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Sample records for paediatric practice impact

  1. Therapeutic clowning in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Fiona; Baverstock, Anna; Lenton, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been much research into the health benefits of humour and laughter. Although often viewed very positively, rigorous evaluation of the therapeutic effect of clowning is complex. Clowning is a multi-modal intervention, which may have an impact on medical conditions, procedures, family functioning and health care teams. Clowns help children to adapt to their hospital surroundings and can distract from, and demystify, painful or frightening procedures through 'doses of fun' to complement traditional clinical interventions. This paper provides a review of the paediatric literature and reveals studies looking at the effect of clown interventions on various practical procedures and individual medical conditions, and the effects of clowning within clinical teams.

  2. Therapeutic clowning in paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Fiona; Baverstock, Anna; Lenton, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Over the past 30 years, there has been much research into the health benefits of humour and laughter. Although often viewed very positively, rigorous evaluation of the therapeutic effect of clowning is complex. Clowning is a multi-modal intervention, which may have an impact on medical conditions, procedures, family functioning and health care teams. Clowns help children to adapt to their hospital surroundings and can distract from, and demystify, painful or frightening procedures through 'doses of fun' to complement traditional clinical interventions. This paper provides a review of the paediatric literature and reveals studies looking at the effect of clown interventions on various practical procedures and individual medical conditions, and the effects of clowning within clinical teams. PMID:23855014

  3. Paediatric Palliative Care: Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Muckaden, Maryann; Dighe, Manjiri; Balaji, PD; Dhiliwal, Sunil; Tilve, Prajakta; Jadhav, Sunita; Goswami, Savita

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric palliative care is a holistic approach aimed at addressing the complex issues related to the care of children and families facing chronic life limiting illnesses. The needs of children are unique and often quite different from those of adults receiving palliative care. This review article outlines some of the salient features of paediatric palliative care which are relevant to all professionals caring for children with life limiting illnesses in their practice. PMID:21811373

  4. The training paths and practice patterns of Canadian paediatric residency graduates, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Tahir; Lawrence, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Paediatric Chairs of Canada have been proactive in workforce planning, anticipating paediatric job opportunities in academic centres. To complement this, it is important to characterize the practice profiles of paediatricians exiting training, including those working outside of tertiary care centres. OBJECTIVE: To describe the training paths and the practice patterns of Canadian paediatric residency graduates. METHODS: A survey was completed in 2010 to 2011 by Canadian program directors regarding residents completing core paediatrics training between 2004 and 2010. Data collection included training path after completing core paediatrics training and practice type after graduation. RESULTS: Of 699 residents completing their core training in paediatrics, training path data were available for 685 (98%). Overall, 430 (63%) residents completed subspecialty training while 255 (37%) completed general paediatrics training only. There was a significant increase in subspecialty training, from 59% in earlier graduates (2004 to 2007) to 67% in later graduates (2008 to 2010) (P=0.037). Practice pattern data after completion of training were available for 245 general paediatricians and 205 subspecialists. Sixty-nine percent of general paediatricians were community based while 85% of subspecialists were hospital based in tertiary or quaternary centres. Of all residents currently in practice, only 36 (8%) were working in rural, remote or underserviced areas. CONCLUSIONS: Almost two-thirds of recent Canadian paediatric graduates pursued subspecialty training. There was a significant increase in the frequency of subspecialty training among later-year graduates. Few graduates are practicing in rural or underserviced areas. Further studies are needed to determine whether these trends continue and their impact on the future paediatric workforce in Canada. PMID:27398047

  5. Azithromycin use in paediatrics: A practical overview

    PubMed Central

    Ovetchkine, Philippe; Rieder, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is commonly prescribed for upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. While it has proven benefits, some concerns regarding azithromycin use have arisen in recent years. This practice point considers azithromycin therapy for acute respiratory infections in otherwise healthy children. Pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, the problem of resistant bacteria and clinical aspects are considered, along with recommendations for use and contraindications. Azithromycin should be avoided in patients with a significant risk of bacteremia. It is associated with pneumococcal resistance and, with stated exceptions, is generally not recommended for the treatment of acute pharyngitis, acute otitis media or pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the paediatric population. PMID:24421702

  6. Hand decontamination practices in paediatric wards.

    PubMed

    Jelly, S; Tjale, A

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and describe hand decontamination practices of health care professionals in the paediatric wards of an academic hospital in Johannesburg. The purpose was addressed within a survey design and through the use of descriptive and comparative methods. Data were collected through direct observation conducted with the use of a researcher-administered checklist. A sample of sixty-six health professionals was obtained through convenience sampling. Results indicated that significantly fewer health professionals did not decontaminate their hands on entering the ward (16.6%), prior to making patient contact (34.8%) and prior to donning gloves (9.1%). Significantly more health professionals did decontaminate their hands following contact with the patient (63.6%) and following removal of gloves (77.8%). More health professional did not wash their hands after leaving the ward (51.5%). More than half (57.6%) of the health professionals who decontaminate their hands used the correct hand washing technique. Compliance with standard hand decontamination practices of health professionals was found to be poor with only 83.4% of health professionals decontaminating their hands at the start of work.

  7. Providing paediatric palliative care: collaboration in practice.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M; Sutherland, P

    One of the main aims of palliative care is to enable clients to receive and access services in a way that maximizes their choice in relation to where, when and how they receive care. To achieve this end, it is essential that statutory and voluntary care agencies collaborate to provide an effective range of services. This article offers for consideration the experience of a children's hospice service and a paediatric oncology outreach service who collaborated to provide a service for children requiring paediatric and terminal care. It identifies a number of elements which are important for positive and effective collaboration.

  8. Clinical practice: immune thrombocytopenia in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Labarque, Veerle; Van Geet, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease affecting both children and adults. It is defined as acquired isolated thrombocytopenia caused by the autoimmune production of anti-platelet antibodies. Childhood ITP most frequently occurs in young children who have been previously well, although a viral respiratory tract infection often precedes thrombocytopenia. A benign and self-limiting course is common, but major bleeding complications such as intracranial haemorrhage may occur. Yet one cannot predict which child will have a prolonged course of thrombocytopenia and who will develop an intracranial haemorrhage. In children without atypical characteristics, only minimal diagnostic investigations are needed, and most paediatric ITP patients do not need platelet-enhancing therapy even though various treatment options are available. A "watch and wait" strategy should be considered in paediatric patients with mild disease. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin G or anti-D immunoglobulin are the current first-line therapeutic measures for children at risk for severe bleeding. When life-threatening bleeding occurs, a combination of therapies is needed. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on primary ITP in children and adolescents. PMID:24390128

  9. Clinical practice: immune thrombocytopenia in paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Labarque, Veerle; Van Geet, Chris

    2014-02-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disease affecting both children and adults. It is defined as acquired isolated thrombocytopenia caused by the autoimmune production of anti-platelet antibodies. Childhood ITP most frequently occurs in young children who have been previously well, although a viral respiratory tract infection often precedes thrombocytopenia. A benign and self-limiting course is common, but major bleeding complications such as intracranial haemorrhage may occur. Yet one cannot predict which child will have a prolonged course of thrombocytopenia and who will develop an intracranial haemorrhage. In children without atypical characteristics, only minimal diagnostic investigations are needed, and most paediatric ITP patients do not need platelet-enhancing therapy even though various treatment options are available. A "watch and wait" strategy should be considered in paediatric patients with mild disease. Steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin G or anti-D immunoglobulin are the current first-line therapeutic measures for children at risk for severe bleeding. When life-threatening bleeding occurs, a combination of therapies is needed. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on primary ITP in children and adolescents.

  10. Practical aspects of advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, J

    1988-08-01

    Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the paediatric age group necessitates the acquisition of technical skills for rapid tracheal intubation, external cardiac compression and access to the circulation. Skills and equipment must be adapted to each age group. For optimal mechanical ventilation and the avoidance of complications, correct selection of endotracheal tube diameter and length is necessary. New techniques in resuscitation incorporate an understanding of the mechanism of blood flow during cardiac compression, the use of the intratracheal route for drug administration, and a revision of the use of catecholamines, sodium bicarbonate and calcium solutions in the treatment of asystole-bradycardia, electromechanical dissociation, ventricular fibrillation and tachycardia. Early intubation, adequate ventilation with oxygen, well performed external cardiac compression, prompt defibrillation and administration of adrenaline remain the cornerstones of advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation. PMID:3064747

  11. Thomas Willis's practice of paediatric neurology and neurodisability.

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    2003-12-01

    Thomas Willis (1621-1675) is regarded as a founder of modern clinical neuroscience. He conceived the word "neurology" and left a body of work that defined mid-seventeenth-century medicine. Recent interpretations of Willis's work have led to a growing appreciation of his significant contributions to paediatric neurology, a speciality founded properly some three centuries after his death. This paper presents abstracts and plates taken from Willis's major published works, together with student notes by John Locke (1632-1704) and Robert Boyle (1627-1691) taken from lectures delivered by Willis in Oxford in the 1660s. The material embraces a wide variety of conditions now managed within modern paediatric neurology and neurodisability. In several cases, these are the first descriptions recorded in the medical literature. Willis fused astute history taking and clinical observation (sometimes supported by subsequent post-mortem studies) into a structured medical intervention. Willis's practice was state of the art, being based on acceptance of Harvey, a traditional Galenic infrastructure, iatrochemistry and Gassendi's "psychology". Although Willis's discoveries became a cornerstone of modern medical science, his medical practice did not lead to any therapeutic advances. However, up to the mid-eighteenth century his works were internationally accepted for their practical usefulness. The corpus of material left by Willis affords a fascinating insight into the clinical rationale of a seventeenth century physician in his management of paediatric cases.

  12. Thomas Willis's practice of paediatric neurology and neurodisability.

    PubMed

    Williams, A N

    2003-12-01

    Thomas Willis (1621-1675) is regarded as a founder of modern clinical neuroscience. He conceived the word "neurology" and left a body of work that defined mid-seventeenth-century medicine. Recent interpretations of Willis's work have led to a growing appreciation of his significant contributions to paediatric neurology, a speciality founded properly some three centuries after his death. This paper presents abstracts and plates taken from Willis's major published works, together with student notes by John Locke (1632-1704) and Robert Boyle (1627-1691) taken from lectures delivered by Willis in Oxford in the 1660s. The material embraces a wide variety of conditions now managed within modern paediatric neurology and neurodisability. In several cases, these are the first descriptions recorded in the medical literature. Willis fused astute history taking and clinical observation (sometimes supported by subsequent post-mortem studies) into a structured medical intervention. Willis's practice was state of the art, being based on acceptance of Harvey, a traditional Galenic infrastructure, iatrochemistry and Gassendi's "psychology". Although Willis's discoveries became a cornerstone of modern medical science, his medical practice did not lead to any therapeutic advances. However, up to the mid-eighteenth century his works were internationally accepted for their practical usefulness. The corpus of material left by Willis affords a fascinating insight into the clinical rationale of a seventeenth century physician in his management of paediatric cases. PMID:15069866

  13. Medical management of paediatric burn injuries: best practice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leo K P; Martin, Hugh C O; Holland, Andrew J A

    2012-04-01

    Burns commonly occur in children and their first aid remains inadequate despite burn prevention programmes. While scald injuries predominate, contact and flame burns remain common. Although typically less severe injuries overall than those in adults, hypertrophic scarring complicating both the burn wound and even donor sites occur more frequently in children. The heterogeneous nature of burn wounds, coupled with the difficulties associated with the early clinical assessment of burn depth, has stimulated the application of novel technologies to predict burn wound outcome. This review explores current best practice in the management of paediatric burns, with a focus on prevention, optimal first aid, resuscitation, burn wound prediction and wound management strategies.

  14. Advanced practice in emergency care: the paediatric flow nurse.

    PubMed

    Gray, Constance; Hutch, Michelle; Christensen, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Children admitted to emergency departments (EDs) in Australia are often placed in an environment better suited to the treatment of adult patients. This can lead to problems because ED staff are unfamiliar with specialist paediatric care and children often find adult EDs frightening. The development of the paediatric flow nurse (PFN) role at Caboolture Hospital has meant children are treated and supported by a trained paediatric nurse and triaged and treated quickly and effectively. The PFN team collaborates with ED nursing and medical staff to start treating patients and to help move children from the ED to the paediatric emergency short stay unit or inpatient paediatric beds. Each week, the PFN team sees about 30-50 children, many of whom are cared for and discharged directly from the ED.

  15. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  16. Paediatric drug development: the impact of evolving regulations.

    PubMed

    Turner, M A; Catapano, M; Hirschfeld, S; Giaquinto, C

    2014-06-01

    Children deserve medicines that are adapted to their needs. The need to include children in drug development has been recognised increasingly over the past few decades. Legal and regulatory frameworks are well established in the EU and US. The amount of work done to study medicines for children is significantly greater than it was 10 years go. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated for all segments of the paediatric drug development pipeline. It is now time to examine how the practice of developing medicines for children has evolved within those frameworks and to determine how that work should be generalised. This review describes the development of medicines for children and critically appraises the work that has been done within those frameworks. Significant effort is needed to realize the potential provided by the current regulatory framework. Using the work programme of the Global Research in Paediatrics (GRiP) Network of Excellence as a template we outline current work and future growing points. PMID:24556465

  17. The relevance of the Goudge inquiry to the practice of child protection/forensic paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Skellern, Catherine; Donald, Terence

    2014-10-01

    In 2008 Ontario, Canada the Goudge Inquiry arose following increasing concerns about practices surrounding forensic pathology and the investigation of paediatric deaths. Some of the considerations and recommendations have relevance to child protection/forensic paediatricians, particularly in relation to their responsibilities in opinion formulation and as expert witnesses. By examining the Inquiry recommendations, this paper applies them in relation to child protection/forensic paediatrics by discussing forensic medicine and its legal context, how interpretation of published reports and data should be used in opinion formulation; issues of 'diagnosis' versus 'opinion'; issues specific to child protection paediatrics; quality control; aspects of report writing and terminological considerations. It concludes with an adaptation of key recommendations directly from those of Goudge, applied to the context of paediatric forensic medicine undertaken in child protection assessments.

  18. The EU paediatric regulation: effects on paediatric psychopharmacology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Stoyanova-Beninska, Violeta V; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Isaac, Maria; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; van den Berg, Henk; Gispen-de Wied, Christine

    2011-08-01

    Child and adolescent psychiatry is a relatively young field and the recognition, classification, and treatment of disorders in children and adolescents lag behind those in adults. In recent years there is an increasing awareness of the differences between children and adults in psychopathology and pharmacology. Related to this new paediatric regulations have been introduced. This article reviews the regulatory and legislative measures that were adopted in the EU in 2007 and the subsequent impact of these measures on the field of paediatric psychopharmacology. The consequences of the paediatric regulation in the EU are reflected in several domains: regulatory, research aimed at drug development and clinical practices. In the regulatory domain, the consequences include: new paediatric indications, inclusion of special (class) warnings, specification of dose regimens, and information on safety specific to children and adolescents, and development of new medicinal formulations. The paediatric regulation leads to timely development of paediatric friendly formulations and better quality of the clinical evidence. In clinical practices, an increased awareness of the uniqueness of paediatric pharmacology is emerging among medical professionals, and subsequent improvement of medical care (i.e. correct doses, appropriate formulation, monitoring for expected adverse events). In addition, clinical guidelines will have to be revised more frequently in order to integrate the recently acquired knowledge. The new regulations stimulate transparency and discussions between academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulators. The purpose is to optimize clinical research and obtain evidence for paediatric psychopharmacology, thereby providing adequate support for treatment.

  19. Paediatric Interventional Uroradiology

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.

    2011-04-15

    Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.

  20. Epigenetics: What does it mean for paediatric practice?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Judith G

    2014-01-01

    ‘Epigenetics’ involves the study of gene expression and the environmental exposures that influence expression. In paediatrics, it is recognized that different physiological and developmental stages of the young individual are affected by both genetic control and environmental influence. It appears that changes in gene expression – not changes in the DNA itself – can be passed on from one generation to another. The importance for paediatricians is recognizing disorders involving epigenetics, recording events during childhood that could affect epigenetic control of gene expression, and being aware of new therapies as they become available. Paediatricians need to be able to recognize the relevant risk factors. PMID:24627653

  1. Survey of Oxygen Delivery Practices in UK Paediatric Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Administration of supplemental oxygen is common in paediatric intensive care. We explored the current practice of oxygen administration using a case vignette in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) in the united kingdom. Methods. We conducted an online survey of Paediatric Intensive Care Society members in the UK. The survey outlined a clinical scenario followed by questions on oxygenation targets for 5 common diagnoses seen in critically ill children. Results. Fifty-three paediatric intensive care unit members from 10 institutions completed the survey. In a child with moderate ventilatory requirements, 21 respondents (42%) did not follow arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) targets. In acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest, and sepsis, there was a trend to aim for lower PaO2 as the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) increased. Conversely, in traumatic brain injury and pulmonary hypertension, respondents aimed for normal PaO2 even as the FiO2 increased. Conclusions. In this sample of clinicians PaO2 targets were not commonly used. Clinicians target lower PaO2 as FiO2 increases in acute respiratory distress syndrome, cardiac arrest, and sepsis whilst targeting normal range irrespective of FiO2 in traumatic brain injury and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27516901

  2. Professional and organizational commitment in paediatric occupational therapists: the influence of practice setting.

    PubMed

    Seruya, Francine M; Hinojosa, Jim

    2010-09-01

    The professional and organizational commitment of paediatric occupational therapists working in two distinct practice settings, schools and medically based settings, was investigated. A web-based survey program was used to administer a questionnaire to occupational therapists employed in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut. The study employed social identity theory as a guiding perspective in understanding therapists' professional and organizational commitment. One hundred and fifty-seven paediatric therapists responded to the Professional Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire to gauge their commitment to both the profession and their employing organizations. Results indicated that paediatric therapists, regardless of employment setting, have high professional commitment. Paediatric occupational therapists employed in medically based settings indicated statistically significant higher organizational commitment than their school-based counterparts. For therapists that work in school settings, the presence of a professional cohort did not influence professional commitment scores. As the study employed a web-based survey methodology, only individuals who were members of associations and had access to a computer and the Internet were able to participate. Further study might include widening the participant pool as well as adding additional instruments to explore both professional and organizational commitment on a more national scale. PMID:20806287

  3. Discussing patient management online: the impact of roles on knowledge construction for students interning at the paediatric ward.

    PubMed

    De Wever, Bram; Van Winckel, Myriam; Valcke, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to explore the use of asynchronous discussion groups during medical students' clinical rotation in paediatrics. In particular, the impact of role assignment on the level of knowledge construction through social negotiation is studied. Case-based asynchronous discussion groups were introduced to enhance reflection and critical thinking on patient management and treatment, and to offer an exercise in evidence-based medical practice. Groups of approximately 4-5 students were asked to discuss 4 authentic cases during clinical rotation in paediatrics. 49 students interning at the paediatric ward participated in this study. With respect to role assignment, differences between groups (1) with a student or an instructor as moderator and (2) with or without a developer of alternatives for patient management were explored. A content analysis was performed to explore the different levels of social construction of knowledge. The results of multilevel logit analyses show a significant difference in knowledge construction through social negotiation between conditions with a student moderator and conditions where the instructor is moderating, but only when a developer of alternatives is involved. No significant difference was revealed between student-moderated and instructor-moderator groups without a developer of alternatives. It can be concluded that when both the moderator and developer role are assigned to students, their contributions are more likely to reflect a high level of knowledge construction. PMID:16841238

  4. Developing a Culture to Facilitate Research Capacity Building for Clinical Nurse Consultants in Generalist Paediatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wilkes, Lesley; Cummings, Joanne; McKay, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a research capacity building exercise with a group of CNCs practicing in the speciality of paediatrics in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. It explores the first step in building a research culture, through identifying the research priorities of members of the NSW Child Health Networks Paediatric Clinical Nurse Consultant group, and this forms the major focus of this paper. A nominal group technique (NGT) was utilised with sixteen members to identify research topics for investigation which were considered a priority for improving children's health care. The group reviewed and prioritised 43 research topics in children's health which were identified in the literature. As a result of conducting this research prioritisation exercise, the group chose two research topics to investigate: reasons for children representing to the Emergency Department and a comparison of the use of high-flow and low-flow nasal prongs in children with bronchiolitis. The research team will continue to mentor the nurses throughout their research projects which resulted from the NGT. One bridge to leadership development in enhancing patient care is translating knowledge to practice and policy development. This study leads the way for a group of CNCs in paediatric nursing to combine their research capacity and influence clinical knowledge. PMID:23956854

  5. The Clinical Impact of Chromosomal Microarray on Paediatric Care in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Victoria Q.; Chan, Kelvin Y. K.; Chu, Yoyo W. Y.; Mok, Gary T. K.; Tan, Tiong Y.; Yang, Wanling; Lee, So Lun; Tang, Wing Fai; Tso, Winnie W. Y.; Lau, Elizabeth T.; Kan, Anita S. Y.; Tang, Mary H.; Lau, Yu-lung; Chung, Brian H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical impact of chromosomal microarray (CMA) on the management of paediatric patients in Hong Kong. Methods We performed NimbleGen 135k oligonucleotide array on 327 children with intellectual disability (ID)/developmental delay (DD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCAs) in a university-affiliated paediatric unit from January 2011 to May 2013. The medical records of patients were reviewed in September 2013, focusing on the pathogenic/likely pathogenic CMA findings and their “clinical actionability” based on established criteria. Results Thirty-seven patients were reported to have pathogenic/likely pathogenic results, while 40 had findings of unknown significance. This gives a detection rate of 11% for clinically significant (pathogenic/likely pathogenic) findings. The significant findings have prompted clinical actions in 28 out of 37 patients (75.7%), while the findings with unknown significance have led to further management recommendation in only 1 patient (p<0.001). Nineteen out of the 28 management recommendations are “evidence-based” on either practice guidelines endorsed by a professional society (n = 9, Level 1) or peer-reviewed publications making medical management recommendation (n = 10, Level 2). CMA results impact medical management by precipitating referral to a specialist (n = 24); diagnostic testing (n = 25), surveillance of complications (n = 19), interventional procedure (n = 7), medication (n = 15) or lifestyle modification (n = 12). Conclusion The application of CMA in children with ID/DD, ASD, and/or MCAs in Hong Kong results in a diagnostic yield of ∼11% for pathogenic/likely pathogenic results. Importantly the yield for clinically actionable results is 8.6%. We advocate using diagnostic yield of clinically actionable results to evaluate CMA as it provides information of both clinical validity and clinical utility. Furthermore, it

  6. Practising what we preach: A look at healthy active living policy and practice in Canadian paediatric hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Solh, Ziad; Adamo, Kristi B; Platt, Jennica L; Ambler, Kathryn; Boyd, Erin; Orrbine, Elaine; Cummings, Elizabeth; LeBlanc, Claire MA

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the past 30 years, the rate of obesity has risen considerably among Canadian children. Paediatric hospitals are in a unique position to model healthy environments to Canadian children. OBJECTIVE: To obtain an overview of healthy active living (HAL) policy and practice in Canadian paediatric hospitals. METHODS: Working in partnership with the local Canadian Paediatric Society HAL champions and the Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres liaisons, a nationwide survey was conducted in 2006/2007 to identify healthy eating, physical activity and smoking cessation practices in all 16 Canadian paediatric academic hospitals. RESULTS: Policies addressing healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion were present in 50% of hospitals with a greater focus on nutrition. Wellness committees were created in 50% of the hospitals, most of which were recently established. Healthy food options were available in cafeterias, although they were often more expensive. Fast food outlets were present in 75% of hospitals. Although inpatient meals were designed by dietitians, 50% offered less nutritious replacement kids meals (ie, meal substitutions) on request. Options for play available to inpatients and outpatients were primarily sedentary, with screen-based activities and crafts predominating over active play. Physical activity promotion for staff focused on reduced membership fees to fitness centres and classes. CONCLUSION: Canadian paediatric hospitals do not adequately promote HAL for patients and staff. The present study findings suggest further effort is required to create necessary healthy lifestyle modifications in these institutions through Canadian Paediatric Society/Canadian Association of Paediatric Health Centres-led policy development and implementation initiatives. A national-level policy framework is required to regulate interhospital variability in policies and practices. PMID:22131867

  7. Paediatric day-case neurosurgery in a resource challenged setting: Pattern and practice

    PubMed Central

    Owojuyigbe, Afolabi Muyiwa; Komolafe, Edward O.; Adenekan, Anthony T.; Dada, Muyiwa A.; Onyia, Chiazor U.; Ogunbameru, Ibironke O.; Owagbemi, Oluwafemi F.; Talabi, Ademola O.; Faponle, Fola A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been generally observed that children achieve better convalescence in the home environment especially if discharged same day after surgery. This is probably due to the fact that children generally tend to feel more at ease in the home environment than in the hospital setting. Only few tertiary health institutions provide routine day-case surgery for paediatric neurosurgical patients in our sub-region. Objective: To review the pattern and practice of paediatric neurosurgical day-cases at our hospital. Patients and Methods: A prospective study of all paediatric day-case neurosurgeries carried out between June 2011 and June 2014. Results: A total of 53 patients (34 males and 19 females) with age ranging from 2 days to 14 years were seen. Majority of the patients (77.4%) presented with congenital lesions, and the most common procedure carried out was spina bifida repair (32%) followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion (26.4%) for hydrocephalus. Sixty-eight percentage belonged to the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class 2, whereas the rest (32%) belonged to class 1. General anaesthesia was employed in 83% of cases. Parenteral paracetamol was used for intra-operative analgesia for most of the patients. Two patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting and were successfully managed. There was no case of emergency re-operation, unplanned admission, cancellation or mortality. Conclusion: Paediatric day-case neurosurgery is feasible in our environment. With careful patient selection and adequate pre-operative preparation, good outcome can be achieved. PMID:27251657

  8. Delivery devices for the administration of paediatric formulations: overview of current practice, challenges and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Jennifer; Bickmann, Deborah; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Chariot-Goulet, Maryvonne

    2011-08-30

    The European Paediatric Formulation Initiative (EuPFI), a group consisting of paediatric formulation experts from industry, academia and clinical pharmacy was founded with the aim of raising awareness of paediatric formulation issues. It is imperative that paediatric medicines can be administered accurately to ensure the correct dose is provided and that the administration device is easy to use and acceptable from the patient's and carer's perspectives. This reflection paper provides an overview of currently available paediatric administration devices and highlights some of the challenges associated with, recommendations and recent developments in delivery devices for the oral, inhaled, parenteral, nasal and ocular administration of paediatric formulations, on behalf of the EuPFI.

  9. Paediatric manpower.

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, M M; Bellman, M H

    1982-01-01

    Two investigations of paediatric manpower in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland were carried out, each using a different method. The first survey located registrars and senior registrars and checked on their occupational status 3 years later in order to see which ones had been promoted. Loss factors--such as emigration, retirement for personal reasons, part-time training, or transfer to general practice, community paediatrics, or other medical specialties--were examined closely. The second survey was a cross-sectional analysis of the entire paediatric establishment. It examined in particular the distribution of consultants and registrars. Using figures from survey 2 and loss factors from survey 1, a model of the paediatric career structure could be constructed. This showed that the present career pyramid would be unable to absorb the current number of registrars in training. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive registration scheme for registrars, especially those with honorary contracts, who are not currently included in official records. Paediatrics is unique in having a high proportion of women for whom there is little opportunity of reconciling career aspirations with family commitments. PMID:7125690

  10. Update in paediatric asthma management: where is evidence challenging current practice?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul D; Van Asperen, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Extrapolation of management strategies based on results from predominantly adult asthma studies frequently occurs in paediatric asthma despite increasing evidence that paediatric asthma and, in particular, pre-school recurrent wheeze are very different disease entities. Response to medications in paediatric subjects is often different from that seen in their older adolescent and adult counterparts. In this update, we discussed recent studies that have had important implications for future paediatric asthma management. The overuse of combination inhaled steroid and long-acting beta2 agonist inhalers in paediatric asthma despite ongoing safety concerns is an increasing trend in paediatric asthma, and recent evidence has helped clarify how they should be used in children. Other aspects discussed include the role of oral corticosteroids in pre-school viral-induced wheeze and the utility of leukotriene receptor antagonists in exercise-induced asthma.

  11. The evolution of paediatrics from archaeological times to the mid-nineteenth century and the historical influence on present day practice.

    PubMed

    Rangroo, Vinita

    2008-05-01

    The history of childcare dates back to the beginning of time. This article critically analyses the history of paediatrics from its roots to mid-nineteenth century with the view to examine its evolution and influence on today's practice. Paediatrics as a sub-speciality of medicine only began in the fifteenth century when the Four Incunabula were published in the West. This was the first attempt at producing a comprehensive and accessible reference paediatric text. However, long before the Incunabula, early traces of childcare are found in different cultures like Egyptian, Indian and Chinese. Modern paediatrics is a highly advanced field of medicine that relies on many recent technological innovations. In spite of these, this paper concludes that paediatrics today is very much based on concepts, such as observation and clinical skills, introduced many centuries ago. The basic approach used in everyday clinical practice owes more to century-old ideas of scientists. PMID:18394119

  12. The evolution of paediatrics from archaeological times to the mid-nineteenth century and the historical influence on present day practice.

    PubMed

    Rangroo, Vinita

    2008-05-01

    The history of childcare dates back to the beginning of time. This article critically analyses the history of paediatrics from its roots to mid-nineteenth century with the view to examine its evolution and influence on today's practice. Paediatrics as a sub-speciality of medicine only began in the fifteenth century when the Four Incunabula were published in the West. This was the first attempt at producing a comprehensive and accessible reference paediatric text. However, long before the Incunabula, early traces of childcare are found in different cultures like Egyptian, Indian and Chinese. Modern paediatrics is a highly advanced field of medicine that relies on many recent technological innovations. In spite of these, this paper concludes that paediatrics today is very much based on concepts, such as observation and clinical skills, introduced many centuries ago. The basic approach used in everyday clinical practice owes more to century-old ideas of scientists.

  13. "Short report" staffing in practice: five years' experience of a consultant based service in obstetrics and neonatal paediatrics.

    PubMed Central

    Hare, M J; Miles, R N; Lattimore, C R; Southern, J P

    1990-01-01

    Recent government plans include the concept of a core of doctors of intermediate grade providing 24 hour emergency cover in hospital departments. Hinchingbrooke Hospital has, since its opening in 1983, been run on a two tier basis, with consultants and a part time senior registrar supported only by senior house officers in their first post, usually on general practice vocational training schemes. With a planned rate of around 2000 deliveries per year all high risk obstetric and neonatal paediatric procedures, including ventilation of very small babies, have been carried out within the hospital. A study of the first five complete years of operation of the obstetric and paediatric departments showed that the perinatal mortality rate was low (hospital rate 4.7/1000 in 9149 deliveries during 1984-8 v district rate 5.1/1000 during 1986-8), and patient satisfaction seemed to be high. In a separate prospective study of out of hours work performed by consultants in paediatrics (four weeks) and obstetrics (20 days) three consultants in paediatrics spent 71 hours working out of hours; for the obstetricians, of the 56 request for advice and 38 interventions, only five and six respectively occurred between midnight and 9 am. Although successful at this hospital, the two tier system would be expensive under the Royal College of Obstetricians' guidelines of one consultant to a maximum of 500 deliveries. An equal mixture of two tier and three tier systems might be the best solution for patient care and training of junior doctors. PMID:2337703

  14. Neurodevelopmental and behavioural paediatrics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the notable shifts in Paediatrics across the last 50 years has been towards disorders that are chronic and qualitative in nature. In addition to physical health, these impact on childhood development, behaviour and wellbeing. Understanding and management of these problems extends the traditional biological toolkit of paediatrics into the complexities of uncertainties of psychological and social context. In Australasia, the profession has responded with the development of Community Paediatrics as a recognised sub-specialty, of which Neurodevelopmental and Behavioural Paediatrics is an important component. These developments are reviewed along with consideration of future challenges for this field of health care.

  15. The Impact and Successes of a Paediatric Endocrinology Fellowship Program in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Odundo, Gordon Otieno; Ngwiri, Thomas; Otuoma, Olivia; Laigong, Paul; Mukhwana, Renson; Limbe, Mary Slessor; Chanzu, Nadia Musimbi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and distribution of endocrine disorders in children in Africa are not well known because most cases are often undiagnosed or diagnosed too late. The awareness of this led to the launch of the Paediatric Endocrinology Training Center for Africa (PETCA) designed to improve quality and access to health care by training paediatricians from Africa in paediatric endocrinology. Methods. The fellowship is undertaken over an 18-month period: six months of clinical and theoretical training in Kenya, nine months of project research at the fellow's home country, and three months of consolidation in Kenya. Upon completion, certified paediatricians are expected to set up centers of excellence. Results. There have been two phases, phase I from January 2008 to October 2012 and phase II from January 2012 to April 2015. Fifty-four fellows from 12 African countries have been certified, 34 (phase I) and 20 (phase II). Over 1,000 patients with wide ranging diabetes and endocrine disorders have been diagnosed and treated and are being followed up at the centers of excellence. Conclusion. The successes of the PETCA initiative demonstrate the impact a capacity building and knowledge transfer model can have on people in resource-poor settings using limited resources. PMID:26904118

  16. The Impact and Successes of a Paediatric Endocrinology Fellowship Program in Africa.

    PubMed

    Odundo, Gordon Otieno; Ngwiri, Thomas; Otuoma, Olivia; Laigong, Paul; Mukhwana, Renson; Limbe, Mary Slessor; Chanzu, Nadia Musimbi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence and distribution of endocrine disorders in children in Africa are not well known because most cases are often undiagnosed or diagnosed too late. The awareness of this led to the launch of the Paediatric Endocrinology Training Center for Africa (PETCA) designed to improve quality and access to health care by training paediatricians from Africa in paediatric endocrinology. Methods. The fellowship is undertaken over an 18-month period: six months of clinical and theoretical training in Kenya, nine months of project research at the fellow's home country, and three months of consolidation in Kenya. Upon completion, certified paediatricians are expected to set up centers of excellence. Results. There have been two phases, phase I from January 2008 to October 2012 and phase II from January 2012 to April 2015. Fifty-four fellows from 12 African countries have been certified, 34 (phase I) and 20 (phase II). Over 1,000 patients with wide ranging diabetes and endocrine disorders have been diagnosed and treated and are being followed up at the centers of excellence. Conclusion. The successes of the PETCA initiative demonstrate the impact a capacity building and knowledge transfer model can have on people in resource-poor settings using limited resources. PMID:26904118

  17. The Working Practices and Clinical Experiences of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapists: A National UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Tim; Flood, Emma; Dodd, Barbara; Joffe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Background: The majority of speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with children who have speech, language and communication needs. There is limited information about their working practices and clinical experience and their views of how changes to healthcare may impact upon their practice. Aims: To investigate the working practices and…

  18. Organisation of workplace learning: a case study of paediatric residents' and consultants' beliefs and practices.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Mads; Nøhr, Susanne Backman; Jacobsen, Tine Klitgaard; Musaeus, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have examined how doctors learn in the workplace, but research is needed linking workplace learning with the organisation of doctors' daily work. This study examined residents' and consultants' attitudes and beliefs regarding workplace learning and contextual and organisational factors influencing the organisation and planning of medical specialist training. An explorative case study in three paediatric departments in Denmark including 9 days of field observations and focus group interviews with 9 consultants responsible for medical education and 16 residents. The study aimed to identify factors in work organisation facilitating and hindering residents' learning. Data were coded through an iterative process guided by thematic analysis. Findings illustrate three main themes: (1) Learning beliefs about patient care and apprenticeship learning as inseparable in medical practice. Beliefs about training and patient care expressed in terms of training versus production caused a potential conflict. (2) Learning context. Continuity over time in tasks and care for patients is important, but continuity is challenged by the organisation of daily work routines. (3) Organisational culture and regulations were found to be encouraging as well inhibiting to a successful organisation of the work in regards to learning. Our findings stress the importance of consultants' and residents' beliefs about workplace learning as these agents handle the potential conflict between patient care and training of health professionals. The structuring of daily work tasks is a key factor in workplace learning as is an understanding of underlying relations and organisational culture in the clinical departments.

  19. Organisation of workplace learning: a case study of paediatric residents' and consultants' beliefs and practices.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Mads; Nøhr, Susanne Backman; Jacobsen, Tine Klitgaard; Musaeus, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have examined how doctors learn in the workplace, but research is needed linking workplace learning with the organisation of doctors' daily work. This study examined residents' and consultants' attitudes and beliefs regarding workplace learning and contextual and organisational factors influencing the organisation and planning of medical specialist training. An explorative case study in three paediatric departments in Denmark including 9 days of field observations and focus group interviews with 9 consultants responsible for medical education and 16 residents. The study aimed to identify factors in work organisation facilitating and hindering residents' learning. Data were coded through an iterative process guided by thematic analysis. Findings illustrate three main themes: (1) Learning beliefs about patient care and apprenticeship learning as inseparable in medical practice. Beliefs about training and patient care expressed in terms of training versus production caused a potential conflict. (2) Learning context. Continuity over time in tasks and care for patients is important, but continuity is challenged by the organisation of daily work routines. (3) Organisational culture and regulations were found to be encouraging as well inhibiting to a successful organisation of the work in regards to learning. Our findings stress the importance of consultants' and residents' beliefs about workplace learning as these agents handle the potential conflict between patient care and training of health professionals. The structuring of daily work tasks is a key factor in workplace learning as is an understanding of underlying relations and organisational culture in the clinical departments. PMID:26696031

  20. Impact of rotavirus infection on a paediatric hospital in the east end of London.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, J S; Parker, S P; Choules, K; Phillips, A D; Walker-Smith, J; Cubitt, W D

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To study the impact of confirmed rotavirus infection at a paediatric hospital; to use the data to obtain a minimum estimate of the cost of treating reported cases of rotavirus in England and Wales. METHODS--Data were obtained on all patients with rotavirus over a two year period. Information was collected on 386 patients with rotavirus infection who were treated at the 120 bed Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in East London. This included the virus serotype, the patient's age, whether they required intravenous infusion, duration of hospital stay, numbers of patients treated in the casualty department, and numbers who had to be admitted. Treatment costs were obtained from the Finance Department of the Hospitals for Sick Children. RESULTS--The minimum cost of treating patients, excluding the cost of medical staff at the hospital, was estimated to be 95,400 pounds a year. One hundred and forty eight (38%) patients were admitted to the wards and a further 49 patients developed symptoms while in hospital. Intravenous infusion was required by 18 patients. The mean duration of hospital stay was 5.5 days. One hundred and eighty nine (49%) patients were treated with oral rehydration solution in casualty, given advice, and sent home. Ninety four per cent of the patients were aged under 2 years. The findings were comparable with those obtained in a study at Texas Children's Hospital, USA. The G serotype (VP7) of rotavirus did not influence the severity of infection. CONCLUSION--Rotavirus infections accounted for a significant number of patients treated in casualty, admissions to hospital, and bed occupancy in a paediatric hospital. The estimated cost of treating reported cases of rotavirus in England and Wales is in excess of 6.3 pounds million a year. PMID:8132813

  1. Off-label use of maraviroc in HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Claudia; Gómez, María Luisa Navarro; Soler-Palacín, Pere; González-Tomé, María Isabel; De Ory, Santiago J; Espiau, María; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; León-Leal, Juan Antonio; Méndez, María; Moreno-Pérez, David; Guasch, Claudia Fortuny; Sierra, Antoni Mur; Guruceta, Itziar Pocheville; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; Briz, Verónica

    2015-10-23

    Maraviroc (MVC) is not approved for HIV-1-infected paediatric patients. This is the first assessment of the use of MVC-based salvage therapy in vertically HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical settings. The results suggest that MVC-based salvage therapy is useful in children and adolescents with extensive resistance profile leading to maintained virological suppression in up to 88% of the patients with CCR5-tropic virus. The likelihood of treatment success might increase when MVC is combined with other active drugs.

  2. Off-label use of maraviroc in HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Claudia; Gómez, María Luisa Navarro; Soler-Palacín, Pere; González-Tomé, María Isabel; De Ory, Santiago J; Espiau, María; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; León-Leal, Juan Antonio; Méndez, María; Moreno-Pérez, David; Guasch, Claudia Fortuny; Sierra, Antoni Mur; Guruceta, Itziar Pocheville; Guillén, Santiago Moreno; Briz, Verónica

    2015-10-23

    Maraviroc (MVC) is not approved for HIV-1-infected paediatric patients. This is the first assessment of the use of MVC-based salvage therapy in vertically HIV-1-infected paediatric patients in clinical settings. The results suggest that MVC-based salvage therapy is useful in children and adolescents with extensive resistance profile leading to maintained virological suppression in up to 88% of the patients with CCR5-tropic virus. The likelihood of treatment success might increase when MVC is combined with other active drugs. PMID:26544580

  3. Morbidity and severity of illness during interhospital transfer: impact of a specialised paediatric retrieval team.

    PubMed Central

    Britto, J.; Nadel, S.; Maconochie, I.; Levin, M.; Habibi, P.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the morbidity and severity of illness during interhospital transfer of critically ill children by a specialised paediatric retrieval team. DESIGN--Prospective, descriptive study. SETTING--Hospitals without paediatric intensive care facilities in and around the London area, and a paediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary centre. SUBJECTS--51 critically ill children transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Adverse events related to equipment and physiological deterioration during transfer. Paediatric risk of mortality score before and after retrieval. Therapeutic intervention score before and after arrival of retrieval team. RESULTS--Two (4%) patients had preventable physiological deterioration during transport. There were no adverse events related to equipment. Severity of illness decreased during stabilisation and transport by the retrieval team, suggested by the difference between risk of mortality scores before and after retrieval (P < 0.001). The median (range) difference between the two scores was 3.0 (-6 to 17). Interventions during stabilisation by the retrieval team increased, demonstrated by the difference between intervention scores before and after retrieval, median (range) difference between the two scores being 6 (-8 to 38) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS--Our study indicates that a specialised paediatric retrieval team can rapidly deliver intensive care to critically ill children awaiting transfer. Such children can be transferred to a paediatric intensive care unit with minimal morbidity and mortality related to transport. There was no deterioration in the clinical condition of most patients during transfer. PMID:7580489

  4. The impact of parental accompaniment in paediatric trauma: a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) perspective.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Alan; Durge, Neal

    2014-05-13

    Major trauma remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in young people and adolescents throughout the western world. Both the physical and psychological consequences of trauma are well documented and it is shown that peri-traumatic factors play a large part in the emotional recovery of children involved in trauma. Indeed, parental anxiety levels may play one of the biggest roles. There are no publically available guidelines on pre-hospital accompaniment, and where research has been done on parental presence it often focuses primarily on the parents or staff, rather than the child themselves. Whilst acknowledging the impact on parents and staff, the importance of the emotional wellbeing of the child should be reinforced, to reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms in keeping with post-traumatic stress disorder. This non-systematic literature review, aims to examine the impact of parental accompaniment to hospital, following paediatric trauma, and to help pre-hospital clinicians decide whether accompaniment would be of benefit to their patient population. The lack of published data does not enable a formal recommendation of parental accompaniment in the helicopter to be mandated, though it should be the preference in land based conveyance. Future research is needed into the emotional recovery of children after trauma, as well as the experiences of patient, parent and staff during conveyance.

  5. The impact of parental accompaniment in paediatric trauma: a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) perspective.

    PubMed

    Cowley, Alan; Durge, Neal

    2014-01-01

    Major trauma remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in young people and adolescents throughout the western world. Both the physical and psychological consequences of trauma are well documented and it is shown that peri-traumatic factors play a large part in the emotional recovery of children involved in trauma. Indeed, parental anxiety levels may play one of the biggest roles. There are no publically available guidelines on pre-hospital accompaniment, and where research has been done on parental presence it often focuses primarily on the parents or staff, rather than the child themselves. Whilst acknowledging the impact on parents and staff, the importance of the emotional wellbeing of the child should be reinforced, to reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms in keeping with post-traumatic stress disorder. This non-systematic literature review, aims to examine the impact of parental accompaniment to hospital, following paediatric trauma, and to help pre-hospital clinicians decide whether accompaniment would be of benefit to their patient population. The lack of published data does not enable a formal recommendation of parental accompaniment in the helicopter to be mandated, though it should be the preference in land based conveyance. Future research is needed into the emotional recovery of children after trauma, as well as the experiences of patient, parent and staff during conveyance. PMID:24887082

  6. The impact of parental accompaniment in paediatric trauma: a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Major trauma remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in young people and adolescents throughout the western world. Both the physical and psychological consequences of trauma are well documented and it is shown that peri-traumatic factors play a large part in the emotional recovery of children involved in trauma. Indeed, parental anxiety levels may play one of the biggest roles. There are no publically available guidelines on pre-hospital accompaniment, and where research has been done on parental presence it often focuses primarily on the parents or staff, rather than the child themselves. Whilst acknowledging the impact on parents and staff, the importance of the emotional wellbeing of the child should be reinforced, to reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms in keeping with post-traumatic stress disorder. This non-systematic literature review, aims to examine the impact of parental accompaniment to hospital, following paediatric trauma, and to help pre-hospital clinicians decide whether accompaniment would be of benefit to their patient population. The lack of published data does not enable a formal recommendation of parental accompaniment in the helicopter to be mandated, though it should be the preference in land based conveyance. Future research is needed into the emotional recovery of children after trauma, as well as the experiences of patient, parent and staff during conveyance. PMID:24887082

  7. Good practice recommendations for paediatric outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (p-OPAT) in the UK: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay; Abrahamson, Ed; Goldring, Stephen; Green, Helen; Wickens, Hayley; Laundy, Matt

    2015-02-01

    There is compelling evidence to support the rationale for managing children on intravenous antimicrobial therapy at home whenever possible, including parent and patient satisfaction, psychological well-being, return to school/employment, reductions in healthcare-associated infection and cost savings. As a joint collaboration between the BSAC and the British Paediatric Allergy, Immunity and Infection Group, we have developed good practice recommendations to highlight good clinical practice and governance within paediatric outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (p-OPAT) services across the UK. These guidelines provide a practical approach for safely delivering a p-OPAT service in both secondary care and tertiary care settings, in terms of the roles and responsibilities of members of the p-OPAT team, the structure required to deliver the service, identifying patients and pathologies that are suitable for p-OPAT, ensuring appropriate vascular access, antimicrobial choice and delivery and the clinical governance aspects of delivering a p-OPAT service. The process of writing a business case to support the introduction of a p-OPAT service is also addressed.

  8. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals.

  9. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals. PMID:26265913

  10. Impact of a Virtual Clinic in a Paediatric Cardiology Network on Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Juliana Sousa Soares; Dias Filho, Adalberto Vieira; Silva Gomes, Renata Grigório; Regis, Cláudio Teixeira; Rodrigues, Klecida Nunes; Siqueira, Nicoly Negreiros; Albuquerque, Fernanda Cruz de Lira; Mourato, Felipe Alves; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital heart diseases (CHD) affect approximately 1% of live births and is an important cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Despite that, there is a shortage of paediatric cardiologists in Brazil, mainly in the northern and northeastern regions. In this context, the implementation of virtual outpatient clinics with the aid of different telemedicine resources may help in the care of children with heart defects. Methods. Patients under 18 years of age treated in virtual outpatient clinics between January 2013 and May 2014 were selected. They were divided into 2 groups: those who had and those who had not undergone a screening process for CHD in the neonatal period. Clinical and demographic characteristics were collected for further statistical analysis. Results. A total of 653 children and teenagers were treated in the virtual outpatient clinics. From these, 229 had undergone a neonatal screening process. Fewer abnormalities were observed on the physical examination of the screened patients. Conclusion. The implementation of pediatric cardiology virtual outpatient clinics can have a positive impact in the care provided to people in areas with lack of skilled professionals. PMID:26265913

  11. Medical professionals convicted of accessing child pornography--presumptive lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice? Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate.

    PubMed

    Shats, Kathy; Faunce, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Health Care Complaints Commission v Wingate [2007] NSWCA 326 concerns an appeal from the New South Wales Medical Tribunal regarding its findings on professional misconduct outside the practice of medicine in relation to a doctor convicted of possessing child pornography. The latest in a number of cases on this issue in Australia, it highlights the complexity of such decisions before medical tribunals and boards, as well as the diversity of approaches taken. Considering both this case and the recent Medical Practitioners Board of Victoria case of Re Stephanopoulos [2006] MPBV 12, this column argues that Australian tribunals and medical boards may not yet have achieved the right balance here in terms of protecting public safety and the reputation of the profession as a whole. It makes the case for a position statement from Australian professional bodies to create a presumption of a lifetime prohibition on paediatric practice after a medical professional has been convicted of accessing child pornography.

  12. Media Coverage of Youth Suicides and Its Impact on Paediatric Mental Health Emergency Department Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Stephanie L.; Cloutier, Paula; BéLair, Marc-André; Cappelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine mental health (MH) presentations to the emergency department (ED) of a paediatric hospital following two highly publicized local teen suicides. Methods: Youths aged 12–18 years with a MH chief complaint and/or diagnosis were included. Differences in frequencies were analyzed using chi-square tests, and relative risks were evaluated using generalized linear modelling. Results: Significant increases in the number of ED presentations were found within the months of the publicized suicides compared to the same months of previous years. No differences were found in symptom acuity, suicidal status and psychiatric hospitalization rates. Significant increases were found in relative risk of presenting to the ED 28 and 90 days post both publicized suicides. Conclusions: Results suggest there was an association between highly publicized suicides and an increase in the number of MH presentations to the local paediatric ED. Considerations of media's potentially positive role in MH awareness are needed. PMID:25410699

  13. Supervisor or mentor: is there a difference? Implications for paediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Mellon, Andrew; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    The formal roles of educational and clinical supervisor focus on education planning and goal setting against required training elements. Assessment of performance is integral to these roles that necessarily involve some elements of developmental support to trainees. Mentoring is increasingly seen as a desirable route to support doctors in training. Definitions vary, but core expectations of mentors are that they encourage personal development and offer psychosocial support to a trainee within a longitudinal relationship. A key question is whether a supervisor is the appropriate individual to act as a mentor to an individual trainee. The supervisor's role as an assessor of performance can pose challenges and potential conflicts when providing support relating to other personal needs of trainees along their career paths. It is apparent from the literature that mentoring is a multifaceted role, with different actions required of mentors and supervisors. There is evidence that mentorship can affect specialty choice, academic output and commitment to organisations. Addressing the challenges posed by an ideal of providing mentoring to all trainees is potentially as important as ensuring supervisors of competence. The potential benefits for the profession are of enhancing the development and retention of trainees of high calibre within the paediatric discipline.

  14. Adherence in paediatric renal failure and dialysis: an ethical analysis of nurses' attitudes and reported practice.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Joe Scott; Hulton, Sally-Anne; Draper, Heather

    2015-02-01

    Minors have difficulty adhering to the strict management regimen required whilst on renal dialysis for chronic renal failure. This leads to ethical tensions as healthcare professionals (HCPs) and parents try, in the minor's best interests, to ensure s/he adheres. All 11 dialysis nurses working in a large, regional paediatric dialysis unit were interviewed about their perceptions and management of non-adherence and the ethical issues this raised for them. Participants reported negative attitudes to non-adherence alongside sympathy and feelings of frustration. They discussed the competing responsibilities between nurses, parents and minors, and how responsibility ought to be transferred to the minor as s/he matures; the need for minors to take responsibility ahead of transferring to adult services; and, the process of transferring this responsibility. Our discussion concentrates on the ethical issues raised by the participants' reports of how they respond to non-adherence using persuasion and coercion. We consider how understandings of capacity, traditional individual autonomy, and willpower can be used to comprehend the issue of non-adherence. We consider the relational context in which the minor receives, and participates in, healthcare. This exposes the interdependent triad of relationships between HCP, parent and minor and aids understanding of how to provide care in an ethical way. Relational ethics is a useful alternative understanding for professionals reflecting upon how they define their obligations in this context.

  15. Impacted Sharp Oesophageal Foreign Bodies--A Novel Technique of Removal with the Paediatric Bronchoscope.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Aparajita; Bajpai, Minu

    2016-04-01

    Sharp foreign bodies in the oesophagus may present as an entirely asymptomatic child with only radiological evidence but require emergent surgical management. Safety pins, razor blades and needles are a few of the commonly ingested sharp objects in developing countries. The open safety pin is a particularly interesting clinical problem, as the management depends on its location and orientation. Many methods and instruments have been used over the years to remove them from the upper digestive tract. We present a novel method using the rigid paediatric bronchoscope and alligator forceps for the extraction of this unusual foreign body from the oesophagus of a 6 year old girl. PMID:26851436

  16. Emergency readmissions to paediatric surgery and urology: The impact of inappropriate coding.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, R; Henderson, K; Davies, B

    2016-04-01

    Introduction In England, emergency readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge after an elective admission are not reimbursed if they do not meet Payment by Results (PbR) exclusion criteria. However, coding errors could inappropriately penalise hospitals. We aimed to assess the accuracy of coding for emergency readmissions. Methods Emergency readmissions attributed to paediatric surgery and urology between September 2012 and August 2014 to our tertiary referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Payment by Results (PbR) coding data were obtained from the hospital's Family Health Directorate. Clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records. All readmissions were categorised as appropriately coded (postoperative or nonoperative) or inappropriately coded (planned surgical readmission, unrelated surgical admission, unrelated medical admission or coding error). Results Over the 24-month period, 241 patients were coded as 30-day readmissions, with 143 (59%) meeting the PbR exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 98 (41%) patients, 24 (25%) were inappropriately coded as emergency readmissions. These readmissions resulted in 352 extra bed days, of which 117 (33%) were attributable to inappropriately coded cases. Conclusions One-quarter of non-excluded emergency readmissions were inappropriately coded, accounting for one-third of additional bed days. As a stay on a paediatric ward costs up to £500 a day, the potential cost to our institution due to inappropriate readmission coding was over £50,000. Diagnoses and the reason for admission for each care episode should be accurately documented and coded, and readmission data should be reviewed at a senior clinician level.

