Skowno, Justin J; Quick, Tom J; Carpenter, Eleanor C; De Lima, Jonathan; Gibbons, Paul J; Little, David G
Children suffering supracondylar fractures of the humerus are at risk of vascular compromise, which is currently assessed clinically, although other modalities such as angiography, pulse oximetry, Doppler ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography have been used. We sought to ascertain whether tissue haemoglobin oxygenation (StO2) measurement could distinguish between patients with and without clinical vascular compromise following supracondylar fractures of the humerus. We prospectively observed StO2 using near-infrared spectroscopy in 29 paediatric patients with supracondylar fractures requiring operative manipulation. The injured and uninjured volar forearm compartments were monitored immediately before and after fracture reduction. The relationship between StO2 in the injured and uninjured limb, and the presence of pre-operative vascular compromise was assessed. Seven out of 29 children presented with vascular compromise. Patients with clinical vascular compromise had significantly lower pre-reduction StO2 (63.5% ± 15%, mean ± standard deviation), compared to those without compromise (80.9% ± 10%). StO2 normalized following surgery in all children with vascular compromise. These improvements in muscle StO2 were associated, in all patients, with the clinical return of pulses and resolution of neurological symptoms if present. StO2 monitoring can identify patients with clinical vascular compromise, can identify the return of adequate perfusion following operative correction of supracondylar fractures, and may be a useful adjunct to clinical assessment.
Chang, Chia-Hsieh; Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E
Obesity was associated with poor treatment outcome in paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. It is controversial about the association is related to more severe fractures in obese children or obesity directly affects treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of obesity on surgical outcomes after control of fracture severity. This is a retrospective comparative study of 107 children treated for type III supracondylar humeral fractures between January 2009 and December 2013. Children were classified according to sex-specific body mass index (BMI)-for-age growth chart into 4 groups: underweight group (n=10); normal-weight group (n=71); overweight group (n=13); and obese group (n=13). Clinical outcomes were assessed using the Flynn criteria. Radiographic evaluation included the Baumann angle and the lateral humerocapitellar angle. Loss of reduction was defined by Skaggs' criteria. The mean age, sex, and Flynn criteria were comparable among the four BMI groups. Obese children were more likely to develop a varus change in the Baumann angle (p=0.017) and loss of reduction in varus (p=0.059) postoperatively. The risk for pin-related complications was significantly higher in overweight and obese children (p=0.013). Obesity was associated with more postoperative varus deformation and pin-related complications after surgical fixation for type III supracondylar fracture. These findings underline the importance of stable fixation and close post-operative monitoring in obese children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krusche-Mandl, Irena; Aldrian, Silke; Köttstorfer, Julia; Seis, Astrid; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Egkher, Alexander
The aim of this study was to analyse the management of displaced paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures at our Level I Trauma Centre and to determine clinical and radiographic long-term results following operative treatment. Clinical and radiological results of 78 paediatric patients (29 female, 49 male; mean age 5.1 years) with supracondylar humerus fractures, treated from 1992 to 2004, were evaluated. Gartland's classification yielded 32 type II, 44 type III and further two flexion injuries. In all patients the follow-up period exceeded 12 months. Assessment after an average of 8.1 years (1.1-19.5) included neurovascular examination, Flynn's criteria (elbow function and carrying angle), pain, complications (infections, growth disturbances or iatrogenic nerve injuries) and measurement of the humeroulnar angle. According to Flynn's criteria 73 patients (93.5 %) had a satisfactory outcome, while five (6.4 %) were graded as unsatisfactory (two due to cubitus varus and three because of limited elbow motion). The visual analogue scale (VAS) score averaged 0 (range 0-1) and the mean carrying angle measured 8.4° (-8 to 20°), compared to 10.8° on the contralateral side (2-20°). Injury-related complications yielded absent pulses in four (5.1 %), five (6.4 %) primary median, two (2.6 %) primary radial and one (1.3 %) primary ulnar nerve injury. Treatment-related complications included a secondary displacement and one iatrogenic radial nerve palsy. Based on primary nerve lesion as a dependent variable, statistical analysis showed that age had a significant influence revealing that older paediatric patients had a significantly higher risk (p = 0.02). Functional outcome as a dependent variable revealed an indirect proportion to the clinical carrying angle, achieving statistical significance (p < 0.01). Crossed pinning in paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures is an effective method. Evaluation of the outcome in our study group demonstrated good results with the
Holland, P; Highcock, A; Bruce, C
Introduction This study investigates the influence of incomplete reduction of supracondylar fractures on the incidence of loss of reduction requiring reoperation Materials and methods A review of 107 consecutive patients presenting with supracondylar fractures treated with closed reduction and Kirschner wire stabilisation, between January 2011 and March 2013, was conducted. The mean age was 5 years (range 10 months to 12 years). Pre-, intra- and postoperative radiographs were reviewed. All patients who had failure of fixation requiring revision surgery were identified. Results Ninety-nine patients had an initial adequate radiographic reduction. Of these, one (1%) required revision surgery. Eight patients had an initial incomplete radiographic reduction and, of these, six (75%) required revision surgery (P < 0.0001). Discussion Supracondylar fractures treated with closed reduction and K wire stabilisation require adequate intraoperative reduction. Incomplete reduction should not be accepted, as despite the bones potential to remodel, the risk of further loss of reduction is high, requiring reoperation.
Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh
Closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation are widely recommended for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures. However, the optimal K-wire configuration is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of crossed pinning with or without a posterior intrafocal pin in Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures. We retrospectively reviewed 93 children who underwent crossed pinning for Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures between January 2009 and December 2013. One surgeon preferentially added one posterior intrafocal pin onto the crossed pins in 35 children, and the other surgeons used standard crossed pinning technique in 58 children. Results were assessed by range of elbow motion and radiographic measures including the Baumann angle, the lateral humerocapitellar angle and the position of the anterior humeral line (AHL). The demographic data were comparable between the 2 groups. Children treated with the additional posterior intrafocal pin had greater range of elbow motion (138.7° vs. 133.6°, p=0.01) and had a greater lateral humerocapitellar angle (44.9° vs. 37.8°, p=0.01) measured 3 months postoperatively. The percentage of AHL position in the posterior third was significantly higher in children with the posterior intrafocal pin immediately after fixation (odds ratio [OR]: 6.26) and 3 months later (OR: 2.84). The percentage of AHL position in the anterior third was also significantly lower in children with the posterior intrafocal pin 3 months postoperatively (OR: 0.29). No pin site infection or nerve injury was associated with the additional posterior pin. Adding one posterior intrafocal pin to crossed pinning can facilitate fracture reduction and enhance fixation stability. Better sagittal alignment and elbow motion support this safe and effective technique in treating type III humeral supracondylar fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sahu, Ramji Lal
Background: Supracondylar fractures are the commonest elbow injury in children. Most displaced Supracondylar fractures are manipulated and held with a medial/lateral entry or two lateral Kirschner wires. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the treatment of this injury in this unique patient population. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2005 to July 2010. One hundred seventy patients were recruited from Emergency and outpatient department having closed displaced Supracondylar fractures of humerus in children. They were treated either with medial-lateral pin fixation (n = 85) or with 2-lateral pin fixation (n = 85). All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 6 months. Results were analysed using Flynn's criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi Square Test. Chi Square calculator was used as a software. Results: All children achieved union in a mean time of 4 weeks (range: 3-6 weeks). Post-operatively, eight patients (4.70%) got ulnar nerve injury and six (3.52%) patients got pin tract infection. Comparison between two groups such as cross K-wire group (85) and lateral K-wire group (n = 85) by using the Chi Square Test showed that in case of 8 weeks with (P-values = 0.89), in 16 weeks (P = 0.91) and 24 weeks (P = 0.85) with respective excellent, good, fair and poor categories were not found statistically significant. Conclusion: The lateral percutaneous pinning technique of displaced Supracondylar fractures of the humerus offers a viable alternative to the crossed pinning group as it offers the same stability without the incipient risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. PMID:24403712
Khoshbin, Amir; Leroux, Timothy; Wasserstein, David; Wolfstadt, Jesse; Law, Peggy W; Mahomed, Nizar; Wright, James G
The epidemiology of paediatric supracondylar fracture (SCF) fixation has not been evaluated at a population level. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine the incidence density rate (IDR) of SCF fixation and (2) determine the rate of and risk factors for re-operation. Using administrative databases, all patients who underwent SCF fixation (closed reduction percutaneous pinning (CRPP) or open reduction (OR)) in Ontario between April 2002 and March 2010 were identified. Exclusion criteria included age (>12 years), a prior or concurrent non-SCF elbow fracture or previous humeral osteotomy. The overall IDR of SCF fixation and for subgroups of age, sex and season were calculated. A multivariate regression (immediate and short-term re-operation) and a Cox proportional hazards model (long-term re-operation) were used to identify patient, injury and provider factors that influenced re-operation risk and were reported as odds ratios or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. A total of 3235 patients with a median age of 6.0 years (interquartile range (IQR): 3.0) underwent SCF fixation. The median follow-up was 6.0 years (IQR: 3.7). The majority underwent a CRPP (78.7%) which were performed after hours (75.6%). The overall IDR was 20.7/100,000 person-years (py), but it varied significantly by season and age. Re-operation was uncommon in the immediate (1.0%), short-term (1.4%) and long-term (0.3%) follow-up period. As compared to CRPP, patients who underwent OR were more likely to undergo early nerve exploration (odds ratio: 7.8 (CI: 3.0-20.6)) and re-operation in the long term (HR: 3.0 (CI: 1.0-8.7)). Increased surgeon volume of SCF fixation was protective against repeat fixation (odds ratio: 0.9 (CI: 0.9-1.0)) and re-operation in the long term (HR: 0.9 (CI: 0.8-1.0)). While SCF fixation is common, the rate of re-operation is low. No differences existed between the sexes and a higher volume of fixations occurred during the summer months
Dučić, Sinisa; Radlović, Vladimir; Bukva, Bojan; Radojičić, Zoran; Vrgoč, Goran; Brkić, Iva; Jaramaz Dučić, Tatjana; Jurdana, Hari; Abramović, Dusan; Bojović, Nikola; Štefan, Lovro
cosmetic outcome for most unstable paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures with no risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petrov, N; Gucev, S; Kirkov, Lj; Dajljevik, S; Ruso, B
In the Department of Pediatric surgery, during the last ten years, 190 patients with supracondylar fractures (second and third degree, according to Bauman's classification) have been treated. The operation was performed in only 5% of all hospitalized cases. There were only one patient with neurological and vascular complications in the early stage, but without any complications in the late stage. The presented cases showed a high percentage of flexion type of fractures. The conservative treatment by a reposition has given the most satisfactory results.
Fracture supracondylar humerus is one of the most common fractures encountered in pediatric age group at all levels (both rural and urban). Thus it needs a special review in its management protocol as per the changing trend. Modified Gartland classification is the most accepted classification and has its importance in decision making regarding management and prognosis. Neurovascular complications are mostly associated with Type III A, III B and Type IV variety and they most of the time need surgical intervention for stabilization, exploration of brachial artery, sometimes median nerve exploration and reduction of fracture. Cubitus varus is the most common associated deformity associated with this fracture (especially in Type III A). The aim of the review was to develop an insight for the understanding of variations in presentation and management of supracondylar fracture of the humerus (both simplicity and complexity) and the flowing trend in addition to the recent advances to deal with this particular pediatric orthopaedic entity which often presents as an emergency. PMID:28208961
Bouton, Daniel; Ho, Christine Ann; Abzug, Joshua; Brighton, Brian; Ritzman, Todd F
Although flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures account for a minority of all supracondylar humerus fractures, they warrant special attention because of their relatively high rate of requirement for open reduction and their potential for ulnar nerve injury or entrapment. The severity of flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures may be difficult to appreciate on initial radiographs; therefore, surgeons must have a high index of suspicion in the evaluation of a patient who has a suspected flexion-type supracondylar humerus fracture. Nondisplaced or minimally displaced flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures can be treated with long arm casting. Displaced flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures require surgical reduction and stabilization. The unique instability of and reduction position for flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures make reduction and pinning more of a challenge compared with the more common extension-type supracondylar humerus fractures; therefore, special considerations are required in the surgical setup and planning for flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures.
Anjum, Rashid; Sharma, Vivek; Jindal, Ramesh; Singh, Tarun Pratap; Rathee, Narender
This prospective study aimed to investigate the epidemiologic parameters of supracondylar humeral fractures in children admitted to a teaching institution of a developing country primarily catering to rural population, to find any preventable cause of such injuries. All suspected cases of supracondylar humeral fracture reporting to emergency or outpatients department were analysed for various epidemiologic parameters including age, sex, laterality, time of presentation, associated injuries, neurovascular complications and classification over a period of four years. We analysed a total of 263 patients and most of the fractures were seen in 5-8-year age group with a mean of 7.9 years. A total of 157 cases were males and non-dominant extremity was involved in 65% of fractures in our series. Fall on outstretched hand was the predominant cause of injury and fall from rooftop was the predominant mode. In all patients, 36.12% reported to our hospital 1 week after injury, 39.92% presented to hospital within 48 h after trauma and the remaining 23.95% presented 48 h to 1 week after trauma. None had a bilateral injury. Gartland type 3 fractures constituted 54.37% of patients, followed by type 1 (23.95%) and type 2 (21.67%). Almost one fourth of supracondylar humeral fractures in children can be prevented by installing railing of rooftops and stairs. It is necessary to educate people on hazards of treatment by traditional bonesetters. Moreover, the children with supracondylar humeral fractures should be screened for associated injuries. Copyright © 2017 Daping Hospital and the Research Institute of Surgery of the Third Military Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Bayrak, Alkan; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Kizilkaya, Cemal; Dasar, Uygar; Avkan, Mustafa Cevdet
Supracondylar humerus fractures are common in children. Displaced fractures are usually treated with closed reduction and cross pin fixation. But, medial pinning may cause the ulnar nerve injury. The aim of this study was to compare the parents-based cosmetic satisfaction of the incision scars in children with displaced supracondylar humerus fractures treated by closed reduction and cross pin fixation with or without small medial incision. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 72 children with displaced supracondylar humerus fractures treated two different closed reduction and percutaneous pinning methods at our institution from January 2010 through December 2013. A group has 36 patients treated with small medial incision and crossed K-wires fixation after closed reduction. The other group has 36 patients treated with closed reduction and K-wires fixation. At the final follow-up, the patients were evaluated radiologically and clinically with Flynn's criteria. Furthermore, a visual analogue scale was used to determine of the parents-based cosmetic satisfaction score. All fractures healed without major complications at the final clinical and radiological assessment. Although, between the two groups did not differ in terms of Flynn cosmetic and functional outcomes, there were statistically significant differences between both groups according to the parents-based cosmetic satisfaction scores. The closed reduction and crossed pin fixation without small medial incision should be preferred first because of better the parents-based cosmetic satisfaction.
Randsborg, Per-Henrik; Sivertsen, Einar Andreas
Supracondylar humerus fractures are common in children. Severe complications are rare. We present an overview of treatment options and prognosis. The article is based on a non-systematic search in PubMed and experience from our own clinical research. The injury is usually caused by falling from a height with the arm in extension. The mean age is about 6 years. Undisplaced fractures are treated conservatively with a cast. Displaced fractures should not be treated with a cast alone, as this may cause malunions and permanent neurovascular complications. The rate of complications after traction of displaced fractures is substantially lower than for immobilisation in cast alone. Traction and percutaneous pinning yield similar results, but percutaneous pinning is less expensive--mainly because it shortens the hospital stay. In addition, the risk of cubitus varus deformity seems to be reduced. Today the treatment of choice is closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Choice of pin configuration is at the surgeon's discretion. Crossed pins are more common than two lateral pins, although medial pins can affect the ulnar nerve. However, the affection is almost always transient. Deep infection after percutaneous pinning is very rare. Percutaneous pinning of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children is cheap and the results are good.
Lehner, M; Schuster, B; Dietz, H-G
Elbow fractures are the 2nd most frequent fractures in children. Their therapy needs high expertise. Particularly an adequate analgesic therapy as well as an efficient and differentiated non-surgical or surgical therapy depending on the fracture type needs to be chosen. Secondary damage, especially growth disturbances, has to be prevented. Type I fractures can be managed conservatively with a cast. The crossed percutaneous pin fixation after open or closed reduction is the typical and most frequent surgical treatment option in supracondylar humeral fractures in children. Another good treatment option for supracondylar fractures type II to IV after closed reduction is the elastic-stable intramedullar nailing (ESIN). It is a minimally invasive treatment away from the fracture zone, which allows immediate free movement of the extremity. An immobilisation in a cast is therefore not necessary. That are the most possible effects (opinion of the authors) of the ESIN method, but discussed controversial in the literature. Especially neurovascular concomitant injuries require a differentiated treatment strategy to prevent long-term damage and should only be carried out in a specialised paediatric surgery unit. Long-term complications of supracondylar fractures are limitations in range of motion, nerval palsies, disturbances of growth, as well as cubitus varus (30 %) and valgus (3-7 %). These last ones often result from an insufficient initial anatomic reduction. The aim of the therapy should in any case be a patient-orientated treatment with the expected quickest recovery time and lowest long-term complications. Therefore supracondylar fractures should be treated only by a specialised paediatric trauma team, which can provide all non-surgical and surgical treatments. The spontaneous correcture is only seen in the sagittal view in young children between 6-7 years of age.
Seeley, Mark A; Gagnier, Joel J; Srinivasan, Ramesh C; Hensinger, Robert N; VanderHave, Kelly L; Farley, Frances A; Caird, Michelle S
This study evaluates the effects of childhood obesity on fracture complexity and associated injuries in pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. A billing query identified all patients who were two to eleven years of age and had undergone operative treatment for extension-type supracondylar humeral fractures over a 12.5-year period. Records were reviewed for demographic data, body mass index percentile, and injury data. Complex fractures were defined as type-3 supracondylar humeral fractures, supracondylar humeral fractures with intercondylar extension, or supracondylar humeral fractures with ipsilateral upper-extremity fractures. Logistic regression analyses were used to test relationships among body mass index subgroups, fracture complexity, elbow motion, preoperative and postoperative neurovascular status, and complications. Three hundred and fifty-four patients met our inclusion criteria. Forty-one children were underweight (BMI in the <5th percentile), 182 were normal weight (BMI in the 5th to 85th percentile), sixty-three were overweight (BMI in the >85th to 95th percentile), and sixty-eight were obese (BMI in the >95th percentile). There were 149 patients, eleven of whom were obese, with isolated type-2 fractures and 205 patients, fifty-seven of whom were obese, with complex fractures. Thirty-two patients had preoperative nerve palsies and twenty-eight patients had postoperative nerve palsies. Using logistic regression, obesity was associated with complex fractures (odds ratio, 9.19 [95% confidence interval, 4.25 to 19.92]; p < 0.001), preoperative nerve palsies (odds ratio, 2.69 [95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 6.29]; p = 0.02), postoperative nerve palsies (odds ratio, 7.69 [95% confidence interval, 2.66 to 22.31]; p < 0.001), and postoperative complications (odds ratio, 4.03 [95% confidence interval, 1.72 to 9.46]; p < 0.001). Additionally, obese patients were more likely to sustain complex fractures from a fall on an outstretched hand than normal
Guler, O; Mutlu, S; Isyar, M; Mutlu, H; Cerci, H; Mahirogullari, M
To compare the supine versus prone position in closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for supracondylar humeral fractures in children in terms of patient characteristics and outcome. Records of 25 girls and 31 boys aged 4 to 9 (mean, 6.7) years who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning in the prone (n=27) or supine (n=29) position each by one experienced surgeon for supracondylar extension type-3 humeral fractures were reviewed. The prone and supine groups were comparable in terms of patient characteristics and outcome, except that anaesthesia duration was shorter in surgery performed in the supine position (46.7 vs. 37.2 minutes, p<0.001). In surgery for supracondylar humeral fractures in children, patient position affected only the duration of anaesthesia.
Liu, Raymond W; Roocroft, Joanna; Bastrom, Tracey; Yaszay, Burt
There has been an increasing trend toward referral of supracondylar humerus fractures in children to pediatric orthopaedic centers. The learning curve for treating this fracture is not well described. We retrospectively reviewed all supracondylar fractures treated by 21 pediatric orthopaedic fellows over the 2003 to 2009 academic years, with attending cases from 2005 to 2007 to serve as a control. Type IIa, IIb, and III fractures were used in the case count of for each fellows, whereas only type III fractures were used to record fluoroscopy time, operative time, and for radiographic review. Nonideal reduction was defined as a Baumann angle outside the range of 64 to 81 degrees, or an anterior humeral line that does not intersect the capitellum. Of the 654 total operatively treated fractures, fellows treated 479 total and 213 type III fractures. Backup attendings were present in the operating room for 39% of type III fractures in the first academic quarter before falling to a baseline of 10% to 20% during the remaining quarters. Fluoroscopy time and operative time were consistent for fellows throughout the year. Nonideal reductions increased notably at case 7, correlating with increased fellow independence in the operating room, with reversal of the trend at case 15. There were no differences in complication rates and no malunions requiring osteotomy. In order to balance training and patient care, we recommend the availability of an attending backup surgeon for the first 15 cases of supracondylar humerus fractures treated by pediatric orthopaedic fellows. Level III, retrospective comparative study.
Etier, Brian E; Doyle, J Scott; Gilbert, Shawn R
Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a rare but important complication after supracondylar humerus fractures. Posttraumatic humerus deformity was first reported in 1948 and sporadically thereafter. AVN deformity has been classified as type A (AVN of the lateral ossification center) and type B (AVN of the entire medial crista and a metaphyseal portion). In this article, we present 5 cases of AVN after supracondylar humerus fracture, discuss the importance of late clinical findings, and postulate a mechanism of AVN in nondisplaced fractures. Five cases of AVN after supracondylar humerus fracture were reviewed from the Children's of Alabama database. Four of the 5 patients were female. Four patients sustained a Gartland type III fracture, and 1 patient sustained a nondisplaced Gartland type I fracture. Age at time of injury ranged from 5 years to 10 years. All patients had an asymptomatic clinical period after treatment and re-presented 6 months to 7 years later with elbow pain or loss of motion. All patients were treated symptomatically. AVN of the trochlea has a late clinical presentation. The cause of this complication is interruption of the trochlea blood supply. In displaced fractures, the medial and/or lateral vessels are injured, leading to type A or type B deformity. In nondisplaced fractures, the lateral vessels are interrupted by tamponade because of encased fracture hematoma; this presents as a type A deformity. Both type A and type B deformities can be clinically significant. AVN of the trochlea should be considered in patients with late presentation of pain or loss of motion after treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures.
Muchow, Ryan D; Riccio, Anthony I; Garg, Sumeet; Ho, Christine A; Wimberly, Robert L
Approximately 5% of supracondylar humerus fractures in children are associated with an ipsilateral forearm fracture, often referred to as a floating elbow when both injuries are displaced. Historically, these patients have higher complication rates than patients with an isolated supracondylar humerus fracture. The purpose of this study was to review the acute neurologic and vascular injuries in patients with ipsilateral, operative supracondylar humerus and forearm fractures and compare the findings with a cohort of isolated, operative supracondylar humerus fractures. We performed an IRB-approved, retrospective review of all pediatric patients with ipsilateral, operative supracondylar humerus and forearm fractures from a single institution and compared our findings to a cohort of isolated, operative supracondylar humerus fractures. A total of 150 patients with operative supracondylar humerus and ipsilateral forearm fractures were compared with 1228 patients with isolated, operative supracondylar humerus fractures. Twenty-two of the 150 (14.7%) floating elbow patients had documented pretreatment nerve palsies compared with 96/1228 (7.8%) of isolated injury patients (P=0.006). Eighteen of 22 nerve palsies were in patients with forearm fractures that required reduction. The overall incidence of nerve palsy was 18.9% (18/95) when a forearm fracture required reduction compared with only 7.3% (4/55) in a forearm fracture that was not reduced (P=0.05). We did not find a significant difference in the rate of pulseless extremities when comparing the ipsilateral (6/150 4%) and isolated (50/1228 4.1%) injury patients. No compartment syndromes were identified in any patient with an ipsilateral injury. The rate of acute neurologic injury in ipsilateral supracondylar humerus and forearm fractures is almost twice than that found in patients with isolated supracondylar humerus fractures. This rate increases further when the forearm fracture requires a manipulative reduction. The
Uçar, B Y; Demirtaş, A; Uçar, D E
Being one of the most frequent elbow fractures during childhood, supracondylar humerus fractures require rapid diagnosis and treatment, as they may be associated with significant neurovascular and functional problems. QUESTIONS AND PURPOSES: To evaluate demographic and clinical features, and treatment outcomes of the patients with supracondylar humerus fractures who underwent open reduction+minimal osteosynthesis or closed reduction+percutaneous wiring. Forty patients (30 boys + 10 girls) between 2 and 13 years of age who were operated on with the diagnosis of supracondylar humerus fracture, between August 2003 and December 2006, were included. Open reduction+minimal osteosynthesis (n=34) and closed reduction+percutaneous wiring (n=6) were performed. The fractures were classified according to the Gartland classification and outcomes were assessed according to Flynn's criteria. All patients (mean age, 7.35 years; range, 2-13 years) had closed fractures (28 left and 12 right). Seven (17.5%) and 33 (82.5%) patients had Gartland type II and III fractures respectively. Three patients had flexion-type and 37 patients had extension-type fractures. Based on Flynn's criteria, cosmetic results were excellent in 37 (92.5%) patients and good in 3 (7.5%) patients, and functional results were excellent in 36 (90%) patients, good in 3 (7.5%) patients, and poor in 1 (2.5%) patient. A surgical success rate of 97.5% was noted. No significant difference was found between wire configurations (p > 0.05). Treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in children should be patient-specific based on factors such as patient's age, soft tissue conditions and deformity status.
Salvador, J; Castillón, P; Fuentes, I; Bernaus, M; Anglès, F
Supracondylar humeral fractures represent only about 0.5-1% of all fractures in adults. The objective of this study is to evaluate functional outcome and quality of life in patients treated with open reduction and internal fixation using double plates. We designed a retrospective descriptive study including 27 supracondylar humeral fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation using two anatomic plates from January 2005 to September 2012. Mean age was 56 ± 22.9 years including 14 female and 13 male. All fractures were classified using the AO classification. Average follow-up was of 41 ± 23.9 months. Fracture union was evaluated with x-ray exams and functional outcome using the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Quality of life was evaluated using the Short Form-36 survey. Union at 6 months was achieved in 96% of all fractures. Average range of motion was 102° (70°-140°) and average MEPS 86 points (60-100). Mean score on SF-36 was 54.87 (8.66-89.22) the older patients had lower scores. Sixty percent of patients (15 of 25) were able to return to previous activity. No infection was reported. Two patients required surgical treatment due to a stiff elbow. Open reduction and internal fixation using double plates in supracondylar humeral fractures obtains a high union rate allowing excellent functional and radiological outcomes. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Gonen, Emel; Arik, Ahmet; Dasar, Uygar; Ates, Yalim
In this prospective case series we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of using an anterior approach to paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. We gathered data on 46 children that had a displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus. All the patients had sustained a Gartland type III extension fracture that could not be reduced by closed means. Open reduction through an anterior approach was performed and two Kirschner wires were used to fix the fracture to the medial and lateral sides. Patients were recalled for follow-up and were evaluated using Flynn’s radiological and clinical criteria. Loss of extension and flexion was noted by clinical assessment and carrying angle measured on radiograms. A follow-up examination performed in the 24th postoperative week showed that all fractures had healed; the patients’ outcomes were rated as excellent or good according to Flynn’s criteria. As a result the anterior approach for open reduction of paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is a safe and reliable method with very good results. PMID:18958470
Ersan, Onder; Gonen, Emel; Arik, Ahmet; Dasar, Uygar; Ates, Yalim
In this prospective case series we evaluated the effectiveness and safety of using an anterior approach to paediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. We gathered data on 46 children that had a displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus. All the patients had sustained a Gartland type III extension fracture that could not be reduced by closed means. Open reduction through an anterior approach was performed and two Kirschner wires were used to fix the fracture to the medial and lateral sides. Patients were recalled for follow-up and were evaluated using Flynn's radiological and clinical criteria. Loss of extension and flexion was noted by clinical assessment and carrying angle measured on radiograms. A follow-up examination performed in the 24th postoperative week showed that all fractures had healed; the patients' outcomes were rated as excellent or good according to Flynn's criteria. As a result the anterior approach for open reduction of paediatric supracondylar humeral fractures is a safe and reliable method with very good results.
Al-Sadek, Tabet A.; Niklev, Desislav; Al-Sadek, Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Open supracondylar fractures of the humerus are rare in children, and the treatment strategy for these fractures is yet to be standardised. AIM: We present the case of a 7-year-old boy with open supracondylar humerus fracture that was managed with an external wrist fixator. CASE PRESENTATION: A 7-year-boy was brought to our department with pain in the right arm after a fall from a height about 3 hours before admission. On examination, the elbow was found to be markedly swollen with restriction of movement of the right arm. A 4-cm-wide wound was also observed on the flexural aspect of the elbow, indicating severe contamination of the fractured site. Neurological examination revealed restriction of hand movement and decreased sensations, which suggested the possibility of nerve injuries. CONCLUSION: A good clinical outcome was achieved in this case, without the development of any complications over a 6-month follow-up period. PMID:28028413
Pennock, Andrew T; Charles, Michael; Moor, Molly; Bastrom, Tracey P; Newton, Peter O
Recent biomechanical studies have evaluated the stability of various pin constructs for supracondylar humerus fractures, but limited data exist evaluating these constructs with clinical outcomes. The goal of this study was to review the surgical management of Gartland type II and III supracondylar fractures to see whether certain pin configurations increase the likelihood of loss of reduction (LOR). A total of 192 patients treated with a displaced supracondylar fracture were evaluated. LOR was defined as a change >10 degrees in either plane from its intraoperative reduction. Fracture classification, comminution, and location were documented. Intraoperative films were assessed for number of pins, location of pins both medial and lateral, bicortical purchase, pin spread at the fracture site, and pin divergence. Ninety-four patients had type II fractures, and 98 had type III fractures. The average patient age was 5.7±2.3 years. Extension-type injuries represented 98% of fractures. LOR was noted in 4.2% of patients. Age (P=0.48) and sex (P=0.61) were not associated with LOR. Fracture characteristics including type (P=0.85), comminution (P=0.99), and location (P=0.88) were not associated with LOR. Fractures treated with lateral-entry pins only or with 2 pins were no more likely to lose reduction (P=0.88 and 0.91). Pin spread at the fracture site was associated with LOR with less spread increasing the likelihood of failure (P=0.02). Fractures that lost reduction had an average pin spread of 9.7 mm [95% confidence interval (CI), 6.3-13.2) or 28% (95% CI, 26-31) of the humerus width compared with 13.7 mm (95% CI, 13-14.4) or 36% (95% CI, 13-60) of the humerus width for those that remained aligned. LOR after percutaneous fixation of supracondylar fractures occurs relatively infrequently at a rate of 4.2%. This study suggests that pin spread is an important factor associated with preventing LOR with a goal of pin spacing at least 13 mm or 1/3 the width of the humerus at the
Mulhall, K J; Abuzakuk, T; Curtin, W; O'Sullivan, M
We performed an outcome study of completely displaced supracondylar fractures in children in order to assess the outcome of primary open reduction and internal fixation for these injuries. A total of 16 patients (mean age of 5.9 years) were included in the study. The mean follow-up was 2.6 years and patients were assessed after fracture healing using the criteria of Flynn et al. and Mark et al. Thirteen patients had an excellent result, two had good results with less than 10 degrees loss of carrying angle and one had a fair result based on degree of loss of elbow flexion. Open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures is an effective and safe method of primary treatment and is associated with good outcomes. We recommend a low threshold of proceeding to open treatment in these serious injuries.
