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Sample records for paecilomyces variotii cbs115145

  1. Correlation of Biological Activity and Reactor Performance in Biofiltration of Toluene with the Fungus Paecilomyces variotii CBS115145

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Inés; Hernández, Sergio; Auria, Richard; Revah, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    A biofiltration system inoculated with the mold Paecilomyces variotii CBS115145 showed a toluene elimination capacity (EC) of around 250 g/m3 of biofilter/h, which was higher than the values usually reported for bacteria. P. variotii assimilated m- and p-cresols but not the o isomer. Initial toluene hydroxylation occurred both on the methyl group and through the p-cresol pathway. These results were corroborated by detecting benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and p-cresol as volatile intermediates. In liquid cultures with toluene as a substrate, the activity of toluene oxygenase (TO) was 5.6 nmol of O2/min/mg of biomass, and that of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase was 16.2 nmol of NADH/min/mg of protein. Toluene biodegradation determined from the TO activity in the biofilter depended on the biomass distribution and the substrate concentration. The specific enzymatic activity decreased from 6.3 to 1.9 nmol of O2/min/mg of biomass along the reactor. Good agreement was found between the EC calculated from the TO activity and the EC measured on the biofilter. The results were confirmed by short-time biofiltration experiments. Average EC measured in different biofiltration experiments and EC calculated from the TO activity showed a linear relation, suggesting that in the biofilters, EC was limited by biological reaction. As the enzymatic activities of P. variotii were similar to those reported for bacteria, the high performance of the fungal biofilters can possibly be explained by the increased transfer of the hydrophobic compounds, including oxygen, from the gas phase to the mycelia, overcoming the transfer problems associated with the flat bacterial biofilms. PMID:16085815

  2. Paecilomyces variotii in peritoneal dialysate.

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, A; Heron, L G; Pritchard, R C; Butcher, R H; Powell, H R; Disney, A P; Tosolini, F A

    1993-01-01

    Four cases of peritonitis caused by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces variotii in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are reported. Removal of the Tenckhoff catheter and antifungal chemotherapy led to resolution of symptoms in all cases. Possible contaminating events are discussed, and reported infections with P. variotii are reviewed. PMID:8408561

  3. Paecilomyces variotii peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Uzunoglu, E; Sahin, A M

    2017-03-28

    Paecilomyces variotii (P. variotii) is an extremely rare cause of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. When diagnosed, it usually portends poor prognosis. Patient's survival depends on early laboratory diagnosis and proper treatment. We herein report a P. variotii peritonitis in a patient on CAPD which is a quite rare clinical entity. Laboratory diagnosis was confirmed via both morphological analysis and DNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 guidelines. After laboratory diagnosis, the patient was treated succesfully with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole combination and the peritoneal catheter was removed. This case is worthy of reporting since P. variotii is an uncommon cause of peritonitis and leads to dilemmas in both laboratory diagnosis and treatment strategies.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Formaldehyde-Resistant Fungus Byssochlamys spectabilis No. 5 (Anamorph Paecilomyces variotii No. 5) (NBRC109023)

    PubMed Central

    Ekino, Keisuke; Fukuda, Kohsai; Nomura, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Byssochlamys spectabilis no. 5 (anamorph Paecilomyces variotii no. 5) (NBRC109023) was isolated from a soil sample in 2001 in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. This fungus is highly resistant to formaldehyde. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of P. variotii no. 5; this draft was produced with the intent of investigating the mechanism of formaldehyde resistance. This is the first report of the genome sequence of any Paecilomyces species. PMID:24407650

  5. Paecilomyces variotii: A Fungus Capable of Removing Ammonia Nitrogen and Inhibiting Ammonia Emission from Manure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiyun; Liu, Guohua; Cai, Huiyi; Shi, Pengjun; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Zheng, Aijuan; Xie, Qing; Ma, Jianshuang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal manure are a significant environmental and public concern. Despite the numerous studies regarding NH3 emissions from manure, few of them have considered microbial nitrification approaches, especially fungal nitrification. In this study, a filamentous fungus was isolated from chicken manure and was used for nitrification. The species was Paecilomyces variotii by morphological characteristics and 18S rDNA gene sequencing. It played the biggest role in the removal of ammonium at pH 4.0–7.0, C/N ratio of 10–40, temperature of 25–37°C, shaking speed of 150 rpm, and with glucose as the available carbon source. Further analysis revealed that all ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was less than 100 mg/L; 40% ammonium was removed when the initial ammonium concentration was 1100 mg/L. The results showed that the concentration of ammonia from chicken manure with strain Paecilomyces variotii was significantly lower than that in the control group. We concluded that Paecilomyces variotii has good potential for future applications in in situ ammonium removal as well as ammonia emissions control from poultry manure. PMID:27348533

  6. Production, Purification of Exo-Polygalacturonase from Soil Isolate Paecilomyces variotii NFCCI 1769 and Its Application.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nitinkumar P; Patil, Kanchankumar P; Chaudhari, Bhushan L; Chincholkar, Sudhir B

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to produce exo-polygalacturonase from potent soil isolate by submerged fermentation and its application for fruit juice treatment. Pectinase producing strains were selectively isolated from pectin industry waste. A selected isolate C2 was found to produce significant amount of exo-polygalacturonase. The isolate was identified as Paecilomyces variotii on the basis of morphological characteristics and 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The exo-polygalacturonase produced by the isolate was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, size exclusion chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme had MW of 39.4 kD based on SDS PAGE. Under partially optimized conditions, purified exo-polygalacturonase showed specific activity of 98.49 U/mg protein at pH 6.0 and 30°C. The enzyme was comparatively stable from 10 to 30°C and the activity decreased with increasing temperature. Purified enzyme brought about considerable reduction in viscosity of fruit juice samples.

  7. Characterization of Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae in Korea Based on the Morphological Characteristics and Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong; Paul, Narayan Chandra

    2016-01-01

    During fungal diversity surveys of the order Eurotiales in Korea, two fungal strains, EML-DG33-1 and EML-NCP50, were isolated from samples of rat dung and fig tree leaf collected at a garden located in Gwangju in 2014. To complete the National Species List of Korea, it is a prerequisite to verify whether many questionable species, which were previously recorded but not confirmed, indeed present in Korea. Herein, the isolates were confirmed as undescribed species, Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae based on the combination of morphological and phylogenetic analyses of multigenes including the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II subunit 2. PMID:28154482

  8. Antifungal activity of nano and micro charcoal particle polymers against Paecilomyces variotii, Trichoderma virens and Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hee Jin; Cha, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hern; Choi, Shin Sik

    2016-01-25

    This study investigates the antifungal activity of a polymer integrated with nano-porous charcoal particles against Paecilomyces variotii, Chaetomium globosum, Trichoderma virens, which are all filamentous fungi. The charcoal polymers were prepared by combining charcoal powders with plastic resin under a vacuum to form charcoal particle protrusions on the polymer surface. The mycelial growth of P. variotii and T. virens exhibited a reduction of 10 and 30%, respectively, after the conidia were pre-treated with charcoal polymers, and in particular, no mycelial growth was found in C. globosum during 5 days of culture. The adsorption of Ca(2+) into charcoal was suggested to inhibit growth due to the reduction in the flux of calcium ions (Ca(2+)) into the hyphae. In 5 h, about 15 mM of Ca(2+) were removed from CaCl2 solution with 0.2 g/mL of polymers, and the nano-sized pores of the charcoals on the polymer were responsible for the Ca(2+) adsorption.

  9. Use of response surface methodology for selection of nutrient levels for culturing Paecilomyces variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolyzate.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, J B; Lima, U A; Taqueda, M E S; Guaragna, F G

    2003-03-01

    Eucalyptus hemicellulose was hydrolyzed by treating eucalyptus wood chips with sulfuric acid. The hydrolyzate was used as the substrate to produce single-cell protein by growing Paecilomyces variotii IOC-3764 for 72 or 96 h. The influences of rice bran, ammonium sulfate and fermentation time were verified by a 23 full-factorial central composite design. At the optimum process conditions, the cell concentration was 12.06 g/l, which was obtained when the microorganisms were cultivated for 89 h in a medium composed of 10 g/l rice bran, 2.0 g/l nitrogen and 1.1 g/l sodium phosphate. The mathematical model Y = 10.65 + 2.40X2 + 2.36X3 + 1.16X2X3 - 2.10X2(2) - 1.06X3(2) describes biomass production by P. variotii in eucalyptus hemicellulosic hydrolyzate with a determination coefficient of R2 = 0.9561, where X2 and X3 are ammonium sulfate and fermentation time, respectively.

  10. Evaluation of Paecilomyces variotii potential in bioethanol production from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Zerva, Anastasia; Savvides, Alexander L; Katsifas, Efstathios A; Karagouni, Amalia D; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G

    2014-06-01

    The ascomycete Paecillomyces variotii was evaluated for the first time as a candidate species for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulose through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) approaches. The examined strain (ATHUM 8891) revealed all the necessary phenotypic characteristics required for 2nd generation biofuel production. The fungus is able to efficiently ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol, with yields close to the theoretical maximum. Nitrogen supplementation greatly affected ethanol production with nitrate-nitrogen presenting the best results. Notably, ethanol yield on xylose fermentation was higher than that of glucose, while in co-fermentation of glucose-xylose mixtures no distinguished diauxic behavior was observed. Furthermore, the fungus seems to possess the necessary enzyme factory for the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass, as it was able to grow and produce ethanol on common agro-industrial derivatives. Overall, the results of our study indicate that P. variotii is a new and possibly powerful candidate for CBP applications.

  11. [Transformation of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii and the causes of host cell lysis at the boundary with a fungal mycelium-containing Echinococcus capsule].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Lazareva, N B; Samylina, I A; Ashurov, A A; Gabchenko, A K; Chebyshev, N V

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on animal species. The experiments used 30-day chicks, 80 rats, and 70 rabbits. Three hundred and twenty-nine patients with echinococcus complicated by paecilomycosis were meticulously examined. The fungi of the genus Paecilomyces undergo two transformation directions: the saprotrophic mycelial form of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii transforms to the tissue parasitic one as a globular form of spherules that transforms to the mycelial form in larval Echinococcus infection because the cyst capsule is a favorable environment for growth of fungal mycelia. The growth and aggressiveness of larval Echinococcus in the human lung are associated with the fact that fungal mycelial fibrous tunic contains Paecilomyces that have been first used to isolate active hyaluronidase that lyses host cells. Pulmonary echinococcosis complicated by the tissue form of paecilomycosis can be complicated by the mycelial form of the fungus of the genus Paecilomyces, by afflicting the nails and skin of patients, which requires particular treatment after surgery for hydatid disease. The chicks that had been brooded in an incubator and grown under special conditions to rule out fungal infection were first contaminated with the fungal mycelium labeled with methionine, sodium sulfate, sodium phosphate, or iodine. Each chick received 0.5 g of the labeled fungal mycelium. Regardless of the contamination mode, all the chicks from 3 groups were infected with Paecilomyces; the spherules exhibited labeled isotopes. Thus, it has been first conclusively proven that the diagnosis of paecilomycosis based on the blood detection of fungal globular spherules is valid and easy-to-use in any health care facility.

  12. A new process for simultaneous production of tannase and phytase by Paecilomyces variotii in solid-state fermentation of orange pomace.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-03-01

    The production of enzymes such as tannases and phytases by solid-state fermentation and their use in animal feed have become a subject of great interest. In the present work, Paecilomyces variotii was used to produce tannase and phytase simultaneously. Solid-state fermentation, a process initially designed for tannase production, was implemented here using orange pomace as substrate. Orange pomace is the waste product of the large orange juice industry in Brazil, and it has also been used as an ingredient in animal feed. In addition to enzymatic production, biotransformation of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the orange pomace were analyzed after fermentation. Fermentation conditions, namely moisture level and tannic acid concentration rate, were studied using CCD methodology. The response surface obtained indicated that the highest tannase activity was 5,000 U/gds after 96 h at 59% (v/w) and 3% (w/w) and that of phytase was 350 U/gds after 72 h at 66% (v/w) and 5.8% (w/w) of moisture level and tannic acid concentration, respectively. The amount of tannase production was similar to the levels achieved in previous studies, but this was accomplished with a 7% (w/w) reduction in the amount of supplemental tannic acid required. These results are the first to show that P. variotii is capable of producing phytase at significant levels. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of orange pomace when tested against the free radical ABTS was increased by approximately tenfold as a result of the fermentation process.

  13. Microbially Influenced Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel and Titanium by P. variotii and A. niger in Humid Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dawei; Zhou, Feichi; Xiao, Kui; Cui, Tianyu; Qian, Hongchong; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-07-01

    Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) poses significant threats to reliability and safety of engineering materials and structures. While most MIC studies focus on prokaryotic bacteria such as sulfate-reducing bacteria, the influence of fungi on corrosion behaviors of metals has not been adequately reported. In this study, 304 stainless steel and titanium were exposed to two very common fungi, Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus niger and their mixtures under highly humid atmosphere. The initial corrosion behaviors within 28 days were studied via scanning Kelvin probe, which showed marked surface ennoblement and increasingly heterogeneous potential distribution upon prolonged fungus exposure. Using stereomicroscopy, fungus growth as well as corrosion morphology of 304 stainless steel and titanium were also evaluated after a long-term exposure for 60 days. The presence of fungi decreased the corrosion resistance for both 304 stainless steel and titanium. Titanium showed higher resistance to fungus growth and the induced corrosion. Exposure to the mixed strains resulted in the highest fungus growth rate but the mildest corrosion, possibly due to the decreased oxygen level by increased fungal activities.

  14. Evaluation of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry Bruker Biotyper for identification of Penicillium marneffei, Paecilomyces species, Fusarium solani, Rhizopus species, and Pseudallescheria boydii.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Yen-Hung; Teng, Shih-Hua; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hung, Chien-Ching; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), the MALDI Bruker Biotyper system (microflex LT; Bruker Daltonik GmbH, Bremen, Germany), on the identification of 50 isolates of clinically encountered molds, including Penicillium marneffei (n = 28), Paecilomyces species (n = 12), Fusarium solani (n = 6), Rhizopus species (n = 3), and Pseudallescheria boydii (n = 1). The isolates were identified to species levels by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using primers ITS1 and ITS4. None of the 28 genetically well characterized isolates of P. marneffei were identified as P. marneffei by MALDI-TOF MS, because P. marneffei was not present in either Bruker general library (DB 5627) or Bruker filamentous fungi library V1.0. However, the rate of accurate identification as P. marneffei (score value ≥ 2.000) was 85.7% based on newly created database from one P. marneffei strain (NTUH-3370) by MALDI Biotyper system. Sequencing analysis of these 22 non-P. marneffei isolates of molds revealed seven Paecilomyces variotii, six F. solani, four Paecilomyces lilacinus, and one each of Paecilomyces sinensis, Rhizopus arrhizus, R. oryzae, R. microspores, and P. boydii. Although all the seven P. variotii isolates, four of the six F. solani, two of the four P. lilacinus, and two of the three isolates of Rhizopus species, and the P. boydii isolate had concordant identification results between MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing analysis, the score values of these isolates were all of <1.700. This study indicated that the MALDI Bruker Biotyper is ineffective for identifying P. marneffei and other unusual molds because of the current database limitations. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously update the MALDI-TOF MS databases.

  15. Paecilomyces lilacinus Vaginitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Ron; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus, an environmental mold found in soil and vegetation, rarely causes human infection. We report the first case of P. lilacinus isolated from a vaginal culture in a patient with vaginitis. PMID:14519255

  16. [Contact lens-associated Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis].

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, N; Alnawaiseh, M; Zumhagen, L; Eter, N

    2017-01-01

    We present the case of a 23-year-old otherwise healthy female patient with contact lens-associated Paecilomyces lilacinus keratitis. The clinical findings stabilized after initial local antimycotic and antibacterial treatment; however, in the further course of local therapy an extensive relapse occurred which required treatment by perforating keratoplasty à chaud due to a penetrating corneal ulcer. The patient responded well to subsequent treatment with systemic and local antimycotic medication. After a few months HLA-matched keratoplasty was performed. During the follow-up time of 14 months there were no signs of recurrence of the infection.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai; Liu, Guiming; Feng, Chengqiang

    2016-07-07

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Paecilomyces hepiali, Isolated from Cordyceps sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Linping; Pang, Fang; Guo, Lanping; Song, Lai

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is an endoparasitic fungus that commonly exists in the natural Cordyceps sinensis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. hepiali, which will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus. PMID:27389266

  19. Paecilomyces lilacinus as the cause of chronic maxillary sinusitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rockhill, R C; Klein, M D

    1980-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus was isolated on two separate occasions from the left antrum of a patient with chronic maxillary sinusitis. The clinical presentation and characteristics of the fungus and the sinus debris histopathology are discussed. Images PMID:7430339

  20. Postoperative keratitis due to Paecilomyces: a rare pediatric case

    PubMed Central

    Toker, Ebru; Ziyade, Nihan; Atici, Serkan; Eda, Kepenekli Kadayifçi; Türel, Özden; Toprak, Demet; Oray, Merih; Cerikcioglu, Nilgün; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections like Paecilomyces keratitis have emerged in childhood recently. The diagnosis and treatment of Paecilomyces keratitis is difficult and the outcome is usually poor. Corneal culture should be performed on fungal media such as Sabouraud glucose neopeptone agar (SDA) as soon as possible for diagnosis. We report a rare case of Paecilomyces keratitis in an immunocompetent child, which was unresponsive to amphotericin B. The case was managed by a multidisciplinary approach involving the departments of ophthalmology, microbiology and pediatric infectious diseases. We want to draw attention once again that fungal keratitis caused by unusual agents are increasing. Physicians should consider fungal causes of keratitis, in patients with some predisposing factors like ocular surgery and prolonged use of topical corticosteroids. PMID:28154672

  1. Studies onPaecilomyces marquandii from nematode suppressive chinampa soils.

    PubMed

    Marban-Mendoza, N; Garcia-E, R; Dicklow, M B; Zuckerman, B M

    1992-05-01

    Two applications of isolates ofPaecilomyces marquandii from suppressive chinampa soils or P. lilacinus from Peru, fungi that parasitize nematode eggs, generally gave better control of tomato root-knot due toMeloidogyne incognita than did a single application. The effects on root galling by each of thePaecilomyces isolates varied between experiments; however, the ovicidal potential of the three isolates did not differ significantly. Proteins specific for each of the isolates were demonstrated by SDS gel electrophoresis. The results indicate thatP. marquandii is one of the natural soil organisms that contribute to nematode suppression in the chinampa agricultural soils.

  2. Biological activity of Paecilomyces genus against Toxocara canis eggs.

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Ciarmela, M L; Sarmiento, P L; Minvielle, M C

    2000-10-01

    Saprophytic soil fungi can exert ovicidal and ovistatic effects on helminths with differing degrees of efficiency. The representatives of such fungi from temperate regions, Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson and P. marquandii (Masse) Hughes, exhibit recognized ovicidal activity on some nematodes. We evaluated the action in vitro of P. lilacinus and P. marquandii on the zoonotic canine roundworm eggs of Toxocara canis. Eggs exposed and unexposed to fungal samples were observed by both light and scanning electron microscopy on days 4, 7 and 14 post-inoculation. Ovicidal activity of P. lilacinus on T. canis eggs was considered to be high and that of P. marquandii to be intermediate.

  3. Paecilomyces lilacinus septic olecranon bursitis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Karl M; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2012-05-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a filamentous fungus that is a rare cause of infection in immunocompromised human hosts. We present a case of lilacinus septic olecranon bursitis in an otherwise healthy 78-year-old male. This patient's case was complicated by wound breakdown after bursectomy and appropriate anti-fungal treatment, requiring a local soft tissue rearrangement. This case demonstrates the need for appropriate and timely medical and surgical treatment in infections involving lilacinus, which are not isolated solely to systemically immunocompromised and medically-ill patient populations. In cases where the patient is systemically immumocompromised or has been rendered locally immunocompromised, it is essential to obtain a full culture work-up, including fungi.

  4. Efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus in Suppressing Rotylenchulus reniformis on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of rice-cultured Paecilomyces lilacinus on Rotylenchulus reniformis were studied in both greenhouse and field microplot tests with 'Rutgers' tomato. Numbers of R. reniformis were reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by P. lilacinus, with suppression in the initial greenhouse test ranging from 46 to 48% for two rice + P. lilacinus treatments; the rice-only treatment caused a nonsignificant reduction of 25%. In the second greenhouse test, total R. reniformis numbers were restricted (P ≤ 0.05) by 41% by the rice + P. lilacinus treatment, whereas the rice-only treatment had a slight negative effect (16% inhibition, NS). Total numbers of R. reniformis were suppressed 59 and 36% at midseason and harvest, respectively, in microplots infested with P. lilacinus. The fungus was recovered from egg masses via isolations in the second greenhouse test. Shoot and fruit growth of Rutgers tomato were restricted by R. reniformis in the initial greenhouse test irrespective of P. lilacinus treatment, but this nematode did not affect fresh shoot weights in the second greenhouse test, The nematode also limited shoot growth of Rutgers tomato in microplots, and P. lilacinus suppressed R. reniformis numbers sufficiently to prevent related impairment of shoot and fruit growth. This study indicated that P. lilacinus has detrimental effects on R. reniformis population development under both greenhouse and field microplot conditions. PMID:19279933

  5. Paecilomyces Keratitis in Western India: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gadewar, Shveta Bhimashankar

    2017-01-01

    Cases of ocular trauma with vegetative matter are commonly encountered in ophthalmic practice in India. Many of these present with keratitis/corneal ulceration, of which fungi have a predominant share. We report a case of fungal keratitis and graft infection with Paecilomyces lilacinus, which was successfully treated with topical and systemic Voriconazole. A farmer presented with corneal ulcer and hypopyon in left eye following vegetative trauma during farming. A provisional diagnosis of fungal corneal ulcer was made based on clinical features and topical anti-fungal therapy with Natamycin was initiated. After deterioration, Therapeutic Penetrating Keratoplasty (TPK) was performed to prevent corneal perforation. Postoperatively, the graft responded well to treatment initially. Signs of graft infection appeared on the second postoperative day with perforation within 72 hours. Culture report of recipient corneal button obtained after first TPK revealed growth of P.lilacinus. A second TPK was performed and patient was started on local and oral Voriconazole. After one month follow up, the graft was clear of infection. To our knowledge, this is a rare case reported from western India, at least in recent years. With no definite consensus existing regarding management in such a scenario, extensive research is needed in this direction.

  6. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    PubMed Central

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, João Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development. PMID:24031361

  7. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus as entomopathogens of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogens Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes), and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were evaluated as potential biological control ...

  8. Biosorption of Arsenic(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Modified Fungal Biomass of Paecilomyces sp.

    PubMed Central

    Acosta Rodríguez, Ismael; Martínez-Juárez, Víctor M.; Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Moctezuma-Zárate, María de Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The biosorption of As(III) on iron-coated fungal biomass of Paecilomyces sp. was studied in this work. It was found that the biomass was very efficient removing the metal in solution, using Atomic Absorption, reaching the next percentage of removals: 64.5%. The highest adsorption was obtained at pH 6.0, at 30°C after 24 hours of incubation, with 1 mg/L of modified fungal biomass. PMID:24235911

  9. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented.

  10. Paecilomyces lilacinus catheter-related fungemia in an immunocompromised pediatric patient.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, T Q; Ogden, A K; Tillman, J; Demmler, G J; Rinaldi, M G

    1992-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus catheter-related fungemia in an immunocompromised child is reported. The presence of a central venous catheter and the patient's immunocompromised status were felt to be predisposing factors for this unusual infection. To our knowledge, this is the first description of P. lilacinus catheter-related fungemia, and our patient may be the youngest reported patient with this mycosis who was cured. Images PMID:1401021

  11. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  12. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus paecilomyces sp.

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Jung Fu

    1989-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process in cludes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces, which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate.

  13. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Hexavalent Chromium Removal by a Paecilomyces sp. Fungal Strain Isolated from Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-González, Juan F.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    A resistant and capable fungal strain in removing hexavalent chromium was isolated from an environment near of Chemical Science Faculty, located in the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The strain was identified as Paecilomyces sp., by macro- and microscopic characteristics. Strain resistance of the strain to high Cr (VI) concentrations and its ability to reduce chromium were studied. When it was incubated in minimal medium with glucose, another inexpensive commercial carbon source like unrefined and brown sugar or glycerol, in the presence of 50 mg/L of Cr (VI), the strain caused complete disappearance of Cr (VI), with the concomitant production of Cr (III) in the growth medium after 7 days of incubation, at 28°C, pH 4.0, 100 rpm, and an inoculum of 38 mg of dry weight. Decrease of Cr (VI) levels from industrial wastes was also induced by Paecilomyces biomass. These results indicate that reducing capacity of chromate resistant filamentous fungus Cr (VI) could be useful for the removal of Cr (VI) pollution. PMID:20634988

  15. [Influence of ionizing radiation on activity of enzymes of antioxidant defense of Paecilomyces lilaclvus (Thom) Samson].

    PubMed

    Tuhaĭ, T I

    2011-01-01

    The level of activity of antioxidant protection enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) under exposure to ionizing radiation and without it in strain Paecilomyces lilacinus, showing radioadaptive properties, and in control one has been investigated. It has been established that the researched strains are characterized by the high level activity of superoxide dismutase (200-800 AU/mg protein), extracellular and intracellular catalase (0.02-40 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) and peroxidase (0.2-4 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein). Ionizing radiation was the inducer of significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity of the control strain (from the lack of influence to the change of activity by an order) and showed considerably less influence on their activity in the strain, showing radioadaptive properties (the activity changes by 40-50%). The complex response of antioxidant enzymes in investigated strains under the exposure to ionizing radiation has been revealed.