  17. Editorial: cardiovascular drug therapy in paediatric age: from metabolomics to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients, cardiovascular drugs are widely administered in the treatment of numerous diseases. The indications and doses are strictly codified by international Guidelines, which are periodically updated by the American and European Societies of Cardiology. In paediatric patients, however, the situation is substantially different. The lack of large interventional studies on the use of these compounds has led to a greater uncertainty, with a less extensive administration and more limited indications. Furthermore, some important differences in therapeutic approach for the same diseases are present between the U.S. and Europe. The purpose of this Special Issue is to review the pharmacological treatment of certain heart diseases, such as heart failure, and arterial blood pressure, which can result in both adult and pediatric patients [1, 2]. Differences and similarities have been highlighted. Regarding the differences in medical treatment for the same disease in the U.S. and Europe, it has been emphasized that the regulation of drugs is largely determined not only by scientific considerations, but also by other concerns - legal, cultural - which vary in different parts of the world. Such discrepancies are found even in the informational documents provided by pharmaceutical companies (different in USA and Europe for the same drug) and drug agencies (different between FDA and equivalent agencies in Europe). In this issue of Current Medicinal Chemistry, a specific paper is dedicated to the pharmacological treatment of the patency of ductus arteriosus in neonates, which is still a controversial issue. In fact, notwithstanding ibuprofen appears to be lesser dangerous for newborns than indomethacin, with a similar efficacy in closing the ductus; in a number of countries the latter is still administered to all preterm subjects as a prophylactic tool [3]. An unusual case report is the interesting starting point to perform an extensive literature review about the new

  18. Editorial: cardiovascular drug therapy in paediatric age: from metabolomics to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bassareo, Pier Paolo; Fanos, Vassilios

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients, cardiovascular drugs are widely administered in the treatment of numerous diseases. The indications and doses are strictly codified by international Guidelines, which are periodically updated by the American and European Societies of Cardiology. In paediatric patients, however, the situation is substantially different. The lack of large interventional studies on the use of these compounds has led to a greater uncertainty, with a less extensive administration and more limited indications. Furthermore, some important differences in therapeutic approach for the same diseases are present between the U.S. and Europe. The purpose of this Special Issue is to review the pharmacological treatment of certain heart diseases, such as heart failure, and arterial blood pressure, which can result in both adult and pediatric patients [1, 2]. Differences and similarities have been highlighted. Regarding the differences in medical treatment for the same disease in the U.S. and Europe, it has been emphasized that the regulation of drugs is largely determined not only by scientific considerations, but also by other concerns - legal, cultural - which vary in different parts of the world. Such discrepancies are found even in the informational documents provided by pharmaceutical companies (different in USA and Europe for the same drug) and drug agencies (different between FDA and equivalent agencies in Europe). In this issue of Current Medicinal Chemistry, a specific paper is dedicated to the pharmacological treatment of the patency of ductus arteriosus in neonates, which is still a controversial issue. In fact, notwithstanding ibuprofen appears to be lesser dangerous for newborns than indomethacin, with a similar efficacy in closing the ductus; in a number of countries the latter is still administered to all preterm subjects as a prophylactic tool [3]. An unusual case report is the interesting starting point to perform an extensive literature review about the new

  19. Paediatric diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes does not spare any section of society, and its prevalence in the paediatric and adolescent age group is rising. This review highlights the etiological and clinical features of childhood diabetes, including secular changes in epidemiology. It discusses the aspects of non pharmacological and pharmacological therapy which are unique to the paediatric age group, and explores current use of novel therapeutic modalities. The article calls for modulation of the psychological environment of the child with diabetes, to help improve his or her quality of life, and sensitizes physicians to take proactive, affirmative action to address the special needs of children with type1 diabetes. PMID:24601207

  20. Emergency readmissions to paediatric surgery and urology: The impact of inappropriate coding.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, R; Henderson, K; Davies, B

    2016-04-01

    Introduction In England, emergency readmissions within 30 days of hospital discharge after an elective admission are not reimbursed if they do not meet Payment by Results (PbR) exclusion criteria. However, coding errors could inappropriately penalise hospitals. We aimed to assess the accuracy of coding for emergency readmissions. Methods Emergency readmissions attributed to paediatric surgery and urology between September 2012 and August 2014 to our tertiary referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Payment by Results (PbR) coding data were obtained from the hospital's Family Health Directorate. Clinical details were obtained from contemporaneous records. All readmissions were categorised as appropriately coded (postoperative or nonoperative) or inappropriately coded (planned surgical readmission, unrelated surgical admission, unrelated medical admission or coding error). Results Over the 24-month period, 241 patients were coded as 30-day readmissions, with 143 (59%) meeting the PbR exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 98 (41%) patients, 24 (25%) were inappropriately coded as emergency readmissions. These readmissions resulted in 352 extra bed days, of which 117 (33%) were attributable to inappropriately coded cases. Conclusions One-quarter of non-excluded emergency readmissions were inappropriately coded, accounting for one-third of additional bed days. As a stay on a paediatric ward costs up to £500 a day, the potential cost to our institution due to inappropriate readmission coding was over £50,000. Diagnoses and the reason for admission for each care episode should be accurately documented and coded, and readmission data should be reviewed at a senior clinician level. PMID:26924486

  1. The reduction of dose in paediatric panoramic radiography: the impact of collimator height and programme selection

    PubMed Central

    Safi, H; Maddison, S M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to estimate the doses to radiosensitive organs in the head of a young child undergoing panoramic radiography and to establish the effectiveness of a short collimator in reducing dose. Methods: Thermoluminescent dosemeters were used in a paediatric head phantom to simulate an examination on a 5-year-old child. The panoramic system used was an Instrumentarium OP200 D (Instrumentarium Dental, Tuusula, Finland). The collimator height options were 110 and 140 mm. Organ doses were measured using exposure programmes intended for use with adult and child size heads. The performance of the automatic exposure control (AEC) system was also assessed. Results: The short collimator reduced the dose to the brain and the eyes by 57% and 41%, respectively. The dose to the submandibular and sublingual glands increased by 32% and 20%, respectively, when using a programme with a narrower focal trough intended for a small jaw. The effective dose measured with the short collimator and paediatric programme was 7.7 μSv. The dose to the lens of the eye was 17 μGy. When used, the AEC system produced some asymmetry in the dose distribution across the head. Conclusions: Panoramic systems when used to frequently image children should have programmes specifically designed for imaging small heads. There should be a shorter collimator available and programmes that deliver a reduced exposure time and allow reduction of tube current. Programme selection should also provide flexibility for focal trough size, shape and position to match the smaller head size. PMID:25352427

  2. A survey of paediatric HIV programmatic and clinical management practices in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa—the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes in low-resource settings. Methods A standardized survey was completed by International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS paediatric cohort sites in the regions of Asia-Pacific (AP), Central Africa (CA), East Africa (EA), Southern Africa (SA) and West Africa (WA) to understand operational resource availability and paediatric management practices. Data were collected through January 2010 using a secure, web-based software program (REDCap). Results A total of 64,552 children were under care at 63 clinics (AP, N=10; CA, N=4; EA, N=29; SA, N=10; WA, N=10). Most were in urban settings (N=41, 65%) and received funding from governments (N=51, 81%), PEPFAR (N=34, 54%), and/or the Global Fund (N=15, 24%). The majority were combined adult–paediatric clinics (N=36, 57%). Prevention of mother-to-child transmission was integrated at 35 (56%) sites; 89% (N=56) had access to DNA PCR for infant diagnosis. African (N=40/53) but not Asian sites recommended exclusive breastfeeding up until 4–6 months. Regular laboratory monitoring included CD4 (N=60, 95%), and viral load (N=24, 38%). Although 42 (67%) sites had the ability to conduct acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears, 23 (37%) sites could conduct AFB cultures and 18 (29%) sites could conduct tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing. Loss to follow-up was defined as >3 months of lost contact for 25 (40%) sites, >6 months for 27 sites (43%) and >12 months for 6 sites (10%). Telephone calls (N=52, 83%) and outreach worker home visits to trace children lost to follow-up (N=45, 71%) were common. Conclusions In general, there was a high level of patient and laboratory monitoring within this multiregional paediatric cohort consortium that will facilitate detailed observational research studies. Practices will continue to be monitored as the WHO/UNAIDS Treatment 2.0 framework is implemented. PMID:23336728

  3. "Age-Appropriate Development" as Measure and Norm: An Ethnographic Study of the Practical Anthropology of Routine Paediatric Checkups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelle, Helga

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an ethnographic study of the logic of conducting routine paediatric checkups in children from birth to the age of 5 in Germany (U1 to U9). These checkups are meant as a continual evaluation of a child's developmental process and progress, and their outcomes inform decisions on children's careers in educational institutions.…

  4. THE IMPACT OF MODE OF ACQUISITION ON BIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF PAEDIATRIC HEPATITIS C VIRUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    England, Kirsty; Thorne, Claire; Harris, Helen; Ramsay, Mary; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the introduction of blood donor screening, worldwide, children continue to become infected with HCV via un-sterile medical injections, receipt of unscreened blood and isolated hospital contamination outbreaks. It is plausible that the natural history and disease progression in these children might differ from that of their vertically infected counterparts. Materials and Methods Vertically and parenterally HCV infected children were prospectively followed within the European Paediatric HCV Network and the UK National HCV Register respectively. Biological profiles were compared. Results Vertically and parenterally HCV infected children differed in terms of some key characteristics including the male:female ratio and the proportion of children receiving therapy. Parenterally infected children were more likely to have at least one hepatomegaly event during follow-up, 20% vs. 10%. Parenteral infection did not significantly affect the odds of being consistently viraemic, AOR 1.14 p=0.703 and there was no significant difference in the odds of having consistently elevated ALT levels and mode of acquisition, AOR 0.83 p=0.748. The proportion of children with 2 or more markers of HCV infection did not differ significantly by mode of acquisition, χ21.13 p=0.288. Conclusions This analysis does not support substantial differences between vertically and parenterally infected groups but there are specific mechanisms identified requiring further investigation. Given the continued parenteral infection of children worldwide it is vital that knowledge of disease progression in this group is accurate and that the differences in comparison to vertically infected children are clarified to inform more accurate and individualised clinical management. PMID:21762285

  5. The impact of mode of acquisition on biological markers of paediatric hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    England, K; Thorne, C; Harris, H; Ramsay, M; Newell, M-L

    2011-08-01

    Despite the introduction of blood donor screening, worldwide, children continue to become infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) via un-sterile medical injections, receipt of unscreened blood and isolated hospital contamination outbreaks. It is plausible that the natural history and disease progression in these children might differ from that of their vertically infected counterparts. Vertically and parenterally HCV-infected children were prospectively followed within the European Paediatric HCV Network and the UK National HCV Register, respectively. Biological profiles were compared. Vertically and parenterally HCV-infected children differed in terms of some key characteristics including the male to female ratio and the proportion of children receiving therapy. Parenterally infected children were more likely to have at least one hepatomegaly event during follow-up, 20%vs 10%. Parenteral infection did not significantly affect the odds of being consistently viraemic (AOR 1.14, P = 0.703) and there was no significant difference in the odds of having consistently elevated ALT levels and mode of acquisition (AOR 0.83, P = 0.748). The proportion of children with 2 or more markers of HCV infection did not differ significantly by mode of acquisition (χ(2) 1.13, P = 0.288). This analysis does not support substantial differences between vertically and parenterally infected groups, but there are specific mechanisms identified requiring further investigation. Given the continued parenteral infection of children worldwide, it is vital that knowledge of disease progression in this group is accurate and that the differences in comparison with vertically infected children are clarified to inform more accurate and individualized clinical management.

  6. [The Appointment of Paediatric Professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the early GDR. The Impact of the Political System Change after 1945].

    PubMed

    Hinz-Wessels, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the political system change after 1945 on the appointment of paediatric professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the GDR up until the time the Wall was built in 1961. It can be demonstrated that the political purge in the post-war period had only minor impact on the appointment of professorships and the National Socialist past no longer mattered after the conclusion of denazification. In 1957, the proportion of former NSDAP members among East German university professors of paediatrics was 100 per cent. When it came to new appointments, both members of the "bourgeois" academic non-professorial teaching staff from the GDR as well as paediatricians from West Germany, who had largely gained their scientifically qualifications under National Socialism, were in the running. A politically-controlled elite exchange did not take place until the construction of the Wall. State and party organs generally followed the personnel proposals of the universities since an insufficient number of qualified candidates was available for the systematic appointment of ,,progressive" paediatricians. Given the lack of staff, the SED personnel policy was aimed at the integration of previous elites, as long as they behaved loyally towards the new state. Since the East German faculties continued to make the questioning of the professionally competent professors in West Germany and East Germany the basis for their appointment lists, West German university paediatricians were able to exert considerable influence on the appointment of East German paediatric professorship until 1960s.

  7. [The Appointment of Paediatric Professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the early GDR. The Impact of the Political System Change after 1945].

    PubMed

    Hinz-Wessels, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the political system change after 1945 on the appointment of paediatric professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the GDR up until the time the Wall was built in 1961. It can be demonstrated that the political purge in the post-war period had only minor impact on the appointment of professorships and the National Socialist past no longer mattered after the conclusion of denazification. In 1957, the proportion of former NSDAP members among East German university professors of paediatrics was 100 per cent. When it came to new appointments, both members of the "bourgeois" academic non-professorial teaching staff from the GDR as well as paediatricians from West Germany, who had largely gained their scientifically qualifications under National Socialism, were in the running. A politically-controlled elite exchange did not take place until the construction of the Wall. State and party organs generally followed the personnel proposals of the universities since an insufficient number of qualified candidates was available for the systematic appointment of ,,progressive" paediatricians. Given the lack of staff, the SED personnel policy was aimed at the integration of previous elites, as long as they behaved loyally towards the new state. Since the East German faculties continued to make the questioning of the professionally competent professors in West Germany and East Germany the basis for their appointment lists, West German university paediatricians were able to exert considerable influence on the appointment of East German paediatric professorship until 1960s. PMID:27476257

  8. Assessing access to paediatric trauma centres in Canada, and the impact of the golden hour on length of stay at the hospital: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Amram, Ofer; Schuurman, Nadine; Pike, Ian; Friger, Michael; Yanchar, Natalie L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Canada injuries are a leading cause of death and morbidity among the paediatric population. Trauma systems have been established across North America to provide comprehensive injury care and to lead injury control efforts. However, not all populations have equal access to trauma care services. This is an observational study with the aim of assessing the impact of geographical access to paediatric trauma centres (PTCs) on patient outcomes, and to determine spatial access to PTCs across Canada. Setting To examine the relationship between access to PTC and injury outcome, length of stay at the PTC was determined for all injured patients who live within and outside of 60 min driving time of the PTC. To determine spatial access to PTCs across Canada, a list of level 1 and 2 PTCs was identified across Canada. A 1 h driving time catchment was created around each PTC in order to estimate spatial accessibility. Participants Hospital administration data sets from British Columbia (BC) and the Nova Scotia (NS) trauma registry were used to assess the impact of spatial access on paediatric injury (ages 0–15 years) outcomes. The data sets provided case-level data including the Injury Severity Score, postal code of place of residence, age and length of hospital stay. Results In NS and BC, average length of stay at the hospital is significantly lower inside 60 min driving time compared to outside of 60 min driving time from a PTC (p<0.05, using a non-parametric t test). In Canada, approximately 65% of the paediatric population resides within 1 h of a PTC. Conclusions This paper highlights differences in injury outcomes as a result of access. However, further investigation is needed as other considerations such as type of injury, age and/or gender may also affect injury outcomes. PMID:26747041

  9. Impact of Inconsistent Policies for Transfusion-Transmitted Malaria on Clinical Practice in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Owusu-Ofori, Alex K.; Bates, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies concerning the prevention of transfusion transmitted malaria (TTM) are the responsibility of blood transfusion services and malaria control programmes. To prevent spreading drug resistance due to over-use of malaria drugs, recent malaria treatment guidelines recommend prompt parasitological confirmation before treatment is started. In contrast, blood safety policies from the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommend presumptive malaria treatment for recipients of blood in endemic countries but evidence supporting this approach is lacking. Our study documented how these conflicting policies relating to malaria transmission through blood transfusion impact on clinical practice in a teaching hospital in West Africa. Methods/Principal Findings We randomly selected and reviewed case notes of 151 patients within 24 hours of their receiving a blood transfusion. Transfusion practices including the confirmation of diagnosis and anti-malarial treatment given were compared across three departments; Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G), Paediatrics and Medicine. Overall, 66 (44%) of patients received malaria treatment within 24 hrs of their blood transfusion; of which only 2 (3%) received anti-malarials based on a laboratory confirmation of malaria. Paediatric patients (87%) received the most anti-malarials and only 7% and 24% of recipients in medicine and O&G respectively received anti malarials. In 51 patients (78%), the anti-malarials were prescribed at the same time as the blood transfusion and anti-malarials prescriptions exceeded the number of patients with a presumptive diagnosis of malaria. Conclusions It is common practice in paediatrics to prescribe anti-malarials routinely with blood transfusions. This contravenes the malaria treatment guidelines of laboratory confirmation before treatment but is in accordance with the less-well evidenced blood safety guidelines. There is an urgent need for more evidence about the clinical impact of transfusion

  10. Paediatric blood pressure and anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mather, C M

    1991-05-01

    One percent of children have appreciably and consistently raised arterial blood pressure. A 7-year-old girl admitted for routine tonsillectomy, had unrecognised hypertension which put her at increased risk. Should anaesthetic practice take more note of paediatric blood pressures? PMID:2035786

  11. Sweat testing for the detection of atomoxetine from paediatric patients with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: application to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Marchei, Emilia; Papaseit, Esther; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Bilbao, Amaia; Farré, Magí; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2013-03-01

    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved since 2002 for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults as an alternative treatment to methylphenidate. Within the framework of a project evaluating the use of alternative biological matrices for therapeutic monitoring of psychoactive drugs in paediatric and non-paediatric individuals, the excretion of ATX and its principal metabolites has been recently studied in oral fluid and hair. The aim of this study was to describe the excretion profile of ATX and its metabolites 4-hydroxyatomoxetine (4-OH-ATX) and N-desmethylatomoxetine (N-des-ATX) in sweat following the administration of different dosage regimens (60, 40, 35, and 18 mg/day) of ATX to six paediatric patients. Sweat patches were applied to the back of each participant and removed at timed intervals. ATX and its metabolites were measured in patches using a previously validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Independently from the administered dose, ATX appeared in the sweat patches 1 h post administration and reached its maximum concentration generally at 24 h. Peak ATX concentrations ranged between 2.31 and 40.4 ng/patch and did not correlate with the administered drug dose, or with body surface area. Total ATX excreted in sweat ranged between 0.008 and 0.121 mg, corresponding to 0.02 and 0.3% of the administered drug. Neither 4-OH-ATX, nor N-des-ATX was detected in either of the collected sweat patches. Measuring ATX in sweat patches can provide information on cumulative drug use from patch application until removal.

  12. The impact of recent legislation on paediatric fireworks injuries in the Newcastle upon Tyne region.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Alexandra F L; Cubison, Tania C S; Pape, Sarah A

    2008-11-01

    Despite the changes to the UK fireworks laws and considerable efforts in prevention, children are still being injured by fireworks. The UK is one of many countries that have altered their firework laws in recent years. We reviewed 54 firework-injured children over the last 10 years and assessed the impact of the two recent UK law changes. Our study outlines past British firework legislation and reviews the literature. In November 1996, there were three deaths in England, Wales and Scotland due to fireworks. The British Government introduced the Fireworks (Safety) Regulations of 1996/1997, primarily banning banger fireworks (known as bangers). We have not seen banger injuries in Newcastle since then. The Fireworks Act 2003 and the Fireworks Regulations 2004 limited the sale of fireworks to the 3 weeks surrounding bonfire night, and banned under 18s from purchasing or possessing fireworks. In our series, we noticed that, in 2004, 83% of children's firework injuries happened in the 3 weeks surrounding Bonfire Night. We conclude that legislation has had an impact, but stricter enforcement of the existing laws and further education of children and the general public into the dangers of fireworks is needed, as children are still being injured.

  13. Surgical strategies in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Colin T; Smith, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two distinct but related chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions affecting different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease is characterised by a patchy transmural inflammation affecting both small and large bowel segments with several distinct phenotypic presentations. Ulcerative colitis classically presents as mucosal inflammation of the rectosigmoid (distal colitis), variably extending in a contiguous manner more proximally through the colon but not beyond the caecum (pancolitis). This article highlights aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of IBD that have relevance for paediatric practice with particular emphasis on surgical considerations. Since 25% of IBD cases present in childhood or teenage years, the unique considerations and challenges of paediatric management should be widely appreciated. Conversely, we argue that the organizational separation of the paediatric and adult healthcare worlds has often resulted in late adoption of new approaches particularly in paediatric surgical practice. PMID:26034347

  14. The impact of induction therapy with three doses of infliximab on deep histological healing in paediatric patients with active Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Dadalski, Maciej; Szymanska, Sylwia; Grajkowska, Wieslawa; Pronicki, Maciej; Kierkus, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The clinical efficacy of infliximab (IFX) for induction of remission in both adults and children with active Crohn’s disease (CD) has been well documented. Recently, so-called “deep remission” defined as mucosal healing has become the ultimate endpoint of the most recent therapeutic advances for CD. However, endoscopic evidence of mucosal healing is not necessarily associated with histological evidence of suppression of inflammation. Aim Since data on that issue are limited, especially in the paediatric population, the aim of this study was to assess the impact of induction therapy with IFX on deep microscopic remission in paediatric patients with CD. Material and methods Fifty-six children (32 boys and 24 girls) aged 13.0 ±9.3 years with moderate to severely active CD diagnosed at the mean age of 5.5 ±0.83 years were included into the study. Colonoscopy and gastroscopy with sample collection were performed in all patients before and after three injections of IFX. Clinical activity of the disease was assessed using the Paediatric Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (PCDAI), and the endoscopic activity was scored using the Simple Endoscopic Score (SES-CD). Histological changes were evaluated by a previously described numerical scoring system. Results Thirty-nine (69.6%) patients reached clinical remission (PCDAI ≤ 10). When comparing data at baseline and at week 10, a significant decrease was observed in median PCDAI, and in SES-CD score between the initial and control colonoscopies. We also reported a decrease in histological scale. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.63). Three (5.4%) patients had a score of zero in the control histological examination. The correlation was found only between histological score and SES-CD score. Clinical remission correlated better with mucosal healing expressed by a decrease in SES-CD score than with microscopic changes. Conclusions Biological therapy with infliximab enables mucosal

  15. Paediatric arterial ischemic stroke: acute management, recent advances and remaining issues.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Margherita; De Lucia, Silvana; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Le Gal, Julie; Desmarest, Marie; Veropalumbo, Claudio; Romanello, Silvia; Titomanlio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a rare disease in childhood with an estimated incidence of 1-6/100.000. It has an increasingly recognised impact on child mortality along with its outcomes and effects on quality of life of patients and their families. Clinical presentation and risk factors of paediatric stroke are different to those of adults therefore it can be considered as an independent nosological entity. The relative rarity, the age-related peculiarities and the variety of manifested symptoms makes the diagnosis of paediatric stroke extremely difficult and often delayed. History and clinical examination should investigate underlying diseases or predisposing factors and should take into account the potential territoriality of neurological deficits and the spectrum of differential diagnosis of acute neurological accidents in childhood. Neuroimaging (in particular diffusion weighted magnetic resonance) is the keystone for diagnosis of paediatric stroke and other investigations might be considered according to the clinical condition. Despite substantial advances in paediatric stroke research and clinical care, many unanswered questions remain concerning both its acute treatment and its secondary prevention and rehabilitation so that treatment recommendations are mainly extrapolated from studies on adult population. We have tried to summarize the pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of arterial ischemic stroke in children and the most recent international guidelines and practical directions on how to recognise and manage it in paediatric emergency.

  16. Understanding and evaluating the effects of implementing an electronic paediatric prescribing system on care provision and hospital work in paediatric hospital ward settings: a qualitatively driven mixed-method study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Farre, Albert; Cummins, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic prescribing systems can improve the quality and safety of healthcare services, but their implementation is not straightforward and may create unexpected change. However, the added complexity of paediatric prescribing (eg, dose calculations, dilutions, manipulations) may pose additional challenges. This study will aim to (1) understand the complex organisational reality of a paediatric hospital in which a new electronic paediatric prescribing (ePP) system will be introduced; (2) describe ePP-related change, over time, in paediatric hospital ward settings; (3) explore staff perspectives in relation to currently established practices and processes; and (4) assess the impact of ePP on care provision and hospital work from the perspective of paediatricians, paediatric nurses and managers. Methods and analysis A qualitatively driven mixed-method approach will be adopted, including 3 inter-related substudies. The core component of the study will be qualitative (substudy 1): we will use ethnographic research methods, including non-participant observation in wards and informal conversational interviews with members of staff. In addition, the design will include 2 embedded supplementary components: a qualitative 1 (substudy 2) based on in-depth interviews and/or focus groups with paediatricians, paediatric nurses, paediatric pharmacists/pharmacy technicians and managers; and a quantitative 1 (substudy 3) in which a staff survey will be developed and administered before and after the ePP implementation. Analytic themes will be identified from ethnographic field notes and interview data. Survey data will be analysed using descriptive statistics and baseline and follow-up data compared to establish impact evaluation measures. Ethics and dissemination A favourable ethical opinion has been obtained from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee (15/SS/0157). NHS research governance approval has been obtained at the relevant hospital site

  17. Management of paediatric asthma

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, J

    2004-01-01

    Paediatric asthma best practice not only includes prescribing the correct therapeutic mix based on consensus guidelines, but also reducing therapy once control has been achieved. Clinicians should also be aware that asthma in young children is a heterogeneous entity, and a beneficial response to bronchodilators and/or inhaled steroids is not inevitable. In general, preschool children and infants should not be prescribed inhaled corticosteroids above 200 µg beclometasone dipropionate equivalent twice a day, or regular oral steroids, or long acting ß2-adrenoceptor agonists. New therapies such as anti-IgE antibodies are on the horizon, but these are unlikely to replace the established drug combinations. More likely is that the delivery of established drugs will become more convenient (for example, once a day inhaled corticosteroids, or season dependent prophylactic therapy). PMID:15356355

  18. Paediatrics in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Rottier, Bart; Lindblad, Anders; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr; Eber, Ernst

    2014-08-01

    This update will describe the paediatric highlights from the 2013 European Respiratory Society (ERS) annual congress in Barcelona, Spain. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) have been chosen by group officers and are presented in the context of current literature.

  19. Paediatrics: messages from Munich

    PubMed Central

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Pijnenburg, Marielle; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M.; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) are presented in the context of the current literature. PMID:27730136

  20. What's new in paediatric dentistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M. C.

    2016-03-01

    Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.

  1. Paediatrics in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Regamey, Nicolas; Grigg, Jonathan; Ross Russell, Robert I; Turner, Steve W; Priftis, Kostas; Eber, Ernst

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this update is to describe, in the context of the current literature, major papers from the seven groups of the Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology; Asthma and Allergy; Cystic Fibrosis; Respiratory Infection and Immunology; Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care; Respiratory Epidemiology; and Bronchology) presented during the annual European Respiratory Society congress held in 2012 in Vienna, Austria.

  2. Oesophageal inflammatory paediatric chylothorax

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, Thomas; Cullen, Paul; Mortell, Alan; McGuinness, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Paediatric chylothoraces are rare, particularly outside the operative setting. Cases of spontaneous chylothorax are often demanding diagnostically and frequently associated with patient morbidity. We present a challenging case of paediatric chylothorax associated with inflammatory oesophageal perforation likely related to foreign body ingestion. PMID:24920516

  3. Student Success: Identifying High-Impact Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waiwaiole, Evelyn N.; Bohlig, E. Michael; Massey, Kristine J.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the work of the Center for Community College Student Engagement, highlighting institutes the Center hosts and work that comes from these meetings. Examples of interventions that evolved from the High-Impact Practices Institutes conducted by the Center are provided. The chapter concludes with a discussion about implementation…

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in paediatric psychoneuroendocrinology: a new frontier for understanding the impact of hormones on emotion and cognition.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C

    2013-08-01

    Mounting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research is characterising the neurobiological trajectories of healthy human brain development. In parallel, studies increasingly acknowledge the relevance of perturbations of these trajectories for adolescent and adult psychopathology. Although an influence of steroid hormones on mood and anxiety disorders has been demonstrated in adults, very little is known about how steroid hormones alter human brain development and contribute to adolescent psychopathology. This review focuses on recent evidence obtained from structural and functional MRI in children and adolescents with genetic endocrine disorders and with characteristic fluctuations in androgen or oestrogen levels (familial male precocious puberty, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome). It aims to highlight how neurobiological findings from these paediatric endocrine disorders can provide insight into the contribution of sex steroids with respect to the development of neurocircuitry involved in affective processing (amygdala, hippocampus) and cognitive control (prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, striatum). In addition, findings from these populations may also provide important information on aberrant psychological processes relevant for the clinical care and management of these populations. Finally, the findings are discussed within the context of current frameworks in animal models, such as the organisational-activational hypothesis or the aromatisation hypothesis. The review ends with a discussion of open questions for future enquiry with the goal of integrating translational models with current knowledge of endocrine disorders and developmental studies in healthy populations.

  5. Enhancing reflective practice through online learning: impact on clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Sim, J; Radloff, A

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Traditionally, radiographers and radiation therapists function in a workplace environment that is protocol-driven with limited functional autonomy. The workplace promotes a culture of conformity and discourages practitioners from reflective and critical thinking, essential attributes for continuing learning and advancing workplace practices. As part of the first author’s doctoral study, a continuing professional development (CPD) educational framework was used to design and implement an online module for radiation therapists’ CPD activities. The study aimed to determine if it is possible to enhance healthcare practitioners’ reflective practice via online learning and to establish the impact of reflective learning on clinical practice. Materials and methods The objectives of the online module were to increase radiation therapists’ knowledge in planning for radiation therapy for the breast by assisting them engage in reflective practice. The cyclical process of action research was used to pilot the module twice with two groups of volunteer radiation therapists (twenty-six participants) from Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Results The online module was evaluated using Kirkpatrick’s four-level evaluation model. Evidence indicated that participants were empowered as a result of participation in the module. They began reflecting in the workplace while assuming a more proactive role and increased clinical responsibilities, engaged colleagues in collaborative reflections and adopted evidence-based approaches in advancing clinical practices. Conclusion The study shows that it is possible to assist practitioners engage in reflective practice using an online CPD educational framework. Participants were able to apply the reflective learning they had developed in their workplace. As a result of their learning, they felt empowered to continue to effect changes in their workplace beyond the cessation of the online module. PMID:21614319

  6. Use of smartphone apps by paediatric trainees.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, Srinivas; Halton, Fiona; Goodyear, Helen

    2015-08-01

    Over 70% of the population owns a smartphone and there are now millions of apps available. This study looks at smartphone and app use among paediatric trainees, in particular whether they are accessing medical apps to help with clinical practice. PMID:26255919

  7. The clinical impact of hip joint centre regression equation error on kinematics and kinetics during paediatric gait.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, D; Malone, A; O'Brien, T; Simms, C K

    2015-01-01

    Regression equations based on pelvic anatomy are routinely used to estimate the hip joint centre during gait analysis. While the associated errors have been well documented, the clinical significance of these errors has not been reported. This study investigated the clinical agreement of three commonly used regression equation sets (Bell et al., Davis et al. and Orthotrak software) against the equations of Harrington et al. Full 3-dimensional gait analysis was performed on 18 healthy paediatric subjects. Kinematic and kinetic data were calculated using each set of regression equations and compared to Harrington et al. In addition, the Gait Profile Score and GDI-Kinetic were used to assess clinical significance. Bell et al. was the best performing set with differences in Gait Profile Score (0.13°) and GDI-Kinetic (0.84 points) falling below the clinical significance threshold. Small deviations were present for the Orthotrak set for hip abduction moment (0.1 Nm/kg), however differences in Gait Profile Score (0.27°) and GDI-Kinetic (2.26 points) remained below the clinical threshold. Davis et al. showed least agreement with a clinically significant difference in GDI-Kinetic score (4.36 points). It is proposed that Harrington et al. or Bell et al. regression equation sets are used during gait analysis especially where inverse dynamic data are calculated. Orthotrak is a clinically acceptable alternative however clinicians must be aware of the effects of error on hip abduction moment. The Davis et al. set should be used with caution for inverse dynamic analysis as error could be considered clinically meaningful.

  8. Aspects of tropical paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Hendrickse, R G

    1976-01-01

    Malnutrition interacting with infectious and parasitic diseases are the main causes of the appalling mortality in childhood in the tropics. The most important single safeguard against these in infancy is breast feeding and the trend now evident to abandon this is a disaster which demands urgent attention. Reasons for this trend are discussed. Efforts to control infectious diseases, other than smallpox, have had little success and the emergence and spread of dengue haemorrhagic fever in S.E. Asia have added new dimensions to the problem. Malaria is still widely prevalent in the tropics and falciparum malaria, holoendemic in much of Africa, remains a major cause of death with its most serious impact on pregnant women and children. The emergence and spread of drug resistant strains of this parasite in parts of the world is a cause for serious concern. Quartan malaria is also an insidious corruptor of health in childhood and commonly causes the nephrotic syndrome. Neonatal jaundice, often associated with G6PD deficiency, is increasing in frequency in urban areas of Africa and now constitutes a significant hazard to the newborn and requires urgent investigation. These problems in tropical paediatrics indicate the need for urgent reappraisal of our role as a profession in the affairs of the tropical developing world.

  9. The clinical impact of IKZF1 deletions in paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is independent of minimal residual disease stratification in Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology treatment protocols used between 1992 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Linda; Ivanov Öfverholm, Ingegerd; Norén-Nyström, Ulrika; Zachariadis, Vasilios; Nordlund, Jessica; Sjögren, Helene; Golovleva, Irina; Nordgren, Ann; Paulsson, Kajsa; Heyman, Mats; Barbany, Gisela; Johansson, Bertil

    2015-09-01

    Paediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (BCP ALL) with IKZF1 deletions (∆IKZF1) are associated with a poor outcome. However, there are conflicting data as to whether ∆IKZF1 is an independent risk factor if minimal residual disease (MRD) and other copy number alterations also are taken into account. We investigated 334 paediatric BCP ALL, diagnosed 1992-2013 and treated according to Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL protocols, with known IKZF1 status based on either single nucleotide polymorphism array (N = 218) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (N = 116) analyses. ∆IKZF1, found in 15%, was associated with inferior 10-year probabilities of event-free (60% vs. 83%; P < 0·001) and overall survival (pOS; 73% vs. 89%; P = 0·001). Adjusting for known risk factors, including white blood cell (WBC) count and MRD, ∆IKZF1 was the strongest independent factor for relapse and death. ∆IKZF1 was present in 27% of cases with non-informative cytogenetics ('BCP-other') and a poor 10-year pOS was particularly pronounced in this group (58% vs. 90%; P < 0·001). Importantly, neither MRD nor WBC count predicted events in the ∆IKZF1-positive cases. Co-occurrence of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) deletions in Xp22.33/Yp11.32 (P2RY8-CRLF2) and ∆IKZF1 increased the risk of relapse (75% vs. 30% for cases with only ∆IKZF1; P = 0·045), indicating that BCP-other ALL with both P2RY8-CRLF2 and ∆IKZF1 constitutes a particularly high-risk group.

  10. Recent trends in pediatric Haemophilus influenzae type B infections in Canada. Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control.

    PubMed Central

    Scheifele, D W

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in the number of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections among Canadian children before and after the introductory phases of Hib vaccination. DESIGN: Multicentre case series. SETTING: All 10 pediatric tertiary care centres across Canada participating in the Immunization Monitoring Program, Active (IMPACT) of the Canadian Paediatric Society and the Laboratory Centre for Disease control. PATIENTS: Children with a Hib infection admitted to any of the participating hospitals from 1985 to 1994. Annual case totals from 1985 to 1990 were determined from records of hospital laboratories or coded discharge diagnoses, or both. From 1991 to 1994 intensive case surveillance was conducted on the wards in addition to thorough record searches as above. OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimated annual case totals for 1985-90. For 1991-94 intensive surveillance for quarterly case totals, yearly age distribution of cases, and proportion of recent cases that represent vaccination failures or missed opportunities to prevent infection. RESULTS: The total number of Hib cases from 1985 to 1990 was 2095; from 1991 to 1994, there were 326 laboratory-confirmed cases and 15 probably cases supported by Hib antigen detection. The annual number of cases declined from an estimated 485 in 1985 to 24 in 1994, a decrease of 95.1%. The steepest interannual decrease (63.7%) occurred between 1992 and 1993, following the introduction of infant-based vaccination programs across Canada. The number of Hib cases involving children most at risk (those 6 to 18 months old) decreased from 78 in 1991 to 4 in 1994. Of the 24 cases in 1994, 6 were categorized as preventable, 1 was fatal, and 8 were vaccine failures (2 of which involved currently used vaccines). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Hib infections reported by the IMPACT centres has declined greatly since the introduction of vaccination programs. However, deaths and complications continue to occur, attesting to the need to

  11. [What's new in paediatric dermatology?].

    PubMed

    Plantin, P

    2014-12-01

    Regular analysis of the major journals in dermatology and paediatrics has been used to select forty articles which are representative of the past year in paediatric dermatology. This selection is not exhaustive but rather reflects the interests of the author and also the dominant topics in paediatric dermatology in 2013-2014. PMID:25539754

  12. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Natali, Gian L; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population.

  13. Gene therapy for paediatric leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, R F; Bollard, C M; Heslop, H E

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in the chemotherapeutic and transplant regimens have had a significant impact in improving survival rates for paediatric leukaemia. However, there are still important problems to address including what options are available for patients with chemoresistant disease and what strategies are available to avoid the concerns regarding the toxicity associated with highly cytotoxic treatment regimens. Gene therapy and immunotherapy protocols hold great promise. Using gene transfer of a marker gene, a number of biological issues in the therapy of leukaemia have been addressed. For example, by gene marking autologous bone marrow grafts it has been possible to demonstrate that infused marrow contributes to relapse in acute and chronic myeloid leukaemias. In the allogeneic transplant setting, genetically modified T-cells have proven valuable for the prophylaxis and treatment of viral diseases and may have an important role in preventing or treating disease relapse. Gene transfer is also being used to modify tumour function, enhance immunogenicity, and confer drug-resistance to normal haematopoietic stem cells. With the continued scientific advancements in this field, gene therapy will almost certainly have a major impact on the treatment of paediatric leukaemia in the future. PMID:11727502

  14. Paediatric asthma and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sean R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E

    2006-12-01

    None of the explanations proposed for the increase in paediatric asthma have been adequate. It is becoming apparent that the cause of the increase in asthma must be multi-factorial. Increasing attention has been focused on the role of lifestyle in the development of asthma. Lifestyle changes that have occurred in children are those in diet and decreased physical activity, with obesity being the product of these changes. The increase in asthma, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle have occurred together. However, a temporal relationship between asthma, obesity and decreased physical activity has not been determined in the paediatric literature. Limited data suggest that decreased physical activity could be playing a role in the aetiology of asthma independent of obesity. Furthermore, there has been substantial research on the benefits of exercise programmes for paediatric patients with asthma. Longitudinal trials monitoring physical activity, obesity and the development of asthma are needed. PMID:17098637

  15. Key paediatric messages from Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186

  16. Epidemiology of paediatric injury.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, A J

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of young lives are lost every year as a result of accidents, and trauma remains the number one cause of paediatric death. There is a pattern and regularity to children's injury: boys are more often victims than the girls, most injuries occur during the summer months, the pedestrian child has usually been the victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and, in 75% of these cases, has suffered head injury. The research into paediatric trauma is still very young. For instance, socio-economic and ethnic factors play a significant role in the statistics of accidental death. In order to take effective preventative measures more factors must be determined. PMID:7921561

  17. Generalisability and Cost-Impact of Antibiotic-Impregnated Central Venous Catheters for Reducing Risk of Bloodstream Infection in Paediatric Intensive Care Units in England

    PubMed Central

    Harron, Katie; Mok, Quen; Hughes, Dyfrig; Muller-Pebody, Berit; Parslow, Roger; Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan; Gilbert, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background We determined the generalisability and cost-impact of adopting antibiotic-impregnated CVCs in all paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in England, based on results from a large randomised controlled trial (the CATCH trial; ISRCTN34884569). Methods BSI rates using standard CVCs were estimated through linkage of national PICU audit data (PICANet) with laboratory surveillance data. We estimated the number of BSI averted if PICUs switched from standard to antibiotic-impregnated CVCs by applying the CATCH trial rate-ratio (0.40; 95% CI 0.17,0.97) to the BSI rate using standard CVCs. The value of healthcare resources made available by averting one BSI as estimated from the trial economic analysis was £10,975; 95% CI -£2,801,£24,751. Results The BSI rate using standard CVCs was 4.58 (95% CI 4.42,4.74) per 1000 CVC-days in 2012. Applying the rate-ratio gave 232 BSI averted using antibiotic CVCs. The additional cost of purchasing antibiotic-impregnated compared with standard CVCs was £36 for each child, corresponding to additional costs of £317,916 for an estimated 8831 CVCs required in PICUs in 2012. Based on 2012 BSI rates, management of BSI in PICUs cost £2.5 million annually (95% uncertainty interval: -£160,986, £5,603,005). The additional cost of antibiotic CVCs would be less than the value of resources associated with managing BSI in PICUs with standard BSI rates >1.2 per 1000 CVC-days. Conclusions The cost of introducing antibiotic-impregnated CVCs is less than the cost associated with managing BSIs occurring with standard CVCs. The long-term benefits of preventing BSI could mean that antibiotic CVCs are cost-effective even in PICUs with extremely low BSI rates. PMID:26999045

  18. Improving quality in paediatric respiratory disease management.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Michele; Amegavie, Laweh

    2003-11-01

    Throughout the development, implementation and dissemination of the Paediatric Respiratory Newsletter, effective channels of communication between healthcare professionals have been established, highlighting the importance of collaboration. Promoting education, training, audit and research, the newsletter has nurtured both professional and practice development. The work begun during this project, and the outcomes it has achieved, have been developed into an ethos that recognises effective clinical practice and organisational development as central to the delivery of a quality service. This work informs and is informed by strategic developments, in particular, research and development, clinical audit, quality, practice development and clinical risk, all of which are observed to be the key elements of clinical governance. On a personal level, the project has provided me with an opportunity to consolidate information, forge links with the multidisciplinary team and establish a framework for the development of paediatric respiratory services. We hope it will continue to respond to, and be influenced by, changing health and social care demands.

  19. Developmental paediatrics in primary care: what should we teach?

    PubMed Central

    Baird, G; Hall, D M

    1985-01-01

    There is little agreement about what constitutes good developmental paediatric practice at the level of primary care. Many of the available screening tests are intrinsically unsatisfactory or badly performed, but screening is only a small part of developmental paediatrics. Every primary care doctor should be familiar with the scientific basis of the subject even if a decision is made not to embark on a formal screening programme. PMID:2412629

  20. Effects of anaesthesia on paediatric lung function.

    PubMed

    Trachsel, D; Svendsen, J; Erb, T O; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2016-08-01

    Respiratory adverse events are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in paediatric anaesthesia. Aside from predisposing conditions associated with an increased risk of respiratory incidents in children such as concurrent infections and chronic airway irritation, there are adverse respiratory events directly attributable to the impact of anaesthesia on the respiratory system. Anaesthesia can negatively affect respiratory drive, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) matching and tidal breathing, all resulting in potentially devastating hypoxaemia. Understanding paediatric respiratory physiology and its changes during anaesthesia will enable anaesthetists to anticipate, recognize and prevent deterioration that can lead to respiratory failure. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the effects of anaesthesia on respiration in children. It focuses on the impact of the different components of anaesthesia, patient positioning and procedure-related changes on respiratory physiology. PMID:27440626

  1. How small is small enough? Role of robotics in paediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Ganpule, Arvind P; Sripathi, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    The well-known advantages of robotic surgery include improved dexterity, three-dimensional operating view and an improved degree of freedom. Robotic surgery is performed for a wide range of surgeries in urology, which include radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, and ureteric reimplantation. Robotic paediatric urology is evolving. The major hindrance in the development of paediatric robotics is, first, the differences in practice patterns in paediatric urology compared with adult urology thereby making development of expertise difficult and secondly it is challenging to conduct proper studies in the paediatric population because of the paucity of cases. The difficulties in conducting these studies include difficulty in designing a proper randomised study, difficulties with blinding, and finally, the ethical issues involved, finally the instruments although in the phase of evolution require a lot of improvement. In this article, we review the relevant articles for paediatric robotic surgery. We emphasise on the technical aspects and results in contemporary paediatric robotic case series. PMID:25598599

  2. How small is small enough? Role of robotics in paediatric urology

    PubMed Central

    Ganpule, Arvind P.; Sripathi, Venkat

    2015-01-01

    The well-known advantages of robotic surgery include improved dexterity, three-dimensional operating view and an improved degree of freedom. Robotic surgery is performed for a wide range of surgeries in urology, which include radical prostatectomy, radical cystectomy, and ureteric reimplantation. Robotic paediatric urology is evolving. The major hindrance in the development of paediatric robotics is, first, the differences in practice patterns in paediatric urology compared with adult urology thereby making development of expertise difficult and secondly it is challenging to conduct proper studies in the paediatric population because of the paucity of cases. The difficulties in conducting these studies include difficulty in designing a proper randomised study, difficulties with blinding, and finally, the ethical issues involved, finally the instruments although in the phase of evolution require a lot of improvement. In this article, we review the relevant articles for paediatric robotic surgery. We emphasise on the technical aspects and results in contemporary paediatric robotic case series. PMID:25598599

  3. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  4. [New analgesics in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Avez-Couturier, Justine; Wood, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of different types of analgesics in paediatrics. They must be used in accordance with the situation, the type of pain and the characteristics of the child. In all cases, strict compliance with the posology and the instructions for use is essential to avoid any risk of error. Finally, pharmacological, physical and psychological treatments are employed in a complementary manner, for the biopsychosocial management of the child's care.

  5. Robotics in paediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lars Henning

    2006-02-01

    After the emergence of robotically assisted systems in laparoscopic surgery more than 15 years ago, several systems have been on the market. At the time being only one system, the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), has survived in clinical use with an increasing spread particularly among adult urologists used primarily for radical prostatectomies. However, the reconstructive nature of paediatric urology makes the system interesting for the paediatric urologists, since its strength is laparoscopic suturing and difficult dissection. So far only few reports have been published about its clinical use in paediatric urology. The main advantages are the 3D magnified view, the wrist-like movements of the instruments, and the scaling and precision of instrument movements. The system has been used for upper tract reconstruction like pyeloplasties and heminephrectomies, both for the transperitoneal and, more technical challenging, the retroperitoneal approach. In the pelvic region, anti-reflux surgery (both extra- and intravesically) and surgery for malformations of the internal genitalia like utriculus cysts and gonadal streaks are feasible. More simple procedures like nephrectomies and the management of the intra-abdominal testis are not justified due to the high costs. In addition, no advantage for the patients related to standard laparoscopic procedures has been proofed yet. For the surgeon the minimally challenging invasive procedures become feasible with certainly improved ergonomics. The use of the system is much easier than standard laparoscopic surgery and its widespread will give more patients to access minimal invasive surgery. PMID:18947593

  6. Robotics in paediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Lars Henning

    2006-02-01

    After the emergence of robotically assisted systems in laparoscopic surgery more than 15 years ago, several systems have been on the market. At the time being only one system, the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), has survived in clinical use with an increasing spread particularly among adult urologists used primarily for radical prostatectomies. However, the reconstructive nature of paediatric urology makes the system interesting for the paediatric urologists, since its strength is laparoscopic suturing and difficult dissection. So far only few reports have been published about its clinical use in paediatric urology. The main advantages are the 3D magnified view, the wrist-like movements of the instruments, and the scaling and precision of instrument movements. The system has been used for upper tract reconstruction like pyeloplasties and heminephrectomies, both for the transperitoneal and, more technical challenging, the retroperitoneal approach. In the pelvic region, anti-reflux surgery (both extra- and intravesically) and surgery for malformations of the internal genitalia like utriculus cysts and gonadal streaks are feasible. More simple procedures like nephrectomies and the management of the intra-abdominal testis are not justified due to the high costs. In addition, no advantage for the patients related to standard laparoscopic procedures has been proofed yet. For the surgeon the minimally challenging invasive procedures become feasible with certainly improved ergonomics. The use of the system is much easier than standard laparoscopic surgery and its widespread will give more patients to access minimal invasive surgery.

  7. Swearing: its prevalence in healthcare settings and impact on nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Stone, T E; McMillan, M; Hazelton, M

    2010-08-01

    Despite its prevalence there has been little academic research into swearing, and certainly none on its impact on nurses and nursing practice. Nurses are, of all health workers, most likely to be targets of verbal aggression, and up to 100% of nurses in mental health settings report verbal abuse. The literature contains no reference to the effects on nurses of exposure to swearing. This paper reports the findings of a questionnaire study of 107 nurses working in three clinical settings, which used a mixed methods approach. Participants reported high levels of swearing by patients, 32% citing its occurrence from one to five times per week and 7% 'continuously'; a similar incidence arose across the nursing teams at all sites, but being sworn at in anger by another staff member happened rarely. The study failed to show significant differences in the frequency of swearing between mental health and paediatric settings, but did find gender-based differences in both frequency of use and offendedness. High degrees of distress among nurses subjected to swearing were evident; moreover, respondents appeared to have only a limited range of interventions to draw upon in dealing with exposure to such treatment. PMID:20633080

  8. Impact of mTOR expression on clinical outcome in paediatric patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia – preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mycko, Katarzyna; Sałacińska-Łoś, Elżbieta; Pastorczak, Agata; Siwicka, Alicja; Młynarski, Wojciech; Matysiak, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To characterise expression of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and to evaluate a possible link between mTOR and clinical characteristics. Material and methods The examined group consisted of 21 consecutive patients, aged 1–18 years, diagnosed with B-cell ALL in 2010, and 10 relapsed B-cell ALL patients diagnosed for the first time between 2009 and 2011, who developed relapse before 2014. All subjects were treated in the Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology of the Medical University of Warsaw according to the ALL-IC BFM 2002 Protocol. We evaluated mTOR and phospho-mTOR expression by immunohistochemistry using rabbit monoclonal antibodies. Results mTOR expression was found to be significantly associated with the risk of relapse and was more frequent in ALL recurrence. No significant relationship was detected between mTOR expression and other features of high-risk disease in paediatric ALL. Conclusions mTOR activity could be considered a high-risk feature in paediatric B-cell ALL. Expression of mTOR kinase is observed remarkably more frequently in disease recurrence than at first diagnosis, indicating higher proliferative and survival potential of leukaemic cells in relapse. Routine analysis of mTOR activity could be performed to select patients that may potentially benefit from mTOR inhibitors (MTI) treatment. PMID:27688725

  9. Impact of mTOR expression on clinical outcome in paediatric patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia – preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mycko, Katarzyna; Sałacińska-Łoś, Elżbieta; Pastorczak, Agata; Siwicka, Alicja; Młynarski, Wojciech; Matysiak, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To characterise expression of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), and to evaluate a possible link between mTOR and clinical characteristics. Material and methods The examined group consisted of 21 consecutive patients, aged 1–18 years, diagnosed with B-cell ALL in 2010, and 10 relapsed B-cell ALL patients diagnosed for the first time between 2009 and 2011, who developed relapse before 2014. All subjects were treated in the Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology of the Medical University of Warsaw according to the ALL-IC BFM 2002 Protocol. We evaluated mTOR and phospho-mTOR expression by immunohistochemistry using rabbit monoclonal antibodies. Results mTOR expression was found to be significantly associated with the risk of relapse and was more frequent in ALL recurrence. No significant relationship was detected between mTOR expression and other features of high-risk disease in paediatric ALL. Conclusions mTOR activity could be considered a high-risk feature in paediatric B-cell ALL. Expression of mTOR kinase is observed remarkably more frequently in disease recurrence than at first diagnosis, indicating higher proliferative and survival potential of leukaemic cells in relapse. Routine analysis of mTOR activity could be performed to select patients that may potentially benefit from mTOR inhibitors (MTI) treatment.

  10. High magnitude head impacts experienced during youth football practices.

    PubMed

    Young, Tyler; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the risk of concussion in the 3.5 million youth athletes who participate in organized football leagues in the United States each year, practice structure can be modified to decrease impact frequency and magnitude. The objective of this study is to identify activities that result in high magnitude head impacts in youth football players during practice. The HIT System was used to record the head acceleration magnitude, impact location on the helmet, and time of each impact for each game and practice players participated in. These data were used to quantify the head impact exposure associated with players between the ages of 9 and 11 years. Video footage recorded during each practice and game session was used to identify the activity associated with any impact above 45 g. The incidence rate of high magnitude impacts in various activities were compared by normalizing by the amount of time associated with each activity. It was determined that scrimmages accounted for 0.094 impacts greater than 45 g per minute in practices while contact drills contributed to 0.102 impacts greater than 45 g per minute during practices. The results of this study indicate future youth football practice modifications should focus on both scrimmages and contact drills. PMID:25405410

  11. Theory and Practice of Environmental Impact Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Peter F.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary assessment of Environmental Impact Statements in California indicate that their effectiveness is directly related to the local political structure. Environmental planning is expected to improve as environmental impact reports gain more credence as an information base for city planners. The need for uniform impact guidelines are…

  12. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Kulaylat, A N; Brian, J M; Khaku, A; Hulse, M A; Engbrecht, B W; Methratta, S T; Boal, D K B

    2015-08-01

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis-colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed. PMID:26072983

  13. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Kulaylat, A N; Brian, J M; Khaku, A; Hulse, M A; Engbrecht, B W; Methratta, S T; Boal, D K B

    2015-08-01

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis-colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed.

  14. Five High-Impact Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, L. Dee

    2016-01-01

    If we want our teaching to have a major impact on student learning, what are some ideas that can help us do that? Since 1990, the scholars of teaching and learning have been generating a wealth of new ideas about college-level teaching. All of these are good ideas, but which ones have the most potential to have a high impact on student engagement…

  15. Training Research: Practical Recommendations for Maximum Impact

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Koerner, Kelly; Weingardt, Kenneth R.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This review offers practical recommendations regarding research on training in evidence-based practices for mental health and substance abuse treatment. When designing training research, we recommend: (a) aligning with the larger dissemination and implementation literature to consider contextual variables and clearly defining terminology, (b) critically examining the implicit assumptions underlying the stage model of psychotherapy development, (c) incorporating research methods from other disciplines that embrace the principles of formative evaluation and iterative review, and (d) thinking about how technology can be used to take training to scale throughout all stages of a training research project. An example demonstrates the implementation of these recommendations. PMID:21380792

  16. Theatre of paediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    McBride, Craig A; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the first edition of this journal, operative paediatric surgery has undergone radical change. Many of the most common instruments are unchanged, both as a testament to their utility and in recognition of past surgeons remembered eponymously. Surrounding that basic core of instruments, theatre has changed radically as new tools and techniques have arisen. Surgeons have come down from their pedestals, recognising surgery as a team sport rather than a solo performance. More than half of the current paediatric surgical trainees are women, a higher proportion than in any other craft group of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The appearance, and rapid development, of laparoscopy is to many observers the most notable change in surgery over the last 50 years. Placed in its context though, it is simply the most prominent example of a frameshift in surgical thinking. The patient as a whole is now the focus, rather than just the disease. Recent developments are as much about minimising harm to normal tissues as they are about extirpating pathology. As a surgical maxim, 'Primum non nocere' is even more in evidence in 2015 than it was in 1965. PMID:25586851

  17. Paediatric radiation oncology in the care of childhood cancer: A position paper by the International Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS).

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Freeman, Carolyn; Marcus, Karen; Claude, Line; Dieckmann, Karin; Halperin, Edward; Esiashvili, Natia; Paulino, Arnold; Mahajan, Anita; Seiersen, Klaus; Ahern, Verity; Ricardi, Umberto; Carrie, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Paediatric malignancies are a challenge for the radiation oncologist due to their rarity, the great variety of histological types, and the complexity of treatment concepts that evolve over time. The Paediatric Radiation Oncology Society (PROS) is the only internationally operating society for paediatric radiation oncology. The objectives of PROS are to set a world-wide standard of excellence with respect to radiation oncology aspects in curing children and adolescents with cancer, to provide a forum for communication between radiation oncologists, and to exchange information with all professionals involved in the management of paediatric and adolescent cancer. Challenges include the need to promote education and support practice in low and middle income countries (LMIC) as well as the cost and availability of modern treatment technologies for all but most especially these countries. Collaborations with other societies that include for example the education programmes provided jointly with ESTRO, and the upgraded technical platform of the PROS web site offer new possibilities to enhance the efficacy of PROS in education and support of paediatric radiation oncology practice world-wide. PROS has made an important contribution to the management of childhood malignancies over the past decade and new and developing collaborations between PROS and other societies or organizations will ultimately lead to a reduction in world-wide health care inequalities. PMID:27106553

  18. Impact of Biotechnology on Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Curtis D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the role of schools of pharmacy in (1) preparing future practitioners to assimilate and shape the impact of biotechnology; (2) establish graduate and research programs to enhance and apply products of biotechnology; and (3) identify manpower needs to fully realize potential advances caused by biotechnology. (DB)

  19. Examining Internships as a High-Impact Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Kerri Day

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the United States seek new, creative, and impactful ways to enhance student engagement. The study of student engagement has led to the identification of several "high-impact" educational practices that appear to generate higher levels of student performance, learning, and development than the traditional…

  20. The ethics of paediatric research.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

    2011-09-01

    Paediatric research is essential for improving health outcomes of children. Waiting for adult studies before conducting paediatric studies will prolong the denial of effective treatment for children. If we rely on information from adult studies rather than conducting studies with children, we risk causing harm to children. In this paper, we identify and examine ethical issues unique to conducting research with children. These include the function and the value of a child's assent and the criteria that should guide a proxy in making decisions about a child's involvement in research, offering payment to children for research participation and acceptable levels of risk for paediatric research. Justice demands that children not be denied the benefits of research, and it is the role of the paediatric medical community to advocate not only for more research for children but also to ensure that the research conducted is of the highest quality. PMID:21951455

  1. A simple, economical, and effective portable paediatric mock circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, S; Shu, F; Arnold, D K; Antaki, J F

    2011-07-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) and total artificial hearts have been in development for the last 50 years. Since their inception, simulators of the circulation with different degrees of complexity have been produced to test these devices in vitro. Currently, a new path has been taken with the extensive efforts to develop paediatric VADs, which require totally different design constraints. This paper presents the manufacturing details of an economical simulator of the systemic paediatric circulation. This simulator allows the insertion of a paediatric VAD, includes a pumping ventricle, and is adjustable within the paediatric range. Rather than focusing on complexity and physiological simulation, this simulator is designed to be simple and practical for rapid device testing. The simulator was instrumented with medical sensors and data were acquired under different conditions with and without the new PediaFlowTM paediatric VAD. The VAD was run at different impeller speeds while simulator settings such as vascular resistance and stroke volume were varied. The hydraulic performance of the VAD under pulsatile conditions could be characterized and the magnetic suspension could be tested via manipulations such as cannula clamping. This compact mock loop has proven to be valuable throughout the PediaFlow development process and has the advantage that it is uncomplicated and can be manufactured cheaply. It can be produced by several research groups and the results of different VADs can then be compared easily.

