered as a potent biocontrol agent with multiple plant growth-promoting properties. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the antifungal, IAA production and tomato growth enhancing compounds produced by P. lilacinum LPSC #876.

  12. Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo and Diffusion Monte Carlo: A Comparative Study of the 3D Homogeneous Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, James J.; López Ríos, Pablo; Needs, Richard J.; Drummond, Neil D.; Mohr, Jennifer A.-F.; Booth, George H.; Grüneis, Andreas; Kresse, Georg; Alavi, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo1 (FCIQMC) and its initiator adaptation2 allow for exact solutions to the Schrödinger equation to be obtained within a finite-basis wavefunction ansatz. In this talk, we explore an application of FCIQMC to the homogeneous electron gas (HEG). In particular we use these exact finite-basis energies to compare with approximate quantum chemical calculations from the VASP code3. After removing the basis set incompleteness error by extrapolation4,5, we compare our energies with state-of-the-art diffusion Monte Carlo calculations from the CASINO package6. Using a combined approach of the two quantum Monte Carlo methods, we present the highest-accuracy thermodynamic (infinite-particle) limit energies for the HEG achieved to date. 1 G. H. Booth, A. Thom, and A. Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 054106 (2009). 2 D. Cleland, G. H. Booth, and A. Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 132, 041103 (2010). 3 www.vasp.at (2012). 4 J. J. Shepherd, A. Grüneis, G. H. Booth, G. Kresse, and A. Alavi, Phys. Rev. B. 86, 035111 (2012). 5 J. J. Shepherd, G. H. Booth, and A. Alavi, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244101 (2012). 6 R. Needs, M. Towler, N. Drummond, and P. L. Ríos, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 22, 023201 (2010).

  13. Branch Architecture, Light Interception and Crown Development in Saplings of a Plagiotropically Branching Tropical Tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    OSADA, NORIYUKI; TAKEDA, HIROSHI

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch‐level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves (‘bare’ branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of ‘leafy’ parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch‐level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first‐order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch‐level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  14. Flow Boiling Heat Transfer to Lithium Bromide Aqueous Solution in Subcooled Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaji, Masao; Nishizumi, Takeharu; Ozaki, Shinji; Sekoguchi, Kotohiko

    To improve the thermal performance of high temperature generator of absorption chiller/heater, heat transfer characteristics of flow boiling of lithium bromide aqueous solution in the subcooled region were experimentally investigated. Experiments were made for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution flowing in a rectangular channel (5 mm × 20 mm cross section) with one side wall heated. Boiling onset quality of lithium bromide aqueous solution is greater than that of water. The heat transfer coefficient of lithium bromide aqueous solution is about a half of that of water under the same experimental conditions of inlet velocity and heat flux. The experimental data of heat transfer coefficient for water are compared with the empirical correlation of Thom et al.11) and a fairly good agreement is obtained. The predictive calculations by the method of Sekoguchi et al.12) are compared with the data for water and lithium bromide aqueous solution. Agreement between them is good for water, while the results for lithium bromide aqueous solution are not satisfactory.

  15. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  16. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  17. Severe infestation of blow flies in a raccoon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1955-01-01

    A raccoon. (Procyon lotor) was observed in a weakened condition for several days at a farm a few miles east of Salisbury, Maryland. It was then caught and held in captivity for a few days. It continued to become weaker and on May 3, 1954, B. Mixon of the Maryland Department of Game and Inland Fish submitted it to us for study. There was no evidence of trauma, either internal or external. The fur was matted over the right hind leg, the inguinal region, and over much of the left hind leg. Inspection revealed the presence of thousands of larvae of the green-bottle fly, Phaenicia sericata, (Meigen}1 actively tunneling in and out of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Muscle under lying infested skin appeared healthy and untraumatized. A few larvae were in comers of the eyes but none were found in other orifices. Gross and microscopic examination of tissue from the raccoon gave no indication of any acute process which might have led to its moribund condition. James (1947. The flies that cause myiasis in man. U. S. Govt. Print. Off.) and Hall (1948: The blowflies of North America.. Thom. Say Foundation) indicate that P. sericata may vary in virulence, some strains becoming parasitic with an ability to invade healthy tissue. In all probability, the larvae described above hatched from eggs originally laid in a skin wound although no evidence for this was found.