  16. Paeciloside A, a new antimicrobial and cytotoxic polyketide from Paecilomyces sp. strain CAFT156.

    PubMed

    Talontsi, Ferdinand Mouafo; Nwemeguela Kenla, Timothee J; Dittrich, Birger; Douanla-Meli, Clovis; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2012-06-01

    Paeciloside A (1) and eight known compounds, acremoauxin A (2), farinosones A (3) and B (4), 1,5-dideoxy-3-C-methyl-arabitol (5), ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide, cerebroside C, and adenosine, were isolated from cultures of Paecilomyces sp. CAFT156, an endophytic fungus occurring in Enantia chlorantha Oliv (Annonaceae) leaves. The structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated using MS, UV, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, while its absolute configuration was established by subsequent single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using copper Kα radiation and invariom nonspherical scattering factors. Paeciloside A (1) and compounds 2, 4, and 5 displayed inhibitory effects on two gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 40 µg per paper disk and moderate cytotoxicity towards brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina). This study presents the first report on an endophytic fungus isolated from E. chlorantha Oliv and its natural products.

  17. Paecilomyces tabacinus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culture characteristics - (in the dark, 25 °C after 7 d): Colonies on MEA 30–31 mm diam, velutinous to slightly floccose, mycelium white, sporulation abundant, cream-buff [R30; Ridgway (1912)], exudate clear, small droplets dominate, soluble pigments not observed, reverse cream-buff to chamois (R30)...

  18. Isolation and nature of intracellular alpha-aminoadipic acid-containing peptides from Paecilomyces persicinus P-10.

    PubMed Central

    Eriquez, L A; Pisano, M A

    1979-01-01

    Small intracellular peptides containing alpha-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, and a valine moiety were obtained from mycelia of Paecilomyces persicinus P-10 by ethanol or trichloroacetic acid extraction. After performic acid oxidation and ion-exchange chromatography, analysis of the peptide fractions by two-dimensional thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography revealed the presence of three related peptides, as sulfonic acid derivatives, each containing alpha-aminoadipic acid. Each peptide was isolated in chromatographically pure form by semipreparative thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography. The purified peptides were subjected to differential hydrolysis, dansylation, and combined dansylation-phenylisothiocyanate sequence analysis. Based on these studies, the structures of the isolated peptides were determined to be (i) glycl-delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinyl-beta-hydroxyvaline, (ii) glycyl-delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinylvaline, and (iii) delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinylvaline. The peptides isolated from Paecilomyces are similar to the alpha-aminoadipic acid-cysteine-valine moiety complex peptides isolated from Cephalosporium. PMID:574371

  19. A masquerader? Paecilomyces must be distinguished from Penicillium in fungal keratitis: a report of two contrasting cases.

    PubMed

    Sheybani, Arsham; Nguyen, Alexander T; Harocopos, George; Lubniewski, Anthony J; Huang, Andrew J W

    2015-08-18

    We describe the clinical outcomes of two contrasting cases of fungal keratitis due to Paecilomyces spp. The first case involving a 58-year-old woman was complicated by an initial laboratory misidentification as Penicillium and consequently a delay in treatment with an optimised antifungal regimen. The patient had a protracted clinical course that required a total of four penetrating keratoplasties. However, an accurate diagnosis was promptly made in the second case, a 46-year-old woman, which resulted in a satisfactory outcome after penetrating keratoplasty. Our principal aim was to highlight a diagnostic challenge relating to the accurate microbial identification of Paecilomyces spp. This can be difficult given its morphological similarity to Pencillium, and confusion over the two genera has resulted in misdiagnoses reported previously. Our report aims to raise awareness of this potential laboratory misidentification, which can affect clinical decision-making in guiding antimicrobial therapy.

  20. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Mingxia; Xie, Minhao; Dai, Zhuqing; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of mycelial polysaccharides from Paecilomyces hepiali HN1 (PHMPs) were investigated. As results, the optimal parameters for extraction of PHMPs were obtained by a Box-Behnken design as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extracting time 190 min and ratio of water to material 43 mL/g. The analysis of monosaccharide composition by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that PHMPs was composed of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in molar ratio of 46.07:0.59:2.25:1.29:1.42:18.82:26.17:1.13:2.26, respectively. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that PHMPs had a significant protective effect against oxidative stress induced by d-galactose in mice, as evident by higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and level of total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower levels of malondialdehyde in serums and livers compared to the d-galactose-treated group. These results suggested that PHMPs could be explored as promising natural antioxidant.

  1. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of a chitinase from the entomopathogenic fungus Paecilomyces javanicus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Kumar, H G Ashok; Kumar, Senthil; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2007-07-01

    Paecilomyces javanicus is an entomopathogenic fungus of coleopteran and lepidopteran insects. Here we report on cloning, characterization, and expression patterns of a chitinase from P. javanicus. A strong chitinase activity was detected in P. javanicus cultures added to chitin. The full-length cDNA, designated PjChi-1, was cloned from mycelia by using both degenerate primer/reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification and 5'-/3'-RACE extension. The 1.18-kb cDNA gene contains a 1035-bp open reading frame and encodes a 345-amino acid polypeptide with a deduced molecular mass of 37 kDa. A conserved motif for chitinase activity -F82DGIDIDWE90- was present in deduced amino acid sequence. Both RT-PCR and Northern analysis revealed that the expression of the PjChi gene was constitutive at low level, but enhanced to high level when chitin was the substrate. Fungal inhibitory assay showed that PjChi-1 inhibited the growth of phytopathogenic fungi such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus nidulans, and Rhizoctonia solani.

  2. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for the Microbial Control of Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hee; Jin, Byung Rae; Lee, Sang Yeob

    2014-01-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is difficult to control using chemical insecticides because of the development of insecticide resistance. Several pest control agents are used to control the beet armyworm. Entomopathogenic fungi are one of the candidates for eco-friendly pest control instead of chemical control agents. In this study, among various entomopathogenic fungal strains isolated from soil two isolates were selected as high virulence pathogens against larva of beet armyworm. Control efficacy of fungal conidia was influenced by conidia concentration, temperature, and relative humidity (RH). The isolates Metarhizium anisopliae FT83 showed 100% cumulative mortality against second instar larvae of S. exigua 3 days after treatment at 1 × 107 conidia/mL and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus FG340 caused 100% mortality 6 days after treatment at 1 × 104 conidia/mL. Both M. anisopliae FT83 and P. fumosoroseus FG340 effectively controlled the moth at 20~30℃. M. anisopliae FT83 was significantly affected mortality by RH: mortality was 86.7% at 85% RH and 13.4% at 45% RH. P. fumosoroseus FG340 showed high mortality as 90% at 45% RH and 100% at 75% RH 6 days after conidia treatments. These results suggest that P. fumosoroseus FG340 and M. anisopliae FT83 have high potential to develop as a biocontrol agent against the beet armyworm. PMID:25606011

  3. Oxidation and ring cleavage of dibenzofuran by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus.

    PubMed

    Gesell, Manuela; Hammer, Elke; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

    2004-09-01

    The ability of the imperfect soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus to transform the environmental pollutant dibenzofuran was investigated. Transformation of dibenzofuran and related derivatives lead to 14 products, which were identified by UV spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Biotransformation was initiated by two separate hydroxylation steps, leading to the accumulation of 4-monohydroxylated and 4-dihydroxylateddibenzofurans. Hydroxylation at both aromatic rings produced 2,7-dihydroxydibenzofuran, 3,7-dihydroxydibenzofuran, and 2,8-dihydroxydibenzofuran. Further oxidation yields ring cleavage of dibenzofuran, which has not been described before for filamentous fungi. The ring fission products were identified as benzo[ b]furo[3,2-d]-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid and [2-(1-carboxy-methylidene)-benzofuran-3-ylidene]-hydroxy-acetic acid and its derivatives hydroxylated at carbon 7 and 8 at the non-cleaved ring. Other metabolites were riboside-conjugates of 2-hydroxydibenzofuran and 3-hydroxydibenzofuran. The results showed that P. lilacinus transforms the hydrophobic compound dibenzofuran by phase I/phase II reactions to produce hydroxylated products and excretable sugar conjugates.

  4. Biosorption of acidic textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by Paecilomyces sp. isolated from acidic mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Ahmet; Aytar, Pınar; Gedikli, Serap; Özel, Yasemin Kevser; Kocabıyık, Erçin

    2013-07-01

    Removal of textile dyestuffs from aqueous solution by biosorption onto a dead fungal biomass isolated from acidic mine drainage in the Çanakkale Region of Turkey was investigated. The fungus was found to be a promising biosorbent and identified as Paecilomyces sp. The optimal conditions for bioremediation were as follows: pH, 2.0; initial dyestuff concentration, 50 mg l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85 and Reactive Orange 12, and 75 mg l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; biomass dosage, 2 g l(-1) for Reactive Yellow 85, 3 g l(-1) for Reactive Orange 12, 4 g l(-1) for Reactive Black 8; temperature, 25 °C; and agitation rate, 100 rpm. Zeta potential measurements indicated an electrostatic interaction between the binding sites and dye anions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that amine, hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amide bonds were involved in the dyestuff biosorption. A toxicity investigation was also carried out before and after the biosorption process. These results showed that the toxicities for the reactive dyestuffs in aqueous solutions after biosorption studies decreased. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium, and isotherm constants were evaluated for each dyestuff. Equilibrium data of biosorption of RY85 and RO12 dyestuffs fitted well to both models at the studied concentration and temperature.

  5. Efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus (strain 251) for the control of Radopholus similis in banana.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; Sikora, R A; Kiewnick, S

    2004-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is a common soil fungus that has been isolated from many different habitats around the world. It is well known as a facultative egg pathogen of sedentary nematodes and also an important option to control Radopholus similis juvenile and adults in banana. This nematode antagonistic fungus may be used in an integrated approach to control banana plant parasitic nematodes. Dose response and form of application experiments were conducted with burrowing nematode, R. similis, on banana using a commercial water dispersible granulate formulated P. lilacinus (strain 251) product. The results revealed that nematode activity decreased in the presence of this fungus. An important correlation between rates of application and the degree of control of R. simnilis penetration and banana root weight was observed. The best control was achieved in the treatment were plantlets and soil were pre-inoculated with P. lilacinus and reinoculated during transplantation. The results showed that the biocontrol agent P. lilacinus is an excellent candidate for an IPM program against nematodes such as Radopholus similis.

  6. Composting of food waste subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment and inoculated with Paecilomyces sp. FA13.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Mimoto, Hiroshi; Tran, Quyen Ngoc Minh; Oinuma, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Food waste collected from restaurants, convenience stores, and food-processing factories was mixed with sawdust and subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 30min to prepare compost raw material. Furan compounds such as 5-HMF (5-hydroxymethyl furfural) and furfural were produced at concentration levels of approximately 8 and 0.5mg/g-ds, respectively, through hydrothermal pretreatment. The furan compounds inhibited the activity of composting microorganisms, thus delaying the start of organic matter degradation during composting. A newly identified fungus, Paecilomyces sp. FA13, which possesses the ability to degrade furan compounds, was isolated and used as an inoculum for the composting of the raw material prepared by hydrothermal pretreatment. By inoculating the FA13 into the compost raw material at 10(5)CFU/g-ds, the degradation of furan compounds was accelerated. As a result, bacterial activity, which contributed to composting, was enhanced, significantly promoting the start of vigorous degradation of organic materials.

  7. Survival of Paecilomyces lilacinus in Selected Carriers and Related Effects on Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Cabanillas, Enrique; Barker, K. R.; Nelson, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory and microplot experiments were conducted to determine the influence of carrier and storage of Paecilomyces lilacinus on its survival and related protection of tomato against Meloidogyne incognita. Spores of P. lilacinus were prepared in five formulations: alginate pellets (pellets), diatomaceous earth granules (granules), wheat grain, soil, and soil plus chitin. Fungal viability was high in wheat and granules, intermediate in pellets, and low in soil and chitin-amended soil stored at 25 ± 2 C. In 1985 P. lilacinus in field microplots resulted in about a 25% increase in tomato yield and 25% gall suppression, compared with nematodes alone. Greatest suppression of egg development occurred in plots treated with P. lilacinus in pellets, wheat grain, and granules. In 1986 carryover protection of tomato against M. incognita resulted in about a threefold increase in tomato fruit yield and 25% suppression of gall development, compared with plants treated with nematodes alone. Higher numbers of fungus-infected egg masses occurred in plots treated with pellets (32%) than in those treated with chitin-amended soil (24%), wheat (16%), granules (12%), or soil (7%). Numbers of fungal colony-forming units per gram of soil in plots treated with pellets were 10-fold greater than initial levels estimated at planting time in 1986. PMID:19287586

  8. Mutualistic association of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 offers thermotolerance to Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Shin, Jae-Ho; Choo, Yeon-Sik; Kim, Jong-Guk; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-02-01

    We investigated in this study the influence of an endophytic fungus, Paecilomyces formosus LHL10, on the thermotolerance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) upon exposure to high (38°C) and low (8°C) temperature stresses. The results showed that endophyte-inoculated plants had significantly higher plant growth attributes under high-temperature stress. However, they were either low or insignificant in non-inoculated control and inoculated plants with 8°C treatments. Lower stress-promulgated water deficit and cellular membrane damage were observed in endophyte-treated plants after 38°C treatment than in control plants under 8°C stress. Total polyphenol, reduced glutathione, and lipid peroxidation activities were reduced in endophyte-associated plants after exposure to 38°C as compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. The concentration of saturated fatty acids (palmitic-C16:0; stearic-C18:0) was lower in endophyte-treated plants with or without low-temperature stress, but after 8°C treatment increased compared with controls. Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic-C18:1; linoleic-C18:2; linolenic-C18:3 acids) were similar at normal conditions; however, at 38°C, C18:2 and C18:3 were decreased, and C18:1 was increased in endophyte-treated plants compared with controls, while the inverse relationship was found at 8°C. Low levels of abscisic acid in P. formosus-associated plants after 38°C treatments revealed stress tolerance compared with control and 8°C-treated plants. In contrast, salicylic acid was pronounced in endophyte-treated plants after low-temperature stress as compared to other treatments. The results provide evidence that the response to P. formosus association was beneficial at normal growth temperature and had varying effects in response to temperature stress.

  9. Effects of a Commercial Formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus Strain 251 on Overseeded Bermudagrass Infested with Belonolaimus longicaudatus

    PubMed Central

    Crow, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Belonolaimus longicaudatus is an important parasite of both warm-season bermudagrass and winter overseed grasses used on golf courses in the southeastern United States. Field trials were conducted to study the effects of a commercial formulation of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 applied to overseed grasses during the winter and early spring on population density of B. longicaudatus and bermudagrass health in late spring after bermudagrass broke dormancy. These studies found that P. lilacinus reduced numbers of B. longicaudatus in most cases, but not below damaging levels. Multiple applications of 1 × 1010 spores/m2 were generally more effective than 2 × 1010 spores/m2 in reducing nematode numbers and improving turf roots. These results indicate that application of this formulation of P. lilacinus strain 251 to overseeded turf in the spring may be a useful integrated pest management tool for B. longicaudatus on bermudagrass, but is not sufficient as a stand-alone nematode management tactic. PMID:24115787

  10. Studies on the Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Paecilomyces hepiali Water Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Teng, Lirong; Liu, Yange; Hu, Wenji; Chen, Wenqi; Hu, Xi; Wang, Yingwu; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Paecilomyces hepiali is a fungus widely used in Asian countries for various potential pharmacological activities. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the Paecilomyces hepiali mycelium water extract (PHC) in diabetic rat, which is established by eight-week high-fat diet administration followed by one-week tail intravenous injection of 25 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). After four-week 0.12 g/kg metformin and PHC at doses of 0.08, 0.4, and 2.0 g/kg treatment, an increment of body weight, a decrement of plasma glucose, low levels of total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats were observed. PHC promotes glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin, pyruvate kinase activity, and increasing the synthesis of glycogen. PHC normalized the disturbed levels of superoxide dismutase, methane dicarboxylic aldehyde, and glutathione peroxidase in kidney. The inhibitory effects on the levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α in serum and kidney revealed the protection of PHC against diabetic nephropathy. Compared with nontreated diabetic rats, four-week PHC treatment resulted in a decrement on nuclear factor kappa B expression in kidney. These results show that Paecilomyces hepiali possesses antidiabetic and antinephritic effects which are related to the modulation of nuclear factor kappa B activity.

  11. Case of Paecilomyces lilacinus infection occurring in necrotizing fasciitis-associated skin ulcers on the face and surrounding a tracheotomy stoma.

    PubMed

    Nagamoto, Eiko; Fujisawa, Akihiko; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Yoshitsugu, Kanako; Odo, Masashi; Watanabe, Hidetaka; Igata, Toshikatsu; Noguchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man undergoing treatment for hemophagocytic syndrome developed Paecilomyces lilacinus infection in skin ulcers on the face and in the tracheotomy stoma. While his bone marrow was suppressed by chemotherapy with dexamethasone, cyclosporin and etoposide for hemophagocytic syndrome, dental infection led to subacute necrotizing fasciitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the right side of the face, resulting in a large area of soft tissue defects. Etoposide was discontinued, and prophylactic treatment with itraconazole was initiated. The ulcers resulting from necrotizing fasciitis were treated conservatively using trafermin and alprostadil alfadex ointment 0.003 %, and near-complete re-epithelialization occurred, except on the right lower eyelid, right buccal mucosa and perioral area. However, 6 weeks later, pustules/crusts started to form and break down repeatedly, leading to expansion of tissue defects on the face. Direct microscopic examination revealed fungal elements, and fungal culture identified Paecilomyces lilacinus suspicious twice some other day. Based on DNA extraction from the isolated fungus, this fungal strain was identified as Paecilomyces lilacinus. Cyclosporin and itraconazole were discontinued, and treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and a tapering dose of steroids was initiated. Cure was achieved in approximately 2.5 months after treatment initiation, and no relapse has been observed. The most important factor that ultimately contributed to the resolution of fungal infection might have been release of immunosuppression by discontinuing cyclosporin and tapering steroids.

  12. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G. S.; Zuckerman, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, cv. Montello, were transplanted into the soils 3 to 4 days later. All the bacterial and fungal antagonists applied without a soil amendment, except the B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus treatment, reduced root galling and increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated organic soil, but not in the fumigated soil. All three amendments were also effective against M. hapla and reduced root galling in fumigated and unfumigated soils. Wheat mash amendment increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated soil. In general, no antagonist × amendment interaction was detected. Soil populations of B. thuringiensis were maintained at ≥4.0 log10 colony-forming units/g organic soil during the first 14 days after planting. However, viable cells of B. thuringiensis were not detected after 49 days. PMID:19270951

  13. Heterologous expression of VHb can improve the yield and quality of biocontrol fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus, during submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shumeng; Wang, Jieping; Wei, Yale; Tang, Qing; Ali, Maria Kanwal; He, Jin

    2014-10-10

    Paecilomyces lilacinus is an egg-parasitic fungus which is effective against plant-parasitic nematodes and it has been successfully commercialized for the control of many plant-parasitic nematodes. However, during the large-scale industrial fermentation process of the filamentous fungus, the dissolved oxygen supply is a limiting factor, which influences yield, product quality and production cost. To solve this problem, we intended to heterologously express VHb in P. lilacinus ACSS. After optimizing the vgb gene, we fused it with a selection marker gene nptII, a promoter PgpdA and a terminator TtrpC. The complete expression cassette PgpdA-nptII-vgb-TtrpC was transferred into P. lilacinus ACSS by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Consequently, we successfully screened an applicable fungus strain PNVT8 which efficiently expressed VHb. The submerged fermentation experiments demonstrated that the expression of VHb not only increased the production traits of P. lilacinus such as biomass and spore production, but also improved the beneficial product quality and application value, due to the secretion of more protease and chitinase. It can be speculated that the recombinant strain harboring vgb gene will have a growth advantage over the original strain under anaerobic conditions in soil and therefore will possess higher biocontrol efficiency against plant-parasitic nematodes.

  14. A sialic acid-specific lectin from the mushroom Paecilomyces Japonica that exhibits hemagglutination activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hun; Ryu, Chang Soo; Kim, Ha Na; Na, Young Jun; Park, Hyun Joo; Kim, Hahyung

    2004-12-01

    The mushroom Paecilomyces japonica, grown on the silkworm larvae, has been used in Asia as a nutraceutical, tea, and Chinese medicine. In the present study, a sialic acid-specific lectin has been purified from the mushroom P. japonica using affinity chromatography on a fetuin-agarose column. Electrophoretical analyses indicated that this lectin, designated P. japonica agglutinin (PJA), is an acidic protein with a molecular mass of 16 kDa, and has no intermolecular disulfide bonds. PJA induced hemagglutination activity in human ABO, mouse, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes. This activity was inhibited by sialic acid and sialoglycoproteins, but not by any other carbohydrates. PJA was stable at pH 4.0-8.0, and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. The activity of PJA was independent of EDTA and divalent cations. In addition, PJA exerts cytotoxic effects on the following cancer cell lines: human stomach cancer SNU-1, human pancreas cancer AsPc-1, and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231.

  15. A mutant of the nematophagous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) is a novel biocontrol agent for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Abdelnabby, Hazem; Xiao, Yannong

    2015-12-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes severe stem rot and yield loss in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and other crops worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on Paecilomyces lilacinus as a nematophagous bioagent. However, no reports stated the effect of P. lilacinus as a biocontrol agent against oilseed rape rot S. sclerotiorum. This study describes such effect in lab and field trials using the new transformant pt361 derived from the wild strain P. lilacinus 36-1. Unlike the wild-type strain, the mutant pt361 showed high antagonistic effect against S. Sclerotiorum A. Under lab conditions, the pt361 inhibited (65%) radial mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum in dual culture test producing 5.9 mm inhibition zone IZ in front of the S. sclerotiorum colony. Moreover, the cell-free filtrate of pt361 culture showed strong inhibitory effects (60.3-100%) on mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. In leaf detached assay, pt361 significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited (40.4-97.9%) the extension of the leaf spots caused by S. sclerotiorum A at all tested concentrations. The genomic DNA sequences of the inserted T-DNA flanking obtained from pt361 strain was cloned, verified as a glycoside hydrolase 31 family by homologous analysis with other fungal strains, and named PGH31 (2556bp). Secondary structure prediction showed a domain (Glycoside hydrolase31). Three years field trial confirmed that the cell-free filtrates or spores suspension of pt361 achieved significant (p < 0.05) suppression of oilseed rape stem rot, promoted growth and increased yield compared to the control and exceeded, at dose 100%, the action of the fungicide procymidone(®). In conclusion, the mutant pt361 of P. lilacinus is a novel and promising biocontrol agent against oilseed rape Sclerotinia stem rot.

  16. A Comparative Study on the Biosorption of Cd2+ onto Paecilomyces lilacinus XLA and Mucoromycote sp. XLC

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lu; Xu, Xingjian; Zhu, Wei; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous fungi XLA and XLC isolated from Cd-contaminated soil were identified morphologically and phylogenetically as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Mucoromycote sp., respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Cr6+ in minimum mineral (MM) medium agar plates were 29,786, 2945, 9425, 5080, 1785 and 204 mg·L−1 for XLA and 11,240, 884, 9100, 2540, 3060 and 51 mg·L−1 for XLC, respectively. Favorable biosorption conditions for adsorption of Cd2+ by the tested fungi were investigated. Efficient performances of the biosorbents were described using Langmuir isotherm model, and the predicted maximum biosorption capacities for Cd2+ were 77.61 mg·g−1 of XLA and 79.67 mg·g−1of XLC. Experiments on desorption potential of biosorbents validated their efficacy at a large scale. Results showed that XLA obtained a desorption rate of 84.7% by 2% EDTA and XLC gained a desorption rate of 78.9% by 0.1 M HCl. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that groups of C–N, COO– for XLA and C–N, CH2 and phosphate for XLC were the dominant binding sites for Cd2+ biosorption. Our results indicated that the fungus XLA, rather than XLC, could potentially be used as an inexpensive, eco-friendly and effective bioremediation agent for the removal of Cd2+ from wastewater. PMID:26184169

  17. Relationship between antimold activity and molecular structure of cinnamaldehyde analogues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Shujun; Kong, Xianchao

    2013-03-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling of the antimold activity of cinnamaldehyde analogues against of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii was presented. The molecular descriptors of cinnamaldehyde analogues were calculated by the CODESSA program, and these descriptors were selected by best multi-linear regression method (BMLR). Satisfactory multilinear regression models of Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotii were obtained with R(2)=0.9099 and 0.9444, respectively. The models were also satisfactorily validated using internal validation and leave one out validation. The QSAR models provide the guidance for further synthetic work.

  18. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  19. Anti-tumour and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica, a new type of Cordyceps spp.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kuk Hyun; Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Yeon Sil; Jung, Sang Hoon; Cho, Sae Yun

    2003-08-01

    The anti-tumor and immuno-stimulating activities of the fruiting bodies of Paecilomyces japonica (PJ), grown on silk-worm larvae and of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a wild form of Cordyceps Fungi, were investigated. Ethanol extracts of both fungi, when administered for 9 consecutive days, at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p., caused a significant increase in life span and a significant decrease in tumor weights and volumes, in mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 tumor cells. Both fungal extracts were demonstrated to exhibit phagocytosis enhancing activity as measured by carbon clearance in mice. PJ extracts, when administered i.p. at 50 mg/kg/day for 3 consecutive days, exhibited a significant enhancement of phagocytosis, its potency as expressed by the regression coefficient ratio, RCtr/RCc, being 1.64 (the phagocytosis index = 2). This was approximately the same for that of zymosan (RCtr/RCc = 1.55, PI = 2), a typical phagocytosis enhancer, whereas CS extracts exhibited a moderate phagocytosis enhancing activity at the same dose level (RCtr/RCc = 1.30, PI = 1). Both fungal extracts caused a significant increase in an acid phosphatase activity, representing lysosomal enzymes, in macrophages at 20 and 100 micro g/ml in vitro, in compliance with in vivo results. These results suggest that the anti-tumor activity of both fungi might be related to an immuno-stimulating function.