  2. Infection control in paediatric office settings

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is of increasing concern. The present document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (eg, hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection and gowns for specific procedures; adequate cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surfaces and equipment including toys, and aseptic technique for invasive procedures), and additional precautions for specific infections. Personnel should be adequately immunized, and those infected should follow work-restriction policies. PMID:19412374

  3. Paediatric procedural sedation within the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Krieser, David; Kochar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia in children requires the use of non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches to facilitate the management of painful procedures. The development of skills in such techniques has mirrored the development of paediatric emergency medicine as a subspecialty. Governance, education and credentialing must facilitate safe sedation practice, using a structured approach, as sedating children in the busy environment of an emergency department is not without risk. Emergency clinicians, patients and caregivers all have a role to play in developing a safe, effective sedation plan. PMID:27062624

  4. Paediatric cardiovascular clinical trials: an analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov and the Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Drug Labeling Database.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin D; Henderson, Heather T; Hornik, Christoph P; Li, Jennifer S

    2015-08-01

    Recent regulatory initiatives in the United States of America and Europe have transformed the paediatric clinical trials landscape by significantly increasing capital investment and paediatric trial volume. The purpose of this manuscript was to review the impact of these initiatives on the paediatric cardiovascular trials landscape when compared with other paediatric sub-specialties. We also evaluate factors that may have contributed to the success or failure of recent major paediatric cardiovascular trials so as to inform the optimal design and conduct of future trials in the field.

  5. [Toxicology screening in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Cuadrado González, Ainoha; Falcon, María

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse in paediatric patients, from the neonatal period to adolescence, is not well established as most cases go unnoticed. Regardless of clinical cases of acute poisoning leading to visits to emergency room, the exposure is usually detected by a questionnaire to the parents or children. In the last few years, new validated analytical methodologies have been developed in order to detect parent drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices. These biological matrices have different time windows for detection of the exposure: acute (i.e., urine, blood, oral fluid), and chronic (i.e., hair, meconium or teeth). The aim of this paper was to review the scenarios where the use of biological matrices is indicated for the detection of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse. PMID:26458521

  6. [Toxicology screening in paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Cuadrado González, Ainoha; Falcon, María

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse in paediatric patients, from the neonatal period to adolescence, is not well established as most cases go unnoticed. Regardless of clinical cases of acute poisoning leading to visits to emergency room, the exposure is usually detected by a questionnaire to the parents or children. In the last few years, new validated analytical methodologies have been developed in order to detect parent drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices. These biological matrices have different time windows for detection of the exposure: acute (i.e., urine, blood, oral fluid), and chronic (i.e., hair, meconium or teeth). The aim of this paper was to review the scenarios where the use of biological matrices is indicated for the detection of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse.

  7. Paediatric Blunt Torso Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913

  8. The impact of globalisation on teleradiology practice.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y; Shieh, Mengkai

    2008-01-01

    Some advocates of globalisation argue that a free market with little regulation is the best approach for achieving cost-effective healthcare. Healthcare, however, is different from other business activities in that it is typically less profit-driven; instead, it often involves the goal of providing equitable care to the underprivileged. Traditionally, the government has subsidised the expenses of delivering affordable healthcare to underserved communities. Because of the many recent advances in telecommunications technology, telemedicine has gained increasing attention. Teleradiology, in particular, is by far the maturest of all telemedicine disciplines and, thus, it may serve as a pivotal indicator of whether telemedicine on a global scale is feasible or not. In this paper, a prediction of the future landscape of globalised teleradiology operations is attempted based on the extrapolation of the historical trends in teleradiology practice as well as the growing pressure on federal and local governments to reduce their regulatory power under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS).

  9. [Comorbidities and psoriasis. Impact on clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Gerdes, S; Mrowietz, U

    2012-03-01

    Psoriasis is a genetically determined, chronic inflammatory systemic disease. Besides skin symptoms, patients with moderate to severe forms of psoriasis show an association with other diseases, referred to as comorbidities. Metabolic disorders (e.g. diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia mainly in obese patients) and cardiovascular diseases (e.g. arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and stroke) are of importance as they can increase patients' mortality. In addition, psychiatric diseases are more frequent in psoriasis patients and influence the therapeutic approach. The dermatologist in most cases is the primarily consulted physician for patients with psoriasis and therefore plays the role as a gatekeeper managing therapy. He is responsible for the early diagnosis of comorbidities and insuring their appropriate management. The anti-psoriatic treatment has to be adapted to existing comorbidities and their systemic treatments. The following article provides information on psoriatic comorbidities and their consequences for daily practice.

  10. The impact of globalisation on teleradiology practice.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Yao Y; Tsai, Fong Y; Shieh, Mengkai

    2008-01-01

    Some advocates of globalisation argue that a free market with little regulation is the best approach for achieving cost-effective healthcare. Healthcare, however, is different from other business activities in that it is typically less profit-driven; instead, it often involves the goal of providing equitable care to the underprivileged. Traditionally, the government has subsidised the expenses of delivering affordable healthcare to underserved communities. Because of the many recent advances in telecommunications technology, telemedicine has gained increasing attention. Teleradiology, in particular, is by far the maturest of all telemedicine disciplines and, thus, it may serve as a pivotal indicator of whether telemedicine on a global scale is feasible or not. In this paper, a prediction of the future landscape of globalised teleradiology operations is attempted based on the extrapolation of the historical trends in teleradiology practice as well as the growing pressure on federal and local governments to reduce their regulatory power under the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). PMID:19174364

  11. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C.; Dibari, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  12. The Impact of Action Learning Experience on Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nicole S.

    2012-01-01

    This case study examines the changes that occur with respect to reflective practices as a result of participating in an action learning group through the identification of aspects/activities of action learning that contribute to such changes and the impact these aspects/activities had on the program participants at a department of the federal…

  13. High-Impact Practices and the First-Year Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tukibayeva, Malika; Gonyea, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    High-impact practices, programs, and activities where students commit considerable time and effort in different settings can help to define the first-year college experience and are likely to increase success in areas like persistence, deep learning, and self-reported gains.

  14. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:26229655

  15. A paediatric X-ray exposure chart

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Stephen P

    2014-09-15

    The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.

  16. Pediatric & Congenital Electrophysiology Society: building an international paediatric electrophysiology organisation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Stephenson, Elizabeth; Skinner, Jon; Drago, Fabrizio; Davis, Andrew; Janousek, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric; Collins, Kathryn K; Triedman, John

    2016-08-01

    The Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) is a non-profit organisation comprised of individuals dedicated to improving the care of children and young adults with cardiac rhythm disturbances. Although PACES is a predominantly North American-centric organisation, international members have been a part of PACES for the last two decades. This year, PACES expanded its North American framework into a broadly expansive international role. On 12 May, 2015, paediatric electrophysiology leaders from within the United States of America and Canada met with over 30 international paediatric electrophysiologists from 17 countries and five continents discussing measures to (1) expand PACES' global vision, (2) address ongoing challenges such as limited resource allocation that may be present in developing countries, (3) expand PACES' governance to include international representation, (4) promote joint international sessions at future paediatric EP meetings, and (5) facilitate a global multi-centre research consortium. This meeting marked the inception of a formal international collaborative spirit in PACES. This editorial addresses some solutions to breakdown the continental silos paediatric electrophysiologists have practiced within; however, there remain ongoing limitations, and future discussions will be needed to continue to move the PACES global international vision forward.

  17. Pediatric & Congenital Electrophysiology Society: building an international paediatric electrophysiology organisation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Stephenson, Elizabeth; Skinner, Jon; Drago, Fabrizio; Davis, Andrew; Janousek, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric; Collins, Kathryn K; Triedman, John

    2016-05-01

    The Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) is a non-profit organisation comprised of individuals dedicated to improving the care of children and young adults with cardiac rhythm disturbances. Although PACES is a predominantly North American-centric organisation, international members have been a part of PACES for the last two decades. This year, PACES expanded its North American framework into a broadly expansive international role. On May 12, 2015, paediatric electrophysiology leaders from within the United States of America and Canada met with over 30 international paediatric electrophysiologists from 17 countries and five continents discussing measures to (1) expand PACES' global vision, (2) address ongoing challenges such as limited resource allocation that may be present in developing countries, (3) expand PACES' governance to include international representation, (4) promote joint international sessions at future paediatric EP meetings, and (5) facilitate a global multi-centre research consortium. This meeting marked the inception of a formal international collaborative spirit in PACES. This editorial addresses some solutions to breakdown the continental silos paediatric electrophysiologists have practiced within; however, there remain ongoing limitations, and future discussions will be needed to continue to move the PACES global international vision forward.

  18. Unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology: Present scenario and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Persico, Antonio M; Arango, Celso; Buitelaar, Jan K; Correll, Christoph U; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Moreno, Carmen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Vorstman, Jacob; Zuddas, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric psychopharmacology holds great promise in two equally important areas of enormous biomedical and social impact, namely the treatment of behavioural abnormalities in children and adolescents, and the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- or adult-onset. Yet, in striking contrast, pharmacological treatment options presently available in child and adolescent psychiatry are dramatically limited. The most important currently unmet needs in paediatric psychopharmacology are: the frequent off-label prescription of medications to children and adolescents based exclusively on data from randomized controlled studies involving adult patients; the frequent lack of age-specific dose, long-term efficacy and tolerability/safety data; the lack of effective medications for many paediatric psychiatric disorders, most critically autism spectrum disorder; the scarcity and limitations of randomized placebo-controlled trials in paediatric psychopharmacology; the unexplored potential for the prevention of psychiatric disorders with adolescent- and adult-onset; the current lack of biomarkers to predict treatment response and severe adverse effects; the need for better preclinical data to foster the successful development of novel drug therapies; and the effective dissemination of evidence-based treatments to the general public, to better inform patients and families of the benefits and risks of pharmacological interventions during development. Priorities and strategies are proposed to overcome some of these limitations, including the European Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychopharmacology Network, as an overarching Pan-European infrastructure aimed at reliably carrying out much needed psychopharmacological trials in children and adolescents, in order to fill the identified gaps and improve overall outcomes.

  19. Essentials of paediatric infection control

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dorothy L

    2001-01-01

    Young children readily transmit and acquire nosocomial infections. Children are also vulnerable to endogenous infections as a result of the breakdown of their normal defences by disease, invasive procedures or therapy. The increasing acuity of illness in hospitalized children and therapeutic advances have resulted in a patient population that is increasingly at higher risk for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some paediatric hospitals, usually in intensive care and oncology units. Infection rates are the highest in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (where bloodstream infections are the most frequent), and are usually associated with intravascular devices. On general paediatric wards, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections predominate, reflecting the occurrence in the community. The surveillance of nosocomial infections identifies priorities for infection control activities and permits evaluation of interventions. The prevention of transmission between patients and to personnel requires that certain measures be taken with all patients, and that additional precautions be taken with some infections, based on the route of transmission. The prevention of transmission from personnel involves ensuring that personnel are appropriately immunized and counselled about working with infections. The prevention of nosocomial infection also involves control of visitors, appropriate management of invasive procedures and devices, sterilization and disinfection of equipment, provision of a clean environment and adequate staffing. Severely immunocompromised children require extra protection, including ventilation systems that reduce the risk of exposure to filamentous fungi. Infection control in paediatrics is an evolving field that must adapt to changes in the paediatric patient population and in health care technology. PMID:20084127

  20. Targeted detection of genetic alterations reveal the prognostic impact of H3K27M and MAPK pathway aberrations in paediatric thalamic glioma.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Scott; Krishnatry, Rahul; Arnoldo, Anthony; Buczkowicz, Pawel; Mistry, Matthew; Siddaway, Robert; Ling, Cino; Pajovic, Sanja; Yu, Man; Rubin, Joshua B; Hukin, Juliette; Steinbok, Paul; Bartels, Ute; Bouffet, Eric; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric brain tumours arising in the thalamus present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to physicians due to their sensitive midline location. As such, genetic analysis for biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of these tumours is needed. Here, we identified 64 thalamic gliomas with clinical follow-up and characterized targeted genomic alterations using newly optimized droplet digital and NanoString-based assays. The median age at diagnosis was 9.25 years (range, 0.63-17.55) and median survival was 6.43 (range, 0.01-27.63) years. Our cohort contained 42 and 22 tumours reviewed as low and high grade gliomas, respectively. Five (12 %) low grade and 11 (50 %) high grade gliomas were positive for the H3F3A/HIST1H3B K27M (H3K27M) mutation. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significantly worse overall survival for patients harbouring the H3K27M mutation versus H3F3A/HIST1H3B wild type (H3WT) samples (log-rank p < 0.0001) with a median survival of 1.02 vs. 9.12 years. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation via BRAF or FGFR1 hotspot mutations or fusion events were detected in 44 % of patients, and was associated with long-term survival in the absence of H3K27M (log-rank p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated H3K27M status and high grade histology to be the most significant independent predictors of poor overall survival with hazard ratios of 6.945 and 7.721 (p < 0.0001), respectively. In contrast, MAPK pathway activation is a predictor of favourable patient outcome, although not independent of other clinical factors. Importantly, we show that low grade malignancies may harbour H3K27M mutations and that these tumours show a dismal survival compared to low grade H3WT cases. Our data strongly supports the inclusion of targeted genetic testing in childhood thalamic tumours to most accurately stratify patients into appropriate risk groups. PMID:27577993

  1. Paediatric surgery--a general hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Fahy, E; Ahmed, K; Lowery, A J; Khan, W; Waldron, R; Barry, K

    2012-01-01

    Plans to centralise paediatric surgery in Ireland have potentially significant implications for service provision and surgical training. study assesses the workload of paediatric surgery in a district hospital over a five-year period. Paediatric surgical admissions and procedures at Mayo General Hospital from January 2006 - December 2010 were reviewed. Data was obtained from the Hospital inpatient enquiry (HIPE) systems and theatre logbooks. 4,255 surgical procedures were performed in 3981 paediatric patients, accounting for 7.4% of the total surgical workload. 2,578 (65%) of cases were elective and 1403 (35%) of paediatric surgery was performed in the emergency setting; paediatric appendicectomy was the most commonly performed procedure (n = 554) with a complication rate of 2.5%. There were no paediatric surgery related mortalities. Paediatric surgery represents a significant part of the surgical workload. There is a continued need for general paediatric surgical provision in this regional setting, supported by access to specialist centres for complicated paediatric surgery. PMID:23495544

  2. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  3. A concept analysis of holistic nursing care in paediatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Tjale, A A; Bruce, J

    2007-12-01

    Holistic nursing care is widely advocated and is espoused in the philosophy of the South African Nursing Council. This concept is unclear, variously interpreted and poorly understood in paediatric nursing. This study was undertaken to examine the meaning of holistic nursing care and to develop a framework for holistic nursing care, which can be utilised in nurse education settings and in clinical nursing practice in the context of paediatric nursing. A qualitative, interpretive, explorative and contextual research design was used. An evolutionary concept analysis was undertaken to clarify the concept "holistic nursing care" in paediatric nursing in three Johannesburg hospitals. Rodgers' (1989, 2000) evolutionary method was utilised to analyse the concept. The study objectives were formulated in two phases to: --Conduct an analysis of the concept "holistic nursing care" --Obtain an emic viewpoint of holistic nursing care from paediatric nurses working in the academic hospitals. --Identify the characteristics and dimensions of "holistic nursing care" and develop a framework of holistic nursing care for paediatric nurses working in the academic hospitals. Attributes of holistic nursing care yielded two dimensions; whole person and mind-body-Spirit dimension. The decriptors of whole-person include physical, mental, emotional, spirit and spitual being. Spirituality is the predominant antecedent. Holistic nursing care is initiated by the recognition of the individual as a spiritual being with a mind-body-spirit dimension. Spirituality is an ever-present force pervading all human experience. Complimentary alternative medicine (CAM) was identified as a surrogate term. The connection of CAM with holistic nursing care is the focus of therapeutic interventions that are directed to the mind-body-spirit dimension. Therapeutic interventions are designed to meet the needs of the whole-person. Caution is advocated in the use of CAM therapies in child nursing, as CAM efficacy has

  4. Therapeutic upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy in Paediatric Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Imdadur; Patel, Praful; Boger, Philip; Rasheed, Shahnawaz; Thomson, Mike; Afzal, Nadeem Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report of use of endoscopy in children in the 1970s, there has seen an exponential growth in published experience and innovation in the field. In this review article we focus on modern age therapeutic endoscopy practice, explaining use of traditional as well as new and innovative techniques, for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the paediatric upper gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25789087

  5. Evidence-based paediatric nursing: paediatric early warning systems.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Orsola

    2016-05-01

    In hospital cardiac arrest are rare events in paediatrics. Most children receive appropriate care without experiencing undetected severe clinical deterioration during hospital admission. Outcomes of paediatric cardiac arrests are however generally poor, with high mortality rates and neurological damage at survival. A review of child mortality in the UK showed that a high proportion of unexpected deaths were preventable ( Pearsons 2008 ). Several studies of patient records of children who suffered cardiac arrests showed the presence of clear signs of clinical deterioration up to 24 hours before (Tume 2006). Appropriate recognition of clinical deterioration could have led to timely intervention to stabilise the patient. Missed deterioration may be due to lack of staff situational awareness, communication failure among professionals or between staff and families and other human factors ( Brady 2014 ). PMID:27214413

  6. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  7. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    PubMed

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  8. [Current treatment strategies for paediatric burns].

    PubMed

    Küntscher, M V; Hartmann, B

    2006-06-01

    Paediatric burns occupy the third place in the severe accident statistics in Germany after traffic injuries and drowning. The paper reviews current treatment concepts of pre-hospital management, fluid resuscitation and surgical therapy in paediatric burned patients. Specific features in the approximation of the total body surface area burn and indications for transfer of paediatric burn victims to specialized units are discussed. The therapy of severe paediatric burns requires an interdisciplinary team consisting of especially skilled plastic or paediatric surgeons,anaesthetists, psychiatrists or psychologists, specifically trained nurses, physiotherapists and social workers. The rehabilitation process starts basically with admission to the burn unit. A tight cooperation between therapists and the relatives of the paediatric burn victim is needed for psychological recovery and reintegration into society.'The adaptation to the suffered trauma resulting in life-long disability and disfigurement is the main task of psychotherapy.

  9. Databases for assessing the outcomes of the treatment of patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease--the perspective of cardiology.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Kathy J; Beekman Iii, Robert H; Bergersen, Lisa J; Everett, Allen D; Forbes, Thomas J; Franklin, Rodney C G; Klitzner, Thomas S; Krogman, Otto N; Martin, Gerard R; Webb, Catherine L

    2008-12-01

    This review includes a brief discussion, from the perspective of the pediatric cardiologist, of the rationale for creation and maintenance of multi-institutional databases of outcomes of the treatment of patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, together with a history of the evolution of such databases, and a description of the current state of the art. A number of projects designed to have broad-based impact are currently in the design phase, or have already been implemented. Not surprisingly, most of the efforts thus far have focused on catheterization procedures and interventions, although some work examining other aspects of paediatric cardiology practice is also beginning. This review briefly describes several European and North American initiatives related to databases for pediatric and congenital cardiology including the Central Cardiac Audit Database of the United Kingdom, national database initiatives for pediatric cardiology in Switzerland and Germany, various database initiatives under the leadership of the Working Groups of The Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, the IMPACT Registry (IMproving Pediatric and Adult Congenital Treatment) of the National Cardiovascular Data Registry of The American College of Cardiology Foundation and The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), the Mid-Atlantic Group of Interventional Cardiology (MAGIC) Catheterization Outcomes Project, the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes (C3PO), the Congenital Cardiovascular Interventional Study Consortium (CCISC), and the Joint Council on Congenital Heart Disease (JCCHD) National Quality Improvement Initiative. These projects, each leveraging multicentre data and collaboration, demonstrate the enormous progress that has occurred over the last several years to improve the quality and consistency of information about nonsurgical treatment for congenital cardiac disease. The paediatric cardiology field is well

  10. Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083

  11. The influence of the European paediatric regulation on marketing authorisation of orphan drugs for children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug development for rare diseases is challenging, especially when these orphan drugs (OD) are intended for children. In 2007 the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation was enacted to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children through the establishment of Paediatric Investigation Plans (PIPs). The effect of the EU Paediatric Drug Regulation on the marketing authorisation (MA) of drugs for children with rare diseases was studied. Methods Data on all designated orphan drugs, their indication, MA, PIPs and indication group (adult or child) were obtained from the European Medicines Agency (EMA). The outcome and duration of the process from orphan drug designation (ODD) to MA, was compared, per indication, by age group. The effect of the Paediatric Drug Regulation, implemented in 2007, on the application process was assessed with survival analysis. Results Eighty-one orphan drugs obtained MA since 2000 and half are authorised for (a subgroup of) children; another 34 are currently undergoing further investigations in children through agreed PIPs. The Paediatric Drug Regulation did not significantly increase the number of ODDs with potential paediatric indications (58% before vs 64% after 2007 of ODDs, p = 0.1) and did not lead to more MAs for ODs with paediatric indications (60% vs 43%, p = 0.22). ODs authorised after 2007 had a longer time to MA than those authorised before 2007 (Hazard ratio (95% CI) 2.80 (1.84-4.28), p < 0.001); potential paediatric use did not influence the time to MA (Hazard ratio (95% CI) 1.14 (0.77-1.70), p = 0.52). Conclusions The EU Paediatric Drug Regulation had a minor impact on development and availability of ODs for children, was associated with a longer time to MA, but ensured the further paediatric development of drugs still off-label to children. The impact of the Paediatric Drug Regulation on research quantity and quality in children through PIPs is not yet clear. PMID

  12. [Current aspects of paediatric cholesteatomas].

    PubMed

    Thomas, J P; Volkenstein, S; Minovi, A; Dazert, S

    2013-05-01

    Cholesteatomas can be subclassified into genuine and acquired forms. Whilst epidermoid formations are the generally accepted cause of genuine cholesteatomas, metaplasia, immigration, proliferation and retraction pocket theories have all been proposed to explain the development of acquired cholesteatomas. Clinically, paediatric cholesteatomas exhibit more extensive and aggressive growth than those arising in adulthood. Molecular biological differences in terms of angiogenesis, cytokine expression and particularly the more marked inflammatory responses of the perimatrix could potentially explain these clinical differences. The surgical therapy of paediatric cholesteatomas should be adapted to the individual pathological findings, although where possible a canal wall up procedure is preferred during initial surgery. The "inside-out" mastoidectomy tracking-technique combines the benefits of a good surgical overview with those of a physiological postoperative auditory canal.

  13. Hypnosis in paediatric respiratory medicine.

    PubMed

    McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D

    2014-03-01

    Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  14. Clostridium difficile in paediatric populations

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Upton D

    2014-01-01

    An increase in Clostridium difficile infection incidence has been observed among hospitalized children in the United States. The present statement, targeted at clinicians caring for infants and children in community and institutional settings, summarizes the relevant information relating to the role of C difficile in childhood diarrhea and provides recommendations for diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Significant differences between adult and paediatric risk factors and disease are discussed, along with emerging therapies. The relationship between age and disease severity in children with a newly emergent and more fluoroqinolone-resistant strain of C difficile (North American Pulse-field type-1 [NAP1]) remains unknown. The importance of antimicrobial stewardship as a preventive strategy is highlighted. This statement replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on C difficile published in 2000. PMID:24627655

  15. The impact of the `Getting Practical: Improving Practical Work in Science' continuing professional development programme on teachers' ideas and practice in science practical work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Ian; Reiss, Michael J.; Sharpe, Rachael