  18. Control of blue mold (Penicillium expansum) by fludioxonil in apples (cv Empire) under controlled atmosphere and cold storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Errampalli, Deena; Northover, John; Skog, Lisa; Brubacher, Nichole R; Collucci, Cheryl A

    2005-06-01

    A reduced risk fungicide, fludioxonil, was tested for its efficacy against blue mold caused by thiabendazole-resistant and -sensitive Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom in apples under three storage conditions. In a co-treatment, fludioxonil and inoculum were applied together to test the protective activity of the fungicide on wounds that had been aged for 1 or 2 days. The fungicide was also tested for its curative activity in post-inoculation treatment on apples that had been inoculated for 1 or 2 days. Fludioxonil was very effective as co-treatment and as post-inoculation treatment. At a concentration of 300 mg litre(-1), fludioxonil gave complete control of post-harvest blue mold caused by the thiabendazole-resistant and -sensitive P expansum for 105 days in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 2 (+/-1) degrees C, for 42 days in common cold storage at 4 (+/-1) degrees C and also in a shelf-life study for 6 days at 20 (+/-1) degrees C. Comparison on the effect of fludioxonil in CA storage and common cold storage showed that higher concentrations of fungicide were needed in cold storage than in CA storage. Fludioxonil at a concentration of 450 mg litre(-1), gave 98 and 92% control of blue mold of apples in the simulated shelf-life studies after CA and common cold storages, respectively. Fludioxonil has a potential to be incorporated in the fungicide resistance management strategies for control of blue mold in apples stored for 105 days.

  19. Space Radar Image of Phnom Phen, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Phnom Penh lies at the confluence of the Mekong River and the Basak Sab. The city was originally established in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as capital of the Khmer Nation. Phnom Penh is the bright blue and orange area west of the rivers, near the center of the image. The red, light blue and purple colors indicate differences in vegetation height and structure. Radar images like this one are being used by archaeologists to investigate ruins in the Angkor area in northern Cambodia. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 27 kilometers by 27 kilometers (17 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 11.5 degrees north latitude, 105.0 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  20. Runge-Kutta time semidiscretizations of semilinear PDEs with non-smooth data.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Claudia; Evans, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We study semilinear evolution equations [Formula: see text] posed on a Hilbert space [Formula: see text], where A is normal and generates a strongly continuous semigroup, B is a smooth nonlinearity from [Formula: see text] to itself, and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. In particular the one-dimensional semilinear wave equation and nonlinear Schrödinger equation with periodic, Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions fit into this framework. We discretize the evolution equation with an A-stable Runge-Kutta method in time, retaining continuous space, and prove convergence of order [Formula: see text] for non-smooth initial data [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text], for a method of classical order p, extending a result by Brenner and Thomée for linear systems. Our approach is to project the semiflow and numerical method to spectral Galerkin approximations, and to balance the projection error with the error of the time discretization of the projected system. Numerical experiments suggest that our estimates are sharp.

  1. Study of conditions of production of roquefortine and other metabolites of Penicillin roqueforti.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, P M; Kennedy, B P; Harwig, J; Blanchfield, B J