  20. Long-term preservation, regeneration, and cultivation of Paecilomyces tenuipes (Peck) Samson (Ascomycetes), an entomopathogenic fungus inoculated into the silkworm larva of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Hee; Li, Chun Ru; Li, Zeng-Zhi; Fan, Mei-Zhen; Kang, Seok Woo; Lee, Kwang Gill; Yeo, Joo Hong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Choi, Ji Young; Han, Sang Mi; Lee, Ki Man

    2011-01-01

    Paecilomyces tenuipes reportedly have anticancer and immune activities, along with various other medicinal uses. Cultured products with P. tenuipes are certified for use in food in South Korea, and processed goods containing this fungus have been developed in many countries, particularly South Korea, Japan, and China. Research on mass production technology-procured raw materials for the manufacture of P. tenuipes is very important; however, cultures of the fungus have been unstable. This study identified stable cultivation conditions, focusing on growth inhibition and revitalization. Moisture regulation and preservation of pupae inoculated with P. tenuipes were used to control growth inhibition and revitalization. When inoculated silkworm pupae were dehydrated to 4% moisture and preserved freeze-dried or at -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C, or 4 degrees C, the mycelia in their bodies were able to survive for 14 d. Inoculated silkworm pupae were rehydrated for 3 h and the mycelia within their bodies were recovered at 94.3-96.3%. Silkworm pupae at 4% moisture were able to survive for 135 d at temperatures < 4 degrees C and for 1 y after freeze-drying. Optimal conditions for synnemata induction were 25 degrees C and 100-300 1x.

  1. Activity of the endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus in decolourisation and the reduction of reactive dyes' cytotoxicity in fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Lígia Maria Crubelati; Polonio, Julio Cesar; Portela-Castro, Ana Luiza de Brito; Kava, Vanessa; Azevedo, João Lúcio; Pamphile, João Alencar

    2017-02-01

    The current study investigates the potential for discolouration and degradation of Reactive Blue 19 and Reactive Black 5 textile dyes by endophytic fungi Phlebia sp. and Paecilomyces formosus as well as the potential cytotoxicity of products or by-products generated by the treatments in fish erythrocytes. It was observed at 30 days that both endophytes showed biodegradation activity with 0.1 g mL(-1) of dyes. P. formosus showed highest extracellular and intracellular protein content levels after the 15th day, and Phlebia sp. stands out for production of extracellular laccase, indicating that this enzyme may be associated with the decolouration capacity. The dyes showed toxic effects in fishes at 0.01 g mL(-1) concentration, resulting in the appearance of micronuclei in erythrocyte cells. When degraded dyes treated by endophytes were tested, the frequency of micronuclei reduced approximately 20%, indicating the effectiveness of these endophytic in the treatment of textile dyes with less environmental impact, thus indicating a potential for application of these fungi in bioremediation process.

  2. Comparative study of metal induced phospholipid modifications in the heavy metal tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii and implications for the fungal membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Słaba, Mirosława; Bernat, Przemysław; Różalska, Sylwia; Nykiel, Justyna; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    In this work we compared the effect of five heavy metals: Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cu on phospholipid composition of the ubiquitous soil fungus Paecilomyces marquandii, originating from a strongly metal polluted area and characterized by high tolerance to these elements. Cd, Ni and Cu caused an increase in phosphatidylcholine (PC). Only Pb decreased PC content, which was accompanied by a significant rise in the phosphatidic acids (PA) level, probably due to activation of phospholipase D which hydrolyzes PC to PA. This could result in membrane fluidity disturbance, and thus affect its integrity. The assessment of propidium iodide influx showed strong disturbance of membrane integrity for Cu and Pb stressed mycelia, whereas mycelia treated with Ni were impermeable to this dye. The results obtained revealed a strong Cu and Pb toxicity involving disruption of membrane integrity. Pb action was reflected by lipid composition, whereas changes in Cu treated mycelia did not completely elucidate its harmful effect on the membrane, which was most probably caused by Cu induced lipid peroxidation. Zn did not induce quantitative changes in PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) but caused changes in phospholipid lipid saturation, which appears to be important for fungus adaptation to the presence of metals. The enhanced PC content balanced by higher PC saturation can help in the maintenance of proper membrane fluidity and result in alleviating the Cd and Ni induced stress. These results will allow to clarify the mechanism of Pb toxicity and help to elucidate the cellular basis of fungal membrane adaptation to heavy metals.

  3. Adaptive alterations in the fatty acids composition under induced oxidative stress in heavy metal-tolerant filamentous fungus Paecilomyces marquandii cultured in ascorbic acid presence.

    PubMed

    Słaba, Mirosława; Gajewska, Ewa; Bernat, Przemysław; Fornalska, Magdalena; Długoński, Jerzy

    2013-05-01

    The ability of the heavy metal-tolerant fungus Paecilomyces marquandii to modulate whole cells fatty acid composition and saturation in response to IC50 of Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cu was studied. Cadmium and nickel caused the most significant growth reduction. In the mycelia cultured with all tested metals, with the exception of nickel, a rise in the fatty acid unsaturation was noted. The fungus exposure to Pb, Cu, and Ni led to significantly higher lipid peroxidation. P. marquandii incubated in the presence of the tested metals responded with an increase in the level of linoleic acid and escalation of electrolyte leakage. The highest efflux of electrolytes was caused by lead. In these conditions, the fungus was able to bind up to 100 mg g(-1) of lead, whereas the content of the other metals in the mycelium was significantly lower and reached from 3.18 mg g(-1) (Cu) to 15.21 mg g(-1) (Zn). Additionally, it was shown that ascorbic acid at the concentration of 1 mM protected fungal growth and prevented the changes in the fatty acid composition and saturation but did not alleviate lipid peroxidation or affect the increased permeability of membranes after lead exposure. Pro-oxidant properties of ascorbic acid in the copper-stressed cells manifested strong growth inhibition and enhanced metal accumulation as a result of membrane damage. Toxic metals action caused cellular modulations, which might contributed to P. marquandii tolerance to the studied metals. Moreover, these changes can enhance metal removal from contaminated environment.

  4. Virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity during propagule production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita

    2007-03-01

    To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.

  5. The entomopathogenic fungal endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana negatively affect cotton aphid reproduction under both greenhouse and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  6. The Entomopathogenic Fungal Endophytes Purpureocillium lilacinum (Formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) and Beauveria bassiana Negatively Affect Cotton Aphid Reproduction under Both Greenhouse and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Castillo Lopez, Diana; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa; Sword, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two entomopathogenic fungal endophytes, Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus), were assessed on the reproduction of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera:Aphididae), through in planta feeding trials. In replicate greenhouse and field trials, cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum) were inoculated as seed treatments with two concentrations of B. bassiana or P. lilacinum conidia. Positive colonization of cotton by the endophytes was confirmed through potato dextrose agar (PDA) media plating and PCR analysis. Inoculation and colonization of cotton by either B. bassiana or P. lilacinum negatively affected aphid reproduction over periods of seven and 14 days in a series of greenhouse trials. Field trials were conducted in the summers of 2012 and 2013 in which cotton plants inoculated as seed treatments with B. bassiana and P. lilacinum were exposed to cotton aphids for 14 days. There was a significant overall effect of endophyte treatment on the number of cotton aphids per plant. Plants inoculated with B. bassiana had significantly lower numbers of aphids across both years. The number of aphids on plants inoculated with P. lilacinum exhibited a similar, but non-significant, reduction in numbers relative to control plants. We also tested the pathogenicity of both P. lilacinum and B. bassiana strains used in the experiments against cotton aphids in a survival experiment where 60% and 57% of treated aphids, respectively, died from infection over seven days versus 10% mortality among control insects. Our results demonstrate (i) the successful establishment of P. lilacinum and B. bassiana as endophytes in cotton via seed inoculation, (ii) subsequent negative effects of the presence of both target endophytes on cotton aphid reproduction using whole plant assays, and (iii) that the P. lilacinum strain used is both endophytic and pathogenic to cotton aphids. Our results illustrate the potential of using these

  7. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host

  8. Bioprocessing of “Hair Waste” by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavello, Ivana A.; Hours, Roque A.; Cavalitto, Sebastián F.

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing “hair waste,” a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg2+ inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents. PMID:23365760

  9. Bioprocessing of "Hair Waste" by Paecilomyces lilacinus as a Source of a Bleach-Stable, Alkaline, and Thermostable Keratinase with Potential Application as a Laundry Detergent Additive: Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavello, Ivana A; Hours, Roque A; Cavalitto, Sebastián F

    2012-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson LPS 876, a locally isolated fungal strain, was grown on minimal mineral medium containing "hair waste," a residue from the hair-saving unhairing process, and produced a protease with keratinolytic activity. This enzyme was biochemically characterized. The optimum reaction conditions, determined with a response surface methodology, were 60°C and pH 6.0. It was remarkably stable in a wide range of pHs and temperatures. Addition of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or sorbitol was found to be effective in increasing thermal stability of the protease. PMSF and Hg(2+) inhibited the proteolytic activity indicating the presence of a thiol-dependent serine protease. It showed high stability toward surfactants, bleaching agents, and solvents. It was also compatible with commercial detergents (7 mg/mL) such as Ariel, Skip, Drive, and Ace, retaining more than 70% of its proteolytic activity in all detergents after 1 h of incubation at 40°C. Wash performance analysis revealed that this protease could effectively remove blood stains. From these properties, this enzyme may be considered as a potential candidate for future use in biotechnological processes, as well as in the formulation of laundry detergents.

  10. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    PubMed

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations.

  11. [Biomass production and biological purification of distillation slops in a 2-step process].

    PubMed

    Waehner, R S; Giulietti, A M; Fraile, E R

    1983-01-01

    In order to lower the chemical demand (COD) of slops from cane molasses alcohol a treatment of two steps which allows the production of single cell protein of Candida utilis and Paecilomyces variotii has been performed. Its use reduces the treatment cost. In the first step the slops without sterilization supplemented with ammonium sulphate (5 g.l-1) and dipotassium phosphate (0.5 g.l-1) was inoculated with C. utilis and P. variotii. The yield was 24 and 18 g.l-1 of dry biomass and COD reduction of 36 and 75% respectively. In the second step, the remainder effluents were treated with Aspergillus niger. The final COD reduction attained was 93 and 92% respectively.

  12. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of 5 species of triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A M; Junqueira, A C; Costa, G L; Celano, V; Oliveira, P C; Coura, J R

    2001-01-01

    A study of the mycobiota in the digestive tract of 5 important species of triatomines, Triatoma brasiliensis, T infestans, T. sordida, T. pseudomaculata and T. vitticeps, was made. The digestive tracts of 164 adults and 535 nymphs of those triatomines were studied and 393 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (19 species), Aspergillus (17 species) and Acremonium (5 species) and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Penicillium corylophilum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium felluttanum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium waksmanii, Aspergillus awamori and Paecilomyces variotii. Among the isolated fungi, we found species that are recognized as entomopathogenic and pathogenic for humans and animals.

  13. Antifungal activities of SCY-078 (MK-3118) and standard antifungal agents against clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Frédéric; Alexander, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    The limited armamentarium of active and oral antifungal drugs against emerging non-Aspergillus molds is of particular concern. Current antifungal agents and the new orally available beta-1,3-d-glucan synthase inhibitor SCY-078 were tested in vitro against 135 clinical non-Aspergillus mold isolates. Akin to echinocandins, SCY-078 showed no or poor activity against Mucoromycotina and Fusarium spp. However, SCY-078 was highly active against Paecilomyces variotii and was the only compound displaying some activity against notoriously panresistant Scedosporium prolificans.

  14. Potential biodegradation of crude petroleum oil by newly isolated halotolerant microbial strains from polluted Red Sea area.

    PubMed

    Shetaia, Yousseria M H; El Khalik, Wafaa A A; Mohamed, Tarek M; Farahat, Laila A; ElMekawy, Ahmed

    2016-10-15

    Two microbial isolates from oil polluted Red Sea water in Egypt, designated as RS-Y1 and RS-F3, were found capable of degrading Belayim mix (BX) crude oil. Strains RS-Y1 and RS-F3 were assigned to the genera Lipomyces tetrasporus and Paecilomyces variotii based on their morphological and physiological characteristics. Both isolates were compared for the biodegradation of crude petroleum-oil hydrocarbons in basal salt medium supplemented with 5% (w/v) of BX-crude oil. Gas chromatography profile showed that the biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) inoculated with L. tetrasporus (68.3%) and P. variotii (58.15%) along with their consortium (66%) significantly reduced TPHs levels as compared to the control after 30days. L. tetrasporus (44.5%) was more effective than P. variotii strain (32.89%) in reducing the unresolved complex mixtures (UCM) content from the medium. Both isolates exhibited a strong growth over a wide range of salinity (5-45g/L NaCl).

  15. Geosmithia argillacea: An Emerging Cause of Invasive Mycosis in Human Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    PubMed Central

    Challipalli, Malliswari; Anderson, Victoria; Shea, Yvonne R.; Marciano, Beatriz; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; DeCastro, Rosamma; Liu, Yen-chun; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Kammeyer, Patricia L.; Sigler, Lynne; Sullivan, Kathleen; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Malech, Harry L.; Holland, Steven M.; Zelazny, Adrian M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase that leads to defective production of microbicidal superoxide and other oxidative radicals, resulting in increased susceptibility to invasive infections, especially those due to fungi. Methods. Geosmithia argillacea was identified from cultured isolates by genomic sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Isolates previously identified as Paecilomyces variotii, a filamentous fungus closely resembling G. argillacea, were also examined. Results. We identified G. argillacea as the cause of invasive mycosis in 7 CGD patients. In 5 cases, the fungus had been previously identified morphologically as P. variotii. All patients had pulmonary lesions; 1 had disseminated lesions following inhalational pneumonia. Infections involved the chest wall and contiguous ribs in 2 patients and disseminated to the brain in 1 patient. Four patients with pneumonia underwent surgical intervention. All patients responded poorly to medical treatment, and 3 died. Conclusions. We report the first cases of invasive mycosis caused by G. argillacea in CGD patients. G. argillacea infections in CGD are often refractory and severe with a high fatality rate. Surgical intervention has been effective in some cases. G. argillacea is a previously underappreciated and frequently misidentified pathogen in CGD that should be excluded when P. variotii is identified morphologically. PMID:21367720

  16. Filamentous fungal diversity and community structure associated with the solid state fermentation of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi; Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-02

    Maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process under solid state conditions, including Daqu (starter) making, stacking fermentation and alcohol fermentation stages. Filamentous fungi produce many enzymes to degrade the starch material into fermentable sugar during liquor fermentation. This study investigated the filamentous fungal community associated with liquor making process. Eight and seven different fungal species were identified by using culture-dependent and -independent method (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DGGE) analyses, respectively. The traditional enumeration method showed that Daqu provided 7 fungal species for stacking fermentation. The total population of filamentous fungi increased from 3.4 × 10(3)cfu/g to 1.28 × 10(4)cfu/g in the first 3 days of stacking fermentation, and then decreased till the end. In alcohol fermentation in pits, the population continuously decreased and few fungal species survived (lower than 1 × 10(3)cfu/g) after 10 days. Therefore, stacking fermentation is an essential stage for the growth of filamentous fungi. Paecilomyces variotii, Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus were detected by both methods, and P. variotii and A. oryzae were the predominant species. Meanwhile, P. variotii possessed the highest glucoamylase (3252 ± 526 U/g) and A. oryzae exhibited the highest α-amylase (1491 ± 324 U/g) activity among the cultivable fungal species. Furthermore, the variation of starch and reducing sugar content was consistent with the growth of P. variotii and A. oryzae in Zaopei (fermented grains) during stacking fermentation, which implied that the two filamentous fungi played an important role in producing amylase for hydrolyzing the starch.

  17. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  18. Species-specific production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC) by airborne fungi from a compost facility.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Schwalbe, R; Möller, M; Ostrowski, R; Dott, W

    1999-08-01

    Thirteen airborne fungal species frequently isolated in composting plants were screened for microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOC), i.e., Aspergillus candidus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium clavigerum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium cyclopium, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium verruculosum, and Tritirachium oryzae. Air samples from pure cultures were sorbed on Tenax GR and analyzed by thermal desorption in combination with GC/MS. Various hydrocarbons of different chemical groups and a large number of terpenes were identified. Some compounds such as 3-methyl-1-butanol and 1-octen-3-ol were produced by a number of species, whereas some volatiles were specific for single species. An inventory of microbial metabolites will allow identification of potential health hazards due to an exposure to fungal propagules and metabolites in the workplace. Moreover, species-specific volatiles may serve as marker compounds for the selective detection of fungal species in indoor domestic and working environments.

  19. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC–MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity. PMID:26981002

  20. Antifungal properties of crude extracts of five Egyptian medicinal plants against dermatophytes and emerging fungi.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed

    2011-07-01

    Antifungal properties of the crude extracts of five medicinal plants (Artemisia judaica, Ballota undulate, Cleome amblyocarpa, Peganum harmala, and Teucrium polium) were tested against dermatophytes and emerging fungi. Ethanol extract of Ballota undulate was the most effective against all tested fungi. Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. variotii, and Candida albicans were the most sensitive organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ballota undulate ethanol extract against C. albicans, P. lilacinus, and P. variotii was 25 mg/ml. GC-MS analysis revealed that Ballota undulate ethanol extract contains 35 aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbon along with some other essential oils, which could be involved in antifungal activity. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have proved that Ballota undulate ethanol extract exhibits fungicidal effect on P. lilacinus through alterations in hyphal structures including budding of hyphal tip, anomalous structure, such as swelling, decrease in cytoplasmic content, with clear separation of cytoplasm from cell wall in hyphae. SEM clearly showed distorted mycelium, squashed and flattened conidiophores bearing damaged metullae. Eventually, the mycelia became papillated, flattened, and empty. Puncturing and squashing of hyphae as well as complete cell wall disruption were clear signs of complete death of hyphae.

  1. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum), phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum) and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 107 spores/mL); A) Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B) An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C) a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition. PMID:24031807

  2. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds.

    PubMed

    Dantigny, Philippe; Guilmart, Audrey; Radoi, Florentina; Bensoussan, Maurice; Zwietering, Marcel

    2005-02-15

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (mu) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium digitatum, Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma harzianum) was assessed in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium at a(w) 0.99, 25 degrees C. In order to model this effect, the Monod type equation described previously by Houtsma et al. (Houtsma, P.C., Kusters, B.J.M., de Wit, J.C., Rombouts, F.M., Zwietering, M.H., 1994. Modelling growth rates of Listeria monocytogenes as a function of lactate concentration. Int. J. Food. Microbiol. 24, 113-123.) was re-parameterised: mu = mu(opt)[K(E(max)-E)/K E(max)-2KE+E(max)E]; E(max) (%, wt/wt): ethanol concentration at which no growth occurs, K (%, wt/wt): ethanol concentration at which mu = mu(opt)/2, mu(opt) (mm day(-1)): growth rate at 0% ethanol. The model was capable of describing curves, mu vs. E, with either a concave shape (KE(max)/2) with a good accuracy (root mean square error (RMSE) < or = 0.136) with the notable exception of R. oryzae and T. harzianum. After growth rate data were square-root transformed to stabilise the variance, E(max) was estimated in the range 3% to 5% for all moulds with the exception of T. harzianum (E(max) 2.14%) and P. variotii (E(max) 6.43%). Ethanol would appear an effective additional barrier to inhibit fungal growth in food products and would represent an interesting alternative to the use of preservatives.

  3. Purification and characterization of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium chrysogenum from an Arctic sediment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiteng; Ao, Jingqun; Yang, Wenchuan; Jiao, Liping; Zheng, Tianling; Chen, Xinhua

    2013-12-01

    A fungal strain, Penicillium chrysogenum A096, was isolated from an Arctic sediment sample. Its culture supernatant inhibited mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. chrysogenum A096 culture supernatant with ammonium sulfate and ion exchange chromatography, a novel antifungal protein (Pc-Arctin) was purified and identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). The gene encoding for Pc-Arctin consisting of 195 nucleotides was cloned from P. chrysogenum A096 to confirm the mass spectrometry result. Pc-Arctin displays antifungal activity against Paecilomyces variotii, Alternaria longipes, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 24, 48, and 192 ng/disc, respectively. Pc-Arctin was most sensitive to proteinase K and then to trypsin but insensitive to papain. Pc-Arctin possesses high thermostability and cannot be antagonized by common surfactants, except for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Divalent ions, such as Mn(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+), inhibited the antifungal activity of Pc-Arctin. Hemagglutination assays showed that Pc-Arctin had no hemagglutinating or hemolytic activity against red blood cells (RBC) from rabbits, rats, and guinea pigs. Therefore, Pc-Arctin from Arctic P. chrysogenum may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential for application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection.

  4. Abundance and dynamics of filamentous fungi in the complex ambrosia gardens of the primitively eusocial beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    PubMed

    Biedermann, Peter H W; Klepzig, Kier D; Taborsky, Michael; Six, Diana L

    2013-03-01

    Insect fungus gardens consist of a community of interacting microorganisms that can have either beneficial or detrimental effects to the farmers. In contrast to fungus-farming ants and termites, the fungal communities of ambrosia beetles and the effects of particular fungal species on the farmers are largely unknown. Here, we used a laboratory rearing technique for studying the filamentous fungal garden community of the ambrosia beetle, Xyleborinus saxesenii, which cultivates fungi in tunnels excavated within dead trees. Raffaelea sulfurea and Fusicolla acetilerea were transmitted in spore-carrying organs by gallery founding females and established first in new gardens. Raffaelea sulfurea had positive effects on egg-laying and larval numbers. Over time, four other fungal species emerged in the gardens. Prevalence of one of them, Paecilomyces variotii, correlated negatively with larval numbers and can be harmful to adults by forming biofilms on their bodies. It also comprised the main portion of garden material removed from galleries by adults. Our data suggest that two mutualistic, several commensalistic and one to two pathogenic filamentous fungi are associated with X. saxesenii. Fungal diversity in gardens of ambrosia beetles appears to be much lower than that in gardens of fungus-culturing ants, which seems to result from essential differences in substrates and behaviours.

  5. Screening of protease producing fungi for microbial digestion of seed proteins and synthesis of amino acids-metalnutrient chelates.

    PubMed

    Deore, G B; Limaye, A S; Dushing, Y A; Dhobale, S B; Kale, S; Laware, S L

    2013-01-15

    The problem of metalnutrient deficiency is becoming more serious with the introduction of modern agricultural practices. As a result, metalnutrient deficiency is recognized as one of the critical yield limiting factors. Metalnutrients are generally offered in their sulphate or oxide forms. However, it is reported that organically bound minerals generally have a higher bioavailability than inorganic minerals. Chelation makes otherwise unavailable metalnutrients plant available. Amino acids are well known among various chelating agents. In present investigation the fungus Paecilomyces variotii PR-4 was isolated from soil and was used for production of protease and determination of its activity. Proteins from germinating seeds of chick pea, mung bean, soybean and cowpea were hydrolyzed for the production of amino acids. Amino acids were recovered, estimated and utilized for chelation of metalnutrients viz., Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mg, B and Mo. The resultant chelates were employed to detect with Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis. The peaks of most intensive bands in the IR spectra of ligands recorded were present in the intervals of the wave numbers 3500-3300 and 1720-1700 cm(-1). Chelation of metalnutrients led to the broadening of peak and changes of the peak position of hydroxyl groups, which indicated the binding of the carboxylic groups and primary amine groups of amino acids to the metalnutrients. The resultant amino acids-metalnutrient chelates can be utilized as organic fertilizer.

  6. Posaconazole salvage treatment for invasive fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Williams, Kali

    2014-10-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Posaconazole is a second generation triazole with a broad spectrum, and it may be suitable for salvage antifungal treatment although posaconazole is not usually considered to be as first-line antifungal therapy for IFI. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of posaconazole salvage treatment for IFI. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with salvage antifungal treatment with posaconazole for IFI at our institution between December 2007 and July 2012. A total of ten patients received posaconazole salvage IFI. Etiology of IFI was consisting of mucormycosis (four patients), Paecilomyces variotii (one patient), and unspecified IFI etiology (five patients). Causes of posaconazole treatment were following; intolerance of previous antifungal therapy in five patients, refractory IFI on previous antifungal therapy in four patients, and both intolerance of previous antifungal therapy and refractory IFI on previous antifungal therapy in one patient. Duration of posaconazole salvage treatment ranged from 15 to 355 days with median 47 days. The overall successful posaconazole salvage treatment response rate was 80.0 % (8 of 10 patients). There were three patients who died during the study period. However, only one death was attributed to the progression of IFI. Two patients discontinued posaconazole due to adverse events. Posaconazole salvage treatment was effective antifungal therapy for IFI. Further studies are needed to define the optimal therapeutic strategy.

  7. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  8. A methodological approach to investigating a nationwide clinical specimen contamination problem in England.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, L; Campbell, C; Lamagni, T L; Johnson, E; Saei, A; Duckworth, G

    2009-06-11

    Outbreaks of pseudo-infection due to contamination of specimens have been described, often as localised incidents. From August 2006, several English hospital laboratories began to refer an unusually high number of isolates of the fungus Paecilomyces variotii from clinical specimens to the national mycology reference laboratory for microbiological testing. We describe the methods used during the outbreak investigation in order to provide infection control specialists with an overview of how such national incidents may be investigated. We surveyed the hospitals reporting the contamination problem and conducted microbiological and environmental sampling. We applied analytical epidemiology to supply chain data, comparing the supply lines of key equipment to affected and unaffected hospitals in England. The survey was useful to describe procedures and equipment in use in the hospitals reporting the problem. The microbiological aspects of the investigation helped us understand how the fungal spores were distributed in the hospital environment. In the supply chain investigation we used data that was previously only used for logistical purposes. Overall the investigation was methodologically challenging, with no existing protocol to guide the investigators. To our knowledge, this is a novel approach to the investigation of such a widespread contamination problem, affecting geographically disparate hospitals at the same time.