Flynn, Kelly; Shah, Apurva S; Brusalis, Christopher M; Leddy, Kelly; Flynn, John M
The vast majority of displaced pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures can be treated successfully with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The need for open reduction is difficult to determine a priori and is typically due to the failure of closed reduction attempts or persistent limb ischemia. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures, the rate of open reduction for flexion-type fractures, and the predictive impact of ulnar nerve injury on the need for open reduction for flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures. We developed a database of consecutive pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures treated operatively at a tertiary care pediatric trauma center from 2000 to 2015. Data recorded included age, mechanism of injury, fracture type (open or closed), fracture pattern (flexion-type or extension-type), concomitant skeletal injury, neurovascular injury, treatment, and surgeon. Radiographs of all flexion-type supracondylar humeral fractures were reviewed in order to confirm the classification of the injury pattern. The rate of open reduction for fractures with a flexion-type injury pattern and for such fractures with and without ulnar nerve injury at presentation was assessed. Of 2,783 consecutive pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures treated by surgeons at our center, 95 (3.4%) were flexion-type fractures. Ulnar nerve injury was noted for 10 (10.5%) of the 95 flexion-type fractures. Open injuries were identified at presentation in 3 (3.2%) of the 95 cases. Among closed fractures, 21 (22.8%) of 92 flexion-type fractures required open reduction compared with 50 (1.9%) of 2,647 extension-type fractures (odds ratio [OR] = 15.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.8 to 27.0; p < 0.001). Among closed flexion-type fractures, open reduction was performed in 6 (60%) of 10 fractures with associated ulnar nerve injury and in 15 (18.3%) of 82 fractures without ulnar nerve injury (OR = 6.7; 95% CI = 1
Çabuk, H; Dedeoğlu, S S; Adaş, M; Tekin, A Ç; Seyran, M; Ayanoğlu, S
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Although supracondylar humeral fractures represent a major part of the pediatric fractures, no classification system or radiological characteristics describes which supracondylar fractures require open reduction. We aim to evaluate the factors that lead us to perform open reduction during operation. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively evaluated 57 patients who underwent operation for type III supracondylar fracture, and divided them into two groups; those with open reduction and internal fixation, and those with closed reduction and percutaneous fixation. The two groups were compared based on age, gender, BMI by age, medial spike angle of the fracture, medial spike-skin distance and rotation angle between the fractured fragments. RESULTS Of all patients, 46 (81.71%) underwent closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF) and 11 (19.29%) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). BMI by age was remarkably higher in the ORIF group (p = 0.00). And medial spike angle was smaller in the ORIF group (p = 0.014). DISCUSSION Closed reduction and percutanous fixation is the main treatment of supracondylar humeral fractuers. Open reduction in supracondylar humeral fractures could be associate with complications and cosmetic lesions. Many studies indicates that obesity is high risk factor for complex fractures as well as preoperative and postoperative complications. A prominant medial spike could associate with muscle entrapment, and obliquity of the fracture line. It could be also an indirect finding of instablity of the fracture. CONCLUSION We suggest that a smaller medial spike angle and a higher BMI in children with Type III supracondylar humeral fractures may require open reduction, and it is unreasonable to avoid open reduction in cases where closed reduction is not achieved. supracondylar humerus, open reduction, obesity, medial spike angle.
Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Wozowicz, Artur; Wysocka-Wojakiewicz, Paulina
Purpose. Analysis of early vascular and nerve complications of supracondylar humerus fractures in children. Material and Methods. 220 children hospitalized in the Pediatric Trauma-Orthopedic Department in the years 2004-2014. The group consisted of 143 males and 77 females. Results. Acute neurovascular complications occurred in 16.81% of patients with displaced supracondylar fracture (37 children). Nerve damage was found in 10% of patients with displaced fracture (22 children). The most injured nerve was median nerve; this complication occurred in 15 patients (68.18%). The total nerve function returned after average of 122 days (0-220 days after surgery). Symptoms of vascular injury occurred in 7.7% children with displaced fracture (17 children). Conclusions. (1) In children with supracondylar fracture the most often injured nerve is median nerve. (2) The incidence of vascular and nerve complications positively correlates with the progression of fracture according to Gartland classification.
Wozowicz, Artur; Wysocka-Wojakiewicz, Paulina
Purpose. Analysis of early vascular and nerve complications of supracondylar humerus fractures in children. Material and Methods. 220 children hospitalized in the Pediatric Trauma-Orthopedic Department in the years 2004–2014. The group consisted of 143 males and 77 females. Results. Acute neurovascular complications occurred in 16.81% of patients with displaced supracondylar fracture (37 children). Nerve damage was found in 10% of patients with displaced fracture (22 children). The most injured nerve was median nerve; this complication occurred in 15 patients (68.18%). The total nerve function returned after average of 122 days (0–220 days after surgery). Symptoms of vascular injury occurred in 7.7% children with displaced fracture (17 children). Conclusions. (1) In children with supracondylar fracture the most often injured nerve is median nerve. (2) The incidence of vascular and nerve complications positively correlates with the progression of fracture according to Gartland classification. PMID:28367440
Kwok, I H Y; Silk, Z M; Quick, T J; Sinisi, M; MacQuillan, A; Fox, M
We aimed to identify the pattern of nerve injury associated with paediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus. Over a 17 year period, between 1996 and 2012, 166 children were referred to our specialist peripheral nerve injury unit. From examination of the medical records and radiographs were recorded the nature of the fracture, associated vascular and neurological injury, treatment provided and clinical course. Of the 166 patients (111 male, 55 female; mean age at time of injury was seven years (standard deviation 2.2)), 26 (15.7%) had neurological dysfunction in two or more nerves. The injury pattern in the 196 affected nerves showed that the most commonly affected nerve was the ulnar nerve (43.4%), followed by the median (36.7%) and radial (19.9%) nerves. A non-degenerative injury was seen in 27.5%, whilst 67.9% were degenerative in nature. Surgical exploration of the nerves was undertaken in 94 (56.6%) children. The mean follow-up time was 12.8 months and 156 (94%) patients had an excellent or good clinical outcome according to the grading of Birch, Bonney and Parry. Following paediatric supracondylar fractures we recommend prompt referral to a specialist unit in the presence of complete nerve palsy, a positive Tinel's sign, neuropathic pain or vascular compromise, for consideration of nerve exploration. When managed appropriately, nerve recovery and clinical outcomes for this paediatric population are extremely favourable. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:851-6. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Mulpuri, Kishore; Wilkins, Kaye
Supracondylar humerus fractures are widely considered the most common fracture of the elbow in children. Fractures can range from a less severe, nondisplaced type I fracture to a more severe, displaced type III fracture with no cortical contact. Type III fractures can lead to adverse physical, social, and emotional consequences if they are not treated effectively. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons recently carried out a systematic review of the literature to develop a clinical practice guideline. The guidelines provided answers for the following questions regarding the treatment for type III supracondylar fractures (1) which is the preferred treatment for displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus: reduction and casting versus closed reduction and percutaneous pinning; (2) which is the preferred method for fixing displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus: medial (crossed) versus lateral pinning; and lastly, (3) does open reduction cause increased stiffness or have a high rate of complication? The purpose of this paper is to summarize and highlight the major findings from this systematic review. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched to locate 1726 relevant articles published from January 1966 to July 29, 2010. Of these, 44 met our criteria for inclusion and were reviewed systematically. On the basis of the results from the systematic review: (1) we suggest closed reduction with pin fixation for patients with displaced (eg, Wilkins type II and III and displaced flexion) pediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus. (2) The practitioner might use 2 or 3 laterally introduced pins to stabilize the reduction of displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus. Considerations of potential harm indicate that the physician might avoid the use of a medial pin. (3) The practitioner might perform open reduction for displaced pediatric supracondylar fractures of the humerus after closed
Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh
Anterior humeral line (AHL) location is commonly used to evaluate sagittal alignment after fracture reduction in children with supracondylar humeral fractures. However, the position of the AHL for acceptable fracture reduction has not been validated by clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the location of AHL and range of elbow motion. We retrospectively reviewed 101 children who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures between January 2009 and June 2014. There were 67 boys and 34 girls, with a mean age of 7 years. The children were classified according to the location of the AHL three months postoperatively into five groups: anteriorly loss (n=6), anterior third (n=25), middle third (n=47), posterior third (n=21), and posteriorly loss (n=2). Range of elbow motion was measured by attending paediatric orthopaedic surgeons with a goniometer. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were compared among the five groups. The mean elbow extension angle was not significantly different among the groups (p=0.21). However, children with AHL anterior to the capitellum had less elbow flexion angle (125.8° vs. 131.2°, p=0.046) and less total range of elbow motion (128.3° vs. 135.7°, p=0.048) than children with AHL crossing the capitellum. When the AHL crossed the capitellum, the elbow flexion angle and total range of elbow motion were significantly decreased in children with AHL crossing the anterior third of the capitellum. The Flynn criteria were not significantly different among the central three groups (p=0.131). However, the Flynn criteria were significantly worse in children whose AHL missed the capitellum (p<0.001). The mean Baumann angle measured 3 months postoperatively was not significantly different among the groups (p=0.12). These findings demonstrate that children with AHL crossing the middle and posterior thirds of the capitellum appear to have slightly
Feng, Chao; Guo, Yuan; Zhu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jianli; Wang, Yukun
Closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation is the recommended treatment of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures. The optimal pin configurations in the treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures with coronal lateral obliquity remain controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the stability of various pin configurations in the treatment of lateral oblique supracondylar humerus fractures to provide an acceptable pin placement. Nine third-generation synthetic composite humeri were osteotomized to simulate a humeral supracondylar fracture with coronal lateral obliquity. Each fracture was reduced and fixed using 2 or three 1.6-mm (0.062 in) Kirschner wires (K-wire) in 3 different configurations, and sequentially tested in extension, varus, valgus, and internal and external rotations using an MTS 858 Minibionix materials testing load frame (MTS Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN). Each fracture was fluoroscopically imaged and the distance between the pins at the fracture site was also recorded. Analysis of variance was carried out to compare construct stiffness for different pin configurations. A paired-samples t test was used to evaluate differences in the distance between the pins for 2 different pin configurations. A level of P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. During extension and internal and external rotation loading conditions, the 2 lateral divergent pins had significantly greater stiffness values than 2 crossed pins. During the valgus loading condition, crossed pins were more stable than 2 lateral pins. During varus loading, there was no statistical difference between the 3 pin configurations (P>0.05). During all the 5 loading conditions, there was a trend for 3 lateral pins to have greater stiffness values than the 2 lateral pins, but this was not statistically significant. The distance between the pins at the oblique fracture site for the 2 lateral divergent pins was statistically greater than the 2 crossed pins. Two and 3 lateral pin
Jaeblon, Todd; Anthony, Steven; Ogden, Alan; Andary, Joseph J
Transverse pediatric supracondylar fractures through the midolecranon fossa are frequently encountered and modeled in biomechanical studies. Our objective is to investigate the optimal pin configurations for low, sagittal oblique, and high fracture varieties that have not been previously investigated. A total of 100 synthetic composite pediatric humeri were tested. Three groups of 30 were used to simulate 1 of 3 fracture variations. Subgroups of 10 were stabilized with 2 lateral pins (2LP), 3 lateral pins (3LP), or cross K-wires (XP). The 90 fracture and 10 intact models were tested for anterior posterior (AP), medial lateral (ML), and rotational stiffness. In low fractures, AP, ML, and rotational stiffness of 2LP and 3LP were similar to intact. ML stiffness was less using XP. AP and ML stiffness of 2LP and 3LP were significantly greater than XP.In oblique fractures, AP, ML, and rotational stiffness of 2LP was similar to intact but 3LP was significantly less. AP and ML stiffness of XP was significantly less. 2LP demonstrated greater AP, ML, and rotational stiffness than 3LP and XP.In high fractures, all configurations demonstrated significantly less rotational stiffness than intact and AP stiffness similar to intact. Rotational stiffness of 3LP was greater than 2LP and XP. AP and ML stiffness were not different among configurations. 2LP are stiffer than 3LP and XP for sagittal oblique fractures. 2LP and 3LP stiffness were similar in low transverse fractures, and both constructs demonstrated greater stiffness than XP configuration. 3LP is preferable for high transverse fractures. XP were never stiffer than the lateral only constructs in any of the patterns tested. All-lateral pin constructs may provide adequate stiffness to maintain reduction of low transverse, sagittal oblique, and high transverse patterns of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures without risk of injury to the ulnar nerve.
Barrett, Kody K; Skaggs, David L; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Andras, Lindsay; Moisan, Alice; Goodbody, Christine; Flynn, John M
It is unclear if pediatric patients with a supracondylar humeral fracture and isolated anterior interossous nerve injury require urgent treatment. A retrospective, multicenter study of 4409 patients with operatively treated supracondylar humeral fractures was conducted. Exclusion criteria were additional nerve injuries other than the anterior interosseous nerve, any sensory changes, pulselessness, ipsilateral forearm fractures, open fractures, less than two months of follow-up, or pathological fractures. Thirty-five of 4409 patients met inclusion criteria. The average time to surgery was 14.6 hours (range, two to thirty-six hours). No patient developed compartment syndrome. There was no significant difference in time to return of anterior interosseous nerve function relative to the time to surgical reduction and fixation (p = 0.668). A complete return of anterior interosseous nerve function occurred in all patients with an average time of forty-nine days (range, two to 224 days). Ninety percent of patients recovered anterior interosseous nerve function by 149 days. To our knowledge, this is the largest series to date of supracondylar humeral fractures with anterior interosseous nerve injuries. There is no evidence that a supracondylar humeral fracture with an isolated anterior interosseous nerve injury requires urgent treatment. A delay in treatment up to twenty-four hours was not associated with an increased time of nerve recovery or other complications. This series excluded patients with sensory nerve injuries, pulselessness, and ipsilateral forearm fractures, which all may require urgent surgery. Barring other clinical indications for urgent treatment of a supracondylar humeral fracture, an isolated anterior interosseous nerve injury (no sensory changes) may not by itself be an indication for urgent surgery. The anterior interosseous nerve injuries in this series showed complete recovery at a mean time of forty-nine days. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone
Li, Xu; Shi, Qiang; Wu, Weiping; Ou, Liying; Yan, Hua; Jin, Dadi
To evaluate the clinical effects of closed reduction and percutaneous pinning in treatment of "irreducible" supracondylar humeral fractures in children. Seventy-six consecutive children of Gartland III supracondylar humeral fractures treated in the Department of Pediatric Orthopedics of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University from July 2011 to July 2013 were analyzed retrospectively, of which 69 were extension type fractures and 7 were flexion type. There were 52 male and 24 female patients with an average age of 6.5 years (range 1.6 to 13 years). The average time from injury to operation was 6.8 hours (range 4 to 48 hours). The mechanism of injury included 15 cases of high falling, and 61 cases of falling to the ground while walking or running. All cases were treated via closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The radiographs were assessed every follow-up, including the healing and function of the elbow. No major complications such as osteofascial compartment syndrome or neurovascular injuries occurred in these patients. Two cases with neurological injuries before the surgery were recovered fully after the surgery. According to Flynn criteria at follow-up evolution, 71 cases were excellent, and 5 were good. For the treatment of Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures in children, including "irreducible" supracondylar fractures of the humerus, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning is a safe and minimally invasive procedure, by which good fractures reductions and postoperative functions of the elbow can be achieved.
Iobst, Christopher A; Stillwagon, Matthew; Ryan, Deidre; Shirley, Eric; Frick, Steven L
Recently, there has been an emphasis on improving quality, safety, and value in the delivery of health care in the United States. The American Board of Orthopedic Surgery (ABOS) has developed a performance improvement questionnaire (PIQ) for orthopaedic surgeons managing pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture (PSCHF). Using the supracondylar PIQ as a guide, this study evaluates the process of measuring the outcomes and variations in care to PSCHF patients among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. An 88-question survey incorporating the ABOS PIQ was administered to 35 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at 3 institutions. A retrospective chart review of patients who received operative management of a PSCHF during 2013 was performed. Each of the 17 eligible surgeons supplied 5 patients for a total of 85 patients. Medical records and radiographic imaging were reviewed using the ABOS PIQ data collection sheet. This data collection sheet encompasses the preoperative assessment, intraoperative treatment and assessment, and clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients with PSCHF. A total of 35 surgeons from 6 hospitals completed the online PSCHF survey. Uniform consensus among all 35 surgeons was identified in 21/79 of the questions (27%). Consensus among surgeons within a hospital group but not with surgeons from the other groups was identified in 39/79 (49%) of the questions. No consensus among the surveyed surgeons could be identified in 19/79 (24%) of the questions. For the 85 PSCHF patients the average age was 6 years, and 37% of fractures were type II, 57% of fractures were type III, and there was 1 flexion type. Ninety percent of the patients received a preoperative dose of antibiotics and the postoperative immobilization placed in the operating room was changed in the clinic before pin removal in 58% of the cases. Pins were removed at 3 weeks in 60%, 4 weeks in 30%, 5 weeks in 7%, and after 5 weeks in 3% of the patients and no malunions occurred. Pin tract infection
Lacher, Martin; Schaeffer, Kathrin; Boehm, Roland; Dietz, Hans Georg
Supracondylar humeral fractures are the most common elbow fractures in children. In case of displacement and instability, the standard procedure is closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. As Kirschner wire fixation requires postoperative cast immobilization, does not allow early mobilization, and is associated with the risk of damage of the ulnar nerve, innovative techniques should be evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess both radiologic and functional outcome of supracondylar humeral fractures treated by elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) in a large pediatric cohort. Retrospective review of children who underwent closed reduction and ESIN of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in our institution between 2001 and 2009. One hundred twenty-seven children (mean age 6.1 y) with types II (60.6%), III (23.6%), and IV (15.7%) fractures according to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen (AO) Pediatric Comprehensive Classification were included. One hundred and eighteen patients (92.9%) had healing of fracture without any limitation in range of motion and 9 patients (7.1%) had some minor degree of long-term functional deficit (7 children with flexion and 2 with extension deficit). Two children had clinical cubitus varus deformity. No iatrogenic damage to the ulnar nerve occurred and no secondary reduction or a change of surgical strategy was necessary. Postoperative radiologic evaluation showed antecurvation in 1 case, recurvation in 3 cases, as well as cubitus varus deformity and rotation deformity in 1 child each. Antegrade ESIN is a technique suitable for all types of supracondylar humeral fractures with good functional results. The advantages include the avoidance of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury, low rates of cubitus varus, cast-free treatment, and the possibility to evaluate clinical motion at all times postoperatively. Although biased toward milder forms of supracondylar fractures, our data clearly
Larson, A Noelle; Garg, Sumeet; Weller, Amanda; Fletcher, Nicholas D; Schiller, Jonathan R; Kwon, Michael; Browne, Richard; Copley, Lawson A; Ho, Christine A
Because of the changing referral patterns, operative pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are increasingly being treated at tertiary referral centers. To expedite patient flow, type II fractures are sometimes pinned in a delayed manner. We sought to determine if delay in surgical treatment of modified Gartland type II supracondylar humerus fractures would affect the rate of complications following closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 399 modified Gartland type II supracondylar fractures treated operatively at a tertiary referral center over 4 years. Mean patient age in the type II group was 5 years (range, 1 to 15 y). A total of 48% were pinned within 24 hours, 52% pinned >24 hours after the injury. No difference was in detected in rates of major complications between the early and delayed treatment group. Four percent of patients sustained a complication (16 patients). There were no compartment syndromes, vascular injuries, or permanent nerve injuries. Complications included nerve injury (3), physical therapy referral for stiffness (3), pin site infection (2 treated with oral antibiotics, 4 treated with debridement), refracture (2), and loss of fixation or broken hardware (2). Of the 3 patients who sustained nerve injuries, all underwent surgery within 24 hours of injury. One patient developed an ulnar motor and sensory nerve palsy after fixation with crossed K-wires. This resolved by 7 weeks postoperatively. Two patients presented with an anterior interosseous nerve palsy-1 resolved 1 week after surgery, the other by 8 weeks postoperatively. Delay in surgery did not result in an increased rate of major complications following closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of type II supracondylar humerus fractures in children. Further prospective work is necessary to determine if there are subtle treatment benefits from emergent treatment of type II supracondylar humerus fractures. Level III
Kasser, James R
A change in the locations where children are treated for supracondylar fractures of the humerus has occurred during the past 13 years. Pediatric orthopaedic surgeons at specialist centers are seeing an increased number of such fractures. In New England, the number of supracondylar fractures of the humerus treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning has remained relatively constant between 1991 and 1999 with a range of 276 to 346 fractures per year, averaging 320 per year. In 1991, 63% of patients were treated by general orthopaedic surgeons in a nonspecialist setting. By 1999, 68% of the fractures were treated at centers with pediatric orthopaedic specialists available whereas only 32% were treated in a general orthopaedic setting. Associated with this change is a decreased length of stay from 2.2 (+/- 0.6) days in nonspecialist centers to 1.4 (+/- 0.4) days average in specialist centers.
Matuszewski, Łukasz; Okoński, Marek
Supracondylar fractures of the humeral bone are frequent injuries in children. It has been affirmed that supracondylar fractures have an excellent prognosis when proper treatment is applied. Present of the statistical relationships between fractures occurring and patient's development period; the relation between development period and site of the fracture and statistical relationship between development period and gender of the patients. Also indicated are the place of residence of the hospitalized patients and time of admission to the Clinic after injury. Research was based on the data of paediatric patients treated in the Clinic for Paediatric Surgery, Traumatology and Paaediatric Orthopaedics, and Rehabilitation Clinic of the Medical University in Lublin, Poland, between 1986- 2010. An independent Chi-square Test was used for statistical analysis (χ²). The majority of patients were admitted to the Clinic on the day of injury. Of these patients, 71% lived in the urban area of the Lublin region where all the children received medical care in hospital directly after trauma; 29% of children came from the rural areas of the Lublin region, and 10% of them were admitted to hospital 24 or more hours after the injury. 71% of patients lived in the urban areas of the Lublin region and the main cause of injury was a fall from a higher level onto an outstretched upper left limb. Most supracondylar fractures of the humeral bone concerned children at school and adolescent age. Despite the fact that some of the hospitalised children lived in the rural areas of the Lublin region, the majority were admitted to the Clinic directly after trauma and received timely treatment.
Holt, Joshua B; Glass, Natalie A; Bedard, Nicholas A; Weinstein, Stuart L; Shah, Apurva S
Understanding national trends in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures will provide important insight into variations in regional treatment and identify areas for improving value and quality in care delivery in the U.S. U.S. national trends in the treatment of supracondylar humeral fractures were evaluated through query of the Humana (2007 to 2014) and ING (2007 to 2011) administrative claims databases. Geographic variation and changes in surgical and transfer rates over time were further explored through the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database (2006 to 2011). Hospital characteristics impacting treatment decisions were identified. A total of 29,642 pediatric patients with supracondylar humeral fractures were identified in the administrative claims databases and a projected 63,348 encounters for supracondylar humeral fracture were identified in the NEDS database. The majority of the patients (76.1%; 22,563 of 29,642) were treated definitively with cast immobilization. Operative treatment was performed in 23.9% of the patients (7,079 of 29,642), with no change observed in the operative rate over time (p = 0.055). Of patients undergoing operative treatment, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) was performed in 87.3%, with a significant increase noted in the rate of CRPP over time (p = 0.0001); open reduction was performed in 12.7%, with a significant decrease noted in the rate of open reduction over time (p < 0.0001). Regional surgical rates generally showed significant variation from 2006 to 2010, followed by a convergence in the surgical rate among all geographic regions in 2011. These trends occurred simultaneous to a significant increase in transfer rates nationwide, from 5.6% in 2006 to 9.1% in 2011 (p = 0.0011). Transfer rates were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) for nontrauma, nonteaching, and nonmetropolitan centers while surgical rates were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) for trauma, teaching, and
Sangkomkamhang, Thananit; Singjam, Udomsin; Leeprakobboon, Duangjai
The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for loss of fixation in pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. The data were analyzed regarding assessed loss of fixation in 256 supracondylar fractures from January 2010 to December 2012, all of which were treated by closed or open reduction and Kirschner wire fixation. The confounding factors that were thought to cause loss of reduction were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to predict risk factors. Reduction was lost in 14.8% of the patients. Poor surgical technique was significantly higher in the cases with lost reduction (odds ratio: 15.21). Additionally, cases with only lateral pins placement (odds ratio: 2.57), Gartland type 3 fractures (odds ratio: 2.38), and, obesity with a BMI ≥ 25 (odds ratio: 14.35) had a significantly higher risk of losing reduction and fixation. Other factors including age, energy type of injury, time of surgery, and time to surgery were not associated with risk. The loss of reduction following fracture fixation is associated with poor surgical technique,fixation with lateral pinning only, Gartland type 3 fractures, and pediatric obesity (BMI > 25). The stability of fracture fixation in pediatric supracondylar fractures is largely dependent on the use of effective fixation techniques. Cross pinning provides a more stabile fixation than lateral pinning.
Jandrić, S Dj
Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common fracture around the elbow in the pediatric population. These fractures in children may lead to functional disturbance with loss or reduction of range of motion in the elbow joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the physical therapy on the range of the motion of the elbow joint in the post-traumatic elbow contractures in the childhood after supracondylar fractures. We analyzed in this research 34 children (average age 8.57+/-2.94 years) with elbow contractures that were treated by physical therapy after orthopedic treatment. Functional outcome was presented in degree from 1 to 3 (Flynn). The difference in the grade at the beginning and the end of the therapy is statistically significant (t=16.38, p<0.001). 91.18 %, of the children had excellent result. Complex of various therapeutically physical procedures can significant improve range of motion of the elbow joint.
Kuoppala, Eira; Parviainen, Roope; Pokka, Tytti; Sirviö, Minna; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko
Background and purpose Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. A small proportion of them are flexion-type fractures. We analyzed their current incidence, injury history, clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients and methods We performed a population-based study, including all children <16 years of age. Radiographs were re-analyzed to include only flexion-type supracondylar fractures. Medical records were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 9 years after the injury. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review of all papers published on the topic since 1990 and compared the results with the findings of the current study. Results During the study period, the rate of flexion-type fractures was 1.2% (7 out of 606 supracondylar humeral fractures). The mean annual incidence was 0.8 per 105. 4 fractures were multidirectionally unstable, according to the Gartland-Wilkins classification. All but 1 were operatively treated. Reduced range of motion, changed carrying angle, and ulnar nerve irritation were the most frequent short-term complications. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, mean carrying angle was 50% more in injured elbows (21°) than in uninjured elbows (14°). 4 patients of the 7 achieved a satisfactory long-term outcome according to Flynn’s criteria. Interpretation Supracondylar humeral flexion-type fractures are rare. They are usually severe injuries, often resulting in short-term and long-term complications regardless of the original surgical fixation used. PMID:27168001
Kuoppala, Eira; Parviainen, Roope; Pokka, Tytti; Sirviö, Minna; Serlo, Willy; Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko
Background and purpose - Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. A small proportion of them are flexion-type fractures. We analyzed their current incidence, injury history, clinical and radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes. Patients and methods - We performed a population-based study, including all children <16 years of age. Radiographs were re-analyzed to include only flexion-type supracondylar fractures. Medical records were reviewed and outcomes were evaluated at a mean of 9 years after the injury. In addition, we performed a systematic literature review of all papers published on the topic since 1990 and compared the results with the findings of the current study. Results - During the study period, the rate of flexion-type fractures was 1.2% (7 out of 606 supracondylar humeral fractures). The mean annual incidence was 0.8 per 105. 4 fractures were multidirectionally unstable, according to the Gartland-Wilkins classification. All but 1 were operatively treated. Reduced range of motion, changed carrying angle, and ulnar nerve irritation were the most frequent short-term complications. Finally, in the long-term follow-up, mean carrying angle was 50% more in injured elbows (21°) than in uninjured elbows (14°). 4 patients of the 7 achieved a satisfactory long-term outcome according to Flynn's criteria. Interpretation - Supracondylar humeral flexion-type fractures are rare. They are usually severe injuries, often resulting in short-term and long-term complications regardless of the original surgical fixation used.
Fletcher, Nicholas D; Schiller, Jonathan R; Garg, Sumeet; Weller, Amanda; Larson, A Noelle; Kwon, Michael; Browne, Richard; Copley, Lawson; Ho, Christine
Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common operative fractures in children; however, no studies describe the older child with this injury. The purpose of this study was to compare Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures in children older than 8 years of age with those in younger children than age 8. We hypothesized that there would be more complications in older children, reflecting a higher-energy injury mechanism. A retrospective chart review of supracondylar humerus fractures managed at a single level I pediatric trauma institution from 2004 to 2007 was performed. Patients with type III fractures were divided into groups based on age at presentation greater or less than 8. Baseline demographics, fracture characteristics, mechanism of injury, operative technique, and complications were analyzed. A consecutive series of 1297 pediatric patients with surgically treated supracondylar humerus fractures was retrospectively reviewed including 873 (67.3%) type III fractures. Of those, 160 (18.3%) patients were older than age 8 at time of injury. Older children were more likely to have fractures from high-energy mechanisms (45.1% vs. 28.7%, P<0.001) and more open fracture (3.8% vs. 1.3%, P=0.0097). There was no difference in preoperative or iatrogenic neuropraxias between groups. There was a shorter delay between presentation and surgery in older children (mean, 217 vs. 451 min, P<0.0001). Three or more pins were used more often in older patients (61.8% in older children vs. 43.6% in younger children, P<0.0001). Major complications including reoperation, loss of fixation, or compartment syndrome were rare in both groups (1.1% in younger group vs. 0.6% in older group, P=1.000). There was a trend toward more pin site infections in older children (3.75% vs. 1.56%, P=0.071). Physical therapy was required nearly 4 times more frequently in older children for management of residual stiffness (20.0% vs. 5.7%, P<0.0001). Children older than 8 years of age have a
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Pokka, Tytti; Hyvönen, Hanna; Ruuhela, Reija; Serlo, Willy
Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the elbow in children. Many environmental factors such as weather conditions may affect the risk of these fractures. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effect of weather conditions (temperature, rainfall, wind) on fracture risk in children <16 years of age during the extended summer time period with the absence of snow cover. All children <16 years of age with an outdoor supracondylar humerus fracture between May 1 and September 30 in a defined geographical area during the decade of 2000-2009 were included. Daily meteorological recordings for altogether 1526 study days were reviewed from the national weather service and the association of weather conditions and fractures were analyzed. A majority (79.7%, N = 181) of the fractures occurred on dry days versus rainy days (20.3%) (P = 0.011), and risk of a fracture was 3.5-fold higher on dry days as compared with rainy days (crude OR 3.5, 3.41-3.59, P < 0.001). The weather was warm, instead of cool or hot, when the majority of the fractures (N = 147, 64.8%) occurred (P = 0.008): Warm temperatures (15-24.9 °C) increased the fracture risk 2.6-fold (crude OR 2.64, 2.59-2.70, P < 0.001), compared with cool (<15 °C) days. The fracture incidence did not change according to the wind speed (P = 0.171). The findings were similar through the school term and summer vacation. Dry and warm weather conditions increase the risk of outdoor supracondylar humerus fractures in children during the time period with the absence of snow cover.
Brighton, Brian; Abzug, Joshua M; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F
Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are the most commonly encountered type of elbow fractures in children that require surgical fixation. Many pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures can be treated with closed reduction and percutaneous skeletal fixation. In difficult fractures, adjunct pin techniques, such as joystick wires and leverage pins, can be used to help attain a satisfactory and stable reduction before an open approach is used. After the fracture is reduced, optimal pinning, with the use of either crossed or lateral-entry techniques, and fixation that achieves maximal spread at the fracture site as well as bicortical engagement in both fragments are essential to maintain reduction and avoid complications that are associated with malunion. A practical approach as well as several tips and techniques may help surgeons attain and maintain stable closed reduction of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures.
Brighton, Brian; Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F
Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are the most commonly encountered type of elbow fractures in children that require surgical fixation. Many pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures can be treated with closed reduction and percutaneous skeletal fixation. In difficult fractures, adjunct pin techniques, such as joystick wires and leverage pins, can be used to help attain a satisfactory and stable reduction before an open approach is used. After the fracture is reduced, optimal pinning, with the use of either crossed or lateral-entry techniques, and fixation that achieves maximal spread at the fracture site as well as bicortical engagement in both fragments are essential to maintain reduction and avoid complications that are associated with malunion. A practical approach as well as several tips and techniques may help surgeons attain and maintain stable closed reduction of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures.