    2014-09-01

    Background:Despite the widespread use of practical work in school it has been recognised that more needs to be done to improve its effectiveness in developing conceptual understanding. The 'Getting Practical' CPD (Continuing Professional Development) programme was designed to contribute towards an improvement in the effectiveness of practical work through initiating changes in teachers' predominantly 'hands-on' approach to practical work to one which manifests a more equitable balance between 'hands-on' and 'minds-on'. Purpose:To evaluate the impact of the Getting Practical: Improving Practical Work in Science CPD programme on teachers' ideas and practice in science practical work in primary and secondary schools in England. Programme description:The CPD programme was designed to improve the effectiveness of science practical work in developing conceptual understanding in primary and secondary schools in England. Sample:Ten teachers of primary science and 20 secondary science teachers. Design and methods:The study employed a condensed fieldwork strategy with data collected using interviews, observational field notes and pre- and post-CPD training observations in practical lessons within 30 schools. Results:Whilst the CPD programme was effective in getting teachers to reflect on the ideas associated with the Getting Practical programme, it was much less effective in bringing about changes in actual teaching practice. Conclusion:The findings suggest that if change, rather than only an enhanced awareness of the issues, is to be brought about in established teaching <span class="hlt">practice</span> then there is a need for ongoing support over an extended period of time. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such CPD is more likely to be effective if it is undertaken by a senior member of a department or school with the full support of the SMT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1647651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1647651"><span id="translatedtitle">Medium Chain Triglycerides in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Anderson, Charlotte M.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) bypass the steps necessary for the absorption of long chain fats (LCT), and so have theoretical grounds for their use in various disease states, particularly malabsorptive disorders. In childhood, MCT have particular advantages since they allow restriction of dietary long chain fats without limiting the intake of protein necessary for growth while providing adequate calories. In malabsorptive states, MCT have been used mostly in cystic fibrosis, where they may reduce steatorrhoea. However, the long-term growth patterns of these children are dependent on the extent and severity of their chest disease. MCT may be a useful source of calories for those with anorexia due to infection or liver disease and in babies recovering from meconium ileus. The decrease in offensive stools, flatus, and abdominal discomfort improves well-being and social acceptability which is important for many schoolchildren and adolescents. Rectal prolapse may be helped. Where there is loss of the small intestinal absorptive surface, particularly after massive small bowel resection, MCT can help to maintain weight and nutrition. They may also be a useful supplementary nutritional measure in patients severely affected with coeliac disease while awaiting response to a gluten-free diet, and in patients with regional enteritis. In children with liver disease, MCT provide a ready source of calories while avoiding the loss of fat in their stools. Infants with neonatal hepatitis or biliary atresia remain well nourished, and some older children with liver disease grow more rapidly and have fewer and less offensive stools and less abdominal discomfort. Where an abnormal number of faecal organisms colonize the small intestine (`contaminated small bowel syndrome' or `blind loop syndrome') intraluminal bile salts become deconjugated and cause steatorrhoea. A combination of antibiotic and surgical treatment is usually indicated, but MCT can be used to improve nutrition before operation and may be indicated for associated conditions, such as massive intestinal resection. MCT have also been helpful in patients with defective chylomicron formation due to a-β-lipoproteinaemia. In the congenital and less commonly encountered acquired lymphatic disorders in childhood, MCT have given encouraging results. This group includes patients with gross protein and fat loss due to intestinal lymphangiectasia and others with lymphatic anomalies at other sites. Hyperchylomicronaemia (familial fat-induced hypertriglyceridaemia) responds well to dietary treatment with MCT. PMID:4918706</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8461171','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8461171"><span id="translatedtitle">Priorities and <span class="hlt">practice</span> in tropical <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biddulph, J</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>More than 14 million children under 5 years of age die annually in the Third World, mainly due to diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria and immunizable diseases. The problems of poverty, malnutrition, poor sanitation, illiteracy and high fertility that traditionally are associated with underdevelopment are now being compounded by social disruption due to rapid changes in lifestyle, new diseases such as AIDS and Third World debt. A vital part of the solution is provision of basic medical and education services to all, with emphasis on female literacy and improving the status of women. Key elements in providing basic medical services are delegation and empowerment. Doctors must delegate the delivery of essential child health services to appropriately trained and adequately supported auxiliaries. Parents, especially mothers, need to be empowered with the knowledge and resources to recognize and manage, or assist in the management of, their children's health problems. PMID:8461171</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18808544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18808544"><span id="translatedtitle">UK National Clinical Guidelines in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Dentistry: stainless steel preformed crowns for primary molars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kindelan, S A; Day, P; Nichol, R; Willmott, N; Fayle, S A</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>This revised Clinical Guideline in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Dentistry replaces the previously published sixth guideline (Fayle SA. Int J <span class="hlt">Paediatr</span> Dent 1999; 9: 311-314). The process of guideline production began in 1994, resulting in first publication in 1997. Each guideline has been circulated widely for consultation to all UK consultants in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentistry, council members of the British Society of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Dentistry (BSPD), and to people of related specialities recognized to have expertise in the subject. The final version of this guideline is produced from a combination of this input and thorough review of the published literature. The intention is to encourage improvement in clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> and to stimulate research and clinical audit in areas where scientific evidence is inadequate. Evidence underlying recommendations is scored according to the SIGN classification and guidelines should be read in this context. Further details regarding the process of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentistry guideline production in the UK is described in the Int J <span class="hlt">Paediatr</span> Dent 1997; 7: 267-268.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59.1165X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PMB....59.1165X"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of radiation dose to anthropomorphic <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> models from positron-emitting labelled tracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>PET uses specific molecules labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides to provide valuable biochemical and physiological information. However, the administration of radiotracers to patients exposes them to low-dose ionizing radiation, which is a concern in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population since children are at a higher cancer risk from radiation exposure than adults. Therefore, radiation dosimety calculations for commonly used positron-emitting radiotracers in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population are highly desired. We evaluate the absorbed dose and effective dose for 19 positron-emitting labelled radiotracers in anthropomorphic <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> models including the newborn, 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year-old male and female. This is achieved using pre-calculated S-values of positron-emitting radionuclides of UF-NCI <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> phantoms and published biokinetic data for various radiotracers. The influence of the type of anthropomorphic model, tissue weight factors and direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data on the effective dose for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> phantoms was also evaluated. In the case of 18F-FDG, dosimetry calculations of reference <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients from various dose regimens were also calculated. Among the considered radiotracers, 18F-FBPA and 15O-water resulted in the highest and lowest effective dose in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> phantoms, respectively. The ICRP 103 updated tissue-weighting factors decrease the effective dose in most cases. Substantial differences of radiation dose were observed between direct human- versus mouse-derived biokinetic data. Moreover, the effect of using voxel- versus MIRD-type models on the calculation of the effective dose was also studied. The generated database of absorbed organ dose and effective dose for various positron-emitting labelled radiotracers using new generation computational models and the new ICRP tissue-weighting factors can be used for the assessment of radiation risks to <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients in clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This work also contributes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23633257"><span id="translatedtitle">[Clinical basics of supraglottic airway management in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> anaesthesia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldmann, Kai</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The low invasiveness and simplicity of use of the LMA-Classic™ contributed substantially to the supraglottic airway management acquiring a special role in the anaesthesia care of neonates and children. Due to the introduction of new supraglottic airway devices and the expansion of indications, this form of airway management has a predominant role in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> anaesthesia in many institutions nowadays. As securing the airway "above the glottis" differs substantially in some aspects from securing the airway using the endotracheal tube it is mandatory to acknowledge special aspects in routine clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> in order to avoid complications. The following article describes basic aspects of supraglottic airway management in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> anaesthesia and illustrates, where possible, the available scientific evidence in the use of different supraglottic airway devices in this regard. PMID:23633257</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2083740','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2083740"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of communication in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> drug safety</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stebbing, Claire; Wong, Ian C K; Kaushal, Rainu; Jaffe, Adam</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients, and considerable cost to healthcare systems. Evidence suggests that communication plays a crucial role in the generation, management and prevention of such incidents. This review identifies how <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> medication errors can be managed, and in particular focuses on the pathway of steps that can operationalise the current research findings. Furthermore, the current data suggesting how communication can help to prevent errors occurring in the first place is examined. From this data, it is apparent that there are three domains in which communication could play an important preventative role: first, patient doctor communication, and second interprofessional communication and finally researcher/professional dialogue. This review is an attempt to identify the importance of communication in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> mediation safety and to allow <span class="hlt">practical</span> application of these findings. PMID:17449527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18487985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18487985"><span id="translatedtitle">[Naples: the historic capital of Italian <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>No other Italian city has contributed to the birth and development of <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> more than Naples. This is why it can be considered the historic capital of Italian <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. Here are the main reasons: Luigi Somma was the first professor of Italian <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> whereas Francesco Fede was the first president of the Italian <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> Association. Neapolitan paediatricians have been the most numerous amongst the founder members. The first three Italian journals of <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> were founded in Naples as well as the journal ''La Pediatria'' which was the most distributed and long-lasting journal in this field. Moreover, Neapolitans have been the most numerous presidents of the Italian <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> Association, while Rocco Jemma was the one who remained the longest in charge. ''Rocco Jemma's school'' taught not only to most professors in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> who afterwards taught in most Italian universities, but also four out of five paediatricians who took charge of the position as president. The first regional department of the Italian <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> Association was founded in Naples as well as the Association of Nipiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586844','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25586844"><span id="translatedtitle">In the beginning, there was general <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> ….</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gunasekera, Hasantha; Kilham, Henry</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this article, we address how general <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> has evolved and adapted to change over the past 50 years and speculate on its future directions. We compare the state of general <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> with that of general adult medicine. We argue that general <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> must continue to have a strong role both in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> teaching hospitals and the community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214414','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214414"><span id="translatedtitle">Design of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> hospitals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lambert, Veronica</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of healthcare environments on children and young people's (CYP) health and psychosocial wellbeing has attracted much attention in recent years. This sits within the realm of the political drive for enhanced awareness of the need to take account of the rights and voice of the child. Perhaps as a direct result of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and recognition from evidence in adult population studies of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of healthcare environments on psychosocial healing, contemporary times have witnessed a discernible movement towards enhancing quality care by promoting child and adolescent-friendly hospital environments. The Council of Europe guidelines on child-friendly health care moved to place the rights and needs of children at the heart of health care. The Council acknowledges that the delivery of child-oriented services, which includes the notion of family-centred care, should be delivered in child and family friendly environments. However, knowledge about what constitutes a child-friendly healthcare environment from CYP's perspective is often lacking with hospital architectural blueprints predominantly designed around adult proxy-reported assumptions about the needs and desires of children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26946709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26946709"><span id="translatedtitle">[News in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Depallens, Sarah; Lutz, Nicolas; Carlomagno, Raffaella; Meyrat, Blaise; Barazzoni, Mirjam Schuler; Tchameni, Yves Yamgoue; Pascual, Andres; Scerba, François; Superti-Furga, Andrea</p> <p>2016-01-13</p> <p>Every pediatrician will be confronted with newborns oryoung infants with skin lesions in proximity of the vertebral column. It is important not to miss a spinal dysraphism because of the risk of meningeal infection or of the possible presence of a tethered cord. A <span class="hlt">practical</span> algorithm is presented. Non-accidental injury in young infants and toddlers is not rare but difficult to detect. Bruises and fractures are highly suspicious for non-accidental injury and should trigger specific investigations. Emergency departments and hospitals are switching from hypotonic to isotonic solutions as maintenance infusions of children. They reduce the risk of hyponatremia without increasing that of hypernatremia, and they should be used preferentially in the majority of pediatric clinical settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16443953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16443953"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of genetic information on policy and clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abel, Elizabeth; Horner, Sharon D; Tyler, Diane; Innerarity, Sheryl A</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>This article discusses genetics-related policy issues that have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on health care systems, health care providers, and their patients: privacy, mass screening, family screening, and knowledge dissemination. Access, cost, and ethical implications are important discussant points for each of these genetic-related policy issues. Embedded in the issue of privacy are concerns of insurability, confidentiality, and discrimination. The public health policy implications related to mass screening programs include efficacy of the screening tests, availability of primary and secondary interventions, access, costs, and program evaluation. Policy issues for family screening are similar to mass screening, with added concerns about privacy and availability of adequate resources, including health care providers and counselors trained in genetics. Knowledge dissemination is critical to maintaining currency of clinical information and applications of genetic technologies and treatments. As genetic information expands, the need for knowledge dissemination will increase. The importance of advanced <span class="hlt">practice</span> nurses' involvement in these policy issues is discussed. PMID:16443953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166033"><span id="translatedtitle">Resilient Control Systems <span class="hlt">Practical</span> Metrics Basis for Defining Mission <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Craig G. Rieger</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>"Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A <span class="hlt">practical</span> approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “<span class="hlt">impact</span>.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24321359','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24321359"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of adults with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span>-onset chronic liver disease: strategic issues for transition care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vajro, Pietro; Ferrante, Lorenza; Lenta, Selvaggia; Mandato, Claudia; Persico, Marcello</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Advances in the management of children with chronic liver disease have enabled many to survive into adulthood with or without their native livers, so that the most common of these conditions are becoming increasingly common in adult hepatology <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Because the aetiologies of chronic liver disease in children may vary significantly from those in adulthood, adults with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span>-onset chronic liver disease may often present with clinical manifestations unfamiliar to their adulthood physician. Transition of medical care to adult <span class="hlt">practice</span> requires that the adulthood medical staff (primary physicians and subspecialists) have a comprehensive knowledge of childhood liver disease and their implications, and of the differences in caring for these patients. Pending still unavailable Scientific Society guidelines, this article examines causes, presentation modes, evaluation, management, and complications of the main <span class="hlt">paediatric</span>-onset chronic liver diseases, and discusses key issues to aid in planning a program of transition from <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> to adult patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4518764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4518764"><span id="translatedtitle">Conflict escalation in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> services: findings from a qualitative study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Setting Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> hospices in England, in 2011. Results Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Conclusions Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a <span class="hlt">practical</span>, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. PMID:25940425</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21848349"><span id="translatedtitle">Healthy buildings: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on nurses and nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guenther, Robin; Hall, Anna Gilmore</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Mounting evidence indicates that buildings can be a significant cause of human illness and environmental degradation. According to the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency, indoor air pollution is one of the top five environmental risks to public health in the US. This may be related, to a large extent, to the fact that US citizens spend as much as 95% of their time indoors. Health care leaders, designers, and architects, recognizing the connection between health and the buildings in which much time is spent, are engaging in sustainable design and construction for healthy, 'green' buildings. The purpose of this article is to assist nurses in understanding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that unhealthy buildings can have on nurses and nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span> and to provide tools and resources to assist nurses in transforming the health care industry with the goal of creating healing environments and reducing the negative environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the health care industry. First definitions, current initiatives, and motivations related to sustainable designs will be presented. Next sustainable health care design strategies, such as site planning, clean transportation, water conservation, healthy materials selection, indoor environmental quality, and also the benefits of sustainable design will be discussed. The article will conclude by sharing a variety of resources nurses can use to create healing environments in health care settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4717424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4717424"><span id="translatedtitle">Varicella <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. Methods Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. Results Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/105 person-years, with the highest <span class="hlt">impact</span> among those 0–4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/105 person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had ≥1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/105 person-years. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population was 0.5/106 and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. Conclusions Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. PMID:26130380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3635538','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3635538"><span id="translatedtitle">Full breastfeeding and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cancer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ortega-García, Juan A.; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M.; Soldin, Offie P.; Torres, Encarna Pastor; Fuster-Soler, Jose L.; Lopez-Ibor, Blanca; Madero-López, Luis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Aim It has been suggested that there is an inverse association between breastfeeding and the risk of childhood cancer. We investigated the association between full breastfeeding and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cancer (PC) in a case control study in Spain. Methods Maternal reports of full breastfeeding, collected through personal interviews using the <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Environmental History, were compared among 187 children 6 months of age or older who had PC and 187 age-matched control siblings. Results The mean duration of full breastfeeding for cases were 8.43 and 11.25 weeks for controls. Cases had been significantly more often bottle-fed than controls (odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8). Cases were significantly less breastfed for at least 2 months (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3–0.8), for at least 4 months (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3–0.8), and for 24 weeks or more (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.2–0.9). Conclusions Breastfeeding was inversely associated with PC, the protection increasing with the duration of full breastfeeding. Additional research on possible mechanisms of this association may be warranted. Meanwhile, breastfeeding should be encouraged among mothers. PMID:17999666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16854558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16854558"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent pharmacological advances in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> analgesics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, B J; Palmer, G M</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>Growth and development are two linked processes that distinguish children from adults. The use of size as the primary covariate during pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses allows exploration of the effects of age. Allometric scaling models have assisted understanding of the developmental clearance changes in common analgesic drugs such as paracetamol, morphine, tramadol and local anaesthetics agents. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (pharmacogenomics [PG]) and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on hepatic drug metabolism for opioids, tramadol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and drug receptor responses are increasingly reported. Altered chemical structure or formulations of common analgesics alter pharmacodynamic (PD) effects enhancing safety and efficacy for NSAIDs by stereoselectivity and the addition of nitric oxide, for intravenous paracetamol by formulation and structural difference from propacetamol and for local anaesthetics through stereoselectivity. This article focuses upon recent data for analgesics used in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pain management including paracetamol, NSAIDs, morphine, tramadol, amide local anaesthetics and ketamine. It centres on PK and clinical studies in neonates, infants and children. PG studies are acknowledged as potentially allowing individual drug therapy tailoring through a decrease in between-patient population variability, although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of PG in the very young is less certain. There are few data describing age-related PD changes in children despite recognition that the number, affinity and type of receptors or the availability of natural ligands changes with age. PMID:16854558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4251165"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> clinical pharmacology in the UK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> clinical pharmacology is the scientific study of medicines in children and is a relatively new subspecialty in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> in the UK. Training encompasses both the study of the effectiveness of drugs in children (clinical trials) and aspects of drug toxicity (pharmacovigilance). Ethical issues in relation to clinical trials and also studies of the pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism in children are crucial. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> patients require formulations that young children in particular are able to take. The scientific evidence generated from clinical trials, pharmacokinetic studies and studies of drug toxicity all need to be applied in order to ensure that medicines are used rationally in children. PMID:25202131</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24907888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24907888"><span id="translatedtitle">[The electrocardiogram in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> age group].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> age group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=key&pg=2&id=EJ1112730','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=key&pg=2&id=EJ1112730"><span id="translatedtitle">What's in a Name? The Challenge and Utility of Defining Promising and High-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hatch, Deryl K.; Crisp, Gloria; Wesley, Katherine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This chapter reviews multiple complementary and divergent descriptions of <span class="hlt">practices</span> that have been identified as holding particular promise for high <span class="hlt">impact</span> on college student success and offers a possible map of <span class="hlt">practices</span> to illustrate key features and relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1775H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1775H"><span id="translatedtitle">Teacher Workshops in the US: Goals, Best <span class="hlt">Practices</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hörst, S. M.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The goal of the workshop is to educate the teachers on a few focused topics so that they can transfer the knowledge they gain to their students. We will recruit scientists who are attending the meeting to participate in the workshops and will also pair the teachers with scientists in the field who can serve as a resource for the teacher and their class throughout the school year. The scientists can answer questions the teachers may have, be available to do video lectures or interactive question and answer sessions over skype, and work with the teachers to develop hands-on classroom activities. We will partner closely with EPO professionals in NASA's Science Mission Directorate to ensure that best <span class="hlt">practices</span> for the workshops are employed, including ensuring that the workshop and workshop materials are designed within the framework of the state standards, surveying participating teachers before the workshops about their needs and goals, assessing the participants pre-workshop knowledge, and engaging participants as learners during the workshop [1]. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the workshop will be increased by providing the teachers and students with a scientist who will serve as a long-term resource. We will maintain contact with the teachers after the workshop to ensure that the scientists are still actively engaged in their classroom and to collect feedback. References [1] Shupla C, et al. (2011) Lessons Learned: Best <span class="hlt">Practices</span> in Educator Workshops. 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, no. 2828. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 6, EPSC-DPS2011-1775, 2011 EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011 c Author(s) 2011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21535284"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> biobanks: what makes them so unique?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samuël, Julie; Knoppers, Bartha M; Avard, Denise</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> biobanks store and organise the biological material of children. They are an invaluable resource for the study of the development, health and behaviour of children. International norms for the management of adult biobanks exist, but <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> biobanks require distinct policies to account for the needs of children, their general incapacity, and their intellectual development throughout the life of the biobank. Because of their particular nature we revisit the issues of consent, the return of research results, and privacy, and discuss how each could be modulated in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> context. We recognize that such modifications entail further financial and logistical complications but maintain that it is essential that <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> biobanks consider these issues and adapt their biobanks management policies accordingly, rather than extrapolate the current adult-based norms and jeopardise the rights of child participants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776610"><span id="translatedtitle">Popliteal vasculature injuries in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> trauma patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, S A; Roberts, D C; Clarke, N M P</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Popliteal-artery injuries in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span>-trauma patient are uncommon, difficult to diagnose and with prolonged ischaemia lead to substantial complications. We report three cases of popliteal-vasculature injury in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span>-trauma patients with diverse mechanisms of injury: blunt trauma, penetrating injury and a Salter-Harris I fracture. We present a range of the significant sequelae that can result from <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> popliteal-artery injury, both physically and psychologically. It is imperative that clinicians have a high index of suspicion when confronted with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with trauma around the knee and that popliteal-vasculature injuries are diagnosed early. If insufficiencies are detected, further imaging should be considered, but surgical exploration should not be delayed in the presence of ischaemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4995564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4995564"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> bipolar disorder: international comparisons of hospital discharge rates 2000–2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clacey, Joe; Goldacre, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Controversy surrounds the diagnosis and prevalence of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> bipolar disorder, with estimates varying considerably between countries. Aims To determine the international hospital discharge rates for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> bipolar disorder compared with all other psychiatric diagnoses. Method We used national data-sets from 2000 to 2010 from England, Australia, New Zealand, the USA and Germany. Results For those aged under 20 years, the discharge rates for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> bipolar disorder per 100 000 population were: USA 95.6, Australia 11.7, New Zealand 6.3, Germany 1.5 and England 0.9. The most marked divergence in discharge rates was in 5- to 9-year-olds: USA 27, New Zealand 0.22, Australia 0.14, Germany 0.03 and England 0.00. Conclusions The disparity between US and other discharge rates for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> bipolar disorder is markedly greater than the variation for child psychiatric discharge rates overall, and for adult rates of bipolar disorder. This suggests there may be differing diagnostic <span class="hlt">practices</span> for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> bipolar disorder in the USA. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703743</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26255394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26255394"><span id="translatedtitle">Hippocratic views on <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Dentistry and Ancient Greek origins of Orthodontics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsoucalas, G; Kousoulis, A A; Karamanou, M; Marineli, F; Tsoucalas, I; Androutsos, G</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Hippocrates, the father of medicine, expressed some very interesting ideas on dentistry. His remarks on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentistry and orthodontics are quite impressive and influenced its <span class="hlt">practice</span> in ancient Greece. Here we examine his writings in order to find the most important dental references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6864157','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6864157"><span id="translatedtitle">Acid precipitation <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on agricultural soil management <span class="hlt">practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Coveney, E.A.; Lewin, K.F.; Rosenthal, R.E.</p> <p>1986-02-01</p> <p>Acid precipitation can have positive (reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirements) and negative (increased need to neutralize soil acidity) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on agricultural soil management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. This paper compares the total annual deposition of nitrogen in acid precipitation with farmer applied fertilizer use and with nitrogen uptake for major crops. It also estimates the amount of lime needed to neutralize soil acidity originating from wet H/sup +/ deposition. First-order estimates indicate that the quantity of nitrogen annually deposited in the eastern US by wet acid deposition on croplands is 6% of the amount applied as fertilizer. Nitrogen deposited as wet deposition may be relatively important to unmanaged nonleguminous crops (e.g., hay) which are grown over extensive land areas. Soil acidity, which can be increased by natural (e.g., nitrogen fixation) and anthropogenic mechanisms (e.g., fertilizer application, acidic deposition) is often neutralized by the application of lime. Estimates indicate that in the eastern US, approx.2% of applied lime is used to neutralize acidity caused by wet acid deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5429571','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5429571"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation biology: the conceptual and <span class="hlt">practical</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on radiation therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suit, H.D.</p> <p>1983-04-01</p> <p>Radiation biology has had an important <span class="hlt">impact</span> on clinical radiation therapy by providing a rationale for implementation of new treatment strategies and for clinical concepts or <span class="hlt">practices</span> thereby increasing their acceptance. The observed rather narrow range of D/sub 0/ and n values for mammalian cells contributed to successful trials of radiation treatment of several ''radiation-resistant'' tumors, e.g., carcinoma of prostate, color-rectum, and sarcoma of soft tissue. Attention of clinicians was forcibly directed to assessment of local results (local failure, treatment complications) and not merely survival at 5 years by the extensive literature of cell survival curves (in vivo and in vitro) and dose-response assays on normal and tumor tissues. Upon these same laboratory results a scientific rationale was developed for use of shrinking field technique, low dose for subclinical disease, and the combination of moderate dose radiation therapy and conservative surgery. The entire area of clinical research into altered dose fractionation schedules is based upon research on cell proliferation kinetics and repair of radiation damage. The understanding that the time for complete regression of tumor depends not only upon cell kill but also on the pattern of cell proliferation of the progeny of lethally irradiated cells and the abundance of stroma provided a basis for accepting patients with slowly responding tumors for treatment. There remains a wide field of need in research in this area as even today a large proportion of patients who die of cancer die with their cancer uncontrolled at the primary site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2701425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2701425"><span id="translatedtitle">Parental knowledge of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> vaccination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Borràs, Eva; Domínguez, Àngela; Fuentes, Miriam; Batalla, Joan; Cardeñosa, Neus; Plasencia, Antoni</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged < 3 years recruited by random sampling from municipal districts of all health regions of Catalonia. The total sample was 630 children. Parents completed a standard questionnaire for each child, which included vaccination coverage and knowledge about vaccination. The level of knowledge of vaccination was scored according to parental answers. Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose) and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43) and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72). The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination. PMID:19473498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21646328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21646328"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span>: the etymology of a name.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearn, John</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Within the history of <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> is the history of the name used to describe it. The etymology of the word '<span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>' dates from its first written use, recorded as 'pädiatrik' in the German literature and as '<span class="hlt">paediatric</span>', later 'pediatric' in the USA, both first in 1850. Professor Robley Dunglison (1788-1869), the British and American medical lexicographer, first defined 'paediatria' as 'the treatment of the diseases of children' in 1855. 'Pediatric medicine' was promoted as a specialty in the USA in 1880. The oldest monumental inscription defining the specialty of '<span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>' in the UK is to be found on a plaque added (in 1950) to the memorial to Dr George Armstrong (1719-1789), a founder of the specialty of <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>, in Castleton Cemetery, Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. '<span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span>' and 'child health', with subtle semantic distinctions, had become well established in the English-speaking world by the middle of the 20th century. This paper presents an interpretative chronology of the etymology of the descriptors of the specialty that enjoins all who care for children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4349440','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4349440"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shumer, Daniel E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Medical intervention for transgender adolescents is a controversial issue but a recently published article describing long-term psychological outcomes using ‘the Dutch model’ of care should help to silence critics and reassure the growing number of clinicians treating this patient population. PMID:25403246</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9378072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9378072"><span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent respiratory tract infections in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellanti, J A</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> respiratory tract infections are one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalisation, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The role of physicians and other healthcare professionals has expanded from merely treating disease to implementing measures aimed at health maintenance and disease prevention. Therefore, children with recurrent respiratory tract infections represent a great challenge for the paediatrician, from both therapeutic and preventive standpoints. The paediatrician must first determine whether these recurrent infections are because of host-derived factors or are the result of increased environmental exposure. Host-derived factors may be nonimmunological or related to host immunodeficiency. The leading cause of recurrent respiratory tract infections throughout the world is increased environmental exposure in children attending nursery school or daycare centres. Acute otitis media in children is of particular concern because of its high incidence, frequent recurrence, and serious long term sequelae, e.g. hearing loss. The socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these recurrent infections is staggering, and there remains much scope for devising methods for their treatment and prevention. Recent approaches have included the encouragement of breastfeeding, the use of intravenous immunoglobulin and respiratory syncytical virus immune globulin, as well as methods of stimulating immunity, such as ribosomal immunotherapy. PMID:9378072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5078733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5078733"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV nanotherapies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent <span class="hlt">impact</span> on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV medicines are poorly available; one current <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes. PMID:27767027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=STROKE&pg=2&id=EJ1032116','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=STROKE&pg=2&id=EJ1032116"><span id="translatedtitle">The Self-Directed Learning Experience of Mothers Whose Child Has Had a <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Stroke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grover, Kenda S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study employed qualitative research methodology to explore the experiences of mothers who self-directed their learning following their child's stroke diagnosis. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> stroke, although rare, is among the top 10 causes of death in children in the USA, but information about the cause, treatment and long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> are difficult to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10168441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10168441"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of tax sanctions on physician <span class="hlt">practice</span> acquisitions and employment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hardy, C T; Lyden, S M; Kasmarcak, S J</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>The intermediate tax sanctions create significant concerns for tax-exempt healthcare organizations that seek to integrate <span class="hlt">practicing</span> physicians through <span class="hlt">practice</span> acquisition or employment. The sanctions will force not-for-profit healthcare organizations to examine both the strategic and business implications of the dollars they have committed to <span class="hlt">practice</span> acquisition and physician employment. The sanctions also should motivate organizations to reexamine their existing physician compensation arrangements, which may be creating negative incentives for <span class="hlt">practice</span> productivity. PMID:10168441</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25458138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25458138"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of evidence and health policy on nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geurden, Bart; Adriaenssens, Jef; Franck, Erik</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The story of evidence-based <span class="hlt">practice</span> in nursing is long, with many successes, contributors, leaders, scientists, and enthusiasts. Nurse educators have great advantages offered from a wide variety of educational resources for evidence-based <span class="hlt">practice</span>. These resources offer students the opportunity to connect their emerging competencies with clinical needs for best <span class="hlt">practices</span> in clinical and microsystem changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monitoring+AND+evaluation&pg=7&id=EJ833060','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monitoring+AND+evaluation&pg=7&id=EJ833060"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence-Based <span class="hlt">Practice</span> and Evaluation: From Insight to <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunsmuir, Sandra; Brown, Emma; Iyadurai, Suzi; Monsen, Jeremy</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>With the growing emphasis on accountability and evidence-based <span class="hlt">practice</span>, evaluation has become increasingly important in the contexts in which educational psychologists (EPs) <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This paper describes a Target Monitoring and Evaluation (TME) system, derived from Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) which was developed to evaluate outcomes of a wide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25486164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25486164"><span id="translatedtitle">Community psychology <span class="hlt">practice</span>: expanding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of psychology's work.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolff, Tom</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This article introduces the reader to community psychology <span class="hlt">practice</span> by defining the field and its key principles and then illustrating through brief case stories what community psychology <span class="hlt">practice</span> looks like in various employment settings. An exploration of the development of the field includes a review of the competencies of community psychology <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Finally, the emerging opportunities for community psychology <span class="hlt">practice</span> for psychologists are outlined. Well-publicized issues such as health disparities give psychologists an opportunity to bring social problems such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and income inequality to the forefront and to create community-wide efforts to improve the ways in which people live. Community psychology <span class="hlt">practice</span> offers psychologists a format and a set of competencies for moving forward on this work by focusing on approaches that are ecological, community centered, population based, preventive, focused on systems change and empowerment, and multidisciplinary and that bring those most affected by the issues to the heart of the decision making.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351256','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351256"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposure in high school football: Implications for regulating contact <span class="hlt">practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Broglio, Steven P.; Martini, Douglas; Kasper, Luke; Eckner, James T.; Kutcher, Jeffrey S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Increased attention is being placed on the role of subconcussive <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to the head during football participation and long-term cognitive health. Some have suggested that mitigating <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to the head can be achieved by reducing or eliminating contact football <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The effect that this might have on the number and magnitude of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is unknown. Purpose To estimate the effect of limiting contact <span class="hlt">practices</span> on the frequency and magnitude of head <span class="hlt">impacts</span> through the retrospective assessment of in vivo head <span class="hlt">impact</span> data. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods Data on <span class="hlt">impact</span> magnitude and frequency were collected with the Head <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Telemetry System during the 2009 football season among 42 varsity high school football athletes (mean age, 16.2 ± 0.6 years; mean height, 180.9 ± 7.2 cm; mean weight, 89.8 ± 20.1 kg). Head <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were compared between player positions and session types (noncontact <span class="hlt">practice</span>, contact <span class="hlt">practice</span>, and game). These results were used to estimate the frequency and magnitude of head <span class="hlt">impacts</span> when contact sessions were restricted. Results The participants collectively sustained 32,510 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> over the 15-week season. The typical athlete sustained a mean of 774 ± 502 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> during the season with linemen (center, guard, and offensive or defensive tackle positions) sustaining the highest number of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> per athlete (1076 ± 541), followed by the tight ends, running backs, and linebackers (779 ± 286);wide receivers, cornerbacks, and safeties (417 ± 266); and quarterbacks (356 ± 433). When viewed by session type, noncontact <span class="hlt">practices</span> (n = 21) accounted for 1998 total <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (2.4 ± 1.4 per athlete per session), contact <span class="hlt">practices</span> (n = 36) accounted for 16,346 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (10.5 ± 7.7 per athlete per session), and games (n = 14) accounted for 14,166 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> (24.1 ± 19.1 per athlete per session). Significantly more <span class="hlt">impacts</span> occurred during games when compared with contact (P = .02) and noncontact <span class="hlt">practices</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035413"><span id="translatedtitle">Bounded rationality alters the dynamics of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> immunization acceptance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oraby, Tamer; Bauch, Chris T</p> <p>2015-06-02</p> <p>Interactions between disease dynamics and vaccinating behavior have been explored in many coupled behavior-disease models. Cognitive effects such as risk perception, framing, and subjective probabilities of adverse events can be important determinants of the vaccinating behaviour, and represent departures from the pure "rational" decision model that are often described as "bounded rationality". However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such cognitive effects in the context of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> infectious disease vaccines has received relatively little attention. Here, we develop a disease-behavior model that accounts for bounded rationality through prospect theory. We analyze the model and compare its predictions to a reduced model that lacks bounded rationality. We find that, in general, introducing bounded rationality increases the dynamical richness of the model and makes it harder to eliminate a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> infectious disease. In contrast, in other cases, a low cost, highly efficacious vaccine can be refused, even when the rational decision model predicts acceptance. Injunctive social norms can prevent vaccine refusal, if vaccine acceptance is sufficiently high in the beginning of the vaccination campaign. Cognitive processes can have major <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the predictions of behaviour-disease models, and further study of such processes in the context of vaccination is thus warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549385"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> resuscitation skills in a developing country: introduction of the Advanced <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Life Support course into Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Young, Simon; Hutchinson, Adrian; Nguyen, Van Tu; Le, Thanh Hai; Nguyen, Dich Van; Vo, Thi Kim Hue</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>In 2001, a nationwide study revealed deficiencies in the emergency care of seriously ill and injured children in Vietnam. In response, a project was initiated to conduct the Advanced <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Life Support course in Vietnam and ascertain whether this course would provide a <span class="hlt">practical</span> and sustainable method of improving the knowledge and skills of medical and nursing staff in this area. After approval to use the course was secured and funding obtained, the project commenced in 2003. Key Vietnamese personnel travelled to Australia to complete the course, undertake instructor training and gain organizational experience. Teaching materials were translated, reviewed and modified to account for local diseases and clinical <span class="hlt">practices</span> while maintaining the fundamental principles of the parent course. Commencing in March 2004, 10 courses were conducted by Australian and Vietnamese instructors, training 239 doctors and nurses from a wide variety of clinical backgrounds. Additionally, three instructor courses were conducted, training 52 new instructors. As the skill and confidence of the Vietnamese instructors grew, the number and responsibilities of the international faculty reduced. The infrastructure now exists for the course to operate in a sustainable fashion within Vietnam. We believe that this project demonstrates that the course can be successfully modified to provide teaching in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency care in a developing country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083261.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1083261.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of OER on Teaching and Learning <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weller, Martin; de los Arcos, Bea; Farrow, Rob; Pitt, Beck; McAndrew, Patrick</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The OER Research Hub has been investigating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of OER, using eleven hypotheses, and a mixed methods approach to establish an evidence base. This paper explores the findings relating to teaching and learning. The findings reveal a set of direct <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, including an increase in factors relating to student performance, increased reflection…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3994059','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3994059"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase Synchronization in Electroencephalographic Recordings Prognosticates Outcome in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Coma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nenadovic, Vera; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Hutchison, James Saunders</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Brain injury from trauma, cardiac arrest or stroke is the most important cause of death and acquired disability in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population. Due to the lifetime <span class="hlt">impact</span> of brain injury, there is a need for methods to stratify patient risk and ultimately predict outcome. Early prognosis is fundamental to the implementation of interventions to improve recovery, but no clinical model as yet exists. Healthy physiology is associated with a relative high variability of physiologic signals in organ systems. This was first evaluated in heart rate variability research. Brain variability can be quantified through electroencephalographic (EEG) phase synchrony. We hypothesised that variability in brain signals from EEG recordings would correlate with patient outcome after brain injury. Lower variability in EEG phase synchronization, would be associated with poor patient prognosis. A retrospective study, spanning 10 years (2000–2010) analysed the scalp EEGs of children aged 1 month to 17 years in coma (Glasgow Coma Scale, GCS, <8) admitted to the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> critical care unit (PCCU) following brain injury from TBI, cardiac arrest or stroke. Phase synchrony of the EEGs was evaluated using the Hilbert transform and the variability of the phase synchrony calculated. Outcome was evaluated using the 6 point <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Performance Category Score (PCPC) based on chart review at the time of hospital discharge. Outcome was dichotomized to good outcome (PCPC score 1 to 3) and poor outcome (PCPC score 4 to 6). Children who had a poor outcome following brain injury secondary to cardiac arrest, TBI or stroke, had a higher magnitude of synchrony (R index), a lower spatial complexity of the synchrony patterns and a lower temporal variability of the synchrony index values at 15 Hz when compared to those patients with a good outcome. PMID:24752289</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036205"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating an outreach service for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns follow up.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cubitt, Jonathan J; Chesney, Amy; Brown, Liz; Nguyen, Dai Q</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Complications following <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns are well documented and care needs to be taken to ensure the appropriate follow up of these patients. Historically this has meant follow up into adulthood however this is often not necessary. The centralisation of burns services in the UK means that patients and their parents may have to travel significant distances to receive this follow up care. To optimise our burns service we have introduced a burns outreach service to enable the patients to be treated closer to home. The aim of this study is to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the introduction of the burns outreach service and within this environment define the optimum length of time needed to follow up these patients. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 100 consecutive <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns patients who underwent surgical management of their burn. During the follow up period there were 43 complications in 32 patients (32%). These included adverse scarring (either hypertrophic or keloid), delayed healing (taking >1 month to heal) and contractures (utilising either splinting or surgical correction). Fifty-nine percent of these complications occurred within 6 months of injury and all occurred within 18 months. Size of burn was directly correlated to the risk of developing a complication. The outreach service reduced the distance the patient needs to travel for follow up by more than 50%. There was also a significant financial benefit for the service as the follow up clinics were on average 50% cheaper with burns outreach than burns physician. Burns outreach is a feasible service that not only benefits the patients but also is cheaper for the burns service. The optimum length of follow up for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns in 18 months, after which if there have not been any complications they can be discharged. PMID:26036205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26036205"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating an outreach service for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns follow up.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cubitt, Jonathan J; Chesney, Amy; Brown, Liz; Nguyen, Dai Q</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Complications following <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns are well documented and care needs to be taken to ensure the appropriate follow up of these patients. Historically this has meant follow up into adulthood however this is often not necessary. The centralisation of burns services in the UK means that patients and their parents may have to travel significant distances to receive this follow up care. To optimise our burns service we have introduced a burns outreach service to enable the patients to be treated closer to home. The aim of this study is to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the introduction of the burns outreach service and within this environment define the optimum length of time needed to follow up these patients. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 100 consecutive <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns patients who underwent surgical management of their burn. During the follow up period there were 43 complications in 32 patients (32%). These included adverse scarring (either hypertrophic or keloid), delayed healing (taking >1 month to heal) and contractures (utilising either splinting or surgical correction). Fifty-nine percent of these complications occurred within 6 months of injury and all occurred within 18 months. Size of burn was directly correlated to the risk of developing a complication. The outreach service reduced the distance the patient needs to travel for follow up by more than 50%. There was also a significant financial benefit for the service as the follow up clinics were on average 50% cheaper with burns outreach than burns physician. Burns outreach is a feasible service that not only benefits the patients but also is cheaper for the burns service. The optimum length of follow up for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns in 18 months, after which if there have not been any complications they can be discharged.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21672292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21672292"><span id="translatedtitle">Recommendations from the Association for European <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Cardiology for training in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>da Cruz, Eduardo; Lechner, Evelyn; Stiller, Brigitte; Munoz, Ricardo; Beghetti, Maurice; Fakler, Ulrich; Haas, Nikolaus</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The following document provides a summary of the guidelines and recommendations for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care training as a requirement for recognition as a European <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiologist. It is therefore primarily targeting <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiology trainees in Europe, including those doctors who might wish to become experts in cardiac intensive care. These recommendations represent a frame for consistency, will evolve, and may be adapted to specific institutional requirements. They will be complemented by a learning module to be provided by our Association in the near future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3781994','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3781994"><span id="translatedtitle">Disease Activity Measures in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Rheumatic Diseases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luca, Nadia J.; Feldman, Brian M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Disease activity refers to potentially reversible aspects of a disease. Measurement of disease activity in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rheumatic diseases is a critical component of patient care and clinical research. Disease activity measures are developed systematically, often involving consensus methods. To be useful, a disease activity measure must be feasible, valid, and interpretable. There are several challenges in quantifying disease activity in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rheumatology; namely, the conditions are multidimensional, the level of activity must be valuated in the context of treatment being received, there is no gold standard for disease activity, and it is often difficult to incorporate the patient's perspective of their disease activity. To date, core sets of response variables are defined for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus, and juvenile dermatomyositis, as well as definitions for improvement in response to therapy. Several specific absolute disease activity measures also exist for each condition. Further work is required to determine the optimal disease activity measures in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rheumatology. PMID:24089617</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22855590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22855590"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dental hygienists on solo dental <span class="hlt">practices</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental <span class="hlt">practices</span> that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from <span class="hlt">practices</span> that do not? This article explores differences among dental <span class="hlt">practices</span> that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental <span class="hlt">Practice</span>, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in <span class="hlt">practice</span> characteristics--such as hours spent in the <span class="hlt">practice</span> and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=review&pg=2&id=EJ1098870','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=review&pg=2&id=EJ1098870"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond Synthesis: Augmenting Systematic Review Procedures with <span class="hlt">Practical</span> Principles to Optimise <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Uptake in Educational Policy and <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Green, Chris; Taylor, Celia; Buckley, Sharon; Hean, Sarah</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Whilst systematic reviews, meta-analyses and other forms of synthesis are considered amongst the most valuable forms of research evidence, their limited <span class="hlt">impact</span> on educational policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> has been criticised. In this article, we analyse why systematic reviews do not benefit users of evidence more consistently and suggest how review teams…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3426911','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3426911"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical features of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pulmonary hypertension: a registry study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Berger, Rolf M F; Beghetti, Maurice; Humpl, Tilman; Raskob, Gary E; Ivy, D Dunbar; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; Bonnet, Damien; Schulze-Neick, Ingram; Barst, Robyn J</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Summary Background <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> pulmonary hypertension, is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and is insufficiently characterised in children. The Tracking Outcomes and <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension (TOPP) registry is a global, prospective study designed to provide information about demographics, treatment, and outcomes in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pulmonary hypertension. Methods Consecutive patients aged 18 years or younger at diagnosis with pulmonary hypertension and increased pulmonary vascular resistance were enrolled in TOPP at 31 centres in 19 countries from Jan 31, 2008, to Feb 15, 2010. Patient and disease characteristics, including age at diagnosis and at enrolment, sex, ethnicity, presenting symptoms, pulmonary hypertension classification, comorbid disorders, medical and family history, haemodynamic indices, and functional class were recorded. Follow-up was decided by the patients’ physicians according to the individual’s health-care needs. Findings 362 of 456 consecutive patients had confirmed pulmonary hypertension (defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ≤12 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance index ≥3 WU/m32). 317 (88%) patients had pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which was idiopathic [IPAH] or familial [FPAH] in 182 (57%), and associated with other disorders in 135 (43%), of which 115 (85%) cases were associated with congenital heart disease. 42 patients (12%) had pulmonary hypertension associated with respiratory disease or hypoxaemia, with bronchopulmonary dysplasia most frequent. Finally, only three patients had either chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension or miscellaneous causes of pulmonary hypertension. Chromosomal anomalies, mainly trisomy 21, were reported in 47 (13%) of patients with confirmed disease. Median age at diagnosis was 7 years (IQR 3–12); 59% (268 of 456) were female. Although dyspnoea and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms, syncope</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264584','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4264584"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Practice</span> Based Research Networks <span class="hlt">Impacting</span> Periodontal Care: PEARL Initiative</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Curro, Frederick A.; Thompson, Van P.; Grill, Ashley; Vena, Don; Terracio, Louis; Naftolin, Frederick</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In 2005, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research /National Institutes of Health funded the largest initiative to date to affect change in the delivery of oral care. This commentary provides the background for the first study related to periodontics in a <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Based Research Network (PBRN). It was conducted in the Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research & Learning (PEARL) Network. The PEARL Network is headquartered at New York University College of Dentistry. The basic tenet of the PBRN initiative is to engage clinicians to participate in clinical studies, where they will be more likely to accept the results and to incorporate the findings into their <span class="hlt">practices</span>. This process may reduce the translational gap that exists between new findings and the time it takes for them to be incorporated into clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>. The cornerstone of the PBRN studies is to conduct comparative effectiveness research studies to disseminate findings to the profession and improve care. This is particularly important because the majority of dentists <span class="hlt">practice</span> independently. Having practitioners generate clinical data allows them to contribute in the process of knowledge development and incorporate the results in their <span class="hlt">practice</span> to assist in closing the translational gap. With the advent of electronic health systems on the horizon, dentistry may be brought into the mainstream health care paradigm and the PBRN concept can serve as the skeletal framework for advancing the profession provided there is consensus on the terminology used. PMID:22702516</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8466242','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8466242"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation and audit in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> disability service.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cass, H D; Kugler, B T</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Parental and professional responses to questionnaires evaluating a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> disability service are reported and the viability of auditing structural, process, and outcome aspects of clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> are discussed. Expectations of waiting time to first appointment (met for only 52% of consumers) illustrate structural issues. Process issues are reflected in consumer reactions to outreach work (for example, 94% of parents and 84% of professionals found this supportive). Outcome measures such as consumer satisfaction with the service (76% of consumers reported being 'very satisfied' and 20% 'fairly satisfied') suggest that service aims are being met. Good concurrence of service aims with consumer needs is indicated by parental reasons for referral (for example, 75% for diagnostic help, 73% for a better understanding of the disorder, 88% for <span class="hlt">practical</span> help), referrers' reasons (for example, 55% for a second diagnostic opinion, 45% due to lack of local expertise), and reports from most other professionals involved with the case that a similar service was not provided locally. PMID:8466242</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439093"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Practical</span> management of cumulative anthropogenic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with working marine examples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level <span class="hlt">impact</span>. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of <span class="hlt">impact</span> for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on <span class="hlt">impact</span> can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts. PMID:25439093</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439093','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439093"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Practical</span> management of cumulative anthropogenic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with working marine examples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wright, Andrew J; Kyhn, Line A</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Human pressure on the environment is expanding and intensifying, especially in coastal and offshore areas. Major contributors to this are the current push for offshore renewable energy sources, which are thought of as environmentally friendly sources of power, as well as the continued demand for petroleum. Human disturbances, including the noise almost ubiquitously associated with human activity, are likely to increase the incidence, magnitude, and duration of adverse effects on marine life, including stress responses. Stress responses have the potential to induce fitness consequences for individuals, which add to more obvious directed takes (e.g., hunting or fishing) to increase the overall population-level <span class="hlt">impact</span>. To meet the requirements of marine spatial planning and ecosystem-based management, many efforts are ongoing to quantify the cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of all human actions on marine species or populations. Meanwhile, regulators face the challenge of managing these accumulating and interacting <span class="hlt">impacts</span> with limited scientific guidance. We believe there is scientific support for capping the level of <span class="hlt">impact</span> for (at a minimum) populations in decline or with unknown statuses. This cap on <span class="hlt">impact</span> can be facilitated through implementation of regular application cycles for project authorization or improved programmatic and aggregated <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessments that simultaneously consider multiple projects. Cross-company collaborations and a better incorporation of uncertainty into decision making could also help limit, if not reduce, cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of multiple human activities. These simple management steps may also form the basis of a rudimentary form of marine spatial planning and could be used in support of future ecosystem-based management efforts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2795370','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2795370"><span id="translatedtitle">Neonatology/<span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fusch, C.; Bauer, K.; Böhles, H. J.; Jochum, F.; Koletzko, B.; Krawinkel, M.; Krohn, K.; Mühlebach, S.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>There are special challenges in implementing parenteral nutrition (PN) in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients, which arises from the wide range of patients, ranging from extremely premature infants up to teenagers weighing up to and over 100 kg, and their varying substrate requirements. Age and maturity-related changes of the metabolism and fluid and nutrient requirements must be taken into consideration along with the clinical situation during which PN is applied. The indication, the procedure as well as the intake of fluid and substrates are very different to that known in PN-<span class="hlt">practice</span> in adult patients, e.g. the fluid, nutrient and energy needs of premature infants and newborns per kg body weight are markedly higher than of older <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> and adult patients. Premature infants <35 weeks of pregnancy and most sick term infants usually require full or partial PN. In neonates the actual amount of PN administered must be calculated (not estimated). Enteral nutrition should be gradually introduced and should replace PN as quickly as possible in order to minimise any side-effects from exposure to PN. Inadequate substrate intake in early infancy can cause long-term detrimental effects in terms of metabolic programming of the risk of illness in later life. If energy and nutrient demands in children and adolescents cannot be met through enteral nutrition, partial or total PN should be considered within 7 days or less depending on the nutritional state and clinical conditions. PMID:20049070</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226386&keyword=civil+AND+engineering+AND+risk&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80675261&CFTOKEN=99645890','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=226386&keyword=civil+AND+engineering+AND+risk&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=80675261&CFTOKEN=99645890"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel Use of Time Domain Reflectometry in Infiltration-based Low <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Development <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Low <span class="hlt">impact</span> development (LID) <span class="hlt">practices</span> are structures that intercept stormwater runoff and infiltrate it through a range of media types, including aggregate, rain garden media, and underlying soils. Hydrologic performance is typically evaluated by comparing inlet and underdrain o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+coding&pg=3&id=EJ959584','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=video+AND+coding&pg=3&id=EJ959584"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing Mathematics Classroom <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Observation and Coding Choices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ing, Marsha; Webb, Noreen M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Large-scale observational measures of classroom <span class="hlt">practice</span> increasingly focus on opportunities for student participation as an indicator of instructional quality. Each observational measure necessitates making design and coding choices on how to best measure student participation. This study investigated variations of coding approaches that may be…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=what%27s+AND+fault&pg=2&id=EJ926393','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=what%27s+AND+fault&pg=2&id=EJ926393"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence and <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: How Scholarship Can Improve Policy and <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lingenfelter, Paul E.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners share a sincere interest in improving the human condition. Academics may be tempted to fault irrationality, ideology, or ignorance for the failure of research to inform policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> more powerfully, but policy makers and practitioners want academics to tell them "what works" in order to find a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pose&pg=6&id=EJ1021207','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pose&pg=6&id=EJ1021207"><span id="translatedtitle">Considering the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Preservice Teacher Beliefs on Future <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thomas, Cathy Newman</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Preservice teacher beliefs merit additional attention from special education teacher-educators. Given current policy and reforms aimed at improving outcomes for students with disabilities and increasing the adoption of evidence-based <span class="hlt">practices</span>, teacher-educators should recognize the barrier that preservice teacher beliefs can pose and consider…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065855.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065855.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Teacher Knowledge Seminars: Unpacking Reflective <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Curtis, Andy; Szestay, Margit</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports on the learning outcomes described by experienced teachers attending a program designed to enable them to come together to engage in professional development through structured and systematic reflective <span class="hlt">practice</span>. In the first part of the paper, we look briefly at some of the challenges of defining "reflective…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+differences+AND+leadership&pg=2&id=ED564992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+differences+AND+leadership&pg=2&id=ED564992"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of University Religious Affiliation on Presidential Leadership <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Savior, Richard David</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Colleges and universities in the United States face a set of significant and progressive challenges requiring exemplary senior leadership. The purpose of this study was to measure and analyze the senior leadership <span class="hlt">practices</span> at private/secular and private/religious affiliated colleges and universities to identify differences in leadership practices…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25695118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25695118"><span id="translatedtitle">How can radio frequency identification technology <span class="hlt">impact</span> nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Billingsley, Luanne; Wyld, David</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology can save nurses time, improve quality of care, en hance patient and staff safety, and decrease costs. However, without a better understanding of these systems and their benefits to patients and hospitals, nurses may be slower to recommend, implement, or adopt RFID technology into <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157273','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70157273"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of fishing and stocking <span class="hlt">practices</span> on Coregonid diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Anneville, Orlane; Lasne, Emilien; Guillard, Jean; Eckmann, Reiner; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gillet, Christian; Yule, Daniel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fish species diversity can be lost through interacting stressors including habitat loss, stocking and overfishing. Although a multitude of stressors have played a role in the global decline of coregonid (Coregonus spp.) diversity, a number of contemporary studies have identified habitat loss stemming from eutrophication as the primary cause. Unfortunately, reconstructing the role of fishing and stocking <span class="hlt">practices</span> can be difficult, because these records are incomplete or appear only in hard-to-access historic grey literature. Based on an illustrative set of historic and contemporary studies, we describe how fisheries management <span class="hlt">practices</span> may have contributed to coregonid diversity loss in European and North American lakes. We provide case studies examining how fishing and stocking may reduce coregonid diversity through demographic decline and introgressive hybridization. In some lakes, fisheries management <span class="hlt">practices</span> may have led to a loss of coregonid diversity well before issues with habitat degradation manifested. Our review suggests that fish conservation policies could beneficially consider the relative importance of all stressors, including management <span class="hlt">practices</span>, as potential drivers of diversity loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18799306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18799306"><span id="translatedtitle">Global child health priorities: what role for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncologists?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kellie, Stewart J; Howard, Scott C</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Despite increasing globalisation, international mobility and economic interdependence, 9.7 million children aged less than 5 years in low income countries will die this year, almost all from preventable or treatable diseases. Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria account for 5 million of these deaths each year, compared to about 150,000 deaths from childhood cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, 80% of the 50,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year survive, yet cancer remains the leading disease-related cause of childhood death. In low- and middle-income countries, where 80% of children live, the 200,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year have limited access to curative treatment, and only about 25% survive. Some might argue that death from <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cancer in poor countries is insignificant compared to death from other causes, and that scarce health resources may be better used in other areas of public health. Is there a role for the treatment of children with cancer in these regions? Do international partnerships or 'twinning' programmes enhance local health care or detract from other public health priorities? What is ethical and what is possible? This review examines the health challenges faced by infants and children in low-income countries, and assesses the role and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of international <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology collaboration to improve childhood cancer care worldwide. PMID:18799306</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18799306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18799306"><span id="translatedtitle">Global child health priorities: what role for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncologists?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kellie, Stewart J; Howard, Scott C</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>Despite increasing globalisation, international mobility and economic interdependence, 9.7 million children aged less than 5 years in low income countries will die this year, almost all from preventable or treatable diseases. Diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria account for 5 million of these deaths each year, compared to about 150,000 deaths from childhood cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In high-income countries, 80% of the 50,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year survive, yet cancer remains the leading disease-related cause of childhood death. In low- and middle-income countries, where 80% of children live, the 200,000 children diagnosed with cancer each year have limited access to curative treatment, and only about 25% survive. Some might argue that death from <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cancer in poor countries is insignificant compared to death from other causes, and that scarce health resources may be better used in other areas of public health. Is there a role for the treatment of children with cancer in these regions? Do international partnerships or 'twinning' programmes enhance local health care or detract from other public health priorities? What is ethical and what is possible? This review examines the health challenges faced by infants and children in low-income countries, and assesses the role and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of international <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology collaboration to improve childhood cancer care worldwide.