  9. Triazole Susceptibilities in Thermotolerant Fungal Isolates from Outdoor Air in the Seoul Capital Area in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungeun; Xu, Siyu; Bivila, Chemmeri Padasseri; Lee, Hyeyoung; Park, Myung Soo; Lim, Young Woon; Yamamoto, Naomichi

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungi resistant to triazoles are a concern because of the increased use of medical triazoles and exposure to agricultural triazoles. However, little is known about the levels of triazole susceptibility in outdoor airborne fungi making it difficult to assess the risks of inhalation exposure to airborne, antifungal-resistant fungi. This study examined triazole susceptibilities of the airborne thermotolerant fungi isolated from the ambient air of the Seoul Capital Area of South Korea. We used impactor air sampling with triazole-containing nutrient agar plates as the collection substrates to screen for airborne fungal isolates based on their triazole susceptibilities. This study estimated that 0.17% of all the culturable fungi belong to the pathogenic thermotolerant taxa, among which each isolate of Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL or greater for itraconazole. Their concentration in air was 0.4 CFU/m3. Seven human pathogenic Paecilomyces variotii isolates had MICs of 32 μg/mL or greater and lower than 2 μg/mL for the agricultural fungicide tebuconazole and the medical triazole itraconazole, respectively. Though the concentration was low, our results confirm the presence of airborne fungi with high MICs for itraconazole in ambient air. Inhalation is an important exposure route because people inhale more than 10 m3 of air each day. Vigilance is preferred over monitoring for the emergence of triazole-resistant fungal pathogens in ambient outdoor air. PMID:26405807

  10. Purification and identification of a novel antifungal protein secreted by Penicillium citrinum from the Southwest Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chao; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2014-10-01

    A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection.

  11. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA).

    PubMed

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2008-02-01

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees C or held at 5 degrees C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMA with DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  12. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms.

    PubMed

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-02-04

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m³ with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 10⁸ cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 10⁶ cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers' health.

  13. Inhibition of spoilage mould conidia by acetic acid and sorbic acid involves different modes of action, requiring modification of the classical weak-acid theory.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhardt; Archer, David B

    2009-11-30

    Fungal spoilage of many foods is prevented by weak-acid preservatives such as sorbic acid or acetic acid. We show that sorbic and acetic acids do not both inhibit cells by lowering of internal pH alone and that the "classical weak-acid theory" must be revised. The "classical weak-acid theory" suggests that all lipophilic acids with identical pK(a) values are equally effective as preservatives, causing inhibition by diffusion of molecular acids into the cell, dissociation, and subsequent acidification of the cytoplasm. Using a number of spoilage fungi from different genera, we have shown that sorbic acid was far more toxic than acetic acid, and no correlation existed between resistance to acetic acid and resistance to sorbic acid. The molar ratio of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (acetic: sorbic) was 58 for Paecilomyces variotii and 14 for Aspergillus phoenicis. Using flow cytometry on germinating conidia of Aspergillusniger, acetic acid at pH 4.0 caused an immediate decline in the mean cytoplasmic pH (pH(i)) falling from neutrality to approximately pH 4.7 at the MIC (80 mM). Sorbic acid also caused a rapid but far smaller drop in pH(i), at the MIC (4.5 mM); the pH remained above pH 6.3. Over 0-5 mM, a number of other weak acids caused a similar fall in cytoplasmic pH. It was concluded that while acetic acid inhibition of A. niger conidia was due to cytoplasmic acidification, inhibition by sorbic acid was not. A possible membrane-mediated mode of action of sorbic acid is discussed.

  14. Temperature-dependent changes in the microbial storage flora of birch and spruce sawdust.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Johanna; Leong, Su-lin L; Sandgren, Mats; Lestander, Torbjörn; Passoth, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Sawdust can be used to make pellets (biofuel) and particle boards and as a potential lignocellulose feedstock in bioethanol production. Microbial activity can affect sawdust quality; hence, we monitored the microbial population in birch- and spruce sawdust after 3 months' storage at various temperatures. Species composition was similar on both materials but was strongly influenced by temperature. Bacteria were present on all materials at all conditions: on birch, 2.8 × 10(8) , 1.1 × 10(8) , and 8.8 × 10(6) , and on spruce, 4.1 × 10(8) , 5.6 × 10(7) , and 1.5 × 10(8)  CFU/g DM, at 2, 20, and 37 °C, respectively. Dominant bacteria at 2, 20, and 37 °C were Pseudomonas spp. (some Enterobacteriaceae spp. present), Luteibacter rhizovicinus, and Fulvimonas sp., respectively. Pseudomonas spp. were absent at ≥20 °C. Among microfungi, yeasts dominated at 2 °C but were absent at 37 °C, whereas molds dominated at 20 and 37 °C. Common yeasts included Cystofilobasidium capitatum, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, Candida saitoana, Candida oregonensis, and Candida railenensis. Ophiostoma quercus was a common mold at 2 and 20 °C, whereas the human pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Paecilomyces variotii dominated at 37 °C. Attempts to influence the microflora by addition of the biocontrol yeasts, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Scheffersomyces stipitis, were unsuccessful, as their growth in sawdust was poor to absent.

  15. Development of an environmental relative moldiness index for US homes

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary; Friedman, Warren

    2007-08-01

    As part of the HUD American Healthy Survey, dust samples were collected by vacuuming 2 m2 in the bedroom plus 2 m2 in the living room of a nationally representative 1096 homes in the USA using the Mitest™ sampler. Five mg of sieved (300 µ pore, nylon mesh) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR for the 36 EPA Mold Panel Species. On this basis, an “environmental relative moldiness index” (ERMI) was created with values ranging from about -10 to 20 (lowest to highest). In order to try to reduce the cost of this analysis, the number of test species was reduced by selecting only those species with a national average concentration of 30 cell equivalents (CE) per mg dust or greater. Only 19 of 36 species met this criterion. (In 40% of the homes, an additional 46 species were quantified from the same dust sample. All of these species had average concentrations less than 30 CE per mg dust.) These 19 species were then categorized into two groups based on their coefficient of variation (CV). If the CV was > 9, the mold was placed in Category 1 (10/19) and the other molds were placed in Category 2 (9/19). Using these Categories, the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of three Category 2 molds (C. herbarum, A. alternata and C. cladosporioides Type 1) was subtracted from the sum of the log-transformed concentrations of the ten Category 1 molds (Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus, A. penicillioides, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, Chaetomium globosum, Eurotium amsteldoami, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum and Wallemia sebi). Assembling these values for the 1096 AHHS homes from lowest to highest produced the “American relative moldiness index” (ARMI). The correlation between the ERMI and ARMI values was 0.88. The ERMI or ARMI scales may be useful as a standard for mold exposure estimates in epidemiological studies.

  16. Otomycosis due to filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Aznar-Marín, Pilar; Galán-Sánchez, Fátima; García-Martos, Pedro; Marín-Casanova, Pilar; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Otomycosis is common throughout the world but barely studied in Spain. Our objective was to determine the microbiological and epidemiological characteristics of this pathology in Cadiz (Spain) between 2005 and 2010. Samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis underwent a direct microscopic examination and culture on different media for fungi and bacteria. Mycological cultures were incubated at 30°C for at least seven days. Identification of fungi was based on colonial morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure. From a total of 2,633 samples, microbial growth was present in 1,375 (52.2%) and fungal isolation in 390 (28.4%). We identified 228 yeasts and 184 filamentous fungi (13.4% of positive cultures and 47.2% of otomycosis), associated with yeasts in 22 cases (5.6%). The most frequent species were Aspergillus flavus (42.4%), A. niger (35.9%), A. fumigatus (12.5%), A. candidus (7.1%), A. terreus (1.6%), and Paecilomyces variotii (0.5%). Infection was predominant in men (54.9%) and patients beyond 55 years old (46.8%). The most common clinical symptoms were itching (98.9%), otalgia (59.3%), and hypoacusis (56.0%). Fall season reported the lowest number of cases (20.1%). Incidence of otomycosis and fungi producing otomycosis vary within the distinct geographical areas. In Cadiz, this infection is endemic due to warm temperatures, high humidity, sea bathing, and wind, which contributes to disseminate the conidia. Despite Aspergillus niger has been reported as the main causative agent, A. flavus is predominant in Cadiz. Although infection is usually detected in warm months, we observed a homogeneous occurrence of otomycosis in almost all the seasons.

  17. Evaluation of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants in Poultry Farms

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Wojewódzki, Piotr; Nowak, Adriana; Sulyok, Michael; Ligocka, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Hermann, Janusz; Gutarowska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbiological and chemical contamination in settled dust at poultry farms. The scope of research included evaluating the contributions of the various granulometric fractions in settled dust samples, assessing microbial contamination using culture methods, concentrations of secondary metabolites in dust and their cytotoxicity against hepatocyte chicken cells by means of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tests. In addition, we also evaluated the concentration of selected volatile odorous compounds (VOCs) using gas chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods and airborne dust concentration in the air with DustTrak™ DRX Aerosol Monitor. Studies were carried out on chicken broilers and laying hens at 13 poultry farms, with numbers of birds ranging from 8000 to 42,000. The airborne total dust concentration at poultry farms averaged 1.44 mg/m3 with a high percentage of the PM10 fraction (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm). Microorganism concentrations in the settled dust were: 3.2 × 109 cfu/g for bacteria and 1.2 × 106 cfu/g for fungi. Potential pathogens (Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii) were also found. Secondary metabolites included aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, 15-hydroxyculmorin zearalenone, zearalenone-sulfate, infectopyron, and neochinulin A. However, the dust samples showed weak cytotoxicity towards chicken hepatocyte cells, which ranged between 9.2% and 29.7%. Among volatile odorous compounds ammonia, acrolein, methyloamine, acetic acid, acetoaldehyde and formaldehyde were detected in the air. In conclusion, settled dust can be a carrier of microorganisms, odours and secondary metabolites in poultry farms, which can be harmful to workers’ health. PMID:26861361

  18. Potential of topic applications, leaf residues and soil drenches of the fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for management of the Diaprepes root weevil: laboratory and greenhouse investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaprepes root weevil, (DRW) Diaprepes abbreviatus is a key pest of citrus and ornamental plants in Florida and Texas. DRW larvae burrow through the soil feeding on roots which when girdled causes secondary infection of the structural roots or root crown by Phytopthora spp. wherein mature citrus tre...

  19. [The effect of infestation by mixed culture of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces farinosus on reduction in numbers of experimental culture Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zukowski, K; Bajan, C; Popowska-Nowak, E

    1999-01-01

    In this paper results of infestation of Blatella germanica L with mixed culture of insecticidal fungi belonging to one two species are presented. In the first stage of experiment the insects were infested first with B. bassiana spores and later with P. farinosus spores (strains L and P) was used as first and B. bassiana as second with time sequence of only 24 and 72 hours. Out of one species cultures tests were done alternately with strains L and P of P. farinosus. The control insects were always infested with fungi applied to cockroach in the first place. From comparison of data it results that irrespective of the time that elapsed from application of the first pathogen to the time of application of the second pathogen the number of dead individuals was always higher in experimental series than in control i.e. when only one pathogen was applied. After 30 days of experiment the highest mortality in females amounted to, 3.3% and in males--80.0% whereas in the control it amounted 6.6% and 20.0%. Respectively, after feeding on diet infested only with one pathogen. After 50 years the highest mortality amounted to 20% in females and 100% in males with control of 30% and 53.3% in meals and females, respectively. When the sequence of pathogen application was reversed, mortality after 30 day amounted to 53.3% in females and 36.7% in meals with corresponding numbers in controls beginning 26.6% and 26.6%, respectively. After elapse of 50 days the highest mortality in females was 90% and in males--100% with control showing mortality of 36.7% and 63.3% respectively. From comparison of numerical data complied in Table 1 it results that most advantageous time span between first and second infestation with fungi is 48 h. Mortality of cockroaches infested with fungi of two different species was higher than in insects infested with one species of fungi.

  20. Deterioration and spoilage of peanuts and desiccated coconuts from two sub-Saharan tropical East African countries due to the associated mycobiota and their degradative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M A

    2001-01-01

    A broad variety of fungi (84 species belonging to 36 genera) were identified with more taxa infesting peanut seed samples from two tropical countries (29 genera and 61 species) compared to those found in desiccated coconuts (20 genera and 55 species) on both DRBC and DG18 media. This may be due to the higher moisture levels in peanuts (5.07-7.97%) compared with coconuts (1.5-4.17%). More taxa and propagules were recovered on DG18 in both cases. The dominant fungi from both substrates on both isolation media were Aspergillus and Penicillium, with other fungi from only one substrate/medium. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus) dominated Kenyan samples more so than Ugandan samples on both substrates. However only 71.5% and 87.5% of the peanut kernels, on DRBC and DG18, respectively, were found to be infested with fungi. The aflatoxigenic species (A. flavus/parasiticus) were found in 75% of the samples, however only 15.75% and 13% of the kernels analyzed were infested. The most frequently isolated species from peanuts were A. niger followed by A. flavus and M. phaseolina. E. repens, E. amstelodami, E. rubrum and E. chevalieri dominated peanut seeds on DG18, and R. stolonifer, A. parasiticus, F. solani, L. theobromae and P. chrysogenum on DRBC. The mean count of fungal propagules in coconut samples were approximately 0.7 x 10(3) and 0.8 x 10(3) on DRBC and DG18, respectively, with a high proportion of those propagules recorded for the aflatoxigenic species (about 0. 17 x 10(3) and 0.25 x 10(3) colonies/g). The mycobiota of desiccated coconut was dominated by A. niger, A. flavus and P. chrysogenum. Also A. ochraceus, P. waksmanii, Paecilomyces variotii, P. islandicum and R. mucilaginosa were more frequent on DRBC, while, species of Cladosporium. Chrysosporium and Eurotium were more frequent on DG18. Enzyme indices (or the activities) for each specific strain, when determined after 5 and 8 days of incubation, proved to be similar. A recommendation is given. The

  1. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki towards entomopathogenic fungal volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Termites adjust their response to entomopathogenic fungi according to the profile of the fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study first demonstrated the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea (=Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) towards the Formosan s...

  2. Effect of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphidiinae) on the brown citrus aphid: Preliminary assessment of a compatibility study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricidus Kirkaldy (=T. citricida) is a serious pest of citrus as the vector which spreads Citrus Tristeza virus. Recently, an entomopathogenic strain of fungi, Isaria fumosorosea Wize (Ifr) (= Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) was discove...

  3. Correlation of Culture with Histopathology in Fungal Burn Wound Colonization and Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    remaining cultures grew Alternaria species, Candida albicans and Paecilo- myces species without recovery of a Zygomycete. Finally, those surgical specimens... Candida albicans only—1 Aspergillus sp + Trichosporon sp + Candida glabrata—1 Aspergillus sp + Fusarium sp + Mucor sp—1 Aspergillus sp + Fusarium sp—1...Fusarium sp + Paecilomyces sp—1 Mucor sp + Aspergillus sp—1 Alternaria sp only—1 Candida albicans only—1 Paecilomyces sp only—1 Yeast-like organisms (Yeast

  4. Fungal metabolism of n-alkylbenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1986-02-01

    Isolates of Paecilomyces, Verticillium, Beauveria, and Penicillium species were tested for ability to metabolize a variety of n-alkylbenzenes. Minimum side chain lengths were required for metabolism of these substrates. These were C/sub 4/ for the Paecilomyces sp., C/sub 8/ for the Verticillium sp., and C/sub 9/ for the other two isolates. Growth on dodecylbenzene yielded benzoic and phenylacetic acids as transient intermediates, and these acids supported growth of the isolates.

  5. Comparative research of chemical constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Panax ginseng and its endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Han, Ting; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Bao-Kang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of ether extracts of an endophytic fungus Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Panax ginseng were reported, and the comparative analysis of the constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of the ether extracts from this fungus and its host ginseng were also conducted. By means of GC/MS technique, 51 compounds of Panax ginseng and 38 compounds of Paecilomyce sp. were determined. It is attractive that the extracts derived from Paecilomyce sp. and ginseng samples contained the same compound falcarinol, a natural pesticide and anti-cancer agent. The ether extracts of Paecilomyce sp., tested at 7.8 microg/ml, completely inhibited the visible growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Furthermore, both extracts were tested against four human pathogenic fungi and showed the IC(80) of Paecilomyce sp. was 4 microg/ml against Trichophyton rubrum, equally to the control. Finally, the in vitro antitumor experience showed that the most of the IC(50) values were all being below 20 microg/ml.

  6. Occurrence of molds on laminated paperboard for aseptic packaging, selection of the most hydrogen peroxide- and heat-resistant isolates and determination of their thermal death kinetics in sterile distilled water.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Denise Aparecida; de Souza Sant'ana, Anderson; de Massaguer, Pilar Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed at enumerating molds (heat-labile and heat-resistant) on the surface of paperboard material to be filled with tomato pulps through an aseptic system and at determining the most heat- and hydrogen peroxide-resistant strains. A total of 118 samples of laminated paperboard before filling were collected, being 68 before and 50 after the hydrogen peroxide bath. Seven molds, including heat-resistant strains (Penicillium variotii and Talaromyces flavus) with counts ranging between 0.71 and 1.02 CFU/cm(2) were isolated. P. variotii was more resistant to hydrogen peroxide than T. flavus and was inactivated after heating at 85 °C/15 min. When exposed to 35 % hydrogen peroxide at 25 °C, T. flavus (F5E2) and N. fischeri (control) were less resistant than P. variotti (F1A1). P. citrinum (F7E2) was shown to be as resistant as P. variotti. The D values (the time to cause one logarithmic cycle reduction in a microbial population at a determined temperature) for spores of P. variotii (F1A1) and N. fischeri (control) with 4 months of age at 85 and 90 °C were 3.9 and 4.5 min, respectively. Although the contamination of packages was low, the presence of heat- and chemical-resistant molds may be of concern for package sterility and product stability during shelf-life. To our knowledge, this is the first report that focuses on the isolation of molds, including heat-resistant ones, contaminating paperboard packaging material and on estimating their resistance to the chemical and physical processes used for packaging sterilization.

  7. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two entomopathogenic fungi and one bacterium were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST) after exposure in liquid, and for their propensity to repel FST. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Isaria fumosorosea) strain 3581 at 109 spores/ml caused 82.5% m...

  8. Combined effect of microbial and chemical control agents on subterranean termites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subterranean termites are responsible for several billion dollars in damage in the United States annually, including control and repair costs. Formosan subterranean termites (FST) cause a large proportion of this damage. The fungus Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) has been previously shown to control...

  9. 75 FR 11171 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Sciences Group Incorporated, 1150 18th Street NW., Suite 1000, Washington, DC 20036 (on behalf of Natural... tolerance for residues of the insecticide, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus var. Apopka strain 97, in or on all... tolerance for residues of the insecticide, Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1\\T\\, in or on all...

  10. Avellanin C, an inhibitor of quorum-sensing signaling in Staphylococcus aureus, from Hamigera ingelheimensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hamigera is one of the least studied genera of Eurotiales in terms of secondary metabolism compared with metabolically prolific genera such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, Monascus and Talaromyces.1 Although thousands of metabolites are known from Aspergillus and Penicillium,2 only 20–30 ...

  11. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found affecting A. cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15 percent infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one M. anisopliae detect...

  12. Isaria poprawskii sp. nov. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitacae), a new entomopathogenic fungus from Texas affecting sweet potato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isaria poprawskii is described as a new entomopathogenic species similar to Isaria javanica (=Paecilomyces javanicus). It was discovered ont he sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), USA. Morphological and DNA examinations indicated the dist...

  13. Broad sprectrum potential of Isaria fumosorosea on insect pests of citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea, Ifr, =Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, successfully increased insect pest mortality. Spraying the Ifr containing product, PFR97 TM, on citrus seedlings was used to screen efficacy for the management of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; glassy-winge...

  14. Use of real-time O2 concentration measurements in shake-flask fermentations of the bioinsecticidal fungus Isaria fumosorosea for improved yields of blastospores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosoroseus (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. For use in spray applications as a biological control agent against insect pests, the yeast-like (blastospore) mode of growth is preferred....

  15. Sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent in pilot scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratibha

    2007-01-01

    In the present study sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatment in two step bioreactor was performed for removal of colour in the pulp and paper mill effluent. In anaerobic treatment, colour 50%, lignin 62%, COD 29%, absordable organic halides (AOX) 25% and phenol 29% were reduced in eight days. The anaerobically treated effluent was separately applied in bioreactor in presence of fungal strain, Paecilomyces sp., and bacterial strain, Microbrevis luteum. Data of study indicated reduction in colour 80%, AOX 74%, lignin 81%, COD 93% and phenol 76 per cent by Paecilomyces sp. where as Microbrevis luteum showed removal in colour 59%, lignin 71%, COD 86%, AOX 84% and phenol 88% by day third when 7 days anaerobically treated effluent was further treated by aerobic microorganisms. Change in pH of the effluent and increase in biomass of microorganism's substantiated results of the study, which was concomitant to the treatment method.

  16. Characterization and subsequent utilization of microbially solubilized coal: Preliminary studies

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nicklaus, D.M.; Woodward, C.A.; Lewis, S.N.; Faison, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    The solubilization of low-ranked coals by fungi, such as Paecilomyces and Candida, in defined submerged culture systems has been demonstrated. Current efforts focus on the characterization of the aqueous solubilized coal products and the development of technologies for their subsequent utilization. Solubilized coal products have been fractionated, and preliminary characterizations performed. Differences in product composition have been detected with respect to the organism used in culture duration. Prospects for the conversion of the aerobically-solubilized coal into less-oxidized products have been developed which can remain active and viable in the presence of the aqueous coal product or vanillin, a coal model compound. The results suggest that a methanogenic consortium was able to produce methane and carbon dioxide from the product of coal biosolubilization by Paecilomyces as a sole carbon source. Work continues on the development of cultures able to convert the aqueous coal product and its various fractions into methane or fuel alcohols. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  17. [Technical support in the testing of microoganisms for their ability to accumulate strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions]. Final reports, Task order No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-15

    This report describes the binding of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solution in a variety of microorganisms. Data is provided on the absorption by Ashbya gossyppi, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Candida sp. Ml13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scenedesmus obliqus, Streptococcus mutans, Anabaena flosaquae, Escherichia coli, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus luteus, Zoogloea ramigera, Coelastrum proboscideum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Paecilomyces marquandi, and Caulobacter fusiformis.

  18. Utilization of Methylthio-s-Triazine for Growth of Soil Fungi 1

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Don S.; Rieck, Walter L.; Lynd, J. Q.

    1970-01-01

    Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus tamarii Kita, and Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries utilized the methylthio moiety of 2,4-bis(isopropylamino) -6-methyl-mercapto-s-triazine (prometryne) as a sulfur nutrient source. Other soil fungal isolates not affected by prometryne concentrations to 1 mg/ml culture included: Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn, Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn, Trichoderma viride Persoon ex Fries, Alternaria tenuis Nees ex Corda, Penicillium funiculosum Thom, and Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. PMID:16349873

  19. Incidence of Heat-Resistant Molds in Eastern Orchards and Vineyards 1

    PubMed Central

    Splittstoesser, D. F.; Kuss, F. R.; Harrison, Wanda; Prest, Dorothy B.

    1971-01-01

    Over 70% of the samples of fruit, vegetation, and soil obtained in surveys of New York orchards and vineyards were contaminated with heat-resistant molds. The counts generally were low, under one per gram. Byssochlamys fulva was the most common isolate. Other isolates were identified as B. nivea, Paecilomyces varioti, Aspergillus fischeri, A. fischeri var. spinosus, A. fumigatus, Penicillium vermiculatum, and P. ochro-chloron. PMID:5544294

  20. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    PubMed

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  1. Comparison of preparation techniques of mixed samples (fungi-helminth eggs) for scanning electron microscopy by critical point drying.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, P L; Ciarmela, María L; Sánchez Thevenet, P; Minvielle, M C; Basualdo, J A

    2006-09-01

    We compared three preparation techniques for critical point drying of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson with Toxocara canis (Werner) Johnston and Taenia hydatigena Linneo eggs by scanning electron microscopy. We evaluated filtration (first), centrifugation (second), and phytoplankton network (third) in critical point drying methods. The first and third methods were advantageous for T. canis eggs because they preserved the quantity and quality of samples to obtain better images definition. The best technique for T. hydatigena eggs was the addition of phytoplankton network in critical point drying which preserved these helminth eggs.

  2. [Application of Bacillus-antagonists for biocontrol of fungi degrading raw wood].

    PubMed

    Melent'ev, A I; Helisto, P; Kuz'mina, L Iu; Galimzianova, N F; Aktuganov, G E; Korpela, T

    2006-01-01

    Species composition of micromycete complexes colonizing aspen, birch, and pine wood was studied. Calculation of the Sorens-Tchekanovsky similarity coefficients showed that these complexes shared a high degree of similarity. They were dominated by the representatives of the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Trichoderma, and Rhizopus. Some antagonistic bacilli inhibited growth and development of wood-decay fungi in vitro and led to the formation of spheroplasts on growing hyphae. A study of possible involvement of bacillary mycolytic enzymes in the inhibition of wood-decay fungi demonstrated selectivity of their lytic effect, which was determined by the genus and species of micromycetes and did not correlate with their relative resistance to antagonists.

  3. Histopathological clues in the diagnosis of fungal infection by Scedosporium in a case of endophthalmitis starting as conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Lopez-Medrano, Ramiro; Fuster-Foz, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Cutaneous fungal infections can result in disastrous episodes if improperly diagnosed and treated, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Although dermatopathologists are highly familiar with some filamentous fungi - such as Aspergillus and Zygomycetes - they are not so aware of other less common species. We report a case of ocular infection by Scedosporium apiospermum that started as conjunctivitis and resulted in Phthisis bulbi and subsequent exeresis of the left eye. We describe some of the main morphological features of the fungus as well as the important morphological clues for the differential diagnosis with some similar species, such as Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Zygomycetes.

  4. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  5. Mathematical modelling of the combined effect of water activity, pH and redox potential on the heat destruction.

    PubMed

    Reichart, O; Mohácsi-Farkas, C

    1994-12-01

    Heat destruction of seven foodborne microorganisms (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Yarrowia lipolytica, Paecilomyces varioti and Neosartoria fischeri) as a function of the temperature, pH, redox potential and water activity was studied in synthetic heating media. Several mathematical models were developed for describing the heat destruction rate, most of them resulted in a good correlation between the fitted and measured values. The determination coefficients of the model-fitting were the best in case of lactobacilli and moulds (0.96-0.99) and the worst in case of the yeasts (0.81-0.88).