Babal, Jessica C; Mehlman, Charles T; Klein, Guy
Supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most common type of elbow fracture in children. Of all complications associated with supracondylar fractures, nerve injury ranks highest, although reports of the incidence of specific neurapraxia vary. This meta-analysis aims primarily to determine the risk of traumatic neurapraxia in extension-type supracondylar fractures as compared with that of flexion-type fractures; secondarily it aims to use subgroup analysis to assess the risk of iatrogenic neurapraxia induced by pin fixation. A literature search identified studies that reported the incidence of nerve injury presenting with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Meta-analysis was subsequently performed to evaluate the risk of traumatic neurapraxia associated with supracondylar fractures. Subgroup analysis of included articles was additionally performed to assess the risk of iatrogenic neurapraxia associated with lateral-only or medial/lateral pin fixation. Data from 5148 patients with 5154 fractures were pooled for meta-analysis. Among these patients, traumatic neurapraxia occurred at a weighted event rate of 11.3%. Anterior interosseous nerve injury predominated in extension-type fractures, representing 34.1% of associated neurapraxias; meanwhile, ulnar neuropathy occurred most frequently in flexion-type injuries, representing 91.3% of associated neurapraxias. Nerve injury induced by lateral-only pinning occurred at a weighted event rate of 3.4%, while the introduction of a medial pin elicited neurapraxia at a weighted event rate of 4.1%. Lateral pinning carried increased risk of median neuropathy, whereas the use of a medial pin significantly increased the risk of ulnar nerve injury. Of nerve injury associated with extension-type fractures, anterior interosseous neurapraxia ranks highest, whereas of flexion-type neuropathy, ulnar nerve injury predominates. We confirm that medial pinning carries the greater overall risk of nerve injury as
Ducić, Sinisa; Bumbasirević, Marko; Radlović, Vladimir; Nikić, Petar; Bukumirić, Zoran; Brdar, Radivoj; Radojicić, Zoran; Bukva, Bojan; Abramović, Dusan; Ducić, Tatjana Jaramaz
Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning are the most widely used treatment options for displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children, but there is still no consensus concerning the most preferred technique in injuries of the extension type. The aim of this study was to compare three common orthopaedic procedures in the treatment of displaced extension type supracondylar humerus fractures in children. Total of 93 consecutive patients (66 boys and 27 girls) referred to our hospital with Gartland type II or III extension supracondylar humeral fractures were prospectively included in the study over a six-year period. At initial presentation 48 patients were classified as Gartland type II and 45 as Gartland type III fractures. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on the following treatment modality: closed reduction with percutaneous pinning, open reduction with Kirschner wires (K-wires) fixation, and closed reduction with cast immobilisation. The treatment outcome and clinical characteristics were compared among groups, as well as evaluated using Flynn's criteria. Excellent clinical outcome was reported in 70.3% of patients treated with closed reduction with percutaneous pinning and in 64.7% of patients treated with open reduction with K-wire fixation. The outcome was significantly worse in children treated with closed reduction and cast immobilisation alone, as excellent outcome is achieved in just 36.4% of cases (p = 0.011). Closed reduction with percutaneous pinning is the method of choice in the treatment of displaced pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture, while open reduction with K-wire fixation is as a good alternative in cases with clear indications.
Khademolhosseini, Majid; Abd Rashid, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Sharaf
A retrospective study of nerve injuries with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children younger than 12 years of age, treated in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of primary and iatrogenic nerve injuries in supracondylar humerus fractures Gartland types II and III and to determine the outcome of nerve recovery. A total of 272 patients with displaced supracondylar humerus fractures who required admission to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia from January 2000 to December 2007 were reviewed. There were 182 boys (67%) and 90 girls (33%). The mean age was 6.0 years, ranging from 1 to 12 years. Of 272 supracondylar fractures, 79 were type II and 193 were type III. Fifty-one (19%) patients had closed reduction, 160 (59%) had closed reduction and percutaneous crossed Kirschner (K) wires, and 61 (22%) had open reduction and crossed K-wires. Associated nerve injuries involving the median, radial, and ulnar nerves were observed in 48 (18%) patients. Nerve injuries were observed in nine (3%) patients upon admission. Thirty-nine (14%) patients developed nerve injuries following treatment. Of these 39 patients, 34 had ulnar, three had radial, and two had median nerve injuries. Nerve exploration was performed in five patients (in four patients following debridement of open fracture and in one because of unacceptable postoperative radiographs, and they subsequently underwent open reduction and exploration). Except for these five patients, the K-wires were not removed earlier nor were the nerves surgically explored in others. The nerve injuries resolved clinically on an average time of 3.5 months (range from 3 weeks to 8 months). Our study found complete resolution of all patients with nerve injuries confirmed by clinical assessment. On the basis of our study, we believe that there is no indication to remove the K-wires immediately or to explore the nerve surgically following a mini-open technique, which
Naik, Lokesh Gudda; Badgire, Krishna Sudhakar; Qureshi, Faisal; Waghchoure, Chaitanya; Jain, Vikas
Introduction Closed reduction of supracondylar humerus fractures with K-wires has become the standard line of management with different opinions regarding the technique that is utilized. Aim To compare the functional and radiological outcomes of lateral and cross pinning technique in supracondylar fractures of humerus in children. Materials and Methods A prospective study with 57 cases of displaced fracture supracondylar humerus, treated by lateral (Group A n=28) and cross pinning (Group B n=29), was conducted between May 2013 and May 2015. Independent sample student’s t-test was done to assess the parameters like age, follow-up and duration of surgery. The results were expressed as mean with standard deviation and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results As per the Gartland classification system, 46 (80.7%) patients had Type IIIA and 11 (19.2%) patients had Type IIIB fracture. The average surgical time was 28.3±1.6 minutes in Group A and 30±3.6 minutes in Group B (p=0.02). About, 3.5% patients in Group A had pin loosening. As per the Flynn criteria, 78.6% in Group A and 79.3% in Group B had excellent results. Conclusion No significant difference in terms of functional and radiological outcome was observed between both the techniques. Thus, both the techniques have equal results. PMID:28969221
Todorovic, Lazar; Petrovski, Mile; Kamiloski, Marjan; Cvetanovska, Vesna
to present our results from the minimally invasive approach in the treatment of 56 consecutive Gartland types II and III supracondylar fractures of the humerus in school-age patients. Including criteria were isolated supracondylar fractures Gartland types II and III, in the period from January 2011 to November 2011. We admitted 56 children aged four to 12 years (mean 6.9 y.). The most common mechanism of injury was fall with the elbow extended. The treatment procedure consisted of four steps: 1) Classification of the injury according to x-ray findings; 2) Under general anaesthesia, the injured child was placed in a prone position; 3) Closed reduction was obtained by placing the elbow on a special table with the elbow flexed at 90 degrees, using gravity to help reposition; 4) After x-ray verification of the reduction two Sommer pins were inserted to stabilize the fracture. The pins were placed percutaneously through the medial and lateral humeral condyles respectively. After the intervention all elbows were immobilized in a splint cast for 3 weeks. All patients were followed up for six months. Control radiographs were performed postoperatively, three weeks and two months after the injury. There were no malunions or nonunions. We estimated the elbow function using the Mayo elbow performance index. The functional results were excellent and very good according to the Mayo score. We recommend this one-day surgical approach for the treatment of Gartland type II and III supracondylar fractures.
Barrón-Torres, Erika Alejandrina; Sánchez-Cruz, Juan Francisco; Cruz-Meléndez, José Ramses
Supracondylar humerus fractures are common in children between 5-7 years of age and more frequent in the males, 90-95% of these fractures are in extension mechanism, the urgency of immediate attention is to prevent complications and sequelae. To establish the clinical and epidemiological profile of supracondylar humerus fractures, in a General Regional Hospital from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Yucatan Mexico, during 2011-2013. A cross-sectional study. Strength association was measured by odds ratios and statistical significance with chi(2) test, p value was considered in < 0.05 RESULTS: 56 cases were analyzed, the mean age was 2.6 ± 5.33 years, the mechanism of injury was falling over at home, male gender is associated with extent injure mechanism (OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.0-30.1, p = 0.03), we observed that at most time elapsed between injury and medical means more hospital days (r = 0.40; p = 0.002), surgical treatment was established in 44 cases (78.6%), 18 (40.9%) with closed technique and placement of cloves and 26 (59.1%) with open reduction, in 100% cross configuration was used, ten complications were reported. Supracondylar humerus fractures are a common injury in children, males are more likely to be injured by extension, and the speed in medical treatment is an important issue. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.
Iobst, Christopher A; Spurdle, Craig; King, Wesley F; Lopez, Miguel
Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are common injuries. The standard of care for management of displaced supracondylar fractures has become closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of the fracture in the operating room. We have been using a "semisterile" surgical technique, similar to what is used when placing a traction pin at the bedside. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our cases from 2000-2004 requiring closed reduction and percutaneous pinning to determine if this method had an infection rate comparable to what is reported in the literature. A total of 304 cases were identified. There were no superficial pin track infections or deep infections requiring treatment in any patient. A review of the literature regarding percutaneous pinning of supracondylar humerus fractures reveals an overall infection rate of 2.34% (45/1922) with a deep infection rate of 0.47% (9/1922). Consequently, the use of the semisterile technique is safe and an efficient way to handle these cases in saving time, cost, and materials. We also found that the administration of perioperative antibiotics may not be necessary as 68% of our patients did not receive any antibiotics during the perioperative or postoperative period. Finally, we found that 37% of our patients were discharged home the same day the surgery was performed, and there were no cases of compartment syndrome or Volkmann ischemic contracture. This indicates that observation overnight in the hospital may not be necessary for every patient.
Turgut, Ali; Kalenderer, Önder; Bozoğlan, Muhammet; Bacaksız, Tayfun; Ağuş, Haluk
This study aims to review flexion type supracondylar humerus fractures in children and treatment options. Forty-seven patients (26 males, 21 females; mean age 8.6±3.2 years; range 4 to 15 years) who admitted to and were hospitalized in a pediatric orthopedics clinic between January 2002 and January 2014 due to flexion type supracondylar humerus fracture were included in this retrospective study. Fractures were classified according to Wilkins modification of Gartland system. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) were administered in all patients with type 2 and 3 fractures. An overhead traction or open reduction was applied when closed reduction could not be achieved with three manipulations. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. The results were graded according to Flynn criteria. Four patients with type 1 fracture were treated conservatively. Of the remaining patients, we were able to perform CRPP successfully in 36 (83.7%). While six patients (14%) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, one patient (2.1%) was treated with overhead traction. The results were excellent or good in 44 patients (93.7%). Compared with extension type fractures, these fractures are seen in older children and are rarer. One should be prepared to perform open reduction especially for type 3 fractures. In our study, results of patients with type 3 fractures treated with CRPP were superior.
Patriota, Gyoguevara Sol Queiroz Andrade; Assunção Filho, Carlos Alberto; Assunção, Carlos Alberto
To define the best technique for the surgical treatment of supracondylar fracture of the humerus (SFH) in children, evaluating percutaneous pinning with side wires vs. cross-pinning. Randomized controlled trials using the Medline, CAPES, and BIREME. The criteria for inclusion of articles criteria were: (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing percutaneous wire fixation techniques, (2) SFH Gartland II B, III, and IV, and (3) children aged 1-14 years. The following were used as main variables: incidence of iatrogenic injury to the ulnar nerve and loss reduction. Eight studies were selected (521 patients) comparing surgical treatment with pinning in supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children Gartland II type B, III or IV. Iatrogenic injury to the ulnar nerve was greater with the cross-pinning technique, with RR 0.28 and p = 0.03, while the mini-open technique presented RR 0.14 and p = 0.2. A statistically significant greater loss of reduction in the lateral pinning was observed in FSU Gartland III and IV(p = 0.04). Based upon this meta-analysis of prospective randomized clinical trials, the following is recommended: (1) percutaneous pinning with lateral wires in supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children classified as Gartland II type B; (2) use of crossed wires for Gartland type III or IV, using the mini-open technique for the medial wire.
Sharma, Anmol; Kahal, Karamdeep; Sharma, Shardaindu
To evaluate the outcome after closed reduction and pinning using a Kirschner wire inserted laterally and another inserted vertically through the olecranon for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures. 39 boys and 11 girls aged 2 to 12 (mean, 7.27) years underwent closed reduction and pinning using a Kirschner wire inserted laterally and another inserted vertically through the olecranon for posteromedially (n=28), posterolaterally (n=7), or posteriorly (n=15) displaced extension-type supracondylar humeral fractures (Gartland types II and III). Compared with the uninjured elbows, the injured elbows had a mean loss of flexion of 4.52º (p<0.001), a mean loss of extension of 1.7º (p=0.008), and mean change in carrying angle of 3.47º (p<0.001). According to the Flynn grading system, outcome was excellent in 35 patients, good in 9, fair in 2, and poor in 4. Outcome did not differ significantly between patients aged 2 to 4, 5 to 8, and 9 to 12 years or between those operated on within 24 hours of injury and those operated on 2 to 5 days after injury. One patient developed superficial pin tract infection, and 2 patients developed cubitus varus deformity. No patient sustained iatrogenic nerve injury. Transolecranon vertical and lateral Kirschner wire fixation is a viable option for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children, especially when there is massive swelling.
Mai, Matthew C; Beck, Ryan; Gabriel, Keith; Singh, Krishna Anjali
Supracondylar humeral fractures in children are common, with associated bony injuries typically being fractures of the forearm or distal radius. To our knowledge, a combined supracondylar humeral fracture associated with a Hahn-Steinthal capitellar fracture has not been reported earlier. Similarly, posterior arm compartment syndrome is extremely rare, with most instances having occurred after chronic compression and bleeding into the compartments from anticoagulation, direct trauma including crush, or tendon ruptures. Only 2 cases have been reported after a fracture of the humerus. One of these described fractures was localized to a distal shaft and the other involved the surgical neck. No cases have been reported in children, nor have any been reported after a supracondylar humeral fracture. In this case report, we describe a patient who presented with an ipsilateral Wilkins type-3A supracondylar humeral fracture, Hahn-Steinthal capitellar fracture, Salter-Harris II distal radius fracture, and posterior arm compartment syndrome. The patient was taken to the operative room for closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of the radius fracture with open reduction, internal fixation of the distal humeral fractures. Elevated compartment pressure measurements were anticipated because of the nature of the injuries. After fixation of the fractures, the mobile wad, volar, and dorsal compartments measured 9, 9, and 8 mm Hg, respectively. The absolute pressure in the posterior arm compartment was measured multiple times in different locations ranging from 34 to 39 mm Hg. The patient's blood pressure throughout the case averaged 115/65 mm Hg. A diagnosis of posterior arm compartment syndrome was confirmed and the fascia was released. Our patient ultimately suffered 2 uncommon injuries involving the arm. She sustained a complex fracture of the distal humerus with an extension type supracondylar fracture, a separate Hahn-Steinthal capitellar fracture, and isolated posterior arm
Ernat, Justin; Ho, Christine; Wimberly, Robert L; Jo, ChanHee; Riccio, Anthony I
Few studies have prospectively assessed functional outcomes after the surgical management of supracondylar humerus fractures (SCHFXs) and the relationship between fracture pattern and ultimate patient outcome has never been prospectively evaluated. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate fracture classification and functional outcome in children with extension SCHFXs using validated outcome measures. An Institutional Review Board-approved prospective enrollment of consecutive patients with operative SCHFX was performed over a 3-year period. Fractures were classified by the treating surgeon using the modified Gartland classification. Functional outcome was assessed at final follow-up using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instruments (PODCI) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) outcome measure. Patients with flexion-type fractures, multidirectionally unstable fractures and those with <10 weeks follow-up were excluded from analysis. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between fracture classification/pattern and functional outcome. Seven hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled during the study period. One hundred thirty-two patients with extension-type injuries (average age 6.7 y) completed functional outcome measures at an average follow-up of 12.4 weeks. Forty-five (34%) were type II fractures and 87 (66%) were type III fractures. Forty-five (34%) of the fractures were posteromedially displaced, 43 (33%) were posterolaterally displaced, and 44 (33%) were posteriorly displaced without coronal plane deformity. The average PODCI global functioning scale score and QuickDASH scores for the entire cohort were 93.6 and 11.4, respectively, indicating excellent function. No differences in outcome scores were noted between patients with type II and III fractures. No difference in outcome was identified based upon direction of fracture displacement. This is the first study to prospectively analyze
Lee, Sanglim; Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Kim, Tae Won; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Lee, Kyoung Min
Although closed reduction and percutaneous pinning is accepted as the treatment of choice for displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus, there are some debates on the pinning techniques, period of immobilization, elbow range of motion (ROM) exercise, and perceptions on the restoration of elbow ROM. This study was to investigate the consensus and different perspectives on the treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. A questionnaire was designed for this study, which included the choice of pinning technique, methods of elbow motion, and perception on the restoration of elbow ROM. Seventy-six orthopedic surgeons agreed to participate in the study and survey was performed by a direct interview manner in the annual meetings of Korean Pediatric Orthopedic Association and Korean Society for Surgery of the Hand. There were 17 pediatric orthopedic surgeons, 48 hand surgeons, and 11 general orthopedic surgeons. Ninety-six percent of the orthopedic surgeons agreed that closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was the treatment of choice for the displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children. They showed significant difference in the choice of pin entry (lateral vs. crossed pinning, p = 0.017) between the three groups of orthopedic surgeons, but no significant difference was found in the number of pins, all favoring 2 pins over 3 pins. Most of the orthopedic surgeons used a removable splint during the ROM exercise period. Hand surgeons and general orthopedic surgeons tended to be more concerned about elbow stiffness after supracondylar fracture than pediatric orthopedic surgeons, and favored gentle passive ROM exercise as elbow motion. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons most frequently adopted active ROM exercise as the elbow motion method. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons and general orthopedic surgeons acknowledged that the patient's age was the most contributing factor to the restoration of elbow motion, whereas hand surgeons acknowledged
Lee, Sanglim; Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Kim, Tae Won; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon
Background Although closed reduction and percutaneous pinning is accepted as the treatment of choice for displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus, there are some debates on the pinning techniques, period of immobilization, elbow range of motion (ROM) exercise, and perceptions on the restoration of elbow ROM. This study was to investigate the consensus and different perspectives on the treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Methods A questionnaire was designed for this study, which included the choice of pinning technique, methods of elbow motion, and perception on the restoration of elbow ROM. Seventy-six orthopedic surgeons agreed to participate in the study and survey was performed by a direct interview manner in the annual meetings of Korean Pediatric Orthopedic Association and Korean Society for Surgery of the Hand. There were 17 pediatric orthopedic surgeons, 48 hand surgeons, and 11 general orthopedic surgeons. Results Ninety-six percent of the orthopedic surgeons agreed that closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was the treatment of choice for the displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children. They showed significant difference in the choice of pin entry (lateral vs. crossed pinning, p = 0.017) between the three groups of orthopedic surgeons, but no significant difference was found in the number of pins, all favoring 2 pins over 3 pins. Most of the orthopedic surgeons used a removable splint during the ROM exercise period. Hand surgeons and general orthopedic surgeons tended to be more concerned about elbow stiffness after supracondylar fracture than pediatric orthopedic surgeons, and favored gentle passive ROM exercise as elbow motion. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons most frequently adopted active ROM exercise as the elbow motion method. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons and general orthopedic surgeons acknowledged that the patient's age was the most contributing factor to the restoration of elbow motion, whereas
Smuin, Dallas M; Hennrikus, William L
The pucker sign, also called skin tenting, indicates significant displacement of the supracondylar fracture and can be a cause for alarm. The purpose of this study is to compare a cohort of patients with type III supracondylar fractures presenting with a pucker sign to a group without a pucker sign by evaluating neurovascular injury at presentation, need for open reduction, persistent neurovascular injury, range of motion, and carrying angle at final follow-up. A retrospective review was performed for Gartland type III extension type supracondylar fractures. Those with a pucker sign were identified and evaluated. Type III supracondylar fractures with a pucker sign were compared with a similar cohort without a pucker sign. In total, 12 patients with a pucker sign at an average age of 5.2 years were evaluated. A total of 11 patients (92%) had diminished or absent pulses, and 2 (17%) had weakness in the median nerve distribution. Nine (75%) patients in this group were transferred to the university hospital. Average time to surgery was 8.9 hours with an average operating time of 25.1 minutes. Open reduction was not needed in any case. At an average follow-up of 4.7 months no patients had persistent neurovascular compromise. Two patients lacked <5 degrees of extension and 1 lacked 10 degrees of extension. One patient lacked 10 degrees of flexion. No patients had a change in carrying angle difference compared with the contralateral side. No statistical differences were observed between the 2 groups. Pucker sign, in the context of a supracondylar fracture of the humerus, is a soft tissue defect with potential entrapment of median nerve and brachial artery. At a maximum time of 16 hours from injury to surgery we report excellent outcomes and no long-term complications. Using the techniques of gradual traction, and milking the soft tissue, the pucker sign can be eliminated. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning were performed in all the cases. Level III
Diesselhorst, Matthew M; Deck, Jason W; Davey, Joseph P
Supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most frequently seen elbow fractures in children. One of the most feared complications of this fracture, that is, compartment syndrome of the forearm is seen rarely. Compartment syndrome of the upper arm is an even more rare occurrence and to date, has not been reported in association with an isolated supracondylar humerus fracture in a child. A 9-year-old boy was cared for at our facility for a severe (Gartland type III) supracondylar humerus fracture and developed a compartment syndrome in the perioperative period. A clinical, radiographic, and literature review of this case was undertaken to better define this occurrence. This patient sustained a closed supracondylar humerus fracture in association with a motor and sensory deficit of the radial nerve. Because of the severity of the deformity, a provisional reduction was performed in the emergency department. Eleven hours after the injury, a routine closed reduction and percutaneous pinning was performed. Although significant swelling was noted at that time, compartment syndrome was not clinically suspected. He was observed as an inpatient because of this persistent swelling. Over the next day, he developed considerable tenderness over the anterior arm and mobile wad musculature, hence, compartment pressure measurements were made. These confirmed a compartment syndrome in the anterior compartment of the arm and equivocally in the mobile wad. An urgent compartment release of the arm was done, which resulted in full recovery. This is the first report of a compartment syndrome of the arm after an isolated supracondylar humerus fracture in a child. The presence of the associated fracture made the classic signs of compartment syndrome difficult to assess. Ultimately, muscle tenderness and compartment pressure measurement were most helpful in making this diagnosis. A high index of suspicion should be maintained for compartment syndrome of the arm as well as the forearm
Lamdan, Ron; Liebergall, Meir; Gefen, Amit; Symanovsky, Naum; Peleg, Eran
Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation with Kirschner wires (KWs) is the standard of care of pediatric supra-condylar humerus fractures (SCHFs). Failure modes leading to loss of reduction are not clear and have not been quantified. Multiple factors may weaken the KW-bone interface bonding conditions. To the best of our knowledge, the possible effect of this decrease on different KW configurations and fracture stability has never been studied. To investigate the effect of bone-KW friction conditions on SCHF post-operative mechanical stability and to formulate clinical guidelines for KW configuration under different conditions. Finite element-based model of a fixated SCHF was used to simulate structure stability for two lateral divergent versus crossed lateral and medial KW configurations under varying KW-bone friction conditions. Finite element simulations demonstrated that crossed KWs provide superior stability compared with the divergent configuration when KW-bone bonding is compromised. When KW-bone bonding conditions are adequate, crossed and divergent KW configurations provide similar, sufficient fracture stability. Under normal bone-implant interface conditions, the two diverging lateral KW configuration offers satisfactory mechanical stability and may be the preferred choice of SCHF fixation. When KW-bone bonding is suboptimal, as when one or more of the lateral KWs are re-drilled, addition of a medial KW should be considered in order to improve stability despite risk to ulnar nerve.
Allende, Christian; Gutierrez, Natalia; Fernandez Savoy, Ignacio; Allende, Bartolome T
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the objective and subjective results achieved after double tension band fixation in transverse extra-articular intracapsular supracondylar distal humerus fractures and nonunions in adults. Nine patients presenting six fractures and three nonunions of the distal humerus, treated with double tension band wiring between 1998 and 2011, were retrospectively evaluated. Two fractures were type A2 and four type A3, and the nonunions were oligotrophic; all nine lesions had a supracondylar intracapsular transverse orientation, that passed through the olecranon fossa, in a direction parallel to the joint line, and they compromised both columns of the distal humerus. Patient's age averaged 70 years (range, 56-82). Follow-up averaged 24.6 months (range, 12-53). All fractures and nonunions united; there were no infections, elbow stiffness or heterotopic bone formations. DASH score at final follow-up averaged 14.2 points (range, 4-22). The analog scale of pain averaged 1.1 points (range, 0-3). Elbow range of motion averaged 100° (range, 100-120°). Flexion averaged 123° (range, 115-130°) and elbow extension loss averaged 15.5° (range, 10-25°). The results achieved with double tension band fixation in transverse extra-articular intracapsular supracondylar distal humerus fractures and nonunions are comparable to the results that can be expected when using other available fixation methods; this technique is faster, less demanding and cheaper, and surgeons should have it in mind when leading with these particular types of distal humerus fractures and nonunions.
Schroeder, Nicholas O; Seeley, Mark A; Hariharan, Arun; Farley, Frances A; Caird, Michelle S; Li, Ying
Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are common injuries that are often treated surgically with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Although surgical-site infections are rare, postoperative antibiotics are frequently administered without evidence or guidelines for their use. With the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms and heightened focus on health care costs, appropriate and evidence-based use of antibiotics is needed. We hypothesized that postoperative antibiotic administration would not decrease the rate of surgical-site infection. A billing query identified 951 patients with operatively treated supracondylar humerus fractures at our institution over a 15-year period. Records were reviewed for demographic data, perioperative antibiotic use, and the presence of surgical-site infection. Exclusion criteria were open fractures, open reduction, pathologic fractures, metabolic bone disease, the presence of other injuries that required operative treatment, and follow-up <2 weeks after pin removal. χ and Fisher exact test were used to compare antibiotic use to the incidence of surgical-site infection. Six hundred eighteen patients met our inclusion criteria. Two hundred thirty-eight patients (38.5%) received postoperative antibiotics. Eleven surgical-site infections were identified for an overall rate of 1.8%. The use of postoperative antibiotics was not associated with a lower rate of surgical-site infection (P=0.883). Patients with a type III fracture (P<0.001), diminished preoperative vascular (P=0.001) and neurological status (P=0.019), and postoperative hospital admission (P<0.001) were significantly more likely to receive postoperative antibiotics. Administration of postoperative antibiotics after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures does not decrease the rate of surgical-site infection. Level III-therapeutic.
Tuomilehto, Noora; Kivisaari, Reetta; Sommarhem, Antti; Nietosvaara, Aarno Y
Background and purpose - The quality of pin fixation of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children has not been assessed, and the clinical value of radiographic examinations after pin fixation is unclear. We evaluated pin configuration, quality of osteosynthesis, and outcome in 264 supracondylar fractures. The clinical significance of postoperative radiographs was analyzed. Patients and methods - 252 Gartland-III and 12 flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures were pin-fixed in the periods 2002-2006 and 2012-2014. During 2012-2014, staff were intructed that postoperative radiographs should not be taken. Quality of reduction was assessed by measuring Baumann and lateral capitellohumeral angles (LCHA) and also by recording the crossing point of the anterior humeral line (AHL) with bony capitellum. Rotatory alignment was registered as normal or abnormal. Pin configuration and quality of osteosynthesis were evaluated. The clinical significance of postoperative radiographs was analyzed. Results - Postoperatively, Baumann angle was normal in 66% of the fractures, AHL crossed the capitellum in 84%, and no malrotation was evident in 85% of the fractures. Crossed pins were used in 89% of the cases. 2 or more pins fixed both fracture fragments in 66%. Radiographic examinations were inadequate for assessment of LCHA in 13%, of Bauman angle in 8%, of AHL in 2%, of rotation in 1%, and of pin fixation in 2% of the cases. Postoperative radiographs did not give useful information except in 1 patient who had corrective osteotomy. All 94 patients with follow-up (97%) who were treated during 2012-2014 were satisfied with the outcome. Interpretation - Despite pin fixation being deemed unsatisfactory in one-third of the cases, significant malunion was rare. Postoperative radiography did not alter management or outcome.
Tuomilehto, Noora; Kivisaari, Reetta; Sommarhem, Antti; Nietosvaara, Aarno Y
Background and purpose — The quality of pin fixation of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children has not been assessed, and the clinical value of radiographic examinations after pin fixation is unclear. We evaluated pin configuration, quality of osteosynthesis, and outcome in 264 supracondylar fractures. The clinical significance of postoperative radiographs was analyzed. Patients and methods — 252 Gartland-III and 12 flexion-type supracondylar humerus fractures were pin-fixed in the periods 2002–2006 and 2012–2014. During 2012–2014, staff were intructed that postoperative radiographs should not be taken. Quality of reduction was assessed by measuring Baumann and lateral capitellohumeral angles (LCHA) and also by recording the crossing point of the anterior humeral line (AHL) with bony capitellum. Rotatory alignment was registered as normal or abnormal. Pin configuration and quality of osteosynthesis were evaluated. The clinical significance of postoperative radiographs was analyzed. Results — Postoperatively, Baumann angle was normal in 66% of the fractures, AHL crossed the capitellum in 84%, and no malrotation was evident in 85% of the fractures. Crossed pins were used in 89% of the cases. 2 or more pins fixed both fracture fragments in 66%. Radiographic examinations were inadequate for assessment of LCHA in 13%, of Bauman angle in 8%, of AHL in 2%, of rotation in 1%, and of pin fixation in 2% of the cases. Postoperative radiographs did not give useful information except in 1 patient who had corrective osteotomy. All 94 patients with follow-up (97%) who were treated during 2012–2014 were satisfied with the outcome. Interpretation — Despite pin fixation being deemed unsatisfactory in one-third of the cases, significant malunion was rare. Postoperative radiography did not alter management or outcome. PMID:27774833
Karamitopoulos, Mara S; Dean, Ellen; Littleton, Aaron G; Kruse, Richard
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the necessity of early postoperative radiographs after pinning of supracondylar humerus fractures by determining both the percentage of patients who displayed change in fracture fixation and whether these changes affected their outcome. A series of 643 consecutive patients who underwent operative management of Gartland type II and III fractures at our institution between January 2002 and December 2010 were reviewed. Demographic data were obtained through chart review, including age, sex, extremity, fracture type, and mechanism. Intraoperative fluoroscopic images were compared with postoperative radiographs to identify changes in fracture alignment and pin placement. A total of 643 patients (320 females, 323 males) with a mean age of 6.1 years (range, 1.1 to 16.0) were reviewed. Fifty-seven percent of fractures were classified as type II and 43% were type III. The overall complication rate was 8.8% (57/643). Pin backout or fracture translation was seen in 32 patients (4.9%) at the first postoperative visit. All of these patients sustained type III fractures. One of these patients required further operative management. Patients with changes in pin or fracture alignment did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference in time to first postoperative visit (P=0.23), days to pin removal (P=0.07), or average follow-up time (P=0.10). Fracture severity did not correlate with change in alignment (P=0.952). No postoperative neurological complications were observed in patients with alignment changes. Mild alignment changes and pin migration observed in postoperative radiographs after pinning of supracondylar humerus fractures have little effect on clinical management parameters or long-term sequelae. Radiographs can therefore be deferred until the time of pin removal provided adequate intraoperative stability was obtained. Level IV.
Madjar-Simic, Ivanka; Talic-Tanovic, Adnana; Hadziahmetovic, Zoran; Sarac-Hadzihalilovic, Aida
Introduction: Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the humerus at the elbow in children. The key role belongs to the age and immaturity of the humerus region. Treatment, even today represents the problem of bone and joint surgery. Gartland classification divides these fractures into four types. Analysis of radiographic parameters will serve as an indicator for treatment selection. Goal: To demonstrate the role of radiographic evaluation by measurement of default radiographic parameters and indicate the choice of treatment for supracondylar fractures of type I and II by Gartland. Material and methods: The study included 60 children aged 4-14 years, divided into two groups, first with initial radiographic analysis and the second one without radiographic analysis. All were treated at the Primary Health Care Center Novi Travnik and Nova Bila Hospital from 2009 to 2011. Analysis was performed using methods of descriptive statistics to calculate the mean and standard deviation, Student’s t-test and Chi-square test. Results: In patients from first group hospitalization, immobilization duration, as well as physical treatment was shorter and more frequently surgical treatment was applied (manual reduction with K-wire fixation) with statistically significant difference (p = 0.042). Conclusion: Radiographic evaluation is one way to choose methods of fracture treatment. The incidence of complications is low, with excellent outcome of treatment and a faster return of children to their daily activities. PMID:23322971
Lu, Di; Wang, Te; Chen, Hua; Sun, Liao-Jun
The objective of this study was to prospectively compare the incidence of pin tract infection in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures managed with pin care daily or every other day or weekly. We hypothesized that there were some differences between these three methods. From June 2012 to May 2015, 135 children with supracondylar humerus fractures were randomized to postoperative pin care by cleaning pin tracts daily (group A, 45 cases) or cleaning every 2 days (group B, 45 cases) or cleaning weekly (group C, 45 cases). The three groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, affected side, body mass index (BMI), fracture type, injury to surgery time, number of intraoperative percutaneous pinning, and follow-up time. We collected data on pin retention time, union time, and pin tract infection. The average follow-up time of group A was 4.5 ± 1.3 and 4.2 ± 1.6 months in group B and 4.3 ± 1.4 months in group C. The patient demographics and intraoperative variables of three groups were comparable. No significant difference between these three groups was found in union time and pin fixation time. Of the 135 children, 48 (35.6%) cases had pin tract infection. Grade I infections (Checketts-Otterburns classification) occurred around 28.9% of 270 pin and grade II around 6.7%. We found no differences between three groups as regards frequency and severity of pin tract infections (both P > 0.05). However, complain of pain was more frequent in group A than other two groups (P < 0.05). All of the three methods were effective for the management of pin site infection in pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. However, excessive frequent care as well as pin care daily had the disadvantages of child's fear and parental anxiety. What is Known: • Pin site infection is a common complication after fracture fixation and bone lengthening using percutaneous pins or wires. • Closed reduction and percutaneous K-wires fixation are the mainstay of treatment in
Kish, Alexander J; Hennrikus, William L
The AAOS guidelines suggest operative fixation of all type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures. Not all type 2 fractures are the same. Wilkins type 2a fractures have intrinsic stability. The purpose of this paper is to report closed reduction and single-pin fixations for Wilkins 2a fractures. Fifteen consecutive type 2a fractures treated with single-pin fixation were prospectively evaluated. Procedure notes, age, sex, side involved, duration of immobilization, and complications were recorded. Radiographs were measured for the lateral humerocapitellar line and the humeral ulna angle. At final follow-up the carrying angle, range of motion, and the Flynn criteria were recorded. The average age of patients was 5 years (age range, 1 to 9 y). Three females and 12 males were studied. Eight right elbows and 7 left elbows were injured. A 0.0625 K-wire was used in 2 cases and a 2 mm K-wire was used in 13 cases. On preoperative lateral radiographs, the anterior humeral line did not intersect the capitellum. On postoperative radiographs, the anterior humeral line intersected the middle third of the capitellum. Following pinning, the elbow was immobilized in a long-arm cast in pronation with elbow at 75 degrees of flexion. The cast and pin were removed at an average of 27 days (range, 25 to 31 d). One patient was lost to follow-up. The remaining 14 patients were followed for at least 3 months. At final follow-up, the carrying angle was within 2 degrees of the opposite elbow and ROM was within 3 degrees of the opposite elbow in all cases. Final Flynn criteria were excellent in all 14 patients. There were no complications. Treatment of supracondylar fractures has evolved from selective pinning of type 2 fractures to pinning all type 2 fractures. The results of the current study demonstrate the efficacy of using a single lateral entry pin for stabilization of type 2a fractures in children. Level III.