    1977-01-01

    Experiments to determine optimum yields of roquefortine, isofumigaclavine A, and PR toxin, metabolites from Penicillum roqueforti Thom, were performed. Four strains, isolated from blue cheese, and five liquid media were evaluated, although not all permutations were studied. Sucrose (15%)-yeast extract (2%) was the medium chosen for time-course studies at 25 and 15 degrees C using one favorable strain. At 25 degrees C, maximum estimated yields of roquefortine were about 100 mg/liter in the mycelium by 16 days, and no subsequent degradation of this alkaloid was observed. On the other hand, production of PR toxin in the medium peaked at 770 mg/liter at 21 days. At 15 degrees C, yields of roquefortine and PR toxin after 49 days were 60 to 70% of the maximum yields obtained at 25 degrees C. However, about three times more isofumigaclavine A (up to 11 mg/liter) was formed in the mycelium at 15 degrees C than at 25 degrees C. All four strains of P. roqueforti procedure both roquefortine and PR toxin on the sucrose-yeast extract medium at 25 degrees C; isofumigaclavine A was detected in all but one strain grown on this medium. PMID:848949

  2. Quantitative determination of 10 phenylpropanoid and lignan compounds in Lancea tibetica by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Song, Zong-Hua; Wang, Yan-Hong; Qian, Zhong-Zhi; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2011-09-01

    An HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of one phenylpropanoid glycoside, verbascoside (1), and nine lignans, including lantibeside (2), phillyrin (3), lantibeside B (4), lantibeside C (5), tibeticoside A (6), styraxjaponoside C (7), sylvatesmin (8), (+)-piperitol (9), and horsfieldin (10), from the Tibetan medicinal plant Lancea tibetica Hook. F. et Thoms. The analysis was performed within 45 min. The extraction method was optimized with different solvent systems. The HPLC method was validated for linearity, repeatability, accuracy, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The limits of detection and limits of quantification of 10 analytes were found to be less than 0.1 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The RSD for intra- and inter-day analyses was less than 4.2 %, and the recovery efficiency was 90-105 %. The method was used to analyze different populations of L. tibetica collected in China. HPLC profiles showed that the concentrations of analytes were different in samples collected from different areas of China. Verbascoside was the dominant component in three out of five plant samples; compounds 2, 3, 6, and 8 accounted for over 62 % yields in total lignan contents. The method is useful for identification, quality assurance, and quality control of L. tibetica and its related products. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. KSC-04pd1474

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - With rockets and main engine firing, the Boeing Delta II launch vehicle leaps off the pad at NASA’s Space Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., carrying the Aura spacecraft. Aura, a mission dedicated to the health of Earth's atmosphere, successfully launched today at 3:01:59 a.m. Pacific Time. Spacecraft separation occurred at 4:06 a.m. Pacific Time, inserting Aura into a 438-mile orbit. NASA’s latest Earth-observing satellite, Aura will help us understand and protect the air we breathe. Aura will also help scientists understand how the composition of the atmosphere affects and responds to Earth's changing climate. The results from this mission will help scientists better understand the processes that connect local and global air quality. With the launch of Aura, the first series of NASA’s Earth Observing System satellites is complete. The other satellites are Terra, which monitors land, and Aqua, which observes Earth’s water cycle. [Photo: Boeing/Thom Baur

  4. KSC-04pd1475

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-15

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - - With rockets and main engine firing, the Boeing Delta II launch vehicle leaps off the pad at NASA’s Space Complex 2 on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif., carrying the Aura spacecraft. Aura, a mission dedicated to the health of Earth's atmosphere, successfully launched today at 3:01:59 a.m. Pacific Time. Spacecraft separation occurred at 4:06 a.m. Pacific Time, inserting Aura into a 438-mile orbit. NASA’s latest Earth-observing satellite, Aura will help us understand and protect the air we breathe. Aura will also help scientists understand how the composition of the atmosphere affects and responds to Earth's changing climate. The results from this mission will help scientists better understand the processes that connect local and global air quality. With the launch of Aura, the first series of NASA’s Earth Observing System satellites is complete. The other satellites are Terra, which monitors land, and Aqua, which observes Earth’s water cycle. [Photo: Boeing/Thom Baur