  6. Bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Vanessa L; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. These organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an Aspergillus terreus strain ML3-1 and a Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F. Although monazite also contains the radioactive element Thorium, bioleaching by these fungi preferentially solubilized rare earth elements over Thorium, leaving the Thorium in the solid residual. Adjustments in growth media composition improved bioleaching performance measured as rare earth release. Cell-free spent medium generated during growth of A. terreus strain ML3-1 and Paecilomyces spp. strain WE3-F in the presence of monazite leached rare earths to concentrations 1.7-3.8 times those of HCl solutions of comparable pH, indicating that compounds exogenously released by these organisms contribute substantially to leaching. Organic acids released by the organisms included acetic, citric, gluconic, itaconic, oxalic, and succinic acids. Abiotic leaching with laboratory prepared solutions of these acids was not as effective as bioleaching or leaching with cell-free spent medium at releasing rare earths from monazite, indicating that compounds other than the identified organic acids contribute to leaching performance.

  7. Susceptibility of Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: vespidae) to generalist entomopathogenic fungi and their potential for wasp control.

    PubMed

    Harris, R J; Harcourt, S J; Glare, T R; Rose, E A; Nelson, T J

    2000-05-01

    The pathogenicity of Vespula vulgaris wasp workers and larvae to a range of fungi was determined. All fungi were isolated in New Zealand and included isolates from Vespula, known generalist insect pathogens, and isolates generally nonpathogenic to insects. Workers and larvae were highly susceptible to pathogenic isolates at high spore concentrations (>1.75 x 10(5) cfu/individual). Eight isolates, two of Metarhizium anisopliae, five of Beauveria bassiana, and one of Aspergillus flavus were pathogenic while a single isolate of M. flavouiride var. novazealandicum, Cladosporium sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were not. The transfer of spores between workers, and between workers and larvae, was also investigated using several different application methods. Transfer of spores occurred between treated and untreated individuals, and for some of the application methods sufficient spores were transferred to cause mortality of the nontreated individuals. These findings are related to the potential of fungi for the control of wasps.

  8. [Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].

    PubMed

    Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

    2006-01-01

    Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water.

  9. Role of Antagonistic Microorganisms and Organic Amendment in Stimulating the Defense System of Okra Against Root Rotting Fungi.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Hafiza Asma; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Without application of chemical pesticides control of soilborne diseases is a great challenge. Stimulation of natural plant's defense is considered as one of the most promising alternative strategy for crop protection. Organic amendment of soil besides direct suppressing the pathogen, has been reported to have an influence on phytochemicals in plants. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium and Paecilomyces lilacinus, an egg parasite of root knot and cysts nematodes were examined individually and in combination in soil amended with cotton cake for suppressing the root rotting fungi and stimulating the synthesis of polyphenols and improving the antioxidant status in okra. Application of P. aeruginosa and P. lilacinus in soil amended with cotton cake significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium solani with complete reduction of Rhizoctonia solani. Combine use of biocontrol agents in cotton cake amended soil showed maximum positive impact on plant growth, polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity in okra.

  10. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Walter, David Evans; Kaplan, David T.

    1990-01-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare. PMID:19287759

  11. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  12. [What is the source of mycelial fungi in expressed human milk?].

    PubMed

    Novak, Franz Reis; Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra de; Santos, Manoel J S; Wanke, Bodo

    2002-01-01

    The authors characterized the genera of mycelial fungi found in samples of expressed human milk received through home collection by the Human Milk Bank of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 821 samples of expressed human milk were taken randomly from bottles collected at home by the milk donors themselves and were investigated for molds, yeasts, and mesophilic microorganisms. The analyses showed the occurrence of molds and yeasts in 43 (5.2%) of the samples, with counts reaching 103CFU/ml. Some 48 strains of mycelial fungi were identified by standard laboratory techniques, including: Aspergillus Niger group (6.3%), Aspergillus sp. (4.2%), Paecilomyces sp. (12.6%), Penicillium sp. (60.4%), Rhizopus sp. (2.0%), and Syncephalastrum sp. (14.5%). The authors discuss the importance of donor hands' asepsis prior to collecting human milk.

  13. Diversity of keratinophilic fungi on human hairs and nails at four governorates in upper egypt.

    PubMed

    Gherbawy, Youssuf A M H; Maghraby, Thanaa A; El-Sharony, Hassan M; Hussein, Mohmaed A

    2006-12-01

    The mycobiota of 160 hair and nail samples collected from 4 different governorates in upper Egypt were estimated using soil plate method for isolating keratinophilic and dermatophytic fungi. Twenty-three fungi were recorded on both hair and nail samples collected from the four governorates. Highest fungal diversity (20) was collected from Red Sea samples followed by Qena (18) and Aswan (17) while lowest fungal diversity was recorded from Sohage samples. The common genera were Aphanoascus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Chrysosporium. The most prevalent species belonging to these genera were: A. fulvescens, Aphanoascus sp. A. flavus link, A. flavus var. columnaris, P. chrysogenium. P. lilacinus and C. sulfureum. True dermatophytes such as Nannizzia fulva appeared in 20~30% of the male samples.

  14. Antagonists of Plant-parasitic Nematodes in Florida Citrus.

    PubMed

    Walter, D E; Kaplan, D T

    1990-10-01

    In a survey of antagonists of nematodes in 27 citrus groves, each with a history of Tylenchulus semipenetrans infestation, and 17 noncitrus habitats in Florida, approximately 24 species of microbial antagonists capable of attacking vermiform stages of Radopholus citrophilus were recovered. Eleven of these microbes and a species of Pasteuria also were observed attacking vermiform stages of T. semipenetrans. Verticillium chlamydosporium, Paecilomyces lilacinus, P. marquandii, Streptomyces sp., Arthrobotrys oligospora, and Dactylella ellipsospora were found infecting T. semipenetrans egg masses. Two species of nematophagous amoebae, five species of predatory nematodes, and 29 species of nematophagous arthropods also were detected. Nematode-trapping fungi and nematophagous arthropods were common inhabitants of citrus groves with a history of citrus nematode infestation; however, obligate parasites of nematodes were rare.

  15. [Diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].

    PubMed

    Kurakov, A V; Lavrent'ev, R B; Nechitaĭlo, T Iu; Golyshin, P N; Zviagintsev, D G

    2008-01-01

    The numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of CFU per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. This group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders Hypocreales (Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum, Fusarium sp., Clonostachys grammicospora, C. rosea. Acremonium sp., Gliocladium penicilloides, Trichoderma aureoviride, T. harzianum, T. polysporum, T. viride. T. koningii, Lecanicillum lecanii, and Tolypocladium inflatum) and Eurotiales (Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, and Paecilomyces lilacimus), as well as to the phylum Zygomycota, to the order Mucorales (Actinomucor elegans, Absidia glauca, Mucor circinelloides, M. hiemalis, M. racemosus, Mucor sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Zygorrhynchus moelleri, Z. heterogamus, and Umbelopsis isabellina) and the order Mortierellales (Mortierella sp.). As much as 10-30% of the total amount of fungal mycelium remains viable for a long time (one month) under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of Central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Walmirton B; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian

    2012-08-13

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting Amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one Metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in Central Brazil from October 2009 to March 2011. Fungi were isolated from soils with Rhipicephalus sanguineus as surrogate baits. No fungi were found in ticks or soils during the driest months (May to August). Testing pathogenicity of fungi all R. sanguineus females were killed regardless of the isolate and fungi sporulated abundantly on the cadavers. A. cajennense was less susceptible to infection with P. lilacinum within 20 days than R. sanguineus. All three fungal species probably act as natural antagonists of A. cajennense particularly in the rainy season and have interest for integrate control of vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  17. Keratinophilic fungi isolated from soils of long-term fold-grazed, degraded pastures in national parks of Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Javoreková, Soňa; Labuda, Roman; Maková, Jana; Novák, Ján; Medo, Juraj; Majerčíková, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    A total of 939 isolates of 11 genera representing 15 species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated and identified from the soils of three long-term fold-grazed pastures in national parks of Slovakia (Pod Ploskou, Strungový príslop, and Pod Kečkou) and one non-fold-grazed pasture in sierra Stolicke vrchy (Diel) using the hair-baiting technique. Keratinophilic fungi were present in all soil samples with a prevalence of Trichophyton ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus. These fungi were more abundant in soil from fold-grazed pasture (Strungový príslop) compared to non-fold-grazed pasture (Diel). The occurrence of the other keratinophilic fungi was substantially lower, likely because of low pH in some soils.

  18. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-02-05

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%-99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%-92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  19. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05) removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs. PMID:24504029

  20. Composition and antimicrobial activity of fatty acids detected in the hygroscopic secretion collected from the secretory setae of larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Urbanek, Aleksandra; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Stepnowski, Piotr; Boros-Majewska, Joanna; Gabriel, Iwona; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sosnowska, Danuta; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2012-09-01

    The hygroscopic secretion produced by the secretory setae of terrestrial larvae of the biting midge Forcipomyia nigra (Winnertz) was analysed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The viscous secretion is stored at the top of each seta and absorbs water from moist air. GC-MS analyses (four independent tests) showed that the secretion contained 12 free fatty acids, the most abundant of which were oleic (18:1), palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1) and linoleic (18:2). Other acids identified were valeric (5:0), enanthic (7:0), caprylic (8:0), pelargonic (9:0), capric (10:0), lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0) and stearic (18:0). Two other compounds, glycerol and pyroglutamic acid, were also found. The antibacterial activity of the fatty acids and pyroglutamic acid was tested using the agar disc diffusion method and targeted Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram negative bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens). The antifungal activity was tested by determining minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of examined compounds. Fatty acids were tested against enthomopathogenic fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Lecanicillium lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana (Tve-N39), Beauveria bassiana (Dv-1/07)). The most effective acids against bacterial and fungal growth were C(9:0), C(10:0) and C(16:1), whereas C(14:0), C(16:0,) C(18:0) and C(18:1) demonstrated rather poor antifungal activity and did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. The antimicrobial assay investigated mixtures of fatty and pyroglutamic acids (corresponding to the results of each GC-MS test): they were found to be active against almost all the bacteria except P. fluorescens and also demonstrated certain fungistatic activity against enthomopathogenic fungi. The hygroscopic secretion facilitates cuticular respiration and plays an important role in the

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH ROTYLENCHULUS RENIFORMIS

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Juan D.; Lawrence, Kathy S.; Morgan-Jones, Gareth; Ramírez, Camilo A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification. PMID:22736864

  2. Identification of fungi associated with rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Juan D; Lawrence, Kathy S; Morgan-Jones, Gareth; Ramírez, Camilo A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this work was to isolate and identify fungi associated with R. reniformis in cotton roots. Soil samples were collected in cotton fields naturally infested with R. reniformis and from cotton stock plants cultured in the greenhouse. Nematodes extracted from the soil were observed under the stereoscope, and discolored eggs and vermiform stages colonized with mycelia were cultured on 1.5% water agar supplemented with antibiotics, and incubated at 27°C. Identification of the nematophagous fungi was based on the morphological characters, and the ITS regions and 5.8S rDNA amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The parasitism percentage on vermiform nematodes from greenhouse samples was 21.2%, and the percentages from cotton fields in Limestone, Henry, and Baldwin counties in Alabama were 3%, 23.2%, and 5.6%, respectively. A total of 12 fungi were identified from R. reniformis vermiform stages and eggs. The most frequently isolated fungi were Arthrobotrys dactyloides (46%) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (14%), followed by Phoma exigua (4.8%), Penicillium waksmanii and Dactylaria brochophaga (3.6%), Aspergillus glaucus group (2.4%). Cladosporium herbarum, Cladosporium cladiosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, Torula herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and an unidentified basidiomycete were less frequent (1.2%). A high percentage (16.8%) of fungi from colonized nematodes was not cultivable on our media. Out of those 12 fungi, only four have been previously reported as nematophagous fungi: three isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides, and one isolate of Dactylaria brochopaga, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Molecular identification of Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Dactylaria brochopaga was consistent with the morphological identification, placing these two fungi in the new genus Drechslerella as proposed in the new Orbilaceae classification.

  3. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  4. Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla and Its Damage to Lettuce Grown in a Mineral Soil Amended with Chitin and Biocontrol Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G. S.; Zuckerman, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    Chitin was used as soil amendment in fiberglass field microplots, alone or with one or a combination of two to three species of Hirsutella rhossiliensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, Verticillium chlamydosporium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Streptomyces costaricanus. Sudangrass and rapeseed were planted as cover crops and incorporated into soil as green manure amendments. Chitin amendment alone increased the marketable yield of lettuce in 1995 and reduced root-galling ratings and the reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla in both 1995 and 1996. Green manure amendments of sudangrass and rapeseed increased total and marketable yields of lettuce, and decreased root-galling ratings and the reproduction of M. hapla in 1996. Hirsutella rhossiliensis in combination with chitin increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1995. The combination of B. thuringiensis, S. costaricanus, and chitin either with or without P. marquandii increased total yield of lettuce over the chitin amendment alone in 1996. In most cases, however, the nematode-antagonistic organisms did not improve lettuce yield or further suppression of M. hapla compared to the chitin amendment alone. The introduced fungi were recoverable from the infested soil. The rifampicin-resistant mutant of B. thuringiensis was not isolated at the end of the season. PMID:19270942

  5. Plant pathogens but not antagonists change in soil fungal communities across a land abandonment gradient in a Mediterranean landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosso, L.; Lacatena, F.; Varlese, R.; Nocerino, S.; Cristinzio, G.; Russo, D.

    2017-01-01

    We assessed whether the presence and abundance of plant pathogens and antagonists change in soil fungal communities along a land abandonment gradient. The study was carried out in the Cilento area (Southern Italy) at a site with three different habitats found along a land abandonment gradient: agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. For all microbiological substrates the colony forming units were about 3.1 × 106 g-1 soil for agricultural land and about 1.1 × 106 g-1 soil for Mediterranean shrubland and woodland. We found the following genera in all habitats: Cladosporium, Mortierella, Penicillium and Trichoderma. In agricultural land, the significantly most abundant fungus genera were Aspergillus, Fusarium, Cylindrocarpon and Nectria; in Mediterranean shrubland, Rhizopus and Trichoderma; and in woodland, Bionectria, Mortierella, Cladosporium, Diplodia, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma. We found a total of 8, 8 and 9 species of fungal antagonist, and 16, 6 and 6 species of fungal plant pathogens in agricultural land, Mediterranean shrubland and woodland respectively. Fungal plant pathogens decreased significantly over a land abandonment gradient, while we no found significant differences among fungal antagonists in the three habitats. We conclude that a decrease in the number of fungal pathogen species occurs when formerly cultivated areas are abandoned. On the other hand, fungal antagonists seem not to be affected by this process.

  6. Isolation and characterization of new Metschnikowia pulcherrima strains as producers of the antimicrobial pigment pulcherrimin.

    PubMed

    Türkel, Sezai; Ener, Beyza

    2009-01-01

    Metschnikowia pulcherrima is a highly effective biocontrol yeast due to its pigment pulcherrimin that accumulates in the cells and in the growth medium. Three different strains of M. pulcherrima were isolated from local grapes. The yeast isolates were characterized on the basis of their biochemical, physiological and ITS1-5.8 s rDNA-ITS2 region. Based on the obtained results, the M. pulcherrima isolates were identified as new strains of M. pulcherrima. Strong antagonistic activities of the M. pulcherrima strains on the human pathogens Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, and Trichosporon mucoides were determined. In addition, antagonistic effects of these M. pulcherrima strains were also tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces spp., and Bipolaris spp. and it was shown that the three different strains of M. pulcherrima also have an antagonistic effect on the growth of these fungal species at different extents. This study showed that all three strains of M. pulcherrima produce the same amount of the pigment pulcherrimin, but their antimicrobial activities on different microorganisms show important variations.

  7. Fungi associated with drug recalls and rare disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Ahearn, Donald G; Doyle Stulting, R

    2014-11-01

    Fungi rarely cause disease outbreaks associated with use of microbe-contaminated drugs. These rare episodes typically involve a restricted spectrum of common environmental species with relatively low virulence, rather than classical pathogens. Review of data involving over-the-counter contact lens solutions and prescription drug-related recalls revealed six episodes during the past decade with significant adverse health and financial impact (including loss of vision and death). Contaminations involved fungi mostly identified with the genera Aspergillus, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, and Rhizopus. These organisms are noted for their capacity to produce resistant morphotypes (chlamydoconidia, ascospores) under various adverse conditions, generally with temperature survival/tolerances markedly in excess of maximal growth temperatures. High constituent levels of melanin, trehalose and heat-shock proteins facilitate differential survival of morphotypes following exposures to toxic chemicals and temperatures above 80 °C. Adverse environmental factors that induce resistant morphotypes are suggested to occur more readily in situ than during in vitro testing. Rare unexplained, sporadic drug contamination episodes with select thermotolerant fungi may relate, in part, to resistant dormant stages.

  8. Exploration of industrially important pigments from soil fungi.

    PubMed

    Akilandeswari, P; Pradeep, B V

    2016-02-01

    The worldwide interest of the current era is to increase tendency towards the use of natural substances instead of synthetic ones. So, alternative and effective environment friendly sustainable technologies are highly needed. Due to a broad range of biological activities, fungi are considered as a significant source of pigments. Among the fungal species in the soil, the genera of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Trichoderma are dominant. The pigments commonly produced by fungi belong to aromatic polyketide groups such as melanins, quinones, flavins, ankaflavin, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The use of fungal pigments has benefits which comprise easy and fast growth in the cheap culture medium and different color shades being independent of weather conditions and would be useful in various industrial applications. In relation to the toxic effects of the synthetic dyes, the natural dyes are easily degradable since they cause no detrimental effects. Thus, the study of pigments produced by soil fungi has tremendous use in medical, textile coloring, food coloring, and cosmetics.

  9. Laboratory Evaluation of Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8367 and Steinernema feltiae Ustinov against Immature Stages of the Colorado Potato Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Hany M.; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Půža, Vladimír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, has developed resistance to most registered pesticides and has become one of the most difficult insect pests to control. Development of new biopesticides targeting this pest might solve the resistance problem and contribute to sustainable crop production. Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of Isaria fumosorosea (syn. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) strain CCM 8367 against L. decemlineata when applied alone or combined with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. The last-instar larvae of the Colorado potato beetle showed the highest susceptibility to I. fumosorosea followed by pre-pupae and pupae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated to be 1.03×106 blastospores/ml. The strain CCM 8367 was more virulent, causing 92.6% mortality of larvae (LT50 = 5.0 days) compared to the reference strain Apopka 97, which caused 54.5% mortality (LT50 = 7.0 days). The combined application of the fungus with the nematodes increased the mortality up to 98.0%. The best results were obtained when S. feltiae was applied simultaneously with I. fumosorosea (LT50 = 2.0 days); later application negatively affected both the penetration rate and the development of the nematodes. We can conclude that the strain CCM 8367 of I. fumosorosea is a prospective biocontrol agent against immature stages of L. decemlineata. For higher efficacy, application together with an entomopathogenic nematode is recommended. PMID:27015633

  10. Biosafety of an entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea in an acute dermal test in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Brunner-Mendoza, Carolina; Navarro-Barranco, Hortensia; León-Mancilla, Benjamín; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Toriello, Conchita

    2017-03-01

    Isaria fumosorosea (formerly Paecilomyces fumosoroseus) is an entomopathogenic fungus that has been proposed as a low risk environmental alternative to the use of chemical insecticides to control agricultural pests and disease vectors. Although there are some mycoinsecticides already being marketed in many countries, not all their biosafety protocols have been published. The acute dermal toxicity test in an animal model is one in a series of biosafety protocols that must be developed, in order to provide information on health hazards, while taking into consideration the periods that the workers are in direct contact with the microbial agent when applied for the control of pests. For this test, we used I. fumosorosea monospore culture EH-506/3, isolated in Mexico from the Bemisia tabaci whitefly, applying a dose of 2 g/kg of animal body weight, on the shaved skin of 16 New Zealand rabbits, with an exposure time of 24 h. Clinical observations were conducted to evaluate the presence of erythema, edema and other alterations in the skin, as well as the behavior and health of the animals, for a period of 14 days. None of the rabbits showed clinical signs of any disease and their body weight corresponded to the expected weight for a healthy rabbit. The test showed no inflammatory reactions in the skin, supporting the safety of a single dose of this fungus in dermal exposure. Therefore, these data support the safety of I. fumosorosea EH-506/3 when applied to the skin.

  11. A proposed role for the cuticular fatty amides of Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) in preventing adhesion of entomopathogenic fungi with dry-conidia.

    PubMed

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Howard, Ralph W

    2004-08-01

    Maximum challenge exposure of Liposcelis bostrychophila to Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Aspergillus parasiticus or Metarhizium anisopliae resulted in no more than 16% mortality. We investigated several of L. bostrychophila's cuticular lipids for possible contributions to its tolerance for entomopathogenic fungi. Saturated C14 and C16 fatty acids did not reduce the germination rates of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia. Saturated C6 to C12 fatty acids that have not been identified in L. bostrychophila cuticular extracts significantly reduced germination, but the reduction was mitigated by the presence of stearamide. Cis-6-hexadecenal did not affect germination rates. Mycelial growth of either fungal species did not occur in the presence of caprylic acid, was reduced by the presence of lauric acid, and was not significantly affected by palmitic acid. Liposcelis bostrychophila is the only insect for which fatty acid amides have been identified as cuticular components. Stearamide, its major fatty amide, did not reduce germination of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia or growth of their mycelia. Adhesion of conidia to stearamide preparations did not differ significantly from adhesion to the cuticle of L. bostrychophila. Pretreatment of a beetle known to be fungus-susceptible, larval Oryzaephilus surinamensis, with stearamide significantly decreased adhesion of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia to their cuticles. This evidence indicates that cuticular fatty amides may contribute to L. bostrychophila's tolerance for entomopathogenic fungi by decreasing hydrophobicity and static charge, thereby reducing conidial adhesion.

  12. Oxidative ring cleavage of low chlorinated biphenyl derivatives by fungi leads to the formation of chlorinated lactone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sietmann, Rabea; Gesell, Manuela; Hammer, Elke; Schauer, Frieder

    2006-07-01

    The yeast Trichosporon mucoides and the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus as biphenyl oxidizing organisms are able to oxidize chlorinated biphenyl derivatives. Initial oxidation of derivatives chlorinated at C4 position started at the non-halogenated ring and went on up to ring cleavage. The products formed were mono- and dihydroxylated 4-chlorobiphenyls, muconic acid derivatives 2-hydroxy-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-muconic acid and 2-hydroxy-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-muconic acid as well as the corresponding lactones 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid. Altogether T. mucoides formed 12 products and P. lilacinus accumulated five products. Whereas the rate of the first oxidation step at 4-chlorobiphenyl seems to be diminished by the decreased bioavailability of the compound, no considerable differences were observed between the degradation of 4-chloro-4'-hydroxybiphenyl and 4-hydroxybiphenyl. Twofold chlorinated biphenyl derivatives did not serve as substrates for oxidation by either organism with the exception of 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl, transformed by the yeast Trichosporon mucoides to two monohydroxylated derivatives. The results show, that soil fungi may contribute to the aerobic degradation of low chlorinated biphenyls accumulating from anaerobic dehalogenation of PCB by bacteria.

  13. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  14. Identification and biodegradation potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chaillan, Frédéric; Le Flèche, Anne; Bury, Edith; Phantavong, Y-Hui; Grimont, Patrick; Saliot, Alain; Oudot, Jean

    2004-09-01

    Screening of aerobic culturable hydrocarbon (HC)-degrading microorganisms isolated from petroleum-polluted soils and cyanobacterial mats from Indonesia resulted in the collection of 33 distinct species. Eight bacteria, 21 fungi and 4 yeasts were identified to the specific level by molecular and phenotypic techniques. Bacterial strains belonged to the genera Gordonia, Brevibacterium, Aeromicrobium, Dietzia, Burkholderia and Mycobacterium. Four species are new and not yet described. Fungi belonged to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Amorphoteca, Neosartorya, Paecilomyces, Talaromyces and Graphium. Yeasts were Candida, Yarrowia and Pichia. All strains were cultivated axenically in synthetic liquid media with crude oil as sole carbon and energy source. After incubation, the detailed chemical composition of the residual oil was studied by gravimetric and gas-chromatographic techniques. Thirteen parameters for assessing the biodegradation potential were defined and computed for each strain. Maximum degradation was observed on the saturated HCs (n- and isoalkanes, isoprenoids), whereas aromatic HC degradation was lower and was related to the structural composition of the molecules. A principal components analysis (PCA) permitted grouping and classifying the strains as a function of their degradative capacities. It was shown that the most active strains produced polar metabolites which accumulated in the resins and asphaltene fractions. These fractions are highly resistant to microbial metabolism. No taxonomic trend could be defined between microbial phyla in terms of HC biodegradation activity.

  15. Microbial communities in the litter of middle taiga bilberry-spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizonenko, T. A.; Zagirova, S. V.; Khabibullina, F. M.

    2010-10-01

    The structure of the microbial communities in the litters of middle-taiga bilberry-spruce forests was studied. It was found that ammonifying and oligonitrophilic microorganisms predominate in these communities. Two maximums in the population density of the microorganisms were observed in June and August. The number of microorganisms increased in the direction from the spruce trunks to the periphery of the crowns. The species composition of the micromycetes in the litters under the spruce crowns and within the intercrown spaces differed. The maximum population density of the fungi was found in the litter under the periphery of the spruce crowns, whereas the maximum diversity of the micromycetes was observed within the intercrown spaces. The Trichoderma, Trichosporiella, Penicillium, Paecilomyces, and Chaetomium genera were most abundant in the litters of the bilberry spruce forests. The Penicillium genus had the maximum abundance during the entire growing period, and the amount of Mycelia sterilia increased in the fall. The maximum diversity of the fungi was observed in May and June.