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24450846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24450846"><span id="translatedtitle">Staff burnout in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology: new tools to facilitate the development and evaluation of effective interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, S; Beresford, B; Tennant, A</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Working in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology can be stressful, and staff may need support if they are to avoid burnout, but there is currently no evidence base to guide the development of interventions. As a significant barrier to addressing this gap is a lack of context specific research instruments, a project was undertaken to develop measures of the stressors and rewards experienced by staff. Measure development involved: (1) qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology staff to develop an 'item pool' (n = 32); (2) selection of items for draft measures; (3) cognitive interviews (n = 7) to gather feedback on draft measures; (4) a survey of staff (n = 203) using the draft and comparator measures; (5) factor and Rasch analysis to determine the scaling properties of the measures; (6) an assessment of construct validity. As a result, the Work Stressors Scale - <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Oncology (WSS-PO) and the Work Rewards Scale - <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Oncology (WRS-PO) were created. Both measures have considerable content validity, and fulfil classical test theory requirements and Rasch model requirements for an interval level scale. These new measures can be used in research and clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> to investigate factors associated with burnout, and to facilitate and direct the development of staff interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=safety&pg=5&id=EJ950091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=safety&pg=5&id=EJ950091"><span id="translatedtitle">Safety Education <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and Good <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mulvaney, Caroline A.; Watson, Michael C.; Errington, Gail</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The aim of this literature review was to examine recent evidence of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of safety education for children and young people on unintentional injury rates and to update an earlier review. Evidence was sought that linked safety education for children and young people in schools, centres and other settings with changes in knowledge,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ref&pg=4&id=ED508108','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ref&pg=4&id=ED508108"><span id="translatedtitle">Capturing Research <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>: A Review of International <span class="hlt">Practice</span>. Documented Briefing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grant, Jonathan; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Kirk, Susan Ella; Butler, Linda; Wooding, Steven</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In February 2009, the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) commissioned RAND Europe to review approaches to evaluating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of research as part of their wider work programme to develop new arrangements for the assessment and funding of research--referred to as the Research Excellence Framework (REF). The objectives were 1) to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cognitive+AND+dissonance&pg=4&id=EJ1034755','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cognitive+AND+dissonance&pg=4&id=EJ1034755"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Instruction: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Professional Development on Instructional <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plc&pg=3&id=EJ1104427','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=plc&pg=3&id=EJ1104427"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Professional Learning Communities on Science Teachers' Knowledge, <span class="hlt">Practice</span> and Student Learning: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dogan, Selcuk; Pringle, Rose; Mesa, Jennifer</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to provide a review of empirical studies investigating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of professional learning communities (PLCs) on science teachers' <span class="hlt">practices</span> and knowledge. Across 14 articles that satisfied the definition we embraced, most were devoted to the change in science teaching <span class="hlt">practices</span>, disciplinary content knowledge (DCK)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+socialization&pg=6&id=EJ610272','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=children+AND+socialization&pg=6&id=EJ610272"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Family Socialization <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on Children's Socialization in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wang, Aimin; Stevens, Brenda; Chen, Ping; Qian, Mingyi</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Examined <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Chinese family socialization <span class="hlt">practices</span> on children's socialization over 4 years. Found that parental reasoning, intellectual stimulation, and encouragement of independence were significant indicators of overall family socialization <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Children's self-control, and positive attitudes toward others and toward work were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED472070.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED472070.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Form or Flesh: Social Factors That <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Women's <span class="hlt">Practice</span> of Breast Self-Examination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>London, Patricia A.</p> <p></p> <p>The social factors that <span class="hlt">impact</span> Caucasian middle-class women's <span class="hlt">practice</span> of breast self-examination (BSE) were examined through in-depth interviews with 15 women who were selected to represent a mix of women who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> BSE monthly, occasionally, or never. The meaning of BSE was analyzed in relation to body image and the social definition of being…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ771982.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ771982.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Career Development Services in Canada: Current and Preferred <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lalande, Vivian; Magnusson, Kris</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>There is a lack of knowledge regarding the value and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of career development services, particularly in Canada. The goals of this research were to better understand career development services' evaluation <span class="hlt">practices</span> and the value of these <span class="hlt">practices</span> from the perspectives of Canadian agencies, practitioners, policy makers, and employers. Data…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177481"><span id="translatedtitle">[The medicine use pathway in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Didelot, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The medicine use pathway is a process which is constantly evolving in order to comply with intangible rules. As in other therapeutic fields, the drug regimen in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> must tolerate no error and must be able to detect all warning signs, however minor, in order to optimise this approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24525527"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> pituitary adenomas: a decade of change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guaraldi, Federica; Storr, Helen L; Ghizzoni, Lucia; Ghigo, Ezio; Savage, Martin O</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Pituitary adenomas, although rare in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> age range and mostly benign, represent very challenging disorders for diagnosis and management. The recent identification of genetic alterations in young individuals with pituitary adenomas has broadened the scope of molecular investigations and contributed to the understanding of mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Recent identification of causative mutations of genes such as GNAS, PRKAR1A, MEN1 and AIP has introduced the concept of molecular screening of young apparently healthy family members. Population-based studies have reported a significantly higher number of affected subjects and genetic variations than expected. Radiological techniques have advanced, yet many microadenomas remain undetectable on scanning. However, experience with transsphenoidal and endoscopic pituitary surgery has led to higher rates of cure. Prolactinomas, corticotroph and somatotroph adenomas remain the most prevalent, with each diagnosis presenting its own challenges. As <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pituitary adenomas occur very infrequently within the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> age range, <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> endocrine units cannot provide expert management in isolation. Consequently, close co-operation with adult endocrinology colleagues with experience of pituitary disease is strongly recommended. PMID:24525527</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26289061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26289061"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent advances in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> respiratory medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turnbull, Andrew; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This review highlights important advances in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> respiratory medicine since 2014, excluding cystic fibrosis. It focuses mainly on the more common conditions, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, bronchiolitis and preschool wheezing, asthma, pneumonia and sleep, and highlights some of the rarer conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia and interstitial lung disease (ILD). PMID:26289061</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25174177"><span id="translatedtitle">[Treating pain in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abderrahamn, Nadia; Beck, Nathalie; Fazilleau, Laura; Langlois, Claudette</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Pain is extremely present in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care units. It is caused both by the care procedures and by the pathology itself. Its assessment is essential and is based on scales adapted to the child.Treatment methods, pharmacological or not, depend on the type of pain and its intensity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627201','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3627201"><span id="translatedtitle">National Board Certification and Developmentally Appropriate <span class="hlt">Practices</span>: Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McKenzie, Ellen Nancy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The study investigated a relationship between National Board certification and perceived use of developmentally appropriate <span class="hlt">practices</span> (DAP). A self-developed survey, the Early-childhood Teacher Inventory of <span class="hlt">Practices</span>, was e-mailed to participants. Participants included 246 non-National Board-certified (non-NBCT) and 135 National Board-certified (NBCT) early childhood teachers. Descriptives were reported for age, years of teaching experience, grade level currently teaching, ethnicity, degree type, certification type, and degree level. Inferential statistics were used to understand the differences between perceived use of DAP. NBCTs scored significantly higher than non-NBCTs in three of the four target areas and on the total of the scale. Pearson product-moment corelations were used to determine a relationship between years of experience or level of education and NBCTs’ perceived use of DAP. Years of experience were significantly related, but level of education was not. The findings indicate that NBCT teachers perceive they incorporate more developmentally appropriate <span class="hlt">practices</span> into their teaching than do non-NBCT teachers. PMID:23626399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20949490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20949490"><span id="translatedtitle">What <span class="hlt">impact</span> does anatomy education have on clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Claire France; Mathias, Haydn Socrates</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>There is continuing debate regarding doctors' knowledge of anatomy as an appropriate preparation for professional <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This exploratory case study examined alumni's experiences of learning anatomy. The aim was to inform curriculum development and to gain a better understanding of how anatomy knowledge is applied in <span class="hlt">practice</span>. A total of 140 medical student alumni from the University of Southampton participated in this study (49% males, 51% females). Participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire with free comment sections. Descriptive results found that: using cadaveric material was an effective way of learning anatomy; assessment was a major motivator; and around half of students forgot a lot of anatomy but that knowledge came back easily. Statistical analysis revealed associations between certain positive and negative factors in learning. Links were also seen with current job role, revealing that those who responded to positive factors were involved in careers which involved a great deal of anatomy and vice versa. To facilitate learning, anatomy should be taught throughout the curriculum and use human cadavers. Relating knowledge to <span class="hlt">practice</span> requires transformation of knowledge and is best facilitated by the learning being situated in clinical contexts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=activity+AND+series&pg=3&id=EJ975185','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=activity+AND+series&pg=3&id=EJ975185"><span id="translatedtitle">Faculty Development Programs: Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Instructional <span class="hlt">Practices</span>, and Student Learning and Motivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ambrosino, Roberta; Peel, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of faculty development activities is difficult and infrequently attempted beyond assessing participant satisfaction. This study examines how faculty development activities affect instructional <span class="hlt">practices</span> and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on student learning and motivation in accordance with Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation. Ten instructors…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=industry+AND+pharmaceutical&pg=2&id=EJ941445','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=industry+AND+pharmaceutical&pg=2&id=EJ941445"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Knowledge Management on Learning Organization <span class="hlt">Practices</span> in India: An Exploratory Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chawla, Deepak; Joshi, Himanshu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to report the preliminary findings of the difference in learning organization (LO) <span class="hlt">practices</span> across industries. It also reports the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of knowledge management (KM) dimensions on LO and whether this <span class="hlt">impact</span> is different across manufacturing, IT and IT-enabled services (ITES) and power generation and distribution in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+time&pg=6&id=EJ1005039','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+time&pg=6&id=EJ1005039"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Professional <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Education Doctorate in Educational Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kumar, Swapna; Dawson, Kara</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article presents one approach to assessing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an online professional <span class="hlt">practice</span> doctorate in education on participants' work environments. It is unique in that it explored <span class="hlt">impact</span> during the doctoral program, before participants began their dissertation research, and it focused on how participants apply learning from the program…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22779769','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22779769"><span id="translatedtitle">[Czech <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac surgery - history and presence].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hučín, Bohumil</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The beginnings of the <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Cardiac Surgery in the Czech Republic date back to the period immediately after the end of World War II. Its protagonists were Prof. Emerich Polák from the Surgical Clinic in Prague, Vinohrady, Prof. Jan Bedrna from Surgical Clinic in Hradec Kralove, Prof. Vladislav Rapant from Surgical Clinic in Olomouc and Prof. Václav Kafka from the Second Surgical Clinic in Prague. They started with operations of the patent ductus arteriosus, the Blalock-Taussig shunt in cyanotic heart defects and resection of coarctation of the aorta. Operations of congenital heart defects, on the open heart were elaborated namely by cardiosurgeons in Brno, under the leadership of Professor Jan Navrátil. On the extension of those methods participated Professor Jaroslav Procházka in Hradec Kralove and Prof. Václav Kafka at the newly opened department of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> surgery in Prague. In the next period, attention of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac surgery was directed at operations of critical congenital heart defects in the smallest children. Palliative operations of the critical heart defects in newborns and infants were first introduced at the clinic of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgery of the <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> University Hospital in Prague. Radical operations of infants and newborns with extra-corporal circulation were elaborated in the Children's heart centre in Prague, Motol. Initiative in the further development of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac surgery was taken over by the Children's heart centre in Prague since its founding in 1977. There was concentrated all medical care of children born with a congenital heart defect in the Czech Republic. This concentration of specialized care at one institution allowed to accumulate extremely large experience with the diagnostics and surgical treatment of congenital heart defects in all age groups with the decrease of patients mortality after operations to 1% even for the smallest children and enabled continuously monitor the quality of life of patients</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414036"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">practices</span> in the sub-Saharan Africa: cases from Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ngunjiri, P.G.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The aim for this research is to review environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (EIA) <span class="hlt">practices</span> in sub-Saharan Africa, drawing upon appropriate theoretical and methodological work on EIA. This study uses a comparative evaluation method to examine the extent of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (EIA) in project analysis. It uses site and services low cost housing projects from Kenya. The research has three major components: (1) review of environmental <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Sub-Saharan Africa through literature review and case studies; (2) review of general literature on EIA as <span class="hlt">practiced</span> by international agencies and developed countries; and (3) formulation of more suitable guidelines for EIA procedures in Sub-Saharan Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4727591','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4727591"><span id="translatedtitle">Listening to food workers: Factors that <span class="hlt">impact</span> proper health and hygiene <span class="hlt">practice</span> in food service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A.; Pollack, Keshia M.; Ensminger, Margaret</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Objective To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that <span class="hlt">impact</span> proper food safety <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Method Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety <span class="hlt">practices</span> and factors that <span class="hlt">impact</span> implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Results Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Conclusion Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that <span class="hlt">impact</span> food safety <span class="hlt">practice</span>. PMID:26243248</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113865"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality and clinical supply considerations of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Investigation Plans for IV preparations-A case study with the FP7 CloSed project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanning, Sara M; Orlu Gul, Mine; Winslade, Jackie; Baarslag, Manuel A; Neubert, Antje; Tuleu, Catherine</p> <p>2016-09-25</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Investigation Plan (PIP) is a development plan that aims to ensure that sufficient data are obtained through studies in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> to support the generation of marketing authorisation of medicines for children. This paper highlights some <span class="hlt">practical</span> considerations and challenges with respect to PIP submissions and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> clinical trials during the pharmaceutical development phase, using the FP7-funded Clonidine for Sedation of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (CloSed) project as a case study. Examples discussed include challenges and considerations regarding formulation development, blinding and randomisation, product labelling and shipment and clinical trial requirements versus requirements for marketing authorisation. A significant quantity of information is required for PIP submissions and it is hoped that future applicants may benefit from an insight into some critical considerations and challenges faced in the CloSed project. PMID:27113865</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27113865"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality and clinical supply considerations of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Investigation Plans for IV preparations-A case study with the FP7 CloSed project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hanning, Sara M; Orlu Gul, Mine; Winslade, Jackie; Baarslag, Manuel A; Neubert, Antje; Tuleu, Catherine</p> <p>2016-09-25</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Investigation Plan (PIP) is a development plan that aims to ensure that sufficient data are obtained through studies in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> to support the generation of marketing authorisation of medicines for children. This paper highlights some <span class="hlt">practical</span> considerations and challenges with respect to PIP submissions and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> clinical trials during the pharmaceutical development phase, using the FP7-funded Clonidine for Sedation of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (CloSed) project as a case study. Examples discussed include challenges and considerations regarding formulation development, blinding and randomisation, product labelling and shipment and clinical trial requirements versus requirements for marketing authorisation. A significant quantity of information is required for PIP submissions and it is hoped that future applicants may benefit from an insight into some critical considerations and challenges faced in the CloSed project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2975087','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2975087"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> and adult colonic manometry: A tool to help unravel the pathophysiology of constipation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dinning, Philip G; Benninga, Marc A; Southwell, Bridget R; Scott, S Mark</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Colonic motility subserves large bowel functions, including absorption, storage, propulsion and defaecation. Colonic motor dysfunction remains the leading hypothesis to explain symptom generation in chronic constipation, a heterogeneous condition which is extremely prevalent in the general population, and has huge socioeconomic <span class="hlt">impact</span> and individual suffering. Physiological testing plays a crucial role in patient management, as it is now accepted that symptom-based assessment, although important, is unsatisfactory as the sole means of directing therapy. Colonic manometry provides a direct method for studying motor activities of the large bowel, and this review provides a contemporary understanding of how this technique has enhanced our knowledge of normal colonic motor physiology, as well as helping to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying constipation. Methodological approaches, including available catheter types, placement technique and recording protocols, are covered, along with a detailed description of recorded colonic motor activities. This review also critically examines the role of colonic manometry in current clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>, and how manometric assessment may aid diagnosis, classification and guide therapeutic intervention in the constipated individual. Most importantly, this review considers both adult and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients. Limitations of the procedure and a look to the future are also addressed. PMID:21049550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22892018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22892018"><span id="translatedtitle">Conducting a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> multi-centre RCT with an industry partner: challenges and lessons learned.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maskell, Jessica; Newcombe, Peter; Martin, Graham; Kimble, Roy</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>There are many benefits of multi-centred research including large sample sizes, statistical power, timely recruitment and generalisability of results. However, there are numerous considerations when planning and implementing a multi-centred study. This article reviews the challenges and successes of planning and implementing a multi-centred prospective randomised control trial involving an industry partner. The research investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on psychosocial functioning of a cosmetic camouflage product for children and adolescents with burn scarring. Multi-centred studies commonly have many stakeholders. Within this study, six Australian and New Zealand <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burn units as well as an industry partner were involved. The inclusion of an industry partner added complexities as they brought different priorities and expectations to the research. Further, multifaceted ethical and institutional approval processes needed to be negotiated. The challenges, successes, lessons learned and recommendations from this study regarding Australian and New Zealand ethics and research governance approval processes, collaboration with industry partners and the management of differing expectations will be outlined. Recommendations for future multi-centred research with industry partners include provision of regular written reports for the industry partner; continual monitoring and prompt resolution of concerns; basic research <span class="hlt">practices</span> education for industry partners; minimisation of industry partner contact with participants; clear roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders and utilisation of single ethical review if available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27251523','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27251523"><span id="translatedtitle">Endoscopic removal of <span class="hlt">impacted</span> oesophageal foreign body: A case report and a review of literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Obateru, Olusegun A; Durowaye, Matthew O; Olokoba, Abdulfatai B; Olaniyi, Olufemi K</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Foreign body (FB) <span class="hlt">impaction</span> in the oesophagus is fairly common in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> Gastroenterology <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This study aims to describe a case of an unusually <span class="hlt">impacted</span> button lithium battery, in the mid-oesophagus of a 7-year-old child that was confirmed, and removed during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy. A 7-year-old male child, presented at the Emergency <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Unit of our hospital with a history of ingestion of a button-like metallic object. A plain soft tissue X-ray of the neck and chest, however, revealed a dense round object located at the sternal angle of Louis. The object was dislodged and identified as a flat lithium battery after an oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, carried out under general anaesthesia using a flexible forward-viewing video gastroscope. The button battery was subsequently passed in faeces. Endoscopic removal of <span class="hlt">impacted</span> oesophageal FBs under general anaesthesia is an effective and safe procedure in children in experienced hands. PMID:27251523</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27298135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27298135"><span id="translatedtitle">Translating Knowledge Into <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Through an Academic-<span class="hlt">Practice</span> Partnership for Exploring Barriers That <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Management of Homebound Patients With Heart Failure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Echevarria, Mercedes</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A knowledge translation project involving an academic-<span class="hlt">practice</span> partnership and guided by action-oriented research was used for exploring barriers that <span class="hlt">impact</span> management of homebound heart failure patients. The intervention process followed an action research model of interaction, self-reflection, response, and change in direction. External facilitators (academia) and internal facilitators (<span class="hlt">practice</span>) worked with clinicians to identify a topic for improvement, explore barriers, locate the evidence compare current <span class="hlt">practice</span> against evidence-based <span class="hlt">practice</span> recommendations, introduce strategies to "close the gap" between actual <span class="hlt">practice</span> and the desired <span class="hlt">practice</span>, develop audit criteria, and reevaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27298135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27298135"><span id="translatedtitle">Translating Knowledge Into <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Through an Academic-<span class="hlt">Practice</span> Partnership for Exploring Barriers That <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Management of Homebound Patients With Heart Failure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Echevarria, Mercedes</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A knowledge translation project involving an academic-<span class="hlt">practice</span> partnership and guided by action-oriented research was used for exploring barriers that <span class="hlt">impact</span> management of homebound heart failure patients. The intervention process followed an action research model of interaction, self-reflection, response, and change in direction. External facilitators (academia) and internal facilitators (<span class="hlt">practice</span>) worked with clinicians to identify a topic for improvement, explore barriers, locate the evidence compare current <span class="hlt">practice</span> against evidence-based <span class="hlt">practice</span> recommendations, introduce strategies to "close the gap" between actual <span class="hlt">practice</span> and the desired <span class="hlt">practice</span>, develop audit criteria, and reevaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. PMID:27298135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993151"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industry on oncology research and <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology <span class="hlt">practice</span> and research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839506"><span id="translatedtitle">The false claims act and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on medical <span class="hlt">practices</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogel, Robert L</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A lawsuit under the federal False Claims Act can threaten the survival of a medical <span class="hlt">practice</span>. The Act prohibits a range of misconduct involving the submission of false claims to the government, as well as the knowing and improper retention of overpayments of government funds. Violations of the Act result in liability for treble damages and civil penalties of as much as $11,000 per violation. Although the Act imposes liability only on persons who act "knowingly," the "knowing" requirement is met if the person acts with deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of the circumstances. The Act contains a "qui tam provision under which a whistleblower, acting on behalf of the government, may file suit to enforce the Act's terms, and if the lawsuit is successful, can receive a substantial percentage of the government's recovery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993151','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25993151"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industry on oncology research and <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moy, Beverly; Jagsi, Reshma; Gaynor, Richard B; Ratain, Mark J</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Public scrutiny has increased over potential conflicts of interest among oncology researchers and providers. Given the increased prevalence and complexity of industry relationships, oncologists are increasingly faced with ethical challenges when navigating their financial relationships with industry. Oncologists are continually dealing with changing conflict of interest policies within academic centers and professional societies. With the recent passage of The Sunshine Act, oncologists are beginning to understand the repercussions of this new law. The consequences of the increasing use of direct-to-consumer advertising on patients with cancer are also unclear. Finally, industry's perspective on the evolution of these relationships is not clearly understood. This manuscript discusses issues related to industry's influence on oncology <span class="hlt">practice</span> and research. PMID:25993151</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24689159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24689159"><span id="translatedtitle">The financial <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a clinical academic <span class="hlt">practice</span> partnership.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene, Mary Ann; Turner, James</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>New strategies to provide clinical experiences for nursing students have caused nursing schools and hospitals to evaluate program costs. A Microsoft Excel model, which captures costs and associated benefits, was developed and is described here. The financial analysis shows that the Clinical Academic <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Program framework for nursing clinical education, often preferred by students, can offer financial advantages to participating hospitals and schools of nursing. The model is potentially a tool for schools of nursing to enlist hospitals and to help manage expenses of clinical education. Hospitals may also use the Hospital Nursing Unit Staffing and Expense Worksheet in planning staffing when students are assigned to units and the cost/benefit findings to enlist management support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26675599"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress echocardiography in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>: implications for the evaluation of anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, W Reid</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Stress echocardiography in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> is used to evaluate pre- and post-operative coronary artery conditions, as well as to gain haemodynamic information for a variety of diagnoses, although evidence regarding sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value is lacking. This review will consider the available literature with a focus on anomalous aortic origin of the coronary arteries and discuss a <span class="hlt">practical</span> approach to test selection and use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27688605','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27688605"><span id="translatedtitle">PET/CT in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies - An update.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Tewari, Anshu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging modality in adult oncological <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Its role in childhood malignancies needs to be discussed as <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies differ from adults in tumor subtypes and they have different tumor biology and FDG uptake patterns. This is also compounded by smaller body mass, dosimetric restrictions, and physiological factors that can affect the FDG uptake. It calls for careful planning of the PET study, preparing the child, the parents, and expertise of nuclear physicians in reporting pediatric positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. In a broad perspective, FDG-PET/CT has been used in staging, assessment of therapy response, identifying metastases and as a follow-up tool in a wide variety of pediatric malignancies. This review outlines the role of PET/CT in childhood malignancies other than hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukemia. PMID:27688605</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27493431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27493431"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the guidelines of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> septic shock: A focused review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Temsah, Mohamad-Hani</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Severe sepsis and septic shock continue to cause major morbidity and mortality among children, especially in the resource-limited areas. Guidelines that focus on these entities, such as "Surviving Sepsis" and "<span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Advanced Life Support" guidelines, are revised and updated on regular basis to incorporate new evidence based medicine. There is ongoing need to review these updated guidelines, and address potentially best available solutions for adapting them into suitable <span class="hlt">practical</span> steps for paediatricians worldwide, especially those working in resource-limited areas. The available recommendations may help to improve sepsis management in middle- and low-income countries; however, guidelines must be wisely implemented according to the available resources, with follow up auditing to ensure appropriate implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5027784','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5027784"><span id="translatedtitle">PET/CT in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies - An update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Tewari, Anshu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging modality in adult oncological <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Its role in childhood malignancies needs to be discussed as <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies differ from adults in tumor subtypes and they have different tumor biology and FDG uptake patterns. This is also compounded by smaller body mass, dosimetric restrictions, and physiological factors that can affect the FDG uptake. It calls for careful planning of the PET study, preparing the child, the parents, and expertise of nuclear physicians in reporting pediatric positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. In a broad perspective, FDG-PET/CT has been used in staging, assessment of therapy response, identifying metastases and as a follow-up tool in a wide variety of pediatric malignancies. This review outlines the role of PET/CT in childhood malignancies other than hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukemia. PMID:27688605</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5027784','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5027784"><span id="translatedtitle">PET/CT in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies - An update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Padma, Subramanyam; Sundaram, Palaniswamy Shanmuga; Tewari, Anshu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging modality in adult oncological <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Its role in childhood malignancies needs to be discussed as <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies differ from adults in tumor subtypes and they have different tumor biology and FDG uptake patterns. This is also compounded by smaller body mass, dosimetric restrictions, and physiological factors that can affect the FDG uptake. It calls for careful planning of the PET study, preparing the child, the parents, and expertise of nuclear physicians in reporting pediatric positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. In a broad perspective, FDG-PET/CT has been used in staging, assessment of therapy response, identifying metastases and as a follow-up tool in a wide variety of pediatric malignancies. This review outlines the role of PET/CT in childhood malignancies other than hematological malignancies such as lymphoma and leukemia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24304113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24304113"><span id="translatedtitle">Italian contributions to Turkish <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> during the Ottoman Empire.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yurdakok, Murat; Cataldi, Luigi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Ottoman Empire maintained close relations with the neighbouring Italian city states in the 16th and 17th century. Yacub Pasha (1425-1481), personal physician of Mehmed II the Conqueror, was an Italian Jew who advanced to the title of pasha and vizier. Domenico Hierosolimitano (ca. 1552-1622), the third physician to Sultan Murad III, was a Jerusalemite rabbi. His book is an important source about everyday life and medical <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Istanbul at the time. Nuh bin Abd al-Mennab (1627-1707), also of Italian stock, was the Chief Physician of the Ottoman Empire, who translated a pharmacopoeia into Turkish. In the same century, two Italians, Israel Conegliano (Conian) and Tobia Cohen became private physicians to leading Ottoman pashas and the Grand Vizier. A. Vuccino (1829-1893) and Antoine Calleja Pasha (1806-1893) taught at the Istanbul Medical School. Italy was a favoured country for medical education during the early period of Ottoman westernisation. Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) translated the first medical book printed in the Ottoman Empire from Italian into Turkish. Mustafa Behcet Efendi (1774-1833), chief physician to the Sultan and the founder of the first western medical school in Turkey, translated several medical books from Italian into Turkish. The first printed pharmacopeia in the Ottoman Empire was also originally Italian In the 19th century, Edouard Ottoni and his son Giuseppe Ottoni were well-known military pharmacists, both under the name of Faik Pasha. Probably the most influential physician of Italian origin was Giovanni Battista Violi (1849-1928), who had <span class="hlt">practiced</span> <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> in Turkey for more than fifty years. Violi was the founder of the first children's hospital, the first vaccine institute, and the first <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> journal in the Ottoman Empire.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25529375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25529375"><span id="translatedtitle">[Child health and international cooperation: A <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> approach].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sobrino Toro, M; Riaño Galan, I; Bassat, Q; Perez-Lescure Picarzo, J; de Aranzabal Agudo, M; Krauel Vidal, X; Rivera Cuello, M</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The international development cooperation in child health arouses special interest in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> settings. In the last 10 10 years or so, new evidence has been presented on factors associated with morbidity and mortality in the first years of life in the least developed countries. This greater knowledge on the causes of health problems and possible responses in the form of interventions with <span class="hlt">impact</span>, leads to the need to disseminate this information among concerned professional pediatricians. Serious efforts are needed to get a deeper insight into matters related to global child health and encourage pediatricians to be aware and participate in these processes. This article aims to provide a social pediatric approach towards international cooperation and child health-related matters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479770"><span id="translatedtitle">Putting social <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment to the test as a method for implementing responsible tourism <span class="hlt">practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCombes, Lucy; Vanclay, Frank; Evers, Yvette</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>The discourse on the social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tourism needs to shift from the current descriptive critique of tourism to considering what can be done in actual <span class="hlt">practice</span> to embed the management of tourism's social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> into the existing planning, product development and operational processes of tourism businesses. A pragmatic approach for designing research methodologies, social management systems and initial actions, which is shaped by the real world operational constraints and existing systems used in the tourism industry, is needed. Our pilot study with a small Bulgarian travel company put social <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (SIA) to the test to see if it could provide this desired approach and assist in implementing responsible tourism development <span class="hlt">practice</span>, especially in small tourism businesses. Our findings showed that our adapted SIA method has value as a <span class="hlt">practical</span> method for embedding a responsible tourism approach. While there were some challenges, SIA proved to be effective in assisting the staff of our test case tourism business to better understand their social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on their local communities and to identify actions to take. - Highlights: • Pragmatic approach is needed for the responsible management of social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of tourism. • Our adapted Social <span class="hlt">impact</span> Assessment (SIA) method has value as a <span class="hlt">practical</span> method. • SIA can be embedded into tourism businesses existing ‘ways of doing things’. • We identified challenges and ways to improve our method to better suit small tourism business context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726865','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4726865"><span id="translatedtitle">Current views and advances on <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Virology: An update for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> trainees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MAMMAS, IOANNIS N.; GREENOUGH, ANNE; THEODORIDOU, MARIA; KRAMVIS, ANNA; CHRISTAKI, ILIANA; KOUTSAFTIKI, CHRYSSIE; KOUTSAKI, MARIA; PORTALIOU, DIMITRA M.; KOSTAGIANNI, GEORGIA; PANAGOPOULOU, PARASKEVI; SOURVINOS, GEORGE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents. During the Workshop, the topics covered included the challenges of vaccine implementation against human papillomaviruses in countries under financial crisis, strategies for eradicating poliomyelitis and its 60th vaccine anniversary, as well as the debate on the association between autism and vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Among the non-vaccine related topics, emphasis was given to viral infections in prematurely born infants and their long-term outcomes, new <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care management options for bronchiolitis related to respiratory syncytial virus, the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus genotyping, the Ebola virus threat and preparedness in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Emergency Departments, oral, oropharynx, laryngeal, nasal and ocular viral infections and Merkel cell polyomavirus as a novel emerging virus of infancy and childhood. In this review, we provide selected presentations and reports discussed at the Workshop. PMID:26889211</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20401255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20401255"><span id="translatedtitle">Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Surveillance Program: Two years of a system for investigating unusual <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sockett, P</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>The Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Surveillance Program (CPSP) is an active surveillance program for rare and unusual <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> conditions of public health importance in Canada. The program was initiated in 1996 as a joint venture of the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society (CPS) and the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control (LCDC), and is currently overseen by a steering committee representing the fields of <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>, epidemiology, genetics and public health. In the first two years of activity seven conditions were reported to the program via a monthly report card mailed to all clinically active paediatricians in Canada. Respondents were asked to indicate on the card the number of new cases seen for each condition and to ensure that all nil reports were also returned. Case reports were followed up with detailed report forms requesting case specific information which, when returned to the CPS, were forwarded to the principal investigator for assessment and analysis. Studies are for a minimum of one year, and new conditions may be included in the program following review by the steering committee and confirmation of ethical approval. Future development of the program includes linkage with a growing international network of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surveillance units and the potential for collaboration in international studies of conditions of common interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2711..168D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2711..168D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of ultrasound video transfer on the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of ultrasound</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duerinckx, Andre J.; Hayrapetian, Alek S.; Grant, Edward G.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Rahbar, Darius; Kiszonas, Mike; Franco, Ricky; Melany, Michelle; Narin, Sherelle L.; Ragavendra, Nagesh</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>Sonography can be highly dependent on real-time imaging and as such is highly physician intensive. Such situations arise mostly during complicated ultrasound radiology studies or echocardiology examinations. Under those circumstances it would be of benefit to transmit real-time images beyond the immediate area of the ultrasound laboratory when a physician is not on location. We undertook this study to determine if both static and dynamic image transfer to remote locations might be accomplished using an ultrafast ATM network and PACS. Image management of the local image files was performed by a commercial PACS from AGFA corporation. The local network was Ethernet based, and the global network was based on Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM, rates up to 100 Mbits/sec). Real-time image transfer involved two teaching hospitals, one of which had 2 separate ultrasound facilities. Radiologists consulted with technologists via telephone while the examinations were being performed. The applications of ATM network providing real time video for ultrasound imaging in a clinical environment and its potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on health delivery and clinical teaching. This technology increased technologist and physician productivity due to the elimination of commute time for physicians and waiting time for technologists and patients. Physician confidence in diagnosis increased compared to reviewing static images alone. This system provided instant access for radiologists to real-time scans from remote sites. Image quality and frame rate were equivalent to the original. The system increased productivity by allowing physicians to monitor studies at multiple sites simultaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425877','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3425877"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of spinal cord injury on sexuality: Broad-based clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> intervention and <span class="hlt">practical</span> application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hess, Marika J.; Hough, Sigmund</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study focuses on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> a spinal cord injury may have on achieving physical and emotional intimacy, and potential to maximize sexual ability and quality of life. Spinal cord injury is a traumatic, life-altering event that is usually associated with loss of motor and sensory function, as well as sexual impairment. At the time of injury, the individual is faced with devastating loss and an abundance of new information in a setting of extreme stress and challenge. In the acute rehabilitation setting, there is often a considerable void in providing education and resources regarding sexual concerns and needs. There is a positive relationship between sexual education and sexual activity. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of inadequate sexual counseling and education as a part of rehabilitation can be deleterious. PMID:22925747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8721907','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8721907"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in computer technology: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Groth-Vasselli, B; Singh, K; Farnsworth, P N</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Advances in computer technology provide a wide range of applications which are revolutionizing the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of medicine. The development of new software for the office creates a web of communication among physicians, staff members, health care facilities and associated agencies. This provides the physician with the prospect of a paperless office. At the other end of the spectrum, the development of 3D work stations and software based on computational chemistry permits visualization of protein molecules involved in disease. Computer assisted molecular modeling has been used to construct working 3D models of lens alpha-crystallin. The 3D structure of alpha-crystallin is basic to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in lens fiber cell maturation, stabilization of the inner nuclear region, the maintenance of lens transparency and cataractogenesis. The major component of the high molecular weight aggregates that occur during cataractogenesis is alpha-crystallin subunits. Subunits of alpha-crystallin occur in other tissues of the body. In the central nervous system accumulation of these subunits in the form of dense inclusion bodies occurs in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and toxoplasmosis (Iwaki, Wisniewski et al., 1992), as well as neoplasms of astrocyte origin (Iwaki, Iwaki, et al., 1991). Also cardiac ischemia is associated with an increased alpha B synthesis (Chiesi, Longoni et al., 1990). On a more global level, the molecular structure of alpha-crystallin may provide information pertaining to the function of small heat shock proteins, hsp, in maintaining cell stability under the stress of disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12745890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12745890"><span id="translatedtitle">Creating and being created: the changing panorama of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helders, Paul J M; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Custers, Jan W H; Gorter, Jan Willem; Takken, Tim; van der Net, Janjaap</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> rehabilitation as a discipline is rapidly changing, especially during the last decades. In the past, <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation was characterized by merely adult intervention strategies in a miniaturized form, delivered by a merely adult patients-oriented profession. Theories on childhood development, however, changed, as did the focus of interventions: from impairments to function, from the child itself to family, community and peers. The call for outcome-oriented and evidence-based medicine lastly, changed <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation into a mature <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> profession with it's own scientific framework. This is reflected among other things in the increasing number of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> measures and instruments specifically geared to the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation profession, for example the Gross Motor Function Measure, <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Evaluation of Disability Inventory and Movement ABC. More recently, <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> exercise physiologists are pointing to the benefits of an active lifestyle and training for patients with chronic diseases and disabilities. Several studies have evaluated the effects of such training programmes and came up with positive results. It shows that <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation continues to develop as a dynamic profession, having growth, childhood development and childhood activities as it's core business.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664207','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4664207"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Advertising on Tampon Wear-time <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Woeller, Kara E.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Robertson-Smith, Amy L.; Bohman, Lisa C.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES (1) To determine whether advertising nighttime tampon use for up to eight hours was understood to be consistent with label recommendations and (2) to determine whether television and print advertising with this message affected tampon wear times in adults and teens. METHODS (1) A comprehension study (online advertising and follow-up questionnaire) among women aged 14–49 years (300 per group) who viewed either the test or a control advertising message; (2) Diary-based surveys of tampon wear times performed prior to (n = 292 adults, 18–49 years, 74 teens, 12–17 years) and after (n = 287 adults, 104 teens) the launch of national advertising. RESULTS Significantly more test message viewers than controls stated tampons should be worn less than or equal to eight hours (93.6% vs. 88.6%, respectively, P = 0.049). A directionally higher percentage of test message viewers said they would use a pad if sleeping longer than eight hours (52% vs. 42% of controls). Among the women who used tampons longer than eight hours when sleeping, 52% reported they would wake up and change compared with 45% of controls. No significant difference between baseline and follow-up diary surveys was found among teens or adults in various measures of tampon wear time (mean wear times; usage intervals from less than two hours to more than 10 hours; percentage of tampons used for more than or equal to eight hours; frequency of wearing at least one tampon more than eight hours). CONCLUSIONS Advertising nighttime tampon wear for up to eight hours effectively communicated label recommendations but did not alter tampon wear times. The informational intervention had limited <span class="hlt">impact</span> on established habits. PMID:26688668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22674599"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> intrasubstance posterior cruciate ligament rupture.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scott, Chloe E H; Murray, Alastair W</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The authors present the case of a 4-year-old boy who sustained an intrasubstance posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear whist trampolining. He was managed non-operatively with return to full function by 8 months. A high index of suspicion is required when assessing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> hyperflexion/extension injuries at the knee as ligamentous injury may occur without osteochondral fracture and may be missed on routine radiographs. Early MRI can identify such injuries in addition to osteochondral avulsions which are often amenable to acute internal fixation. In the case of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intrasubstance PCL tears, it appears that non-operative management yields a good functional outcome in the short term in the skeletally immature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4260315','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4260315"><span id="translatedtitle">Perioperative neonatal and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> blood transfusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bharadwaj, Avnish; Khandelwal, Mamta; Bhargava, Suresh Kumar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> patients undergoing surgical procedures commonly require some volume of blood or blood component replacement in the perioperative period. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> patients undergoing major surgery associated with substantial blood loss should be evaluated pre-operatively. Pre-operative correction of anaemia may be done considering the age, plasma volume status, clinical status and comorbidities. Maximum allowable blood loss (MABL) for surgery must be calculated, and appropriate quantity of blood and blood components should be arranged. Intraoperative monitoring of blood loss should be done, and volume of transfusion should be calculated in a protocol based manner considering the volemia and the trigger threshold for transfusion for the patient and the MABL. Early haemostasis should be achieved by judicious administration of red blood cells, blood components and pharmacological agents. PMID:25535431</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17467387','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17467387"><span id="translatedtitle">Dose reduction in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> MDCT: general principles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paterson, A; Frush, D P</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The number of multi-detector array computed tomography (MDCT) examinations performed per annum continues to increase in both the adult and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> populations. Estimates from 2003 suggested that CT contributed 17% of a radiology department's workload, yet was responsible for up to 75% of the collective population dose from medical radiation. The effective doses for some CT examinations today overlap with those argued to have an increased risk of cancer. This is especially pertinent for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> CT, as children are more radiosensitive than adults (and girls more radiosensitive than boys). In addition, children have a longer life ahead of them, in which radiation induced cancers may become manifest. Radiologists must be aware of these facts and practise the ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle, when it comes to deciding CT protocols and parameters. PMID:17467387</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1747440','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1747440"><span id="translatedtitle">Sleep · 8: <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> obstructive sleep apnoea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nixon, G; Brouillette, R</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:15923253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26856027"><span id="translatedtitle">Focus On <span class="hlt">Impact</span> for a Profit-Driven Medical <span class="hlt">Practice</span>. Part II: Six Processes You Can Use to Maximize and Capitalize on the Uniqueness of Your <span class="hlt">Practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lipton-Dibner, Wendy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article presents the second part of the proven Focus on <span class="hlt">Impact</span> strategic model for <span class="hlt">practice</span> growth. It spotlights six specific processes you can use to maximize and capitalize on the uniqueness of your <span class="hlt">practice</span> to increase revenues, enhance patient care and service, improve executive team alignment and intra- and interdepartmental teamwork, and dramatically reduce conflict and stress among <span class="hlt">practice</span> personnel. PMID:26856027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27300675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27300675"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> extracranial germ-cell tumours.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shaikh, Furqan; Murray, Matthew J; Amatruda, James F; Coleman, Nicholas; Nicholson, James C; Hale, Juliet P; Pashankar, Farzana; Stoneham, Sara J; Poynter, Jenny N; Olson, Thomas A; Billmire, Deborah F; Stark, Daniel; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Frazier, A Lindsay</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Management of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> extracranial germ-cell tumours carries a unique set of challenges. Germ-cell tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present across a wide age range and vary in site, histology, and clinical behaviour. Patients with germ-cell tumours are managed by a diverse array of specialists. Thus, staging, risk stratification, and treatment approaches for germ-cell tumours have evolved disparately along several trajectories. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> germ-cell tumours differ from the adolescent and adult disease in many ways, leading to complexities in applying age-appropriate, evidence-based care. Suboptimal outcomes remain for several groups of patients, including adolescents, and patients with extragonadal tumours, high tumour markers at diagnosis, or platinum-resistant disease. Survivors have significant long-term toxicities. The challenge moving forward will be to translate new insights from molecular studies and collaborative clinical data into improved patient outcomes. Future trials will be characterised by improved risk-stratification systems, biomarkers for response and toxic effects, rational reduction of therapy for low-risk patients and novel approaches for poor-risk patients, and improved international collaboration across <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> and adult cooperative research groups. PMID:27300675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950906','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4950906"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> trainees and future <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25743702"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic landscape of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> adrenocortical tumours.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pinto, Emilia M; Chen, Xiang; Easton, John; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Zhifa; Pounds, Stanley; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Lund, Troy C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Boggs, Kristy; Yergeau, Donald; Cheng, Jinjun; Mulder, Heather L; Manne, Jayanthi; Jenkins, Jesse; Mastellaro, Maria J; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Dyer, Michael A; Pappo, Alberto; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. Here we analyse 37 adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. Most cases (91%) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 11p, with uniform selection against the maternal chromosome. IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the tumours. TP53 mutations and chromosome 17 LOH with selection against wild-type TP53 are observed in 28 ACTs (76%). Chromosomes 11p and 17 undergo copy-neutral LOH early during tumorigenesis, suggesting tumour-driver events. Additional genetic alterations include recurrent somatic mutations in ATRX and CTNNB1 and integration of human herpesvirus-6 in chromosome 11p. A dismal outcome is predicted by concomitant TP53 and ATRX mutations and associated genomic abnormalities, including massive structural variations and frequent background mutations. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the nature, timing and potential prognostic significance of key genetic alterations in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> ACT and outline a hypothetical model of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> adrenocortical tumorigenesis. PMID:25743702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2430462','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2430462"><span id="translatedtitle">A Significant Reduction in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Post-Tonsillectomy Vomiting through Audit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bennett, AMD; Emery, PJ</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION Postoperative vomiting occurs more frequently after tonsillectomy than any other commonly performed <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> operation. Postoperative vomiting is also the commonest cause of morbidity and re-admission following tonsillectomy. We present a successful completed audit cycle and literature review on the subject. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the risk factors for postoperative vomiting, whether the patient vomited and details of the patient's vomitus were collected prospectively on consecutive patients and compared with a gold standard. Changes in <span class="hlt">practice</span> were agreed and a second cycle performed. RESULTS Two cycles and a total of 107 patients were included in the audit. A significant reduction in vomiting from 27% to 11% was achieved following the introduction of routine use of intravenous dexamethasone during surgery. CONCLUSIONS This simple prospective audit of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> post-tonsillectomy vomiting has resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vomiting which would appear to be due to use of intra-operative steroids. PMID:18430338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=231482&keyword=Agriculture+AND+biological&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79365709&CFTOKEN=77326940','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=231482&keyword=Agriculture+AND+biological&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79365709&CFTOKEN=77326940"><span id="translatedtitle">Of birds, carbon and water: integrating multiple ecosystem service <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to identify locations for agricultural conservation <span class="hlt">practice</span> adoption</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Human use of the landscape for crop production can degrade ecosystem services. A number of agricultural conservation <span class="hlt">practices</span> are touted as mitigating these <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Many of these <span class="hlt">practices</span> are encouraged by incentive programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program administere...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26926349"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating a pilot <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> hospice-at-home service: a literature review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hillis, Rowan; Ling, Julie; Quinn, Claire; Brenner, Maria</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Background: This literature review aims to offer practitioners an overview of the key components involved in designing the evaluation of a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> hospice-at-home pilot that will assess the effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the programme. The literature was reviewed in two stages: the first examined existing literature in the area of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> palliative care. The second looked at the wider field of adult palliative care to gain further insights into evaluation tool design. The findings are presented as a conceptual model to highlight each component of the pilot development stage as identified for evaluation purposes, emphasising their role and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the resultant delivery of integrated care. The clarity and transparency of this model offers a comprehensive overview of the evaluation process to all involved in the pilot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23650541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23650541"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> to reduce <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best <span class="hlt">practices</span> to reduce the negative environmental and social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best <span class="hlt">practice</span> could minimize future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best <span class="hlt">practice</span> does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional <span class="hlt">practice</span>, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation. PMID:23650541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23650541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23650541"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> to reduce <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best <span class="hlt">practices</span> to reduce the negative environmental and social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best <span class="hlt">practice</span> could minimize future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best <span class="hlt">practice</span> does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional <span class="hlt">practice</span>, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641117','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3641117"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of Best <span class="hlt">Practice</span> to Reduce <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> from Oil and Gas Projects in the Amazon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Powers, Bill</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best <span class="hlt">practices</span> to reduce the negative environmental and social <span class="hlt">impacts</span> associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale <span class="hlt">impact</span> analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best <span class="hlt">practice</span> could minimize future <span class="hlt">impacts</span> by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best <span class="hlt">practice</span> does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional <span class="hlt">practice</span>, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation. PMID:23650541</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pn&pg=6&id=ED255739','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pn&pg=6&id=ED255739"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Bureau of Vocational Education's <span class="hlt">Practical</span> Nurse Program. Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Iwler, Irvin H.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A study assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Vocational Education's <span class="hlt">practical</span> nurse program for funding years 1979-1980 (38 programs), 1980-1981 (40 programs), and 1981-1982 (41 programs). Researchers reviewed literature pertaining to the state of the art of health care both in Pennsylvania and across the Nation. Next, they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=school+AND+management&pg=3&id=ED530459','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=school+AND+management&pg=3&id=ED530459"><span id="translatedtitle">A Secondary Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of School Management <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on School Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Talbert, Dale A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to conduct a secondary analysis of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of school management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on school performance utilizing a survey design of School and Staffing (SASS) data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education, 1999-2000. The study identifies those school management…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED545597.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED545597.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Professional Learning Community <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on Morale of Urban High School Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Almanzar, Angel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This applied dissertation was designed to determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> a planned intervention, or participants' engagement in lesson study <span class="hlt">practices</span>, had on teacher morale and professional learning communities within a public high school located in the Southeastern part of the United States. A review of a yearly teacher survey conducted by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Liberal+AND+arts+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1054257','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Liberal+AND+arts+AND+education&pg=5&id=EJ1054257"><span id="translatedtitle">The Link between High-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Practices</span> and Student Learning: Some Longitudinal Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kilgo, Cindy A.; Ezell Sheets, Jessica K.; Pascarella, Ernest T.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The current paper used data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education--a longitudinal, pretest/posttest design--to estimate the effects of participation in the ten "high-<span class="hlt">impact</span>" educational <span class="hlt">practices</span> put forth and endorsed by the Association of American Colleges and Universities (AAC&U) on a variety of liberal arts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ma&pg=2&id=EJ932627','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ma&pg=2&id=EJ932627"><span id="translatedtitle">Emerging: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Artist Teacher Scheme MA on Students' Pedagogical and Artistic <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Page, Tara; Adams, Jeff; Hyde, Wendy</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The United Kingdom Artist Teacher Scheme (ATS) commissioned a study of the artistic and pedagogical <span class="hlt">practices</span> of students on a recently established Artist Teacher Scheme MA (ATS MA). The aims of this study were to: investigate the motives and objectives teachers/educators have for undertaking this ATS MA programme, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> the programme had on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=211408','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=211408"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Biochemical <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Alternative Management <span class="hlt">Practices</span> for a Row-Crop Field in Iowa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The management of contemporary agriculture is rapidly shifting from single-goal to multi-goal strategies. The bottleneck of implementing the strategies is the capacity of predicting the simultaneous <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of change in management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on agricultural production, soil, and water resources and e...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=writing+AND+skills&pg=7&id=EJ1070957','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=writing+AND+skills&pg=7&id=EJ1070957"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Dictation <span class="hlt">Practice</span> on Turkish as a Foreign Language Learners' Writing Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Büyükikiz, K. Kaan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to learn about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dictation <span class="hlt">practice</span> on B1 level Turkish as a foreign language learners' writing skills. In this study, a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design with control group was used. The study was carried out with 24 B1 level students enrolled in Gaziantep University Turkish and Foreign Languages…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED431041.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED431041.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Mandated Statewide Testing on Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Instructional <span class="hlt">Practices</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McMillan, James H.; Myran, Steve; Workman, Daryl</p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the new Virginia statewide Standards of Learning (SOL) testing program on classroom instructional and assessment <span class="hlt">practices</span> was studied through surveys before and after implementation of the testing program. The sample represented responses from 570 secondary school teachers (of mathematics, social studies, English, and science) and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=discourse+AND+manipulation&pg=3&id=EJ938484','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=discourse+AND+manipulation&pg=3&id=EJ938484"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Curriculum Reform: Evidence of Change in Classroom <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in Mainland China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Li, Qiong; Ni, Yujing</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of curriculum reform on teaching <span class="hlt">practice</span> in primary mathematics in mainland China. The participants included 58 fifth grade mathematics teachers from 20 schools. Thirty-two of the classrooms had utilized a reform curriculum for 5 years prior to conducting the study, and the remaining 26 had been using the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dentistry&pg=2&id=EJ879861','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dentistry&pg=2&id=EJ879861"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Dentistry as a Case Study to Examine Continuing Education and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bullock, Alison; Firmstone, Vickie; Frame, John; Thomas, Hywel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Continuing education is a defining characteristic of work in the professions. Yet the approach various professional groups take to continuing professional development (CPD) differs widely in terms of regulatory frameworks and requirements, modes of delivery and funding. Importantly, little is understood about how CPD <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315219','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=315219"><span id="translatedtitle">Kitchen <span class="hlt">practices</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> on volatile flavors in ripe tomatoes: effects of refrigeration and blanching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Both blanching and refrigeration of ripe tomatoes are common <span class="hlt">practices</span> in kitchen and food service prior to being sliced. However, little is reported on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such treatments on volatile profiles in tomato fruit. In this study, ‘FL 47’ tomatoes at full red stage were dipped in 52 °C hot wate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ939937.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ939937.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Practicing</span> Autonomy on the Writing Proficiency of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh; Aeen, Laleh</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The present study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">practicing</span> autonomy on the writing proficiency of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To this end, Preliminary English Test (PET) by Thomas and Sharon (2006) was administered to 92 intermediate language learners as a pre-test. Accordingly, 60 homogeneous learners comprised the research sample. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=product+AND+benchmark&pg=5&id=ED549895','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=product+AND+benchmark&pg=5&id=ED549895"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Professional Learning Community on Teacher Collaboration, Teaching <span class="hlt">Practice</span>, and Student Achievement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morris, Iris J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Best instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span> occurs when teachers work collaboratively. Many teachers in the target elementary school appeared to work in isolation, struggling to respond to the needs of low-performing students without the benefit of collaboration with colleagues. The purpose of this applied dissertation was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1053724.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1053724.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Accounting Practitioners Reflect on Faculty <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Bridging the Gap between Theory and <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Ryan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A gap exists between the perception of accounting education in the classroom and accounting as it is <span class="hlt">practiced</span>. This study explores qualitatively the perceptions and experiences of mid-career accounting professionals with respect to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of academic faculty on their careers in accounting. The study identifies a perception gap in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CDA&id=EJ918770','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CDA&id=EJ918770"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Child Development Associate Training on the Beliefs and <span class="hlt">Practices</span> of Preschool Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heisner, Mary Jane; Lederberg, Amy R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Child Development Associate (CDA) training on the beliefs and <span class="hlt">practices</span> of early childhood teachers who did not have college degrees or early childhood college coursework. Preschool teachers who were enrolled in CDA classes (n = 76) and a comparison group of teachers (n = 50) completed two surveys of beliefs and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cameroon&pg=6&id=EJ638416','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cameroon&pg=6&id=EJ638416"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Community Mobilization Project on Health-Related Knowledge and <span class="hlt">Practices</span> in Cameroon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Evaluated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and <span class="hlt">practices</span>, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21487679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21487679"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical students' views on selecting <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> as a career choice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bindal, Taruna; Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen M</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Despite increasing numbers of UK medical students, the number of trainees selecting <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> as their specialty choice has decreased. Previous studies show that most students will choose their ultimate career during undergraduate training. We therefore explored the views of students in the final year at Birmingham University about a career in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. Students completed a 27-item questionnaire during the penultimate week of their <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> clerkship (PC) and 97% responded (127/131). Prior to the PC, 29% (37/127) of students had considered a career in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>, rising to 50% (63/127) after the PC (p < 0.001). Students felt that paediatricians were enthusiastic and keen on teaching, and the ward working atmosphere was good. However, students perceived <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> as a difficult specialty with high competition for training posts. Students felt their <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> experience was too limited and advice was needed on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> careers early in undergraduate training. This study confirmed that focusing on improving the PC is not sufficient if we are to inspire medical students to consider a career in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. Exposure to the specialty is needed from year 1 of undergraduate training along with career advice to dispel current myths about specialty training. Students would then be able to make more informed career decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1718781','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1718781"><span id="translatedtitle">Is regional <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surveillance useful? Experience in Wales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sibert, J; Morgan, R; O'Connell, H; Lynn, R; Guildea, Z; Palmer, S; group, t. W.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Welsh <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Surveillance Unit was established in 1994 to monitor the incidence and prevalence of a number of uncommon disorders of childhood in Wales. Its work complements that of the British <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Surveillance Unit. Information from consultant paediatricians is obtained by means of a monthly card return system; return rate is over 90%.