  5. Production of oxalic acid by some fungi infected tubers.

    PubMed

    Faboya, O; Ikotun, T; Fatoki, O S

    1983-01-01

    Oxalic acid (as oxalate) was detected in four tubers commonly used for food in Nigeria-Dioscorea rotundata (White yam), Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato), Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato), and Manihot esculenta (cassava). Whereas healthy I. batata had the highest oxalic acid content, healthy M. esculenta contained the lowest. When all tubers were artifically inoculated with four fungi-Penicillium oxalicum CURIE and THOM, Aspergillus niger VAN TIEGH, A. flavus and A. tamarii KITA, there was an increase in oxalate content/g of tuber tissue. The greatest amount of oxalate was produced by P. oxalicum in D. rotundata tuber. Consistently higher amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in infected sweet potato tuber than in any other tuber and consistently lower amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in Irish potato tuber. Differences in the carbohydrate type present in the tubers and in the biosynthesis pathway are thought to be responsible for variation in the production of oxalate in the different tubers by the four fungi used.

  6. Steenrod homotopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, Sergey A.

    2009-06-01

    Steenrod homotopy theory is a natural framework for doing algebraic topology on general spaces in terms of algebraic topology of polyhedra; or from a different viewpoint, it studies the topology of the \\lim^1 functor (for inverse sequences of groups). This paper is primarily concerned with the case of compacta, in which Steenrod homotopy coincides with strong shape. An attempt is made to simplify the foundations of the theory and to clarify and improve some of its major results. With geometric tools such as Milnor's telescope compactification, comanifolds (=mock bundles), and the Pontryagin-Thom construction, new simple proofs are obtained for results by Barratt-Milnor, Geoghegan-Krasinkiewicz, Dydak, Dydak-Segal, Krasinkiewicz-Minc, Cathey, Mittag-Leffler-Bourbaki, Fox, Eda-Kawamura, Edwards-Geoghegan, Jussila, and for three unpublished results by Shchepin. An error in Lisitsa's proof of the `Hurewicz theorem in Steenrod homotopy' is corrected. It is shown that over compacta, R.H. Fox's overlayings are equivalent to I.M. James' uniform covering maps. Other results include: \\bullet A morphism between inverse sequences of countable (possibly non-Abelian) groups that induces isomorphisms on \\lim and \\lim^1 is invertible in the pro-category. This implies the `Whitehead theorem in Steenrod homotopy', thereby answering two questions of Koyama. \\bullet If X is an LC_{n-1}-compactum, n\\ge 1, then its n-dimensional Steenrod homotopy classes are representable by maps S^n\\to\

  7. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides.

  8. Oxygen atom transfer reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. A bonding evolution theory analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Sensato, Fabricio R; Andrés, Juan; Longo, Elson

    2014-08-07

    In this research, a comprehensive theoretical investigation has been conducted on oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions from Mimoun complexes to sulfides and sulfoxides. The joint use of the electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory (CT) provides a powerful tool to analyze the evolution of chemical events along a reaction pathway. The progress of the reaction has been monitored by structural stability domains from ELF topology while the changes between them are controlled by turning points derived from CT which reveal that the reaction mechanism can be separated in several steps: first, a rupture of the peroxo O1-O2 bond, then a rearrangement of lone pairs of the sulfur atom occurs and subsequently the formation of S-O1 bond. The OAT process involving the oxidation of sulfides and sulfoxides is found to be an asynchronous process where O1-O2 bond breaking and S-O1 bond formation processes do not occur simultaneously. Nucleophilic/electrophilic characters of both dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively, are sufficiently described by our results, which hold the key to unprecedented insight into the mapping of electrons that compose the bonds while the bonds change.