Sairyo, K; Henmi, T; Kanematsu, Y; Nakano, S; Kajikawa, T
This report reviews a case of radial nerve palsy associated with a supracondylar fracture of the right humerus. The patient was a four-year-old boy. Radiographs of the injury showed simple extension and a slightly angulated fracture. Complete radial nerve palsy was observed at the first consultation. After three months of conservative treatment without any obvious improvement, an operative exploration of the right radial nerve was conducted. Intraoperatively, the nerve was found to be transected, with both ends of the ruptured nerve buried in scar tissue at the fracture site. Five months after the nerve suture operation, the palsy was cured completely. This case shows that even a minimal displacement fracture can be associated with severe nerve injury that requires surgical treatment.
Reisoglu, Ali; Kazimoglu, Cemal; Hanay, Emre; Agus, Haluk
Closed reduction with percutaneous pinning is the treatment of choice for displaced supracondylar humerus fractures in children. In addition to configuration of pin fixation, many factors have been attributed to loss of reduction (LOR). The aim of the present study was to review potential factors that contribute to loss of reduction in the closed management of type III pediatric supracondylar fractures. Treatment of 87 patients with type III supracondylar fractures was reviewed to determine factors associated with loss of reduction; 48 patients were treated with lateral pinning and 39 with crossed-pinning after closed reduction. Outcome parameters included radiographic maintenance of postoperative reduction. Lateral or crossed-pin configuration, pin spread at fracture site, pin-spread ratio (PSR), and direction of coronal displacement of the fracture were not associated with LOR. A significant difference (p = 0.01) was found between LOR rates of patients with medial wall communication and LOR. Medial wall communication is a contributing factor to LOR in the management of type III supracondylar fractures. Cross-pinning should be preferred when medial wall communication is present, to provide more stable fixation. Level IV, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Costa, Maria J.; Pires, Mafalda; Neves, Cassiano; Tavares, Delfin; Quintas, Alexandra M.; Ferreira, Ana I.; Espirito Santo, M. J.; Castro, Alexandra; Cabral, M. Salomé; João Gomes, J. F.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recovery time of elbow range of motion after treatment of Gartland's type II and III supracondylar fractures of distal humerus in children who attended a program of occupational therapy (OT). A randomized control design (RCD) was conducted to compare the two groups (OT group and Control group) and several statistical methodologies have been used to compare them. In all the cases the results point out to a faster recover in the OT group. All the analysis were performed using the package R version 3.0.1.
Gál, P; Tecl, F; Skotáková, J; Mach, V
The authors present their experience with enzyme therapy--the preparation Wobenzym--in comprehensive treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. On monitoring the condition of the extremity by Doppler ultrasound, where the flow through the radial artery was quantified they obtained better results in the group of patients treated by systemic enzyme therapy than in the control group. Systemic enzyme therapy is recommended as a suitable supplement in comprehensive treatment where the most important part is played by correct and early treatment along with precise monitoring of the extremity during the postoperative course.
Havránek, P; Véle, F; Hájková, H; Zwingerová, H
The authors observed a lesion of the peripheral nerves in 13 of 401 children with supracondylar humerus fractures (3.2%). Most frequently, the radial nerve was injured. All patients with neural lesions healed spontaneously, a surgical revision of the nerve was not necessary. The authors' opinion is that neural lesions accompanying supracondylar fractures can be treated conservatively. Exceptions are clear indications for surgical revision, as persisting ischaemia of the forearm or extensive open fractures. When treating conservatively, it is necessary to make a thorough clinical and EMG investigation to set exactly the diagnosis of the neural lesion immediately after removing the plaster cast (mostly 3 weeks after the injury). This investigation is to be repeated regularly, as the reinervation dynamics of the affected region is to be followed up. At the same time it is advantageous to perform electrostimulation until reinervation potentials appear, vitaminotherapy and intensive active exercise with the involved extremity. If no signs of reinvertion in the affected area appear within 6 months, a surgical revision of the nerve is to be considered.
Porter, Robert N; Chafe, Roger; Mugford, Gerry; Newhook, Leigh; Furey, Andrew
The purpose of this study was to describe the use of analgesic interventions in children with acute supracondylar fractures presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED) and to explore the relationship between timely interventions and severity of injury. This was a retrospective cohort study. Structured chart reviews were conducted on all eligible cases of acute supracondylar humerus fracture presenting to a single pediatric ED over a 5-year period ending in December 2009. Two interventions were studied: administration of a systemic analgesic and placement of an immobilizing backslab. Criteria for timeliness were administration of an analgesic within 30 minutes from triage and placement of a backslab before radiography. Cases were dichotomized as nonsevere or severe based on whether the fracture was treated with casting alone or with another orthopedic intervention (closed reduction in the ED or any procedure in the operating room). Of 160 eligible cases, 116 were classified as nonsevere and 44 as severe. The proportions receiving a timely analgesic were 3% and 11%, respectively, in these groups (P = 0.04 for difference). For backslab application, 16% and 61% received timely treatment in the nonsevere and severe groups, respectively (P = 0.000 for difference). Children presenting to a pediatric ED with a painful injury had low access to early systemic analgesics and backslab immobilization. Many factors may have played a role, including lack of mandated documentation of a formal pain score and lack of a medical directive allowing triage nurses to administer analgesics in the institution studied.
Silva, Mauricio; Wong, Thalia C; Bernthal, Nicholas M
Some slightly extended type II fractures initially treated with closed reduction and casting can displace during the first 2 weeks of follow-up. Although closed reduction and percutaneous pinning are desirable for displaced supracondylar humeral fractures treated acutely, there is little or no available information regarding the surgeon's ability to obtain a satisfactory reduction when such a procedure is performed more than a week after the original injury, or the clinical outcome of it. We reviewed the information on 143 type II pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures that were treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. To determine the effect of late treatment, we compared a group of fractures that was treated within the first 7 days (group 1, n=101) with a group that was treated >7 days after the injury (group 2, n=42). Mean time from presentation to surgery was 2.1 days (range, 0 to 5) and 9.8 days (range, 7 to 15) for fractures in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There was no need for an open reduction in either group. An anatomic reduction was obtained in all fractures. There were no iatrogenic nerve injuries, vascular complications, or compartment syndromes in either group. Length of surgery was similar in both groups (P=0.3). There were no significant differences in final carrying angle (P=0.2) or range of motion of the treated elbow (P=0.21). Avascular necrosis of the humeral trochlea was identified in 2 fractures that were treated surgically 8 days after the original injury (group 2). The results of this study suggest that it is possible to obtain an anatomic reduction of a type II pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture even after 7 days from the injury. Such a delay in surgery does not appear to lead to longer surgeries, a higher incidence of open reduction, or to alter the final alignment or range of motion of the elbow. However, the risk of developing an avascular necrosis of the humeral trochlea must be considered. II.
Lu, Xian-Zheng; Hu, Chang-Xian; Liu, Ben-Hui
To explore the clinical effect of manipulative reduction and lateral percutaneous K-wire fixation on supracondylar humerus fractures. From Feb. 2004 to Jun. 2010,128 cases of supracondylar humeros fractures in children (96 boys and 32 girls) were treated by manipulative reduction and lateral percutaneous K-wire fixation. The average age of the children was 8 years old ranging from 2 to 15 years. Among them, 112 cases were extension fractures, 16 were flexion type; 102 cases belonged to ulnar deviation, and 26 cases belonged to radial deviation. After treatment, the elbow flexion range and carrying angle of the children were measured under the Flynn evaluation standard while considering the postoperative complications status to analyze the clinical effect on manipulative reduction and lateral percutaneous K-wire fixation. All these children were followed up from 2 to 36 months (16 months on average). According to Flynn evaluation standard,the result were excellent in 116 children (90.6% of the total patients), good in 11 (8.6%), fair in 1 (0.8%). No infection, no ischemic muscular atrophy and no nerve damage had been found during the treatment. The manipulative reduction and lateral percutaneous K-wire fixation of supracondylar humerus fractures in children has small wound, is stable and reliable, easy to be operated, safe and effective and low cost. What's more, it can also avoid the complication caused by conservative treatment and operation. It is a good treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures in children.
Background and purpose Ulnar nerve injury may occur after pinning of supracondylar fractures in children. We describe the outcome and compare the rates of iatrogenic injuries to the ulnar nerve in a consecutive series of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children treated with either crossed pinning or antegrade nailing. Methods Medical charts of all children sustaining this fracture treated at our department between 1994 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed regarding the mode of treatment, demographic data including age and sex, the time until implant removal, the outcome, and the rate of ulnar nerve injuries. Results 503 children (55% boys) with an average age of 6.5 years sustained a type-II, type-III, or type-IV supracondylar fracture. Of those, 440 children were included in the study. Antegrade nailing was performed in 264 (60%) of the children, and the others were treated with crossed pins. Iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury occurred in 0.4% of the children treated with antegrade nailing and in 15% of the children treated with crossed pinning. After median 3 (1.6–12) years of follow-up, the clinical outcome was good and similar between the 2 groups. Interpretation Intramedullary antegrade nailing of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures can be considered an adequate and safe alternative to the widely performed crossed K-wire fixation. The risk of iatrogenic nerve injury after antegrade nailing is small compared to that after crossed pinning. PMID:21992087
Kwak-Lee, Juliann; Kim, Rachel; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Silva, Mauricio
We present a group of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures in whom a medial pin was inserted, in addition to lateral-entry pins, and compared it with a group that was treated with lateral-only entry pins. We evaluated differences in the rate of complications related to the insertion of the medial pin. Prospective nonrandomized. Level II academic center. The data on 291 pediatric was analyzed. Patients in group 1 (n = 47) were treated with a combination of 2 lateral-entry pins and 1 medial-entry pin, whereas patients in group 2 (n = 244) were treated with lateral-only entry pins alone. Information related to the injury and surgical procedure was prospectively collected. The length of surgery, amount of pin separation at the fracture site, presence of neurological complications, pin tract infection, loss of fixation, final carrying angle, and range of motion were recorded. Fracture severity was similar in both groups (P = 0.6). Medial column comminution was identified preoperatively in all fractures in group 1 and in 10% of fractures in group 2. Length of surgery was a mean of 21 minutes longer for patients in group 1 (P < 0.00001). There were no iatrogenic nerve injuries, vascular complications, or compartment syndromes in either group. The use of a medial-entry pin significantly increased the amount of pin separation at the fracture site (P < 0.00001). The percentage of satisfactory results was similar in both groups (P = 0.6). The results of this study suggest that the use of a medial-entry pin for the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures is safe, if an adequate technique is followed. Although insertion of medial pins leads to longer surgeries, it does not seem to result in higher incidence of complications.
Chai, K K; Aik, S; Sengupta, S
132 consecutive cases of supracondylar fractures of the humerus admitted between July, 1997 and February, 1999 were included in a prospective study. There were 93 boys and 39 girls. The age ranges from one to 14 years old. The non-dominant arm was more often injured. Ethnic Malay constituted the majority. Accidents mainly occurred at home with a peak between 4 pm and 8 pm. Majority was presented within 24 hours of injury. Type III fracture with distal fragment in extension predominated. Nerve injuries occurred in 9 cases in which median nerve was the most commonly affected. There was only one open fracture and it was complicated by absent radial pulse and median nerve injury.
Scaglione, Michelangelo; Giovannelli, Daniele; Fabbri, Luca; Dell'omo, Dario; Goffi, Andrea; Guido, Giulio
Supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children are important for frequency and type of associated serious complications. The management of this kind of fractures is still controversial (Skaggs et al. in J Bone Joint Surg Am 86:702-707, 2004; Kalllio et al. in J Pediatr Orthop 12:11-15, 1992). We are going to present our experience in the treatment of supracondylar humeral fracture in children. In the Orthopedic Department of Pisa, we treated 150 cases from 1989 to 2006. We are used to perform, emergency or within 12 h, reduction and two lateral-entry percutaneous pins fixation. The mean age was 7.5 years. We checked 125 cases, because we excluded all the cases with follow up less then 5 years. The mean follow up was 8.2 years. We used Gartland classification modified by Wilkins. We evaluated 125 cases by using the Flynn classification: 100 % of patients did not have impairment of the elbow joint mobility. We had seven valgus deviation, one of which was more then 10°. We also had 17 varus deviations, 11 of which were not over 8° and only 2 of them were 15°. The average value of the joint Baumann angle was calculated as great as 16°. The obtained results were classified as very good 80 %, good 11 %, sufficiently good 6 %, and bad 3 %. In our experience, all the fractures type II and III by Gartland have to be treated within 12 h, with closed reduction and stabilization with lateral-entry K-wire technique. The conservative treatment by cast is indicated only in type I fracture. The trans olecranic treatment is not realizable, for the stiffness which can occur, for the risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve lesion, and for long-time hospitalization. The open reduction remains the first choice treatment for exposed or nonreducible fractures, and in cases of vascular injury.
Waikhom, Sanjib; Ibomcha, Irom; Digendra, Akoijam; Sohkhlet, Handboy R
Introduction Supracondylar fractures of humerus in children are usually treated with percutaneous pinning on emergency basis. When the operating time is delayed, percutaneous pinning is difficult due to massive swelling. Late presentation is common in developing countries. Aim To assess the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation with K-wire of widely displaced supracondylar fracture when operated later than 2 days after the injury. Materials and Methods A total of 52 children (aged 3-12 years) with widely displaced supracondylar fracture of humerus (Gartland type-III) who presented later than 2 days after injury were treated with open reduction through medial approach and fixation with cross K-wires. Results were assessed with Flynn’s criteria. Result: A total of 40 patients completed follow-up. Mean age of all (n=52) patients was 4.8 years (range 3-12 years). Mean delay of presentation was 7.5 days (range 2-14 days). Hundred percent patients had satisfactory results according to Flynn’s criteria. Two patients had pin infections. Conclusion Open reduction through medial approach and fixation with two cross K-wires is a reliable method of treatment for supracondylar fractures of humerus in children when the operation is delayed. PMID:27656516
Waikhom, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Sagnik; Ibomcha, Irom; Digendra, Akoijam; Sohkhlet, Handboy R
Supracondylar fractures of humerus in children are usually treated with percutaneous pinning on emergency basis. When the operating time is delayed, percutaneous pinning is difficult due to massive swelling. Late presentation is common in developing countries. To assess the outcome of open reduction and internal fixation with K-wire of widely displaced supracondylar fracture when operated later than 2 days after the injury. A total of 52 children (aged 3-12 years) with widely displaced supracondylar fracture of humerus (Gartland type-III) who presented later than 2 days after injury were treated with open reduction through medial approach and fixation with cross K-wires. RESULTs were assessed with Flynn's criteria. A total of 40 patients completed follow-up. Mean age of all (n=52) patients was 4.8 years (range 3-12 years). Mean delay of presentation was 7.5 days (range 2-14 days). Hundred percent patients had satisfactory results according to Flynn's criteria. Two patients had pin infections. Open reduction through medial approach and fixation with two cross K-wires is a reliable method of treatment for supracondylar fractures of humerus in children when the operation is delayed.
Porter, Robert Neil; Chafe, Roger E; Newhook, Leigh A; Murnaghan, Kyle D
Provision of appropriate and timely treatment for pain in the pediatric population has been challenging. Children with painful conditions commonly present to emergency departments (EDs), a setting in which it may be particularly difficult to consistently provide timely analgesic interventions. To measure the effectiveness of a set of interventions in improving the rate and timeliness of analgesic medication administration, as well as appropriate backslab immobilization (application of a moldable plaster or fiberglass splint), in a pediatric ED. Data regarding pain management were collected on a consecutive sample of cases of supracondylar fracture over a 13-month period. This followed the implementation of a formal triage pain assessment and treatment medical directive, supplemented with relevant education of nursing and house staff, and posters in the ED. These data were compared with data previously collected from a similar cohort of cases, which presented before the interventions. Postintervention, the proportion of patients treated with an analgesic within 60 min of triage increased from 15% to 54% (P<0.001), and the median time to administration of an analgesic decreased from 72.5 min to 11 min (P<0.001). Rates for backslab application before radiography were similar before and after the intervention (29% and 33%, respectively; P=0.646). A multifaceted approach to improving early analgesic interventions was associated with considerably improved rates of early analgesic treatments for supracondylar fracture; however, no improvement in early immobilization was observed.
Porter, Robert N; Chafe, Roger E; Newhook, Leigh A; Murnaghan, Kyle D
BACKGROUND: Provision of appropriate and timely treatment for pain in the pediatric population has been challenging. Children with painful conditions commonly present to emergency departments (EDs), a setting in which it may be particularly difficult to consistently provide timely analgesic interventions. OBJECTIVES: To measure the effectiveness of a set of interventions in improving the rate and timeliness of analgesic medication administration, as well as appropriate backslab immobilization (application of a moldable plaster or fiberglass splint), in a pediatric ED. METHODS: Data regarding pain management were collected on a consecutive sample of cases of supracondylar fracture over a 13-month period. This followed the implementation of a formal triage pain assessment and treatment medical directive, supplemented with relevant education of nursing and house staff, and posters in the ED. These data were compared with data previously collected from a similar cohort of cases, which presented before the interventions. RESULTS: Postintervention, the proportion of patients treated with an analgesic within 60 min of triage increased from 15% to 54% (P<0.001), and the median time to administration of an analgesic decreased from 72.5 min to 11 min (P<0.001). Rates for backslab application before radiography were similar before and after the intervention (29% and 33%, respectively; P=0.646). CONCLUSIONS: A multifaceted approach to improving early analgesic interventions was associated with considerably improved rates of early analgesic treatments for supracondylar fracture; however, no improvement in early immobilization was observed. PMID:26125193
Chen, Tony Lin-wei; He, Chang-qiang; Zheng, Ting-qu; Gan, Yan-qun; Huang, Ming-xiang; Zheng, Yan-dong; Zhao, Jing-tao
To compare the biomechanical stability of various pin configurations for pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures under varus, internal rotation, and extension conditions. After electronic retrieval, 11 biomechanical studies were included. Stiffness values of pin configurations under different loading conditions were extracted and pooled. There were no statistically significant differences between two cross pins and two divergent lateral pins on the basis of the 'Hamdi method' (P=0.249-0.737). An additional pin did not strengthen two-pin construct (P=0.124-0.367), but better stabilized fractures with medial comminution (P<0.01). Isolated lateral pins are preferable because of a better balance of a lower risk of nerve injury and comparable fixation strength. Limitations such as differences in experimental setup among recruited studies and small sample size may compromise the methodologic power of this study.
Tunku-Naziha, TZ; Wan-Yuhana, WMS; Hadizie, D; Muhammad-Paiman; Abdul-Nawfar, S; Wan-Azman, WS; Arman-Z, MS; Abdul-Razak, S; Rhendra-Hardy, MZ
The management of pink pulseless limbs in supracondylar fractures has remained controversial, especially with regards to the indication for exploration in a clinically well-perfused hand. We reviewed a series of seven patients who underwent surgical exploration of the brachial artery following supracondylar fracture. All patients had a non-palpable radial artery, which was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography revealed complete blockage of the artery with good collateral and distal run-off. Two patients were more complicated with peripheral nerve injuries, one median nerve and one ulnar nerve. Only one patient had persistent arterial constriction which required reverse saphenous graft. The brachial arteries were found to be compressed by fracture fragments, but were in continuity. The vessels were patent after the release of obstruction and the stabilization of the fracture. There was no transection of major nerves. The radial pulse was persistently present after 12 weeks, and the nerve activity returned to full function. PMID:28435568
Tunku-Naziha, T Z; Wan-Yuhana, Wms; Hadizie, D; Muhammad-Paiman; Abdul-Nawfar, S; Wan-Azman, W S; Arman-Z, M S; Abdul-Razak, S; Rhendra-Hardy, M Z; Wan-Faisham, W I
The management of pink pulseless limbs in supracondylar fractures has remained controversial, especially with regards to the indication for exploration in a clinically well-perfused hand. We reviewed a series of seven patients who underwent surgical exploration of the brachial artery following supracondylar fracture. All patients had a non-palpable radial artery, which was confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. CT angiography revealed complete blockage of the artery with good collateral and distal run-off. Two patients were more complicated with peripheral nerve injuries, one median nerve and one ulnar nerve. Only one patient had persistent arterial constriction which required reverse saphenous graft. The brachial arteries were found to be compressed by fracture fragments, but were in continuity. The vessels were patent after the release of obstruction and the stabilization of the fracture. There was no transection of major nerves. The radial pulse was persistently present after 12 weeks, and the nerve activity returned to full function.
Basaran, Serdar Hakan; Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Bayrak, Alkan; Cumen, Huseyin; Avkan, Mustafa Cevdet
The purpose of this study was to compare operation duration, radiological and functional results of the open reduction with either posterior or lateral approach and closed reduction with joystick method in unsuccessful closed reduction of displaced (Gartland type III) supracondylar humeral fractures. Between February 2010 and August 2011, 37 patients who were not obtained satisfactory reduction with classic closed reduction attempts for three times in operating room were included in this study. Patients were treated with three different surgical methods. Group I have 13 patients who had joystick and lateral K-wire-assisted closed reduction, group II have 12 patients who had open reduction by lateral approach, and group III have 12 patients who had open reduction by posterior approach. In final follow-up, AP and lateral radiographs of both elbows were taken and bilateral Baumann angles, lateral humerocapitellar angles, carrying angles, and elbow range of motion were measured. These angles and operation times compared between the groups. The functional and cosmetic outcome of surgery was evaluated by criteria of Flynn et al. There was no statistical significance difference between Baumann angles, lateral humerocapitellar angles, and carrying angles of fractured and uninjured sides in between three groups (respectively, p = 0.761, p = 0.354, p = 0.750). In group I, operation duration is shorter than the other groups. Functional scoring showed that in group I and group II, all patients have satisfactory results; however, in group III, three patients (25%) had poor results. In the perspective of cosmetic results, all three groups have satisfactory results. When classical closed reduction fail, lateral joystick and K-wire-assisted reduction is a useful way to make and maintain the reduction. Functional and radiological results are as good as lateral and posterior open approaches. Short operation time is an advantage. This method reduces the risk of complications due to
Carvalho, Roni Azevedo; Filho, Nelson Franco; Neto, Antonio Batalha Castello; Reis, Giulyano Dias; Dias, Marcos Pereira
Objective: To analyze and present the surgical results from unstable supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children, treated by means of reduction and percutaneous fixation using two crossed Kirschner wires. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 children, taking into consideration sex, age at the time of the fracture, age at the time of the assessment, side affected, type and mechanism of trauma, postoperative complications and radiographic and clinic variables. Results: Ten fractures were observed in the left arm and ten in the right arm. The age at the time of the fracture ranged from 2 to 13 years (mean: 5.9 ± 2.48 years). Three fractures were classified as type II and 17 as type III. The length of follow-up ranged from four months to three years. Baumann's angle ranged from 69 to 100 (mean: 78.3) and cubitus varus was observed in four patients (values ranging from 84 to 100). According to the modified Flynn's criteria, 20 cases presented satisfactory outcomes: 17 excellent (85%), two good (10%) and one regular (5%). Two patients presented limited range of motion, two had paresthesia in the cubital region and one had transient neuropraxia of the ulnar nerve for six weeks. Conclusion: Percutaneous fixation with two crossed Kirschner wires leads to good results when carried out under direct viewing and with isolation of the ulnar nerve. PMID:27047887
Xu, Yi-wen; Zheng, Yong; Bai, Xiang-jun; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan-wu; Shi, Zhen; You, Jing-yang; Fan, Jiang-rong; Zhang, Tuo
To explore clinical effect of manipulative reduction and percutaneous K-wires fixation in treating supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. From July 2010 to December 2012, clinical data of 52 children with supracondylar fractures of the humerus, which treated with manipulative reduction and percutaneous K-wires fixation, were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, there were 35 males and 17 females with an average age of 6.7 (ranged from 2.5 to 12) years old. All fractures were type Garland II - III fractures, and 51 cases were extension type and 1 case were flexion type. Flynn evaluation standard of elbow performance score were applied to evaluate clinical effects. All patients were followed up from 12 to 18 months with average of 16 months. According to Flynn evaluation standard of elbow performance score, 41 cases obtained excellent result, 8 good and 3 moderate. Manipulative reduction and percutaneous K-wires fixation for the treatment of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children has many advantages, such as minimally invasive, rapid recovery, stable fixation. It could prevent osteofascial compartment syndrome, Volkmann Contracture and cubitus varus.
Elbow region fractures are the most common injuries in children. Among them, supracondylar fractures of the humerus are the most frequent. Massive displacement of the fractured bone causes severe injury to the soft tissue of that particular region. As a result, various types of injuries to the brachial artery such as entrapment, laceration, spasm of the vessel, and the presence of an intimal tear or thrombus formation are usually observed. The main goal of this study was to present our approach to children with supracondylar humerus fractures associated with brachial artery injuries. We would especially like to emphasize the necessity for other conservative or operative treatment concerning pulseless hand symptoms coexisting with supracondylar fractures of the humeral bone in children population. Data from 67 children were evaluated in our study. Supracondylar fractures were classified according to the Gartland's scale. All patients had displaced extension type III injuries. During our follow-up study, we used Flynn's grading system to evaluate functions of the elbow joint, forearm and wrist. Mean follow-up was 18 months; range, 13 months to 4 years. In the follow-up study, very good or good results were achieved in all 32 patients treated conservatively together with 6 patients with pulseless pink hand symptom. Very good or good results were achieved in 88% of 35 patients operated on. Children who, after satisfactory closed reduction, have a well-perfused hand but absent radial pulse do not necessarily require routine exploration of the brachial artery. Conservative treatment should be applied unless additional signs of vascular compromise appear. Thus, exploration of the cubital fossa should be performed only if circulation is not restored by closed reduction.
Ramesh, Perumal; Avadhani, Ashwin; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Dheenadhayalan, Jayaramaraju; Rajasekaran, S
The management of a persistent pink pulseless hand after a satisfactory closed reduction in a pediatric supracondylar fracture of the humerus is controversial. Several recent publications have recommended vascular exploration in contrast to a more conservative approach accepted traditionally. We report the results of seven patients with a mean follow-up of 36.6 months with a persistent pulseless, but well-perfused hand postreduction. All patients were managed conservatively without vascular exploration. A palpable return of the radial pulse was seen in six patients at 3 weeks and at 6 weeks follow-up in the other patient with no long-term dysfunction. We believe that the management of a persistent pink pulseless hand remains a 'watchful expectancy'. Surgical exploration should be recommended only if there is either severe pain in the forearm persisting for more than 12 h after the injury or if there are signs of a deteriorating neurological function.
Bagsby, Deren T; Loder, Randall T; Myung, Karen
The "July Effect" involves the influx of new interns and residents early in the academic year (July and August), which may have greater potential for poorer patient outcomes. Current orthopaedic literature does not demonstrate the validity of this concept in arthroplasty, spine, hand, and arthroscopy. No study has investigated the possibility of this effect on common pediatric orthopaedic procedures, such as closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation of supracondylar humerus fractures. A retrospective review of all type II or III supracondylar humerus fractures that underwent primary closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation (CPT code 24538) at a single pediatric level 1 trauma center from July 2009 to June 2013. Patients were grouped according to time in the academic year: early (July and August) and late (May and June). Demographic data included length of follow-up, age at surgery, sex, side of injury, and Wilkin's modified Gartland classification. Outcomes included length of operation, number of pins used, length of stay, complications, and the need for repeat surgery. There were 245 patients, 101 in the early and 144 in the late group. There was no increase in surgical time [33.32±24.74 (early) vs. 28.63±10.06 (late) min, P=0.07) or complication rates [7.0% (early) vs. 2.1% (late), P=0.06) between the early and the late groups. Cases performed with junior residents demonstrated longer operative (31.72±17.07 vs. 28.96±18.71 min, P=0.02) and fluoroscopy (48.63±30.96 vs. 34.12±27.38 s, P=0.01) times. The academic orthopaedic surgeon must ensure the education of residents, while providing the highest level of safety to patients. Our study shows that education of young residents early in the academic year results in no increase in operative times, radiation exposure, or complications. Level III.
Hohloch, Lisa; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Wagner, Ferdinand C; Strohm, Peter C; Südkamp, Norbert P; Reising, Kilian
Currently, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning are considered the treatment of choice for displaced supracondylar humerus fractures. However, indications exist for the use of external fixation with Schanz screws. In this in vitro study, we evaluate the biomechanical properties of a new variation for external fixation and compare them to an established construct. Twenty distal cadaver humeri (10 pairs) were allocated to 2 groups. The humeri of the first group were fixed by an external fixator consisting of Schanz screws and an oblique K-wire inserted from the distal radial cortex of the humerus, those of the second group were fixed by a new variation with the oblique K-wire inserted from the distal ulnar cortex of the humerus. Displacement and stiffness in static loading in internal and external rotation, as well as in extension and flexion were evaluated and compared. The variation of the external fixator of the second group proved to be statistically significantly superior to the variation of the first group in internal rotation loading (p>0.05). In sagittal loading conditions and external rotation loading, the variations were equally stable (p>0.05). There was no significant effect of the samples' bone density on displacement and stiffness values in any direction of loading. In cases of pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures when an external fixator is used for osteosynthesis, the insertion of an additional ulnarly inserted anti-rotation K-wire should be preferred to a radially inserted one as it reduces secondary displacement of the distal fragment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Silva, Mauricio; Knutsen, Ashleen R; Kalma, Jeremy J; Borkowski, Sean L; Bernthal, Nicholas M; Spencer, Hillard T; Sangiorgio, Sophia N; Ebramzadeh, Edward
We measured biomechanical stability in simulated supracondylar humeral fractures fixed with each of 6 pin configurations, 2 with associated medial comminution, and developed a technique for reproducible pin placement and divergence. A transverse supracondylar osteotomy was performed on 36 biomechanical humerus models. Of these, 24 (4 groups of 6 specimens each) were fixed with pins in 1 of 4 lateral entry configurations. The remaining 12 (2 groups of 6 specimens each) had a 30-degree medial wedge removed from the distal humerus and were fixed with 1 of 2 configurations. Half of each group was tested under axial rotation and the other half under varus bending. The distal humerus was divided into 4 equal regions from lateral to medial (1-4). Lateral entry pins were inserted through regions 1-3, whereas the medial pin was inserted through region 4. Without comminution, 3 widely spaced, divergent lateral entry pins resulted in higher torsional stiffness (0.36 Nm/degree) than 2 pins in adjacent regions (P < 0.055), but similar to 2 pins in nonadjacent regions (P = 0.57). Three lateral entry pins had higher bending stiffness (79.6 N/mm) than 2 pins, which ranged from 46.7 N/mm (P < 0.01) to 62.5 N/mm (P = 0.21). With comminution, adding a third medial entry pin increased torsional stiffness (0.13-0.24 Nm/degree, P < 0.01) and increased bending stiffness (38.7-44.7 N/mm, P = 0.10). For fractures without medial column comminution, fixation using 3 lateral entry pins may provide the greatest combination of torsional and bending stiffness. With medial comminution, adding a third medial pin increased torsional stiffness (P < 0.01) and bending stiffness (P = 0.10).