  16. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  17. Mold contamination and air handling units.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen C; Palmatier, Robert N; Andriychuk, Larysa A; Martin, Jared M; Jumper, Cynthia A; Holder, Homer W; Straus, David C

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted on selected locations in air handling units (AHUs) to (a) identify common mold species found on these locations, (b) determine whether some locations (and subsets) featured mold growth sites more frequently than others, (c) ascertain whether the operating condition of AHUs is related to mold contamination, and (d) provide a basis for a microbial sampling protocol for AHUs. A total of 566 tape lifts and 570 swab samples were collected from the blower wheel fan blades, insulation, cooling coil fins, and ductwork from 25 AHUs. All AHU conditions were numerically rated using a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) survey. Results showed that Cladosporium sp. fungi were commonly recovered in terms of growth sites and deposited spores, and they were found mainly in the blower wheel fan blades, the ductwork, and the cooling coil fins. Subsections of the fan blades, insulation, and cooling coil fins showed no preferred area for mold growth sites. Other organisms such as Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Paecilomyces sp. were recovered from the cooling coil fins and insulation. Because of the widespread prevalence of Cladosporium sp., there was no relationship between mold growth and operating condition. However, the presence of different species of molds in locations other than the blower wheel blades may indicate that the AHU condition is not optimal. A suggested microbial sampling protocol including interpretations of sample results is presented.

  18. Pathogenesis of microbial keratitis.

    PubMed

    Lakhundi, Sahreena; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    Microbial keratitis is a sight-threatening ocular infection caused by bacteria, fungi, and protist pathogens. Epithelial defects and injuries are key predisposing factors making the eye susceptible to corneal pathogens. Among bacterial pathogens, the most common agents responsible for keratitis include Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumonia and Serratia species. Fungal agents of corneal infections include both filamentous as well as yeast, including Fusarium, Aspergillus, Phaeohyphomycetes, Curvularia, Paecilomyces, Scedosporium and Candida species, while in protists, Acanthamoeba spp. are responsible for causing ocular disease. Clinical features include redness, pain, tearing, blur vision and inflammation but symptoms vary depending on the causative agent. The underlying molecular mechanisms associated with microbial pathogenesis include virulence factors as well as the host factors that aid in the progression of keratitis, resulting in damage to the ocular tissue. The treatment therefore should focus not only on the elimination of the culprit but also on the neutralization of virulence factors to minimize the damage, in addition to repairing the damaged tissue. A complete understanding of the pathogenesis of microbial keratitis will lead to the rational development of therapeutic interventions. This is a timely review of our current understanding of the advances made in this field in a comprehensible manner. Coupled with the recently available genome sequence information and high throughput genomics technology, and the availability of innovative approaches, this will stimulate interest in this field.

  19. Moisture Sorption Behaviour and Mould Ecology of Trade Garri Sold in South Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Tochukwu; Ugwuanyi, J. Obeta

    2014-01-01

    Garri is a creamy white or yellow starchy grit produced by roasting to gelatinization and dryness of peeled, washed, mashed, and fermented dewatered cassava roots. It is the most important product of cassava in West and Central Africa. Mean moisture content of yellow and white garri was 11.11% and 10.81% within 24 hrs of sampling from the market, increasing to 17.27% and 16.14%, respectively, following 3 months of storage at room temperature. The water activity of samples varied from initial 0.587 to 0.934 following storage. Moisture sorption isotherms, determined by static gravimetric techniques at 20° and 30°C, showed temperature dependent BET Sigmoidal type II behaviour typical of carbohydrate rich foods but modulated very slightly by the content of palm oil. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. A total of 10 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Rhizopus, and Paecilomyces were identified, with range increasing with water activity of samples. PMID:26904621

  20. Production of xylooligosaccharides from the steam explosion liquor of corncobs coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis using a thermostable xylanase.

    PubMed

    Teng, Chao; Yan, Qiaojuan; Jiang, Zhengqiang; Fan, Guangsen; Shi, Bo

    2010-10-01

    The production of xylooligosaccharides (XOs) from corncobs was studied using a two-stage process based on a steam explosion pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Corncobs with different chip sizes were subjected to steam explosion under different experimental conditions of temperature and time, namely 188-204 degrees C for 2.5-7.5 min. The results indicate that corncobs were optimally steam exploded at 196 degrees C for 5 min, resulting in hemicellulose recovery of 22.8%. Especially, corncobs with large chip sizes (approximately 100 mm) during steam explosion pretreatment were suitable to produce XOs. Furthermore, a thermostable xylanase from Paecilomyces themophila J18 was used to hydrolyze steam explosion liquor of corncobs (SELC) for the production of XOs. A maximum XOs yield of 28.6 g XOs/100 g xylan in corncobs was achieved and XOs syrup contained more than 90% of xylobiose and xylotriose when the hydrolysis was carried out under the optimized conditions (pH 7.0, 70 degrees C, 7.5 U mL(-1) and 2.5 h). These results suggest that the process might be effective in production of XOs for industrial applications.

  1. Diversity of fungi from the mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest soils.

    PubMed

    Duff, Lyndon B; Urichuk, Theresa M; Hodgins, Lisa N; Young, Jocelyn R; Untereiner, Wendy A

    2016-07-01

    Culture-based methods were employed to recover 3929 isolates of fungi from soils collected in May and July 2014 from mound nests of Formica ulkei and adjacent non-nest sites. The abundance, diversity, and richness of species from nest mounds exceeded those of non-mound soils, particularly in July. Communities of fungi from mounds were more similar to those from mounds than non-mounds; this was also the case for non-mound soils with the exception of one non-mound site in July. Species of Aspergillus, Paecilomyces, and Penicillium were dominant in nest soils and represented up to 81.8% of the taxa recovered. Members of the genus Aspergillus accounted for the majority of Trichocomaceae from nests and were represented almost exclusively by Aspergillus navahoensis and Aspergillus pseudodeflectus. Dominant fungi from non-mound sites included Cladosporium cladosporioides, Geomyces pannorum, and species of Acremonium, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Phoma. Although mound nests were warmer than adjacent soils, the dominance of xerotolerant Aspergillus in soils from mounds and the isolation of the majority of Trichocomaceae at 25 and 35 °C suggests that both temperature and water availability may be determinants of fungal community structure in nests of F. ulkei.

  2. Carbon requirements of some nematophagous, entomopathogenic and mycoparasitic hyphomycetes as fungal biocontrol agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, ManHong; Liu, XingZhong

    2006-05-01

    Thirty-three carbon sources were evaluated for their effects on spore germination, hyphal growth and sporulation of 11 fungal biocontrol agents, i.e. the nematophagous fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, Pochonia chlamydosporia, Hirsutella rhossiliensis, H. minnesotensis and Arkansas Fungus 18, the entomopathogenic fungi Lecanicillium lecanii, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma viride. Variations in carbon requirements were found among the fungal species or strains tested. All strains studied except for T. viride grew on most carbon sources, although B. bassiana had more fastidious requirements for spore germination. Monosaccharides and disaccharides were suitable for fungal growth. For most isolates, D-glucose, D-mannose, sucrose and trehalose were superior to pectin and soluble starch among the polysaccharides and lactic acid among the organic acids. Both ethanol and methanol could accelerate growth of most isolates but not biomass. D-mannose, D-fructose and D-xylose were excellent carbon sources for sporulation, while D-glucose, sucrose, cellobiose, trehalose, chitin, dextrin, gelatin and lactic acid were better for some isolates. Neither sorbic acid nor linoleic acid could be utilized as a single carbon source. These findings provided a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of different fungal biocontrol agents that can benefit the mass production process.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of nematophagous fungi to antiparasitic drugs: interactions and implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J N; Maia, F S; Ferreira, G F; Mendes, J F; Gonçalves, C L; Villela, M M; Pereira, D I B; Nascente, P S

    2016-10-03

    The fast anthelmintic resistance development has shown a limited efficiency in the control of animal's endoparasitosis and has promoted research using alternative control methods. The use of chemicals in animal anthelmintic treatment, in association with nematophagous fungi used for biological control, is a strategy that has proven to be effective in reducing the nematode population density in farm animals. This study aims to verify the in vitro susceptibility of the nematophagous fungi Arthrobotrys oligospora, Duddingtonia flagrans and Paecilomyces lilacinus against the antiparasitic drugs albendazole, thiabendazole, ivermectin, levamisole and closantel by using the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). MICs ranged between 4.0 and 0.031 µg/mL for albendazole, thiabendazole and ivermectin, between 0.937 and 0.117 µg/mL for levamisole, and between 0.625 and 0.034 µg/mL for closantel. The results showed that all antiparasitic drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on nematophagous fungi, which could compromise their action as agents of biological control. D. flagrans was the most susceptible species to all drugs.

  4. Fungicide contamination reduces beneficial fungi in bee bread based on an area-wide field study in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Jajack, Andrew J; Rosselot, Andrew E; Smith, Terrance J; Yerke, Mary Clare; Sammataro, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation by fungi converts stored pollen into bee bread that is fed to honey bee larvae, Apis mellifera, so the diversity of fungi in bee bread may be related to its food value. To explore the relationship between fungicide exposure and bee bread fungi, samples of bee bread collected from bee colonies pollinating orchards from 7 locations over 2 years were analyzed for fungicide residues and fungus composition. There were detectable levels of fungicides from regions that were sprayed before bloom. An organic orchard had the highest quantity and variety of fungicides, likely due to the presence of treated orchards within bees' flight range. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Cladosporium (beneficial fungi) were the primary fungal isolates found, regardless of habitat differences. There was some variation in fungal components amongst colonies, even within the same apiary. The variable components were Absidia, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Nigrospora, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, and Trichoderma. The number of fungal isolates was reduced as an effect of fungicide contamination. Aspergillus abundance was particularly affected by increased fungicide levels, as indicated by Simpson's diversity index. Bee bread showing fungicide contamination originated from colonies, many of which showed chalkbrood symptoms.

  5. Viability of Heterodera glycines Exposed to Fungal Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in Florida were tested on J2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. Each fungal species was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and malt extract broth. No toxic activity was observed for fungi grown in Czapek-Dox broth. Filtrates from Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, and Fusarium solani grown in malt extract broth were toxic to J2, whereas filtrates from Exophiala pisciphila, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Pyrenochaeta terrestris, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and sterile fungi 1 and 2 were not toxic to J2. Filtrates of P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, and N. vasinfecta grown in malt extract broth reduced egg viability, whereas F. oxysporum and P. terrestris filtrates had no effect on egg viability. PMID:19270965

  6. Clarification of generic and species boundaries for Metarhizium and related fungi through multigene phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Ryan M; Humber, Richard A; Bischoff, Joseph F; Rehner, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The genus Metarhizium historically refers to green-spored asexual insect pathogenic fungi. Through culturing and molecular methods, Metarhizium has been linked to Metacordyceps sexual states. Historically fungal nomenclature has allowed separate names for the different life stages of pleomorphic fungi. However, with the move to one name for one fungus regardless of life stage, there is a need to determine which name is correct. For Metarhizium the situation is complicated by the fact that Metacordyceps sexual states are interspersed among additional asexual genera, including Pochonia, Nomuraea and Paecilomyces. Metarhizium has priority as the earliest available name, but delimiting the boundaries of this genus remains problematic. To clarify relationships among these taxa we have obtained representative material for each genus and established a molecular dataset of the protein-coding genes BTUB, RPB1, RPB2 and TEF. The resulting phylogeny supports Metarhizium combining the majority of species recognized in Metacordyceps as well as the green-spored Nomuraea species and those in the more recently described genus Chamaeleomyces. Pochonia is polyphyletic, and we restrict the definition of this genus to those species forming a monophyletic clade with P. chlamydosporia, and the excluded species are transferred to Metapochonia gen. nov. It is our hope that this unified concept of sexual and asexual states in Metarhizium will foster advances in communication and understanding the unique ecologies of the associated species.

  7. Fungi outcompete bacteria under increased uranium concentration in culture media.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-06-01

    As a key part of water management at the Ranger Uranium Mine (Northern Territory, Australia), stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water was applied to natural woodland on the mine lease in accordance with regulatory requirements. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium concentrations. Soil samples were collected from LAAs with different concentrations of uranium and extracts were plated onto LB media containing no (0 ppm), low (3 ppm), medium (250 ppm), high (600 ppm) and very high (1500 ppm) uranium concentrations. These concentrations were similar to the range of measured uranium concentrations in the LAAs soils. Bacteria grew on all plates except for the very high uranium concentrations, where only fungi were recovered. Identifications based on bacterial 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus. Members of the genera Paenibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Klebsiella, Microbacterium and Chryseobacterium were also isolated from the LAAs soil samples. Fungi were identified by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region, and members of the genera Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Penicillium and Curvularia were dominant on plates with very high uranium concentrations. Members of the Paecilomyces and Alternaria were also present but in lower numbers. These findings indicate that fungi can tolerate very high concentrations of uranium and are more resistant than bacteria. Bacteria and fungi isolated at the Ranger LAAs from soils with high concentrations of uranium may have uranium binding capability and hence the potential for uranium bioremediation.

  8. Protective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris on alcoholic hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Ahn, Hee-Young; Cho, Young-Su; Je, Jae-Young

    2013-10-01

    This study was to investigate the protective effect of cordycepin-enriched Cordyceps militaris against alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol-feeding rats were fed diets with Paecilomyces japonica as CPJ group, C. militaris as CCM group, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris as CCMα group at the 3% (w/w) level and silymarin at the 0.1% (w/w) level for 4 weeks. Alcohol administration resulted in a significant increase in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the levels of blood alcohol and acetaldehyde in serum. However, CCMα group markedly prevented from alcohol-induced elevation of these parameters in serum. CCMα group showed the increased both hepatic activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Unlike the action of alcohol treatment on alcoholic fatty liver, CCMα group was also attenuated lipid droplet accumulation in the hepatocytes. Present study was also confirmed the beneficial roles of silymarin (hepatoprotective agent) against alcohol-induced liver injury in rats. Therefore, cordycepin-enriched C. militaris can be a promising candidate to prevent from alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity.

  9. Topical voriconazole therapy of Purpureocillium lilacinum keratitis that occurred in disposable soft contact lens wearers.

    PubMed

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Yamada, Norihiro; Fukuchi, Mariko; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe 2 cases of keratitis caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) that occurred in disposable contact lens users, which were successfully treated with topical voriconazole. Case 1 was a healthy 44-year-old woman, who wore weekly disposable contact lenses and had developed a superficial corneal infection in her right eye. For diagnosis, corneal scraping and molecular identification of the cultured pathogen were performed. A corneal smear revealed the presence of fungi. The pathogen was identified as P. lilacinum by traditional morphological identification of fungal culture, and this identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. Therapy with topical fluconazole, topical pimaricin (natamycin), and oral itraconazole were ineffective. Topical voriconazole showed a significant effect, and the keratitis was successfully treated. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman with bilateral recurrent peripheral corneal ulcers by meibomian gland dysfunction, who used therapeutic bandage contact lenses on her left eye. However, a corneal abscess with hypopyon occurred in the eye after 3 months. The microbial smear examination showed the presence of fungi and the fungal culture, and the DNA sequence of ITS region revealed that the causative agent was P. lilacinum. The susceptibility testing against antifungal agents showed that voriconazole was effective. The lesion improved gradually by topical voriconazole. As a conclusion, P. lilacinum keratitis can occur in disposable soft contact lens wearer. Early and accurate detection of the pathogenic organism is essential. Topical voriconazole was effective against P. lilacinum keratitis.

  10. Fungal survival during anaerobic digestion of organic household waste.

    PubMed

    Schnürer, Anna; Schnürer, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste yields energy rich biogas and retains nutrients (N, P, K, S, etc.) in a stabilised residue. For the residue to be used as a soil fertiliser, it must be free from pollutants and harmful microorganisms. Fungal survival during sanitation and anaerobic treatment of source-separated organic household waste and during aerobic storage of the residue obtained was investigated. Decimal reduction times were determined for inoculated fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizomucor pusillus, Thermoascus crustaceus and Thermomyces lanuginosus). Several different fungal species were found after waste sanitation treatment (70 degrees C, 1 h), with Aspergillus species dominating in non-inoculated waste. Anaerobic waste degradation decreased the diversity of fungal species for processes run at both 37 and 55 degrees C, but not total fungal colony forming units. Fungi surviving the mesophilic anaerobic digestion were mainly thermotolerant Talaromyces and Paecilomyces species. T. crustaceus and T. lanuginosus were the only inoculated fungi to survive the thermophilic anaerobic degradation process. Aerobic storage of both types of anaerobic residues for one month significantly decreased fungal counts.

  11. In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Nikkomycin Z in Combination with Fluconazole or Itraconazole

    PubMed Central

    Li, R. K.; Rinaldi, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    Nikkomycins are nucleoside-peptide antibiotics produced by Streptomyces species with antifungal activities through the inhibition of chitin synthesis. We investigated the antifungal activities of nikkomycin Z alone and in combination with fluconazole and itraconazole. Checkerboard synergy studies were carried out by a macrobroth dilution procedure with RPMI 1640 medium at pH 6.0. At least 10 strains of the following fungi were tested: Candida albicans, other Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides immitis, Aspergillus spp., and dematiacious fungi (including Exophiala jeanselmei, Exophiala spinifera, Bipolaris spicifera, Wangiella dermatitidis, Ochroconis humicola, Phaeoannellomyces werneckii, and Cladophialophora bantiana), and 2 strains each of Fusarium, Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, and Trichoderma spp. A total of 110 isolates were examined. Inocula of fungal elements were standardized by hemacytometer counting or spectrophotometrically. MICs and minimum lethal concentrations (MLCs) were determined visually by comparison of growth in drug-treated tubes with growth in drug-free control tubes. Additive and synergistic interactions between nikkomycin and either fluconazole or itraconazole were observed against C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Coccidioides immitis. Marked synergism was also observed between nikkomycin and itraconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. No antagonistic interaction between the drugs was observed with any of the strains tested. PMID:10348760

  12. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    de Aguirre, Liliana; Hurst, Steven F.; Choi, Jong Soo; Shin, Jong Hee; Hinrikson, Hans Peter; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor, differentiated 41 isolates (3 to 9 each of the respective species; P < 0.001) in a PCR-EIA detection matrix and gave no false-positive reactions with 33 species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Candida, Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, or other aspergilli tested. A single DNA probe to detect all seven of the most medically important Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus, and A. versicolor) was also designed. Identification of Aspergillus species was accomplished within a single day by the PCR-EIA, and as little as 0.5 pg of fungal DNA could be detected by this system. In addition, fungal DNA extracted from tissues of experimentally infected rabbits was successfully amplified and identified using the PCR-EIA system. This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species and for their differentiation from other opportunistic fungi. PMID:15297489

  13. Susceptibility of biological stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, to entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes)

    PubMed Central

    Angel-Sahagún, C. A.; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R.; Molina-Ochoa, J.; Galindo-Velasco, E.; López-Edwards, M.; Rebolledo-Domínguez, O.; Cruz-Vázquez, C.; Reyes-Velázquez, W. P.; Skoda, S. R.; Foster, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The susceptibility of the egg, pupa, and adult of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) to isolates of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Groups of 20 eggs than 4 h old, pupae less than 48h old and adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension of each isolate. Eggs, pupae and adults of horn fly were susceptible to these entomopathogenic fungi. For treated eggs, the isolates Ma3, Ma 15, Ma25, Pfr1, and Pfr8 reduced adult emergence to 3.8% to 6.3% in comparison with the control (72%). The mortality of pupae infected by the isolates Ma2, Ma25, and Pfr10 ranged between 50% and 71.3%. Mortality of adults after treatment with the isolates Ma6, Ma 10, Ma 14, Ma 15, Pfr 1, Pfr 9, Pfr 10, Pfr 11, and Pfr12 were higher than 90%. The isolate Ma6 produced the lowest LC50 against adult horn flies (8.08 × 102conidia/ml). These findings supported the hypotheses that isolates of M. anisopliae, and P. fumosoroseus are pathogenic against the different biological stages of horn flies by reducing adult emergence when applied on groups of eggs and pupae, and producing mortality when applied to adults. PMID:17119632

  14. Autoradiographic method to screen for soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Zamani, B.; Knezek, B.D.; Flegler, S.L.; Beneke, E.S.; Dazzo, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    An autoradiographic method was developed to screen for and isolate soil microorganisms which accumulate zinc (ZN). Diluted soil samples (pH 5.9) were plated on soil extract-glucose agar containing radioactive /sup 65/Zn. After 7 days of incubation, individual colonies which accumulated sufficient /sup 65/Zn could be detected by autoradiography. These colonies were isolated and confirmed as Zn accumulators in pure culture by using the autoradiographic plate technique. Most Zn accumulators were filamentous fungi, identified as Penicillium janthinellum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Paecilomyces sp. Isolates of Penicillium janthinellum were the most common Zn accumulators. The most abundant Zn-accumulating bacteria were Bacillus spp. The validity of the autoradiographic plate technique to differentiate soil microbes which accumulate Zn was examined independently by energy dispersive X-ray analysis in a scanning electron microscope. This method confirmed that fungal isolates which gave positive autoradiographic responses in the plate assay bioaccumulated more Zn in their biomass than fungal isolates from the same soil sample which gave negative autoradiographic responses. Thus, this technique can be applied to specifically screen for and isolate microbes from the environment which bioaccumulate Zn.

  15. Pathogenicity and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia caused by Aphanomyces laevis and Phoma herbarum isolated from farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Ali, Esam H; Hashem, Mohamed; Al-Salahy, M Bassam

    2011-03-16

    Identified (n = 17) and unidentified (n = 1) fish-pathogenic fungal species from 10 genera of Oomycetes and soil fungi were isolated from 40 infected freshwater fish samples of the species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Nile tilapia) and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish). Samples were collected from various fish farms in the Nile Delta, Egypt. Nile tilapia were tested in aquaria for their susceptibility to the commonest Oomycetes species, Aphanomyces laevis and Achlya klebsiana, and also against the 2 most prevalent pathogenic soil fungi, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Phoma herbarum. Two techniques were used: water bath exposure and intramuscular (subcutaneous) injection. Water bath exposure to the 2 species of Oomycetes caused greater mortalities of O. niloticus niloticus than intramuscular injection, but the reverse was true of the soil fungal species. Regardless of the infection method, the 2 Oomycetes species were more potent pathogens than the soil fungal species. In both gills and mytomal muscles of fish infected by A. laevis and P. herbarum, we measured and compared with controls the oxidative stress parameters total peroxide (TP), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as levels of the antioxidants vitamin E and glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Infection by these 2 fungal species through either spore suspension or spore injection significantly increased oxidative damage in gills and induced marked decrease in most studied antioxidants. In addition, both routes showed similar effects and A. laevis depressed the antioxidants CAT, vitamin E and GSH more than P. herbarum.

  16. Rapid assessment of antimould efficacies of pressure-treated southern pine.

    PubMed

    Price, D; Drago, G; Noble, J; Simmons, R; Crow, S; Ahearn, D

    2002-12-01

    A membrane-screening method was developed in conjunction with flow cytometric (FC) analysis for determining the efficacies of antimould pressure-treatment formulations for mould species of cosmetic significance on southern pine. Fusarium subglutinans, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Paecilomyces spp. were the predominant moulds colonizing surfaces of the variously treated pine stored in sealed plastic bags over 3- to 6-month periods. Nylon membranes placed directly on pressure-treated pine and membranes saturated with the various formulations were inoculated with the conidia of selected moulds. FC analysis of conidia stained with propidium iodide (PI) before and after exposure to the pressure-treatment formulations permitted a rapid assessment of the inocula and selection of those pressure-treatment formulations with probable inhibitory activity versus probable nonactive preparations. Recoveries of the fungi from the membranes over 9-14 days were in general agreement with the emergence of colonizing fungi on the similarly preserved uninoculated pine stored in sealed plastic bags for 6 months. This combination of procedures provided for a relatively rapid assessment of preservative formulations designed to provide enhanced efficacy against surface mould growth on lumber during storage and retail display.

  17. Isolation and identification of Geosmithia argillacea from a fungal ball in the lung of a tuberculosis patient.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Ji Yeon; Jang, Mi-Ae; Lee, Jang Ho; Park, Kyung Sun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2013-03-01

    Geosmithia argillacea, an anamorph of Talaromyces eburneus, is a thermophilic filamentous fungus that has a phenotype similar to that of the Penicillium species, except for the creamy-white colonies and cylindrical conidia. Recently, a new genus called Rasamsonia has been proposed, which is to accommodate the Talaromyces and Geosmithia species. Here, we report the first Korean case of G. argillacea isolated from a patient with a fungal ball. The patient was a 44-yr-old Korean man with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and aspergilloma. The newly developed fungal ball in his lung was removed and cultured to identify the fungus. The fungal colonies were white and slow-growing, and the filaments resembled those of Penicillium. Molecular identification was carried out by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the 28S rDNA and the β-tubulin genes. A comparative sequence analysis using the GenBank (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) database was performed with the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) algorithm. The results revealed a 97-100% similarity with the G. argillacea ITS sequence. This case should increase awareness among physicians about the pathogenic potential of G. argillacea in humans and help them accurately identify this fungus, because it can be easily confused with Penicillium and Paecilomyces species owing to their similar phenotypic and microscopic characteristics. A molecular approach should be employed to enable accurate identification of G. argillacea.

  18. Disseminated fungal infection in two species of captive sharks.

    PubMed

    Marancik, David P; Berliner, Aimee L; Cavin, Julie M; Clauss, Tonya M; Dove, Alistair D M; Sutton, Deanna A; Wickes, Brian L; Camus, Alvin C

    2011-12-01

    In this report, two cases of systemic mycosis in captive sharks are characterized. These cases were progressive and ultimately culminated in terminal disease. Paecilomyces lilacinus, an uncommon pathogen in human and veterinary medicine, was associated with areas of necrosis in the liver, heart, and gill in a great hammerhead shark (Sphyrna mokarran). Fungal growth was observed from samples of kidney, spleen, spinal fluid, and coelomic cavity swabs. Dual fungal infection by Exophiala pisciphila and Mucor circinelloides was diagnosed in a juvenile zebra shark (Stegostoma fasciatum). Both fungi were present in the liver, with more severe tissue destruction associated with E. pisciphila. E. pisciphila also produced significant necrosis in the spleen and gill, while M. circinelloides was associated with only minimal tissue changes in the heart. Fungal cultures from liver, kidney, and spleen were positive for both E. pisciphila and M. circinelloides. Identification of P. lilacinus and M. circinelloides was based on colonial and hyphal morphology. E. pisciphila was identified by sequence analysis of the 28S rRNA D1/D2 region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region between the 18S and 28S rRNA subunit. These cases, and a lack of information in the literature, highlight the need for further research and diagnostic sampling to further characterize the host-pathogen interaction between elasmobranchs and fungi.