  9. Is Continuing Contumely Relative to Mc Leod's Vision and ``Secret Sacred Science, (SSS),'': Contagiously Counterproductive in Science, or an Unhealthy Artifact of ``Turf Wars''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leod, Roger

    2007-04-01

    Mc Leod confirmed, with physics, his models for vision, and for electromagnetic artifacts, by traditional methods, associated with phenomena like tornados, hurricanes, and earthquakes. The latter confirmations are evidently apparent across current ethnology, cultures, linguistics, religion, rituals, exotic astronomy, somewhat concealed evidence of native record-keeping/writing, and iconography. Use of cultural anthropology while observing a modern Peruvian sacred-site-sweeping at Cuzco, coupled with their assertion that Ñari Huallac means ``serpent God,'' plus electromagnet information, reveals that their religious world-view include(s)(d) applied science that is still otherwise unacknowledged. Alexander Thom's precise megalithic site-measurements also imply that ``The Ancients' Serpent'' made/makes precise tracks that convey valuable information. The linguistics of words like Seminole, and unusual visual effects, reveal some traditionalists have done better than most scientists, for vision, and observational physics, and earth science. Tornado and hurricane tracks are predictable, as are some earthquakes. Tornado ``detuning'' or shutdown is electromagnetically possible. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.7

  10. Notes from the Field: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Exposures Reported to Poison Centers - United States, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Law, Royal; Schier, Josh

    2016-07-29

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a plant consumed throughout the world for its stimulant effects and as an opioid substitute (1). It is typically brewed into a tea, chewed, smoked, or ingested in capsules (2). It is also known as Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, and Biak (3). The Drug Enforcement Administration includes kratom on its Drugs of Concern list (substances that are not currently regulated by the Controlled Substances Act, but that pose risks to persons who abuse them), and the National Institute of Drug Abuse has identified kratom as an emerging drug of abuse (3,4). Published case reports have associated kratom exposure with psychosis, seizures, and deaths (5,6). Because deaths have been attributed to kratom in the United States (7), some jurisdictions have passed or are considering legislation to make kratom use a felony (8). CDC characterized kratom exposures that were reported to poison centers and uploaded to the National Poison Data System (NPDS) during January 2010-December 2015. The NPDS is a national database of information logged by the country's regional poison centers serving all 50 United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico and is maintained by the American Association of Poison Control Centers. NPDS case records are the result of call reports made by the public and health care providers.

  11. Bioclimatic characterisation of an urban area: a case study in Bologna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Tibaldi, Stefano; Scotto, Fabiana; Lauriola, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Summer bioclimatic discomfort is a significant public health problem. Bioclimatic characterisations of populations living in urban areas are usually very poor, although the risks are relatively higher in cities because of the phenomenon known as the "urban heat island". We compared airport, rural, and urban bioclimatic conditions in terms of apparent temperature, Thom index, and temperature alone in several sites within a radius of approximately 25 km from the city of Bologna (Italy). The comparison between meteorological monitoring stations within and near the urban area showed the large impact of the urban heat island effect. Nighttime data showed the largest differences among the investigated sites. Minimum apparent temperatures at rural stations were about 3.5 degrees C lower than the urban 30 m reference station, and 6 degrees C lower than the 2 m urban site. The 2 m apparent temperature values within the urban area were several degrees higher (typically 2 degrees C) than those taken above the roof, both for minimum and maximum values. Temporal trends in the different sites were highly correlated (generally above 0.90), but regression residuals were sometimes quite large. Finally, epidemiological implications are briefly addressed.

  12. Making history: lessons from the great moments series of pharmaceutical advertisements.

    PubMed

    Metzl, Jonathan M; Howell, Joel D

    2004-11-01

    The authors shed light on present-day pharmaceutical advertisements by looking back to an important early chapter in pharmaceutical company-sponsored promotion: the Great Moments in Medicine and Great Moments in Pharmacy, a series of commercial paintings produced by Parke, Davis & Company between 1948 and 1964. Beginning in the early 1950s, Parke-Davis delivered reproductions of the Great Moments images to physicians and pharmacies throughout the United States and Canada and funded monthly pullout facsimiles in key national magazines. The images also appeared in calendars, popular magazines, and "educational" brochures. By the mid-1960s, articles in both the popular and the medical press lauded the Great Moments for "changing the face of the American doctor's office" while describing the painter, Robert Thom, as the "Norman Rockwell" of medicine. The authors' brief analysis uses source material including popular articles about the Great Moments, existing scholarship, previously unexamined artist's notes, and, ultimately, the images themselves to explain why these seemingly kitschy paintings attained such widespread acclaim. They show how the Great Moments tapped into a 1950s medical climate when doctors were thought of as powerfully independent practitioners, pharmaceutical companies begged the doctor's good graces, and HMOs and health plans were nowhere to be seen. The authors conclude by suggesting that the images offer important lessons for thinking about the many pharmaceutical advertisements that confront present-day doctors, patients, and other consumers.