Bloom, Tamir; Seigerman, Daniel A; Zhao, Caixia; Sabharwal, Sanjeev
We sought to determine the diagnostic utility of additional full-length radiographs of the forearm and humerus for pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures. A pediatric orthopedic surgeon and a senior orthopedic resident individually reviewed the initial humerus, forearm, and elbow radiographs of 55 children with a supracondylar humerus fracture and recommended definitive treatment (operative vs. nonoperative) on the basis of the modified Gartland classification. Interobserver agreements for classification and the recommended treatment were highest for the elbow radiographs (weighted κ=0.92). All disagreements in the recommended treatment were in fractures classified as Gartland type I versus II fractures. Although two children (4%) had an ipsilateral distal forearm fracture, selective versus routine use of additional full-length radiographs in children with a supracondylar humerus fracture needs to be evaluated further.
Georgiadis, Andrew G; Settecerri, Jeffrey J
The issue of pin configuration for fixation of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures continues to be controversial. In this article, we report on a large single-surgeon 12-year series in which a flexion-extension-external rotation technique of cross-pinning was used. We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric extension-type supracondylar humerus fractures treated by a single surgeon. The cases of 214 children (mean age, 5.8 years) and 215 medial-entry pins were reviewed in the final analysis. Surgical technique involved a classic hyperflexion maneuver and placement of lateral-entry pins. Indications for medial-entry pins included instability to intraoperative torsional stress examination or medial column comminution. The elbow was then extended to no more than 60° of flexion. The glenohumeral joint was externally rotated to position the medial epicondyle directly en face to the radiographic beam before placement of a medial-entry Kirschner wire. All reviewed patients had medial-entry pin placement with a flexion-extension-external rotation technique. Mean follow-up was 13 weeks. No ulnar nerve neurapraxias were reported. Consistent protection of the ulnar nerve during percutaneous placement of a medial epicondylar pin for supracondylar humerus fracture can be accomplished with partial elbow extension and glenohumeral external rotation after placement of lateral-entry pins.
Persiani, Pietro; Di Domenica, Marica; Gurzi, Michele; Martini, Lorena; Lanzone, Roberto; Villani, Ciro
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, both clinically and roentgenographically, 62 extension-type supracondylar fractures on the basis of the synthesis method and severity of the fracture, with a mean follow-up of 4 years and 3 months. Range of motion, axial alignment of the elbow, muscle strength, and joint stability were estimated and the Mayo Elbow Performance Index and the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument questionnaire were used. Furthermore, we took radiographic measurements (Baumann's angle, humero-capitellar angle, and lateral rotational percentage). According to Flynn criteria, the clinical outcome of all our patients was satisfactory. According to the results of the questionnaires, no patients has reported any disabling limitation of the elbow function. Radiographic study proved a greater capacity of remodeling in the sagittal plane compared with the frontal one, irrespective of severity of fracture assessed by the Gartland classification. Statistical analysis stressed the validity of postoperative Baumann's angle as a predictor of final carrying angle. With regard to the synthesis method, the best way to approach Gartland II fractures proved to be by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning; the use of a third Kirschner wire in the treatment of Gartland III fractures did not lead to a better result. To conclude, remodeling positively influenced the clinical outcome, however, irrespective of synthesis method and severity of the fracture, we should pay more attention to the adequacy of reduction in frontal plane than in the sagittal one, for which a greater capacity of remodeling was proved.
Silva, Mauricio; Cooper, Shannon D; Cha, Angela
The outcome of multidirectionally unstable (type IV) supracondylar humerus fractures (SCHF) has been rarely described. We aimed to describe several aspects related to the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of this complex injury. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic data on 130 completely displaced SCHF in children, which was collected prospectively over a 6-year period (2007 to 2013), as part of an IRB-approved study. A minimum follow-up of 6 weeks was required. We compared the outcome of type IV SCHF (n=12, group 1) with that of type III SCHF (n=118, group 2) by assessing the need for open reduction, length of operative time, recovery of range of motion (as compared with the normal, contralateral side), and rate of complications. An open reduction was required in 17% and 2% of fractures in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.04). A medial pin was added to supplement the fixation in 42% and 17% of fractures in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.05). An acceptable reduction was obtained in all fractures. Surgery was longer for fractures in group 1, by a mean of 22 minutes (P=0.0001). No patient in either group required a reoperation. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the latest range of motion of the treated side, as compared with the normal contralateral side (98% vs. 97%, respectively, P=0.4). Satisfactory outcomes were found in 92% and 98% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.6). The results of this study suggest that a satisfactory outcome can be expected when treating type IV SCHF in a child. Although these fractures are associated with increased levels of technical difficulty, given the increased need for open reduction, utilization of medial pins, and longer surgical times, adequate reductions and satisfactory mid-term to long-term outcomes can be achieved. Level II.
Zhu, Yue-Li; Hu, Wei; Yu, Xian-Bin; Wu, Yao-Sen; Sun, Liao-Jun
No randomized controlled studies have confirmed the advantages of the joystick technique over the traditional manual traction. The objective of this study was to compare the results of the joystick technique and the traditional manual traction for facilitating closed reduction of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. From February 2009 to December 2012, sixty eight children were included in this study. Group A included 34 fractures reduced by the joystick technique. Group B consisted of 34 fractures reduced by the traditional manual traction. Preoperative demographic data were comparable between the two groups. The operative time, fluoroscopy time, hospitalization time, time to bone union, complications were recorded in both groups. Radiologic and functional results were assessed using the Flynn scoring system. Closed reduction was successfully done in all the fractures of Group A while traditional closed manipulation was successfully done in 25 fractures of Group B and 9 fractures failed. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the rate of failed closed reduction (P = 0.004). The mean operative time was 30.5 ± 9.0 and 48.2 ± 16.4 min, and the mean fluoroscopy time was 25.4 ± 10.5 s and 55.0 ± 21.2 s in Group A and Group B, respectively. Both the operative time and fluoroscopy time were significantly longer in Group B (P < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). However, there was no significant difference in terms of the mean hospitalization time, mean union time, total complications, the Flynn scores between the two groups (P > 0.05). The joystick technique should be chosen to facilitate closed reduction if traditional manual traction failed to yield an acceptable reduction. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kang, S; Kam, M; Miraj, F; Park, S-S
A small proportion of children with Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF) experience troubling limited or delayed recovery after operative treatment. We hypothesised that the fracture level relative to the isthmus of the humerus would affect the outcome. We retrospectively reviewed 230 children who underwent closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) for their Gartland type III SCHFs between March 2003 and December 2012. There were 144 boys and 86 girls, with the mean age of six years (1.1 to 15.2). The clinico-radiological characteristics and surgical outcomes (recovery of the elbow range of movement, post-operative angulation, and the final Flynn grade) were recorded. Multivariate analysis was employed to identify prognostic factors that influenced outcome, including fracture level. Multivariate analysis revealed that a fracture below the humeral isthmus was significantly associated with poor prognosis in terms of the range of elbow movement (p < 0.001), angulation (p = 0.001) and Flynn grade (p = 0.003). Age over ten years was also a poor prognostic factor for recovery of the range of elbow movement (p = 0.027). This is the first study demonstrating a subclassification system of Gartland III fractures with prognostic significance. This will guide surgeons in peri-operative planning and counselling as well as directing future research aimed at improving outcomes. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Srikumaran, Uma; Tan, Eric W; Belkoff, Stephen M; Marsland, Daniel; Ain, Michael C; Leet, Arabella I; Sponseller, Paul D; Tis, John E
Various pin configurations have been recommended for the treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures on the basis of the choice between stability versus the risk of iatrogenic nerve injury. However, little attention has been paid to pin size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of large (2.8 mm or 0.110 inch) and small (1.6 mm or 0.062 inch) pin constructs in 6 configurations. A transverse fracture pattern was created by sectioning synthetic humeri in the midolecranon fossa. The specimens were then reduced and pinned in one of 6 configurations: 2 small pins (Kirschner wires) placed crossed or lateral divergent, 2 large pins (Steinmann pins) placed crossed or lateral divergent, or 3 small pins placed crossed or lateral divergent. All specimens were then tested in sagittal extension bending. We investigated the effect of pin configuration and cycle on the sagittal stiffness using multiple linear regression. The 2 small lateral divergent pin configuration was significantly less stable than small crossed pins and large pins in a crossed or a lateral configuration. The addition of a third (lateral) pin to the small crossed pin construct made it significantly less stable than 2 large crossed pins. Although the stability between the remaining configurations was not significantly different, the 2 large crossed pins required the greatest torque to rotate the fragment 20 degrees. There was a significant reduction in torque as a function of cycle, suggesting a loss of fixation during cycling (P<0.05). Large pins (2.8 mm) in any configuration and the placement of small pins (1.6 mm) in a crossed configuration provided more stable reduction in sagittal extension bending than did the conventional 2 small pins in a lateral divergent pin configuration. The most stable configurations involve crossing the medial and lateral pins. There are more stable options than the traditional 2 small lateral pin configuration for fixation of unstable supracondylar fractures
Türkmen, Faik; Toker, Serdar; Kesik, Kayhan; Korucu, İsmail Hakkı; Acar, Mehmet Ali
Supracondylar humerus fracture is the most common fracture of the elbow in children. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning is considered to be the optimal treatment strategy; however, in some instances, open reduction may be necessary. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare clinical and functional results of triceps-splitting posterior versus lateral approach in pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture surgery. A total of 38 patients underwent surgery; Group 1 consisted of 30 patients on whom posterior approach was used, while lateral approach was used on the 8 patients in Group 2. Flynn criteria were used to evaluate cosmetic and clinical results. Fracture healing was assessed with anteroposterior and lateral x-rays. Patients and parents were asked to describe time needed for complete return of full elbow range of motion (ROM) and overall satisfaction. Mean fracture union time was 44.1 days and 46.3 days, and time required to regain complete or near complete elbow ROM was 57.5 days and 55.7 days after splint removal for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. Twenty-one of 30 (70%) patients (and parents) in Group 1, and 6 of 8 (75%) patients (and parents) in Group 2 were totally satisfied with the results. Twenty-one of 30 (70%) patients in Group 1, and 6 of 8 (75%) patients in Group 2 had excellent cosmetic and functional results according to Flynn outcome criteria. In cases of pediatric supracondylar humerus fracture, early closed reduction and percutaneous pinning is preferred; however, when this method is not applicable, triceps-splitting posterior approach is a safe and comparable method to lateral approach with advantages of easier fracture reduction and shorter operating time.
Or, Omer; Weil, Yoram; Simanovsky, Naum; Panski, Avraham; Goldman, Vladimir; Lamdan, Ron
Supracondylar humerus fractures (SCHF) are the most common elbow fractures requiring surgical treatment in the pediatric age group. Most fractures are reduced and stabilised adequately. Yet, post-surgical malunion may occur. The purpose of this study is to evaluate our results of early revision surgery in 21 surgically treated pediatric SCHF with immediate postoperative loss of alignment and compare them with previous reports of late corrective osteotomies. Twenty-one pediatric SCHF patients that underwent revision surgery for malalignment within 3 weeks of the initial reduction and fixation consisted the study group. Indications for revision were unacceptable radiographic alignment diagnosed within the first 3 weeks after the index surgery. Clinical outcome included pain, range of motion (ROM) and appearance of the elbow. Radiographic outcome was defined as fracture healing and final alignment, assessed in both coronal and sagittal planes. The average time interval between index and revision surgery was 7.6 days (range 3-18). In revision surgery, closed reduction was performed in 17 out of 21 patients, and open reduction was required in four. In one patient, an external fixator was added. In the most recent follow up, all patients but three regained full ROM. The remaining three had a deficit of 10° or less. Two patients had cubitus varus of 10° or less. All patients had a marked radiographic improvement after revision, especially in the sagittal plane increasing the humero-capitaller flexion angle by an average of 20°. Malunion after reduction and Kirschner wires (KW) fixation of SCHF is an uncommonly reported phenomenon. When malunion is recognised after fracture healing, corrective osteotomies may carry a significant complications rate. We describe our favourable experience with early diagnosis and revision surgery of malaligned SCHF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKeon, Kathleen E; O'Donnell, June C; Bashyal, Ravi; Hou, Clifford C; Luhmann, Scott J; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gordon, J Eric
Circumferential casts can contribute to elevated compartment pressures in the setting of acute swelling. We have developed a novel casting method (A-frame cast) that allows cast placement while leaving the antecubital fossa free of casting material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and complications associated with acute placement of this definitive cast after closed reduction percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of acute supracondylar distal humerus fractures. A retrospective medical record reviewed 436 patients treated with CRPP of supracondylar fractures by 3 surgeons who routinely used an A-frame cast over a 12-year period. All complications or the need for cast modification were noted. Patients with open reduction, ipsilateral fractures, or patients lost to follow-up were excluded. There were 387 patients who met inclusion criteria, including 204 type 2 fractures and 183 type 3 fractures. Forty-three patients had preoperative nerve palsy and 1 had preoperative vascular injury. Of these 387 patients, 369 (95.3%) had an uneventful postoperative course. Nineteen patients (4.9%) required either cast splitting (15) or strict elevation (4) secondary to pain and swelling. Seven of these 19 patients had preoperative nerve palsy and 1 had preoperative vascular injury. The average time from procedure to cast splitting was 17.6 hours. No patients lost their reduction or required a second surgical procedure related to a complication from casting. An "A-frame" cast provides sturdy immobilization without increased risk of compartment syndrome after CRPP of supracondylar fractures in the pediatric population. Consideration should be given to splitting the cast prophylactically in patients with preoperative neurological or vascular deficits. IV-Case Series.
Ibrahim, Talal; Hegazy, Abdelsalam; Abulhail, Safa I S; Ghomrawi, Hassan M K
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) recently developed an Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures (PSHF). The AUC is intended to improve quality of care by informing surgeon decision making. The aim of our study was to cross-reference the management of operatively treated PSHF with the AAOS-published AUC. The AUC for PSHF include 220 patient scenarios, based on different combinations of 6 factors. For each patient scenario, 8 treatment options are evaluated as "appropriate," "maybe appropriate," and "rarely appropriate." We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts and radiographs of all operatively treated PSHF at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 and determined the appropriateness of the treatment. Over the study period, 94 children (mean age: 5.2 y; 51 male, 43 female) were admitted with PSHF and underwent a surgical procedure (type IIA: 7, type IIB: 14, type III: 70, flexion type: 3). Only 8 of the 220 scenarios were observed in our patient cohort. The most frequent scenario was represented by a type III fracture, palpable distal pulse, no nerve injury, closed soft-tissue envelope, no radius/ulna fracture, and typical swelling. Of the 94 fractures, the AUC was "appropriate" for 84 cases and "maybe appropriate" for 9 cases. There was only 1 case of "rarely appropriate" management. Closed reduction with lateral pinning and immobilization was the most prevalent treatment option (58.5%). The rate of appropriateness was not affected by the operating surgeon. However, the definition of a case as emergent had a significant impact on the rate of appropriateness. Application of the AUC to actual clinical data was relatively simple. The majority of operatively treated PSHF (89.4%) were managed appropriately. With the introduction of electronic medical charts, an AUC application becomes attractive and easy for orthopaedic surgeons to utilize in clinical practice. However, validity studies of the AUC in
Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Yang, Wen-E; Li, Wei-Chun; Chang, Chia-Hsieh
The purpose of this study was to report the efficacy of the Kapandji technique performed in the prone position for humeral supracondylar fractures in children. Retrospective. Level I trauma center. We retrospectively reviewed 34 children with Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures. There were 22 boys and 12 girls with a mean age of 5.2 years (range, 1-12.7 years). Closed reduction and the Kapandji technique were performed in the prone position for all patients. The mean follow-up was 17.4 months (range, 13.2-24.8 months). We assessed preoperative and postoperative radiographs to evaluate the quality of the reduction. The clinical outcome was assessed according to the criteria of Flynn. All operations were performed in a closed manner, no cases required open reduction. Loss of reduction after K-wire fixation was identified in 2 patients. There were no pin-related nerve injuries. The mean range of elbow motion was 139.6 degrees. The clinical outcome was excellent in 31 patients, good in 2 patients (97% excellent or good), and fair in 1 patient. This technique is an effective and safe option to treat type III supracondylar humerus fractures in children. In patients with severe soft tissue swelling, unstable fracture reduction, or unable to achieve acceptable reduction, this technique could facilitate fracture reduction and avoid unnecessary open reduction. The disadvantage of this technique is that the prone position is less desirable for airway management. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Iyengar, S R; Hoffinger, S A; Townsend, D R
To determine whether children with Type III displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus that were pinned in a delayed fashion, defined as more than eight hours after fracture, had a greater need for open reduction than patients with similar fractures pinned more urgently, within eight hours after the trauma. Also, to determine whether those patients treated later fared any worse than patients treated earlier. Retrospective review of consecutive patients. Level I pediatric trauma center at a tertiary children's hospital. Fifty-eight consecutive patients, twenty-three with early pinning and thirty-five with delayed pinning. A subgroup of sixteen patients was followed for detailed clinical outcome. Closed or open reduction and percutaneous pinning Need for open reduction in either group. A separate subgroup was examined for carrying angle and evidence of low-grade compartment syndrome (such as grip strength and range of motion). There was no difference in the need for open reduction in the group that was delayed and pinned more than eight hours following fracture. Follow-up examination showed no clinical difference between the two groups in any parameter measured. These results indicate that many supracondylar fractures of the humerus can be treated safely in a delayed manner with an excellent clinical result and without unduly prolonging the hospital stay (such as with traction). This allows the patient to be NPO and the surgeon to operate in daylight hours, saving time, hospital resources, and fatigue.
Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh
Pin site infection is a critical issue for patients' safety in skeletal fixation using percutaneous pins or wires. Closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wires fixation are the mainstay of treatment in pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. Little information is available in the literature about the optimal regimen of pin site care in children. We performed a prospective comparative study of 61 children with supracondylar humeral fractures between June 2011 and March 2013 after approval by the institutional review board. They were allocated into two groups of different postoperative pin site care methods by the emergency department arrival date and received fracture fixation within 24 h. Postoperatively, 30 children underwent pin site cleaning every day whereas the other 31 patients did not have the pin sites cleaned until the pins removal 4-6 weeks later. Demographic data were not significantly different between the two groups. The infection rate was significantly higher in patients who underwent daily pin site care (90.3 vs. 53.3 %, p = 0.001). Of the 144 pin sites, infection occurred at 42 (57.5 %) pin sites in the daily care group and at 19 (26.8 %) pin sites in the non-care group. The number of telephone consultations for postoperative care was significantly higher in the daily care group (1.0 vs. 0.27 call/case, p = 0.007). Daily pin site care was associated with a higher infection rate and greater stress in postoperative care that required more telephone consultations. The study results could not support daily pin site care. Careful observation of pin sites was recommended in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures.
Mangat, K S; Martin, A G; Bache, C E
We compared two management strategies for the perfused but pulseless hand after stabilisation of a Gartland type III supracondylar fracture. We identified 19 patients, of whom 11 were treated conservatively after closed reduction (group 1). Four required secondary exploration, of whom three had median and/or anterior interosseus nerve palsy at presentation. All four were found to have tethering or entrapment of both nerve and vessel at the fracture site. Only two regained patency of the brachial artery, and one patient has a persistent neurological deficit. In six of the eight patients who were explored early (group 2) the vessel was tethered at the fracture site. In group 2 four patients also had a nerve palsy at presentation and were similarly found to have tethering or entrapment of both the nerve and the vessel. The patency of the brachial artery was restored in all six cases and their neurological deficits recovered completely. We would recommend early exploration of a Gartland type III supracondylar fracture in patients who present with a coexisting anterior interosseous or median nerve palsy, as these appear to be strongly predictive of nerve and vessel entrapment.
Closed, anatomical reduction and reliable fixation of type III and IV supracondylar fractures that are either difficult or impossible to treat with conventional methods. According the Pediatric Comprehensive AO Classification for long bones this technique is preferred for type III and IV supracondylar fractures that cannot be reduced using closed standard manipulative techniques, where stable fixation using standard percutaneous wire configurations cannot be achieved, when severe swelling, open fracture, primary neurological or vascular problems ("pulseless pink hand") or multiple injuries indicate that optimal management of the injured limb should be free from cast. In patients with comorbidities (e.g., seizures or spasticity) requiring more stable fixation. In principle there are no contraindications. Prior to reduction of the fracture, fluoroscopically controlled insertion of a single Schanz screw into the lateral (radial) aspect of the distal fragment, which is defined by bulls eyeing the capitellum in the perfect lateral radiographic projection of the epiphysis, parallel to the physis. For very distal fractures this screw may be intra-epiphyseal, although usual placement is in the metaphysis just distal to the fracture line. After obtaining perfect lateral radiographic projection of the distal humeral metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction, a second Schanz screw is inserted independently into the proximal fracture fragment at the proximal end of the lateral supracondylar ridge in the sagittal plane perpendicular to the long axis of the humeral diaphysis. By bringing the screws parallel to each other in the coronal and transverse planes direct manipulations of the fragments and anatomical reduction using the so-called joystick technique is achieved. Fracture reduction can then be adjusted anatomically under fluoroscopic control and through clinical assessment. Once reduction is achieved the fragments have to be secured with a so-called "anti-rotation" K-wire. This
Carter, Craig T; Bertrand, Styles L; Cearley, David M
Supracondylar humerus fractures are common injuries in the pediatric population. The most severe, type III injuries, have seen the most debate on treatment regimens. Traditionally, these fractures were treated as surgical emergencies, most often fixed with percutaneous pinning in a cross-pin configuration. The recent literature shows that delayed fixation is comparable to emergent fixation as long as there is no vascular compromise with the injury. A short survey was sent to Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) members using an online survey and questionnaire service. The purpose of the survey was to establish an overview of current practices in the United States concerning treatment of type III supracondylar humerus fractures and the influence of the recent literature on the management of these injuries. A total of 309 members, representing a wide range of locations and years in practice, responded to our survey. About 81% preferred to splint type III supracondylar humerus fractures and plan for fixation the following morning, assuming there was no issue necessitating emergent fixation. The preferred method of percutaneous fixation was fairly evenly distributed between cross-pin configuration (30%), 2 lateral pins (33%), and 3 lateral pins (37%). About 56% of those surveyed stated that the recent literature showing comparable outcomes with 2 lateral pins versus a cross-pin configuration had not changed their approaches to management of these fractures concerning the method of fixation. The trend in management of type III supracondylar humerus fractures in children is progressing toward delayed treatment and lateral pin configuration. The results provide an overview of the current practice of POSNA members concerning management of these fractures. We believe this information is beneficial to both pediatric-trained and nonpediatric-trained orthopaedic surgeons to help guide their decisions when dealing with these injuries. This study is a Level V
Kzlay, Yusuf Onur; Aktekin, Cem Nuri; Özsoy, Mehmet Hakan; Akşahin, Ertuğrul; Sakaoğullar, Abdurrahman; Pepe, Murad; Kocadal, Onur
For displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children, in the event of closed reduction failure, anatomic reduction is achieved via open reduction techniques; however, there are no confirmative reports among the published open reduction approaches that deliver the best functional and cosmetic results. Here, we compared long-term functional and cosmetic results of different surgical approaches. Retrospective cohort study. Ankara Education and Research Hospital/Turkey. Secondary care hospital and trauma center. We evaluated 70 surgically treated Gartland type 3 supracondylar humeral fractures. Patients, with detailed history record, were divided into 5 groups with respect to surgery methods. All patients were treated surgically using closed reduction and percutaneous pinning or 4 different open reduction approaches and percutaneous pinning. Flynn cosmetic and functional score results were compared between surgical groups. Posterior open reduction and triceps transection groups showed worst results, whereas medial and lateral open reduction groups showed good to excellent results similar to closed reduction group. Medial and lateral approaches demonstrated better functional results than posterior and triceps transection approaches. Posterior approaches lead to restrictions in extension and poor functional results. In the posterior approach, transecting triceps from olecranon does not benefit from fracture reduction but results in loss of triceps strength and should be avoided. In failed closed reduction, medial and lateral open reduction approaches lead to similar cosmetic outcomes and functional results that are only slightly worse compared with those in closed reduction. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Kao, Hsuan-Kai; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh
Pin site infection is a common complication after fracture fixation and bone lengthening, and daily pin site care is recommended. Weather is a strong environmental factor of infection, but few articles studied the issue of weather and pin site infection. We performed a prospective comparative study of 61 children with supracondylar humeral fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The patients were divided into high-temperature season or low-temperature season by the months they received surgery. The patients within each season were further allocated to 2 groups by the different postoperative pin site care methods of daily care or noncare. The infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the high-temperature season compared to low-temperature season (45% versus 19%, P = 0.045). In the high-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the daily care group versus the noncare group (70% versus 20%, P = 0.001). In the low-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was not significantly different in the daily care group versus the noncare group (10% versus 27.3%, P = 0.33). We recommend that careful monitoring of infection signs, rather than pin site cleaning, would be appropriate in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures, especially during the summer months.
Rizk, Ahmed Shawkat
Supracondylar humeral fractures are one of the most common skeletal injuries in children. In cases of displacement and instability, the standard procedure is early closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. However, between 10 and 20 % of patients present late. According to the literature, patients with neglected fractures are those patients who presented for treatment after 14 days of injury. The delay is either due to lack of medical facilities or social and financial constraints. The neglected cases are often closed injuries with no vascular compromise. However, the elbow may still be tense and swollen with abrasions or crusts. In neglected cases, especially after early appearance of callus, there is no place for closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Traditionally, distal humeral fractures have been managed with surgical approaches that disrupt the extensor mechanism with less satisfactory functional outcome due to triceps weakness and elbow stiffness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of delayed open reduction using the triceps-sparing approach and Kirschner wire fixation for treatment of neglected, displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children. This prospective study included 15 children who had neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures. All patients were completely evaluated clinically and radiologically before intervention, after surgery and during the follow-up. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 49 months, with a mean period of 17 months. Functional outcome was evaluated according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and Mark functional criteria. All fractures united in a mean duration of 7.2 weeks (range 5-10 weeks) with no secondary displacement or mal-union. Excellent results were found at the last follow-up in 13 of the 15 patients studied (86.66 %), while good results were found in two patients (13.33 %) according to the MEPI scale. According to the Mark
Camus, Tristan; MacLellan, Brent; Cook, Peter Christopher; Leahey, John Lorne; Hyndman, John C; El-Hawary, Ron
The treatment of Gartland type II pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures remains controversial. Some argue that closed reduction and cast immobilization is sufficient to treat these fractures, whereas others advocate closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The purpose of this radiographic outcomes study was to determine whether closed reduction and cast immobilization could successfully obtain and maintain acceptable reduction of extension type II supracondylar humerus fractures. Prereduction, immediate postreduction, and final radiographs of 155 extension type II fractures that were treated nonoperatively were measured according to the parameters determined earlier to assess the position and alignment of the fracture fragments. These included the anterior humeral line, humerocapitellar angle, Baumann's angle, the Gordon index, and the Griffet index. The average age of the 155 patients at the time of injury was 5.3 years (range: 1 to 13 y). Analysis of the final radiographs, at the final follow-up of 5.3 months, showed that in 80% of patients, the anterior humeral line remained anterior to the mid-third segment of the capitellum (radiographic extension deformity), the mean humerocapitellar angle was 23.77 degrees (range: -11 to 50 degrees), the mean Baumann's angle was 79.40 degrees (range: 62 to 97 degrees), the mean Gordon index was 4.59%, and 44% of patients had a Griffet index between 1 and 3. From this radiographic review, it was observed that not all fractures treated with closed reduction and cast immobilization achieved anatomic position and alignment at final follow-up; however, the long-term clinical and radiographic significance of these findings remains unknown.
Theruvil, Bipin; Kapoor, Vikas; Fairhurst, Jo; Taylor, Graeme R
We report a case of progressive cubitus varus deformity caused by a physeal bar following a supracondylar humeral fracture in a 4-year-old girl. Malreduction is thought to be the commonest cause of this deformity, which is nonprogressive. A corrective osteotomy in cases like ours should be deferred until skeletal maturity.
El-Adl, Wael A.; El-Said, Mohammed A.; Ali, Al-Sayed M.
Seventy children with displaced type II and III supracondylar fractures of the humerus were managed with percutaneous lateral cross-wiring technique from January 2006 to January 2007. There were 54 boys and 16 girls with a mean age of 6.1 ± 3.07 years. All patients were operated within 24 h after trauma using the Dorgans percutaneous lateral cross-wiring technique. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 6.1 ± 2.6 months and assessed both radiologically for union; and functionally and cosmetically according to Flynn’s criteria. All patients achieved solid union. Functionally, all patients achieved satisfactory results, while cosmetically, 91.4% of patients had satisfactory results and 8.6% had unsatisfactory results. The most frequently occurring complications were minor pin tract infection in six patients, deep infection in two patients, and 32 patients suffered excessive granulation tissue formation mostly around the proximal pin. There was no iatrogenic neurological injury either for the ulnar or for the radial nerves. The obtained results and minor complications reported signify this technique as a viable treatment method for displaced type II and III supracondylar fractures in children. PMID:18427917
Kennedy, J G; El Abed, K; Soffe, K; Kearns, S; Mulcahy, D; Condon, F; Moore, D; Dowling, F; Fogarty, E
Long term results of children with supracondylar humeral fractures treated with manipulation and strapping and manipulation followed by pin fixation were evaluated. Forty patients were regarded as Gartland type II injuries. 33 of these were treated with closed reduction and collar and cuff immobilisation and 7 with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Two cases of cubitus varus were reported one from each treatment modality. Forty-four patients were included as Gartland type III injuries. Of these 14 were treated with closed reduction and collar and cuff immobilisation, 25 with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning and five with open reduction and pinning. There were two cases of cubitus varus and one case of cubitus valgus following pin fixation. In addition one case of extension lag and one significant ulnar nerve neurapraxia was recorded following pin fixation. One case of cubitus varus was seen following manipulation and collar and cuff treatment. There was no statistical difference between either treatment modality in terms of predicting a better outcome (p0.05). We conclude that pin fixation has no advantages over simple immobilisation in certain Gartland II and III type injuries. Although pin fixation is beneficial in unstable injuries collar and cuff immobilisation continues to have an important role in the treatment of stable supracondylar fractures.
Ersan, Onder; Gonen, Emel; İlhan, Recep Dogan; Boysan, Ersan; Ates, Yalim
Eighty-four patients who underwent open reduction and Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation for supracondylar humerus fractures through anterior or lateral approach with or without additional medial incisions were compared with regard to complications and end results. A total of 46 patients were operated through the anterior and 38 through the lateral approach. In lateral approach cases, medial incision was added only in those patients in whom the medial condyle and therefore the ulnar nerve were not easily distinguished due to excessive oedema. All the fractures were Gartland type III extension fractures. The patient series was consecutive, and lateral approach had a longer follow-up of 89 months (70-134 months); the incision protocol was changed approximately mid-series to the anterior approach, and therefore a shorter follow-up time of only 50 months (24-84 months) was possible. All patients were treated according to the same postoperative protocol. A follow-up examination was performed and all the patients were evaluated according to Flynn's criteria; loss of flexion or extension clinically, any deviation of the carrying angle radiologically, and the appearance of the incision scar were evaluated. According to the above parameters, results were excellent in 19, good in 18, and fair in one in the lateral incision group, whereas in the anterior incision group, excellent results were obtained in 31 patients and good results in 15 of them. Cosmetically, two patients in the lateral incision group had hypertrophic scar tissue, whereas the anterior incisions were barely noticeable as they were included into the flexion crease. In conclusion, we can say that anterior incision when open reduction is needed in pediatric supracondylar fractures offer the advantage of a smaller scar and easy access to structures that might be injured between the fractured fragments.