  19. Amplicon-based metagenomics identified candidate organisms in soils that caused yield decline in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiangming; Passey, Thomas; Wei, Feng; Saville, Robert; Harrison, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    A phenomenon of yield decline due to weak plant growth in strawberry was recently observed in non-chemo-fumigated soils, which was not associated with the soil fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, the main target of fumigation. Amplicon-based metagenomics was used to profile soil microbiota in order to identify microbial organisms that may have caused the yield decline. A total of 36 soil samples were obtained in 2013 and 2014 from four sites for metagenomic studies; two of the four sites had a yield-decline problem, the other two did not. More than 2000 fungal or bacterial operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were found in these samples. Relative abundance of individual OTUs was statistically compared for differences between samples from sites with or without yield decline. A total of 721 individual comparisons were statistically significant – involving 366 unique bacterial and 44 unique fungal OTUs. Based on further selection criteria, we focused on 34 bacterial and 17 fungal OTUs and found that yield decline resulted probably from one or more of the following four factors: (1) low abundance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas populations, which are well known for their ability of supressing pathogen development and/or promoting plant growth; (2) lack of the nematophagous fungus (Paecilomyces species); (3) a high level of two non-specific fungal root rot pathogens; and (4) wet soil conditions. This study demonstrated the usefulness of an amplicon-based metagenomics approach to profile soil microbiota and to detect differential abundance in microbes. PMID:26504572

  20. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China

    PubMed Central

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  1. Atrazine degradation by fungal co-culture enzyme extracts under different soil conditions.

    PubMed

    Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the atrazine degradation by fungal enzyme extracts (FEEs) in a clay-loam soil microcosm contaminated at field application rate (5 μg g(-1)) and to study the influence of different soil microcosm conditions, including the effect of soil sterilization, water holding capacity, soil pH and type of FEEs used in atrazine degradation through a 2(4) factorial experimental design. The Trametes maxima-Paecilomyces carneus co-culture extract contained more laccase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content (laccase = 18956.0 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 6.2 mg L(-1)) than the T. maxima monoculture extract (laccase = 12866.7 U mg protein(-1), H2O2 = 4.0 mg L(-1)). Both extracts were able to degrade atrazine at 100%; however, the T. maxima monoculture extract (0.32 h) achieved a lower half-degradation time than its co-culture with P. carneus (1.2 h). The FEE type (p = 0.03) and soil pH (p = 0.01) significantly affected atrazine degradation. The best degradation rate was achieved by the T. maxima monoculture extract in an acid soil (pH = 4.86). This study demonstrated that both the monoculture extracts of the native strain T. maxima and its co-culture with P. carneus can efficiently and quickly degrade atrazine in clay-loam soils.

  2. Evolution of fungal population and mycotoxins in sorghum silage.

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    2016-12-01

    Silage, one of the most important feed sources for cattle, is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage moulds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of this study was to identify the mycobiota of sorghum silages, to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins, and to correlate these results with physical parameters of the silage. A total of 275 samples of sorghum were collected from dairy farms in the south-west region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The presence of fungi was observed in all of the sorghum samples with values varying from 0.2 × 10(4) to 4085 × 10(4) UFC g(-1). Significant difference were detected in the total number of fungi during the storage period; at six months there is a high risk of fungal spoilage. The most frequent genera isolated from sorghum samples were Penicillium (70%), Aspergillus (65%), Absidia (40%), Fusarium (35%), Paecilomyces (35%) and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Gliocadium and Mucor (30%). The toxigenic species most frequently found were Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium nygamai. Only two samples were contaminated by AFB1 with levels of 1 and 14 µg kg(-1). Fumonisin was detected in 40% of freshly harvest samples with levels ranged from 533 µg kg(-1) to 933 µg kg(-1). The use of silo bags seems to be an effective tool to store sorghum. However, the presence of toxigenic fungi show that regular screening for mycotoxins levels in silages must be performed to avoid the exposure of animals to contaminated feed and the introduction of these compounds into the food chain.

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi from 'El Eden' Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Barragán; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Alatorre, Raquel; Toriello, Conchita

    2004-07-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. These fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. No pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. In contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural area were considered important pests by the local farmers, with the whitefly, as the most relevant, plentiful in Cucurbitaceae plants. From approximately 3400 collected insects in three different surveys, different anamorphic Ascomycetes were recovered. One isolate of Aspergillus sp., two of Penicillium sp., three of Paecilomyces marquandii, and three of Verticillium sp. out of 308 insects (2.9%) from three insect orders, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Isoptera in the tropical forest. In contrast, a higher number of fungal isolates were recovered from the agricultural area: three isolates from Aspergillus parasiticus, 100 of Fusarium moniliforme, one of Aschersonia sp., and 246 of Fusarium oxysporum out of 3100 insects (11.3%) from three insect orders, Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The results of this study show Fusarium moniliforme and F oxysporum as highly virulent to infected insects in the agricultural area, with 100 and 246 isolates respectively, out of 350 infected insects of 3100 studied specimens. Laboratory whitefly nymph bioassays with isolates Ed29a of F. moniliforme, Ed322 of F. oxysporum, and Ed22 of P marquandii showed 96 to 97.5% insect mortality with no significant differences (P < 0.05) among them. F. oxysporum Ed322 produced no mortality when inoculated on tomato, bean, squash and maize seedlings (with and without injuries) compared to the 100% mortality caused by phytopathogenic strains, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis

  4. Phylogenetic diversity of culturable fungi in the Heshang Cave, central China.

    PubMed

    Man, Baiying; Wang, Hongmei; Xiang, Xing; Wang, Ruicheng; Yun, Yuan; Gong, Linfeng

    2015-01-01

    Caves are nutrient-limited and dark subterranean ecosystems. To date, attention has been focused on geological research of caves in China, whilst indigenous microbial diversity has been insufficiently characterized. Here, we report the fungal diversity in the pristine, oligotrophic, karst Heshang Cave, central China, using a culture-dependent method coupled with the analysis of the fungal rRNA-ITS gene sequences. A total of 194 isolates were obtained with six different media from 14 sampling sites of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the 194 sequenced isolates into 33 genera within 15 orders of three phyla, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota, indicating a high degree of fungal diversity in the Heshang Cave. Notably, 16 out of the 36 fungal genera were also frequently observed in solution caves around the world and 23 genera were previously found in carbonate cave, indicating potential similarities among fungal communities in cave ecosystems. However, 10 genera in this study were not reported previously in any solution caves, thus expanding our knowledge about fungal diversity in cave ecosystems. Moreover, culturable fungal diversity varied from one habitat to another within the cave, being the highest in sediments, followed by weathered rocks and bat guanos as indicated by α-diversity indexes. At the genus level, Penicillium accounted for 40, 54, and 52% in three habitats of sediments, weathered rocks, and bat guanos, respectively. Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, and Aspergillus accounted for 9, 22, and 37% in the above habitats, correspondingly. Despite of the dominance of Penicillium in all samples, β-diversity index indicated significant differences between each two fungal communities in the three habitats in view of both the composition and abundance. Our study is the first report on fungal communities in a natural pristine solution cave system in central China and sheds light on fungal diversity and functions in

  5. Mycobiota of ground red pepper and their aflatoxigenic potential.

    PubMed

    Ham, Hyeonheui; Kim, Sosoo; Kim, Min-Hee; Lee, Soohyung; Hong, Sung Kee; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Lee, Theresa

    2016-12-01

    To investigate contamination of ground red pepper with fungi and mycotoxin, we obtained 30 ground red pepper samples from 15 manufacturers in the main chili-pepper-producing areas in Korea. Fungal contamination was evaluated by spreading diluted samples on potato dextrose agar plates. The total fungi counts ranged from 0 to 7.3 × 10(3) CFU/g. In the samples, the genus Aspergillus had the highest incidence, while Paecilomyces was isolated most frequently. The next most frequent genera were Rhizopus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria. Within Aspergillus, A. ruber was predominant, followed by A. niger, A. amstelodami, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and citrinin by ultra-perfomance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with a fluorescence detector. Ochratoxin A was detected from three samples at 1.03‒2.08 μg/kg, whereas no aflatoxins or citrinin were detected. To test the potential of fungal isolates to produce aflatoxin, we performed a PCR assay that screened for the norB-cypA gene for 64 Aspergillus isolates. As a result, a single 800-bp band was amplified from 10 A. flavus isolates, and one Aspergillus sp. isolate. UPLC analyses confirmed aflatoxin production by nine A. flavus isolates and one Aspergillus sp. isolate, which produced total aflatoxins at 146.88‒909.53 μg/kg. This indicates that continuous monitoring of ground red pepper for toxigenic fungi is necessary to minimize mycotoxin contamination.

  6. Impact of Biocontrol Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and a Genetically Modified Derivative on the Diversity of Culturable Fungi in the Cucumber Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Girlanda, M.; Perotto, S.; Moenne-Loccoz, Y.; Bergero, R.; Lazzari, A.; Defago, G.; Bonfante, P.; Luppi, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of Pseudomonas biocontrol inoculants on nontarget rhizosphere fungi. This issue was addressed using the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0-Rif, which produces the antimicrobial polyketides 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (Phl) and pyoluteorin (Plt) and protects cucumber from several fungal pathogens, including Pythium spp., as well as the genetically modified derivative CHA0-Rif(pME3424). Strain CHA0-Rif(pME3424) overproduces Phl and Plt and displays improved biocontrol efficacy compared with CHA0-Rif. Cucumber was grown repeatedly in the same soil, which was left uninoculated, was inoculated with CHA0-Rif or CHA0-Rif(pME3424), or was treated with the fungicide metalaxyl (Ridomil). Treatments were applied to soil at the start of each 32-day-long cucumber growth cycle, and their effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere populations of culturable fungi were assessed at the end of the first and fifth cycles. Over 11,000 colonies were studied and assigned to 105 fungal species (plus several sterile morphotypes). The most frequently isolated fungal species (mainly belonging to the genera Paecilomyces, Phialocephala, Fusarium, Gliocladium, Penicillium, Mortierella, Verticillium, Trichoderma, Staphylotrichum, Coniothyrium, Cylindrocarpon, Myrothecium, and Monocillium) were common in the four treatments, and no fungal species was totally suppressed or found exclusively following one particular treatment. However, in each of the two growth cycles studied, significant differences were found between treatments (e.g., between the control and the other treatments and/or between the two inoculation treatments) using discriminant analysis. Despite these differences in the composition and/or relative abundance of species in the fungal community, treatments had no effect on species diversity indices, and species abundance distributions fit the truncated lognormal function in most cases. In addition, the impact of treatments at the 32-day

  7. [The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of microscopic mycelial fungi isolated from habitats with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Aslanidi, K B; Karpenko, Iu V; Belozerskaia, T A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide ( 10(-9)-10(-1) M) on the mycelial growth of the fungi Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Mucor hiemalis, and Paecilomyces lilacinus has been studied. The growth of fungi isolated from habitats with a background level of radioactive contamination was stopped by H2O2 concentrations equal to 10(-3) and 10(-2) M, whereas the growth of fungi that were isolated from habitats with high levels of radioactive contamination was only arrested by 10(-1) M H2O2. The response of the different fungi to hydrogen peroxide was of three types: (1) a constant growth rate of fungal hyphae at H2O2 concentrations between 10(-9) and 10(-4) M and a decrease in this rate at 10(-3) M H2O2, (2) a gradual decrease in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased, and (3) an increase in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased from 10(-7) to 10(2)-5 M. The melanin-containing species A. alternata and C. cladosporioides exhibited all three types of growth response to hydrogen peroxide, whereas the light-pigmented species M. hiemalis and P. lilacinus showed only the first type of growth response. A concentration of hydrogen peroxide equal to 10(-1) M was found to be lethal to all of the fungi studied. The most resistant to hydrogen peroxide was found to be the strain A. alternata 56, isolated from the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  8. Indoor air quality during renovation actions: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hameed, A A; Yasser, I H; Khoder, I M

    2004-09-01

    A temporary renovation activity releases considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, viable and non-viable, into air. These pollutants are a potential contributor to unacceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Particulate matter and its constituents lead, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and fungi as well as fungal spores in air were evaluated in a building during renovation action. Suspended dust was recorded at a mean value of 6.1 mg m(-3) which exceeded the Egyptian limit values for indoor air (0.15 mg m(-3)) and occupational environments (5 mg m(-3)). The highest particle frequency (23%) of aerodynamic diameter (dae) was 1.7 microm. Particulate sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), chloride (Cl(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and lead components of suspended dust averaged 2960, 28, 1350, 100 and 13.3 microg m(-3), respectively. Viable fungi associated with suspended dust and that in air averaged 1.11 x 10(6) colony forming unit per gram (cfu g(-1)) and 92 colony forming unit per plate per hour (cfu p(-1) h(-1)), respectively. Cladosporium(33%), Aspergillus(25.6%), Alternaria(11.2%) and Penicillium(6.6%) were the most frequent fungal genera in air, whereas Aspergillus(56.8%), Penicillium(10.3%) and Eurotium(10.3%) were the most common fungal genera associated with suspended dust. The detection of Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Exophiala, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, Ulocladium and Trichoderma is an indication of moisture-damaged building materials. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Scopulariopsis and Nigrospora have dae > 5 microm whereas Aspergillus, Penicillium and Verticillium have dae < 5 microm which are suited to penetrate deeply into lungs. Particulate matter from the working area infiltrates the occupied zones if precautionary measures are inadequate. This may cause deterioration of IAQ, discomfort and acute health problems. Renovation should be carefully designed and managed, in order to minimize degradation of the indoor and outdoor air

  9. EFFECTS OF SOME BIOINSECTICIDES AND ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA L.).

    PubMed

    Öztürk, H E; Güven, Ö; Karaca, I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, biological activity of entomopathogenic fungi (4 strains) isolated from the Colorado potato beetle and the commercial biopesticides containing entomopathogenic fungi; Priority® (Paecilomyces fumosoroseus), Nibortem® (Verticillium lecanii), Nostalgist® (Beauveria bassiana), Bio-Magic* (Metarhizium anisopliae), Bio-Nematon* (Paeciliomyces sp.) and plant extracts; Nimbedicine EC* (Azadiractin) were determined against Leptinotarsa decemlineata under laboratory conditions. An Imidacloprid active ingredient commercial insecticide was also used to compare the insecticidal activity and distilled water was used as control. The biological control agents were applied to 2nd-3rd larval instars, 4th larval instars and adults with spray and leaf dipping methods. Single concentration (10⁸ conidia/mL⁻¹) of entomopathogenic fungi and recommended dose of bioinsecticides were prepared for application. The number of dead insects were determined at 3, 5, and 7 days after applications. Experiments were conducted at 25 ±1° C and 60% ± 5 relative humidity with 16:8 h light: dark conditions. Entomopathogenic fungi and bioinsecticides were found to be more effective on larval stage than 4th larval instars and adults. In spray methods, Bio-Magic®, Nibortem®, and Nostalgist® caused 96.4%, 92.9% and 82.1% mortality on 2nd larval instars and 20%, 36.7% and 33.3% mortality on adults, respectively. All local fungal isolates (B. bassiana) applied on 2nd and 4th larval instars caused 100% mortality. Adults showed 58.6-86.2% mortality.

  10. THE ROLE FUNGI AND YEAST IN MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Abe, M.; Johnson, B.; Simpson, W.; Mckinsey, P.

    2010-01-26

    Fungi and yeast have been characterized as important components in the bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil and water including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); however, research into their ability to metabolize these compounds in extreme environments has been limited. In this work forty-three fungi and yeasts were isolated from a PAH-contaminated sludge waste lagoon in Poland. The lagoon was part of a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study where natural reduction of PAHs and associated toxicity over time in non-disturbed areas of the sludge lagoon indicated MNA activity. The microorganisms were initially isolated on minimal medium containing naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. Fungal isolates were then maintained on MEA and identified based on microscopic examination and BIOLOG{reg_sign}. The analysis identified several of the fungal isolates as belonging to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Aspergillus, and Eupenicillium. Yeasts included Candida parapsilosis and C. fluvialitis. Further microbial characterization revealed that several isolates were capable of rowing on acidified media of pH 4, 3, and 2.5. Over twenty percent of the fungi demonstrated growth as low as pH 2.5. Of the 43 isolates examined, 24 isolates exhibited growth at 5 C. Nine of the fungal isolates exhibiting growth at 5 C were then examined for metabolic activity using a respirometer testing metabolic activity at pH 3. Microcosm studies confirmed the growth of the fungi on PAH contaminated sediment as the sole carbon and energy source with elevated metabolic rates indicating evidence of MNA. Our findings suggest that many of the Poland fungal isolates may be of value in the bioremediation processes in acidic waste sites in northern climates typical of Northern Europe.

  11. Spatial relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes and nematophagous fungi in Florida citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ekta; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; El-Borai, Fahiem E; Duncan, Larry W

    2017-03-01

    Relationships between entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), nematophagous fungi (NF) and soil physical and chemical properties were studied in a survey of 53 citrus orchards in central ridge and flatwoods ecoregions of Florida. Seven species of NF associated with nematodes were quantified directly using a real time qPCR assay. All nematophagous fungi studied except Arthrobotrys musiformis and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were frequently detected (24-56%) in both regions. Paecilomyces lilacinus and Gamsylella gephyropagumwere encountered more frequently in the flatwoods (P=0.03) and on the ridge (P=0.02), respectively. Redundancy analysis revealed seven abiotic and biotic factors as significantly related to the NF occurrence. Multiple regression of fungi on these variables explained 78%, 66%, 48%, 36%, 23% and 4% of the variation in Catenaria sp., A. musiformis, A. dactyloides, P. lilacinus, A. oligospora and G. gepharopagum, respectively. When the data from citrus were pooled with those reported previously from natural areas and subjected to principle component analysis, the first two principle components explained 43% of the variation in NF communities. The surveys (citrus vs natural areas) were discriminated by PC2 (P<0.001) and the ecoregion by PC1 (P<0.002), and all but one NF species were related (P<0.01) to one or both components. NF communities tended to have more species and greater diversity in the flatwoods, where EPN richness and diversity were the least. However, the strength of associations between individual EPN and NF species as measured by SADIE reflected the associations between each species and ground water depth, suggesting that ecoregion preferences affected the species associations. Within each ecoregion, significant relationships between the individual NF and EPN species measured by stepwise regression tended to be positive. The results did not support the hypothesis that NF modulate the spatial patterns of EPN species between or within these two

  12. Growing Incidence of Non-Dermatophyte Onychomycosis in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Marjan; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Hosseinpour, Leila; Khodadadi, Hossein; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-dermatophyte onychomycosis (NDO) is caused by a wide range of mold fungi other than dermatophytes, and has been reported at various rates in different countries worldwide. Studies on the incidence of NDO in the community are essential for understanding its epidemiology and control, as well as for the appropriate treatment of these infections. Objectives In this study, the incidence of NDO in Tehran, Iran, was compared to the incidence of onychomycoses due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Methods From 2014 through 2015, samples from a total of 1,069 patients with suspected fungal nail diseases, who were referred to three medical mycology laboratories in Tehran, were collected and subjected to direct examination (all samples) and culture (788 samples). Differentiation of the causative agents of onychomycosis was based on microscopic observation of characteristic fungal elements in the nail samples and growth of a significant number of identical colonies on the culture plate. Results Based on only direct microscopy, onychomycosis was diagnosed in 424 (39.6%) cases, among which 35.8% were caused by dermatophytes, 32.7% by yeasts, and 29.3% by non-dermatophyte molds (NDMs), while 2.2% were mixed infections. Direct exam was significantly more sensitive than culture for the diagnosis. The most commonly isolated NDMs were Aspergillus spp. (69.3%, n = 52), followed by Fusarium spp. (n = 7). The other isolated species were Paecilomyces spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Acremonium spp., Cladosporium spp., and Chrysosporium spp., with only one case of each. Conclusions An increasing frequency of NDO compared to onychomycosis due to other causative agents has been noticeable over the past few years in Iran. This epidemiological data may be useful in the development of preventive and educational strategies. PMID:27800138

  13. Development of a population-based threshold model of conidial germination for analysing the effects of physiological manipulation on the stress tolerance and infectivity of insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Andersen, M; Magan, N; Mead, A; Chandler, D

    2006-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being used as biocontrol agents of insect pests, but their efficacy can be poor in environments where water availability is reduced. In this study, the potential to improve biocontrol by physiologically manipulating fungal inoculum was investigated. Cultures of Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium muscarium, Lecanicillium longisporum, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were manipulated by growing them under conditions of water stress, which produced conidia with increased concentrations of erythritol. The time-course of germination of conidia at different water activities (water activity, aw) was described using a generalized linear model, and in most cases reducing the water activity of the germination medium delayed the onset of germination without affecting the distribution of germination times. The germination of M. anisopliae, L. muscarium, L. longisporum and P. fumosoroseus was accelerated over a range of aw levels as a result of physiological manipulation. However, the relationship between the effect of physiological manipulation on germination and the osmolyte content of conidia varied according to fungal species. There was a linear relationship between germination rate, expressed as the reciprocal of germination time, and aw of the germination medium, but there was no significant effect of fungal species or physiological manipulation on the aw threshold for germination. In bioassays with M. anisopliae, physiologically manipulated conidia germinated more rapidly on the surface of an insect host, the melon cotton aphid Aphis gossypii, and fungal virulence was increased even when relative humidity was reduced after an initial high period. It is concluded that physiological manipulation may lead to improvements in biocontrol in the field, but choice of fungal species/isolate will be critical. In addition, the population-based threshold model used in this study, which considered germination in terms of physiological

  14. Mold and Endotoxin Levels in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Project of Homes in New Orleans Undergoing Renovation

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ginger L.; Wilson, Jonathan; Rabito, Felicia A.; Grimsley, Faye; Iqbal, Shahed; Reponen, Tiina; Muilenberg, Michael L.; Thorne, Peter S.; Dearborn, Dorr G.; Morley, Rebecca L.

    2006-01-01

    Background After Hurricane Katrina, many New Orleans homes remained flooded for weeks, promoting heavy microbial growth. Objectives A small demonstration project was conducted November 2005–January 2006 aiming to recommend safe remediation techniques and safe levels of worker protection, and to characterize airborne mold and endotoxin throughout cleanup. Methods Three houses with floodwater lines between 0.3 and 2 m underwent intervention, including disposal of damaged furnishings and drywall, cleaning surfaces, drying remaining structure, and treatment with a biostatic agent. We measured indoor and outdoor bioaerosols before, during, and after intervention. Samples were analyzed for fungi [culture, spore analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)] and endotoxin. In one house, real-time particle counts were also assessed, and respirator-efficiency testing was performed to establish workplace protection factors (WPF). Results At baseline, culturable mold ranged from 22,000 to 515,000 colony-forming units/m3, spore counts ranged from 82,000 to 630,000 spores/m3, and endotoxin ranged from 17 to 139 endotoxin units/m3. Culture, spore analysis, and PCR indicated that Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces predominated. After intervention, levels of mold and endotoxin were generally lower (sometimes, orders of magnitude). The average WPF against fungal spores for elastomeric respirators was higher than for the N-95 respirators. Conclusions During baseline and intervention, mold and endotoxin levels were similar to those found in agricultural environments. We strongly recommend that those entering, cleaning, and repairing flood-damaged homes wear respirators at least as protective as elastomeric respirators. Recommendations based on this demonstration will benefit those involved in the current cleanup activities and will inform efforts to respond to future disasters. PMID:17185280

  15. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingyan; Zhang, Bowen; Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36-26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6-7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol.

  16. Characterization of Paecilomycescinnamomeus from the camellia whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting tea in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsutomu; Takatsuka, Jun; Shimazu, Mitsuaki

    2012-05-01

    The whitefly, Aleurocanthus camelliae Kanmiya and Kasai (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an invasive species in Japan that was first discovered in 2004 on tea in Kyoto. Soon after its arrival epizootics of an entomopathogenic fungus were observed in populations of the whitefly in many tea-growing regions. Here we identify this fungus as Paecilomyces cinnamomeus (Petch) Samson and W. Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) based on morphological characteristics and molecular analyses. This is the first record of P. cinnamomeus in Japan and also the first time it has been recorded from the genus Aleurocanthus. A isolate of P. cinnamomeus caused greater than 50% and 90% infection in whitefly nymphs at 1×10(6) and 1×10(7)conidia/ml respectively, while the commercial mycoinsecticides Preferd® (Isaria fumosorosea) and Mycotal® (Lecanicillium muscarium) caused <10% infection at their recommended field rates (5×10(6) and 9×10(6)conidia/ml, respectively), suggesting that P. cinnamomeus may be more useful as a control agent than the currently available mycoinsecticides. Optimum and upper limit temperatures for in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates were 22.5-25°C and 32.5°C, respectively. At field rates, the fungicide thiophanate-methyl caused some inhibition of in vitro growth of P. cinnamomeus isolates, and the bactericide copper oxychloride and the insecticides tolfenpyrad and methidathion were strongly inhibitory. The findings obtained in this study will be useful in the development of microbial control programs using P. cinnamomeus against A. camelliae.

  17. Steroid Transformations by Species of Cephalosporium and Other Fungi1

    PubMed Central

    Sardinas, Joseph L.; Pisano, Michael A.