  13. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A.; Friess, Daniel A.; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests. PMID:27176218

  14. Electronic fluxes during Diels-Alder reactions involving 1,2-benzoquinones: mechanistic insights from the analysis of electron localization function and catastrophe theory.

    PubMed

    González-Navarrete, Patricio; Domingo, Luis R; Andrés, Juan; Berski, Slawomir; Silvi, Bernard

    2012-11-15

    By means of the joint use of electron localization function (ELF) and Thom's catastrophe theory, a theoretical analysis of the energy profile for the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 4-methoxy-1,2-benzoquinone 1 and methoxyethylene 2 has been carried out. The 12 different structural stability domains obtained by the bonding evolution theory have been identified as well as the bifurcation catastrophes (fold and cusp) responsible for the changes in the topology of the system. This analysis permits finding a relationship between the ELF topology and the evolution of the bond breaking/forming processes and electron pair rearrangements through the reaction progress in terms of the different ways of pairing up the electrons. The reaction mechanism corresponds to an asynchronous electronic flux; first, the O1-C5 bond is formed by the nucleophilic attack of the C5 carbon of the electron rich ethylene 2 on the most electrophilically activated carbonyl O1 oxygen of 1, and once the σ bond has been completed, the formation process of the second O4C6 bond takes place. In addition, the values of the local electrophilicity and local nucleophilcity indices in the framework of conceptual density functional theory accounts for the asychronicity of the process as well as for the observed regioselectivity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Improved Full Configuration Interaction Monte Carlo for the Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changlani, Hitesh; Holmes, Adam; Petruzielo, Frank; Chan, Garnet; Henley, C. L.; Umrigar, C. J.

    2012-02-01

    We consider the recently proposed full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCI-QMC) method and its ``initiator'' extension, both of which promise to ameliorate the sign problem by utilizing the cancellation of positive and negative walkers in the Hilbert space of Slater determinants. While the method has been primarily used for quantum chemistry by A.Alavi and his co-workers [1,2], its application to lattice models in solid state physics has not been tested. We propose an improvement in the form of choosing a basis to make the wavefunction more localized in Fock space, which potentially also reduces the sign problem. We perform calculations on the 4x4 and 8x8 Hubbard models in real and momentum space and in a basis motivated by the reduced density matrix of a 2x2 real space patch obtained from the exact diagonalization of a larger system in which it is embedded. We discuss our results for a range of fillings and U/t and compare them with previous Auxiliary Field QMC and Fixed Node Green's Function Monte Carlo calculations. [4pt] [1] George Booth, Alex Thom, Ali Alavi, J Chem Phys, 131, 050106,(2009)[0pt] [2] D Cleland, GH Booth, Ali Alavi, J Chem Phys 132, 041103, (2010)

  16. Semi-stochastic full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Adam; Petruzielo, Frank; Khadilkar, Mihir; Changlani, Hitesh; Nightingale, M. P.; Umrigar, C. J.

    2012-02-01

    In the recently proposed full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) [1,2], the ground state is projected out stochastically, using a population of walkers each of which represents a basis state in the Hilbert space spanned by Slater determinants. The infamous fermion sign problem manifests itself in the fact that walkers of either sign can be spawned on a given determinant. We propose an improvement on this method in the form of a hybrid stochastic/deterministic technique, which we expect will improve the efficiency of the algorithm by ameliorating the sign problem. We test the method on atoms and molecules, e.g., carbon, carbon dimer, N2 molecule, and stretched N2. [4pt] [1] Fermion Monte Carlo without fixed nodes: a Game of Life, death and annihilation in Slater Determinant space. George Booth, Alex Thom, Ali Alavi. J Chem Phys 131, 050106, (2009).[0pt] [2] Survival of the fittest: Accelerating convergence in full configuration-interaction quantum Monte Carlo. Deidre Cleland, George Booth, and Ali Alavi. J Chem Phys 132, 041103 (2010).