Burnei, G; Gavriliu, Ş; Nepaliuc, I; Vlad, C; Drăgoescu, M; Georgescu, I; Ghita, R A; Muntean, L; Pârvan, A A; Dughilă, C; Ţiripa, I; Hamei, Ş; Klinaku, I
Supracondylar fractures of the humerus represent a current concern in the child's and adolescent's osteo-articular pathology. Even though orthopedic reductions are made correctly, fractures can become displaced when managed only by cast immobilization and complications may arise. The most frequent complications encountered in "Prof. Dr. Alexandru Pesamosca" Clinique, Bucharest, Romania, due to supracondylar humeral fractures, are valgus or varus deviations with angles that can sometimes exceed 40 degrees as a result of malunion. Varus or valgus deformations were rarely encountered after surgical treatment. The goal of this study is to present an alternative surgical technique to correct varus and valgus deformations as well as malrotation. The study is a retrospective analysis of a 96 children study group surgically managed during 1985 and 2013. In the first period, various surgical techniques have been performed: cuneiform resections, step-cut osteotomies, open wedge osteotomies with external fixation, epiphysiodesis, hemichondrodiatasis and Pesamosca metaphyseal diaphyseal osteoplasty. Starting with 2005, all the cases that presented such complications--28 out of 96 (29.1%)--were managed with the Pesamosca procedure. Due to the malunion of supracondylar humeral fractures only varus or valgus deformities were admitted in the study. The malunion due to the pathologic fractures encountered in osteogenesis imperfecta or fibrous dysplasia was precluded. The experience accumulated with the other surgical techniques used in 68 out of 96 patients (70.9%) determined us to exclusively use the Pesamosca osteoplasty following the year 2005, seeing the simplicity and the efficiency of this procedure. The outcome was very good. In 5 cases out of the 28 (17%) an apparent residual elbow was encountered and one case of relapse (3%) was noted due to inadequate term of cast immobilization. The elbow's mobility was completely recovered, the thoracic member's axis was appropriate and
Burnei, G; Gavriliu, Ş; Nepaliuc, I; Vlad, C; Drăgoescu, M; Georgescu, I; Ghita, RA; Muntean, L; Pârvan, AA; Dughilă, C; Ţiripa, I; Hamei, Ş; Klinaku, I
Introduction. Supracondylar fractures of the humerus represent a current concern in the child’s and adolescent’s osteo-articular pathology. Even though orthopedic reductions are made correctly, fractures can become displaced when managed only by cast immobilization and complications may arise. The most frequent complications encountered in “Prof. Dr. Alexandru Pesamosca” Clinique, Bucharest, Romania, due to supracondylar humeral fractures, are valgus or varus deviations with angles that can sometimes exceed 40 degrees as a result of malunion. Varus or valgus deformations were rarely encountered after surgical treatment. The goal of this study is to present an alternative surgical technique to correct varus and valgus deformations as well as malrotation. Material and method. The study is a retrospective analysis of a 96 children study group surgically managed during 1985 and 2013. In the first period, various surgical techniques have been performed: cuneiform resections, step-cut osteotomies, open wedge osteotomies with external fixation, epiphysiodesis, hemichondrodiatasis and Pesamosca metaphyseal diaphyseal osteoplasty. Starting with 2005, all the cases that presented such complications – 28 out of 96 (29.1%) – were managed with the Pesamosca procedure. Due to the malunion of supracondylar humeral fractures only varus or valgus deformities were admitted in the study. The malunion due to the pathologic fractures encountered in osteogenesis imperfecta or fibrous dysplasia was precluded. The experience accumulated with the other surgical techniques used in 68 out of 96 patients (70.9%) determined us to exclusively use the Pesamosca osteoplasty following the year 2005, seeing the simplicity and the efficiency of this procedure. Results. The outcome was very good. In 5 cases out of the 28 (17%) an apparent residual elbow was encountered and one case of relapse (3%) was noted due to inadequate term of cast immobilization. The elbow’s mobility was
Lee, Kyoung Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Gwon, Dae Kyu; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Kim, Tae Won; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Park, Moon Seok
The choice of pinning techniques in supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children has been a debate regarding its fixation stability and risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve palsy. This study was performed to determine as to which fixating method (medial and lateral crossed pinning vs. lateral pinning) is better for the displaced supracondylar fractures using a decision analysis tool in terms of function. A decision analysis model was designed containing the probability of iatrogenic ulnar nerve palsy and malunion caused by unstable fixation for each of lateral pinning and medial and lateral crossed pinning techniques. The final outcome was function adjusted life year and used as a utility in the decision tree, where function was evaluated using the McBride disability evaluation. The probabilities of all cases were obtained by literature review and assumptions. A roll back tool was used to determine the better pinning technique, and sensitivity analysis was performed to compensate for the uncertainty of the model. Overall, our decision model favored the lateral pinning technique over the medial and lateral crossed pinning with the utilities of 99.6 and 99.3 in terms of function adjusted life year. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the threshold rate of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury as a complication after medial and lateral crossed pinning was 0.7%, below which the model favored medial and lateral crossed pinning over lateral pinning. The decision model was found to be sensitive to the percentage of permanent ulnar nerve palsy after medial and lateral crossed pinning. Two-way sensitivity analysis showed that the lateral pinning technique was more beneficial than the medial and lateral crossed pinning technique. In our decision analysis model, the lateral pinning technique was found to be more beneficial than the medial and lateral crossed pinning technique for supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children, on the basis of current evidences. However, the
Hsu, Raymond Y; Lareau, Craig R; Kim, Jeom Soon; Koruprolu, Sarath; Born, Christopher T; Schiller, Jonathan R
Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of a pediatric supracondylar fracture of the humerus requires operating directly next to the C-arm to hold reduction and perform fixation under direct imaging. This study was designed to compare radiation exposure from two C-arm configurations: with the image intensifier serving as the operating surface, and with a radiolucent hand table serving as the operating surface and the image intensifier positioned above the table. We used a cadaveric specimen in this study to determine radiation exposure to the operative elbow and to the surgeon at the waist and neck levels during simulated closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of a pediatric supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Radiation exposure measurements were made (1) with the C-arm image intensifier serving as the operating surface, with the emitter positioned above the operative elbow; and (2) with the image intensifier positioned above a hand table, with the emitter below the table. When the image intensifier was used as the operating surface, we noted 16% less scatter radiation at the waist level of the surgeon but 53% more neck-level scatter radiation compared with when the hand table was used as the operating surface and the image intensifier was positioned above the table. In terms of direct radiation exposure to the operative elbow, use of the image intensifier as the operating surface resulted in 21% more radiation exposure than from use of the other configuration. The direct radiation exposure was also more than two orders of magnitude greater than the neck and waist-level scatter radiation exposure. Traditionally, there has been concern over increased radiation exposure when the C-arm image intensifier is used as an operating surface, with the emitter above, compared with when the image intensifier is positioned above the operating surface, with the emitter below. We determined that, although there was a statistically significant difference in radiation
Zhao, Jia-Guo; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Peng
Closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation is considered standard management for displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. However, controversy exists regarding whether to use an isolated lateral entry or a crossed medial and lateral pinning technique. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare (1) the risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury caused by pin fixation, (2) the quality of fracture reduction in terms of the radiographic outcomes, and (3) function in terms of criteria of Flynn et al. and elbow ROM, and other surgical complications caused by pin fixation. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and other unpublished studies without language restriction. Seven RCTs involving 521 patients were included. Two authors independently assessed the methodologic quality of the included studies with use of the Detsky score. The median Detsky quality score of the included trials was 15.7 points. Dichotomous variables were presented as risk ratios (RRs) or risk difference with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and continuous data were measured as mean differences with 95% CI. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was formally tested with standard chi-square test and I(2) statistic. For the primary objective, a funnel plot of the primary end point and Egger's test were performed to detect publication bias. The pooled RR suggested that iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury was higher with the crossed pinning technique than with the lateral entry technique (RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10-0.89). No publication bias was further detected. There were no statistical differences in radiographic outcomes, function, and other surgical complications. No significant heterogeneity was found in these pooled results. We conclude that the crossed pinning fixation is more at risk for iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury than the lateral pinning technique. Therefore, we recommend the lateral pinning technique for supracondylar fractures of
Guven, Mehmet F; Kaynak, Gokhan; Inan, Muharrem; Caliskan, Gurkan; Unlu, Hiclal B; Kesmezacar, Hayrettin
The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and cosmetic results as well as the sagittal and coronal plane remodeling of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation. In total, 49 patients (11 boys and 38 girls) with Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures treated with open reduction and cross-pin fixation were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 years (range, 10.6-37.5 years). The Flynn criteria were used to assess the cosmetic and functional outcomes. Baumann's angle, the lateral rotational percentage, the humerus-elbow-wrist angle, and the humeral condylar angle were obtained from follow-up radiographs. The flexion and extension deficits compared with the uninjured side were measured at the last follow-up. According to the Flynn criteria, the cosmetic outcomes were satisfactory in 93.9% of the patients, and the functional outcomes were satisfactory in 83.7% of the patients. The average flexion deficit was 5° ± 8°, and the average extension deficit was 4° ± 5°. At the final follow-up, the mean difference in the humerus-elbow-wrist angle and the humeral condylar angle between the injured and uninjured sides was -4° ± 7° and 0° ± 3°. We identified the remodeling in the sagittal plane in supracondylar humerus fractures that had been united in flexion. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic results were obtained with the open reduction and internal fixation of displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus, and no degenerative changes were observed at the long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gaudeuille, A; Douzima, P M; Sanze, B M; Ndemanga, J K; Mandaba, J L
Like many developing countries, the Central African Republic lacks the technology and skills to perform certain medical procedures. One example of this situation can be found in the Pediatric Surgery Department of Bangui with regard to first intention management of supracondylar fractures of the humerus (SCF). Due to a lack of proper technological facilities (e.g. absence of brightness enhancement) and to insufficient staff training, management of SCF must be limited to orthopedic reduction followed cast application and brachio-anti-brachio-palmar traction such problems. This retrospective study describes management of 119 cases of SCF involving children between the ages of 0 and 15 years. Special emphasis was placed on factors impairing outcome, namely, inadequate staff training, availability of brightness enhancement, and poor awareness on the part of the parents concerning the seriousness of SCF. The quality of reduction was compared according to whether reduction was done with or without brightness enhancement (reduction without brightness enhancement was imperfect in most cases: 78/119) and according to fracture grade (high number of imperfect reductions in grade 3 and 4:69%). Assessment of outcome at one month showed a high incidence of poor results due to severe fracture or imperfect reduction. A prospective study including 35 cases with a follow-up of three years showed poor results for the same reasons. Comparison of these results with those reported by previous authors showed a large gap which must be filled by upgrading technical facilities and training staff.
Wang, Sung Il; Kwon, Tae Young; Hwang, Hong Pil; Kim, Jung Ryul
This was a retrospective observational study. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional outcomes in children treated for Gartland III supracondylar humerus (SCH) fracture with neurovascular (NV) injuries using validated outcome measures. A secondary goal was to determine whether clinical parameters such as age at injury, sex, weight, fracture site, and/or direction of displacement could predict NV injury at the time of fracture or long-term functional outcomes in these patients.One hundred fifty-four patients of Gartland III SCH fractures between March 2004 and May 2013 were studied retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of NV injury. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to assess several parameters, including age, sex, weight, treatment intervention, the extremity involved, direction of fracture displacement, and NV injury. Functional outcome was assessed on final follow-up using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) outcome measures. Statistical analysis was used to determine the relationship between NV injury and functional outcomes.There were 33 cases with Gartland III SCH fracture associated with NV injuries (10 cases of vascular compromise, 14 cases of neural injury, and 9 cases involving both vascular compromise and neural injury). There were significant differences between the 2 groups in age (P = .048), weight (P = .009), and direction of displacement (P = .004). Vascular compromise and median nerve injury were most common in fractures with posterolateral displacement, and radial nerve injuries were common in fractures with posteromedial displacement. The mean global function score in the PODCI was 91.4 points, and the mean Quick DASH score was 11.7 points, with excellent functional outcomes. No differences in outcomes were identified based upon age, fracture site, sex, weight, direction of
John, Rakesh; Sharma, Siddhartha; Raj, Gopinathan Nirmal; Singh, Jujhar; C., Varsha; RHH, Arjun; Khurana, Ankit
Pediatric femoral shaft fractures account for less than 2% of all fractures in children. However, these are the most common pediatric fractures necessitating hospitalization and are associated with prolonged hospital stay, prolonged immobilization and impose a significant burden on the healthcare system as well as caregivers. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive review of epidemiology, aetiology, classification and managemement options of pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:28603567
Lu, Min; Chen, Yi; Chen, Wei
To retrospectively compare the occurrence of cubitus varus deformity after humeral supracondylar fractures treated with manipulative reduction and plaster fixation in pronated or supinated position in children, and to guide clinical treatment. From June 2009 to December 2011, the medical data of 64 children with humeral supracondylar fractures treated by manipulative reduction and plaster fixation were reviewed. All the patients were divided into two groups: group A and group B. The 30 patients in group A were treated with manipulative reduction and plaster fixation in pronation, including 18 males and 12 females, with a mean age of (7.5 ± 3.5) years old. The 34 patients in group B were treated with manipulative reduction and plaster fixation in supination, including 23 males and 11 females, with a mean age of (7.0 ± 2.6) years old. The occurrence rates of cubitus varus and decreases of carrying angle were compared between two groups before and after treatment. There were 13 patients in group A and 16 patients in group B having cubitus varus,which had no statistical difference (χ2 = 0.089, P = 0.765). The decrease of carrying angle were (8 ± 4) degrees in group A and (9 ± 5) degrees in group B, which had no statistical difference (t = 0.584, P = 0.564). Within group A, the occurrence rate of cubitus varus and the decrease of carrying angle between the radial deviation and the ulnar deviation had statistically significant difference (χ2 = 6.160, P = 0.013; t = - 2.409, P = 0.035). Within group B, the occurrence rate of cubitus varus and the decrease of carrying angle between the radial deviation and the ulnar deviation had statistically significant difference (χ2 = 5.120, P = 0.024; t = -2.250, P = 0.041). The elbow function Flynn evaluation score had no significant difference between two groups (P = -0.822). The occurrence rate of cybutys varys and the decrease of carrying angle have no obvious difference in children with humeral supracondylar fractures
Herzog, Mary A; Oliver, Shelley M; Ringler, James R; Jones, Clifford B; Sietsema, Debra L
Anatomic reduction of some displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures is not attainable via closed manipulation, thus necessitating open reduction. Open reduction has been associated with increased complications, including elbow stiffness, scarring, iatrogenic neurovascular injury, and longer hospital stays. Using a Schanz pin to aid in closed reduction may decrease the need for conversion to an open procedure, possibly reducing morbidity. A percutaneously placed 2.5-mm Schanz pin was drilled into the posterior humeral diaphysis and used as a joystick to reduce anterior and posterior, varus and valgus, and rotational deformity. The fracture then was stabilized with 0.62-mm K-wires placed under fluoroscopy and the Schanz pin then was removed. We retrospectively reviewed all displaced pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures treated by one surgeon from March 2002 through December 2010, with 143 fractures meeting criteria for inclusion. These fractures then were divided into two groups. Group 1 (90 fractures) included fractures treated before implantation of the Schanz pin. In this group, if successful reduction could not be achieved via closed manipulations, a formal open reduction was performed. In Group 2, (53 fractures) the Schanz pin technique was used to assist with reduction of fractures that were not reduced successfully by closed manipulations. All fractures were stabilized with the 0.62-mm K-wires after the reductions. To equalize group size, the 37 most remote fractures in Group 1 were removed, leaving a final 53 fractures in each group for analysis. Demographics, injury data, operative technique, complications, and radiographic reduction were analyzed. The minimum followup for both groups was 3.3 weeks (average, 13 weeks; range, 3.3-130 weeks). Fewer fractures in Group 2 (one of 53, 1.9%) compared with Group 1 (seven of 53, 13%) underwent open reduction. Ten fractures in Group 2 underwent the Schanz pin technique, and none of these had open
Chukwunyerenwa, Chukwudi; Orlik, Benjamin; El-Hawary, Ron; Logan, Karl; Howard, Jason J
Flexion-type supracondylar fractures are challenging to treat because, unlike extension-type fractures, it is difficult to take advantage of the intact periosteal hinge to stabilize the fracture fragments during percutaneous pinning. Some authors have described closed reduction of these fractures with the elbow in extension, followed by percutaneous K-wire fixation. However, percutaneous pinning with elbow in extension is technically difficult, time consuming, and usually requires the help of a skilled assistant because of persistent fracture instability. To circumvent these difficulties, we utilized a 'push-pull' maneuver, which simplifies the closed reduction and fixation of these difficult fractures. We describe the surgical technique for the 'push-pull' method and report radiographic outcomes of a case series of children with flexion-type supracondylar fractures treated using this technique. A retrospective review of medical records and radiographs of all children who underwent operative treatment of a flexion-type supracondylar humeral fracture using the 'push-pull' method in a tertiary-level children's hospital between January 2009 and January 2014 was carried out. Radiographic outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. There were a total of nine patients (five females, four males), average age 9.8 years (4-14 years). Seventy-eight percent (7/9 patients) of the children had type III injuries, whereas 22% (two children) had type II injuries. The average duration of surgery was 41 min (24-60 min). No intraoperative or postoperative complications were recorded. Postoperative radiographic measures showed that the anterior humeral line passed through the middle third of capitellum in 78% of patients (7/9 patients), whereas it passed posterior to it in 22% (two patients). The average humerocapitellar angle was 30° (21-44°) and the anterior coronoid line was unbroken in 44% (4/9 patients). The average humeroulnar angle was 13° (8-20°) of valgus
Kang, Yu-Xiang; Wei, Xiao-Chun; Li, Hai-Ming
To compare the therapeutic effects between close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction and operation for the treatment of pediatric closed Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures without neurovascular injury complications. From June 2009 to June 2012, 151 children with closed Gartland III supracondylar humerus fractures were retrospectively studied and divided into two groups, including 87 boys and 64 girls, ranging in age from 1 to 12 years old with an average of 5.3 years old. Among them, 76 children (conservative group) were treated with close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction; 75 children (operation group) underwent surgical operation. The time of elbow joint function exercise, the healing time of fracture, the function recovery of elbow joint and carrying angle was recorded and analyzed. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by the Flynn criteria system. All patients were followed up from 6 to 36 months (18.3 months on average). The average time of fracture healing and elbow joint functional exercise of the conservative group was shorter than those of operation group (P < 0.001). Motion range of the elbows and carrying angle of two groups were no statistical difference (P > 0.05). According to Flynn criteria system, in conservative group, the result was excellent in 31 cases, good in 35, fair in 7, and poor in 3; in operation group, 27 in excellent, 30 in good, 17 in fair and 1 in poor; there was no significant difference between two groups in therapeutic effects (P > 0.05). Close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction in treatment of pediatric closed Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures without neurovascular injury complications,which has similar effect to surgical treatment, and the time of fracture healing and elbow joint function exercise are significantly shorter.
Joiner, Elizabeth R A; Skaggs, David L; Arkader, Alexandre; Andras, Lindsay M; Lightdale-Miric, Nina R; Pace, J Lee; Ryan, Deirdre D
Recent studies report the rate of iatrogenic nerve injury in operatively treated supracondylar humerus (SCH) fractures is 3% to 4%. A reliable neurological examination can be difficult to obtain in a young child in pain. We hypothesized that nerve injuries may be missed preoperatively, later noted postoperatively in a more compliant patient, and then falsely considered an iatrogenic injury. A prospective study was conducted on patients who presented between April 2011 and April 2013 with an extension-type SCH fracture that was managed surgically. A neurological examination was performed preoperatively, postoperatively, and at follow-up visits by a fellowship-trained attending pediatric orthopaedic surgeon. Only patients in whom the attending surgeon felt a reliable neurovascular examination was obtained were included in this study. Of the 100 patients, 16% had a nerve injury recognized on preoperative examination and 3% had a new nerve injury on postoperative examination (1 anterior interosseous, 1 median sensory, and 1 radial motor). The Gartland type (P=0.421), type of reduction (open vs. closed; P=0.720), and number of lateral-entry (P=0.898) or medial-entry (P=0.938) pins used were not associated with patients who had a new nerve injury found postoperatively. A trend was seen between fracture severity and rate of a preoperative nerve injury: type II 7% (2/28), type III 19% (9/58), and type IV 36% (5/14) (P=0.058). Preoperatively, nerve injuries were noted at the following rates: median 12% (12/100) (including 8 anterior interosseous nerve injuries), radial 8% (8/100), ulnar 3% (3/100). In this prospective study, in patients who were able to comply with a preoperative neurological examination done by an attending pediatric orthopaedic surgeon, the rate of iatrogenic nerve injury after operative treatment of SCH fractures is 3%. We conclude that this finding is true, and not a result of inadequate preoperative neurological examinations. Level I prognostic study.
Aldrian, Silke; Schuster, Rupert; Haas, Nicole; Erhart, Jochen; Strickner, Markus; Blutsch, Beate; Wernhart, Simon; Leitgeb, Johannes; Platzer, Patrick
Literature does not provide any reliable comparison between angular stable plate fixation and rigid nail fixation for stabilization of supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fractures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare these two implants in clinical practice relating to fracture healing, functional results and treatment-related complications. In this retrospective study (level IV), clinical and radiographic records of 86 patients (62 female and 24 male, average age: 75.6) with supracondylar periprosthetic femoral fractures between 1996 and 2010 were analyzed. 48 patients underwent lateral plate fixation by an angular stable plate system (LISS), whereas 38 patients were stabilized by a rigid interlocking nail device. Sixty-four (76 %) patients returned to their pre-injury activity level and were satisfied with their clinical outcome. We had an overall Oxford outcome score of 2.21, with patients following angular stable plate fixation of 2.22, and patients after rigid nail fixation of 2.20. Successful fracture healing within 6 months was achieved in 74 (88 %) patients. Comparing between plate fixation and nail fixation, statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences. Overall, we had a relatively high rate of fracture healing and a satisfactory functional outcome with both implants. Both methods of fixation showed similar results relating to the functional outcome and individual satisfaction of the patients. However, with regards to fracture healing and treatment-related complications, intramedullary nail fixation showed slight advantages.
Fan, Jiang-rong; Xu, Yi-wen; Zheng, Yong; You, Jing-yang
To analyze the clinical effect and related risk factors of Gartland type II-III supracondylar fractures of humerus in children in the emergency closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. From January 2008 to June 2013,112 children of Gartland type II to III supracondylar humeral fractures were treated in children in emergency closed reduction and percutaneous K-wire fixation, including 72 males and 40 females with an average age of 6.2 years old ranging from 2 to 11 years old. Among them,74 cases were in Gartland type II fractures,38 cases were in type III; The duration from injury to surgery time was 2.5 to 8 hours (averaged 4.6 hours). Elbow cast was applied after operation with the elbow extended of 100 degrees for 4 to 6 weeks, then the gypsum and Kirschner wires were removed. All patients were follow-up from 6 to 60 months (averaged 12 months). All fractures reached clinical healing. The final follow-up was assessed by Flynn criteria, the result was excellent in 86 cases, good in 23 cases, general in 3 cases, excellent and good rate was 97.3%. Three patients had mild cubitus varus deformity without orthopedic treatment. No pin tract infections, iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury, compartment syndrome, and complications such as Volkmann ischemic contracture occurred. Closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation had advantages of exact reduction, firm fixation, fewer complications ,less pain in children undergoing emergency surgery, and.high success rate, so it is a safe and efficient treatment for humeral supracondylar fracture in children.
Percope Andrade, Marco Antônio; Rodrigues, André Soares; Mendonça, Celso Junio; Santos Portela, Luiz Gustavo
Objective: To determine, by means of comparative biomechanical tests, whether greater compressive load resistance and flexion is presented by 95° angled blade plates or by dynamic condylar screws (DCS), and to correlate the failure type presented during the tests with each type of plate. Methods: Sixty-five porcine femurs were subjected to 1 cm medial wedge osteotomy, in the metaphysis, to simulate an unstable supracondylar femoral fracture. Osteosynthesis was performed on these pieces: 35 were fixed using 95° lateral blade plates and 30 with DCS plates. Another variable studied was the failure type presented in each group, in an attempt to correlate this with the type of plate. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in biomechanical resistance between the two types of plates, or between the failure type and the plate type used for the osteosynthesis. Conclusion: The two types of plate behaved in a similar fashion. However, the angled blade plate proved to be superior to the DCS in the flexion test. No statistical difference in failure type or type of plate used was observed. PMID:27022525
Venkatadass, K; Balachandar, G; Rajasekaran, S
Closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation is the standard of care for displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus in children. Although it is routinely performed in supine position, some authors recommend prone position to be advantageous as it aids in gravity reduction and avoids elbow hyperflexion. This study was conducted to compare the ease of manipulation and pinning, clinical, and radiologic outcomes in supine versus prone position. Fifty-two children with acute, grade III supracondylar humerus fractures without vascular injury were included in the study. They were grouped into prone (n=26) and supine (n=26) based on computer-generated block randomization. The duration of procedure, number of radiation exposures, attempts at closed reduction, and attempts at placing the pins were analyzed. Functional and radiologic outcomes were assessed for a minimum follow-up of 1 year. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in the duration of procedure (P=0.422), number of radiation exposure (P=0.470), attempts at closed reduction (P=0.904), and attempts for pinning (P=0.745) and the final clinical and radiologic outcomes. One patient in prone group had cubitus varus of 8 degrees. Functionally, 2 in the supine group and 3 in prone group had poor outcomes. There is no significant difference in the ease of reduction and pinning between supine and prone positions. Grossly displaced fractures with skin puckering are difficult to manipulate in prone position. Supine position is ideal for closed reduction and pinning of all patterns of type III supracondylar fractures.
Keskin, D; Sen, H
The aim of this study was to evaluate comparatively the outcomes of pediatric displaced supracondylar fractures of humerus which were treated with either closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) or open reduction and percutaneous pinning (ORPP). The study included 100 children with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus, who were treated with either CRPP (group 1) or ORPP (group 2); the numbers of subjects in the study groups were equal. The treatment outcomes were assessed clinically and radiologically. Ninety-six percent excellent or good cosmetic results were achieved in both groups, and 94% / 90% excellent or good functional results were achieved in groups 1 and 2 (respectively). There was no signifiant difference between Baumann and humero-capitellar angles of intact and operated sides in both groups, but there was an average carrying angle difference of 2,96 degrees in the group 1 and 1,52 degrees in the group 2 and these differences were statistically signifiant. Five cases (10%) from each group had superfiial pin tract infection. Hypertrophic incision scar occurred in 6 (12%) patients performed ORPP. Both CRPP and ORPP are successful treatment methods in the management of non-complicated and non-comminuted displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in pediatric ages and their outcomes are similar. Incision scar and the long duration of operation are the disadvantages of open surgery. For fiing the fracture, placement of two K-wires from the medial and lateral aspects which cross each other is enough to achieve a good stability. In ORPP practices, lateral incision is a simple and reliable approach despite of the dissatisfying scar tissue formation.
Vrolijk-Bosschaart, Thekla F; Bakx, Roel; Van Rijn, Rick R.
Only a small proportion of all paediatric fractures is caused by child abuse or neglect, especially in highly prevalent long bone fractures. It can be difficult to differentiate abusive fractures from non-abusive fractures. This article focuses on femoral fractures in young children. Based on three cases, this article presents a forensic evidence-based approach to differentiate between accidental and non-accidental causes of femoral fractures. We describe three cases of young children who were presented to the emergency department because of a suspected femur fracture. Although in all cases, the fracture had a similar location and appearance, the clinical history and developmental stage of the child led to three different conclusions. In the first two cases, an accidental mechanism was a plausible conclusion, although in the second case, neglect of parental supervision was the cause for concern. In the third case, a non-accidental injury was diagnosed and appropriate legal prosecution followed. Any doctor treating children should always be aware of the possibility of child abuse and neglect in children with injuries, especially in young and non-mobile children presenting with an unknown trauma mechanism. If a suspicion of child abuse or neglect arises, a thorough diagnostic work-up should be performed, including a full skeletal survey according to the guidelines of the Royal College of Radiologists and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. In order to make a good assessment, the radiologist reviewing the skeletal survey needs access to all relevant clinical and social information. PMID:26642309
Background Our preliminary retrospective study assessed outcomes after the use of Ni-Ti arched shape-memory connector (ASC) combined with partially threaded cancellous screws (PTCS) to repair coronal plane supracondylar-condylar femoral fractures. Methods Twenty-one patients (16 men and 5 women) with a mean age of 34.1 years (range, 28 to 44 years) with coronal plane supracondylar and condylar fractures of the distal femur were included in this study. Each patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation using the ASC and PTCS. Active functional exercises with restricted weight bearing were initiated the first postoperative day. A gradual increase in weight bearing status and range of motion was permitted and subjects progressed to full weight bearing by 8 weeks. Surgical time, blood loss, postoperative knee range of motion, American Knee Society Scores (KSS), and postoperative complications were assessed. Results The mean surgical time was 75 mins (range, 45 to 100 mins) and average blood loss was 105 ml (range, 35 to 130 ml). Mean follow-up was 65 months (range, 22 to 90 months). No subjects demonstrated evidence of osteonecrosis or arthritis at the final follow-up. The mean KSS was excellent (≥85) in 8 subjects, good (70-84) in 11 subjects, and fair (60-69) in 2 subjects. The mean active range of motion of knee flexion at final follow-up was 100 degrees (range, 85 to 110 degrees). Conclusions ASC combined with PTCS can serve as an effective means for managing comminuted femoral fractures that extend from the condyle to the supracondylar region. However, further prospective comparative studies and biomechanical analyses are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes using these materials. PMID:24341860
Park, Jin; Lee, Ju Hong
Retrograde intramedullary (IM) nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) using locking plate are typically considered the gold standards of treatment for periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures above total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Forty-one consecutive patients treated with either retrograde nailing (nail group, n = 20) or minimally invasive plating (plate group, n = 21) for periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures between March 2003 and January 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical functions [arc range of motion and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score] and bony outcomes (bony union and malunion) were evaluated. There was no statistical difference between the nail and plate groups in age (p = 0.665), one-year postoperative arc range of motion (p = 0.642), preoperative WOMAC score (p = 0.076), postoperative one-year WOMAC score (p = 0.135), and union time (p = 0.081). The mean union time of the nail group and the plate group was 4.3 months (range 3-12 months) and 3.6 months (range 3-5 months), respectively. There were three cases of malalignment in the nail group, whereas there was one case of malalignment in the plate group (p = 0.343). One case of nailing using a short nail demonstrated nail breakage. Although retrograde nailing was found to have a slightly higher rate of malunion compared to minimally invasive plating, there was no statistically significant difference between both treatment options in terms of clinical outcomes. Regardless of which implant is used, the proper application is essential in management of periprosthetic supracondylar femoral fractures above TKA.
Dost, Abdulkadir; Yilmaz, Baris; Komur, Baran; Mutlu, Serhat; Mutlu, Harun; Ozkan, Korhan; Eren, Abdullah
To investigate the middle- and long-term radiological and functional results of children with type III supracondylar humerus fractures treated with a limited medial approach and internal fixation. The retrospective study was conducted at Department of Orthopaedics in Goztepe Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised data of children who underwent surgery between April 1991 and June 2009. Patients in group I underwent surgery within the first 8 hours after admission, and those in group II did so 8-24 hours after admission. Patients were evaluated according to the Flynn scoring system. Of the 79 patients, 52(65.8%) were male and 27(34.2%) were female. Fractures involved the left side in 49(62%) patients. Group I had 39(49.4%) patients and group II 40(50.6%). The overall mean age was 6.2±2.95 years (range: 2-13 years), and the mean follow-up was 53.2±14.9 months (range: 26-193 months). Functional scores were satisfactory (excellent, good and fair results) in all cases in both groups (100%), and the cosmetic results were satisfactory in 37(95%) in group I, and 39(97.5%) in group II (p>0.05). Limited medial approach to the treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures yielded successful functional and cosmetic results.
Paediatric elbow biepicondylar fracture dislocations are very rare injuries and have been only published in two independent case reviews. We report a case of 13 years old boy, who sustained this unusual injury after a fall on outstretched hand resulting in an unstable elbow fracture dislocation. Closed reduction was performed followed by delayed ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) with K wires. Final follow-up at 14 weeks revealed a stable elbow and satisfactory function with full supination-pronation, range of motion from 0°-120° of flexion and normal muscle strength. This type of injury needs operative treatment and fixation to restore stability and return to normal or near normal elbow function. The method of fixation (screws or K wires) may depend on size and number of fracture fragments. PMID:20950437
Meta, Mahendrakumar; Miller, David
Paediatric elbow biepicondylar fracture dislocations are very rare injuries and have been only published in two independent case reviews. We report a case of 13 years old boy, who sustained this unusual injury after a fall on outstretched hand resulting in an unstable elbow fracture dislocation. Closed reduction was performed followed by delayed ORIF (Open Reduction and Internal Fixation) with K wires. Final follow-up at 14 weeks revealed a stable elbow and satisfactory function with full supination-pronation, range of motion from 0°-120° of flexion and normal muscle strength. This type of injury needs operative treatment and fixation to restore stability and return to normal or near normal elbow function. The method of fixation (screws or K wires) may depend on size and number of fracture fragments.
Burke, N. G.; Cassar-Gheiti, A. J.; Tan, J.; McHugh, G.; O’Neil, B. J.; Noonan, M.; Moore, D.