 PMID:11369563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055947','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055947"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Zoledronic Acid in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rossin, Sara; Divisic, Antuan; De Gregorio, Alesandra; Agosto, Caterina; Catalano, Igor; Mazza, Alessandro; Sartori, Leonardo; Benini, Franca</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We describe a case of a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patient affected by mandibular fibrous dysplasia (FD) with severe and chronic pain who was successfully treated with zoledronic acid (ZOL): a third-generation bisphosphonate. Further research is needed to assess its safety and efficacy as a treatment option for FD in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population. PMID:27747122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15718593','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15718593"><span id="translatedtitle">Establishing an internet-based <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cancer registration and communication system for the Hungarian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology network.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borgulya, Gábor; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Schuler, Dezso; Garami, Miklós</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Cancer registration has developed in Europe over the last 50 years, and in the last decade intensive joint activities between the European Cancer Registries, in response to the need of pan-European harmonization of registration <span class="hlt">practices</span>, have taken place. The Hungarian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Cancer Registry has been functioning as the database of the Hungarian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Oncology Network since 1971, aiming to follow the incidence and the treatment efficacy of malignant diseases. The goals of this globally unique open source information system are the following: 1) to raise the quality of the registration system to the European level by developing an Internet-based registration and communication system, modernizing the database, establishing automatic statistical analyses and adding an Internet website, 2) to support clinical epidemiological studies that we conduct with international collaborators on detailed analyses of the characteristics of patients and their diseases, evaluation of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, prevention programs, and long-term quality of life and side effects. The benefits of the development of the Internet-based registration and communication system are as follows: a) introduction of an Internet-based case reporting system, b) modernization of the registry database according to international recommendations, c) automatic statistical summaries, encrypted mail systems, document repository, d) application of data security and privacy standards, e) establishment of a website and compilation of educational materials. The overall objective of this scientific project is to contribute towards the improvement of cancer prevention and cancer care for the benefit of the public in general and of cancer patients in particular. PMID:15718593</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735248','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735248"><span id="translatedtitle">Protection throughout the life span: the psychoneuroimmunologic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Indo-Tibetan meditative and yogic <span class="hlt">practices</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olivo, Erin L</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>The Indo-Tibetan tradition claims that proficiency in the suggested longevity <span class="hlt">practices</span> of meditation, diet, and physical exercise (yoga), will result in profound anti-aging, stress-mediating and health enhancing effects. Western biomedical research has begun to demonstrate that the psychobiological states induced and cultivated by cognitive behavioral <span class="hlt">practices</span> which are emblematic of those contained within the Indo-Tibetan tradition (hypnosis, meditation, visualization, systematic relaxation), indeed do have a profound <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the body's protective and regulatory systems. Although continued study is necessary, much of the early research illuminating the mechanisms responsible for the life-span extending and health-enhancing effects of these cognitive behavioral <span class="hlt">practices</span> points to the importance of their anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, and antioxidant effects as well as their <span class="hlt">impact</span> in enhancing the production of endogenous substances that possess general longevity-enhancing, regenerative properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573884"><span id="translatedtitle">Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rees, Corinne A</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and <span class="hlt">practice</span> and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding <span class="hlt">practice</span> may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573884','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24573884"><span id="translatedtitle">Lost among the trees? The autonomic nervous system and <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rees, Corinne A</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been strikingly neglected in Western medicine. Despite its profound importance for regulation, adjustment and coordination of body systems, it lacks priority in training and <span class="hlt">practice</span> and receives scant attention in numerous major textbooks. The ANS is integral to manifestations of illness, underlying familiar physical and psychological symptoms. When ANS activity is itself dysfunctional, usual indicators of acute illness may prove deceptive. Recognising the relevance of the ANS can involve seeing the familiar through fresh eyes, challenging assumptions in clinical assessment and in approaches to <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Its importance extends from physical and psychological well-being to parenting and safeguarding, public services and the functioning of society. Exploration of its role in conditions ranging from neurological, gastrointestinal and connective tissue disorders, diabetes and chronic fatigue syndrome, to autism, behavioural and mental health difficulties may open therapeutic avenues. The ANS offers a mechanism for so-called functional illnesses and illustrates the importance of recognising that 'stress' takes many forms, physical, psychological and environmental, desirable and otherwise. Evidence of intrauterine and post-natal programming of ANS reactivity suggests that neonatal care and safeguarding <span class="hlt">practice</span> may offer preventive opportunity, as may greater understanding of epigenetic change of ANS activity through, for example, accidental or psychological trauma or infection. The aim of this article is to accelerate recognition of the importance of the ANS throughout <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>, and of the potential physical and psychological cost of neglecting it. PMID:24573884</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334155','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22334155"><span id="translatedtitle">Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment in the United States: Has <span class="hlt">practice</span> followed standards?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schuchter, Joseph; Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason; Seto, Edmund</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>As an emerging <span class="hlt">practice</span>, Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">practice</span>. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used <span class="hlt">practice</span> standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published <span class="hlt">practice</span> standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22419397"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing riparian conservation land management <span class="hlt">practice</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on gully erosion in Iowa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zaimes, George N; Schultz, Richard C</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Well-established perennial vegetation in riparian areas of agricultural lands can stabilize the end points of gullies and reduce their overall erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of riparian land management on gully erosion. A field survey documented the number of gullies and cattle access points in riparian forest buffers, grass filters, annual row-cropped fields, pastures in which the cattle were fenced out of the stream, and continuously, rotationally and intensive rotationally grazed pastures in three regions of Iowa. Gully lengths, depths and severely eroding bank areas were measured. Gullies exhibited few significant differences among riparian management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The most significant differences were exhibited between conservation and agricultural management <span class="hlt">practices</span>, an indication that conservation <span class="hlt">practices</span> could reduce gully erosion. Changes in pasture management from continuous to rotational or intensive rotational grazing showed no reductions in gully erosion. It is important to recognize that more significant differences among riparian management <span class="hlt">practices</span> were not exhibited because the conservation and alternative grazing <span class="hlt">practices</span> had recently been established. As gully formation is more <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by upland than riparian management, gully stabilization might require additional upland conservation <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The existence of numerous cattle access points in pastures where cattle have full access to the stream also indicates that these could be substantial sources of sediment for streams. Finally, the gully banks were less important sediment contributors to streams than the streambanks. The severely eroding bank areas in streams were six times greater than those in the gullies in the monitored reaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EnMan..49.1009Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EnMan..49.1009Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Riparian Conservation Land Management <span class="hlt">Practice</span> <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Gully Erosion in Iowa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaimes, George N.; Schultz, Richard C.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Well-established perennial vegetation in riparian areas of agricultural lands can stabilize the end points of gullies and reduce their overall erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of riparian land management on gully erosion. A field survey documented the number of gullies and cattle access points in riparian forest buffers, grass filters, annual row-cropped fields, pastures in which the cattle were fenced out of the stream, and continuously, rotationally and intensive rotationally grazed pastures in three regions of Iowa. Gully lengths, depths and severely eroding bank areas were measured. Gullies exhibited few significant differences among riparian management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The most significant differences were exhibited between conservation and agricultural management <span class="hlt">practices</span>, an indication that conservation <span class="hlt">practices</span> could reduce gully erosion. Changes in pasture management from continuous to rotational or intensive rotational grazing showed no reductions in gully erosion. It is important to recognize that more significant differences among riparian management <span class="hlt">practices</span> were not exhibited because the conservation and alternative grazing <span class="hlt">practices</span> had recently been established. As gully formation is more <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by upland than riparian management, gully stabilization might require additional upland conservation <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The existence of numerous cattle access points in pastures where cattle have full access to the stream also indicates that these could be substantial sources of sediment for streams. Finally, the gully banks were less important sediment contributors to streams than the streambanks. The severely eroding bank areas in streams were six times greater than those in the gullies in the monitored reaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770863','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4770863"><span id="translatedtitle">The path to <span class="hlt">impact</span> of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and <span class="hlt">practices</span> in Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Sanjoto, Hary; Cerisha, Ancila; Nungky, Saverina; Riono, Pandu; Simon, Sumanto; Farid, Muhammad Noor; Giriputra, Sardikin; Putra, Artawan Eka; Burhan, Erlina; Wahyuni, Chatarina U.; Mustikawati, Dyah; Widianingrum, Christina; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and <span class="hlt">practices</span> is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Objective We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and reinforcement of current program policies and <span class="hlt">practices</span>. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and <span class="hlt">practices</span>. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of operational research should be explored. PMID:26928217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302651','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21302651"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> anaesthesia in Afghanistan: a review of the current experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nordmann, G R</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This paper describes the author's experience of the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patient load on the U.K. medical services in Afghanistan. Over a 3 month period there was a mean of 2.9 <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> trauma admissions per week, mean age was 6.8 years with gunshot wound or explosive injury being the mechanisms of injury in 77% of the trauma admissions. Overall these children represented 10.8% of the surgical workload. Some of the issues of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> anaesthesia in this environment are discussed including <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> equipment, resuscitation for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> massive haemorrhage and regional anaesthesia. The need to formally recognise the problem in training and equipping deployed medical personnel to deal with this challenge is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9004297','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9004297"><span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral blood flow imaging in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>: a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gordon, I</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>The ability to study regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is available in many institutions, especially with the spread of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> psychological conditions in which rCBF assessment has been undertaken, including anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). This article attempts to review all aspects of rCBF studies in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. PMID:9004297</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055615','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5055615"><span id="translatedtitle">A systematic review of measures of HIV/AIDS stigma in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McAteer, Carole Ian; Truong, Nhan-Ai Thi; Aluoch, Josephine; Deathe, Andrew Roland; Nyandiko, Winstone M; Marete, Irene; Vreeman, Rachel Christine</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction HIV-related stigma <span class="hlt">impacts</span> the quality of life and care management of HIV-infected and HIV-affected individuals, but how we measure stigma and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on children and adolescents has less often been described. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured HIV-related stigma with a quantitative tool in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. Results and discussion Varying measures have been used to assess stigma in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> populations, with most studies utilizing the full or variant form of the HIV Stigma Scale that has been validated in adult populations and utilized with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> populations in Africa, Asia and the United States. Other common measures included the Perceived Public Stigma Against Children Affected by HIV, primarily utilized and validated in China. Few studies implored item validation techniques with the population of interest, although scales were used in a different cultural context from the origin of the scale. Conclusions Many stigma measures have been used to assess HIV stigma in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> populations, globally, but few have implored methods for cultural adaptation and content validity. PMID:27717409</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479750','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479750"><span id="translatedtitle">Life cycle thinking in <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment—Current <span class="hlt">practice</span> and LCA gains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bidstrup, Morten</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>It has been advocated that life cycle thinking (LCT) should be applied in <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (IA) to a greater extent, since some development proposals pose a risk of significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> throughout the interconnected activities of product systems. Multiple authors have proposed the usage of life cycle assessment (LCA) for such analytical advancement, but little to no research on this tool application has been founded in IA <span class="hlt">practice</span> so far. The aim of this article is to elaborate further on the gains assigned to application of LCA. The research builds on a review of 85 Danish IA reports, which were analysed for analytical appropriateness and application of LCT. Through a focus on the non-technical summary, the conclusion and the use of specific search words, passages containing LCT were searched for in each IA report. These passages were then analysed with a generic framework. The results reveal that LCT is appropriate for most of the IAs, but that LCA is rarely applied to provide such a perspective. Without LCA, the IAs show mixed performance in regard to LCT. Most IAs do consider the product provision of development proposals, but they rarely relate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to this function explicitly. Many IAs do consider downstream <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, but assessments of upstream, distant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are generally absent. It is concluded that multiple analytical gains can be attributed to greater application of LCA in IA <span class="hlt">practice</span>, though some level of LCT already exists. - Highlights: • Life cycle thinking is appropriate across the types and topics of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment. • Yet, life cycle assessment is rarely used for adding such perspective. • <span class="hlt">Impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">practice</span> does apply some degree of life cycle thinking. • However, application of life cycle assessment could bring analytical gains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25467284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25467284"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of removing general <span class="hlt">practice</span> boundaries in England: a policy analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie; Eastmure, Elizabeth; Erens, Bob; Lagarde, Mylene; Wright, Michael</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In 2015, the UK government plans to widen patient choice of general practitioner (GP) to improve access through the voluntary removal of <span class="hlt">practice</span> boundaries in the English NHS. This follows a 12-month pilot in four areas where volunteer GP <span class="hlt">practices</span> accepted patients from outside their boundaries. Using evidence from the pilot evaluation, we discuss the likely <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this policy change on patient experience, responsiveness and equity of access. Patients reported positive experiences but in a brief pilot in four areas, it was not possible to assess potential demand, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on quality of care or health outcomes. In the rollout, policymakers and commissioners will need to balance the access needs of local residents against the demands of those coming into the area. The rollout should include full information for prospective patients; monitoring and understanding patterns of patient movement between <span class="hlt">practices</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">practice</span> capacity; and ensuring the timely transfer of clinical information between providers. This policy has the potential to improve choice and convenience for a sub-group of the population at lower marginal costs than new provision. However, there are simpler, less costly, ways of improving convenience, such as extending opening hours or offering alternatives to face-to-face consultation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26297238"><span id="translatedtitle">NSAIDs in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>: caution with varicella!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Durand, L; Sachs, P; Lemaitre, C; Lorrot, M; Bassehila, J; Bourdon, O; Prot-Labarthe, S</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Anti-inflammatory drugs have been suspected on several occasions to have promoted development of bacterial infection among varicella patients. Some countries have not implemented childhood varicella vaccination. Three cases in our hospital suggested the predisposing role of NSAIDs in varicella patient deterioration. Open access to these drugs widely increases their use and patient information should be continually provided in the medical offices and at dispensing pharmacy counters. Taking account of the benefit/risk balance and applying the simple precautionary principle, it would be appropriate to be cautious about the use of NSAIDs in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963728','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4963728"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictors of Mortality in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Myocarditis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ansari, Mohammed Junaid; Mittal, Mahima; Kushwaha, K.P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> myocarditis can present as mild flu like symptoms to fulminent form. Early identification of the severity of illness and prioritization of intensive care is helpful especially in developing countries with limited resources. Aim To know the factors at admission that can predict mortality in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> myocarditis. Materials and Methods This was an observational study which enrolled children who presented with fever of acute onset (less than 15 days in duration), and were diagnosed as suspected myocarditis on the basis of clinical features, Troponin I and echocardiography, according to Expanded criteria for myocarditis in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> ward at our institute over a period from August 2014 to December 2015. Their clinical features, cardiac biomarkers and echocardiography findings were compared between survivors and non-survivors. Statistical Analysis All statistical analysis was done using graphpad Prism 5 and SPSS statistical software. A Fisher exact p-value <0.05 was regarded as significant. Multivariate Logistic Regression was carried out to quantify the relationship between cardiac death and other predictor variables. The logistic coefficients for the predictor variables and their exponents, that is, log odds were calculated. Statistical significance of these predictor variables was interpreted by p-values. Results A 17.7% (n=11/62) patients of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> myocarditis died in this study. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV dyspnea (p=0.0115) and hypotension (p=0.0174) were more in patients who did not survive. The mean value of Troponin I was more in the non-survivor group (0.958 ± 1.13ng/ml); (p=0.0074). More number of patients who died had Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) levels increased in their plasma (p=0.0087) with higher mean value (p=0.0175). LV ejection fraction was decreased markedly in non survivor group with mean value of 37±8.09 % as compared to survivor group with mean value of 46.6±10.5%, (p=0.0115). On multivariate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3505102','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3505102"><span id="translatedtitle">MIH: epidemiologic clinic study in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928186','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4928186"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-effectiveness analysis of the direct and indirect <span class="hlt">impact</span> of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccination strategies in children: alternative country profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gibson, Edward; Begum, Najida; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurélio; Sackeyfio, Alfred; Hackett, Judith; Rajaram, Sankarasubramanian</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Influenza poses a significant burden on healthcare systems and society, with under-recognition in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population. Existing vaccination policies (largely) target the elderly and other risk groups where complications may arise. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of annual <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> vaccination (in 2–17-year-olds) with live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV), as well as the protective effect on the wider population in England and Wales (base). The study aimed to demonstrate broad applications of the model in countries where epidemiological and transmission data is limited and that have sophisticated vaccination policies (Brazil, Spain, and Taiwan). Methods The direct and indirect <span class="hlt">impact</span> of LAIV in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cohort was simulated using an age-stratified dynamic transmission model over a 5-year time horizon of daily cycles and applying discounting of 3.5% in the base case. Pre-existing immunity structure was based on a 1-year model run. Sensitivity analyses were conducted. Results In the base case for England and Wales, the annual <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> strategy with LAIV was associated with improvements in influenza-related events and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost, yielding an incremental cost per QALY of £6,208. The model was robust to change in the key input parameters. The probabilistic analysis demonstrated LAIV to be cost effective in more than 99% of iterations, assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of £30,000. Incremental costs per QALY for Brazil were £2,817, and for the cases of Spain and Taiwan the proposed strategy was dominant over the current <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Conclusion In addition to existing policies, annual <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> vaccination using LAIV provides a cost-effective strategy that offers direct and indirect protection in the wider community. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> vaccination strategies using LAIV demonstrated clinical and economic benefits over alternative (current vaccination) strategies in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27350478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27350478"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Telenursing on Nursing <span class="hlt">Practice</span> and Education: A Systematic Literature Review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asiri, Hanan; Househ, Mowafa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This systematic review aims to answer the following question: What is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of telenursing on nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span> and education? Any article that was written in English and published in PubMed and Computers Informatics Nursing (CIN) journal from January 2012 to February 2016 discussing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of telenursing on nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span> and education were included, while any opinion and review literature was excluded. The results show that there are four themes covered by the literature: 1. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of telenursing intervention using telephone and/ or videoconferencing on satisfaction and health outcomes; 2. Association of the patients' comorbidity characteristics with nursing utilization of telenursing and/or withdrawal from telehealth service during a telenursing care episode; 3. Tele-intensive care unit (tele-ICU) nursing and developing its competencies; and finally 4. Training on telenursing. Articles on Intensive Care Unit telenursing were found to be the most covered specialty/area of nursing in using telenursing. More research is still needed to show the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of telenursing on nursing education as well as other specialties of nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span>. PMID:27350478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22277221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22277221"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of water source management <span class="hlt">practices</span> in residential areas on sewer networks - a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marleni, N; Gray, S; Sharma, A; Burn, S; Muttil, N</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Prolonged drought which has occurred everywhere around the world has caused water shortages, leading many countries to consider more sustainable <span class="hlt">practices</span>, which are called source management <span class="hlt">practices</span> (SMPs) to ensure water availability for the future. SMPs include the <span class="hlt">practices</span> of water use reduction, potable water substitution and wastewater volume reduction such as water demand management, rainwater harvesting, greywater recycling and sewer mining. Besides the well known advantages from SMPs, they also contribute to the alteration of wastewater characteristics which finally affect the process in downstream infrastructure such as sewerage networks. Several studies have shown that the implementation of SMPs decreases the wastewater flow, whilst increasing its strength. High-strength wastewater can cause sewer problems such as sewer blockage, odour and corrosion. Yet, not all SMPs and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on existing sewer networks have been investigated. Therefore, this study reviews some examples of four common SMPs, the wastewater characteristics and the physical and biochemical transformation processes in sewers and the problems that might caused by them, and finally the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of those SMPs on wastewater characteristics and sewer networks are discussed. This paper provides sewer system managers with an overview of potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the sewer network due to the implementation of some SMPs. Potential research opportunities for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of SMPs on existing sewers are also identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/249771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/249771"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of alternative agricultural management <span class="hlt">practice</span> <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on soil carbon in the corn belt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>This <span class="hlt">impact</span> of alternative management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of management <span class="hlt">practices</span> has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of management <span class="hlt">practices</span> are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of alternative management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural <span class="hlt">practices</span>, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070789"><span id="translatedtitle">The STEP (Safety and Toxicity of Excipients for <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span>) database: part 2 - the pilot version.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salunke, Smita; Brandys, Barbara; Giacoia, George; Tuleu, Catherine</p> <p>2013-11-30</p> <p>The screening and careful selection of excipients is a critical step in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> formulation development as certain excipients acceptable in adult formulations, may not be appropriate for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> use. While there is extensive toxicity data that could help in better understanding and highlighting the gaps in toxicity studies, the data are often scattered around the information sources and saddled with incompatible data types and formats. This paper is the second in a series that presents the update on the Safety and Toxicity of Excipients for <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> ("STEP") database being developed by Eu-US PFIs, and describes the architecture data fields and functions of the database. The STEP database is a user designed resource that compiles the safety and toxicity data of excipients that is scattered over various sources and presents it in one freely accessible source. Currently, in the pilot database data from over 2000 references/10 excipients presenting preclinical, clinical, regulatory information and toxicological reviews, with references and source links. The STEP database allows searching "FOR" excipients and "BY" excipients. This dual nature of the STEP database, in which toxicity and safety information can be searched in both directions, makes it unique from existing sources. If the pilot is successful, the aim is to increase the number of excipients in the existing database so that a database large enough to be of <span class="hlt">practical</span> research use will be available. It is anticipated that this source will prove to be a useful platform for data management and data exchange of excipient safety information.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070789"><span id="translatedtitle">The STEP (Safety and Toxicity of Excipients for <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span>) database: part 2 - the pilot version.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salunke, Smita; Brandys, Barbara; Giacoia, George; Tuleu, Catherine</p> <p>2013-11-30</p> <p>The screening and careful selection of excipients is a critical step in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> formulation development as certain excipients acceptable in adult formulations, may not be appropriate for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> use. While there is extensive toxicity data that could help in better understanding and highlighting the gaps in toxicity studies, the data are often scattered around the information sources and saddled with incompatible data types and formats. This paper is the second in a series that presents the update on the Safety and Toxicity of Excipients for <span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> ("STEP") database being developed by Eu-US PFIs, and describes the architecture data fields and functions of the database. The STEP database is a user designed resource that compiles the safety and toxicity data of excipients that is scattered over various sources and presents it in one freely accessible source. Currently, in the pilot database data from over 2000 references/10 excipients presenting preclinical, clinical, regulatory information and toxicological reviews, with references and source links. The STEP database allows searching "FOR" excipients and "BY" excipients. This dual nature of the STEP database, in which toxicity and safety information can be searched in both directions, makes it unique from existing sources. If the pilot is successful, the aim is to increase the number of excipients in the existing database so that a database large enough to be of <span class="hlt">practical</span> research use will be available. It is anticipated that this source will prove to be a useful platform for data management and data exchange of excipient safety information. PMID:24070789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24235215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24235215"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of broiler production system <span class="hlt">practices</span> on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This research explores the extent to which different farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span> influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related <span class="hlt">practices</span>. It was found that <span class="hlt">practices</span> in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger <span class="hlt">impact</span> on perceptions of animal friendliness than other <span class="hlt">practices</span>, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span> influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span>, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market. PMID:24235215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24235215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24235215"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of broiler production system <span class="hlt">practices</span> on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>This research explores the extent to which different farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span> influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related <span class="hlt">practices</span>. It was found that <span class="hlt">practices</span> in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger <span class="hlt">impact</span> on perceptions of animal friendliness than other <span class="hlt">practices</span>, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span> influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management <span class="hlt">practices</span>, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881111','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23881111"><span id="translatedtitle">Head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposure in youth football: elementary school ages 9-12 years and the effect of <span class="hlt">practice</span> structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cobb, Bryan R; Urban, Jillian E; Davenport, Elizabeth M; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Whitlow, Christopher T; Powers, Alexander K; Stitzel, Joel D</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposure in youth football has not been well-documented, despite children under the age of 14 accounting for 70% of all football players in the United States. The objective of this study was to quantify the head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposure of youth football players, age 9-12, for all <span class="hlt">practices</span> and games over the course of single season. A total of 50 players (age = 11.0 ± 1.1 years) on three teams were equipped with helmet mounted accelerometer arrays, which monitored each <span class="hlt">impact</span> players sustained during <span class="hlt">practices</span> and games. During the season, 11,978 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were recorded for this age group. Players averaged 240 ± 147 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> for the season with linear and rotational 95th percentile magnitudes of 43 ± 7 g and 2034 ± 361 rad/s(2). Overall, <span class="hlt">practice</span> and game sessions involved similar <span class="hlt">impact</span> frequencies and magnitudes. One of the three teams however, had substantially fewer <span class="hlt">impacts</span> per <span class="hlt">practice</span> and lower 95th percentile magnitudes in <span class="hlt">practices</span> due to a concerted effort to limit contact in <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The same team also participated in fewer <span class="hlt">practices</span>, further reducing the number of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> each player experienced in <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposures in games showed no statistical difference. While the acceleration magnitudes among 9-12 year old players tended to be lower than those reported for older players, some recorded high magnitude <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were similar to those seen at the high school and college level. Head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposure in youth football may be appreciably reduced by limiting contact in <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Further research is required to assess whether such a reduction in head <span class="hlt">impact</span> exposure will result in a reduction in concussion incidence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479765','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22479765"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment in Canada: Obstacles and opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCallum, Lindsay C.; Ollson, Christopher A.; Stefanovic, Ingrid L.</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (HIA) is recognized as a useful tool that can identify potential health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> resulting from projects or policy initiatives. Although HIA has become an established <span class="hlt">practice</span> in some countries, it is not yet an established <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Canada. In order to enable broader support for HIA, this study provides a comprehensive review and analysis of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the state of HIA <span class="hlt">practice</span>. The results of this review revealed that, although there is an abundance of publications relating to HIA, there remains a lack of transparent, consistent and reproducible approaches and methods throughout the process. Findings indicate a need for further research and development on a number of fronts, including: 1) the nature of HIA triggers; 2) consistent scoping and stakeholder engagement approaches; 3) use of evidence and transparency of decision-making; 4) reproducibility of assessment methods; 5) monitoring and evaluation protocols; and, 6) integration within existing regulatory frameworks. Addressing these issues will aid in advancing the more widespread use of HIA in Canada. - Highlights: • Reviewed current state of <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the field of HIA • Identified key obstacles and opportunities for HIA advancement • Major issues include lack of consistent approach and methodology. • No national regulatory driver hinders opportunity for widespread use of HIA. • Identified research opportunities vital to developing HIA <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27028391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27028391"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Recent Developments in Lung Cancer on the <span class="hlt">Practice</span> of Pathology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cagle, Philip T; Allen, Timothy C; Bernicker, Eric H; Ge, Yimin; Haque, Abida; Barrios, Roberto</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Landmark events in the field of lung cancer in the past year have the potential to significantly alter the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of pathology. Three key events are (1) approval of payment for low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer, (2) publication of an extensively revised World Health Organization classification of lung cancers, and (3) approval of immunohistochemistry based companion diagnostics by the US Food and Drug Administration. We briefly review these milestones in the context of their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of pathology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2560634','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2560634"><span id="translatedtitle">Epidemiology of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgical admissions to a government referral hospital in the Gambia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bickler, S. W.; Sanno-Duanda, B.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of published data on the type of conditions that require surgery among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Such information is necessary for assessing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such conditions on child health and for setting priorities to improve <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgical care. METHODS: Described in the article is a 29-month prospective study of all children aged < 15 years who were admitted to a government referral hospital in the Gambia from January 1996 to May 1998. RESULTS: A total of 1726 children were admitted with surgical problems. Surgical patients accounted for 11.3% of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> admissions and 34,625 total inpatient days. The most common admission diagnoses were injuries (46.9%), congenital anomalies (24.3%), and infections requiring surgery (14.5%). The diagnoses that accounted for the greatest number of inpatient days were burns (18.8%), osteomyelitis (15.4%), fractures (12.7%), soft tissue injuries (3.9%), and head injuries (3.4%). Gambian children were rarely admitted for appendicitis and never admitted for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The leading causes of surgical deaths were burns, congenital anomalies, and injuries other than burns. DISCUSSION: Prevention of childhood injuries and better trauma management, especially at the primary and secondary health care levels, should be the priorities for improving <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa. Surgical care of children should be considered an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:11143193</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22246880"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing the theory and <span class="hlt">practice</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment: Setting the research agenda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pope, Jenny; Bond, Alan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois</p> <p>2013-07-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> assessment has been in place for over 40 years and is now practised in some form in all but two of the world's nations. In this paper we reflect on the state of the art of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment theory and <span class="hlt">practice</span>, focusing on six well-established forms: EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment. We note that although the fundamentals of <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment have their roots in the US National Environmental Policy Act 1969 (NEPA) each branch of the field is distinct in also drawing on other theoretical and conceptual bases that in turn shape the prevailing discourse in each case, generating increasing degrees of specialisation within each sub-field. Against this backdrop, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of collective <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment <span class="hlt">practice</span>, concluding that although there are substantial strengths, the plethora of specialist branches is generating a somewhat confusing picture and lack of clarity regarding how the pieces of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment jigsaw puzzle fit together. We use this review to suggest an overarching research agenda that will enable <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment to evolve in line with changing expectations for what it should deliver. -- Highlights: ► Strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats for IA are explored in this paper ► EIA, SEA, policy assessment, SIA, HIA and sustainability assessment are reviewed ► Diversity of <span class="hlt">practice</span> is both a strength and weakness in the current economic climate ► There are opportunities to simplify IA by focusing on common and fundamental elements ► Continued research into theory related to IA effectiveness is also essential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22447510"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the ecosystem service concept improving <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment? Evidence from recent international <span class="hlt">practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rosa, Josianne Claudia Sales Sánchez, Luis E.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Considering ecosystem services (ES) could foster innovation and improve environmental and social <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (ESIA) <span class="hlt">practice</span>, but is the potential being fulfilled? In order to investigate how ES have been treated in recent international <span class="hlt">practice</span>, three questions are asked: (i) were the tasks of an ES analysis carried out? (ii) how is such analysis integrated with other analysis presented in the ESIA? (iii) does ES analysis result in additional or improved mitigation or enhancement measures? These research questions were unfolded into 15 auxiliary questions for reviewing five ESIA reports prepared for mining, hydroelectric and transportation infrastructure projects in Africa, Asia and South America. All cases incorporated ES into ESIA to meet a requirement of the International Finance Corporation's Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability. It was found that: (i) in only three cases most tasks recommended by current guidance were adopted (ii) all reports feature a dedicated ES chapter or section, but in three of them no evidence was found that the ES analysis was integrated within <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (iii) in the two ESIAs that followed guidance, ES analysis resulted in specific mitigation measures. Few evidence was found that the ES concept is improving current ESIA <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Key challenges are: (i) integrating ES analysis in such a way that it does not duplicate other analysis; (ii) adequately characterizing the beneficiaries of ES; and (iii) quantifying ES supply for <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction. - Highlights: • Incorporating ecosystem services analysis in <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment can improve results. • Additional <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and mitigation were identified. • Challenges include developing appropriate indicators for <span class="hlt">impact</span> prediction. • A key challenge is integrating the concept in such a way that it does not duplicate other analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24406890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24406890"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> physician-researchers: coping with tensions in dual accountability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boydell, Katherine; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; D'Agincourt-Canning, Lori; Da Silva, Michael; Simpson, Christy; Czoli, Christine D; Rashkovan, Natalie; Kim, Celine C; Levin, Alex V; Schneider, Rayfel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Potential conflicts between the roles of physicians and researchers have been described at the theoretical level in the bioethics literature (Czoli, et al., 2011). Physicians and researchers are generally in mutually distinct roles, responsible for patients and participants respectively. With increasing emphasis on integration of research into clinical settings, however, the role divide is sometimes unclear. Consequently, physician-researchers must consider and negotiate salient ethical differences between clinical- and research-based obligations (Miller et al, 1998). This paper explores the subjective experiences and perspectives of 30 physician-researchers working in three Canadian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> settings. Drawing on qualitative interviews, it identifies ethical challenges and strategies used by physician-researchers in managing dual roles. It considers whether competing obligations could have both positive and adverse consequences for both physician-researchers and patients. Finally, we discuss how empirical work, which explores the perspectives of those engaged in research and clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>, can lead the way to understanding and promoting best <span class="hlt">practice</span>. PMID:24406890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191282&keyword=Paris&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78928039&CFTOKEN=91324662','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191282&keyword=Paris&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78928039&CFTOKEN=91324662"><span id="translatedtitle">Guidance on How to Move from Current <span class="hlt">Practice</span> to Recommended <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative Publication)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The report provides guidance on how to move from current <span class="hlt">practice</span> to recommended <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Life Cycle <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment. It is composed of three complementary parts elaborated in the first task force (TFI) of the LCIA programme, with contribution of the other three task forces:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2580282','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2580282"><span id="translatedtitle">The Financial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Using TMR in a Private Group <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Templeton, Joan; Bernes, Marshall; Ostrowski, Maureen</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The installation of a computerized financial system is usually preceded by a cost-benefit analysis showing a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the facility's financial picture. The administration expects reduction in some operating costs (exclusive of the system and the installation costs) and an improvement in collecting accounts receivable. When California Primary Physicians installed TMR, certain costs were reduced, and the business office did become more efficient. However, because TMR is an integrated medical/financial system, other financial benefits accrued to the <span class="hlt">practice</span> that billing systems would never be able to provide. This paper discusses the financial <span class="hlt">impact</span> of TMR on cost reduction, accounts receivable collection, revenue tracking, and program development and marketing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&pg=7&id=EJ1112880','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=day&pg=7&id=EJ1112880"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Research Degree Supervisor Training Work? The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Professional Development Induction Workshop on Supervision <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCulloch, Alistair; Loeser, Cassandra</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Supervisor induction and continued professional development programmes constitute good <span class="hlt">practice</span> and are enshrined in institutional policies and national codes of <span class="hlt">practice</span>. However, there is little evidence about whether they have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on either supervisors' learning or day-to-day <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Set in a discussion of previous literature, this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Equity+AND+Theory+AND+university&pg=7&id=EJ731449','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Equity+AND+Theory+AND+university&pg=7&id=EJ731449"><span id="translatedtitle">Higher Education and Training Policy and <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in South Africa: <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Global Privatisation, Quasi-Marketisation and New Managerialism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ntshoe, I. M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Trends suggest that business <span class="hlt">practices</span> and private sector ideas and values are increasingly permeating public funded higher education institutions world-wide. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of business <span class="hlt">practices</span> and values on higher education policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> is discernible in the growing dominance of global privatisation, quasi-marketisation and new managerialism…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3240921','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3240921"><span id="translatedtitle">Osteoporosis in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with spina bifida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4668961','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4668961"><span id="translatedtitle">Systems for <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Sepsis: A Global Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, KT; Chandler, HK; Espinosa, V; Kissoon, N</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the resources available for early diagnosis and treatment of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> sepsis at hospitals in developing and developed countries. Methods: This was a voluntary online survey involving 101 hospitals from 41 countries solicited through the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies contact list and website. The survey was designed to assess the spectrum of sepsis epidemiology, patterns of applied therapies, availability of resources and barriers to optimal sepsis treatment. Results: Ninety per cent of respondents represented a tertiary or general hospital with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care facilities, including 63% from developed countries. Adequate triage services were absent in more than 20% of centres. Insufficiently trained personnel and lack of a sepsis protocol was reported in 40% of all sites. While there were specific guidelines for sepsis management in 78% of centres (n = 100), protocols for assessing sepsis patients were not applied in nearly 70% of centres. Lack of parental recognition of sepsis and failure of referring centres to diagnose sepsis were identified as major barriers by more than 50% of respondents. Conclusions: Even among centres with no significant resource constraints and advanced medical systems, significant deficits in sepsis care exist. Early recognition and management remains a key issue and may be addressed through improved triage, augmented support for referring centres and public awareness. Focussed research is necessary at the institutional level to identify and address specific barriers. PMID:25867557</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27546541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27546541"><span id="translatedtitle">Selective lung intubation during <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> thoracic surgeries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mixa, V; Nedomova, B; Rygl, M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Selective lung intubation is a necessary prerequisite for the completion of most interventions comprising thoracotomy and thoracoscopy. In <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> care, our site uses Univent tubes for children up to the age of three years and double-lumen tubes (DLT) for children from 6-8 years of age. In younger children, we usually use regular endotracheal intubation, with the lung being held in the hemithorax position being operated on using a surgical retractor. The article presents the analysis of 860 thoracic surgeries, of which 491 comprised selective intubation (Univent 57 cases, DLT 434 cases). The use of the aforementioned devices is connected with certain complications. Univent tube can be connected with intraoperative dislocation of the obturating balloon (29.8%) and balloon perforation (5.2%). DLT insertion may be connected with failure of tube fitting. In 84 cases we had to repeat DLT insertion (20.6%). In 8 cases we were not able to insert DLT at all (1.8%). Standard use of selective intubation methods in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients from two years of age improved the conditions for surgical interventions (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 19). PMID:27546541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887035','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887035"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pain: a critical review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manocha, Sachin; Taneja, Navneet</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Pain is a complex experience, and its quantification involves many aspects including physiological, behavioural, and psychological factors. References related to the topic were selected and analysed, along with a PubMed search of the recent and earlier reports. Assessment of pain in infants and children has always been a dilemma for the clinicians. Unlike in adults, it is difficult to assess and effectively treat pain in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> age groups, and it often remains untreated or undertreated. Misperceptions are attributed not only to the difficulties in isolating the specific signs of pain but also in recognising and inferring the meaning of the cues available in the complex of individual differences in the reaction pattern of children to pain. In children, several parameters such as age, cognitive level, type of pain, etc. are required to be considered for the selection of appropriate pain assessment tools. Although considerable progress has been made, there is a critical need for a more accurate measurement tool for both research and clinical purposes. This review has critically analysed the various techniques available to assess pain in children with emphasis on current research and present-day status of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pain assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3029340','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3029340"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> sports-related mild traumatic brain injury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keightley, Michelle; Duggan, Catrin Theresa; Reed, Nick; McAuliffe, Jim; Taha, Tim; Faught, Brent; McPherson, Moira; Baker, Joseph; Montelpare, William</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common but relatively understudied childhood injury that can <span class="hlt">impact</span> cognitive functioning and development. The present report describes a case study of a 14-year-old boy who sustained two consecutive sports-related mTBIs within a 24 h period. Neurocognitive functioning at 2, 6, 8, 55 and 225 days after injury is compared to baseline prior to injury assessment on the same measures. Results from Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (<span class="hlt">ImPACT</span>), Conner Continuous Performance Test 2 (CPT-II) and the Attention Network Test (ANT) revealed decreased performance in attention, visual memory functioning and impulsivity, with some measures still not returning to baseline at 225 days post injury. The results are discussed with respect to return to normal activities at 4 days post injury. This case study highlights the need for increased research regarding the clinical management of mTBI in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population, particularly the potential deleterious effects of cumulative injuries. PMID:21686913</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19036306','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19036306"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">impacting</span> on nurses' transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henderson, Saras</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Since nurse education moved to universities, a reoccurring concern of health consumers, health administrators, and some practising nurses is that nurses are not able to transfer the theoretical knowledge of holistic care into <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Much has been written about this concern usually under the heading of the theory-<span class="hlt">practice</span> gap. A common reason that has been highlighted as the cause of this gap is that the theoretical knowledge that nurses learn in academia is predicated on concepts such as humanism and holistic caring. In contrast, the bureaucratic organisation where nurses provide care tends to be based on management concepts where cost containment and outcome measures are more acceptable. Hence nurses' learned values of holistic caring are pitted against the reality of the <span class="hlt">practice</span> setting. So what is this <span class="hlt">practice</span> reality? This paper attempts to provide an insider view of why the theoretical knowledge of holistic care may be difficult to enact in the clinical setting. In-depth taped interviews with nurses and participant observation were conducted in acute care hospitals in Western Australia. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using the constant comparative method. The findings indicated that utilitarian nursing and role models had <span class="hlt">impacted</span> on the transference of theoretical knowledge of holistic care into <span class="hlt">practice</span>. The paper outlines some measures that nurses themselves can undertake to ensure the narrowing of the theory-<span class="hlt">practice</span> gap in this area.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131071','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22131071"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of significance in Ecological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment: Past change, current <span class="hlt">practice</span> and future improvements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D.</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Ecological <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in <span class="hlt">practice</span> is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current <span class="hlt">practice</span> is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future <span class="hlt">practice</span> are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806234"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic <span class="hlt">practice</span> and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on parental health and child behaviour problems in autism spectrum disorders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Obtaining a diagnosis is a key point in developing a treatment plan for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little attention has been paid to the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of diagnostic <span class="hlt">practices</span> on families, and the consequent <span class="hlt">impact</span> on child outcomes. Parents' experiences during ASD diagnosis for their child can be stressful, and such stress can lead to parental ill health, child-behaviour problems, and poorer child outcomes following treatment. Thus, the conduct of diagnosis may be of particular importance for subsequent child outcomes and parental health. A lack of knowledge regarding best diagnostic <span class="hlt">practice</span> may ultimately impair treatment efficacy and lead to increased health- and economic-burdens. Given this, the current article examines recent work concerning: parental experiences of ASD diagnoses; general health and psychological functioning of parents of newly-diagnosed children with ASD; aspects of the diagnostic process <span class="hlt">impacting</span> on parental functioning; and the relationship of parental functioning to child outcomes. These are placed into the context of diagnostic best <span class="hlt">practice</span> for ASD, and understanding the complex relationship between ASD and family variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058872','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058872"><span id="translatedtitle">Walking the sustainability assessment talk - Progressing the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (EIA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois</p> <p>2012-09-15</p> <p>Internationally there is a growing demand for environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (EIA) to move away from its traditional focus towards delivering more sustainable outcomes. South Africa is an example of a country where the EIA system seems to have embraced the concept of sustainability. In this paper we test the existing objectives for EIA in South Africa against sustainability principles and then critique the effectiveness of EIA <span class="hlt">practice</span> in delivering these objectives. The outcome of the research suggests that notwithstanding a strong and explicit sustainability mandate through policy and legislation, the effectiveness of EIA <span class="hlt">practice</span> falls far short of what is mandated. This shows that further legislative reform is not required to improve effectiveness but rather a focus on changing the behaviour of individual professionals. We conclude by inviting further debate on what exactly practitioners can do to give effect to sustainability in EIA <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24228374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24228374"><span id="translatedtitle">Is your glass half full or half empty? Your decision may <span class="hlt">impact</span> your <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baum, Neil; Homisakt, Lynn</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The attitude of the doctor and the medical staff can have a profound <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the success of a <span class="hlt">practice</span>. You can be sure that if everyone has a positive attitude toward patients, your patients will have a positive experience and will tell others about that positive experience. On the other hand, if a doctor is sullen, unhappy, and uninterested in his or her work, you can be sure that this negativity will be transferred to the staff and subsequently to the patients. As a result, there will be unhappy patients, unhappy staff, increased staff turnover, and a doctor who continues to be unhappy and dissatisfied with the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of medicine. This article will describe both types of attitudes, and what can be done to improve the attitude of the <span class="hlt">practice</span> and have a glass that is half full and not half empty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1314236','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1314236"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a general <span class="hlt">practice</span> group intervention on prescribing costs and patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walker, Jane; Mathers, Nigel</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: The formation of primary care groups (PCGs) and trusts (PCTs) has shifted the emphasis from individual <span class="hlt">practice</span> initiatives to group-based efforts to control rising prescribing costs. However, there is a paucity of literature describing such group initiatives. We report the results of a multilevel group initiative, involving input from a pharmaceutical adviser, <span class="hlt">practice</span> comparison feedback, and peer review meetings. AIM: To determine the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a prescribing initiative on the prescribing patterns of a group of general <span class="hlt">practices</span>. DESIGN OF STUDY: A comparative study with non-matched controls. SETTING: Nine semi-rural/rural <span class="hlt">practices</span> forming a commissioning group pilot, later a PCG, in Southern Derbyshire with nine <span class="hlt">practices</span> as controls. METHOD: <span class="hlt">Practice</span> data were collated for overall prescribing and for therapeutic categories, between the years 1997/1998 and 1998/1999 and analysed statistically. Prescribing expenditure trends were also collated. RESULTS: Although both groups came well within their prescribing budgets, in the study group this was for the first time in five years. Their rate of increase in expenditure slowed significantly following the initiative compared with that of the comparison group, which continued to rise (median <span class="hlt">practice</span> net ingredient cost/patient unit (nic/PU) increase: Pound Sterling0.69 and Pound Sterling3.80 respectively; P = 0.03). The study group's nic/PU dropped below, and stayed below, that of the comparison group one month after the start of the initiative. For most therapeutic categories the study group had lower increases in costs and higher increases in percentage of generic items than the comparison group. Quality markers were unaffected. CONCLUSION: We suggest that <span class="hlt">practices</span> with diverse prescribing patterns can work together effectively within a PCT locality to control prescribing costs. PMID:12030659</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499659"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment by means of a procedure based on fuzzy logic: A <span class="hlt">practical</span> application</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peche, Roberto Rodriguez, Esther</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>This study shows the <span class="hlt">practical</span> application of the EIA method based on fuzzy logic proposed by the authors (Peche and Rodriguez, 2009) to a simplified case of study-the activity of a petrol station throughout its exploitation. The intensity (p{sub 1}), the extent (p{sub 2}) and the persistence (p{sub 3}) were the properties selected to describe the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and their respective assessment functions v-bar{sub i}=f(p-bar{sub i}) were determined. The main actions (A) and potentially affected environmental factors (F) were selected. Every <span class="hlt">impact</span> was identified by a pair A-F and the values of the three <span class="hlt">impact</span> properties were estimated for each of them by means of triangular fuzzy numbers. Subsequently, the fuzzy estimation of every <span class="hlt">impact</span> was carried out, the estimation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> A{sub 1}-F{sub 2} (V-bar{sub 1}) being explained in detail. Every <span class="hlt">impact</span> was simultaneously represented by its corresponding generalised confidence interval and membership function. Since the membership functions of all <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were similar to triangular fuzzy numbers, a triangular approach (TA) was used to describe every <span class="hlt">impact</span>. A triangular approach coefficient (TAC) was introduced to quantify the similarity of each fuzzy number and its corresponding triangular approach, where TAC (V-bar) element of (0, 1] and TAC being 1 when the fuzzy number is triangular. The TACs-ranging from 0.96 to 0.99-proved that TAs were valid in all cases. Next, the total positive and negative <span class="hlt">impacts</span>-TV-bar{sup +} and TV-bar{sup -} were calculated and later, the fuzzy value of the total environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> TV-bar was determined from them. Finally, the defuzzification of TV-bar led to the punctual <span class="hlt">impact</span> estimator TV{sup (1)} = -88.50 and its corresponding uncertainty interval [{delta}{sub l}(TV-bar),{delta}{sub r}(TV-bar)]=[6.52,6.96], which represent the total value of the EI. In conclusion, the EIA method enabled the integration of heterogeneous <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, which exerted influence on environmental factors of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1446552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1446552"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of parenting <span class="hlt">practices</span> on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing <span class="hlt">practices</span> and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554756','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/554756"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a <span class="hlt">practical</span> modeling framework for estimating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of wind technology on bird populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morrison, M.L.; Pollock, K.H.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, <span class="hlt">practical</span> modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of wind development on birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261748"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing a rainfall-runoff model to assess the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BMPs and LID <span class="hlt">practices</span> on storm runoff.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yaoze; Ahiablame, Laurent M; Bralts, Vincent F; Engel, Bernard A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Best management <span class="hlt">practices</span> (BMPs) and low <span class="hlt">impact</span> development (LID) <span class="hlt">practices</span> are increasingly being used as stormwater management techniques to reduce the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of urban development on hydrology and water quality. To assist planners and decision-makers at various stages of development projects (planning, implementation, and evaluation), user-friendly tools are needed to assess the effectiveness of BMPs and LID <span class="hlt">practices</span>. This study describes a simple tool, the Long-Term Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment-LID (L-THIA-LID), which is enhanced with additional BMPs and LID <span class="hlt">practices</span>, improved approaches to estimate hydrology and water quality, and representation of <span class="hlt">practices</span> in series (meaning combined implementation). The tool was used to evaluate the performance of BMPs and LID <span class="hlt">practices</span> individually and in series with 30 years of daily rainfall data in four types of idealized land use units and watersheds (low density residential, high density residential, industrial, and commercial). Simulation results were compared with the results of other published studies. The simulated results showed that reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads after implementing BMPs and LID <span class="hlt">practices</span>, both individually and in series, were comparable with the observed <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of these <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The L-THIA-LID 2.0 model is capable of assisting decision makers in evaluating environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of BMPs and LID <span class="hlt">practices</span>, thereby improving the effectiveness of stormwater management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19437372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19437372"><span id="translatedtitle">[Development of a specialised <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> palliative home care service].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuhlen, M; Balzer, S; Richter, U; Fritsche-Kansy, M; Friedland, C; Borkhardt, A; Janssen, G</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In Germany annually 1,500-3,000 children die from life-limiting diseases. Symptoms and course of disease differ considerably depending on the character of the underlying disease. Due to the desire of the children and their families to spend the end of life at home a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> palliative home care service was founded at the university children's hospital of Duesseldorf. In the last 20 years a specialised <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> palliative team evolved from an unstructured voluntary activity. Prospective aims are an area-wide professional supply of all <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> palliative patients and the improvement of the cooperation with the resident paediatrician and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> palliative nursing services. Furthermore the establishment of networks as well as a proper communication among the professionals is inalienable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19085609"><span id="translatedtitle">A 3D digital medical photography system in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2328385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2328385"><span id="translatedtitle">Facial dysmorphology in the neglected <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> head and neck burn.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsaros, J; David, D J; Griffin, P A; Moore, M H</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>The morphological distortion of the facial skeleton induced by untreated <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns of the head and neck reinforces the theories of craniofacial growth and the modern principles of acute burn management and post-burn facial reconstruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CBT&pg=3&id=EJ945092','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CBT&pg=3&id=EJ945092"><span id="translatedtitle">Randomized Controlled Trial of Full and Brief Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy and Wait-List for <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bolton, Derek; Williams, Tim; Perrin, Sean; Atkinson, Linda; Gallop, Catherine; Waite, Polly; Salkovskis, Paul</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Reviews and <span class="hlt">practice</span> guidelines for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recommend cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) as the psychological treatment of choice, but note that it has not been sufficiently evaluated for children and adolescents and that more randomized controlled trials are needed. The aim of this trial was to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25417228','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25417228"><span id="translatedtitle">How are arrhythmias managed in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population in Europe? Results of the European Heart Rhythm survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández-Madrid, Antonio; Hocini, Mélèze; Chen, Jian; Potpara, Tatjana; Pison, Laurent; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this survey was to provide insight into current <span class="hlt">practice</span> regarding the management of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> arrhythmias in Europe. The survey was based on a questionnaire sent via the Internet to the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) electrophysiology research network centres. The following topics were explored: patient and treatment selection, techniques and equipment, treatment outcomes and complications. The vast majority of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> arrhythmias concerns children older than 1 year and patients with grown-up congenital heart disease. In 65% of the hospitals there is a specialized <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> centre, and the most commonly observed arrhythmias include Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardias (90.24%). The medical staff performing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> catheter ablations in Europe are mainly adult electrophysiology teams (82.05% of the centres). Radiofrequency is the preferred energy source used for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> arrhythmia ablation. Catheter ablation is only chosen if two or more antiarrhythmic drugs have failed (94.59% of the centres). The majority of the centres use flecainide (37.8%) or atenolol (32.4%) as their first choice drug for prevention of recurrent supraventricular arrhythmias. While none of the centres performed catheter ablation in asymptomatic infants with pre-excitation, 29.7% recommend ablation in asymptomatic children and adolescents. The preferred choice for pacemaker leads in infants less than 1 year old is implantation of epicardial leads in 97.3% of the centres, which continues to be the routine even in patients between 1 and 5 years of age as reported by 75.68% of the hospitals. Almost all centres (94.59%) report equally small number of complications of catheter ablation in children (aged 1-14 years) as observed in adults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569017"><span id="translatedtitle">[The Moral Deliberation: The Clinical Ethics Method. Presentation of a <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Case].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atuesta, Juana; Vásquez, Pablo; Roa, Juan David; Acuña, Hilda</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Decision-making is one of the most difficult tasks of medical judgment, especially when cases involve <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with different cultural characteristics. It is the obligation of clinical ethics, taking the interdisciplinary approach as a tool to comprehensively analyse the clinical, social, cultural and legal aspects, among other topics, when choosing the treatment options that will be more beneficial for the patient. A clinical case, should enable this process of analysis and teamwork to be understood in <span class="hlt">practical</span> way in order to address difficult medical problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27569017"><span id="translatedtitle">[The Moral Deliberation: The Clinical Ethics Method. Presentation of a <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Case].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atuesta, Juana; Vásquez, Pablo; Roa, Juan David; Acuña, Hilda</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Decision-making is one of the most difficult tasks of medical judgment, especially when cases involve <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with different cultural characteristics. It is the obligation of clinical ethics, taking the interdisciplinary approach as a tool to comprehensively analyse the clinical, social, cultural and legal aspects, among other topics, when choosing the treatment options that will be more beneficial for the patient. A clinical case, should enable this process of analysis and teamwork to be understood in <span class="hlt">practical</span> way in order to address difficult medical problems. PMID:27569017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4817522','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4817522"><span id="translatedtitle">Highlights of Children with Cancer UK’s Workshop on Drug Delivery in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Brain Tumours</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nailor, Audrey; Walker, David A; Jacques, Thomas S; Warren, Kathy E; Brem, Henry; Kearns, Pamela R; Greenwood, John; Penny, Jeffrey I; Pilkington, Geoffrey J; Carcaboso, Angel M; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Macarthur, Donald; Slavc, Irene; Meijer, Lisethe; Gill, Steven; Lowis, Stephen; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Pearl, Monica S; Clifford, Steven C; Morrissy, Sorana; Ivanov, Delyan P; Beccaria, Kévin; Gilbertson, Richard J; Straathof, Karin; Green, Jordan J; Smith, Stuart; Rahman, Ruman; Kilday, John-Paul</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The first Workshop on Drug Delivery in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Brain Tumours was hosted in London by the charity Children with Cancer UK. The goals of the workshop were to break down the barriers to treating central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, leading to new collaborations and further innovations in this under-represented and emotive field. These barriers include the physical delivery challenges presented by the blood–brain barrier, the underpinning reasons for the intractability of CNS cancers, and the <span class="hlt">practical</span> difficulties of delivering cancer treatment to the brains of children. Novel techniques for overcoming these problems were discussed, new models brought forth, and experiences compared. PMID:27110286</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3495402','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3495402"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of childhood acute rotavirus gastroenteritis on the parents’ quality of life: prospective observational study in European primary care medical <span class="hlt">practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Rotavirus (RV) is the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. A Quality of Life study was conducted in primary care in three European countries as part of a larger epidemiological study (SPRIK) to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) on affected children and their parents. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was linguistically validated in Spanish, Italian and Polish. The questionnaire was included in an observational multicentre prospective study of 302 children aged <5 years presenting to a general practitioner or paediatrician for RVGE at centres in Spain, Italy or Poland. RV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing (n = 264). The questionnaire was validated and used to assess the emotional <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> RVGE on the parents. Results Questionnaire responses showed that acute RVGE in a child adversely affects the parents’ daily life as well as the child. Parents of children with RVGE experience worry, distress and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on their daily activities. RVGE of greater clinical severity (assessed by the Vesikari scale) was associated with higher parental worries due to symptoms and greater changes in the child’s behaviour, and a trend to higher <span class="hlt">impact</span> on parents’ daily activities and higher parental distress, together with a higher score on the symptom severity scale of the questionnaire. Conclusions Parents of a child with acute RVGE presenting to primary care experience worry, distress and disruptions to daily life as a result of the child’s illness. Prevention of this disease through prophylactic vaccination will improve the daily lives of parents and children. PMID:22650611</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194438','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194438"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspects of deceased organ donation in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brierley, J; Hasan, A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organ transplantation offers children in acute or chronic severe organ failure similar opportunities to adults. However, while the number who might benefit is relatively low, significantly fewer cadaveric donors exist for any given child compared with an adult. Incompatible organ size and relatively low donation rates mean that despite living parental donation and innovations to reduce donated organ size, children die before organs become available. The severity of the UK situation is compounded by restrictions on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> living donation, uncertainties over the application of brain death criteria, and ethical concerns about the use of donation after circulatory death. The UK Department of Health's Organ Donation Task Force suggested the means by which the adult donor pool might be increased, recommending that outstanding ethical and legal issues be resolved, but made no specific recommendations about children. PMID:22194438</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19287054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19287054"><span id="translatedtitle">Informed consent & ethical issues in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> psychopharmacology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malhotra, Savita; Subodh, B N</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Issues relating to informed consent and ethics in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> psychopharmacology limit research in this population. Children vary in their levels of cognitive development, and presence of psychiatric disorder may further impair their ability to give informed consent. In decisional impairment subjects, various methods used for consent are assent/dissent; inclusion of advance directives; and/or alternative decision-makers. India is emerging as a new market for clinical trials in recent years. Moreover, in India the sociocultural realities are different from those in the western countries making it necessary for professionals to be cautious in conducting drug trials. In this review, issues regarding informed consent in children and adolescent with psychiatric diagnosis are discussed for information, discussion and debate by professionals, parents, society and legal experts to create awareness and to facilitate development of guidelines that are appropriate and applicable to the Indian system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22429890"><span id="translatedtitle">Transdermal iontophoresis of ranitidine: an opportunity in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> drug therapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Djabri, Asma; Guy, Richard H; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to examine the use of transdermal iontophoresis for the delivery of ranitidine hydrochloride in children. Constant, direct current, anodal iontophoresis of ranitidine was performed in vitro across dermatomed pig skin. The effect of donor vehicle, current intensity, and drug concentration were first examined using aqueous solutions. It was found that drug delivery was higher at pH 7 (donor: 5mM Tris) than pH 5.6 (donor: water). In the presence of low levels of competing background electrolyte, ranitidine delivery increased linearly with applied current but was independent of the donor drug concentration. The second part of the study evaluated two Pluronic(®) F-127 gels as potential vehicles for ranitidine delivery. The formulations were characterised in terms of apparent viscosity, conductivity and passive permeation measurements. Iontophoretic delivery of ranitidine was only slightly affected when delivered from the gels relative to aqueous solutions. Overall the results demonstrated that therapeutic <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> doses of ranitidine (neonates: 0.09-0.17 μmol/kg h; 1 month to 12 years: 0.36-0.71 μmol/kg h) could be easily achieved by transdermal iontophoresis with simple gel patches of <span class="hlt">practical</span> surface area (0.2-1.5 cm(2)/kg).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3061104','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3061104"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical and experimental advances in congenital and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cataracts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Churchill, Amanda; Graw, Jochen</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Cataracts (opacities of the lens) are frequent in the elderly, but rare in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Congenital cataracts (in industrialized countries) are mainly caused by mutations affecting lens development. Much of our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of cataractogenesis has come from the genetic analysis of affected families: there are contributions from genes coding for transcription factors (such as FoxE3, Maf, Pitx3) and structural proteins such as crystallins or connexins. In addition, there are contributions from enzymes affecting sugar pathways (particularly the galactose pathway) and from a quite unexpected area: axon guidance molecules like ephrins and their receptors. Cataractous mouse lenses can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines have now been characterized. Generally, most of the mouse mutants show a similar phenotype to their human counterparts; however, there are some remarkable differences. It should be noted that many mutations affect genes that are expressed not only in the lens, but also in tissues and organs outside the eye. There is increasing evidence for pleiotropic effects of these genes, and increasing consideration that cataracts may act as early and readily detectable biomarkers for a number of systemic syndromes. PMID:21402583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26249644','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26249644"><span id="translatedtitle">Standard instruction versus simulation: Educating registered nurses in the early recognition of patient deterioration in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> critical care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Leary, Jessica; Nash, Robyn; Lewis, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Identifying and stabilising deterioration in a child with significant clinical compromise is both a challenging and necessary role of the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> critical care nurse. Within adult critical care research, high fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has been shown to positively <span class="hlt">impact</span> learner outcomes regarding identification and management of a deteriorating patient; however, there is a paucity of evidence examining the use of HFPS in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> nursing education. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HFPS on nurses' self-efficacy and knowledge for recognising and managing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> deterioration. Further, participants' perceptions of the learning experiences specific to the identification and management of a deteriorating child were also explored. Registered nurses working in a tertiary-referral <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> critical care unit were recruited for this quasi-experimental study. Using a pre-test/post-test control-group design, participants were assigned to one of two learning experiences: HFPS or standard instruction. Following the learning experience, nurses were also invited to participate in semi-structured interviews. 30 nurses participated in the study (control n=15, experiment n=15). Participants in the HFPS intervention were most likely to demonstrate an increase in both perceived self-efficacy (p=<0.01) and knowledge (p=<0.01). No statistically significant change was observed in control group scores. The mean difference in self-efficacy gain score between the two groups was 5.67 score units higher for the experiment group compared to the control. HFPS also yielded higher follow-up knowledge scores (p=0.01) compared to standard instruction. Ten nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis of the interview data identified four themes: self-awareness, hands-on learning, teamwork, and maximising learning. The results of this study suggest that HFPS can positively influence nurses' self-efficacy and knowledge test scores</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239008"><span id="translatedtitle">What can volunteer co-providers contribute to health systems? The role of people living with HIV in the Thai <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV programme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tulloch, Olivia; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chasombat, Sanchai; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Theobald, Sally</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In Thailand people living with HIV (PLHIV) have played a major role in shaping policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span>. They have acted as volunteer co-providers, although their potential in terms of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> service provision has seldom been explored from a health systems perspective. We describe the Thai <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV care system and use both demand- and supply-side perspectives to explore the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, opportunities and challenges of PLHIV acting as volunteer co-providers. We employed qualitative methods to assess experiences and perceptions and triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Data were collected in Khon Kaen province, in the poorest Northeastern region of Thailand: three focus group discussions and two workshops (total participants n = 31) with co-providers and hospital staff; interviews with ART service-users (n = 35). Nationally, key informant interviews were conducted with policy actors (n = 20). Volunteer co-providers were found to be ideally placed to broker the link between clinic and communities for HIV infected children and played an important part in the vital psychosocial support component of HIV care. As co-providers they were recognized as having multiple roles linking and delivering services in clinics and communities. Clear emerging needs include strengthened coordination and training as well as strategies to support funding. Using motivated volunteers with a shared HIV status as co-providers for specific clinical services can contribute to strengthening health systems in Asia; they are critical players in delivering care (supply side) and being responsive to service-users needs (demand side). Co-providers blur the boundaries between these two spheres. Sustaining and optimising co-providers' contribution to health systems strengthening requires a health systems approach. Our findings help to guide policy makers and service providers on how to balance clinical priorities with psycho-social responsiveness and on how best to integrate the views and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239008"><span id="translatedtitle">What can volunteer co-providers contribute to health systems? The role of people living with HIV in the Thai <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV programme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tulloch, Olivia; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chasombat, Sanchai; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Theobald, Sally</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In Thailand people living with HIV (PLHIV) have played a major role in shaping policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span>. They have acted as volunteer co-providers, although their potential in terms of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> service provision has seldom been explored from a health systems perspective. We describe the Thai <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV care system and use both demand- and supply-side perspectives to explore the <span class="hlt">impact</span>, opportunities and challenges of PLHIV acting as volunteer co-providers. We employed qualitative methods to assess experiences and perceptions and triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Data were collected in Khon Kaen province, in the poorest Northeastern region of Thailand: three focus group discussions and two workshops (total participants n = 31) with co-providers and hospital staff; interviews with ART service-users (n = 35). Nationally, key informant interviews were conducted with policy actors (n = 20). Volunteer co-providers were found to be ideally placed to broker the link between clinic and communities for HIV infected children and played an important part in the vital psychosocial support component of HIV care. As co-providers they were recognized as having multiple roles linking and delivering services in clinics and communities. Clear emerging needs include strengthened coordination and training as well as strategies to support funding. Using motivated volunteers with a shared HIV status as co-providers for specific clinical services can contribute to strengthening health systems in Asia; they are critical players in delivering care (supply side) and being responsive to service-users needs (demand side). Co-providers blur the boundaries between these two spheres. Sustaining and optimising co-providers' contribution to health systems strengthening requires a health systems approach. Our findings help to guide policy makers and service providers on how to balance clinical priorities with psycho-social responsiveness and on how best to integrate the views and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...65a2028S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...65a2028S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Company Size on Manufacturing Improvement <span class="hlt">Practices</span>: An empirical study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Syan, C. S.; Ramoutar, K.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T&T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative <span class="hlt">impact</span>/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T&T manufacturers are still <span class="hlt">practicing</span> traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these <span class="hlt">practices</span> were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T&T manufacturers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51H3133F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51H3133F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Climate Change on Inland Northwest Soil Erosion Under Various Land Management <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farrell, P.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Brooks, E. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in climate are hypothesized to have a multitude of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the agricultural productivity of the inland Northwest of the United States. Much of the agricultural land in the region is composed of winter wheat and is managed under various tilling <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Soil erosion under these various tilling <span class="hlt">practices</span> and climate could be detrimental to the agricultural economy of the region and food security. We explore the susceptibility of the agricultural land of the region to erosion <span class="hlt">impacts</span> under future climate scenarios using a two-pronged approach using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. First, we assess the sensitivity of soil erosion to changes in climate variables including precipitation, temperature and precipitation intensity. This sensitivity analysis is done across several geographic regions, different hill slopes, soil types and land management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Secondly, we use downscaled climate projections from 20 climate models for the mid-21st century to develop probabilistic estimates of changes in soil erosion across the region. These projected changes are further contextualized using the sensitivity experiments. Finally, we examine whether changes in erosion due to climate change may be partially offset by changes in land management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25350216','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25350216"><span id="translatedtitle">Speaking to the deceased child: Australian health professional perspectives in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> end-of-life care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forster, Elizabeth M; Windsor, Carol</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Supporting a dying child and family surrounding the child's death is one of the most significant and challenging roles undertaken by health professionals in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> end-of-life care. An Australian study of parent and health-professional constructions of meanings around post-mortem care and communication revealed the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of health professionals speaking to a child after death. This <span class="hlt">practice</span> conveyed respect for the personhood of the deceased child, recognised the presence of the deceased child, and assisted in involving parents in their child's post-mortem care. Such findings illuminate an area of end-of-life-care <span class="hlt">practice</span> that is not often addressed. Talking to a deceased child appeared to be a socially symbolic <span class="hlt">practice</span> that may promote a continued bond between parent and child.