  17. The Poitiers School of Mathematical and Theoretical Biology: Besson-Gavaudan-Schützenberger's Conjectures on Genetic Code and RNA Structures.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, J; Hazgui, H

    2016-12-01

    The French school of theoretical biology has been mainly initiated in Poitiers during the sixties by scientists like J. Besson, G. Bouligand, P. Gavaudan, M. P. Schützenberger and R. Thom, launching many new research domains on the fractal dimension, the combinatorial properties of the genetic code and related amino-acids as well as on the genetic regulation of the biological processes. Presently, the biological science knows that RNA molecules are often involved in the regulation of complex genetic networks as effectors, e.g., activators (small RNAs as transcription factors), inhibitors (micro-RNAs) or hybrids (circular RNAs). Examples of such networks will be given showing that (1) there exist RNA "relics" that have played an important role during evolution and have survived in many genomes, whose probability distribution of their sub-sequences is quantified by the Shannon entropy, and (2) the robustness of the dynamics of the networks they regulate can be characterized by the Kolmogorov-Sinaï dynamic entropy and attractor entropy.

  18. Biodegradation of phenol in static cultures by Penicillium chrysogenum ERK1: catalytic abilities and residual phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Wolski, Erika A; Barrera, Viviana; Castellari, Claudia; González, Jorge F

    2012-01-01

    A phenol-degrading fungus was isolated from crop soils. Molecular characterization (using internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor and beta-tubulin gene sequences) and biochemical characterization allowed to identify the fungal strain as Penicillium chrysogenum Thom ERK1. Phenol degradation was tested at 25 degrees C under resting mycelium conditions at 6, 30, 60, 200, 350 and 400 mg/l of phenol as the only source of carbon and energy. The time required for complete phenol degradation increased at different initial phenol concentrations. Maximum specific degradation rate (0.89978 mg of phenol/day/mg of dry weight) was obtained at 200 mg/l. Biomass yield decreased at initial phenol concentrations above 60 mg/l. Catechol was identified as an intermediate metabolite by HPLC analysis and catechol dioxygenase activity was detected in plate assays, suggesting that phenol metabolism could occur via ortho fission of catechol. Wheat seeds were used as phytotoxicity indicators of phenol degradation products. It was found that these products were not phytotoxic for wheat but highly phytotoxic for phenol. The high specific degradation rates obtained under resting mycelium conditions are considered relevant for practical applications of this fungus in soil decontamination processes.

  19. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species.

  20. Fungi associated with drug recalls and rare disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Donald G; Doyle Stulting, R

    2014-11-01

    Fungi rarely cause disease outbreaks associated with use of microbe-contaminated drugs. These rare episodes typically involve a restricted spectrum of common environmental species with relatively low virulence, rather than classical pathogens. Review of data involving over-the-counter contact lens solutions and prescription drug-related recalls revealed six episodes during the past decade with significant adverse health and financial impact (including loss of vision and death). Contaminations involved fungi mostly identified with the genera Aspergillus, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Rhizopus. These organisms are noted for their capacity to produce resistant morphotypes (chlamydoconidia, ascospores) under various adverse conditions, generally with temperature survival/tolerances markedly in excess of maximal growth temperatures. High constituent levels of melanin, trehalose and heat-shock proteins facilitate differential survival of morphotypes following exposures to toxic chemicals and temperatures above 80 °C. Adverse environmental factors that induce resistant morphotypes are suggested to occur more readily in situ than during in vitro testing. Rare unexplained, sporadic drug contamination episodes with select thermotolerant fungi may relate, in part, to resistant dormant stages.