    1967-01-01

    A total of 58 cultures, tentatively identified as species of the genus Cephalosporium, were screened in flask fermentations for their ability to effect conversions of progesterone (Δ4-pregnene-3,20-dione) and Reichstein's Substance S (Δ4-pregnene-17α,21-diol-3,20-dione). A large number of transformations were observed by means of a series of five paper chromatography systems rated for analysis of steroid compounds ranging in polarity from progesterone to polyhydroxylated steroids. Five different transformation products were selected for isolation and identification. For purposes of recovery, conversions were conducted under submerged conditions in either 4- or 200-liter fermentors in which the broth was agitated and aerated. The steroid substrate was dissolved in acetone and added aseptically to the growing culture in a final concentration of 0.025%. After the conversions were effected, the whole broth was extracted with chloroform, and the transformation products were recovered, either by direct crystallization from solvents or through the use of silica gel columns. It was determined that C. ciferrii 21C converted progesterone to Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione. Kendall's Compound F (Δ4-pregnene-11β,17α,21-triol-3,20-dione) was converted to its 20β-ol analogue by Geotrichum sp. 51C (during these studies, a number of cultures were taxonomically reclassified). Cephalosporium sp. 27C formed the Δ1-analogue of Reichstein's Substance S, and Cephalosporium sclerotigenum 31C and Verticillium aphidum both converted Substance S to the 6β-hydroxy derivative. Paecilomyces persicinus 22C converted Substance S to a product believed to be a dihydroxylated derivative. PMID:6029828

  18. Growth characteristics of selected fungi on polyvinyl film

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, W.T.; Davidson, P.M.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if plasticized polyvinyl chloride film would support the growth of any of nine species of fungi. The film was suspended in distilled water with no nutrients or with glucose or ammonium sulfate. Spores of each of the test species were inoculated into the suspension medium, and the mixture was incubated at 30/sup 0/C for up to 18 weeks. Most species were found to be capable of utilizing the film for carbon or nitrogen when the other nutrient was supplied. Only two species, Aspergillus fischeri and Paecilomyces sp., were found to be capable of utilizing components of the film without added nutrients. Components of the polyvinyl chloride film were then incorporated into mineral salts medium to determine if these components could serve as carbon sources in the presence of ammonium nitrate. The only component found to be utilized by all the fungi as a carbon source was epoxidized oil, a plasticizer-stabilizer. Calcium-zinc stearate was an available carbon source for all except the Penicillium and Verticillium strains. The only other component utilized was a stearamide, which was metabolized solely by the Aspergillus sp. Only the stearamide contained enough nitrogen to serve as a primary source in the film. The compound, however, did not support growth of fungi in the presence of glucose. It was theorized that either the nitrogen of the stearamide was more readily available to the fungi in the whole film due to the presence of trace nutrients or the nitrogen was supplied by exogenous sources.

  19. Isolation and Classification of Fungal Whitefly Entomopathogens from Soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yanfang; Hu, Qiongbo

    2016-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor of China with distinct geographic and climatic conditions are remote and less disturbed by humans, in which are likely to find some new strains of fungal entomopathogens against B-biotype whiteflies that is a very important invading pest worldwide. In this research, nineteen strains among six species of entomogenous fungi were isolated from the soil samples collected from 32 locations in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Gansu Corridor. From the data of isolation rates, it was indicated that the good biodiversity of entomogenous fungi was found in the soil covered good vegetations. On the contrary, no strains were isolated from the desert areas. In addition, the dominant species, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are different from the strains of other places based on ITS genetic homology analysis. It was verified that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area was less disturbed by human, and the fungi in this place exchanged less compared with other regional species. All of these strains showed the pathogenicity against the B-biotype whitefly with the mortality of more than 30%. However, a few strains of Paecilomyces lilacinus, Lecanicillium psalliotae, Aspergillus ustus, I. fumosorosea and M. anisopliae var. anisopliae had better virulence with LC50s of 0.36–26.44×106 spores/mL on post-treatment day 6–7. Especially, the L. psalliotae strain LpTS01 was the greatest virulence with LC50 of 0.36×106spores/mL and LT50 of 4.23d. Our research thus presents some new insights to discover new entomopathogenic fungal strains used for B-biotype whitefly biocontrol. PMID:27228109

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Ramos, María J.; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Morgan, Gaylon D.; Kerns, David L.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  2. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal aerosols during the autumn haze days in Xi'an, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanpeng; Fu, Honglei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Meng, Qinglong; Wang, Wenke

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, haze pollution has become one of the most critical environmental issues in Xi'an, China, with particular matter (PM) being one of the top pollutants. As an important fraction of PM, bioaerosols may have adverse effects on air quality and human health. In this study, to better understand the characteristics of such biological aerosols, airborne microbial samples were collected by using an Andersen six-stage sampler in Xi'an from October 8th to 22nd, 2014. The concentration, size distribution and genera of airborne viable bacteria and fungi were comparably investigated during the haze days and non-haze days. Correlations of bioaerosol levels with meteorological parameters and PM concentrations were also examined. The results showed that the daily average concentrations of airborne viable bacteria and fungi during the haze days, 1102.4-1736.5 and 1466.2-1703.9 CFU/m3, respectively, were not only much higher than those during the non-haze days, but also exceeded the recommended permissible limit values. Comparing to size distributions during the non-haze days, slightly different patterns for bacterial aerosols and similar single-peak distribution pattern for fungal aerosols were observed during the haze days. Moreover, more allergic and infectious genera (e.g. Neisseria, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces) in bioaerosols were identified during the haze days than during non-haze days. The present results reveal that bioaerosols may have more significant effects on public health and urban air quality during the haze days than during non-haze days.

  3. Onychomycosis due to opportunistic molds*

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Herrera, Erick Obed; Arroyo-Camarena, Stefanie; Tejada-García, Diana Luz; Porras-López, Carlos Francisco; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis are caused by dermatophytes and Candida, but rarely by non- dermatophyte molds. These opportunistic agents are filamentous fungi found as soil and plant pathogens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of opportunistic molds in onychomycosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 4,220 cases with onychomycosis, diagnosed in a 39-month period at the Institute of Dermatology and Skin surgery "Prof. Dr. Fernando A. Cordero C." in Guatemala City, and confirmed with a positive KOH test and culture. RESULTS: 32 cases (0.76%) of onychomycosis caused by opportunistic molds were confirmed. The most affected age group ranged from 41 to 65 years (15 patients, 46.9%) and females were more commonly affected (21 cases, 65.6%) than males. Lateral and distal subungual onychomycosis (OSD-L) was detected in 20 cases (62.5%). The microscopic examination with KOH showed filaments in 19 cases (59.4%), dermatophytoma in 9 cases (28.1%), spores in 2 cases (6.25%), and filaments and spores in 2 cases (6.25%). Etiologic agents: Aspergillus sp., 11 cases (34.4%); Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, 8 cases (25.0%); Cladosporium sp., 3 cases (9.4%); Acremonium sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Paecilomyces sp., 2 cases (6.25%); Tritirachium oryzae, 2 cases (6.25%); Fusarium sp., Phialophora sp., Rhizopus sp. and Alternaria alternate, 1 case (3.1%) each. CONCLUSIONS: We found onychomycosis by opportunistic molds in 0.76% of the cases and DLSO was present in 62.5%. The most frequent isolated etiological agents were: Aspergillus sp. and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. PMID:26131862

  4. Preliminary geochemical, microbiological, and epidemiological investigations into possible linkages between lignite aquifers, pathogenic microbes, and kidney disease in northwestern Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Gifford, Amie M.; Beck, Marisa; Lerch, Harry E.; Shi, Runhua; McGee, Benton; Hanson, Bradford C.; Kolak, Jonathan; Warwick, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    In May 2002, 15 wells and four surface water sites were sampled, and in September 2002, those same wells and sites plus four additional surface sites were sampled in five parishes of northwestern Louisiana. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to select residential water wells for sampling. Well water samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, organic compounds, and nutrient and anion concentrations. All samples were further tested for presence of fungi (maintained for up to 28 days and colonies counted and identified microscopically), and metal and trace element concentration by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Surface water samples were tested for dissolved oxygen and evidence of leptospiral bacterial presence. A polymerase chain reaction protocol was optimized for detection of pathogenic leptospires, and the sensitivity of the assay was determined. The Spearman correlation method was used to assess the association between the endpoints for these field/laboratory analyses and the incidence of cancer of the renal pelvis obtained from the Louisiana Tumor Registry. Significant associations were revealed between the cancer rate and the overall number of organic compounds, the fungi Zygomycetes, the nutrients PO4 and NH3, and thirteen chemical elements (As, B, Br, Cl, Cr, F, Li, Na, P, Rb, Se, Sr, W) from the well water as compared to the controls. Among the species of fungi from the total of 136 isolates were 12 Penicillium spp., at least two Aspergillus spp., a number of other genera (Alternaria sp., Eupenicillium lapidosum, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum sp., Trichoderma sp., Paecilomyces sp., Chrysosporium sp., Chloridium sp.), and Zygomycetes, and Coelmycetes -- some of which are known mycotoxin producers. The two control wells yielded a mean of 6.5 (SD = 3.5355) individual isolates, while the mean number of isolates from all other sites was 7.6 (SD = 4.4866). Presence of human pathogenic leptospires was

  5. Improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of Papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Mathur, Ajay K; Ghosh, Sumit; Shanker, Karuna; Kalra, Alok

    2014-11-01

    Elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. Culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, Chaetomium globosum, Aspergillus niveoglaucus, Paecilomyces lilacinus, and Trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less Papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. Besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide were also applied for improved sanguinarine production. Maximum biomass accumulation (growth index (GI) = 293.50 ± 14.82) and sanguinarine production (0.090 ± 0.008 % dry wt.) were registered by addition of 3.3 % v/v T. harzanium culture filtrate. Interestingly, it was further enhanced (GI = 323.40 ± 25.30; 0.105 ± 0.008 % dry wt.) when T. harzanium culture filtrate was employed along with 50 μM shikimate. This was also supported by real-time (RT) (qPCR), where 8-9-fold increase in cheilanthifoline synthase (CFS), stylopine synthase (STS), tetrahydroprotoberberine cis-N-methyltransferase (TNMT), and protopine 6-hydroxylase (P6H) transcripts was observed. Among abiotic elicitors, while hydrogen peroxide and carbon dioxide registered low level of sanguinarine accumulation, maximum sanguinarine content was detected by 250 μM salicylic acid (0.058 ± 0.003 % dry wt.; GI = 172.75 ± 13.40). RT (qPCR) also confirms the downregulation of sanguinarine pathway on CO2 supplementation. Various parameters ranging from agitation speed (70 rpm), impeller type (marine), media volume (2 l), inoculum weight (100 g), and culture duration (9 days) were optimized during upscaling in 5-l stirred tank bioreactor to obtain maximum sanguinarine production (GI = 434.00; 0.119 ± 0.070 % dry wt.). Addition of 3.3 % v/v T. harzanium culture filtrate and 50-μM shikimate was done on the 6th day of bioreactor run.

  6. Cork Taint of Wines: Role of the Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Cork in the Formation of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole by O Methylation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; López-Ocaña, Laura; López-Coronado, José Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; Martínez, María Jesús; Larriba, Germán; Coque, Juan-José R.

    2002-01-01

    Cork taint is a musty or moldy off-odor in wine mainly caused by 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). We examined the role of 14 fungal strains isolated from cork samples in the production of 2,4,6-TCA by O methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The fungal strains isolated belong to the genera Penicillium (four isolates); Trichoderma (two isolates); and Acremonium, Chrysonilia, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, and Verticillium (one isolate each). Eleven of these strains could produce 2,4,6-TCA when they were grown directly on cork in the presence of 2,4,6-TCP. The highest levels of bioconversion were carried out by the Trichoderma and Fusarium strains. One strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum could also efficiently produce 2,4,6-TCA in liquid medium. However, no detectable levels of 2,4,6-TCA production by this strain could be detected on cork when putative precursors other than 2,4,6-TCP, including several anisoles, dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, or other highly chlorinated compounds, were tested. Time course expression studies with liquid cultures showed that the formation of 2,4,6-TCA was not affected by a high concentration of glucose (2% or 111 mM) or by ammonium salts at concentrations up to 60 mM. In T. longibrachiatum the O methylation of 2,4,6-TCP was catalyzed by a mycelium-associated S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase that was strongly induced by 2,4,6-TCP. The reaction was inhibited by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, an inhibitor of SAM-dependent methylation, suggesting that SAM is the natural methyl donor. These findings increase our understanding of the mechanism underlying the origin of 2,4,6-TCA on cork, which is poorly understood despite its great economic importance for the wine industry, and they could also help us improve our knowledge about the biodegradation and detoxification processes associated with chlorinated phenols. PMID:12450804

  7. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (<3 MPN g(-1)) and the helminths were reduced to ≤5 eggs/2 g during the process. The competition for nutrients and the presence of suppressive fungi of the genera Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class

  8. Bioleaching of serpentine group mineral by fungus Talaromyces flavus: application for mineral carbonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Lianwen, L.; Zhao, L.; Teng, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many studies of serpentine group mineral dissolution for mineral carbonation have been published in recent years. However, most of them focus mainly on either physical and chemical processes or on bacterial function, rather than fungal involvement in the bioleaching of serpentine group mineral. Due to the excessive costs of the magnesium dissolution process, finding a lower energy consumption method will be meaningful. A fungal strain Talaromyces flavus was isolated from serpentinic rock of Donghai (China). No study of its bioleaching ability is currently available. It is thus of great significance to explore the impact of T. flavus on the dissolution of serpentine group mineral. Serpentine rock-inhabiting fungi belonging to Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Botryotinia, Cladosporium, Clavicipitaceae, Cosmospora, Fusarium, Monascus, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma were isolated. These strains were chosen on the basis of resistance to magnesium and nickel characterized in terms of minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC). Specifically, the strain Talaromyces flavus has a high tolerance to both magnesium (1 mol/L) and nickel (10 mM/L), and we examine its bioleaching ability on serpentine group mineral. Contact and separation experiments (cut-off 8 000-14 000 Da), as well as three control experiments, were set up for 30 days. At least three repeated tests were performed for each individual experiment. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the bioleaching ability of T. flavus towards serpentine group mineral is evident. 39.39 wt% of magnesium was extracted from lizardite during the bioleaching period in the contact experiment, which showed a dissolution rate at about a constant 0.126 mM/d before reaching equilibrium in 13 days. The amount of solubilized Mg from chrysotile and antigorite were respectively 37.79 wt% and 29.78 wt% in the contact experiment. These results make clear the influence of mineral structure on mineral bioleaching

  9. Molecular characterization of microbial communities and quantification of Mycobacterium immunogenum in metal removal fluids and their associated biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfeng; Franzblau, Alfred; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-03-01

    A number of human health effects have been associated with exposure to metal removal fluids (MRFs). Multiple lines of research suggest that a newly identified organism, Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI), appears to have an etiologic role in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in case of MRFs exposed workers. However, our knowledge of this organism, other possible causative agents (e.g., Pseudomonads), and the microbial ecology of MRFs in general, is limited. In this study, culture-based methods and small subunit ribosomal RNA gene clone library approach were used to characterize microbial communities in MRF bulk fluid and associated biofilm samples collected from fluid systems in an automobile engine plant. PCR amplification data using universal primers indicate that all samples had bacterial and fungal contaminated. Five among 15 samples formed colonies on the Mycobacteria agar 7H9 suggesting the likely presence of Mycobacteria in these five samples. This observation was confirmed with PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment using Mycobacteria specific primers. Two additional samples, Biofilm-1 and Biofilm-3, were positive in PCR amplification for Mycobacteria, yet no colonies formed on the 7H9 cultivation agar plates. Real-time PCR was used to quantify the abundance of M. immunogenum in these samples, and the data showed that the copies of M. immunogenum 16S rRNA gene in the samples ranges from 4.33 × 10(4) copy/ml to 4.61 × 10(7) copy/ml. Clone library analysis revealed that Paecilomyces sp. and Acremonium sp. and Acremonium-like were dominant fungi in MRF samples. Various bacterial species from the major phylum of proteobacteria were found and Pseudomonas is the dominant bacterial genus in these samples. Mycobacteria (more specifically MI) were found in all biofilm samples, including biofilms collected from inside the MRF systems and from adjacent environmental surfaces, suggesting that biofilms may play an important role in microbial ecology in MRFs

  10. Altered Proteomic Polymorphisms in the Caterpillar Body and Stroma of Natural Cordyceps sinensis during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zi-Mei; Gao, Ling; Yao, Yi-Sang; Tan, Ning-Zhi; Wu, Jian-Yong; Ni, Luqun; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the maturational changes in proteomic polymorphisms resulting from differential expression by multiple intrinsic fungi in the caterpillar body and stroma of natural Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), an integrated micro-ecosystem. Methods The surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) biochip technique was used to profile the altered protein compositions in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs during its maturation. The MS chromatograms were analyzed using density-weighted algorithms to examine the similarities and cluster relationships among the proteomic polymorphisms of the Cs compartments and the mycelial products Hirsutella sinensis (Hs) and Paecilomyces hepiali (Ph). Results: SELDI-TOF MS chromatograms displayed dynamic proteomic polymorphism alterations among samples from the different Cs compartments during maturation. More than 1,900 protein bands were analyzed using density-weighted ZUNIX similarity equations and clustering methods, revealing integral polymorphism similarities of 57.4% between the premature and mature stromata and 42.8% between the premature and mature caterpillar bodies. The across-compartment similarity was low, ranging from 10.0% to 18.4%. Consequently, each Cs compartment (i.e., the stroma and caterpillar body) formed a clustering clade, and the 2 clades formed a Cs cluster. The polymorphic similarities ranged from 0.51% to 1.04% between Hs and the Cs compartments and were 2.8- to 4.8-fold higher (1.92%–4.34%) between Ph and the Cs compartments. The Hs and Ph mycelial samples formed isolated clades outside of the Cs cluster. Conclusion Proteomic polymorphisms in the caterpillar body and stroma of Cs change dynamically during maturation. The proteomic polymorphisms in Hs and Ph differ from those in Cs, suggesting the presence of multiple Cs-associated fungi and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes with altered differential protein expression in the Cs compartments

  11. [Wood chip alveolitis].

    PubMed

    Müller-Wening, D; Renck, T; Neuhauss, M

    1999-07-01

    A 52 year old farmer was referred to us for investigation of suspected farmer's lung. For many years the farmer had been exposed to hay, straw, pigeons, and fuel chip dust. Under exertion he suffered from shortness of breath. In the farmer's own fuel chips we could identify Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces species and Mucor species. In the farmer's blood we found IgG-antibodies against his own fuel chips, thermophilic actinomycetes, Penicillium species, Mucor species and Aspergillus fumigatus. We did not detect any IgG-antibodies against pigeon serum or pigeon faeces. In order to determine the responsible allergen we performed two challenge tests. In the first test the farmer had to inhale his own hay and straw dust for one hour. This provocation was negative. A second one-hour inhalative challenge was carried out 16 days later using his own fuel chips. This time he experienced significant pulmonary and systemic reactions: body temperature rose by 3.3 degrees C, leucocytes by 12,200/mm3; PO2 fell by 39.4 mmHg, vital capacity by 52%, DLCO by 36%. After the challenge the farmer complained of coughing and dyspnoea. Rales could be heard on auscultation, and an interstitial infiltrate was seen to develop on chest x-rays. After the challenge the patient had to be treated with oxygen and systemic corticosteroids. We diagnosed a fuel chip-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis (EAA). Eight days later the parameters were back to normal and the farmer was discharged from our hospital with further corticosteroid medication. This method of inhalative provocation is very important in diagnosing an EAA. Problems arise when the mode and duration of exposure to substances has to be chosen. Because of the risk of severe reactions, inhalative provocations relating to EAAs should only be performed in special centres with an intensive care unit. In this paper we present a diagnosis of fuel chip lung, which is rarely seen in Germany. However, with the rising use of fuel chips as

  12. Monitoring of the Environment at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Matoušková, Ivanka; Holy, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Aim of this study was to monitor the environment at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic, University Hospital Olomouc (Olomouc, Czech Republic) and identify risks for the patients. Methods and Results: Microorganisms were cultivated under standard aerobic conditions. Strains were biochemically identified using the BD Phoenix™ PID Panel (USA). Legionella pneumophila was identified by DNA sequencing. From the air, the most frequently isolated strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (94.3%), Micrococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. No Gram-negative strains were isolated from the air. From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (67.4%), Bacillus spp., enterococci (5.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (2.3%) and Micrococcus spp. (1.7%). From the surfaces, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were from genera Pseudomonas (28%), Enterobacter (28%), E. coli (6%), and Klebsiella spp. (5%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-positive strains were coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.6%), Bacillus spp. (24.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus (9.8%). From the personnel, the most frequently isolated Gram-negative strains were Enterobacter spp. (61%), Klebsiella oxytoca (18%), and E. coli (11%). Microscopic filamentous fungi were isolated in 13 cases (2.71%). Isolated strains were Aspergillus spp. (4), Trichoderma spp. (2), Penicillium spp. (2), one case of the strains Paecilomyces spp., Eurotium spp., Monilia spp. Conclusions: The study found no significant deviations in the microbial contamination of the cleanroom air. The personnel entrance of the Transplant Unit represent a high risk area, an extreme value (7270 CFU/m3) was recorded. Regime measures are fully effective, no other deficiencies were found. Significance and Impact of the Study: This epidemiological study, which was held for the duration of one year at the Transplant Unit—Hemato-Oncology Clinic, University

  13. Phylogeny of Penicillium and the segregation of Trichocomaceae into three families

    PubMed Central

    Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Trichocomaceae occur commonly and are important to both industry and medicine. They are associated with food spoilage and mycotoxin production and can occur in the indoor environment, causing health hazards by the formation of β-glucans, mycotoxins and surface proteins. Some species are opportunistic pathogens, while others are exploited in biotechnology for the production of enzymes, antibiotics and other products. Penicillium belongs phylogenetically to Trichocomaceae and more than 250 species are currently accepted in this genus. In this study, we investigated the relationship of Penicillium to other genera of Trichocomaceae and studied in detail the phylogeny of the genus itself. In order to study these relationships, partial RPB1, RPB2 (RNA polymerase II genes), Tsr1 (putative ribosome biogenesis protein) and Cct8 (putative chaperonin complex component TCP-1) gene sequences were obtained. The Trichocomaceae are divided in three separate families: Aspergillaceae, Thermoascaceae and Trichocomaceae. The Aspergillaceae are characterised by the formation flask-shaped or cylindrical phialides, asci produced inside cleistothecia or surrounded by Hülle cells and mainly ascospores with a furrow or slit, while the Trichocomaceae are defined by the formation of lanceolate phialides, asci borne within a tuft or layer of loose hyphae and ascospores lacking a slit. Thermoascus and Paecilomyces, both members of Thermoascaceae, also form ascospores lacking a furrow or slit, but are differentiated from Trichocomaceae by the production of asci from croziers and their thermotolerant or thermophilic nature. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Penicillium is polyphyletic. The genus is re-defined and a monophyletic genus for both anamorphs and teleomorphs is created (Penicillium sensu stricto). The genera Thysanophora, Eupenicillium, Chromocleista, Hemicarpenteles and Torulomyces belong in Penicillium s. str. and new combinations for the species belonging to these genera

  14. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Richardson, D M; Le Roux, J J; Strasberg, D; Edwards, J; Roets, F; Hubka, V; Taylor, P W J; Heykoop, M; Martín, M P; Moreno, G; Sutton, D A; Wiederhold, N P; Barnes, C W; Carlavilla, J R; Gené, J; Giraldo, A; Guarnaccia, V; Guarro, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Kolařík, M; Manjón, J L; Pascoe, I G; Popov, E S; Sandoval-Denis, M; Woudenberg, J H C; Acharya, K; Alexandrova, A V; Alvarado, P; Barbosa, R N; Baseia, I G; Blanchette, R A; Boekhout, T; Burgess, T I; Cano-Lira, J F; Čmoková, A; Dimitrov, R A; Dyakov, M Yu; Dueñas, M; Dutta, A K; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fedosova, A G; Fournier, J; Gamboa, P; Gouliamova, D E; Grebenc, T; Groenewald, M; Hanse, B; Hardy, G E St J; Held, B W; Jurjević, Ž; Kaewgrajang, T; Latha, K P D; Lombard, L; Luangsa-Ard, J J; Lysková, P; Mallátová, N; Manimohan, P; Miller, A N; Mirabolfathy, M; Morozova, O V; Obodai, M; Oliveira, N T; Ordóñez, M E; Otto, E C; Paloi, S; Peterson, S W; Phosri, C; Roux, J; Salazar, W A; Sánchez, A; Sarria, G A; Shin, H-D; Silva, B D B; Silva, G A; Smith, M Th; Souza-Motta, C M; Stchigel, A M; Stoilova-Disheva, M M; Sulzbacher, M A; Telleria, M T; Toapanta, C; Traba, J M; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Watling, R; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-06-01

    ), Ochroconis dracaenae (on Dracaena reflexa), Rasamsonia columbiensis (air of a hotel conference room), Paecilomyces tabacinus (on Nicotiana tabacum), Toxicocladosporium hominis (from human broncoalveolar lavage fluid), Nothophoma macrospora (from respiratory secretion of a patient with pneumonia), and Penidiellopsis radicularis (incl. Penidiellopsis gen. nov.) from a human nail. Novel taxa described from Malaysia include Prosopidicola albizziae (on Albizzia falcataria), Proxipyricularia asari (on Asarum sp.), Diaporthe passifloricola (on Passiflora foetida), Paramycoleptodiscus albizziae (incl. Paramycoleptodiscus gen. nov.) on Albizzia falcataria, and Malaysiasca phaii (incl. Malaysiasca gen. nov.) on Phaius reflexipetalus. Two species are newly described from human patients in the Czech Republic, namely Microascus longicollis (from toenails of patient with suspected onychomycosis), and Chrysosporium echinulatum (from sole skin of patient). Furthermore, Alternaria quercicola is described on leaves of Quercus brantii (Iran), Stemphylium beticola on leaves of Beta vulgaris (The Netherlands), Scleroderma capeverdeanum on soil (Cape Verde Islands), Scleroderma dunensis on soil, and Blastobotrys meliponae from bee honey (Brazil), Ganoderma mbrekobenum on angiosperms (Ghana), Geoglossum raitviirii and Entoloma kruticianum on soil (Russia), Priceomyces vitoshaensis on Pterostichus melas (Carabidae) (Bulgaria) is the only one for which the family is listed, Ganoderma ecuadoriense on decaying wood (Ecuador), Thyrostroma cornicola on Cornus officinalis (Korea), Cercophora vinosa on decorticated branch of Salix sp. (France), Coprinus pinetorum, Coprinus littoralis and Xerocomellus poederi on soil (Spain). Two new genera from Colombia include Helminthosporiella and Uwemyces on leaves of Elaeis oleifera. Two species are described from India, namely Russula intervenosa (ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta), and Crinipellis odorata (on bark of Mytragyna parviflora). Novelties from Thailand