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4259013','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4259013"><span id="translatedtitle">Arts <span class="hlt">practice</span> and disconnected youth in Australia: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and domains of change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wright, Peter; Davies, Christina; Haseman, Brad; Down, Barry; White, Mike; Rankin, Scott</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background: This paper describes research conducted with Big hART, Australia's most awarded participatory arts company. It considers three projects, LUCKY, GOLD and NGAPARTJI NGAPARTJI across separate sites in Tasmania, Western NSW and Northern Territory, respectively, in order to understand project <span class="hlt">impact</span> from the perspective of project participants, Arts workers, community members and funders. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 respondents. The data were coded thematically and analysed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Results: Seven broad domains of change were identified: psychosocial health; community; agency and behavioural change; the Art; economic effect; learning and identity. Conclusions: Experiences of participatory arts are interrelated in an ecology of <span class="hlt">practice</span> that is iterative, relational, developmental, temporal and contextually bound. This means that questions of <span class="hlt">impact</span> are contingent, and there is no one path that participants travel or single measure that can adequately capture the richness and diversity of experience. Consequently, it is the productive tensions between the domains of change that are important and the way they are animated through Arts <span class="hlt">practice</span> that provides sign posts towards the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Big hART projects. PMID:25530802</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545788"><span id="translatedtitle">Specialist <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentistry in Sweden 2008 - a 25-year perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>International Journal of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in combination with dental treatment needs (27%), followed by medical conditions/disability (18%), and high caries activity (15%). The use of different techniques for conscious sedation as well as general anaesthesia had also increased. Conclusions. The referrals to <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentistry continue to increase, leading to a heavy work load for the same number of specialists. Thus, the need for more <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dentists remains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8476970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8476970"><span id="translatedtitle">Case definitions for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> AIDS: the Zambian experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chintu, C; Malek, A; Nyumbu, M; Luo, C; Masona, J; DuPont, H L; Zumla, A</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>For the purpose of surveillance of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in developing countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended criteria for the clinical case definition of AIDS in adults and children. In a preliminary examination of children in Zambia a number of patients with obvious AIDS did not fit the published WHO case definition for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> AIDS. Based on this the Zambia National AIDS Surveillance Committee designed local criteria for the clinical case definition of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> AIDS. We compared the Zambian criteria with the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> AIDS by studying 134 consecutively admitted children to one of the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> wards at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka. Twenty-nine of the patients were HIV-1 seropositive and 105 were HIV-1 seronegative. Among the 29 HIV-seropositive patients, the Zambian criteria identified 23, and the WHO criteria identified 20 children as having AIDS. The 105 HIV-seronegative children were classified as having AIDS in 9 cases by the Zambian criteria and in 38 cases by the WHO criteria. These results give the Zambian criteria for the diagnosis of AIDS a sensitivity of 79.3%, a specificity of 91.4% and a positive predictive value of 86.8% compared to a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 64% and a positive predictive value of 38% for the WHO criteria. The current WHO criteria are inadequate for the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> AIDS. The need to refine the WHO criteria for the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> AIDS is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430158','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3430158"><span id="translatedtitle">Risk Factors for Increased Severity of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Medication Administration Errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sears, Kim; Goodman, William M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Patients' risks from medication errors are widely acknowledged. Yet not all errors, if they occur, have the same risks for severe consequences. Facing resource constraints, policy makers could prioritize factors having the greatest severe–outcome risks. This study assists such prioritization by identifying work-related risk factors most clearly associated with more severe consequences. Data from three Canadian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> centres were collected, without identifiers, on actual or potential errors that occurred. Three hundred seventy-two errors were reported, with outcome severities ranging from time delays up to fatalities. Four factors correlated significantly with increased risk for more severe outcomes: insufficient training; overtime; precepting a student; and off-service patient. Factors' <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on severity also vary with error class: for wrong-time errors, the factors precepting a student or working overtime significantly increase severe-outcomes risk. For other types, caring for an off-service patient has greatest severity risk. To expand such research, better standardization is needed for categorizing outcome severities. PMID:23968607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308412&keyword=Burns&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79306716&CFTOKEN=59191049','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308412&keyword=Burns&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79306716&CFTOKEN=59191049"><span id="translatedtitle">Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA): Applications for Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Urban Growth and the use of Low <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Development <span class="hlt">Practices</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>New tools and functionality have been incorporated into the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of urban growth and evaluate the effects of low <span class="hlt">impact</span> development (LID) <span class="hlt">practices</span>. AGWA (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26010006','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26010006"><span id="translatedtitle">Training <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Therapists to Deliver Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy (CIMT) in Sub-Saharan Africa.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coker-Bolt, Patty; DeLuca, Stephanie C; Ramey, Sharon L</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Hospitals and therapists in developing countries often seek to learn how to deliver new forms of evidenced-based <span class="hlt">practice</span> (EBP), including <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). This study examines a partnership implemented in Ethiopia, which trained therapists in CIMT and proposes a framework for sustainable EBP training. The aim of this study is to apply a translational and implementation framework to build capacity for CIMT in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, that included intensive in-country training and hands-on delivery with patients, followed by clinical implementation and feedback. A goal was to develop a locally feasible, culturally relevant form of CIMT. We framed our partnership model in terms of an implementation science model for therapists from multiple hospitals in Addis Ababa. Measures included workshop attendance, delivery of the curriculum and assessment of therapist's knowledge, skills and feedback postworkshop. We established a successful partnership with a lead hospital and completed training for 12 therapists from five hospitals who demonstrated increases in knowledge and skills following training. We developed a new, <span class="hlt">practically</span> useful, culturally appropriate form of CIMT for later implementation. This partnership was limited to training of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> therapists in sub-Saharan Africa. Future studies will report on therapists' ability to integrate this EBP training into clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> as well as future training.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24482286"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of legislative standards on batterer intervention program <span class="hlt">practices</span> and characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boal, Ashley L; Mankowski, Eric S</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Changes in social policy are often pursued with the goal of reducing a social problem by improving prevention efforts, intervention program <span class="hlt">practices</span>, or participant outcomes. State legislative standards for intimate partner violence intervention programs have been adopted nearly universally across the US, however, we do not know whether such standards actually achieve the intended goal of affecting programs' policies and <span class="hlt">practices</span>. To assess the effect that batterer intervention program (BIP) standards have on policies and <span class="hlt">practices</span> of programs, this study used longitudinal surveys collected as part of an ongoing evaluation conducted from 2001 to the present to compare intervention program (N = 74) characteristics and <span class="hlt">practices</span> at three time points before and after the adoption of standards in Oregon. Analyses were conducted to examine all BIPs in Oregon at each time point, as well as change among a subset of programs in existence at all survey assessments. Results indicate that across all programs, the use of mixed gender group co-facilitation increased by 14% between 2004 and 2008, while program length increased by approximately 12 weeks. However, other <span class="hlt">practices</span> such as programs' coordination with community partners were unchanged. Analyses of within-program change revealed fewer differences, with only program length increasing significantly over the three assessments. These and other findings indicate that while standards affected program length as intended, other <span class="hlt">practices</span> commonly addressed by legislative standards remained unchanged. The findings provide needed information regarding programs' compliance with components of the standards, the potential need for compliance monitoring, and the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of state standards on program effectiveness and on the prevalence of intimate partner violence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2443242','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2443242"><span id="translatedtitle">Cities of Consumption: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Corporate <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on the Health of Urban Populations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Galea, Sandro</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The increasing concentration of the world’s population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and we assess strategies used to modify <span class="hlt">practices</span> that harm health. PMID:18437582</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18437582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18437582"><span id="translatedtitle">Cities of consumption: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of corporate <span class="hlt">practices</span> on the health of urban populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freudenberg, Nicholas; Galea, Sandro</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The increasing concentration of the world's population in cities and the growing accumulation of political and economic power by corporations create new threats to health and opportunities for improving global health. By considering the intersection of these two fundamental social determinants of well-being, we elucidate some of the mechanisms by which they influence the health of urban populations. After reviewing the changing historical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of corporations on cities, we focus on the growth of consumption as a leading cause of mortality and morbidity and describe how the food, tobacco, automobile, and other industries promote unhealthy behaviors and lifestyles in urban settings. Cities are also sites for developing alternatives to unhealthy corporate <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and we assess strategies used to modify <span class="hlt">practices</span> that harm health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152544"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the perceived <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an interprofessional childhood obesity course on competencies for collaborative <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iachini, Aidyn L; Dunn, Brianne L; Blake, Christine; Blake, Elizabeth W</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Interprofessional education (IPE) is needed to prepare health professional students to address the complexities of childhood obesity in <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This mixed-method study sought to evaluate the perceived <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a childhood obesity IPE intervention on health professional students' collaborative competency development within two domains: roles/responsibilities and teams/teamwork. Fourteen health professional students participated in this mixed-methods study. Quantitative data were collected through pre/post surveys, while qualitative data were collected through reflection assignments. Survey findings indicated that students reported significant increases in growth within both interprofessional competency domains. Qualitative data elaborated on the types of learning students experienced relative to each domain. Implications of this study for research and <span class="hlt">practice</span> related to IPE to address complex health issues, such as childhood obesity, are shared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152544','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27152544"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the perceived <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an interprofessional childhood obesity course on competencies for collaborative <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Iachini, Aidyn L; Dunn, Brianne L; Blake, Christine; Blake, Elizabeth W</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Interprofessional education (IPE) is needed to prepare health professional students to address the complexities of childhood obesity in <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This mixed-method study sought to evaluate the perceived <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a childhood obesity IPE intervention on health professional students' collaborative competency development within two domains: roles/responsibilities and teams/teamwork. Fourteen health professional students participated in this mixed-methods study. Quantitative data were collected through pre/post surveys, while qualitative data were collected through reflection assignments. Survey findings indicated that students reported significant increases in growth within both interprofessional competency domains. Qualitative data elaborated on the types of learning students experienced relative to each domain. Implications of this study for research and <span class="hlt">practice</span> related to IPE to address complex health issues, such as childhood obesity, are shared. PMID:27152544</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20050488','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20050488"><span id="translatedtitle">New graduate burnout: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of professional <span class="hlt">practice</span> environment, workplace civility, and empowerment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laschinger, Heather K Spence; Finegan, Joan; Wilk, Piotr</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The future of professional nursing depends on finding ways to create high-quality work environments that retain newcomers to the profession. The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effect of supportive professional <span class="hlt">practice</span> environments, civil working relationships, and empowerment on new graduates' experiences of burnout at work. The results support previous evidence of the importance of working environments that enable new graduates to <span class="hlt">practice</span> according to professional standards learned in their educational programs. Further, the results provide a more comprehensive understanding of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of workplace conditions on new graduate burnout by demonstrating the additive value of working in collegial work settings in which nurses respected others and refrain from incivility behaviors in their day to day work. Given the current nursing shortage, every effort must be made to ensure that new graduates are exposed to high-quality work environments that engage them with their work.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809729','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4809729"><span id="translatedtitle">Does research through Structured Operational Research and Training (SORT IT) courses <span class="hlt">impact</span> policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shewade, H. D.; Tripathy, J. P.; Guillerm, N.; Tayler-Smith, K.; Berger, S. Dar; Bissell, K.; Reid, A. J.; Zachariah, R.; Harries, A. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Setting: Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses are well known for their output, with nearly 90% of participants completing the course and publishing in scientific journals. Objective: We assessed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of research papers on policy and <span class="hlt">practice</span> that resulted from six SORT IT courses initiated between July 2012 and March 2013. Design: This was a cross-sectional study involving e-mail-based, self-administered questionnaires and telephone/skype/in-person responses from first and/or senior co-authors of course papers. A descriptive content analysis of the responses was performed and categorised into themes. Results: Of 72 participants, 63 (88%) completed the course. Course output included 81 submitted papers, of which 76 (94%) were published. Of the 81 papers assessed, 45 (55%) contributed to a change in policy and/or <span class="hlt">practice</span>: 29 contributed to government policy/<span class="hlt">practice</span> change (20 at national, 4 at subnational and 5 at hospital level), 11 to non-government organisational policy change and 5 to reinforcing existing policy. The changes ranged from modifications of monitoring and evaluation tools, to redrafting of national guidelines, to scaling up existing policies. Conclusion: More than half of the SORT IT course papers contributed to a change in policy and/or <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Future assessments should include more robust and independent verification of the reported change(s) with all stakeholders. PMID:27051612</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658974"><span id="translatedtitle">Mindfulness and False-Memories: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Mindfulness <span class="hlt">Practice</span> on the DRM Paradigm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenstreich, Eyal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mindfulness <span class="hlt">practice</span> is the cultivation of awareness to the present moment and has been shown in recent years to have beneficial effects on cognition. However, to date, the data regarding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of mindfulness on memory--and specifically on memory distortions--is scarce and incomplete. The present study was aimed to examine whether mindfulness <span class="hlt">practice</span> would have an effect on true and false memories. To this end, the effect of mindfulness meditation <span class="hlt">practice</span> on memory performance was examined in two experiments in which false memories were provoked using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, college students were randomly divided into either a 5-week mindfulness-<span class="hlt">practice</span> group (n = 29) or a waitlist control group (n = 22). In Experiment 2, college students were randomly divided into either a brief mindfulness session (n = 21) or a mind-wandering control group (n = 19). The results indicated that mindfulness increased the recognition of true memories with no effect on spontaneous false-memories, yet increased the rate of provoked false-memories. These findings are discussed in terms of memory sensitivity and response bias, and it is argued that mindfulness may have a lesser effect on encoding processes than previously suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26215296"><span id="translatedtitle">Spirituality and Aging in Place: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Extreme Climatic Conditions on Domestic Gardening <span class="hlt">Practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adams, Joanne; Pascal, Jan; Dickson-Swift, Virginia</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is limited research exploring how domestic water restrictions imposed as a result of drought conditions <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon the lives of independently living older people. Within this age group (60 years plus), the domestic garden frequently forms an intrinsic component of ongoing health and well-being. Gardening <span class="hlt">practice</span> offers components of both mental and physical activity and, for many older people, leads to emotional and spiritual connection on a number of levels. The capacity of older people to maintain a garden during a period of water restrictions is greatly reduced, and the resulting <span class="hlt">impact</span> on health and well-being is considerable. A recent study, conducted in south-eastern Australia, aimed to determine the benefits to health and well-being of maintaining a domestic garden for older people and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of water restrictions on garden <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This occurred at a time following a prolonged period of drought and, in central Victoria, a complete ban on outside watering. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 gardeners aged between 60 and 83 who had tended their garden over an extended period. The lived experience of gardening was explored through hermeneutic phenomenological analysis. Clear benefits to health and well-being were established, and yet, the essence of this experience lay in the capacity of gardeners to remain connected to their garden despite change. The crisis imposed by ongoing drought and restricted use of water generated a strong impetus for adaptation, resilience and acceptance of change. The spiritual nature of gardening <span class="hlt">practice</span> clearly emerged and appeared to intensify the experience of gardening and consolidate adaption to change on a number of levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774008','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3774008"><span id="translatedtitle">The Family Medicine Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in Washington State</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Darney, Blair G.; Weaver, Marcia R.; Stevens, Nancy; Kimball, Jeana; Prager, Sarah W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Non-complicated spontaneous abortion cases should be counseled about the full range of management approaches, including uterine evacuation using manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). The Residency Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intensive, multidimensional intervention designed to facilitate implementation of office-based management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in family medicine residency settings. The purpose of this study was to test the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the RTI-MM on self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion. METHODS We used a pretest/posttest one group study design and a web-based, anonymous survey to collect data on knowledge, attitudes, perceived barriers, and <span class="hlt">practice</span> of office-based management of spontaneous abortion. We used multivariable models to estimate incident relative risks and accounted for data clustering at the residency site level. RESULTS Our sample included 441 residents and faculty from 10 family medicine residency sites. Our findings show a positive association between the RTI-MM and self-reported use of MVA for management of spontaneous abortion (adjusted RR=9.11 [CI=4.20-19.78]) and were robust to model specification. Male gender, doing any type of management of spontaneous abortion (eg, expectant, medication), other on-site reproductive health training interventions, and support staff knowledge scores were also significant correlates of physician <span class="hlt">practice</span> of MVA. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that the RTI-MM was successful in influencing the <span class="hlt">practice</span> of management of spontaneous abortion using MVA in this population and that support staff knowledge may <span class="hlt">impact</span> physician <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Integrating MVA into family medicine settings would potentially improve access to evidence-based, comprehensive care for women. PMID:23378077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24251868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24251868"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> models in motion: requirements for model-based decision support at the bedside.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barrett, Jeffrey S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Optimal <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pharmacotherapy is reliant on a detailed understanding of the individual patient including their developmental status and disease state as well as the pharmaceutical agents he/she is receiving for treatment or management of side effects. Our appreciation for size and maturation effects on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) phenomenon has improved to the point that we can develop predictive models that permit us to individualize therapy, especially in the situation where we are monitoring drug effects or therapeutic concentrations. The growth of efforts to guide <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pharmacotherapy via model-based decision support necessitates a coordinated and systematic approach to ensuring reliable and robust output to caregivers that represents the current standard of care and adheres to governance imposed by the host institution or coalition responsible. Model-based systems which guide caregivers on dosing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients in a more comprehensive manner are in development at several institutions. Care must be taken that these systems provide robust guidance with the current best <span class="hlt">practice</span>. These systems must evolve as new information becomes available and ultimately are best constructed from diverse data representing global input on demographics, ethnic / racial diversity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Multidisciplinary involvement at the project team level is key to the ultimate clinical valuation. Likewise, early engagement of clinical champions is also critical for the success of model-based tools. Adherence to regulatory requirements as well as best <span class="hlt">practices</span> with respect to software development and testing are essential if these tools are to be used as part of the routine standard of care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24251868','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24251868"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> models in motion: requirements for model-based decision support at the bedside.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barrett, Jeffrey S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Optimal <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pharmacotherapy is reliant on a detailed understanding of the individual patient including their developmental status and disease state as well as the pharmaceutical agents he/she is receiving for treatment or management of side effects. Our appreciation for size and maturation effects on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) phenomenon has improved to the point that we can develop predictive models that permit us to individualize therapy, especially in the situation where we are monitoring drug effects or therapeutic concentrations. The growth of efforts to guide <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pharmacotherapy via model-based decision support necessitates a coordinated and systematic approach to ensuring reliable and robust output to caregivers that represents the current standard of care and adheres to governance imposed by the host institution or coalition responsible. Model-based systems which guide caregivers on dosing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients in a more comprehensive manner are in development at several institutions. Care must be taken that these systems provide robust guidance with the current best <span class="hlt">practice</span>. These systems must evolve as new information becomes available and ultimately are best constructed from diverse data representing global input on demographics, ethnic / racial diversity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Multidisciplinary involvement at the project team level is key to the ultimate clinical valuation. Likewise, early engagement of clinical champions is also critical for the success of model-based tools. Adherence to regulatory requirements as well as best <span class="hlt">practices</span> with respect to software development and testing are essential if these tools are to be used as part of the routine standard of care. PMID:24251868</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294079','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4294079"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> models in motion: requirements for model-based decision support at the bedside</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Barrett, Jeffrey S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Optimal <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pharmacotherapy is reliant on a detailed understanding of the individual patient including their developmental status and disease state as well as the pharmaceutical agents he/she is receiving for treatment or management of side effects. Our appreciation for size and maturation effects on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) phenomenon has improved to the point that we can develop predictive models that permit us to individualize therapy, especially in the situation where we are monitoring drug effects or therapeutic concentrations. The growth of efforts to guide <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pharmacotherapy via model-based decision support necessitates a coordinated and systematic approach to ensuring reliable and robust output to caregivers that represents the current standard of care and adheres to governance imposed by the host institution or coalition responsible. Model-based systems which guide caregivers on dosing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients in a more comprehensive manner are in development at several institutions. Care must be taken that these systems provide robust guidance with the current best <span class="hlt">practice</span>. These systems must evolve as new information becomes available and ultimately are best constructed from diverse data representing global input on demographics, ethnic / racial diversity, diet and other lifestyle factors. Multidisciplinary involvement at the project team level is key to the ultimate clinical valuation. Likewise, early engagement of clinical champions is also critical for the success of model-based tools. Adherence to regulatory requirements as well as best <span class="hlt">practices</span> with respect to software development and testing are essential if these tools are to be used as part of the routine standard of care. PMID:24251868</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4604087','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4604087"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Market Size and Reporting Gaps for <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> TB in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan: Supporting Improved Treatment of Childhood TB in the Advent of New Medicines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective of the Study We sought to understand gaps in reporting childhood TB cases among public and private sector health facilities (dubbed “non-NTP” facilities) outside the network of national TB control programmes, and the resulting <span class="hlt">impact</span> of under-reporting on estimates of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> disease burden and market demand for new medicines. Methodology Exploratory assessments were carried out in Indonesia, Nigeria and Pakistan, reaching a range of facility types in two selected areas of each country. Record reviews and interviews of healthcare providers were carried out to assess numbers of unreported <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> TB cases, diagnostic pathways followed and treatment regimens prescribed. Main Findings A total of 985 unreported diagnosed <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> TB cases were identified over a three month period in 2013 in Indonesia from 64 facilities, 463 in Pakistan from 35 facilities and 24 in Nigeria from 20 facilities. These represent an absolute additional annualised yield to 2013 notifications reported to WHO of 15% for Indonesia, 2% for Nigeria and 7% for Pakistan. Only 12% of all facilities provided age and sex-disaggregated data. Findings highlight the challenges of confirming childhood TB. Diagnosis patterns in Nigeria highlight a very low suspicion for childhood TB. Providers note the need for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> medicines aligned to WHO recommendations. Conclusion: How Market Data Can Support Better Public Health Interventions This study emphasises the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of incomplete reporting on the estimation of disease burden and potential market size of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> TB medicines. Further studies on “hubs” (facilities treating large numbers of childhood TB cases) will improve our understanding of the epidemic, support introduction efforts for new treatments and better measure markets for new <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> medicines. PMID:26460607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21130968"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care unit: current setting and organization in 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fraisse, Alain; Le Bel, Stéphane; Mas, Bertrand; Macrae, Duncan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Over recent decades, specialized <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care has emerged as a central component in the management of critically ill, neonatal, <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> and adult patients with congenital and acquired heart disease. The majority of high-volume centres (dealing with over 300 surgical cases per year) have dedicated <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care units, with the smallest programmes more likely to care for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac patients in mixed <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> or adult intensive care units. Specialized nursing staff are also a crucial presence at the patient's bedside for quality of care. A <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care programme should have patients (preoperative and postoperative) grouped together geographically, and should provide proximity to the operating theatre, catheterization laboratory and radiology department, as well as to the regular ward. Age-appropriate medical equipment must be provided. An optimal strategy for running a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care programme should include: multidisciplinary collaboration and involvement with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiology, anaesthesia, cardiac surgery and many other subspecialties; a risk-stratification strategy for quantifying perioperative risk; a personalized patient approach; and anticipatory care. Finally, progressive withdrawal from heavy <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care management should be institutionalized. Although the countries of the European Union do not share any common legislation on the structure and organization of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care or <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac intensive care, any <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiac surgery programme in France that is agreed by the French Health Ministry must perform at least '150 major procedures per year in children' and must provide a 'specialized <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care unit'.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25621804"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> reduced intensity conditioning: analysis of centre strategies on regimens and definitions by the EBMT <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Diseases and Complications and Quality of Life WP.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lawitschka, A; Faraci, M; Yaniv, I; Veys, P; Bader, P; Wachowiak, J; Socie, G; Aljurf, M D; Arat, M; Boelens, J J; Duarte, R; Tichelli, A; Peters, C</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The aim of this analysis was to explore the diversity of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> allo-SCT in daily <span class="hlt">practice</span> across Europe. Data from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Promise database from 1994 to 2008 were supplemented by a survey of EBMT centres performing <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> allo-SCT on the current policy asking for the underlying diseases and for the drug combinations. Records from 161 centres from 30 countries were analysed and 139 various RIC regimens were reported. More centres applied RIC for malignant rather than for non-malignant diseases. In general, fludarabine (FLU)-based regimens predominated except for BU-based regimens in myeloid malignancies and haemoglobinopathies. Treosulfan (TREO) was mainly applied for unspecified malignant diseases and for haemophagocytic diseases. FLU-based regimens revealed the greatest number of different combinations. Correlating the number of regimens with the number of treating centres revealed the lowest variety in FLU and the highest variety in TBI and TREO. FLU/melphalane and FLU/CY were the most frequent combinations. This extreme heterogeneity in RIC may influence both the efficacy and the safety of the procedures, which requires further investigation. Optimization and standardization of RIC is the final goal to provide a platform for future prospective studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51O1615K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51O1615K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Uncertainty in SWAT Model Simulations on Consequent Decisions on Optimal Crop Management <span class="hlt">Practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnan, N.; Sudheer, K. P.; Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The diminishing quantities of non-renewable forms of energy have caused an increasing interest in the renewable sources of energy, such as biofuel, in the recent years. However, the demand for biofuel has created a concern for allocating grain between the fuel and food industry. Consequently, appropriate regulations that limit grain based ethanol production have been developed and are put to <span class="hlt">practice</span>, which resulted in cultivating perennial grasses like Switch grass and Miscanthus to meet the additional cellulose demand. A change in cropping and management <span class="hlt">practice</span>, therefore, is essential to cater the conflicting requirement for food and biofuel, which has a long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the downstream water quality. Therefore it is essential to implement optimal cropping <span class="hlt">practices</span> to reduce the pollutant loadings. Simulation models in conjunction with optimization procedures are useful in developing efficient cropping <span class="hlt">practices</span> in such situations. One such model is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), which can simulate both the water and the nutrient cycle, as well as quantify long-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in management <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the watershed. It is envisaged that the SWAT model, along with an optimization algorithm, can be used to identify the optimal cropping pattern that achieves the minimum guaranteed grain production with less downstream pollution, while maximizing the biomass production for biofuel generation. However, the SWAT simulations do have a certain level of uncertainty that needs to be accounted for before making decisions. Therefore, the objectives of this study are twofold: (i) to understand how model uncertainties influence decision-making, and (ii) to develop appropriate management scenarios that account the uncertainty. The simulation uncertainty of the SWAT model is assessed using Shuffled Complex Evolutionary Metropolis Algorithm (SCEM). With the data collected from St. Joseph basin, IN, USA, the preliminary results indicate that model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PhDT........98G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PhDT........98G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Lesson Study on the Teaching <span class="hlt">Practice</span> of Middle School Science Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grove, Michael C.</p> <p></p> <p>Despite wave after wave of educational reform in the United States our students continue to lag behind their peers in other industrialized countries on virtually all measures of academic achievement. Effective professional development (PD) is seen as a key to improving instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span> and therefore student learning, but traditional forms of PD have been wholly unsuccessful in changing teaching <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Over the last two decades an emerging body of research has identified some key features of effective PD that seem to create meaningful change and improvement in instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Some of this research highlights the promise of adapting Japanese lesson study (LS) to the American context as a means of incrementally improving instruction. Much of the existing research around LS is descriptive in nature and offers little insight into if and how participation in LS <span class="hlt">impacts</span> subsequent instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This study utilized case study methodology to examine the instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span> of one group of four middle school science teachers before, during, and after participation in LS. The study attempted to identify specific learning outcomes of a LS process, to identify influences on teacher learning during LS, and to identify subsequent changes in the instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span> of participants resulting from participation in LS. Key findings from the study include significant teacher learning derived from the LS process, the identification of influences that enhanced or inhibited teacher learning, and clear evidence that participants successfully integrated learning from the LS into subsequent instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Learning outcomes included deepening of subject matter knowledge, increased understanding of student thinking and abilities, clarity of expectations for student performance, recognition of the ineffectiveness of past instructional <span class="hlt">practice</span>, specific instructional strategies, shared student learning goals, and an increased commitment to future</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743702','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4743702"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical implications of reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Thompson, Corinne N.; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Vinh, Phat Voong; Duc, Anh Nguyen; Wolbers, Marcel; Vinh, Ha; Campbell, James I.; Ngoc, Dung Tran Thi; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Thanh, Tuyen Ha; The, Hao Chung; Nguyen, To Nguyen Thi; Lan, Nguyen Phu Huong; Parry, Christopher M.; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Thanh, Duy Pham; Baker, Stephen</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objectives We aimed to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fluoroquinolone resistance on the clinical outcome of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> shigellosis patients treated with fluoroquinolones in southern Vietnam. Such information is important to inform therapeutic management for infections caused by this increasingly drug-resistant pathogen, responsible for high morbidity and mortality in young children globally. Methods Clinical information and bacterial isolates were derived from a randomized controlled trial comparing gatifloxacin with ciprofloxacin for the treatment of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> shigellosis. Time–kill experiments were performed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of MIC on the in vitro growth of Shigella and Cox regression modelling was used to compare clinical outcome between treatments and Shigella species. Results Shigella flexneri patients treated with gatifloxacin had significantly worse outcomes than those treated with ciprofloxacin. However, the MICs of fluoroquinolones were not significantly associated with poorer outcome. The presence of S83L and A87T mutations in the gyrA gene significantly increased MICs of fluoroquinolones. Finally, elevated MICs and the presence of the qnrS gene allowed Shigella to replicate efficiently in vitro in high concentrations of ciprofloxacin. Conclusions We found that below the CLSI breakpoint, there was no association between MIC and clinical outcome in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> shigellosis infections. However, S. flexneri patients had worse clinical outcomes when treated with gatifloxacin in this study regardless of MIC. Additionally, Shigella harbouring the qnrS gene are able to replicate efficiently in high concentrations of ciprofloxacin and we hypothesize that such strains possess a competitive advantage against fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains due to enhanced shedding and transmission. PMID:26679253</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25301176"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Depression frequently co-occurs with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boy&pg=7&id=EJ1016884','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=boy&pg=7&id=EJ1016884"><span id="translatedtitle">Broken Voices or a Broken Curriculum? The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research on UK School Choral <span class="hlt">Practice</span> with Boys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ashley, Martin R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Work such as that of John Cooksey on boys' changing voices has influenced choral <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the USA and in certain UK youth choirs, but has hitherto had little <span class="hlt">impact</span> in UK schools where many teachers continue to believe that boys' voices "break". Different <span class="hlt">practices</span> are found across the independent and maintained sectors of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changing+AND+China+AND+perception&id=EJ892172','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Changing+AND+China+AND+perception&id=EJ892172"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Training on Change in <span class="hlt">Practice</span> for Education Assistants in a Group of International Private Schools in Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rose, Richard; Forlin, Chris</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports research that evaluated the efficacy of training for education assistants and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> upon changing <span class="hlt">practices</span> in a group of private international schools in Hong Kong, China. Two cohorts of education assistants received training through an education institute. The focus was on supporting and fostering inclusive <span class="hlt">practices</span> in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=4th+AND+range&pg=3&id=ED524458','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=4th+AND+range&pg=3&id=ED524458"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Test-Taking on NJ ASK 3, 4, and 5 Language Arts Scores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rohrman, Susan T.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the effectiveness of a pilot program utilizing <span class="hlt">practice</span> standardized test questions for 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders in an economically disadvantaged school and evaluated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the pilot program on pre- and post-test <span class="hlt">practice</span> tests in language arts literacy and on the 2009 New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=area+AND+65&id=ED520555','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=area+AND+65&id=ED520555"><span id="translatedtitle">Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership <span class="hlt">Practices</span> and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McFarlane, Donovan A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership <span class="hlt">practices</span> of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate <span class="hlt">impact</span> using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership <span class="hlt">Practices</span> Inventory" ("LPI") 360 Online was used…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=223974','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=223974"><span id="translatedtitle">Evalution of Long-Term <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Conservation <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Within the Little River Watershed Using the SWAT Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The SWAT model was used to simulate the long-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of conservation <span class="hlt">practices</span> implemented within the South Georgia Little River Watershed on streamflow hydrology and water quality. Typical <span class="hlt">practices</span> which have been implemented within the watershed include nutrient management, residue manageme...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24798609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24798609"><span id="translatedtitle">Observational gait assessment tools in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>--a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rathinam, Chandrasekar; Bateman, Andrew; Peirson, Janet; Skinner, Jane</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Instrumented gait analysis (IGA) is an expensive technique used to objectively detect gait abnormalities in children. Observational gait assessment is considered as a cost effective alternate for IGA in regular clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This article is aimed at systematically reviewing the available <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> gait analysis tools and examines their reliability and validity compared to IGA. This review also examines the structure of these tools, their clinical use and limitations. Articles were searched from PubMed, CINHL, AMED, BNI, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane library from the earliest record on the database to December 2012. Hand searches were carried out in a few journals. Studies that examined children's gait using a structured assessment tool were included and analysed for their quality, reliability and validity. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of methodology and reliability and validity. Five observational gait tools for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and one for children with Downs Syndrome were identified. Nine studies related to children with CP were enrolled for this review. None of the tools have accomplished the level of IGA's consistency. Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) was found to have better reliability and validity than the other tools. Very limited studies were available for most of the gait assessment tools therefore their clinical use cannot be judged based on the existing evidence. EVGS was found to have better concurrent validity and reliability and it should be considered to assess CP gait in regular <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Future work to investigate the use of low cost technology to improve observers' accuracy of EVGS is suggested.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24798609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24798609"><span id="translatedtitle">Observational gait assessment tools in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>--a systematic review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rathinam, Chandrasekar; Bateman, Andrew; Peirson, Janet; Skinner, Jane</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Instrumented gait analysis (IGA) is an expensive technique used to objectively detect gait abnormalities in children. Observational gait assessment is considered as a cost effective alternate for IGA in regular clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span>. This article is aimed at systematically reviewing the available <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> gait analysis tools and examines their reliability and validity compared to IGA. This review also examines the structure of these tools, their clinical use and limitations. Articles were searched from PubMed, CINHL, AMED, BNI, EMBASE, PEDro and Cochrane library from the earliest record on the database to December 2012. Hand searches were carried out in a few journals. Studies that examined children's gait using a structured assessment tool were included and analysed for their quality, reliability and validity. Pre-established criteria were used to judge the quality of methodology and reliability and validity. Five observational gait tools for children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and one for children with Downs Syndrome were identified. Nine studies related to children with CP were enrolled for this review. None of the tools have accomplished the level of IGA's consistency. Edinburgh Visual Gait Score (EVGS) was found to have better reliability and validity than the other tools. Very limited studies were available for most of the gait assessment tools therefore their clinical use cannot be judged based on the existing evidence. EVGS was found to have better concurrent validity and reliability and it should be considered to assess CP gait in regular <span class="hlt">practice</span>. Future work to investigate the use of low cost technology to improve observers' accuracy of EVGS is suggested. PMID:24798609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........23A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT........23A"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy Market Transparency: Analyzing the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Constraint Relaxation and Out-of-Market Correction <span class="hlt">Practices</span> in Electric Energy Markets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al-Abdullah, Yousef Mohammad</p> <p></p> <p>This work presents research on <span class="hlt">practices</span> in the day-ahead electric energy market, including replication <span class="hlt">practices</span> and reliability coordinators used by some market operators to demonstrate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> these <span class="hlt">practices</span> have on market outcomes. The <span class="hlt">practice</span> of constraint relaxations similar to those an Independent System Operator (ISO) might perform in day-ahead market models is implemented. The benefits of these <span class="hlt">practices</span> are well understood by the industry; however, the implications these <span class="hlt">practices</span> have on market outcomes and system security have not been thoroughly investigated. By solving a day-ahead market model with and without select constraint relaxations and comparing the resulting market outcomes and possible effects on system security, the effect of these constraint relaxation <span class="hlt">practices</span> is demonstrated. Proposed market solutions are often infeasible because constraint relaxation <span class="hlt">practices</span> and approximations that are incorporated into market models. Therefore, the dispatch solution must be corrected to ensure its feasibility. The <span class="hlt">practice</span> of correcting the proposed dispatch solution after the market is solved is known as out-of-market corrections (OMCs), defined as any action an operator takes that modifies a proposed day-ahead dispatch solution to ensure operating and reliability requirements. The way in which OMCs affect market outcomes is illustrated through the use of different corrective procedures. The objective of the work presented is to demonstrate the implications of these industry <span class="hlt">practices</span> and assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> these <span class="hlt">practices</span> have on market outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kirkpatrick&id=EJ894747','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kirkpatrick&id=EJ894747"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of an Educational Development Programme on Teaching <span class="hlt">Practice</span> of Academics at a Research-Intensive University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cilliers, Francois J.; Herman, Nicoline</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Evidence of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of educational development (ED) programmes on faculty is often not gathered beyond ascertaining the immediate reactions of participants. This paper reports the results of a study to determine what level of <span class="hlt">impact</span> an ED programme at a university has had on academics' teaching <span class="hlt">practice</span> over time. Kirkpatrick's framework…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thesis+AND+Research+AND+education&pg=6&id=EJ953720','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=thesis+AND+Research+AND+education&pg=6&id=EJ953720"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Research Training and Research Codes of <span class="hlt">Practice</span> on Submission of Doctoral Degrees: An Exploratory Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Humphrey, Robin; Marshall, Neill; Leonardo, Laura</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The paper examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the transformations in doctoral education in the arts, humanities and social sciences in the United Kingdom over the past decade. It focuses on the introduction of formal research training and codes of research <span class="hlt">practice</span> and in the first longitudinal candidate cohort study examines their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on doctoral outcomes,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18033612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18033612"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensumotor transformation of input devices and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on <span class="hlt">practice</span> and task difficulty.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sutter, C</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>In the present study, the usability of two laptop input devices, touchpad and trackpoint, is evaluated. The focus is set on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of sensumotor transformation of input devices on <span class="hlt">practice</span> and task difficulty. Thirty novices and 14 experts operated either touchpad or trackpoint over a period of 1600 trials of a point-click task. As hypothesized, novices and experts operated the touchpad by 15% faster compared to the trackpoint. For novices, performance rose distinctly and levelled off after 960 trials. This consolidation occurred earlier than reported in literature (1400-1600 trials) and, contrary to the assumption, learning was similar for touchpad and trackpoint. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of task difficulty dropped remarkably by <span class="hlt">practice</span>, which points at a more general than specific task learning. In conclusion, ergonomic guidelines can be derived for the user-specific optimization of the usage of touchpad and trackpoint. Actual and potential applications of this research include the user-specific optimization of laptop input devices. Within the theoretical framework of psychomotor models, a profound knowledge of user behaviour in human-computer interaction is provided. Ergonomic guidelines can be derived for the efficient usage of laptop input devices and an optimized hardware and software design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2890072','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2890072"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the burden of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> influenza in Europe: the European <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paget, W. John; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The European <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003–2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0–4 and 5–14 years in England, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0–4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47–83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25260517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25260517"><span id="translatedtitle">StaR Child Health: developing evidence-based guidance for the design, conduct and reporting of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> trials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van't Hoff, William; Offringa, Martin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>There has been a huge upsurge in clinical research in children in the last decade, stimulated in England by dedicated research infrastructure and support through the National Institute for Health Research. This infrastructure offering research design, expert review, trial management, research nurse, data support and dedicated facilities enables paediatricians to conduct more and better research. The challenge is how to design and conduct trials that will make a real difference to children's health. Standards for Research (StaR) in Child Health was founded in 2009 to address the paucity and shortcomings of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> clinical trials. This global initiative involves methodologists, clinicians, patient advocacy groups and policy makers dedicated to developing <span class="hlt">practical</span>, evidence-based standards for enhancing the reliability and relevance of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> clinical research. In this overview, we highlight the contribution of StaR to this agenda, describe the international context, and suggest how StaR's future plans could be integrated with new and existing support for research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788621','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/788621"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the Overall <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a Change in Agricultural <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on Atmospheric CO{sub 2}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>West, T.O.</p> <p>2001-08-23</p> <p>One option for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is to increase the carbon (C) stocks in agricultural soils. There is now an extensive literature on the amount of C that has been lost from soils as a consequence of humans disturbing natural ecosystems, and of the amount of C that might be returned to soils with improved management <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Improvements in management <span class="hlt">practices</span> could include efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation water, use of crop rotations, and changing from conventional tillage (CT) to conservation tillage (or, more specifically, to no-till (NT)). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that 55 x 10{sup 9} Mg of soil C have been lost, globally, largely as a result of cultivating former grasslands, forests, and wetlands. The IPCC estimated further that 22-29 x 10{sup 9} Mg of C could be returned to existing, world, agricultural soils under improved management regimes. Historical losses of soil organic C (SOC) in the US, due to cultivation, have been estimated to be 1.3 {+-} 0.3 x 10{sup 9} Mg (Kern and Johnson 1993). Kern and Johnson projected that by increasing NT <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the US from 27% in 1990 to 76%, a total of 0.4 {+-} 0.1 x 10{sup 9} Mg C could be sequestered in the soil during the interval 1990-2020. These studies tend to focus on increasing the C stocks in soils rather than on the overall effect that changes in agricultural <span class="hlt">practice</span> would have on C stocks in the atmosphere. Changing agricultural <span class="hlt">practice</span> can <span class="hlt">impact</span> net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere in three fundamental ways: (1) it can lead to an increase in the C held in agricultural soils, (2) it can lead to a change in emissions of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning, and (3) it can change agricultural productivity, and hence the amount of cultivated land needed to meet the demand for agricultural products. Changing agricultural <span class="hlt">practice</span> can also affect the net emissions of other greenhouse gases, such as N{sub 2}O emissions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280183','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280183"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethnic diversity outpatient clinic in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC) was integrated in the general <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Outpatient Departments (POPD) of three hospitals in Amsterdam. Methods Feasibility of the MOC, factors influencing the health care process and encountered bottlenecks in health care were studied in ethnic minority children with asthma, diabetes type 1 or metabolic disease originating from Morocco, Turkey and Surinam. Feasibility was determined by the number of patients attended, support from the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> medical staff and willingness of the patients to participate. Influences on the health care process comprised parents' level of knowledge of disease, sense of disease severity, level of effort, linguistic skills, health literacy, adherence to treatment and encountered bottlenecks in the health care process. Moreover, the number of admissions and visits to the POPD in the years before, during and after the MOC were analysed. Results In 2006 a total of 189 ethnic minority children were seen. Integration of the MOC within the general POPD of the hospital is feasible. The ability of the parents to speak and understand Dutch was found to be 58%, functional health literacy was 88%; sufficient knowledge of disease and sense of disease severity were 59% and 67%, respectively. The main bottlenecks in the healthcare process: poor knowledge of disease, limited sense of disease severity and low health literacy in the parents proved to be the best predictors for decreased adherence. After attending the MOC there was a decrease in the number of admissions and visits to the POPD for asthma while the number of visits increased in patients with diabetes and the amount of no-shows decreased in patients with a metabolic disease. Conclusion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120179"><span id="translatedtitle">Novelty, Challenge, and <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Intensive Language Learning on Attentional Functions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bak, Thomas H; Long, Madeleine R; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Sorace, Antonella</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a short intensive language course on attentional functions. We examined 33 participants of a one-week Scottish Gaelic course and compared them to 34 controls: 16 active controls who participated in courses of comparable duration and intensity but not involving foreign language learning and 18 passive controls who followed their usual routines. Participants completed auditory tests of attentional inhibition and switching. There was no difference between the groups in any measures at the beginning of the course. At the end of the course, a significant improvement in attention switching was observed in the language group (p < .001) but not the control group (p = .127), independent of the age of participants (18-78 years). Half of the language participants (n = 17) were retested nine months after their course. All those who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> Gaelic 5 hours or more per week improved from their baseline performance. In contrast, those who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> 4 hours or fewer showed an inconsistent pattern: some improved while others stayed the same or deteriorated. Our results suggest that even a short period of intensive language learning can modulate attentional functions and that all age groups can benefit from this effect. Moreover, these short-term effects can be maintained through continuous <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120179"><span id="translatedtitle">Novelty, Challenge, and <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Intensive Language Learning on Attentional Functions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bak, Thomas H; Long, Madeleine R; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Sorace, Antonella</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a short intensive language course on attentional functions. We examined 33 participants of a one-week Scottish Gaelic course and compared them to 34 controls: 16 active controls who participated in courses of comparable duration and intensity but not involving foreign language learning and 18 passive controls who followed their usual routines. Participants completed auditory tests of attentional inhibition and switching. There was no difference between the groups in any measures at the beginning of the course. At the end of the course, a significant improvement in attention switching was observed in the language group (p < .001) but not the control group (p = .127), independent of the age of participants (18-78 years). Half of the language participants (n = 17) were retested nine months after their course. All those who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> Gaelic 5 hours or more per week improved from their baseline performance. In contrast, those who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> 4 hours or fewer showed an inconsistent pattern: some improved while others stayed the same or deteriorated. Our results suggest that even a short period of intensive language learning can modulate attentional functions and that all age groups can benefit from this effect. Moreover, these short-term effects can be maintained through continuous <span class="hlt">practice</span>. PMID:27120179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847793','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4847793"><span id="translatedtitle">Novelty, Challenge, and <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Intensive Language Learning on Attentional Functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bak, Thomas H.; Long, Madeleine R.; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Sorace, Antonella</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a short intensive language course on attentional functions. We examined 33 participants of a one-week Scottish Gaelic course and compared them to 34 controls: 16 active controls who participated in courses of comparable duration and intensity but not involving foreign language learning and 18 passive controls who followed their usual routines. Participants completed auditory tests of attentional inhibition and switching. There was no difference between the groups in any measures at the beginning of the course. At the end of the course, a significant improvement in attention switching was observed in the language group (p < .001) but not the control group (p = .127), independent of the age of participants (18–78 years). Half of the language participants (n = 17) were retested nine months after their course. All those who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> Gaelic 5 hours or more per week improved from their baseline performance. In contrast, those who <span class="hlt">practiced</span> 4 hours or fewer showed an inconsistent pattern: some improved while others stayed the same or deteriorated. Our results suggest that even a short period of intensive language learning can modulate attentional functions and that all age groups can benefit from this effect. Moreover, these short-term effects can be maintained through continuous <span class="hlt">practice</span>. PMID:27120179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSTEd..22..203S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JSTEd..22..203S"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring a Model of Situated Professional Development: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Classroom <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singer, Jonathan; Lotter, Christine; Feller, Robert; Gates, Harry</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>A hallmark of current science education reform involves teaching through inquiry. However, the widespread use of inquiry-based instruction in many classrooms has not occurred (Roehrig and Luft in Int J Sci Educ 26:3-24, 2004; Schneider et al. in J Res Sci Teach 42:283-312, 2005). The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a professional development program on middle school science teachers' ability to enact inquiry-based pedagogical <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Data were generated through evaluation of teacher <span class="hlt">practice</span> using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) (Sawada et al. in School Sci Math 102:245-253, 2002) at three distinct junctures, before, during, and after the professional development treatment. Analysis of teacher-participant post-institute reflections was then utilized to determine the perceived role of the various institute components. Statistical significant changes in RTOP scores indicated that the teachers were able to successfully transfer the enactment of the inquiry-based <span class="hlt">practices</span> into their classrooms. The subsequent discussion provides connection between these pedagogical changes with use of professional development strategies that provide a situated learning environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21823046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21823046"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of intensive horticulture <span class="hlt">practices</span> on groundwater content of nitrates, sodium, potassium, and pesticides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Melo, Armindo; Pinto, Edgar; Aguiar, Ana; Mansilha, Catarina; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A monitoring program of nitrate, nitrite, potassium, sodium, and pesticides was carried out in water samples from an intensive horticulture area in a vulnerable zone from north of Portugal. Eight collecting points were selected and water-analyzed in five sampling campaigns, during 1 year. Chemometric techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis, were used in order to understand the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of intensive horticulture <span class="hlt">practices</span> on dug and drilled wells groundwater and to study variations in the hydrochemistry of groundwater. PCA performed on pesticide data matrix yielded seven significant PCs explaining 77.67% of the data variance. Although PCA rendered considerable data reduction, it could not clearly group and distinguish the sample types. However, a visible differentiation between the water samples was obtained. Cluster and discriminant analysis grouped the eight collecting points into three clusters of similar characteristics pertaining to water contamination, indicating that it is necessary to improve the use of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Inorganic fertilizers such as potassium nitrate were suspected to be the most important factors for nitrate contamination since highly significant Pearson correlation (r = 0.691, P < 0.01) was obtained between groundwater nitrate and potassium contents. Water from dug wells is especially prone to contamination from the grower and their closer neighbor's <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Water from drilled wells is also contaminated from distant <span class="hlt">practices</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25018758','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25018758"><span id="translatedtitle">Management <span class="hlt">practices</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are <span class="hlt">practices</span> which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively <span class="hlt">impacted</span> trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all <span class="hlt">practices</span> and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. PMID:25018758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4073542','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4073542"><span id="translatedtitle">Management <span class="hlt">practices</span> <span class="hlt">impact</span> vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are <span class="hlt">practices</span> which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively <span class="hlt">impacted</span> trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all <span class="hlt">practices</span> and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. PMID:25018758</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=works+AND+academics%3a+AND+memory&pg=4&id=EJ797670','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=works+AND+academics%3a+AND+memory&pg=4&id=EJ797670"><span id="translatedtitle">How Do Dyslexic Nursing Students Cope with Clinical <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Placements? The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Dyslexic Profile on the Clinical <span class="hlt">Practice</span> of Dyslexic Nursing Students: Pedagogical Issues and Considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Price, Geraldine A.; Gale, Anne</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The safety of dyslexic nurses, and whether they are a danger to their patients, has been widely discussed. This empirical study sought to discover the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the dyslexic profile on clinical <span class="hlt">practice</span> for nursing students. Two focus groups of third-year nursing students in higher education were set up: a control group and a dyslexic group. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25813630"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioenergy Development Policy and <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>: Lessons from the Americas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Watkins, David W; de Moraes, Márcia M G Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of bioenergy production-from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..56.1295W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EnMan..56.1295W"><span id="translatedtitle">Bioenergy Development Policy and <span class="hlt">Practice</span> Must Recognize Potential Hydrologic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>: Lessons from the Americas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Watkins, David W.; de Moraes, Márcia M. G. Alcoforado; Asbjornsen, Heidi; Mayer, Alex S.; Licata, Julian; Lopez, Jose Gutierrez; Pypker, Thomas G.; Molina, Vivianna Gamez; Marques, Guilherme Fernandes; Carneiro, Ana Cristina Guimaraes; Nuñez, Hector M.; Önal, Hayri; da Nobrega Germano, Bruna</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Large-scale bioenergy production will affect the hydrologic cycle in multiple ways, including changes in canopy interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and the quantity and quality of surface runoff and groundwater recharge. As such, the water footprints of bioenergy sources vary significantly by type of feedstock, soil characteristics, cultivation <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and hydro-climatic regime. Furthermore, water management implications of bioenergy production depend on existing land use, relative water availability, and competing water uses at a watershed scale. This paper reviews previous research on the water resource <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of bioenergy production—from plot-scale hydrologic and nutrient cycling <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to watershed and regional scale hydro-economic systems relationships. Primary gaps in knowledge that hinder policy development for integrated management of water-bioenergy systems are highlighted. Four case studies in the Americas are analyzed to illustrate relevant spatial and temporal scales for <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment, along with unique aspects of biofuel production compared to other agroforestry systems, such as energy-related conflicts and tradeoffs. Based on the case studies, the potential benefits of integrated resource management are assessed, as is the need for further case-specific research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1446552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1446552"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of parenting <span class="hlt">practices</span> on adolescent achievement: authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Dornbusch, S M; Darling, N</p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>This article examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14-18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing <span class="hlt">practices</span> and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parental involvement in schooling on adolescents achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment. PMID:1446552</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16706089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16706089"><span id="translatedtitle">Perceived <span class="hlt">impact</span> of TennCare reform on patients' health in a medical teaching <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Connelly, Stephanie A; Sprabery, Laura R; Bailey, James E</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>From 1994-2005, TennCare, Tennessee's innovative Medicaid managed care program, dramatically expanded coverage to around 1.3 million Tennesseans (roughly 23 percent of the state population) by employing cost savings achieved through capitation and managed care. Rising healthcare costs and a static state budget resulted in program downsizing that started in mid-2005. This cross-sectional survey sought to document the perspectives of TennCare enrollees before disenrollment about the likely <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of changes in TennCare coverage and benefits. In February 2005, a convenience sample of 89 patients served by an internal medicine resident staffed teaching <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Memphis, TN, participated in a survey to assess their perspectives about the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the upcoming disenrollment and benefits limitations. Ninety percent or more expressed concerns that loss of TennCare would lead to health problems, difficulty with paying for prescriptions and difficulty finding alternative health insurance. This survey suggests that before disenrollment, most people served by TennCare believed that loss of TennCare would have serious negative consequences on their health. Further studies are needed to assess the true <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the disenrollment and benefit cuts and the effectiveness of alternative safety net services for vulnerable Tennessee citizens. PMID:16706089</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251703"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and implementation of a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation care path for hard-to-reach families: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phoenix, M; Rosenbaum, P</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Service providers, policy makers and researchers are increasingly concerned with service provisions for hard-to-reach families. These are defined as families who are eligible for a service, but are difficult for service providers to identify or engage. In our setting, hard-to-reach families were those who missed appointments without prior notice, a problem that was inefficient for the organization, frustrating for clinicians and did not meet child or family needs. This case report describes the development of a care path to promote engagement with hard-to-reach families (MATCH: Making Alternative Therapy Choices Happen) and its adoption among clinicians within a community-based <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation centre in Ontario, Canada. The care path was developed and implemented at a pilot site at KidsAbility Centre for Child Development (KidsAbility), which allowed us to tailor the care path using clinician input via questionnaires, and to monitor use of the care path. Following pilot implementation clinicians reported being satisfied with the approach and perceived improved child and family outcomes. The care path was expanded to four service sites using a Knowledge Brokering model. After training, clinicians reported a good understanding of the care path: 87% felt that they would have an opportunity to use it within six months, however only 68% felt ready to use it. Challenges to offering MATCH and continuing training preferences were investigated. The MATCH care path illustrates a <span class="hlt">practical</span> application of the principles of best-<span class="hlt">practice</span> for engaging hard-to-reach families, tailored for a specific <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation setting. Continued research is planned to further define the hard-to-reach families within <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation, determine how hard-to-reach families view engagement in services, and evaluate the effectiveness of MATCH implementation in reducing missed appointments and promoting family engagement in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rehabilitation services.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25638607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25638607"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the responsibilities and obligations of the modern <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgeon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beasley, Spencer W</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The modern <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgeon needs to be competent in multiple domains that extend well beyond their clinical and technical expertise. This article, based on the Journal of Pediatric Surgery Lecture at the BAPS Congress (2014), explores some of these less well understood responsibilities and obligations, including professionalism, leadership, effective clinical teaching, and research. The consequence of falling short in these areas includes risks to our profession as a whole as well as compromising our ability to provide our patients with the best clinical care. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> surgeons have a responsibility to influence the configuration of services to improve the quality of care and equity of access to specialist services for all children in their region. Evidence presented shows how a well-organised and funded regional <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgical service allows children to receive quality treatment closer to home and is reflected in better clinical outcomes, less unnecessary surgery, and fewer complications. A paradigm for support to emerging countries as they increase the capacity and infrastructure of their <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgical services is proposed. The way we judge ourselves and others should relate to our performance across the full scope of roles that a responsible and committed <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgeon is expected to display.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EnMan..39..853T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EnMan..39..853T"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Farming <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on Water Quality in the Little Miami River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tong, Susanna T. Y.; Naramngam, Sarawuth</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Since intensive farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> are essential to produce enough food for the increasing population, farmers have been using more inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Agricultural lands are currently one of the major sources of non-point source pollution. However, by changing farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> in terms of tillage and crop rotation, the levels of contamination can be reduced and the quality of soil and water resources can be improved. Thus, there is a need to investigate the amalgamated hydrologic effects when various tillage and crop rotation <span class="hlt">practices</span> are operated in tandem. In this study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was utilized to evaluate the individual and combined <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> on flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads in the Little Miami River basin. The model was calibrated and validated using the 1990-1994 and 1980-1984 data sets, respectively. The simulated results revealed that the SWAT model provided a good simulation performance. For those tested farming scenarios, no-tillage (NT) offered more environmental benefits than moldboard plowing (MP). Flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus under NT were lower than those under MP. In terms of crop rotation, continuous soybean and corn-soybean rotation were able to reduce sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads. When the combined effects of tillage and crop rotation were examined, it was found that NT with continuous soybean or corn-soybean rotation could greatly restrain the loss of sediments and nutrients to receiving waters. Since corn-soybean rotation provides higher economic revenue, a combination of NT and corn-soybean rotation can be a viable system for successful farming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17453272','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17453272"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> on water quality in the Little Miami River Basin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tong, Susanna T Y; Naramngam, Sarawuth</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Since intensive farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> are essential to produce enough food for the increasing population, farmers have been using more inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides. Agricultural lands are currently one of the major sources of non-point source pollution. However, by changing farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> in terms of tillage and crop rotation, the levels of contamination can be reduced and the quality of soil and water resources can be improved. Thus, there is a need to investigate the amalgamated hydrologic effects when various tillage and crop rotation <span class="hlt">practices</span> are operated in tandem. In this study, the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was utilized to evaluate the individual and combined <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> on flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads in the Little Miami River basin. The model was calibrated and validated using the 1990-1994 and 1980-1984 data sets, respectively. The simulated results revealed that the SWAT model provided a good simulation performance. For those tested farming scenarios, no-tillage (NT) offered more environmental benefits than moldboard plowing (MP). Flow, sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus under NT were lower than those under MP. In terms of crop rotation, continuous soybean and corn-soybean rotation were able to reduce sediment, ammonia, and total phosphorus loads. When the combined effects of tillage and crop rotation were examined, it was found that NT with continuous soybean or corn-soybean rotation could greatly restrain the loss of sediments and nutrients to receiving waters. Since corn-soybean rotation provides higher economic revenue, a combination of NT and corn-soybean rotation can be a viable system for successful farming. PMID:17453272</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471873"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatrics</span> and the doctor-soldier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearn, John H</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Sick and injured children, like combatants wounded by shot and shell in war, are disproportionately represented in the tallies of both man-made and national disasters. Paediatricians have a particularly proud heritage of military service, a nexus dating in Australia from the early 19th century. This paper traces this link between service to children in peacetime and the care of servicemen, women and children in times of war and disaster. The extraordinary record of Australian '<span class="hlt">paediatric</span>' doctors who also served in the Gallipoli Campaign (1915) is documented as an illustration of this duality. Paediatricians who serve in the Defence Reserves and in civilian non-government organisations which respond to disasters and civil wars have special credentials in their advocacy for the protection of children enmeshed in conflict or disaster. Such applies particularly to the banning of the recruitment and use of child soldiers; support for children caught up in refugee and illegal immigrant confrontations; and continued advocacy for greater international compliance with the Ottawa Convention to ban the use of anti-personnel landmines. Volunteering for such service must occur in cold 'down time', ensuring that paediatricians are trained in disaster and conflict response, when such challenges inevitably confront the paediatricians of the future. PMID:22471873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232106"><span id="translatedtitle">Rectal examination in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> trauma care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winnett, M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>When providing trauma care, there is a danger that staff might forget what a frightening and confusing experience it can be for the patient, particularly if that patient is a child. As part of an academic exercise in reflection, I recently examined a critical incident involving the trauma care of a 9-year-old boy. In Accident and Emergency (A&E) the doctor inappropriately performed a rectal examination, which I witnessed in horror. The doctor failed to consider the effect of his actions on the child, the legal necessity for consent and the importance of a full explanation. Deeply disturbed by this incident and determined to avoid any repetition, I set out to find documented evidence to support my assertion that no child should be subjected to such intimate examinations, unless absolutely unavoidable. It is hoped that discussion of this incident will serve to raise the awareness of A&E staff working throughout the country with regard to <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> rectal examination, as has been the case in my own workplace.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20018580"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary surgery in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> facial paralysis reanimation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terzis, Julia K; Olivares, Fatima S</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Ninety-two children, the entire series of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> facial reanimation by a single surgeon over thirty years, are presented. The objective is to analyse the incidence and value of secondary revisions for functional and aesthetic refinements following the two main stages of reanimation. The reconstructive strategy varied according to the denervation time, the aetiology, and whether the paralysis was uni- or bilateral, complete or partial. Irrespective of these variables, 89% of the patients required secondary surgery. Post-operative videos were available in seventy-two cases. Four independent observers graded patients' videos using a scale from poor to excellent. The effect of diverse secondary procedures was measured computing a mean-percent-gain score. Statistical differences between treatment groups means were tested by the t-test and one-way ANOVA. Two-thirds of the corrective and ancillary techniques utilized granted significantly higher mean-scores post-secondary surgery. A comparison of pre- and post-operative data found valuable improvements in all three facial zones after secondary surgery. In conclusion, inherent to dynamic procedures is the need for secondary revisions. Secondary surgery builds in the potential of reanimation surgery, effectively augmenting functional faculties and aesthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26631075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26631075"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole-body MRI in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oncology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Littooij, Annemieke S</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and follow-up of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> malignancies. Until recently, computed tomography (CT) has been the imaging technique of choice in children with cancer, but nowadays there is an increasing interest in the use of functional imaging techniques like positron emission tomography and single-photon emission tomography. These later techniques are often combined with CT allowing for simultaneous acquisition of image data on the biological behaviour of tumour, as well as the anatomical localisation and extent of tumour spread. Because of the small but not negligible risk of radiation induced secondary cancers and the significantly improved overall survival rates of children with cancer, there is an increasing interest in the use of alternative imaging techniques that do not use ionising radiation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging tool that allows for acquiring images with a high spatial resolution and excellent soft tissue contrast throughout the body. Moreover, recent technological advances have resulted in fast diagnostic sequences for whole-body MR imaging (WB-MRI), including functional techniques such as diffusion weighted imaging. In this review, the current status of the technique and major clinical applications of WB-MRI in children with cancer will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16010900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16010900"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethical issues in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> nontherapeutic pain research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kankkunen, Päivi; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pietilä, Anna-Maija</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to describe the main ethical issues in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> nontherapeutic qualitative pain research. It is based on an analysis of the research literature related to ethical issues in research and on experiences from a family interview study focusing on pain assessment and management in children aged 1-6 years. In addition, different views concerning obtaining informed consent from children, as published in the research literature, are compared. Ethical challenges occur during all stages of qualitative research. The risks of emotional distress and possible benefits of the results must be assessed prior to conducting a study. However, risks and harm are difficult to avoid in a study in which the research area, pain, raises emotional distress in both parents and children. The children's assent and parental permission are both required. It is essential to obtain informed consent from all family members when family research is conducted. Participants' privacy and confidentiality should be protected during data collection, analysis and publication. Protecting children from harm may be impossible during pain research in which they are required to recall a painful postoperative period. However, after data collection they can be assisted to focus on pleasant activities, for example, by engaging in playful activities with them. Finally, the role of the nurse and the researcher should be carefully assessed, especially in qualitative research, in order to be able to analyse the data and report the findings in an unbiased manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19751179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19751179"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical applications of creatine supplementation on <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Evangeliou, Athanasios; Vasilaki, Konstantina; Karagianni, Paraskevi; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Creatine plays a central role in energy metabolism and is synthesized in the liver, kidney and pancreas. In healthy patients, it is transported via the blood stream to the muscles, heart and brain with high and fluctuating energy demands by the molecule creatine transporter. Creatine, although naturally synthesized in the human body, can be ingested in the form of supplements and is commonly used by athletes. The purpose of this review was to assess the clinical applications of creatine supplementation on <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. Creatine metabolism disorders have so far been described at the level of two synthetic steps, guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase (GAMT) and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT), and at the level of the creatine transporter 1(CrT1). GAMT and AGAT deficiency respond positively to substitutive treatment with creatine monohydrate whereas in CrT1 defect, it is not able to replenish creatine in the brain with oral creatine supplementation. There are also data concerning the short and long-term therapeutic benefit of creatine supplementation in children and adults with gyrate atrophy (a result of the inborn error of metabolism with ornithine delta- aminotransferase activity), muscular dystrophy (facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, Becker dystrophy, Duchenne dystrophy and sarcoglycan deficient limb girdle muscular dystrophy), McArdle's disease, Huntington's disease and mitochondria-related diseases. Hypoxia and energy related brain pathologies (brain trauma, cerebral ischemia, prematurity) might benefit from Cr supplementation. This review covers also the basics of creatine metabolism and proposed mechanisms of action. PMID:19751179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768207','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4768207"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes and patients’ perspectives of transition from <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> to adult care in inflammatory bowel disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bennett, Alice L; Moore, David; Bampton, Peter A; Bryant, Robert V; Andrews, Jane M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To describe the disease and psychosocial outcomes of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) transition cohort and their perspectives. METHODS: Patients with IBD, aged > 18 years, who had moved from <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> to adult care within 10 years were identified through IBD databases at three tertiary hospitals. Participants were surveyed regarding demographic and disease specific data and their perspectives on the transition process. Survey response data were compared to contemporaneously recorded information in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> service case notes. Data were compared to a similar age cohort who had never received <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> IBD care and therefore who had not undergone a transition process. RESULTS: There were 81 returned surveys from 46 transition and 35 non-transition patients. No statistically significant differences were found in disease burden, disease outcomes or adult roles and responsibilities between cohorts. Despite a high prevalence of mood disturbance (35%), there was a very low usage (5%) of psychological services in both cohorts. In the transition cohort, knowledge of their transition plan was reported by only 25/46 patients and the majority (54%) felt they were not strongly prepared. A high rate (78%) of discussion about work/study plans was recorded prior to transition, but a near complete absence of discussion regarding sex (8%), and other adult issues was recorded. Both cohorts agreed that their preferred method of future transition <span class="hlt">practices</span> (of the options offered) was a shared clinic appointment with all key stakeholders. CONCLUSION: Transition did not appear to adversely affect disease or psychosocial outcomes. Current transition care processes could be optimised, with better psychosocial preparation and agreed transition plans. PMID:26937149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452752','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4452752"><span id="translatedtitle">The design of a multicentre Canadian surveillance study of sedation safety in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency department</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhatt, Maala; Roback, Mark G; Joubert, Gary; Farion, Ken J; Ali, Samina; Beno, Suzanne; McTimoney, C Michelle; Dixon, Andrew; Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Barrowman, Nick; Johnson, David W</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Procedural sedation and analgesia have become standard <span class="hlt">practice</span> in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency departments worldwide. Although generally regarded as safe, serious adverse events such as bradycardia, asystole, pulmonary aspiration, permanent neurological injury and death have been reported, but their incidence is unknown due to the infrequency of their occurrence and lack of surveillance of sedation safety. To improve our understanding of the safety, comparative effectiveness and variation in care in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> procedural sedation, we are establishing a multicentre patient registry with the goal of conducting regular and ongoing surveillance for adverse events in procedural sedation. Methods This multicentre, prospective cohort study is enrolling patients under 18 years of age from six <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency departments across Canada. Data collection is fully integrated into clinical care and is performed electronically in real time by the healthcare professionals caring for the patient. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients who experience a serious adverse event as a result of their sedation. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients who experience an adverse event that could lead to a serious adverse event, proportion of patients who receive a significant intervention in response to an adverse event, proportion of patients who experience a successful sedation, and proportion of patients who experience a paradoxical reaction to sedation. There is no predetermined end date for data collection. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained from participating sites. Results will be disseminated using a multifaceted knowledge translation strategy by presenting at international conferences, publication in peer-reviewed journals, and through established networks. PMID:26024999</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3851858','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3851858"><span id="translatedtitle">Clowning as a supportive measure in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> - a survey of clowns, parents and nursing staff</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Hospital clowns, also known as clown doctors, can help <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients with the stress of a hospitalization and to circumvent the accompanying feelings of fear, helplessness and sadness, thus supporting the healing process. The objectives of the present study were to clarify the structural and procedural conditions of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> clowning in Germany and to document the evaluations of hospital clowns, parents and hospital staff. Methods A nationwide online survey of hospital clowns currently active in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> departments and an accompanying field evaluation in Hamburg hospitals with surveys of parents and hospital staff were conducted. In addition to items developed specifically for the study regarding general conditions, procedures, assessments of effects and attitudes, the Work Satisfaction Scale was used. The sample included n = 87 hospital clowns, 37 parents and 43 hospital staff members. Results The online survey showed that the hospital clowns are well-trained, motivated and generally satisfied with their work. By their own estimate, they primarily boost morale and promote imagination in the patients. However, hospital clowns also desire better interdisciplinary collaboration and financial security as well as more recognition of their work. The Hamburg field study confirmed the positive results of the clown survey. According to the data, a clown intervention boosts morale and reduces stress in the patients. Moreover, there are <span class="hlt">practically</span> no side effects. Both parents and hospital staff stated that the patients as well as they themselves benefited from the intervention. Conclusions The results match those of previous studies and give a very positive picture of hospital clowning, so that its routine use and expansion thereof can be recommended. Furthermore, the intervention should be subject to the rules of evidence-based medicine like other medical treatments. PMID:24112744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22352308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22352308"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">impact</span> of divergent land management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on tomato crop health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chellemi, Dan O; Wu, Tiehang; Graham, Jim H; Church, Greg</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Development of sustainable food systems is contingent upon the adoption of land management <span class="hlt">practices</span> that can mitigate damage from soilborne pests. Five diverse land management <span class="hlt">practices</span> were studied for their <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici), galling of roots by Meloidogyne spp. and marketable yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and to identify associations between the severity of pest damage and the corresponding soil microbial community structure. The incidence of Fusarium wilt was >14% when tomato was cultivated following 3 to 4 years of an undisturbed weed fallow or continuous tillage disk fallow rotation and was >4% after 3 to 4 years of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) rotation or organic production <span class="hlt">practices</span> that included soil amendments and cover crops. The incidence of Fusarium wilt under conventional tomato production with soil fumigation varied from 2% in 2003 to 15% in 2004. Repeated tomato cultivation increased Fusarium wilt by 20% or more except when tomato was grown using organic <span class="hlt">practices</span>, where disease remained less than 3%. The percent of tomato roots with galls from Meloidogyne spp. ranged from 18 to 82% in soil previously subjected to a weed fallow rotation and 7 to 15% in soil managed previously as a bahiagrass pasture. Repeated tomato cultivation increased the severity of root galling in plots previously subjected to a conventional or disk fallow rotation but not in plots managed using organic <span class="hlt">practices</span>, where the percentage of tomato roots with galls remained below 1%. Marketable yield of tomato exceeded 35 Mg ha(-1) following all land management strategies except the strip-tillage/bahiagrass program. Marketable yield declined by 11, 14, and 19% when tomato was grown in consecutive years following a bahiagrass, weed fallow, and disk rotation. The composition of fungal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons isolated from soil fungal and bacterial communities corresponded with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4494548','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4494548"><span id="translatedtitle">Demographic Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Pelvic Fractures: 10-Years’ Experience of Single <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Orthopaedics Clinic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Turgut, Ali; Kalenderer, Onder; Gunaydin, Burak; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Ilyas, Gokhan; Ipci, Fikri Burak</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To evaluate the demographic characteristics of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pelvic fractures. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 26 patients who were hospitalized with the diagnosis of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> pelvic fracture between 2000 and 2010 was performed. Age, gender, hospitalization time, mechanism of injury, fracture type, associated injuries, haemoglobin level drop in the first 24 hours, management and blood transfusion requirement, injuries time (month) information were gathered from hospital records. Results: There were 16 male and 10 female patients. Average age was 10.5 (2–16). Average hospitalization time was 3.5 days (1–17). Average haemoglobin level drop in the first 24 hours was 1.51 (0.3–3.6) gr/dL. Mechanisms of the injuries were as following; 14 patients were struck by a car, 10 patients fell from height and 2 patients involved in a vehicle traffic accident. According to the classification of Torode and Zeig; there was 1 type 2, 22 type 3 and 3 type 4 injuries. Injuries’ occurrence season were; 12 in spring, 7 in summer and 7 in autumn. All of the patients had been managed conservatively. Conclusion: These injuries are rarely seen in children. Their management can be mostly conservative and even with a simple and stable pelvic injury marked bleeding can occur. PMID:26180498</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423967"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> dilated cardiomyopathy: clinical profile and outcome. The experience of a tertiary centre for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cardiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miranda, Joana O; Costa, Liane; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Teles, Elisa L; Baptista, Maria J; Areias, José C</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of cardiomyopathy in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> population and an important cause of heart transplantation in children. The clinical profile and course of dilated cardiomyopathy in children have been poorly characterised. A retrospective review of 61 patients (37 female; 24 male) diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy from January, 2005 to June, 2012 at a single institution was performed. The median age at diagnosis was 15 months. Heart failure was present in 83.6% of patients and 44.3% required intensive care. The most prevalent causes were idiopathic (47.5%), viral myocarditis (18.0%) and inherited metabolic diseases (11.5%). In viral myocarditis, Parvovirus B19 was the most common identified agent, in concurrence with the increasing incidence documented recently. Inherited metabolic diseases were responsible for 11.5% of dilated cardiomyopathy cases compared with the 4-6% described in the literature, which reinforces the importance of considering this aetiology in differential diagnosis of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> dilated cardiomyopathy. The overall mortality rate was 16.1% and five patients underwent heart transplantation. In our series, age at diagnosis and aetiology were the most important prognosis factors. We report no mortality in the five patients who underwent heart transplantation, after 2 years of follow-up.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4235448','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4235448"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> concussion among front-line primary care providers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zemek, Roger; Eady, Kaylee; Moreau, Katherine; Farion, Ken J; Solomon, Beverly; Weiser, Margaret; Dematteo, Carol</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> concussion diagnosis and management among front-line primary care providers. METHODS: Experts from the Concussions Ontario Diagnosis and Early Education Working Group developed a 34-item survey incorporating case vignettes with the collaboration of experts in medical education. Electronic surveys were distributed via FluidSurveys using a modified version of Dillman’s tailored design method. The survey was distributed to five Ontario professional associations. The target participants were front-line health care providers (family physicians, emergency medicine physicians, general paediatricians, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) in Ontario; only providers who diagnose and/or manage <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> concussions were eligible to participate. RESULTS: The survey was fully completed by 577 health care providers who treat <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> concussion. Of the respondents, 78% (95% CI 74% to 81%) reported diagnosing ≥5 concussions annually. Physicians and nonphysicians equally recognized concussion (90% [95% CI 86% to 92%]; 85% [95% CI 77% to 90%], respectively). Only 37% (95% CI 32% to 41%) of physicians correctly applied graduated return to play guidelines. Return to learn recommendations were also insufficient: 53% (95% CI 49% to 58%) neglected to recommend school absence and 40% (95% CI (35% to 44%) did not recommend schoolwork accommodations. Only 26% (95% CI 22% to 30%) of physicians reported regular use of concussion scoring scales. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable gaps in knowledge exist in front-line primary care providers with inadequate application of graduated return to play and return to learn following concussion, as demonstrated by the present broad population-based survey. Consistent application of best evidence-based management using comprehensive guidelines may help to reduce the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of concussion and persistent postconcussive problems in children and adolescents. PMID:25414583</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22826516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22826516"><span id="translatedtitle">Informing policy and programme decisions for scaling up the PMTCT and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV response through joint technical missions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jashi, Mariam; Viswanathan, Rekha; Ekpini, Rene; Chandan, Upjeet; Idele, Priscilla; Luo, Chewe; Legins, Ken; Chatterjee, Anirban</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>In 2005, due to slow global progress in the scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV programmes, the Inter-agency Task Team (IATT) on the Prevention of HIV infection among Pregnant Women, Mothers, and their Children initiated joint technical missions (JTMs) to countries of high HIV disease burden. The JTMs were intended to galvanize country actions for a more comprehensive response to PMTCT and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV by bringing national and global stakeholders together to review national policies and programmes and develop country-specific recommendations for accelerating scale-up. Between 2005 and 2010, the IATT conducted JTMs in 18 low- and middle-income countries. In 2007, to assess the role played by the missions, a review in the first eight countries (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) that hosted JTMs was undertaken. Country progress was assessed through desk review and key informant interviews. For each country, documents reviewed included JTM reports, baseline data for PMTCT and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV care and treatment, and 2004 to 2007 trend data on key PMTCT and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV indicators. Drawing upon the findings, this paper posits that JTMs contributed to national scale-up of PMTCT and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV programmes through strengthening governance and co-ordination mechanisms for the programmes, promoting enabling policy environments, and supporting the development of national scale-up plans, which have been critical for leveraging additional financial resources for scale-up. Although the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the JTMs could be enhanced through greater follow-up and continued targeted assistance in technical areas such as infant and young child feeding, community-based programming and supply chain management, findings indicate that the JTMs are a useful mechanism for informing policy and programme decisions necessary for scaling up PMTCT and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV responses. Moreover, by bringing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23522599','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23522599"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulmonary functional magnetic resonance imaging for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> lung disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kirby, Miranda; Coxson, Harvey O; Parraga, Grace</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A better understanding of the anatomic structure and physiological function of the lung is fundamental to understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease and how to design and deliver better treatments and measure response to intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the hyperpolarised noble gases helium-3 ((3)He) and xenon-129 ((129)Xe) provides both structural and functional pulmonary measurements, and because it does not require the use of x-rays or other ionising radiation, offers the potential for intensive serial and longitudinal studies in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients. These facts are particularly important in the evaluation of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and cystic fibrosis- both of which can be considered <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> respiratory diseases with unmet therapy needs. This review discusses MRI-based imaging methods with a focus on hyperpolarised gas MRI. We also discuss the strengths and limitations as well as the future work required for clinical translation towards <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> respiratory disease. PMID:23522599</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655302"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of risks associated with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cochlear implantation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnston, J Cyne; Smith, Andrée Durieux; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Annette; Angus, Douglas; Benzies, Karen; Schramm, David</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to estimate the rates of complications associated with <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cochlear implantation use: a) at one Canadian cochlear implant (CI) centre, and b) in the published literature. It comprised a retrospective hospital-based chart review and a concurrent review of complications in the published literature. There were 224 children who had undergone surgery from 1994 to June 2007. Results indicate that the rates of complications at the local Canadian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> CI centre are not significantly different from the literature rates for all examined complication types. This hospital-based retrospective chart review and review of the literature provide readers with an estimation of the risks to aid in evidence-based decision-making surrounding <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> cochlear implantation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227301"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment methodology for urban surface runoff quality following best <span class="hlt">practice</span> treatment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ellis, J Bryan; Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The paper develops an easy to apply desk-based semi-quantitative approach for the assessment of residual receiving water quality risks associated with urban surface runoff following its conveyance through best <span class="hlt">practice</span> sustainable drainage systems (SUDS). The innovative procedure utilises an integrated geographical information system (GIS)-based pollution index approach based on surface area impermeability, runoff concentrations/loadings and individual SUDS treatment performance potential to evaluate the level of risk mitigation achievable by SUDS drainage infrastructure. The residual <span class="hlt">impact</span> is assessed through comparison of the determined pollution index with regulatory receiving water quality standards and objectives. The methodology provides an original theoretically based procedure which complements the current acute risk assessment approaches being widely applied within pluvial flood risk management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617786"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of water management <span class="hlt">practice</span> scenarios on wastewater flow and contaminant concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marleni, N; Gray, S; Sharma, A; Burn, S; Muttil, N</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>Due to frequent droughts and rapid population growth in urban areas, the adoption of <span class="hlt">practices</span> to reduce the usage of fresh water is on the rise. Reduction in usage of fresh water can be achieved through various local water management <span class="hlt">practices</span> (WMP) such as Water Demand Management (WDM) and use of alternative water sources such as Greywater Recycling (GR) and Rainwater Harvesting (RH). While the positive effects of WMPs have been widely acknowledged, the implementation of WMPs is also likely to lower the wastewater flow and increase the concentration of contaminants in sewage. These in turn can lead to increases in sewer problems such as odour and corrosion. This paper analyses <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various WMP scenarios on wastewater flow and contaminant load. The Urban Volume and Quality (UVQ) model was used to simulate wastewater flow and the associated wastewater contaminants from different WMP scenarios. The wastewater parameters investigated were those which influence odour and corrosion problems in sewerage networks due to the formation of hydrogen sulphide. These parameters are: chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO3(-)), sulphate (SO4(2-)), sulphide (S(2-)) and iron (Fe) that were contributed by the households (not including the biochemical process in sewer pipe). The results will help to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of WMP scenarios on odour and corrosion in sewerage pipe networks. Results show that the implementation of a combination of WDM and GR had highly increased the concentration of all selected contaminant that triggered the formation of hydrogen sulphide, namely COD, sulphate and sulphide. On the other hand, the RH scenario had the least increase in the concentration of the contaminants, except iron concentrations. The increase in iron concentrations is actually beneficial because it inhibits the formation of hydrogen sulphide. PMID:25617786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25617786"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of water management <span class="hlt">practice</span> scenarios on wastewater flow and contaminant concentration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marleni, N; Gray, S; Sharma, A; Burn, S; Muttil, N</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>Due to frequent droughts and rapid population growth in urban areas, the adoption of <span class="hlt">practices</span> to reduce the usage of fresh water is on the rise. Reduction in usage of fresh water can be achieved through various local water management <span class="hlt">practices</span> (WMP) such as Water Demand Management (WDM) and use of alternative water sources such as Greywater Recycling (GR) and Rainwater Harvesting (RH). While the positive effects of WMPs have been widely acknowledged, the implementation of WMPs is also likely to lower the wastewater flow and increase the concentration of contaminants in sewage. These in turn can lead to increases in sewer problems such as odour and corrosion. This paper analyses <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of various WMP scenarios on wastewater flow and contaminant load. The Urban Volume and Quality (UVQ) model was used to simulate wastewater flow and the associated wastewater contaminants from different WMP scenarios. The wastewater parameters investigated were those which influence odour and corrosion problems in sewerage networks due to the formation of hydrogen sulphide. These parameters are: chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate (NO3(-)), sulphate (SO4(2-)), sulphide (S(2-)) and iron (Fe) that were contributed by the households (not including the biochemical process in sewer pipe). The results will help to quantify the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of WMP scenarios on odour and corrosion in sewerage pipe networks. Results show that the implementation of a combination of WDM and GR had highly increased the concentration of all selected contaminant that triggered the formation of hydrogen sulphide, namely COD, sulphate and sulphide. On the other hand, the RH scenario had the least increase in the concentration of the contaminants, except iron concentrations. The increase in iron concentrations is actually beneficial because it inhibits the formation of hydrogen sulphide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ChJOL..30..388Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ChJOL..30..388Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of mariculture <span class="hlt">practices</span> on the temporal distribution of macrobenthos in Sandu Bay, South China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jin</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Sandu Bay is located in the East China Sea and is characterized by high-density fish farming and kelp culture. Despite this, little is known about the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of these different mariculture <span class="hlt">practices</span> on the local environment. We investigated the temporal variation in macrobenthos and environmental conditions at three sites in the bay (fish farming site, kelp culture site, and a control site). We collected water and sediment samples during nine cruises between May 2009 and February 2010. The density of macrobenthos peaked at the fish farming site in July (655 ind./m2) whereas density did not fluctuate as widely at the other two sites. Biomass varied significantly at both the control and kelp culture sites, but had only a single peak at the fish farming site in June (21.90 g/m2). The dominant species varied throughout the study period at the control and kelp culture sites, whereas a single terebellid species ( Lysilla pacifica) dominated the macrobenthos at the fish farming site. The diversity index H' increased at the control site beginning in February then decreased after May, whereas H' was low at the other sites in December. The mean dissolved oxygen level was highest at the control site (6.59 mg/L) and lowest at the fish farming site (5.54 mg/L). DO levels were lowest at all sites in summer (July and August). The sediment acid volatile sulfide content was higher at the fish farming site (1.46 mg/g dry weight) than those at the kelp culture and control sites (1.22 and 0.14 mg/g, respectively). Our results suggest that mariculture <span class="hlt">practices</span> have a clear <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the benthic environment/community in Sandu Bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25555270','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25555270"><span id="translatedtitle">Intima media thickness measurement in children: A statement from the Association for European <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Cardiology (AEPC) Working Group on Cardiovascular Prevention endorsed by the Association for European <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Cardiology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dalla Pozza, Robert; Ehringer-Schetitska, Doris; Fritsch, Peter; Jokinen, Eero; Petropoulos, Andreas; Oberhoffer, Renate</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Atherosclerosis causing cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in the developed world. Early precursors of vascular changes - subclinical atherosclerosis - warrant special attention as this process can be stabilized or even reversed if treated in time. Sonographic Intima Media Thickness measurement of the carotid artery (cIMT: carotid Intima-Media-Thickness) is considered a valid surrogate marker for cardiovascular risk allowing assessment of atherosclerotic changes at a very early stage. It is easy to apply due to its non-invasive character. Moreover, cIMT has been proven to provide reliable and reproducible results both in adult and adolescent patients. For the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> age group, several characteristics deserve special consideration. The heterogeneity of techniques of scanning, measurement and interpretation impede the comparison and interpretation of IMT values so far. Also, age- and sex-dependent normative data have to be considered for interpretation. Thus, the Association for European <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Cardiology (AEPC) Working Group on Cardiovascular Prevention concludes to refer a statement on cIMT scanning, measurement and interpretation with special focus on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patients. This statement includes an overview on normative data available as well as a <span class="hlt">practical</span> guideline for the setting, scanning, measurement and interpretation of IMT values. Synchronizing different measurement methods will allow for comparing the results of several research centers. By that, in a large patient number, sufficient information may be given to assess the long-term endpoints of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1487803','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1487803"><span id="translatedtitle">Neonatal circumcision revisited. Fetus and Newborn Committee, Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE: To assist physicians in providing guidance to parents regarding neonatal circumcision. OPTIONS: Whether to recommend the routine circumcision of newborn male infants. OUTCOMES: Costs and complications of neonatal circumcision, the incidence of urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases and cancer of the penis in circumcised and uncircumcised males, and of cervical cancer in their partners, and the costs of treating these diseases. EVIDENCE: The literature on circumcision was reviewed by the Fetus and Newborn Committee of the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society. During extensive discussion at meetings of the committee over a 24-month period, the strength of the evidence was carefully weighed and the perspective of the committee developed. VALUES: The literature was assessed to determine whether neonatal circumcision improves the health of boys and men and is a cost-effective approach to preventing penile problems and associated urinary tract conditions. Religious and personal values were not included in the assessment. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: The effect of neonatal circumcision on the incidence of urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted diseases, cancer of the penis, cervical cancer and penile problems; the complications of circumcision; and estimates of the costs of neonatal circumcision and of the treatment of later penile conditions, urinary tract infections and complications of circumcision. RECOMMENDATION: Circumcision of newborns should not be routinely performed. VALIDATION: This recommendation is in keeping with previous statements on neonatal circumcision by the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The statement was reviewed by the Infectious Disease Committee of the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society. The Board of Directors of the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society has reviewed its content and approved it for publication. SPONSOR: This is an official statement of the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Society. No external</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22058851"><span id="translatedtitle">Health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment research and <span class="hlt">practice</span>: A place for paradigm positioning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haigh, Fiona; Harris, Patrick; Haigh, Neil</p> <p>2012-02-15</p> <p>In this article, we provide a critical review of the place of paradigm in health <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (HIA) research and <span class="hlt">practice</span>. We contend that most HIA practitioners have given insufficient attention to paradigm positioning when developing and applying HIA methodologies and that some concerns about current HIA <span class="hlt">practice</span> can be attributed to this. We review HIA literature to assess the extent and nature of attention given to paradigm positioning and these related concerns. We then respond to our critique by exploring the implications, opportunities and challenges of adopting a critical realist paradigm, which we believe has the potential to help HIA practitioners to develop HIA methodology in a way that addresses these issues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide a critical review of the place of paradigm in HIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that HIA practitioners give insufficient attention to paradigm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The implications, opportunities and challenges of adopting a critical realist paradigm are explored. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first paper, to our knowledge, that discusses a critical realist approach to HIA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070378"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a 10 minute Seated Yoga <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in the Management of Diabetes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mullur, Rashmi S; Ames, Donna</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective We sought to prospectively evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a 10 minute seated yoga program added to standard comprehensive diabetes care on glucose control and cardiovascular health in the severely ill, medically complex diabetic population. Method A total of 10 patients with type 2 diabetes, ages 49-77, with duration of diabetes >10 years and haemoglobin A1C >9% (75 mmol/mol) were included in the study. Patients randomized to a yoga intervention were taught a 10 minute seated yoga <span class="hlt">practice</span>, were given an explanatory DVD and a fold-out pocket guide to encourage adherence at home, and were instructed to incorporate the <span class="hlt">practice</span> as often as they could. The patients in the control arm were provided information and hand outs on the available yoga classes on campus. Results At 3 month clinical follow up, the mean decrease in fasting capillary blood glucose (CBG) was 45% among yoga participants (−5.2 ± 4.1 mmol/L). Heart rate (HR) dropped by 18% and Diastolic blood pressure (BP) dropped by 29% in the intervention arm, (−12.4 ± 6.69 and −26 ± 12.05 mmHg, respectively). There were no statistically significant changes in the haemoglobin A1C, systolic blood pressure, weight, or body mass index in either group. Conclusion Our small pilot study reinforces the current medical evidence supporting the use of yoga, combined with standard care, to improve health outcomes in diabetes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1761b0059L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1761b0059L"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of preventive maintenance <span class="hlt">practices</span> on manufacturing performance: A proposed model for SMEs in Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lazim, Halim Mad; Taib, Che Azlan; Lamsali, Hendrik; Saleh, Mohamed Najib; Subramaniam, Chandrakantan</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Preventive maintenance (PM) plays important role to avoid or mitigate potential stoppages and disruptions of equipment or machinery from occurring in daily operations. PM emphasized total employee involvement and it is important for companies as well as Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). SME sectors contribution to the Malaysian economy makes up 95% of the total manufacturers, however PM remain relatively lacking. The ability, reliability and effective maintenance management is highly important in order to achieve desired manufacturing performance. Therefore, organizational capability in planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring PM activities is important. Furthermore, empirical evidence on the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of PM <span class="hlt">practices</span> towards manufacturing performance with organizational capability as a moderating effect is still limited and indecisive. Henceforth, this paper aims to explore and investigate potential relationships between PM <span class="hlt">practices</span> and manufacturing performance moderated by organizational capability in the contact of Malaysian SMEs in the manufacturing sector. Correspondently, the study intends to propose a new research framework and hypotheses to examine the abovementioned relationships. The proposed framework includes PM team, PM strategy and planned maintenance as the determinants, while organizational capability serves as the moderating variable. Manufacturing performance will be viewed in terms of innovation and financial factors. Proposed research direction and conclusion are discussed at the end of the study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836697"><span id="translatedtitle">Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on mammography <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of QC introduction on mammography <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of <span class="hlt">practice</span> since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated. PMID:25836697</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411220','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411220"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of using electronic patient records on <span class="hlt">practices</span> of reading and writing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Åstedt-Kurki, Paivi</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the use of electronic patient records in daily <span class="hlt">practice</span>. In four wards of a large hospital district in Finland, N = 43 patients' care and activities were observed and analysed in terms of the Grounded Theory method. The findings revealed that using electronic patient records created a particular process of writing and reading. Wireless technology enabled simultaneous patient involvement and point-of-care documentation, additionally supporting real-time reading. Remote and retrospective documentation was distant in terms of both space and time. The remoteness caused double documentation, reduced accuracy and less-efficient use of time. 'Non-reading' <span class="hlt">practices</span> were witnessed in retrospective reading, causing delays in patient care and increase in workload. Similarly, if documentation was insufficient or non-existent, the consequences were found to be detrimental to the patients. The use of an electronic patient record system has a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient care. Therefore, it is crucial to develop wireless technology and interdisciplinary collaboration in order to improve and support high-quality patient care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18366570','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18366570"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Māori cultural values on forensic science <span class="hlt">practice</span> in New Zealand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hudson, Maui L; Allan, Christine A; Bedford, Keith R; Buckleton, John S; Stuart, Keriata</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Forensic science aims to serve society by advancing justice. It is accepted that some actions taken by the state in the interests of advancing justice, such as postmortem examinations, may impinge on values held by members of groups within society. Such actions have the potential to cause cultural offense. It is important that forensic scientists are aware of these issues and that as a profession we should take actions, where possible, to reduce any potential offense and consequently reduce unnecessary distress. This paper examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these issues on forensic <span class="hlt">practice</span> in New Zealand, and, in particular, in relation to the cultural values of Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Interviews and workshops were used to identify forensic <span class="hlt">practices</span> involving a risk of cultural offense. Particular issues were identified in regard to crime scene attendance and examination, postmortem attendance and sample storage, disposal, and return. This paper describes the response developed by the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) to address these issues, including a cultural awareness training package and reference brochure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836697','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25836697"><span id="translatedtitle">Eight years of quality control in Bulgaria: <span class="hlt">impact</span> on mammography <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Avramova-Cholakova, S; Lilkov, G; Kaneva, M; Terziev, K; Nakov, I; Mutkurov, N; Kovacheva, D; Ivanova, M; Vasilev, D</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The requirements for quality control (QC) in diagnostic radiology were introduced in Bulgarian legislation in 2005. Hospital medical physicists and several private medical physics groups provide QC services to radiology departments. The aim of this study was to analyse data from QC tests in mammography and to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of QC introduction on mammography <span class="hlt">practice</span> in the country. The study was coordinated by the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection. All medical physics services were requested to fill in standardised forms with information about most important parameters routinely measured during QC. All QC service providers responded. Results demonstrated significant improvement of <span class="hlt">practice</span> since the introduction of QC, with reduction of established deviations from 65 % during the first year to 7 % in the last year. The systems that do not meet the acceptability criteria were suspended from use. Performance of automatic exposure control and digital detectors are not regularly tested because of the absence of requirements in the legislation. The need of updated guidance and training of medical physicists to reflect the change in technology was demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16335596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16335596"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of land use <span class="hlt">practices</span> on faunal abundance, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of desert pedoecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture <span class="hlt">practices</span> may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use <span class="hlt">practices</span> and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H21H0949O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H21H0949O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Agricultural <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on Concentrations and Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oh, N.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Horwath, W. R.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Organic matter from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a significant concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during water treatment with chlorine. Reducing DOC concentration at the source water is a possible management strategy being explored for the reduction of DBP precursors. We examined a variety of land use/land cover, i.e. natural grasslands and intensive agriculture in the Willow Slough Watershed (415 km2) in Yolo County, California to determine the temporal and spatial DOC dynamics. Surface water DOC concentrations ranged from 1.62 to 11.44 mg L-1 at the mouth of the watershed during the first two years, with about two times higher DOC concentrations measured downstream in an intensive agricultural subwatershed dominated by summer flood irrigation. The mean DOC yield was also the highest from the agricultural subwatershed at 0.74 g m-2 over the six months of active irrigation. Results suggest that there is a positive correlation between cropland area and DOC yield. Among many crop species examined, alfalfa showed the strongest positive linear relationship with R2 = 0.91 between the irrigation season DOC yield and percentage crop area of each subwatershed, indicating that agricultural <span class="hlt">practices</span> such as flood irrigation have a greater <span class="hlt">impact</span> on DOC loads than other irrigation systems. The results indicate that agricultural <span class="hlt">practices</span> may deserve further attention for watershed management of DOC and DBP precursors and that flood irrigation <span class="hlt">practices</span> should be targeted to reduce DOC loading within the main watershed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16335596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16335596"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of land use <span class="hlt">practices</span> on faunal abundance, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of desert pedoecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tripathi, G; Sharma, B M</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Increased dependence of resource-poor rural communities on soils of low inherent fertility are the major problem of desert agroecosystem. Agrisilviculture <span class="hlt">practices</span> may help to conserve the soil biota for maintaining essential soil properties and processes in harsh climate. Therefore, the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of different land use systems on faunal density, nutrient dynamics and biochemical properties of soil were studied in agrisilviculture system of Indian desert. The selected fields had trees (Zizyphus mauritiana, Prosopis cineraria, Acacia nilotica) and crops (Cuminum cyminum, Brassica nigra, Triticum aestivum) in different combinations. Populations of Acari, Myriapoda, Coleoptera, Collembola, other soil arthropods and total soil fauna showed significant changes with respect to different land use <span class="hlt">practices</span> and tree species, indicating a strong relation between above and below ground biodiversity. The Coleoptera exhibited greatest association with all agrisilviculture fields. The Z. mauritiana system indicated highest facilitative effects (RTE value) on all groups of soil fauna. Soil temperature, moisture, organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, available phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity were greater under tree than that of tree plus cropping system. It showed accumulation of nitrate-nitrogen in tree field and more utilization by crops in cultivated lands. Positive and significant correlation among organic carbon, nitrate- and ammonical-nitrogen, phosphorus, soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity clearly reflects increase in soil nutrients with the increase in microbial and other biotic activity. P. cineraria field was the best pedoecosystem, while C. cyminum was the best winter crop for cultivation in desert agroforestry system for soil biological health and soil sustainability. The increase in organic carbon, soil nutrients and microbial activity is associated with the increase in soil faunal population which reflect role of soil fauna</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27011477','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27011477"><span id="translatedtitle">Social Media <span class="hlt">Impact</span>: Utility of Reflective Approach in the <span class="hlt">Practice</span> of Surgery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohiuddin, Zia; Shahid, Hassan; Shuaib, Waqas</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Social media is rapidly being incorporated into medical education. We created a small group, reflective <span class="hlt">practice</span> sessions by integrating specific medical cases to improve awareness about professionalism on social media. Medical scenarios were generated for reflective <span class="hlt">practice</span> sessions on social media professionalism. Anonymous pre/post-session surveys evaluated residents' use of social media and gathered their opinions on the session. Thirty-eight of 48 (79 %) residents replied to the presession survey with 50 % (19/38) reporting daily digital media use, 76 % (29/38) witnessed unprofessional postings on social media, and 21 % (8/38) posted unprofessional content themselves. Of the 79 % (30/38) residents who attended the session, 74 % (28/38) completed the post-session survey. Residents reported the session added to the longevity of their professional career 4.11, 95 % CI (3.89-4.36). As a result of the session, they were more conscious of using the social media more professionally 3.47, 95 % CI (2.88-3.96) and would be proactive in protecting patient privacy and confidentiality on social media sites 3.96, 95 % CI (3.50-4.37). In summary, reflective <span class="hlt">practice</span>-based sessions regarding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of social media on professionalism in surgery was well favored by the residents. The majority agreed that it had important implications for the longevity of their professional career. Participants reported having an increased awareness to protect patient privacy and utilize social media more professionally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1696428','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1696428"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of introducing near patient testing for standard investigations in general <span class="hlt">practice</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rink, E; Hilton, S; Szczepura, A; Fletcher, J; Sibbald, B; Davies, C; Freeling, P; Stilwell, J</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE--To assess the clinical and economic <span class="hlt">impact</span> of surgery based near patient testing in general <span class="hlt">practice</span> for six commonly used biochemical and bacteriological tests. DESIGN--After four months' monitoring, equipment for two bacteriological and four biochemical tests was introduced without cost into 12 <span class="hlt">practices</span> using a crossover design. Structured request forms were used to monitor laboratory investigations. SETTING--12 general <span class="hlt">practices</span> in west midlands and south west Thames with list sizes above 9000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Investigation rates per 1000 consultations. Changes from baseline rates. Reasons for requesting investigations and provisional diagnoses. Cost per test and sensitivity of costs to rate of use. RESULTS--Investigation rates for the six tests rose by 16.5% (from 78.6/1000 consultations to 91.6/1000) when equipment was available in the surgery and reverted to baseline rates when it was withdrawn. The average weekly number of tests when equipment was available ranged from 0.5 to 10.5 (mean 9.0). Cholesterol tests were used as an addition to laboratory testing, usually for screening. Midstream urine analysis was often done in the surgery instead of in the laboratory, although 30% of samples were tested by both methods. Doctors' reasons for investigation and conditions tested were largely unaffected by availability of surgery tests. Costs for surgery tests were higher for all tests except midstream urine. CONCLUSIONS--Availability of surgery based testing increased the number of tests performed. It was cost effective only for midstream urine analysis. PMID:8219952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714394"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical competence in developmental-behavioural <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>: raising the bar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Keeffe, Mick</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For our specialist <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> workforce to be suitably equipped to deal with current childhood morbidity, a high level of competence in developmental-behavioural <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> (DBP) is necessary. New models of training and assessment are required to meet this challenge. An evolution of training in DBP, built around the centrepiece of competency-based medical education, is proposed. Summative assessment based upon entrustable professional activities, and a menu of formative workplace-based assessments specific to the DBP context are key components. A pilot project to develop and implement these changes is recommended.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18549980"><span id="translatedtitle">Global challenges in the development and delivery of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> antiretrovirals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bowen, Asha; Palasanthiran, Pamela; Sohn, Annette H</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>By the end of 2006, compared with 28% coverage for adults, only 15% of children with HIV that needed antiretroviral treatment were receiving it. Major challenges in delivering treatment include the lack of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> antiretrovirals that can be dosed in small children and limited studies examining safety and efficacy for existing antiretroviral formulations. The high costs of treatment have been reduced through the use of generic, fixed-dose combination drugs. Evidence-based strategies for managing resistance and the scale-up of pharmacological trials for children in low- and middle-income countries are crucial to the success and future development of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> antiretrovirals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499664','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21499664"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment system in Vietnam: The gap between theory and <span class="hlt">practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clausen, Alison; Vu, Hoang Hoa; Pedrono, Miguel</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Vietnam has one of the fastest growing economies in the world and has achieved significant socio-economic development in recent years. However this growth is placing increased pressure on an already depleted natural environment. Environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment (EIA) is recognised by the Government and international organizations as an important tool in the management of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of future development on the country's natural resource base. The Government's commitment to EIA has been demonstrated through the development and adoption of the Law on Environment Protection (Revised) in 2005 which sets out the requirements for EIA and which represents a major step in the development of a robust legislative framework for EIA in Vietnam. The Law on Environment Protection (Revised) 2005 has now been operational for several years and we have undertaken an evaluation of the resulting EIA system in Vietnam. We argue that while significant improvements have been achieved in the EIA policy framework, an important gap remains between EIA theory and <span class="hlt">practice</span>. We contend that the basis of the current EIA legislation is strong and that future developments of the EIA system in Vietnam should focus on improving capacity of EIA practitioners rather than further substantial legislative change. Such improvements would allow the Vietnamese EIA system to emerge as an effective and efficient tool for environmental management in Vietnam and as a model EIA framework for other developing countries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2092H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2092H"><span id="translatedtitle">Road-networks, a <span class="hlt">practical</span> indicator of human <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on biodiversity in Tropical forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hosaka, T.; Yamada, T.; Okuda, T.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Tropical forests sustain the most diverse plants and animals in the world, but are also being lost most rapidly. Rapid assessment and monitoring using remote sensing on biodiversity of tropical forests is needed to predict and evaluate biodiversity loss by human activities. Identification of reliable indicators of forest biodiversity and/or its loss is an urgent issue. In the present paper, we propose the density of road networks in tropical forests can be a good and <span class="hlt">practical</span> indicator of human <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on biodiversity in tropical forests through reviewing papers and introducing our preliminary survey in peninsular Malaysia. Many previous studies suggest a strong negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of forest roads on biodiversity in tropical rainforests since they changes microclimate, soil properties, drainage patterns, canopy openness and forest accessibility. Moreover, our preliminary survey also showed that even a narrow logging road (6 m wide) significantly lowered abundance of dung beetles (well-known bio-indicator in biodiversity survey in tropical forests) near the road. Since these road networks are readily to be detected with remote sensing approach such as aerial photographs and Lider, regulation and monitoring of the road networks using remote sensing techniques is a key to slow down the rate of biodiversity loss due to forest degradation in tropical forests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2964C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2964C"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of disturbance and ensuing forestry <span class="hlt">practices</span> on Collembola in spruce forest stands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Čuchta, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil Collembola communities were investigated in spruce forest stands of the High Tatra Mts that had been heavily damaged by a windstorm in November 2004 and subsequently by a wildfire in July 2005. The study focused on the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of these disturbances and forestry <span class="hlt">practices</span> on collembolan community distribution and structure four years after the disturbance. Four different treatments were selected for this study: intact forest stands (REF), non-extracted windthrown stands (NEX), clear-cut windthrown stands (EXT) and burnt windthrown stands (FIR). From a total of 7,820 individuals, 72 species were identified. The highest total abundance mean was recorded in FIR stands followed by NEX and EXT stands and, surprisingly, the lowest in REF stands. The highest total species richness was observed in REF stands, followed by NEX stands and FIR stands and the lowest in EXT stands. In REF and NEX stands the most abundant species were Folsomia penicula and Tetracanthella fjellbergi, while in heavily damaged stands the most abundant was Anurophorus laricis. The present study shows the negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of windthrow on Collembola communities as reflected in decreased species richness and abundance. However, disturbance by fire caused a considerable increase in collembolan abundance three years after the event. Moreover, we found out that clearing of windthrown spruce forests after a windstorm is less favourable for communities of soil collembolans and slows down the recovery process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27350522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27350522"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Twitter and Facebook on Nursing <span class="hlt">Practice</span> and Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Asiri, Hanan; Househ, Mowafa</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This systematic review aims to answer the following question: What is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Twitter and Facebook on nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span> and education? Any article that was written in English and was published in PubMed and Computers Informatics Nursing (CIN) journal from 2011 up to 2016 and discussed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Twitter and Facebook on nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span> and education was included, while any opinion and review articles were excluded. The results show three themes that are covered by the literature: (1) using social media to enhance students' confidence and /or self-efficacy, (2) characteristics of nurses who use social media, and (3) preferred modes of communication. Further research is still needed to reveal the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Twitter and Facebook on nursing education as well as other specialties of nursing <span class="hlt">practice</span>. PMID:27350522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227314"><span id="translatedtitle">[Blood cultures in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A <span class="hlt">practice</span> guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26227314"><span id="translatedtitle">[Blood cultures in the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A <span class="hlt">practice</span> guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin. PMID:26227314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179812"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmet'eau-Changes in the personal care product consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span>: from whistle-blowers to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on aquatic environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; de Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; Soyer, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the "changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span>: from whistle-blowers to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on aquatic environments." In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities-including local authorities, industries, and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span> and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of their implementation on aquatic contamination. Our goals are to study the whistle-blowers, the risk perception of consumers linked with their <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and the contamination in parabens and their substitutes, triclosan, and triclocarban from wastewater to surface water. The project investigates the following potential solutions: modifications of industrial formulation or changes in consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The final purpose is to provide policy instruments for local authorities aiming at building effective strategies to fight against micropollutants in receiving waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27179812"><span id="translatedtitle">Cosmet'eau-Changes in the personal care product consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span>: from whistle-blowers to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on aquatic environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; de Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; Soyer, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the "changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span>: from whistle-blowers to <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on aquatic environments." In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities-including local authorities, industries, and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span> and to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of their implementation on aquatic contamination. Our goals are to study the whistle-blowers, the risk perception of consumers linked with their <span class="hlt">practices</span>, and the contamination in parabens and their substitutes, triclosan, and triclocarban from wastewater to surface water. The project investigates the following potential solutions: modifications of industrial formulation or changes in consumption <span class="hlt">practices</span>. The final purpose is to provide policy instruments for local authorities aiming at building effective strategies to fight against micropollutants in receiving waters. PMID:27179812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24272024','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24272024"><span id="translatedtitle">Deciding together? Best interests and shared decision-making in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Birchley, Giles</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In the western healthcare, shared decision making has become the orthodox approach to making healthcare choices as a way of promoting patient autonomy. Despite the fact that the autonomy paradigm is poorly suited to <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> decision making, such an approach is enshrined in English common law. When reaching moral decisions, for instance when it is unclear whether treatment or non-treatment will serve a child's best interests, shared decision making is particularly questionable because agreement does not ensure moral validity. With reference to current common law and focusing on intensive care <span class="hlt">practice</span>, this paper investigates what claims shared decision making may have to legitimacy in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> intensive care setting. Drawing on key texts, I suggest these identify advantages to parents and clinicians but not to the child who is the subject of the decision. Without evidence that shared decision making increases the quality of the decision that is being made, it appears that a focus on the shared nature of a decision does not cohere with the principle that the best interests of the child should remain paramount. In the face of significant pressures toward the displacement of the child's interests in a shared decision, advantages of a shared decision to decisional quality require elucidation. Although a number of arguments of this nature may have potential, should no such advantages be demonstrable we have cause to revise our commitment to either shared decision making or the paramountcy of the child in these circumstances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909217','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26909217"><span id="translatedtitle">Prevalence of and Reasons for Patients Leaving Against Medical Advice from <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Wards in Oman.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Ghafri, Mohamed; Al-Bulushi, Abdullah; Al-Qasmi, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and reasons for patients leaving against medical advice (LAMA) in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> setting in Oman. This retrospective study was carried out between January 2007 and December 2009 and assessed patients who left the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> wards at the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, against medical advice. Of 11,482 regular discharges, there were 183 cases of LAMA (prevalence: 1.6%). Dissatisfaction with treatment and a desire to seek a second opinion were collectively the most cited reasons for LAMA according to data from the hospital's electronic system (27.9%) and telephone conversations with patients' parents (55.0%). No reasons for LAMA were documented in the hospital's electronic system for 109 patients (59.6%). The low observed prevalence of LAMA suggests good medical <span class="hlt">practice</span> at the Royal Hospital. This study indicates the need for thorough documentation of all LAMA cases to ensure the availability of high-quality data for healthcare workers involved in preventing LAMA. PMID:26909217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4616207','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4616207"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimally invasive surgery for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> inflammatory bowel disease: Personal experience and literature review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pini-Prato, Alessio; Faticato, Maria Grazia; Barabino, Arrigo; Arrigo, Serena; Gandullia, Paolo; Mazzola, Cinzia; Disma, Nicola; Montobbio, Giovanni; Mattioli, Girolamo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The incidence of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) has dramatically increased in the last 20 years. Although first reported in mid 1970s’, diagnostic laparoscopy has started to be routinely adopted in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> surgical <span class="hlt">practice</span> since late 1990s’. Minimally invasive surgery was first limited to diagnostic purposes. After 2002 it was also applied to the radical treatment of PIBD, either Crohn’s disease (CD) or Ulcerative colitis. During the last decade minimally invasive approaches to PIBD have gained popularity and have recently became the “gold standard” for the treatment of such invalidating and troublesome chronic diseases. The authors describe and track the historical evolution of minimally invasive surgery for PIBD and address all available opportunities, including most recent advancements such as robotic surgery, single port approaches and minimally invasive treatment of perianal fistulising CD. A systematic review of all series of PIBD treated with minimally invasive approaches published so far is provided in order to determine the incidence and type of patients’ complications reported up to present days. The authors also describe their experience with minimally invasive surgery for PIBD and will report the results of 104 laparoscopic procedures performed in a series of 61 patients between January 2006 and December 2014. PMID:26525138</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679269"><span id="translatedtitle">The church and <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV care in rural South Africa: a qualitative study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Norder, Wilma A J; Peters, Remco P H; Kok, Maarten O; van Elsland, Sabine L; Struthers, Helen E; Tutu, Mpho A; van Furth, A Marceline</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Religion has substantial - positive and negative - influence on South Africa's HIV context. This qualitative study explored possibilities for positive church engagement in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV care in a rural district in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Opinions, attitudes and experiences of various stakeholders including religious leaders, healthcare workers and people infected/affected with/by HIV were investigated through participant observation, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. During the research the original focus on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV care shifted to HIV care in general in reaction to participant responses. Participants identified three main barriers to positive church engagement in HIV care: (a) stigma and disclosure; (b) sexual associations with HIV and (c) religious beliefs and <span class="hlt">practices</span>. All participant groups appreciated the opportunity and relevance of strengthening church involvement in HIV care. Opportunities for positive church engagement in HIV care that participants identified included: (a) comprehensive and holistic HIV care when churches and clinics collaborate; (b) the wide social reach of churches and (c) the safety and acceptance in churches. Findings indicate that despite barriers great potential exists for increased positive church engagement in HIV care in rural South Africa. Recommendations include increased medical knowledge and dialogue on HIV/AIDS within church settings, and increased collaboration between churches and the medical sector. PMID:26679269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22655422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22655422"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of additional dental providers in the dental labor market on the income of private <span class="hlt">practice</span> dentists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Timothy T; Hong, Juliette S</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>This study estimates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> that the entrance of hypothetical allied dental professionals into the dental labor market may have on the earnings of currently <span class="hlt">practicing</span> private <span class="hlt">practice</span> dentists. A simulation model that uses the most reliable available data was constructed and finds that the introduction of hypothetical allied dental professionals into the competitive California dental labor market is likely to have relatively small effects on the earnings of the average dentist in California.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228245','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4228245"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a large-scale educational intervention program on venous blood specimen collection <span class="hlt">practices</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Phlebotomy performed with poor adherence to venous blood specimen collection (VBSC) guidelines jeopardizes patient safety and may lead to patient suffering and adverse events. A first questionnaire study demonstrated low compliance to VBSC guidelines, motivating an educational intervention of all phlebotomists within a county council. The aim was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a large-scale educational intervention program (EIP) on primary health care phlebotomists’ adherence to VBSC guidelines. We hypothesised that the EIP would improve phlebotomists’ VBSC <span class="hlt">practical</span> performance. Methods The present study comprise primary health care centres (n = 61) from two county councils in northern Sweden. The final selected study group consisted of phlebotomists divided into an intervention group (n = 84) and a corresponding control group (n = 79). Both groups responded to a validated self-reported VBSC questionnaire twice. The EIP included three parts: guideline studies, an oral presentation, and an examination. Non-parametric statistics were used for comparison within and between the groups. Results Evaluating the EIP, we found significant improvements in the intervention group compared to the control group on self-reported questionnaire responses regarding information search (ES = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001-0.003), and patient rest prior to phlebotomy (ES = 0.27, p = 0.004). Test request management, patient identity control, release of venous stasis, and test tube labelling had significantly improved in the intervention group but did not significantly differ from the control group (ES = 0.22- 0.49, p = < 0.001- 0.006). The control group showed no significant improvements at all (ES = 0–0.39, p = 0.016-0.961). Conclusions The present study demonstrated several significant improvements on phlebotomists’ adherence to VBSC <span class="hlt">practices</span>. Still, guideline adherence improvement to several crucial phlebotomy <span class="hlt">practices</span> is needed. We</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H33F1090I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H33F1090I"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment of Shrimp Culture <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p> nutrients through supply water was slightly higher than nutrient discharged through water outlet, which indicates a net retention of nutrients in the pond ecosystems. A large portion of this sediment nutrient eventually finds its routes into the wider aquatic system every year during pond preparation. Though the aquatic environment is able to accommodate the load from the present level of aquaculture <span class="hlt">practice</span>, the assimilative power of aquatic environment is in danger of being degraded with the unplanned intensification of shrimp culture areas. In planning aquaculture and future development all the issues and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> must be considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........33E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........33E"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematics education <span class="hlt">practice</span> in Nigeria: Its <span class="hlt">impact</span> in a post-colonial era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Enime, Noble O. J.</p> <p></p> <p>This qualitative research method of study examined the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the Nigerian pre-independence era Mathematics Education <span class="hlt">Practice</span> on the Post-Colonial era Mathematics Education <span class="hlt">Practice</span>. The study was designed to gather qualitative information related to Pre-independence and Postcolonial era data related to Mathematics Education <span class="hlt">Practice</span> in Nigeria (Western, Eastern and the Middle Belt) using interview questions. Data was collected through face to face interviews. Over ten themes emerged from these qualitative interview questions when data was analyzed. Some of the themes emerging from the sub questions were as follows. "Mentally mature to understand the mathematics" and "Not mentally mature to understand the mathematics", "mentally mature to understand the mathematics, with the help of others" and "Not Sure". Others were "Contented with Age of Enrollment" and "Not contented with Age of Enrollment". From the questions of type of school attended and liking of mathematics the following themes emerged: "Attended UPE (Universal Primary Education) and understood Mathematics", and "Attended Standard Education System and did not like Mathematics". Connections between the liking of mathematics and the respondents' eventual careers were seen through the following themes that emerged. "Biological Sciences based career and enjoyed High School Mathematics Experience", "Economics and Business Education based career and enjoyed High School Mathematics Experience" and five more themes. The themes, "Very helpful" and "Unhelpful" emerged from the question concerning parents and students' homework. Some of the themes emerging from the interviews were as follows: "Awesome because of method of Instruction of Mathematics", "Awesome because Mathematics was easy", "Awesome because I had a Good Teacher or Teachers" and four other themes, "Like and dislike of Mathematics", "Heavy work load", "Subject matter content" and "Rigor of instruction". More emerging themes are presented in this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114932','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3114932"><span id="translatedtitle">Waiting for children’s surgery in Canada: the Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Surgical Wait Times project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wright, James G.; Menaker, Rena J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background In addition to possibly prolonged suffering and anxiety, extended waits for children’s surgery beyond critical developmental periods has potential for lifelong <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The goal of this study was to determine the duration of waits for surgery for children and youth at Canadian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> academic health sciences centres using clinically-derived access targets (i.e., the maximum acceptable waiting periods for completion of specific types of surgery) as used in this Canadian <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Surgical Wait Times project. Methods We prospectively applied standardized wait-time targets for surgery, created by nominal-group consensus expert panels, to pediatric patients at children’s health sciences centres across Canada with decision-to-treat dates of Sept. 1, 2007 or later. From Jan. 1 to Dec. 30, 2009, patients’ actual wait times were compared with their target wait times to determine the percentage of patients receiving surgery after the target waiting period. Results Overall, 27% of pediatric patients from across Canada (17411 of 64012) received their surgery after their standardized target waiting period. Dentistry, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and cancer surgery showed the highest percentages of surgeries completed past target. Interpretation Many children wait too long for surgery in Canada. Specific attention is required, in particular, in dentistry, ophthalmology, plastic surgery and cancer care, to address children’s wait times for surgery. Improved access may be realized with use of national wait-time targets. PMID:21543299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.6309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.6309S"><span id="translatedtitle">Dose conversion coefficients for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> CT examinations with automatic tube current modulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schlattl, H.; Zankl, M.; Becker, J.; Hoeschen, C.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>A common dose-saving technique used in modern CT devices is automatic tube current modulation (TCM), which was originally designed to also reduce the dose in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> CT patients. In order to be able to deduce detailed organ doses of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> models, dose conversion coefficients normalized to CTDIvol for an eight-week-old baby and seven- and eight-year-old children have been computed accounting for TCM. The relative difference in organ dose conversion coefficients with and without TCM is for many organs and examinations less than 10%, but can in some cases amount up to 30%, e.g., for the thyroid in the chest CT of the seven-year-old child. Overall, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of TCM on the conversion coefficients increases with increasing age. Besides TCM, also the effect of collimation and tube voltage on organ dose conversion coefficients has been investigated. It could be shown that the normalization to CTDIvol leads to conversion coefficients that can in most cases be considered to be independent of collimation and tube voltage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26970680"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex bias in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> autoimmune disease - Not just about sex hormones?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiaroni-Clarke, Rachel C; Munro, Jane E; Ellis, Justine A</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population, and approximately 80% of those affected are female. The majority of autoimmune diseases occur more commonly in females, although some are more frequent in males, while others show no bias by sex. The mechanisms leading to sex biased disease prevalence are not well understood. However, for adult-onset autoimmune disease, at least some of the cause is usually ascribed to sex hormones. This is because levels of sex hormones are one of the most obvious physiological differences between adult males and females, and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on immune system function is well recognised. While for <span class="hlt">paediatric</span>-onset autoimmune diseases a sex bias is not as common, there are several such diseases for which one sex predominates. For example, the oligoarticular subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) occurs in approximately three times more girls than boys, with a peak age of onset well before the onset of puberty, and at a time when levels of androgen and oestrogen are low and not strikingly different between the sexes. Here, we review potential explanations for autoimmune disease sex bias with a particular focus on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> autoimmune disease, and biological mechanisms outside of sex hormone differences.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16448770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16448770"><span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burns more common in asylum seekers? An analysis of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burn admissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dempsey, M P; Orr, D J A</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The number of asylum seekers in Ireland has increased dramatically over the last 10 years. Based on our impression that the number of children admitted to our burn unit was disproportionately represented by children of asylum seekers we performed an audit to establish (1) what proportion of admissions are from this subgroup and (2) the characteristics of their burns. All <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> burn admissions from May 2003 to April 2004 were reviewed. Data collected from a retrospective chart review included patient demographics and details of the burn injuries. The National Census of 2002 and the Office of the Refugee Applications Commissioner were consulted for population statistics. Total burn admissions for the period were 126: Irish nationals (n=107), non-national residents (n=2), asylum seekers (n=14) and patients of unknown asylum status (n=3, excluded from study). In the asylum seeker group, the median age was 18.6 months (range 10 months-5.3 years) with the majority less than 2 years (n=11). All burns occurred in the domestic setting. Scalds accounted for 13 cases, one contact burn occurred from a hot grill. The median total body surface area burned was 5.7% (range 1.5-26%). The National Census of 2002 recorded a population of 3,917,203. With less than 12,000 asylum seekers in the country, they comprise only approximately 0.3% of the population yet they account for 11.4% of the burn patients admitted to our unit, p<0.0001. Children of asylum seekers are over-represented in our series of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> admissions for burns and are more likely than Irish children to sustain a burn at a younger age and in the domestic setting. This may indicate an increased risk of injury and warrants further investigation. PMID:16448770</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27213867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27213867"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of agricultural management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on river water quality in Eastern England.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of potential changes to agricultural management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124183','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124183"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of genetic polymorphisms on <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> atopic dermatitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esposito, Susanna; Patria, Maria Francesca; Spena, Silvia; Codecà, Claudio; Tagliabue, Claudia; Zampiero, Alberto; Lelii, Mara; Montinaro, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; Principi, Nicola</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In order to investigate whether polymorphisms of genes encoding some factors of innate and adaptive immunity play a role in the development of, or protection against atopic dermatitis (AD) and condition its severity, we genotyped 33 candidate genes and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Custom TaqMan Array Microfluidic Cards and an ABI 7900HT analyser (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). The study involved 104 children with AD (29 with mild-to-moderate and 75 with severe disease; 42 girls; mean age ± SD, 5.8 ± 3.3 years) and 119 healthy controls (49 girls; mean age, 4.8 ± 3.0 years). IL10-rs1800872T, TG and MBL2-rs500737AG were all significantly more frequent among the children with AD (P = 0.015, P = 0.004 and P = 0.030), whereas IL10-rs1800896C and TC were more frequent in those without AD (P = 0.028 and P = 0.032). The VEGFA-rs2146326A and CTLA4-rs3087243AG SNPs were significantly more frequent in the children with mild/moderate AD than in those with severe AD (P = 0.048 andP = 0.036). IL10-rs1800872T and TG were significantly more frequent in the children with AD and other allergic diseases than in the controls (P = 0.014 and P = 0.007), whereas IL10-rs1800896TC and C were more frequent in the controls than in the children with AD and other allergic diseases (P = 0.0055 and P = 0.0034). These findings show that some of the polymorphisms involved in the immune response are also involved in some aspects of the development and course of AD and, although not conclusive, support the immunological hypothesis of the origin of the inflammatory lesions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Vision&pg=3&id=EJ972718','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Vision&pg=3&id=EJ972718"><span id="translatedtitle">From Philosophy to <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: An Investigation of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a School's Philosophy on Policy and Classroom <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scouller, Dianne L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent research in two New Zealand Christian schools found that despite biblical vision and mission statements and declarations of pedagogy built on biblical foundations, actual classroom <span class="hlt">practice</span> frequently differed little from that in secular schools. Teachers could clearly articulate their respective school's vision and goals but all except one…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24859562"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection caused by Actinomyces neuii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Ian A; Jarral, Fazain; Sethi, Kavita; Chumas, Paul D</p> <p>2014-05-23</p> <p>We present the first reported case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection secondary to Actinomyces neuii in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> patient. Our patient was managed with temporary shunt removal, intrathecal antibiotics and a prolonged course of intravenous and then oral antibiotics. She went on to make a complete recovery. Subsequent cerebrospinal fluid analysis at 5 months post-treatment demonstrated no evidence of residual infection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15832882','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15832882"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring adherence to treatment of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV/AIDS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naar-King, S; Frey, M; Harris, M; Arfken, C</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Parent, child, physician report and pill counts were used to measure adherence in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV. Relationships to viral load were assessed. Pill counts were considered invalid. Adherence measures did not correlate with one another. Physicians reported lower adherence than parents, but parent and physician report correlated with viral load. The clinical and research utility of the various measures are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4745133','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4745133"><span id="translatedtitle">IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND <span class="hlt">PAEDIATRIC</span> HIV-1 DISEASE OUTCOME</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roider, J; Muenchhoff, M; Goulder, PJR</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review The <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV epidemic is changing. Over the past decade, new infections have substantially reduced whilst access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased. Overall this success means that numbers of children living with HIV are climbing. In addition, the problems in adults of chronic inflammation resulting from persistent immune activation even following ART-mediated suppression of viral replication are magnified in children infected from birth. Recent findings Features of immune ontogeny favor low immune activation in early life, whilst specific aspects of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV infection tend to increase it. A subset of ART-naïve non-progressing children exists in whom normal CD4 counts are maintained in the setting of persistent high viremia and yet in the context of low immune activation. This sooty mangabey-like phenotype contrasts with non-progressing adult infection characterized by the expression of protective HLA class I molecules and low viral load. The particular factors contributing to raised or lowered immune activation in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> infection, and that ultimately influence disease outcome, are discussed. Summary Novel strategies to circumvent the unwanted long-term consequences of HIV infection may be possible in children in whom natural immune ontogeny in early life militates against immune activation. Defining the mechanisms underlying low immune activation in natural HIV infection would have applications beyond <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> HIV. PMID:26679413</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27177486"><span id="translatedtitle">[Assessing and making safe the medicine use pathway in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Didelot, Nicolas; Guerrier, Catherine; Didelot, Anne; Fritsch, Sandrine; Pelte, Jean-Pierre; Socha, Marie; Javelot, Hervé</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Based on an assessment of adverse events in a follow-up care and rehabilitation unit in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span>, audits were carried out of the medicine use pathway. The evaluation grid taken from this study today serves as a basis for the audits carried out on the medicine use pathway on a national level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085928"><span id="translatedtitle">[The management of an adverse event in a <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> unit].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cruz, Emmanuelle; Dubrulle, Aurélie</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Adverse events remain a major issue in care services. The mission of hospital authorities is to analyse them in order to put in place corrective and preventive measures. The objective is to prevent them reoccurring and to ensure the sustainable improvement of the quality and safety of care. This article presents an example in <span class="hlt">paediatrics</span> with parenteral nutrition. PMID:27085928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306873','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27306873"><span id="translatedtitle">Surveillance biopsies after <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> kidney transplantation: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rose, Edward M; Kennedy, Sean E; Mackie, Fiona E</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Kidney transplantation is the most effective means of treating children with end-stage kidney disease, and yet, there continues to be a limited "life span" of transplanted kidneys in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> recipients. Early graft monitoring, using the surveillance biopsy, has the potential to extend renal allograft survival in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> recipients. The surveillance biopsy provides important and timely information about acute and chronic graft pathology, particularly SCR and calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity, which can subsequently guide management decisions and improve long-term graft survival. The ostensible value of the surveillance biopsy is furthered by the limitations of conventional renal functional studies. However, there is still much debate surrounding the surveillance biopsy in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> recipients, particularly in regard to its overall utility, safety and timing. This review discusses the current literature regarding the utility, safety, and potential predictive value of surveillance biopsies for guiding post-transplant management in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> renal allograft recipients, as well as the viability of other potentially newer non-invasive strategies for renal allograft monitoring. PMID:27306873</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26573404"><span id="translatedtitle">[The nurse consultation in a Swiss university <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency department].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yersin, Corinne; Hemme, Denis; Gehri, Mario; Pittet, Anne; Rey-Bellet Gasser, Céline</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In Switzerland, overcrowding in tertiary emergency departments is a frequent problem, resulting in lengthy waiting times, lower satisfaction on the part of families and a risk for patient's safety. The setting up of a nurse consultation in a university <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> emergency centre has helped to improve the quality of care in this context. PMID:26573404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236645','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4236645"><span id="translatedtitle">How readable are Australian <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oral health education materials?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The objective of this study was to analyse the readability of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oral health education leaflets available in Australia. Methods Forty <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oral health education materials were analysed for general readability according to the following parameters: Thoroughness; Textual framework; Terminology; and Readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level (FKGL), Gunning Fog index (Fog) and Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG)). Results Leaflets produced by the industry were among the hardest to read with an average readability at the 8th grade (8.4 ± 0.1). The readability of leaflets produced by the commercial sector was at the 7th grade (7.1 ± 1.7) and the government at the 6th grade (6.3 ± 1.9). The FKGL consistently yielded readabilities 2 grades below the Fog and SMOG indexes. In the content analyses, 14 essential <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> oral health topics were noted and Early Childhood Caries (ECC) was identified as the most commonly used jargon term. Conclusion <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> oral health education materials are readily available, yet their quality and readability vary widely and may be difficult to read for disadvantaged populations in Australia. A redesign of these leaflets while taking literacy into consideration is suggested. PMID:25183234</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564131','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564131"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment and medication management of <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> obsessive-compulsive disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, S Evelyn; Hezel, Dianne; Stachon, Andrea C</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, yet under-recognized, neuropsychiatric illness in both clinical and community settings. Symptoms tend to be hidden or misunderstood by affected youth, and parents may inadvertently accommodate OCD, thus worsening its severity. These symptoms may include compulsive reassurance seeking, confessing and 'just right' rituals, in addition to more classic OCD behaviours. Fortunately, numerous psychometric measures are available to assist in clinical assessment of this disorder and its sequelae. Once properly diagnosed, <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> OCD is highly treatable with empirically proven approaches including cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medications. Clinically meaningful symptom improvement is the norm following these strategies, although full remission is not, as symptoms tend to wax and wane over time. <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> OCD is highly co-morbid with other anxiety disorders, tic disorders, depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, which also require specific attention. For moderate to severe OCD, an interdisciplinary approach combining individual and family CBT with SRI trials is recommended. For severe treatment-refractory illness, early evidence supports the benefit of augmenting agents, such as atypical antipsychotics and potentially those with glutamatergic activity. Clinical outcome assessment in <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> OCD should always include broad domains of individual and family functioning, in addition to symptom improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462058','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3462058"><span id="translatedtitle">The Infancy of an International <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Pharmacy Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Knoppert, David; Arenas-Lopez, Sara; McArtney, Rowena</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>There are several pharmacy and clinical pharmacology organizations in which pediatrics is one of many special interest groups and a few whose focus is entirely pediatric drug therapy. Recently the foundation for the establishment of an International Network of <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Pharmacists has been laid. This paper describes that network. PMID:23055865</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=binet&pg=3&id=EJ928486','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=binet&pg=3&id=EJ928486"><span id="translatedtitle">Aetiology of Intellectual Disability in <span class="hlt">Paediatric</span> Outpatients in Northern India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jauhari, Prashant; Boggula, Raju; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Singh, Chandrakanta; Kohli, Neera; Yadav, Rajesh; Kumar, Rashmi</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aim: To study the aetiology of intellectual disability in patients presenting to hospital and the diagnostic yield of a standardized examination. Method: Over a 1-year period, the first three children presenting to the <span class="hlt">paediatric</span> outpatients department (OPD) on 2 selected weekdays with developmental delay, suspected intellectual disability, or…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12805821','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12805821"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeled <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> and structural agricultural changes on nitrogen fluxes in the Netherlands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O</p> <p>2001-11-16</p> <p>In the Netherlands, nutrient emissions from intensive animal husbandry have contributed to decreased species diversity in (semi) natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, pollution of groundwater, and possibly global warming due to N2O emissions. This paper presents the results of a modelling study presenting the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of both structural measures and improved farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> on major nitrogen (N) fluxes, including NH3 and N2O emission, uptake, leaching, and runoff, in the Netherlands, using input data for the year 2000. Average annual fluxes (Gg N year(-1)) for the year 2000 were estimated at 132 for NH3 emission (160 Gg NH 3 year(-1)), 28 for N2O emission, 50 for N inflow to groundwater, and 15 for N inflow to surface water at a total N input of 1046. At this input, nitrate (NO3) concentrations in groundwater often exceeded the target of 50 mg NO3 l(-1), specifically in well-drained sandy soils. The ammonia (NH3) emissions exceeded emission targets that were set to protect the biodiversity of nonagricultural land. Improved farming <span class="hlt">practices</span> were calculated to lead to a significant reduction in NH3 emissions to the atmosphere and N leaching and runoff to groundwater and surface water, but these improvements were not enough to reach all the targets set for those fluxes. Only strong structural measures clearly improved the situation. The NH3 emission target of 30 Gg NH3 year(-1), suggested for the year 2030, could not be attained, however, unless pig and poultry farming is completely banned in the Netherlands and all cattle stay almost permanently in low emission stables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=needs+AND+educational+AND+Special&pg=5&id=EJ1035704','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=needs+AND+educational+AND+Special&pg=5&id=EJ1035704"><span id="translatedtitle">2014 Code of <span class="hlt">Practice</span>: How Research Evidence on the Role and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Teaching Assistants Can Inform Professional <span class="hlt">Practice</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Webster, Rob</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author reflects on findings from research on the role and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teaching assistants and experience of working as a special educational needs (SEN) officer. Research evidence suggests the reliance on teaching assistants to include pupils with Statements of SEN in mainstream settings masks a collective, though unintentional,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=203397','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=203397"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Business <span class="hlt">Practices</span> on the Environment: Best <span class="hlt">Practices</span> for Communicating Remediation Efforts to Non-Scientists</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This research focuses on how a specialty chemical manufacturing company managed the aftermath of a competitive marketplace and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of offshore chemical production, which forced the facility to cease manufacturing operations in 2003. The facility operated in central Pennsylvania and had earned...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23264058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23264058"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of two best management <span class="hlt">practices</span> on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Rui; Gress, Julie; Gao, Jie; Ma, Lena Q</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>This study investigated the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of two best management <span class="hlt">practices</span> (BMPs) recommended by US Environmental Protection Agency on Pb weathering and leachability in shooting range soils. The two BMPs included replacing soil berm with sand berm and periodically removing bullets or shot from a berm. A column experiment corresponding to the first BMP was conducted by mixing the bullets with sand/soil, or placing bullets on the surface of sand/soil. After a 16-18-week incubation under high or low rainfall simulations, total Pb concentrations in sand were lower than that in soil. Total leachable Pb in sand (8.48 and 5.52 μg kg(-1)) was also lower than that in soil (60.0 and 30.4 μg kg(-1)) when bullets were mixed with sand/soil; however, they were comparable when bullets were placed on the sand/soil surface. These results indicate that lower Pb concentration in the sand than in soil may be attributed to reduced weathering of bullets. Mechanical removal of Pb bullets in the field transferred Pb from large to finer particles, increasing total Pb in the soil (<2 mm) from 2,170 to 5,000 mg kg(-1). In contrast, mechanical removal of Pb shot effectively reduced the shot in the soil by 86-92 %. Thus, we concluded that, while replacing soil berm with sand berm can slow down Pb weathering, it may increase Pb leachability in the long term. Removal of Pb bullets and Pb shot can be effective, but caution needs to be exercised to minimize the adverse <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, especially in pistol/rifle ranges because of increased total Pb content in the soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......110B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......110B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Practicing</span> biology: Undergraduate laboratory research, persistence in science, and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of self-efficacy beliefs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berkes, Elizabeth</p> <p></p> <p>As undergraduate laboratory research internships become more popular and universities devote considerable resources towards promoting them, it is important to clarify what students specifically gain through involvement in these experiences and it is important to understand their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the science pipeline. By examining recent findings describing the primary benefits of undergraduate research participation, along with self-efficacy theory, this study aims to provide more explanatory power to the anecdotal and descriptive accounts regarding the relationship between undergraduate research experiences and interest in continuing in science. Furthermore, this study characterizes <span class="hlt">practices</span> that foster students' confidence in doing scientific work with detailed description and analysis of the interactions of researchers in a laboratory. Phase 1 of the study, a survey of undergraduate biology majors (n=71) at a major research university, investigates the relationships among participation in biology laboratory research internships, biology laboratory self-efficacy strength, and interest in persisting in science. Phase 2 of the study, a two-year investigation of a university biology research laboratory, investigates how scientific communities of <span class="hlt">practice</span> develop self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that participation in lab internships results in increased interest in continuing in life science/biology graduate school and careers. They also suggest that a significant proportion of that interest is related to the students' biology laboratory self-efficacy. The findings of this study point to two primary ways that undergraduate research participation might work to raise self-efficacy strength. First, university research laboratory communities can provide students with a variety of resources that scaffold them into biology laboratory mastery experiences. Second, university research laboratory communities can provide students with coping and mastery Discourse models</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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