Abstract Purpose Femoral lengthening using a circular or mono-lateral frame is a commonly used technique. Fracture at the site of the regenerate bone is a major concern especially following removal of the external fixator. This aim of this study was to assess the rate of fracture of the regenerate bone in this single surgeon series of paediatric patients and determine potential risk factors. Methods Retrospective review of all the femoral lengthening performed by the senior author was performed. The medical and physiotherapy notes were reviewed. The gender, age at time of surgery, disease aetiology, total days in the external fixator and length of the new regenerate bone were recorded. Patients who sustained a regenerate fracture were identified. Results A total of 176 femoral lengthening procedures were performed on 108 patients. Eight regenerate fractures occurred in seven patients (4.5%). The mechanism of injury was a fall in five cases and during physiotherapy in three cases. The regenerate fracture occurred a median number of nine days following removal of frame. There was no significant difference between gender, age at time of surgery, total time in external fixator between those who sustained a regenerate fracture and those patients who did not. A significant difference was noted between the amount of lengthening between the ‘regenerate fracture group’ and the ‘no fracture group’ (50 mm vs 38 mm, respectively; p = 0.029). There was no association between disease aetiology and risk of regenerate fracture. Conclusions Femoral lengthening of more than 50 mm increases the risk of a fracture at the regenerate site regardless of the disease aetiology. We recommend avoidance of aggressive physiotherapy for the initial four weeks following external fixator removal. PMID:28828065
Firoozabadi, R; McDonald, E; Nguyen, T-Q; Buckley, J M; Kandemir, U
Filling the empty holes in peri-articular locking plates may improve the fatigue strength of the fixation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of plugging the unused holes on the fatigue life of peri-articular distal femoral plates used to fix a comminuted supracondylar fracture model. A locking/compression plate was applied to 33 synthetic femurs and then a 6 cm metaphyseal defect was created (AO Type 33-A3). The specimens were then divided into three groups: unplugged, plugged with locking screw only and fully plugged holes. They were then tested using a stepwise or run-out fatigue protocol, each applying cyclic physiological multiaxial loads. All specimens in the stepwise group failed at the 770 N load level. The mean number of cycles to failure for the stepwise specimen was 25,500 cycles (SD 1500), 28,800 cycles (SD 6300), and 26,400 cycles (SD 2300) cycles for the unplugged, screw only and fully plugged configurations, respectively (p = 0.16). The mean number of cycles to failure for the run-out specimens was 42,800 cycles (SD 10,700), 36,000 cycles (SD 7200), and 36,600 cycles (SD 10,000) for the unplugged, screw only and fully plugged configurations, respectively (p = 0.50). There were also no differences in axial or torsional stiffness between the constructs. The failures were through the screw holes at the level of comminution. In conclusion, filling the empty combination locking/compression holes in peri-articular distal femur locking plates at the level of supracondylar comminution does not increase the fatigue life of the fixation in a comminuted supracondylar femoral fracture model (AO 33-A3) with a 6 cm gap.
Pham, Thuy-Trang; Accadbled, Franck; Abid, Abdelaziz; Ibnoulkhatib, Aissa; Bayle-Iniguez, Xavier; Wargny, Matthieu; Sales de Gauzy, Jérôme
Blount's method is controversial for the treatment of Gartland types IIB and III supracondylar fracture of the humerus (SCFH) in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes and the failure and complication rates. All types IIB and III SCFH treated with Blount's method from 2003-2013 were included in this retrospective single-center study. Clinical assessment was performed according to Flynn criteria. Baumann angle, anteversion angle, anterior humeral line, and humeroulnar angle were measured for radiographic assessment. Among 447 children with types IIB and III SCHF, 339 were treated according to Blount's method. There were 173 boys (51%), and the mean age was 6.3 years (1-14 years); 71% were type III. Mean time to surgery was 5.7 hours. According to Flynn criteria, results were satisfactory in 91% of cases. No compartment syndrome was encountered. There were 16 (4.7%) secondary displacements requiring surgical revision. Five (1.9%) children developed a cubitus varus deformity. At latest follow-up, the mean Baumann angle was 74.7° (95% confidence interval, 74.1-75.3), the mean anteversion angle was 39.9° (95% confidence interval, 39.5-40.3), the anterior humeral line was normal in 87.6% of cases, and the mean humeroulnar angle was 8.7°. Blount's method is appropriate to manage types IIB and III SCFH, provided anatomic and stable reduction is obtained. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ćurković, S; Antabak, A; Halužan, D; Luetić, T; Prlić, I; Šiško, J
Trauma is the most common cause of hospitalisation in children, and forearm fractures comprise 35% of all paediatric fractures. One-third of forearm fractures are distal forearm fractures, which are the most common fractures in the paediatric population. This type of fracture represents an everyday problem for the paediatric surgeon. The three phases of fracture healing in paediatric trauma are associated with skin temperature changes that can be measured and then compared with standard plain radiographs of visible callus formation, and eventually these methods can be used in everyday practice. Thermographic assessment of temperature distribution within the examined tissues enables a quick, non-contact, non-invasive measurement of their temperature. Medical thermography is used as a screening method in other parts of medicine, but the use of this method in traumatology has still not been researched.
Uchida, Y; Ogata, K; Sugioka, Y
In the past, supracondylar osteotomy for the correction of cubitus varus deformity has been associated with a high failure rate and significant complications, even in simple lateral closing wedge osteotomy. This is because the supracondylar area is thin and fixation is difficult to maintain. In cubitus varus deformity, not only medial, but posterior, tilt and internal rotation of the distal fragment also frequently occurs. To correct all these deformities and to achieve a wide bony contact and more rigid fixation than simple lateral closing wedge osteotomy, we propose a new three-dimensional osteotomy. Among 12 patients who received this osteotomy, 11 had an excellent result and one had a good result.
Garg, Sumeet; Bloch, Nikki; Cyr, Micaela; Carry, Patrick
Radiographs are usually taken on day of pin removal for children treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of type 2 supracondylar humerus fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether radiographs taken at time of pin removal for patients recovering uneventfully alter management. After IRB approval, billing records identified 1213 patients aged 1-10 years who underwent elbow surgery between 2007 and 2013 at our institution for a supracondylar humerus fracture. Of these patients, 389 met inclusion criteria. Clinical charts were reviewed for demographics, operative details, and clinical follow-up, focusing on clinical symptoms present at pin removal. Radiographs taken at time of pin removal and subsequent visits were assessed for healing and fracture alignment. In no case was pin removal delayed based on radiographs. One hundred and nineteen (31 %) patients had radiographs taken following pin removal; in no case was loss of reduction found among these patients. No cases of neurologic or vascular injury, re-fracture, or loss of reduction occurred. Infection occurred in 12 patients (3 %). Pins were kept in place for 23.8 ± 4.4 days. Eighty-six patients (22 %) had additional intervention after pin removal (cast application in all cases). Of 389 patients, 75 (19 %) had no documented reason for extended casting, four (1 %) were extended based on physician evaluation of radiographs, and seven (2 %) were extended for other reasons. Elimination of radiographs at time of pin removal should be considered. If continuing to obtain radiographs at pin removal, we recommend removing pins before taking radiographs to reduce patient fear and anxiety from visualizing percutaneous pins.
Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, S; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D
Background. The Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopedics-2012 initated this retrospective study due to the fact that in Romania and in other countries, the numerous procedures do not ensure the physicians a definite point of view related to the therapeutic criteria in the treatment of supracondylar fractures. That is why the number of complications and their severity brought into notice these existent deficiencies. In order to correct some of these complications, cubitus varus or valgus, Prof. Al. Pesamosca communicated a paper called "Personal procedure in the treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus" at the County Conference from Bacău, in June 24, 1978. This procedure has next been made popular by Prof. Gh. Burnei and his coworkers by operating patients with cubitus varus or valgus due to supracondylar humeral fractures and by presenting papers related to the subject at the national and international congresses. The latest paper regarding this problem has been presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the European Pediatric Orthopedic Society in Zagreb, Croatia, April 7-10, 2010, being titled “Distal humeral Z-osteotomy for posttraumatic cubitus varus or valgus", having as authors Gh. Burnei, Ileana Georgescu, Ştefan Gavriliu, Costel Vlad and Daniela Dan. As members of this group, based on the performed studies, we wish to make popular this type of osteosynthesis, which ensures a tight fixation, avoids complications and allows a rapid postoperative activity. Introduction. The acknowledged treatment for these types of fractures is the orthopedic one and it must be accomplished as soon as possible, in the first 6 hours, by reduction and cast immobilization or by closed or open reduction and fixation, using one of the several methods (Judet, Boehler, Kapandji, San Antonio, San Diego, Burnei’s double X technique). The exposed treatment is indicated in irreducible supracondylar humeral fractures, in reducible, but unstable type, in polytraumatized
Burnei's "double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions : Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopaedics-2012.
Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, Ş; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D
The Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopedics-2012 initated this retrospective study due to the fact that in Romania and in other countries, the numerous procedures do not ensure the physicians a definite point of view related to the therapeutic criteria in the treatment of supracondylar fractures. That is why the number of complications and their severity brought into notice these existent deficiencies. In order to correct some of these complications, cubitus varus or valgus, Prof. Al. Pesamosca communicated a paper called "Personal procedure in the treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus" at the County Conference from Bacău, in June 24, 1978. This procedure has next been made popular by Prof. Gh. Burnei and his coworkers by operating patients with cubitus varus or valgus due to supracondylar humeral fractures and by presenting papers related to the subject at the national and international congresses. The latest paper regarding this problem has been presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the European Pediatric Orthopedic Society in Zagreb, Croatia, April 7-10, 2010, being titled "Distal humeral Z-osteotomy for posttraumatic cubitus varus or valgus", having as authors Gh. Burnei, Ileana Georgescu, Ştefan Gavriliu, Costel Vlad and Daniela Dan. As members of this group, based on the performed studies, we wish to make popular this type of osteosynthesis, which ensures a tight fixation, avoids complications and allows a rapid postoperative activity. The acknowledged treatment for these types of fractures is the orthopedic one and it must be accomplished as soon as possible, in the first 6 hours, by reduction and cast immobilization or by closed or open reduction and fixation, using one of the several methods (Judet, Boehler, Kapandji, San Antonio, San Diego, Burnei's double X technique). The exposed treatment is indicated in irreducible supracondylar humeral fractures, in reducible, but unstable type, in polytraumatized patients with supracondylar
Moraleda, Luis; Valencia, María; Barco, Raúl; González-Moran, Gaspar
The preferred treatment of type-II supracondylar humeral fractures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical and radiographic outcome of type-II supracondylar humeral fractures in children treated with immobilization in a splint without reduction. The medical records of forty-six consecutive patients who sustained a supracondylar Gartland type-II fracture of the humerus treated with immobilization in a splint were reviewed. Age at the time of fracture, sex, side involved, dominant extremity, duration of immobilization, and complications were recorded. Radiographic assessment included the Baumann angle, carrying angle, and lateral humerocapitellar angle. Patients returned for clinical evaluation, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score and the criteria of Flynn et al. were recorded. Patients completed the QuickDASH, an abbreviated form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, to measure disability. The average age (and standard deviation) at the time of fracture was 5.5 ± 2.6 years. The average duration of follow-up was 6.6 ± 2.8 years. The initial lateral humerocapitellar angle was a mean of 12.8° ± 9.8°, the mean Baumann angle was 12° ± 5.7°, and the mean radiographic carrying angle was 9° ± 11.3°. There were significant differences between injured and uninjured elbows at the time of follow-up with regard to flexion (mean, 137.9° ± 9.1° for injured and 144.8° ± 7.1° for uninjured elbows; p < 0.001), extension (mean, 13.2° ± 5.9° for injured and 7.4° ± 5.1° for uninjured elbows; p < 0.001), clinical carrying angle (mean, 9° ± 8.1° for injured and 12.1° ± 4.9° for uninjured elbows; p = 0.003), radiographic carrying angle (mean, 8.9° ± 8.1° for injured and 14.2° ± 5.5° for uninjured elbows; p < 0.001), and lateral humerocapitellar angle (mean, 30.5° ± 11° for injured and 41.9° ± 9.9° for uninjured elbows; p < 0.001). The mean score was 10 ± 15.3 points for the
Hussain, Shahid; Ahmad, Manzoor; Muzaffar, Tufail
To assess the therapeutic results of open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via lateral approach for displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. We prospectively followed 52 children who presented with Gartland type 3 displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus and were managed by open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via lateral approach.There were 37 male and 15 female patients; average age was 7.39 years. The most common mechanism of trauma was fall while playing (n=23), followed by fall from height (n=20), road traffic accidents (n=5) and fall from standing height (n=2). In 2 cases, mode of injury was not available. The mean follow-up was 12 months and patients were assessed according to Flynn's criteria. Lateral approach provided an excellent view of the lateral column between two nervous planes and enabled an anatomical reduction in all cases. Immobilizing the elbow at 90 degrees or more of flexion was not needed after cross K-wire fixation. Majority of patients regained full range of motion within 6 weeks of pin removal. Two patients had postoperative ulnar nerve injuries that resolved after pin removal. The common late complication of cubitus varus was not seen in any patient. Delayed presentation to the emergency department, repeated manipulations by bone setters and massage with edible oil were responsible for stiffness in 5 patients. Superficial pin tract infection was noted in 5 patients that resolved with dressings and antibiotics. No deep infection occurred. A detailed clinical examination and radiographic analysis was done at final follow-up. They included measurement of carrying angle and range of movements of both operated and normal sides, and radiographs of both upper limbs for comparison. According to Flynn's criteria, 90.4% patients showed satisfactory results. Lateral approach for open reduction and internal fixation of the widely-displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus is
Burlini, D; Conti, G; Amadori, F; Bardellini, E; De Giuli, C
To compare the outcomes between the use of resorbable plates and screws and the conventional methods in children with paediatric maxillofacial fractures. a retrospective observational study was designed reviewing the clinical records from June 2007 and June 2011. Data collected included aepidemiological data, type of treatment, outcome and satisfaction questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed. A total of 1122 children (0-17 years old) were studied. Children treated by conventional methods were 912, while children treated by resorbable materials were 210. The frequency of complications during recovery was similar and no statistically significant difference was noted. The satisfaction questionnaire revealed similar percentages of satisfaction, with a high degree of satisfaction. Our experience suggests that resorbable devices should be considered as a treatment option, which avoids the need of further surgery to remove metallic fixation, limits hospital spending and increases children's quality of life.
Yousri, Taher; Tarassoli, Payam; Whitehouse, Michael; Monsell, Fergal; Khan, Wasim S
Supracondylar fractures of the humerus occur frequently in children and account for approximately 70% of all elbow fractures. The aim of this systematic review is to critically appraise randomized controlled trials in the literature comparing the outcome of surgical treatment of extension type Gartland III supracondylar fractures using either a cross pin configuration or lateral pins only for fixation in terms of the stability of fixation and the incidence of encountered complications. Only 4 randomized trials were found over the past 10 years. These were reviewed according to the CONSORT 2010 check list. No study found any significant statistical difference in terms of loss of reduction between the two groups, suggesting similar stability of both constructs. There is currently, however, no Level 1 evidence comparing the outcome of crossed pinning versus lateral entry pinning in extension type Gartland III supracondylar fracture. Additionally, the current highest level evidence discussed above has limitations ranging from small sample size to insufficient data on clinical outcome. Therefore we cannot draw any firm conclusions on the above evidence. We suggest that future RCTs take into account the recent evidence on fixation by including three lateral pins and larger diameter pins in their cohorts.
Kyriakou, Andreas; Shepherd, Sheila; Mason, Avril; Faisal Ahmed, S
There is a need to improve our understanding of the clinical utility of vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) in paediatrics and this requires a thorough evaluation of its readability, reproducibility, and accuracy for identifying VF. VFA was performed independently by two observers, in 165 children and adolescents with a median age of 13.4 years (range, 3.6, 18). In 20 of these subjects, VFA was compared to lateral vertebral morphometry assessment on lateral spine X-ray (LVM). 1528 (84%) of the vertebrae were adequately visualised by both observers for VFA. Interobserver agreement in vertebral readability was 94% (kappa, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.68, 0.73]). 93% of the non-readable vertebrae were located between T6 and T9. Interobserver agreement per-vertebra for the presence of VF was 99% (kappa, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79, 0.91]). Interobserver agreement per-subject was 91% (kappa, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66, 0.87]). Per-vertebra agreement between LVM and VFA was 95% (kappa 0.79 [95% CI, 0.62, 0.92]) and per-subject agreement was 95% (kappa, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.58, 1.0]). Accepting LVM as the gold standard, VFA had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 90% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95% in per-vertebra analysis and a PPV of 100% and NPV of 93% in per-subject analysis. VFA reaches an excellent level of agreement between observers and a high level of accuracy in identifying VF in a paediatric population. The readability of vertebrae at the mid thoracic region is suboptimal and interpretation at this level should be exercised with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hearty, Thomas; Maizels, Max; Pring, Maya; Mazur, John; Liu, Raymond; Sarwark, John; Janicki, Joseph
There is a need to provide more efficient surgical training methods for orthopaedic residents. E-learning could possibly increase resident surgical preparedness, confidence, and comfort for surgery. Using closed reduction and pinning of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures as the index case, we hypothesized that e-learning could increase resident knowledge acquisition for case preparation in the operating room. An e-learning surgical training module was created on the Computer Enhanced Visual Learning platform. The module provides a detailed and focused road map of the procedure utilizing a multimedia format. A multisite prospective randomized controlled study design compared residents who used a textbook for case preparation (control group) with residents who used the same textbook plus completed the e-learning module (test group). All subjects completed a sixty-question test on the theory and methods of the case. After completion of the test, the control group then completed the module as well. All subjects were surveyed on their opinion regarding the effectiveness of the module after performing an actual surgical case. Twenty-eight subjects with no previous experience in this surgery were enrolled at four academic centers. Subjects were randomized into two equal groups. The test group scored significantly better (p < 0.001) and demonstrated competence on the test compared with the control group; the mean correct test score (and standard deviation) was 90.9% ± 6.8% for the test group and 73.5% ± 6.4% for the control group. All residents surveyed (n = 27) agreed that the module is a useful supplement to traditional methods for case preparation and twenty-two of twenty-seven residents agreed that it reduced their anxiety during the case and improved their attention to surgical detail. E-learning using the Computer Enhanced Visual Learning platform significantly improved preparedness, confidence, and comfort with percutaneous closed reduction and pinning
[Kirschner wires and tension-band fixation through posterolaterla minimal incision combined with plaster fixation at supinated position for the treatment of Garland type III supracondylar humeral fractures in children].
Luo, Shi-Xing; Dong, Gui-Fu; Lu, Chun; Lan, Tian-Lu
To evaluate the efficacy of Kirschner wires and tension-band fixation through posterolateral minimal incision for the treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures in children. From January 2005 to December 2010, there were 62 children (38 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 2 to 14 years, averaged 6.8 years) with Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures. All the injuries were caused by falling, and all the fractures were fresh injuries. The duration from injury to surgery ranged from 5 to 20 hours. All the children were treated with open reduction through a posterolateral minimal approach, Kirschnere wires and tension-band fixation were fixed with plaster at 90 degrees of elbow flexion, forearm supination, and palms facing upwards. The kirschner pins and wires were removed after fractures healing. The Flynn's criterion was used to evaluate therapeutic effects. The operation time ranged from 30 to 50 min (averaged 45 min). All the patients achieved solid union. Sixty patients were followed up, and the mean follow-up time was 15 months (ranged from 6 to 24 months). At the 6th month after operation, 48 patients got an excellent result, 9 good, 3 bad (light cubitus varus with varus angle about 6 degree, without infection on function) according to Flynn's criteria. There were no complications such as procedure-related pin tract infection, iatrogenic nerve and vascular injuries and myositis ossificans. The Kirschner wires and tension-band fixation through posterolateral minimal incision approach can obtain clearer surgical field, simple in operation, and few wound complications. Therefore, this modified treatment is an effective and reliable method for pediatric displaced Gartland type III supracondylar humeral fractures.
Dekker, A E; Krijnen, P; Schipper, I B
Supracondylar humeral fractures (SCHF) are among the most common injuries in children. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate functional and radiographic outcome after crossed and lateral K-wire fixation for displaced extension-type SCHF, and complications related to the type of K-wire construction used. RCTs and prospective comparative cohorts on the functional outcome and complications after fracture reduction and K-wire fixation were identified in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Thirteen studies were identified, including 1158 patients in seven RCTs and six prospective comparative cohorts. According to the Flynn criteria, there was no difference in outcome between the K-wire configurations (Relative Risk 1.07). Loss of reduction occurred in 27 (11.6%) of 232 patients treated with crossed K-wires, and in 35 (12.4%) of 282 patients treated with lateral entry K-wires. Twenty (4.1%) of 493 patients in the crossed group were diagnosed with iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury, compared with 2 (0.3%) of 666 patients in the lateral entry group. The overall incidence of persistent ulnar nerve related complaints was 3.5/1000. Crossed and lateral entry pin fixation of SCHF result in similar construct stability and functional outcome. Although ulnar nerve injury was three times more likely in the crossed K-wire group, the overall incidence of this complication was very low. The available evidence does not support the use of either approach for daily practice. If the surgeon wishes to avoid all potential risk of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury, the lateral K-wire approach is safest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Flexible intramedullary nailing has emerged as an accepted procedure for paediatric femoral fractures. Present indications include all patients with femoral shaft fractures and open physis. Despite its excellent reported results, orthopaedic surgeons remain divided in opinion regarding its usefulness and the best material used for nails. We thus undertook a retrospective study of paediatric femoral fractures treated with titanium or stainless steel flexible nails at our institute with a minimum of 5 years follow up. Material and methods We included 73 femoral shaft fractures in 69 patients treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Final limb length discrepancy and any angular or rotational deformities were determined. Results Mean age at final follow up was 15.5 years (10-21 years). Mean follow up was 7.16 years (5.0-8.6 years). Titanium and stainless steel nails were used in 43 and 30 cases respectively. There were 51 midshaft, 17 proximal, and 5 distal fractures. All fractures united at an average of 11 weeks but asymptomatic malalignment and LLD were seen in 19% and 58% fractures respectively. LLD ranged from -3 cm to 1.5 cm. Other complications included superficial infection(2), proximal migration of nail(3), irritation at nail insertion site(5) and penetration of femoral neck with nail tip(1). There were 59 excellent, 10 satisfactory and 4 poor results. Conclusion Flexible intramedullary nailing is reliable and safe for treating paediatric femoral shaft fractures. It is relatively free of serious complications despite asymptomatic malalignment and LLD in significant percentage of fractures. PMID:22192682
Abdulla, Mohamed; Khaled, Sari S; Khaled, Yazan S; Kapoor, Harish
Congenital insensitivity to pain is a rare condition that is often undiagnosed until patients present with a variety of musculoskeletal problems. A major sequel of these orthopaedic manifestations is the development of heterotopic ossification and callus formation following fractures, eventually leading to the development of a Charcot's joint. This case reports on a 7-year-old child who was diagnosed with congenital insensitivity to pain type V, after he presented in our clinic with fractures of the metatarsals in his left foot while continuing to weight bear, without any discomfort. The patient failed to attend the follow-up in paediatric neurology clinic despite multiple invitations. This case highlights the importance of establishing an early diagnosis and keeping a close eye on this rare entity, which can present for the first time in a paediatric fracture clinic.
Shepherd, Michael; Aickin, Richard
Paediatric limb fracture is a common injury that presents frequently to the ED. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether ibuprofen provides better analgesia than paracetamol for paediatric patients discharged with acute limb fractures. A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted in a children's ED. Children aged 5-14 years with an acute limb fracture were randomized to be prescribed paracetamol 15 mg/kg/dose every 4 h or ibuprofen 10 mg/kg/dose every 8 h. Objective (child-reported) pain scores using the 'Faces' pain scale were measured over a 48 h period. Child-reported pain did not differ significantly between the paracetamol and ibuprofen groups (mean pain score paracetamol 2.8 [95% CI 2.4-3.4] vs 2.7 [95% CI 2.1-3.3], P = 0.73). Parent-reported sleep quality did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.78). Child-reported pain score decreased over the 48 h of measurement (P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in side-effects detected between the two groups. The present study shows that in the outpatient paediatric population, ibuprofen does not provide better analgesia than paracetamol. Pain from an acute fracture can be managed by regular simple oral analgesia and immobilization.
Ahmedov, R; Masharipov, F; Hakimov, A
The main aim of the study was to discuss the modern approach to the diagnoses and surgical treatment of fractures of humerus in children, associated with compromised neurovascular status and signs of acute ischemia. The 10 year experience was analyzed, with frequency of complications, varied from 0, 68% to 9% between the group. The age, sex, mechanism of injury and neurovascular status were recorded in all 31 patients. Our data suggested, that aggressive surgical approach, when indicated, is corresponding with well-reduced fracture in proper alignment with a viable and warm functional extremity in 93,5% of cases.
Sinikumpu, J-J; Victorzon, S; Pokka, T; Lindholm, E-L; Peljo, T; Serlo, W
We present the clinical and radiographic outcome of 81 children with Gartland type I to III supracondylar humeral fractures at a minimum follow-up of ten years (mean 12.1 years; 10.3 to 16.1) following injury. The clinical and functional outcomes are compared with normal age- and gender-matched individuals. The population-based study setting was first identified from the institutional registries; the rate of participation was 76%. Controls were randomly selected from Finnish National Population Registry. According to Flynn's criteria, most fractures (75.3%) resulted in a satisfactory ("good or excellent") outcome. Satisfactory recovery was achieved in 75.0% of type I fractures treated by closed splinting (p = 0.013). Type II fractures were associated with both satisfactory (57.7%) and unsatisfactory (42.3%) results, regardless of the type of treatment, although the numbers were small in the sub groups. Most type III fractures were treated operatively, and most (76%) had a satisfactory outcome according to Flynn's criteria (p = 0.015). Compared with none among the normal subjects, flexion of the elbow was reduced by > 10° at long-term follow-up in 20 cases (24.7%, p < 0.001) and 9 (11.1%) had a reduced flexion of > 15° (p = 0.004). In patients who had sustained a type III fracture, the carrying angle was decreased by 35.7% (from 9.8° to 6.3°; p = 0.048). All patients achieved an excellent Mayo Elbow Performance Score (mean 96.4 points). The long-term outcome of extension-type supracondylar humeral fractures is generally good, but not exclusively benign, with the potential for long-term pain and ulnar nerve sensitivity, and a decrease in grip strength and range of movement in type II and type III fractures. Bony remodelling cannot be relied upon to correct any residual deformity. In particular, type II fractures have impaired long-term recovery and justify individual consideration in their treatment. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1410-17. ©2016 The
Makki, Daoud; Matar, Hosam E; Webb, Mark; Wright, David M; James, Leroy A; Ricketts, David M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of open reduction and complications of elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) in treating unstable diaphyseal forearm fractures in children. We performed a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 102 paediatric patients with a mean age of 9 years (range: 7-14 years) who underwent ESIN of unstable closed forearm fractures at three different centres. Closed reduction of one or both bones was achieved in 68 (67%) patients and open reduction was required in 34 (33%) patients. The rate of open reduction in single-bone fractures (52.2%) was significantly higher than that in both-bone fractures (27.8%) (P=0.04, Fisher's exact test). All the fractures united within 3 months. There were six refractures following nail removal. Five patients had superficial wound infections. Seven patients developed neuropraxia of the sensory branch of the radial nerve. All resolved spontaneously within 3 months of the surgery. ESIN is an effective technique in treating unstable diaphyseal forearm fractures. The need for open reduction should be decided promptly following failed attempts of closed reduction. Single-bone fractures are more likely to require open reduction than both-bone fractures. The radius should be reduced and stabilized first. If open reduction is required, this should be performed through a volar approach rather than a dorsal one.
Koehler, Steven M.; Sakamoto, Sara; Abernathie, Brenon L.; Hausman, Michael R.
Malunions are a well-recognized complication of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures. Results of corrective osteotomies vary, and complication rates have been reported to be as high as 40%. Considering the high rate of complications for malunion correction, we investigated the feasibility of arthroscopy. We present a technique for arthroscopic supracondylar osteotomy and percutaneous pinning. There are many advantages of an arthroscopic approach to malunion correction, including extension-type deformity correction, safe access to the anterior humerus, and minimal dissection and scarring; any intracapsular contracture can be addressed as well. Elbow arthroscopy appears to be a viable option in the pediatric orthopaedic surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:26258033
Kosuge, D; Barry, M
The management of children's fractures has evolved as a result of better health education, changes in lifestyle, improved implant technology and the changing expectations of society. This review focuses on the changes seen in paediatric fractures, including epidemiology, the increasing problems of obesity, the mechanisms of injury, non-accidental injuries and litigation. We also examine the changes in the management of fractures at three specific sites: the supracondylar humerus, femoral shaft and forearm. There has been an increasing trend towards surgical stabilisation of these fractures. The reasons for this are multifactorial, including societal expectations of a perfect result and reduced hospital stay. Reduced hospital stay is beneficial to the social, educational and psychological needs of the child and beneficial to society as a whole, due to reduced costs. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
A prospective randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing medial and lateral entry pinning with lateral entry pinning for percutaneous fixation of displaced extension type supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children
Objective To compare the efficacy of medial and lateral entry pinning with lateral entry pinning for percutaneous fixation of displaced (Gartland type II and type III) extension type supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. Methods The study was a single center, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. Between October 2007 and September 2010, 160 patients who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criterias were enrolled in the study, with 80 patients in each group. All the percutaneous pinning was done according to a uniform standardized technique. The patients were re-evaluated as outpatients at three weeks, six weeks and three months after the surgery. At three months follow-up visit, following informations were recorded as outcome measures: (i) Carrying angle (deg) (ii) passive range of elbow motion (deg) (iii) Flynn's criteria for grading, based on the loss of carrying angle and loss of total range of elbow motion. (iv) Baumann angle (deg) (v) Change in Baumann angle (deg) between the Intraoperative radiographs after the surgery and radiographs at three months follow-up visit (vi) loss of reduction grading, based on the change in the Baumann angle. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to base-line characteristics, withdrawals and complication rate. At three months follow-up visit, patients were evaluated by recording the various outcome measures. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the various outcome measures such as carrying angle, passive range of elbow motion, Flynn grading, Baumann angle, change in the Baumann angle and loss of reduction grading. Conclusions If a uniform standardized operative technique is followed in each method, then the result of both the percutaneous fixation methods will be same in terms of safety and efficacy. PMID:22335830
Ramoutar, D N; Shivji, F S; Rodrigues, J N; Hunter, J B
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) and Kirschner wire (K-wire) fixation of displaced, paediatric distal radius fractures on residual radiological angulation, displacement, and shortening, as well as functional outcomes, including complication rates. A retrospective review was conducted of all paediatric patients undergoing MUA and K-wire fixation for an extra-articular distal radius fracture over a period of 5 years. A total of 248 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 9.9 years (3-15). Mean follow-up was 6.6 weeks (4-156). There was a statistically significant increase in median dorsal angulation (p<0.0001) between initial post-operative and follow-up radiographs at the time of K-wire removal. The number of K-wires used did not have a significant effect on dorsal angulation (p=0.9015) at time of K-wire removal, nor did the use of an above or below elbow cast (p=0.3883). Seventeen patients required a further general anaesthetic (5 revision operations, 12 removal of migrated K-wires). Eighty-seven percentage of (215 patients) of patients had normal function at follow-up post-K-wire removal. Angulation at time of K-wire removal of more than 15° was significantly associated with reduced functional outcome (p=0.0377). A total of 41 patients (17%) had complications associated with K-wire use. We conclude that though K-wire fixation is an effective technique, it does not prevent re-angulation of the fracture and is associated with a significant complication rate. Given the remodelling potential and tolerance to deformity in children, surgeons should give careful thought before utilising this technique for all displaced or angulated paediatric distal radius fractures. If used, 1 K-wire with immobilisation in a below elbow cast is sufficient in most cases.
Nardis, Amanda da Costa; Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; da Silva, Rogério Almeida; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo
The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of facial fractures in children treated at the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Vila Penteado General Hospital (HGVP), in São Paulo, Brazil, in a period of 3 years. Between May 2008 and April 2011 the authors reviewed 110 records of patients under 12 years old with facial fractures. The following parameters were evaluated: age and sex distribution, aetiology of trauma, incidence and type of fractures, monthly distribution and treatment modality. Male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 8.13. The majority of the involved patients were aged between 6 and 12 years. The most prevalent cause was fall (58%) and nasal fractures were the most common type of fracture (69%). Monthly distribution was similar in all seasons. Of 110 patients, 69 (62%) were treated conservatively. The incidence of facial fractures in the area of study is high. The high incidence of nasal fractures should be a warning to maxillofacial surgeons, so that they are not overlooked. Safety programs should be installed in Brazil to increase public awareness and to decrease morbidity resulting from paediatric trauma.
Cruz, A I; Kleiner, J E; DeFroda, S F; Gil, J A; Daniels, A H; Eberson, C P
Purpose fractures are one of the most commonly sustained injuries in children and are often treated non-operatively. The purpose of this study was to estimate the rate of inpatient surgical treatment of paediatric forearm fractures over time using a large, publicly available, national database. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) was evaluated between 2000 and 2012. Forearm fractures and surgeries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) diagnosis and procedure codes. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine variables associated with greater proportion of surgical treatment. All statistical analyses were performed using SAS statistical software v.9.4 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The database identified 30 936 forearm fracture admissions. Overall, 19 837 of these patients were treated surgically (64.12%). The percentage of patients treated with surgery increased from 59.3% in 2000 to 70.0% in 2012 (p < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis found increased age (p < 0.001), more recent year (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.003) and admission to a children's hospital (p < 0.001) were associated with an increased proportion of patients receiving surgical treatment. Medicaid payer status was associated with a lower proportion of surgical treatment (p < 0.001). The rate of operative treatment for paediatric forearm fractures admitted to the hospital increased over time. Increased surgical rates were associated with older age, male gender, treatment at a children's hospital and non-Medicaid insurance status.
Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Guifo, Marc Leroy; Yamben, Marie-Ange Ngo; Moulion, Roger; Farikou, Ibrahim
Background: Knowledge of the therapeutic patterns, challenges and outcomes of treatment of paediatric femoral fractures (PFF) helps to better choose the ideal therapeutic modality which is still controversial. However, this data is scarce in the sub-Saharan African literature. Objective: To determine the therapeutic patterns, treatment challenges and outcomes of treatment of PFF in a tertiary care centre in Cameroon. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of femoral fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between 2011 and 2015 at the surgical unit of Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon. We analysed demographic data, injury characteristics, fracture patterns, treatment details, therapeutic challenges and outcomes of treatment at 12 months using Flynn’s criteria. Results: We enrolled 30 femoral fractures from 29 children with mean age was 4.2 ± 3.3 years. The male gender, diaphyseal locations and spiral fracture lines were predominant. Main mechanisms of injury were accidental falls, road traffic accidents and game injuries. Fracture management entailed 12 tractions followed by casting, 10 casting alone, four closed reductions followed by casting, two cannulated screw fixations, one pin fixation and one external fixation. The mean duration of consolidation was 10.3 ± 3.9 weeks. The outcome was rated excellent in 28 cases. Limited resources precluded fluoroscopy use, proper anaesthetic management, early rehabilitation and patient-parent satisfaction. Conclusion: Conservative management of PFF yields a good outcome in our setting. However, an improvement in surgical, radiology and anaesthetic infrastructure is needed for optimal PFF care. PMID:28400870
Kamphaus, A; Rapp, M; Wessel, L M; Buchholz, M; Massalme, E; Schneidmüller, D; Roeder, C; Kaiser, M M
There are two child-specific fracture classification systems for long bone fractures: the AO classification of pediatric long-bone fractures (PCCF) and the LiLa classification of pediatric fractures of long bones (LiLa classification). Both are still not widely established in comparison to the adult AO classification for long bone fractures. During a period of 12 months all long bone fractures in children were documented and classified according to the LiLa classification by experts and non-experts. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were calculated according to Cohen (kappa). A total of 408 fractures were classified. The intraobserver reliability for location in the skeletal and bone segment showed an almost perfect agreement (K = 0.91-0.95) and also the morphology (joint/shaft fracture) (K = 0.87-0.93). Due to different judgment of the fracture displacement in the second classification round, the intraobserver reliability of the whole classification revealed moderate agreement (K = 0.53-0.58). Interobserver reliability showed moderate agreement (K = 0.55) often due to the low quality of the X-rays. Further differences occurred due to difficulties in assigning the precise transition from metaphysis to diaphysis. The LiLa classification is suitable and in most cases user-friendly for classifying long bone fractures in children. Reliability is higher than in established fracture specific classifications and comparable to the AO classification of pediatric long bone fractures. Some mistakes were due to a low quality of the X-rays and some due to difficulties to classify the fractures themselves. Improvements include a more precise definition of the metaphysis and the kind of displacement. Overall the LiLa classification should still be considered as an alternative for classifying pediatric long bone fractures.
Nwadinigwe, C U; Ihezie, C O; Iyidiobi, E C
The burden of diseases in children in our environment is dominated by infections and malnutrition; paediatric trauma has low advocacy and as such is given scant attention. The aim of this study is to review and describe the pattern of paediatric fractures in our local setting. A retrospective review of all the medical records of children below the age of fourteen years who were admitted to our center on account of major trauma between January 1999 and December 2003 was done. Those with incomplete records were excluded. The patients ranged in age from 1 +/-13 years with mean of 6.7 +/- 2.9 years. They were mostly males 60 (61.2%) and females 38 (38.8%). The causes of the accidents were diverse. Road traffic accidents were most common 47(51%). A great number of these resulted from unguarded children hit by motor vehicles while crossing the road 33 (36.7%). Forty-one (41.8%) patients fell from various heights. Of these number thirty (30.6%) fell while playing. Most fractures were close 70 (71.4%) while 25 (25.5%) were open fractures and 3 (3.1%) pathological fractures. The most common site of injury was the femoral shaft 33.7%; this was followed by fractures of the supracondylar region of the humerus 17.3%, distal radius 15.3% and tibialfibula 15.3%. More than half of the patients 58 (59.2%) presented fresh to our hospital, while 27 (27.6%) presented initially to traditional bonesetter (TBS) and 13 (13.3%) were referred from private practitioners. Of those twenty-seven patients from the TBS, seven came with compartment syndrome and three had frank gangrene. Most of the patients were managed conservatively. Preliminary traction followed by plaster of Paris (POP) application in 36 (36.7%), and manipulation under anaesthesia (M.U.A) and POP (30.6%), were common definitive treatments given. Sixteen patients (16.3%) had open reduction and internal fixation. Acute compartment syndrome 7 (7.1%) and frank gangrene 3 (3.1%) were the commonest complications and were due to late
Gupta, Suman Lata; Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Ramya, Ravivalar; Parida, Satyen
Tracheostomy tube fracture and aspiration into the tracheobronchial tree leading to airway obstruction is a dangerous complication after tracheostomy. We report a case of a fractured tracheostomy tube in a 6-year-old child who had been maintained on a tracheostomy tube for the past 5 years. The tracheostomy tube got fractured at the junction of the tube and neck plate, and impacted in the trachea and right main bronchus. Rigid bronchoscopy performed through the tracheostomy stoma to retrieve the fractured tracheostomy tube and the anaesthetic management during the period are discussed.
Pillai, Anand; McAuley, Andrew; McMurray, Kenneth; Jain, Manav
The ionizing radiations (Medical Exposure) Regulation 2000 has made it mandatory to establish diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for all typical radiological examinations. We attempt to provide dose data for some common fluoroscopic procedures used in orthopaedic trauma that may be used as the basis for setting DRLs for paediatric patients. The dose area product (DAP) in 865 paediatric trauma examinations was analysed. Median DAP values and screening times for each procedure type along with quartile values for each range are presented. In the upper limb, elbow examinations had maximum exposure with a median DAP value of 1.21 cGy cm2. Median DAP values for forearm and wrist examinations were 0.708 and 0.538 cGy cm2, respectively. In lower limb, tibia and fibula examinations had a median DAP value of 3.23 cGy cm2 followed by ankle examinations with a median DAP of 3.10 cGy cm2. The rounded third quartile DAP value for each distribution can be used as a provisional DRL for the specific procedure type.
Nisar, Aamer; Bhosale, Abhijit; Madan, Sanjeev S.; Flowers, Mark J.; Fernandes, James A.; Jones, Stanley
This study reports the complications observed in children with long bone fractures treated using Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN). One hundred and sixty-four (n = 164) fractures in 160 patients under the age of 16 years formed the basis of our review. This included 108 boys and 52 girls with the median age of 11 years and median follow up of 7.5 months. The analysis included fractures of the radius/ulna, humerus, femur and tibia. All pathological fractures were excluded. In this series 54 patients (34%) had complications however majority of these were minor complications with irritation due to prominent nail ends being the commonest complication. No long-term sequelae were encountered in our patients. PMID:24403743
Elbashir, Mohamed; Domos, Peter; Latimer, Mark
Elbow fractures are not uncommon in children, and some are associated with neurovascular injuries. Having a nerve injury in an elbow fracture without dislocation is rare and was not described in the literature. Here, we have reported probably the first case of an ulnar nerve injury in an elbow fracture without dislocation. A 9-year-old female presented to the emergency department after falling off a monkey bar. She had a painful, swollen and tender right elbow with no history or clinical signs of an elbow dislocation but had complete ulnar nerve palsy. She was managed initially with analgesia and plaster application and was taken directly to the operating theatre. Examination under anaesthesia revealed no elbow joint instability. The ulnar nerve was found entrapped between the trochlea and proximal ulna, intra-articularly. The medial epicondyle was also found avulsed from the humerus, with an incarcerated medial epicondylar fragment in the elbow joint.
Elbashir, Mohamed; Domos, Peter; Latimer, Mark
Elbow fractures are not uncommon in children, and some are associated with neurovascular injuries. Having a nerve injury in an elbow fracture without dislocation is rare and was not described in the literature. Here, we have reported probably the first case of an ulnar nerve injury in an elbow fracture without dislocation. A 9-year-old female presented to the emergency department after falling off a monkey bar. She had a painful, swollen and tender right elbow with no history or clinical signs of an elbow dislocation but had complete ulnar nerve palsy. She was managed initially with analgesia and plaster application and was taken directly to the operating theatre. Examination under anaesthesia revealed no elbow joint instability. The ulnar nerve was found entrapped between the trochlea and proximal ulna, intra-articularly. The medial epicondyle was also found avulsed from the humerus, with an incarcerated medial epicondylar fragment in the elbow joint. PMID:26546588
Archer, Matthew; Parkin, Tom; Latimer, Mark David
We report the case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a type III tibial eminence fracture. The fracture fragment was reduced arthroscopically. Two 1.6 mm retrograde K-wires were inserted from the tibial metaphysis across the physis and into the fracture fragment using a standard anterior cruciate ligament tibial tunnel guide. Once the wires were clearly visible within the joint the tips were bent over by ∼120°. The wires were then tensioned around a single small fragment screw inserted into the tibial metaphysis. An exceptionally strong fixation was achieved. The boy was mobilised without a brace. The wires were removed at 12 weeks and he returned to full activity at 14 weeks.
Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori
Free vascularized thin corticoperiosteal grafts and small periosteal bone grafts harvested from the supracondylar region of the femur are described. These grafts are nourished from the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and vein. Unlike currently used vascularized bone grafts, this graft can be successfully harvested with disturbing the vascularity. Thin corticoperiosteal grafts consist of periosteum with a thin layer of outer cortical bone and include the cambium layer, which has a better osteogenic capacity. This graft is elastic and readily conforms to the recipient bed configuration. Thin corticoperiosteal grafts were used for fracture nonunion of the long bone with smaller bone defect and to treat forty-six patients with avascular necrosis of the body of the talus, scaphoid, and lunate bone.
Barrett, I R; Bellemore, M C; Kwon, Y M
From 1984 to 1995, 19 patients with cubitus varus resulting from supracondylar humeral fractures underwent lateral closing-wedge osteotomies at The Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children. As the indication for osteotomy in all cases was the cosmetically unacceptable cubitus varus, we reviewed the cosmetic results. Seventeen patients were available for review. Subjective reports from patients and parents, as well as objective clinical assessment by one of the authors, were used to assess these results. According to our grading system, 12 (76%) patients had excellent results. These patients and their parents were satisfied with the cosmetic results, and there was no clinical evidence of a bony prominence over the lateral condylar region or an unsightly operative scar. One patient had a poor result with a lateral bony prominence and an unsightly scar, both of which were clinically obvious. We report that lateral closing osteotomies in children who have not yet reached skeletal maturity produce excellent cosmetic results.
Scheerder, F J M; Schnater, J M; Sleeboom, Chr; Aronson, D C
To evaluate Bryant traction at home in terms of feasibility, morbidity, effect on length of hospital stay, outcome and costs. Retrospective analysis of 54 children treated for femoral shaft fracture (1991-2004). Results of 'home traction' (A, n=38) and 'hospital traction' (B, n=16) were compared. Data were collected regarding demographics, length of hospital stay, traction period, various aspects of the fractures, co-morbidity, morbidity, and follow-up. The parents' experience was evaluated by telephone questionnaire. Two early treatment failures occurred. One patient stopped home traction at 8 days due to skin problems and had a spica cast applied at another hospital, with subsequent development of a compartment syndrome. The other patient was placed in a hip spica after 2 weeks of hospital traction because of difficulty in getting satisfactory X-rays. At follow-up, one unacceptable shortening of 3 cm had occurred in the home traction group. There was only a significant difference in hospital stay (A 7.0 days versus B 22.5 days), total traction period (A 28.0 days versus B 22.5 days) and costs (group B 3x versus group A). The parents were overall pleased with traction at home. Complications occurred as much in the home traction group as in the control group and fracture position at union was equal in both groups. Treatment with home traction is feasible, simple and effective; it reduces hospital stay to 1 week, and costs to one-third. Good patient selection and instructions of the parents are mandatory.
Ormsby, Neal M; Walton, Roger D M; Robinson, Simon; Brookes-Fazakerly, Stephen; Chang, Fernando Yuen; McGonagle, Lorcan; Wright, David
There is little consensus on whether Kirschner wire (K-wire) burial is preferable in the management of paediatric lateral humeral condyle fractures. We identified 124 patients from May 2008 to August 2014. Sixty received buried K-wires and 64 received unburied wires. We found no significant difference in the infection rates between groups, but a high rate of skin erosion (23%) in the buried group, with a subsequent high rate of infection in this subgroup (40%). We found a strong association of wire erosion following early surgery. There is a considerable cost saving associated with using unburied wires. We therefore recommend the routine use of unburied wires.
Devnani, A S
Cubitus varus deformity following mal-union of a supracondylar fracture of the humerus in children causes no functional disability, but surgical correction is often requested to improve the appearance of the arm. Maintaining the correction after supracondylar osteotomy is a difficult aspect of the operative treatment and remains controversial. Nine children aged between 6 and 12 years (average 8 years and 11 months) underwent lateral closing wedge supracondylar osteotomy of the humerus, for deformity ranging between 10 and 20 degrees (average 13 degrees). The correction required ranged between 16 and 30 degrees (average 21 degrees). The osteotomy was internally fixed with a two hole marrow plate. At follow-up, which ranged between 3 months and 6 years (average 34 months), six patients were graded as good, two as satisfactory and one as a poor result. One patient had transient radial nerve palsy which recovered completely in 2 months. The patient who was graded poor had undercorrection of the deformity at the original operation. There was no incidence of loss of correction due to implant failure. Complete section of the bone to allow medial displacement of the distal fragment is recommended, thereby avoiding lateral bony prominence at the elbow.
Maempel, J F; Stone, O D; Murray, A W
Introduction Surgical procedures to manage trauma to the wrist, forearm and elbow in children are very common. Image intensifiers are used routinely, yet studies/guidelines that quantify expected radiation exposure in such procedures are lacking. Methods Information on demographics, injury type, surgeon grade and dose area product (DAP) of radiation exposure per procedure was collected prospectively for 248 patients undergoing manipulation/fixation of injuries to the elbow, forearm or wrist at a paediatric hospital over 1 year. Results DAP exposure (in cGycm(2)) differed significantly across different procedures (p<0.001): wrist manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA; median, 0.39), wrist k-wiring (1.01), forearm MUA (0.50), flexible nailing of the forearm (2.67), supracondylar fracture MUA and k-wiring (2.23) and open reduction and internal fixation of the lateral humeral condyle (0.96). Fixation of a Gartland grade-3 supracondylar fracture (2.94cGycm(2)) was associated with higher exposure than grade-2 fixation (1.95cGycm(2)) (p=0.048). Fractures of the wrist or forearm necessitating metalwork fixation resulted in higher exposure than those requiring manipulation only (both p<0.001). For procedures undertaken by trainees, trainee seniority (between year-5 and year-8 and clinical fellow, p≥0.24) did not affect the DAP significantly. Conclusions The spectrum of radiation exposures for common procedures utilised in the management of paediatric upper limb trauma were quantified. These findings will be useful to surgeons auditing their practice and quantifying radiation-associated risks to patients. Our data may serve as a basis for implementing protocols designed to improve patient safety.
Alsamhan, A.; ELSingergy, M. M.; Zamzam, M. M.; Darwish, S. M.
Supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF) is one of the commonest elbow fractures in children. It is common injury for children with age from four to fourteen. In current study, the finite element technique is used to evaluate two techniques, namely, parallel and crossed K-wire fixation for treatment of SCHF, using K-wire fixation. PMID:22114604
Spencer, Nick; Colomer, Concha; Alperstein, Garth; Bouvier, Paul; Colomer, Julia; Duperrex, Olivier; Gokcay, Gulbin; Julien, Gilles; Kohler, Lennart; Lindström, Bengt; Macfarlane, Aidan; Mercer, Raul; Panagiotopoulos, Takis; Schulpen, Tom
Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective.
Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b
Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140
Windolf, M; Fischer, M F; Popp, A W; Matthys, R; Schwieger, K; Gueorguiev, B; Hunter, J B; Slongo, T F
End caps are intended to prevent nail migration (push-out) in elastic stable intramedullary nailing. The aim of this study was to investigate the force at failure with and without end caps, and whether different insertion angles of nails and end caps would alter that force at failure. Simulated oblique fractures of the diaphysis were created in 15 artificial paediatric femurs. Titanium Elastic Nails with end caps were inserted at angles of 45°, 55° and 65° in five specimens for each angle to create three study groups. Biomechanical testing was performed with axial compression until failure. An identical fracture was created in four small adult cadaveric femurs harvested from two donors (both female, aged 81 and 85 years, height 149 cm and 156 cm, respectively). All femurs were tested without and subsequently with end caps inserted at 45°. In the artificial femurs, maximum force was not significantly different between the three groups (p = 0.613). Push-out force was significantly higher in the cadaveric specimens with the use of end caps by an up to sixfold load increase (830 N, standard deviation (SD) 280 vs 150 N, SD 120, respectively; p = 0.007). These results indicate that the nail and end cap insertion angle can be varied within 20° without altering construct stability and that the risk of elastic stable intramedullary nailing push-out can be effectively reduced by the use of end caps. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Manor, Esther; Joshua, Ben Zion; Levy, Jacov; Brennan, Peter A; Bodner, Lipa
Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) characterized by pain, self-mutilating behaviour, anhidrosis and recurrent hyperthermia. CIPA has a multisystem involvement, including fractures of the extremities with slow healing, immunologic abnormalities, and a chronic inflammatory state. The mandible is reported to have a higher incidence of osteomyelitis, though mandibular fracture among CIPA patients, is very rare, with to our knowledge no reports in children. A case of pathological fracture of the mandible in a 6-year-old child with CIPA treated by ORIF is reported. In contrast to the slow healing reported in long bones, the mandible healed very quickly, possibly indicating that the osteoporotic mandible in this group of patients is different from that seen in the elderly. Furthermore, the standard ORIF technique can be safely used in this rare group.
Retrograde intramedullary nails with distal screws locked to the nail have higher fatigue strength than locking plates in the treatment of supracondylar femoral fractures: A cadaver-based laboratory investigation.
Pekmezci, M; McDonald, E; Buckley, J; Kandemir, U
We investigated a new intramedullary locking nail that allows the distal interlocking screws to be locked to the nail. We compared fixation using this new implant with fixation using either a conventional nail or a locking plate in a laboratory simulation of an osteoporotic fracture of the distal femur. A total of 15 human cadaver femora were used to simulate an AO 33-A3 fracture pattern. Paired specimens compared fixation using either a locking or non-locking retrograde nail, and using either a locking retrograde nail or a locking plate. The constructs underwent cyclical loading to simulate single-leg stance up to 125,000 cycles. Axial and torsional stiffness and displacement, cycles to failure and modes of failure were recorded for each specimen. When compared with locking plate constructs, locking nail constructs had significantly longer mean fatigue life (75,800 cycles (SD 33,900) vs 12,800 cycles (SD 6100); p = 0.007) and mean axial stiffness (220 N/mm (SD 80) vs 70 N/mm (SD 18); p = 0.005), but lower mean torsional stiffness (2.5 Nm/° (SD 0.9) vs 5.1 Nm/° (SD 1.5); p = 0.008). In addition, in the nail group the mode of failure was either cut-out of the distal screws or breakage of nails, and in the locking plate group breakage of the plate was always the mode of failure. Locking nail constructs had significantly longer mean fatigue life than non-locking nail constructs (78,900 cycles (SD 25,600) vs 52,400 cycles (SD 22,500); p = 0.04). The new locking retrograde femoral nail showed better stiffness and fatigue life than locking plates, and superior fatigue life to non-locking nails, which may be advantageous in elderly patients.
Buß, Fokko Richard; Schulz, Arndt-Peter; Lill, Helmut; Voigt, Christine
Background: Cubitus varus deformity is the most common late complication after distal humeral fractures in children. Typical symptoms are increasing instability especially the posterolateral rotatory instability (POLRI), lateral elbow pain and cosmetic problems. Different ways of correction have been described but a gold standard has not yet been established. Methods: In this study the clinical outcome 6,5 months after supracondylar closed wedge osteotomy stabilized with locking plates in four young adults was investigated: three with a posttraumatic varus deformity and one with a posttraumatic valgus deformity of the distal humerus. Results: All patients showed good or excellent results in the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH). In one case, a revision because of a delayed union was necessary, in another case a preexisting pseudarthrosis of the radial epicondyle remained. Neither a residual instability of the elbow joint, nor any significant prominence of the lateral epicondyle was observed. Conclusion: The supracondylar closed wedge osteotomy stabilized by a locking plate is an effective procedure for the correction of posttraumatic distal humerus deformities in young adults with good final functional results. PMID:22276080
Tafazal, Suhayl; Madan, Sanjeev S; Ali, Farhan; Padman, Manoj; Swift, Simone; Jones, Stanley; Fernandes, James A
The use of circular fixators for the treatment of tibial fractures is well established in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the Ilizarov circular fixator (ICF) with the Taylor spatial frame (TSF) in terms of treatment results in consecutive patients with tibial fractures that required operative management. A retrospective analysis of patient records and radiographs was performed to obtain patient data, information on injury sustained, the operative technique used, time duration in frame, healing time and complications of treatment. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. Ten patients were treated with ICF between 2000 and 2005, while 15 patients have been treated with TSF since 2005. Two of the 10 treated with ICF and 5 of the 15 treated with TSF were open fractures. All patients went on to achieve complete union. Mean duration in the frame was 12.7 weeks for ICF and 14.8 weeks for the TSF group. Two patients in the TSF group had delayed union and required additional procedures including adjustment of fixator and bone grafting. There was one malunion in the TSF group that required osteotomy and reapplication of frame. There were seven and nine pin-site infections in the ICF and TSF groups, respectively, all of which responded to antibiotics. There were no refractures in either group. In an appropriate patient, both types of circular fixator are equally effective but have different characteristics, with TSF allowing for postoperative deformity correction. Of concern are the two cases of delayed union in the TSF group, all in patients with high-energy injuries. We feel another larger study is required to provide further clarity in this matter. Level II-comparative study.
Eber, Ernst; Aurora, Paul; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Lindblad, Anders; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette E; Ross-Russell, Robert I; Turner, Steve W; Midulla, Fabio; Hedlin, Gunilla
The aim of this update is to describe the paediatric highlights from the 2011 European Respiratory Society (ERS) Annual Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Abstracts from all seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Paediatric Respiratory Physiology, Paediatric Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Paediatric Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Paediatric Respiratory Epidemiology, and Paediatric Bronchology) are presented in the context of current literature.
Liberman, M M; Bellman, M H
Two investigations of paediatric manpower in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland were carried out, each using a different method. The first survey located registrars and senior registrars and checked on their occupational status 3 years later in order to see which ones had been promoted. Loss factors--such as emigration, retirement for personal reasons, part-time training, or transfer to general practice, community paediatrics, or other medical specialties--were examined closely. The second survey was a cross-sectional analysis of the entire paediatric establishment. It examined in particular the distribution of consultants and registrars. Using figures from survey 2 and loss factors from survey 1, a model of the paediatric career structure could be constructed. This showed that the present career pyramid would be unable to absorb the current number of registrars in training. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive registration scheme for registrars, especially those with honorary contracts, who are not currently included in official records. Paediatrics is unique in having a high proportion of women for whom there is little opportunity of reconciling career aspirations with family commitments.
Liberman, M M; Bellman, M H
Two investigations of paediatric manpower in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland were carried out, each using a different method. The first survey located registrars and senior registrars and checked on their occupational status 3 years later in order to see which ones had been promoted. Loss factors--such as emigration, retirement for personal reasons, part-time training, or transfer to general practice, community paediatrics, or other medical specialties--were examined closely. The second survey was a cross-sectional analysis of the entire paediatric establishment. It examined in particular the distribution of consultants and registrars. Using figures from survey 2 and loss factors from survey 1, a model of the paediatric career structure could be constructed. This showed that the present career pyramid would be unable to absorb the current number of registrars in training. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive registration scheme for registrars, especially those with honorary contracts, who are not currently included in official records. Paediatrics is unique in having a high proportion of women for whom there is little opportunity of reconciling career aspirations with family commitments. PMID:7125690
Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian
Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle.
Barnacle, Alex M.; Wilkinson, A. Graham; Roebuck, Derek J.
Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.
A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open ... falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the ...
Hofsli, Mikael; Torfing, Trine; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid
Ankle injuries are common among the paediatric population. There are few prospective studies utilizing MRI to diagnose a clinically suspected Salter-Harris type I of the distal fibula (SH1FDF). The aim of this study was to examine the proportion of clinically suspected SH1FDF in children. All paediatric patients with ankle injury, seen at the emergency room from September 2012 to May 2013 at a single institution, underwent a standardized clinical examination, and their radiographs were obtained if found necessary. All images and data were recorded prospectively and patients suspected of having SH1FDF were referred for MRI of the ankle joint. Out of 391 paediatric patients seen at the emergency room with ankle injury, 38 patients had a clinical suspicion of SH1FDF. A total of 31 patients, 18 male and 13 female, with a mean age of 10 ± 2.86 years, were included in the study. Only seven patients were excluded from the study. MRI was obtained on an average of 6.9 ± 2.87 days. None of the included patients had evidence of SH1FDF on MRI. Our study and review of the literature verifies the high false-positive rate of clinically suspected SH1FDF. Most children had ligamentous lesions, bone contusion or joint effusion, rather than SH1FDF.
Arena, C B; Holbert, J A; Hennrikus, W L
The purpose of this study is to report the spectrum of injuries sustained by competitive paediatric motocross athletes at a level I trauma centre. A retrospective study of paediatric competitive motocross injuries treated at a level I trauma centre between 2004 and 2014 was performed. Athletes were included if aged less than 18 years and injured while practising or competing on a competitive motocross track. Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, race, location of accident, use of safety equipment, mechanism of injury, injury type and severity, Glasgow Coma Score at hospital presentation and Injury Severity Score (ISS). In total, 35 athletes were studied. The average age was 14 years. One athlete died. Thirty athletes were injured during competition; five were injured during practice. Twenty-four athletes (69%) suffered an orthopaedic injury with a total of 32 fractures and two dislocations. Two fractures were open (6.3%). Lower extremity fractures were twice as common as upper extremity fractures. Surgery was more common for lower extremity fractures-83% versus 30%. The most common fractures were femoral shaft (18.8%), fibula (12.5%), clavicle (12.5%), tibial shaft (9.4%) and forearm (9.4%). Competitive paediatric motocross athletes suffer serious, potentially life-threatening injuries despite the required use of protective safety equipment. Femoral shaft, fibula and clavicle were found to be the most commonly fractured bones. Further prospective research into track regulations, protective equipment and course design may reduce the trauma burden in this athlete population.
Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia
The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186
Solfelt, D A; Hill, B W; Anderson, C P; Cole, P A
Cubitus varus is the most frequent complication following the treatment of supracondylar humeral fractures in children. We investigated data from publications reporting on the surgical management of cubitus varus found in electronic searches of Ovid/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases. In 894 children from 40 included studies, the mean age at initial injury was 5.7 years (3 to 8.6) and 9.8 years (4 to 15.7) at the time of secondary correction. The four osteotomy techniques were classified as lateral closing wedge, dome, complex (multiplanar) and distraction osteogenesis. A mean angular correction of 27.6º (18.5° to 37.0°) was achieved across all classes of osteotomy. The meta-analytical summary estimate for overall rate of good to excellent results was 87.8% (95% CI 84.4 to 91.2). No technique was shown to significantly affect the surgical outcome, and the risk of complications across all osteotomy classes was 14.5% (95% CI 10.6 to 18.5). Nerve palsies occurred in 2.53% of cases (95% CI 1.4 to 3.6), although 78.4% were transient. No one technique was found to be statistically safer or more effective than any other.
Slover, James; Gibson, Jennifer; Tosteson, Tor; Smith, Brian; Koval, Kenneth
Disparity in the treatment of various medical conditions in patient groups with differing racial and economic backgrounds has increasingly been reported. This paper examines the relationship between baseline racial and economic factors and the treatment of pediatric long-bone fractures. The 2000 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) was used to retrospectively examine the incidence and treatment of pediatric fractures. Data were included for supracondylar humerus (n = 2,957), femoral shaft (n = 1,726) or radius and ulna forearm fracture (n = 828) as their primary diagnosis were studied. Hispanic (78%) and black (82%) patients were more likely to receive closed reduction with internal fixation (percutaneous pinning) of supracondylar humerus fractures than whites (73%, P = 0.02). Despite a fairly large sample size, differences in treatment of supracondylar humerus fractures across primary payer or income groups were not statistically significant. Patients with femur fractures and private insurance were more likely to be treated with an external fixation device (7.2%) than patients in the Medicaid (3.8%) or self-pay (4.5%) groups (P = 0.015). No statistically significant difference was found in the treatment of forearm fractures across racial, primary payer or income groups. Racial and economic disparity is an important issue in medicine today. This study did demonstrate statistically significant differences in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humerus across racial groups, with Blacks and Hispanics being more likely to receive percutaneous pinning of these injuries than Whites. Private insurance patients were also more likely to have femoral shaft fractures treated with an external fixator device than patients with Medicaid or self-pay as their primary payer. However, the clinical significance of these differences is not clear. Further research is needed to gain a more complete understanding of disparities in medicine
Osteoporosis, a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength and an increased risk of fractures, is an important paediatric disorder that involves almost all paediatric subspecialties. Osteogenesis imperfecta is the most common form of childhood-onset primary osteoporosis, but several other forms are also known. Secondary osteoporosis is caused by an underlying chronic illness or its treatment. The most common causes of secondary osteoporosis include chronic systemic inflammation, glucocorticoid use and neuromuscular disabilities. The skeletal sequelae can present in childhood as low-energy peripheral and vertebral fractures, or become evident in adulthood as low bone mass and an increased propensity to develop osteoporosis. Management should aim at prevention, as interventions to treat symptomatic osteoporosis in the paediatric age group are scarce. Bisphosphonates are the principal pharmacological agents that can be used in this setting, but data on their efficacy and safety in paediatric populations remain inadequate, especially in patients with secondary osteoporosis. Consequently, it is important to understand the potential skeletal effects of paediatric illnesses and their therapies in order to institute effective and timely prevention of skeletal complications.
Clarke, Nicholas M P; Page, Jonathan E
At the turn of the last century, rickets (vitamin D deficiency) was one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases of the paediatric population presenting to physicians. Today, the most common referral pathway for these patients ends in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical entity that can affect all children and should be looked for in all children with musculoskeletal symptoms. The child at risk of rickets is now white, breastfed, protected from the sun and obese. Vitamin D deficiency can present as atypical muscular pain, pathological fractures or slipped upper femoral epiphysis. Obesity is linked with lower vitamin D levels; however, in the paediatric population, this does not necessarily equal clinical disorder. Vitamin D supplements can be used to reduce the risk of pathological fractures in the cerebral palsy child. It should also form part of the differential diagnosis in the work-up of nonaccidental injuries. Children with a low vitamin D present with a higher incidence of fractures from normal activities. Vitamin D levels need to be assessed before any form of orthopaedic surgery, as it can affect growth, both in the diaphysis of the bone and in the growth plate. Vitamin D levels are a key element in the successful practice of paediatric orthopaedics. It is not just the possible cause of disorder presenting to the clinician but also extremely important in ensuring the successful postoperative recovery of the patient.
Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J
As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.
Tonkin, Roger Sherriff
The concept of ‘community paediatrics’, as enunciated by Robert Haggerty in 1968, has informed and shaped many paediatric careers. The principle tenets of inclusiveness: attention to unmet needs; addressing common health problems of children and youth; using and applying preventive and harm-reduction strategies; and securing community input and control, were part of the Haggerty model. The present article revisits Haggerty’s model and describes how the concepts have shaped contemporary paediatrics in North America. PMID:23277752
One of the notable shifts in Paediatrics across the last 50 years has been towards disorders that are chronic and qualitative in nature. In addition to physical health, these impact on childhood development, behaviour and wellbeing. Understanding and management of these problems extends the traditional biological toolkit of paediatrics into the complexities of uncertainties of psychological and social context. In Australasia, the profession has responded with the development of Community Paediatrics as a recognised sub-specialty, of which Neurodevelopmental and Behavioural Paediatrics is an important component. These developments are reviewed along with consideration of future challenges for this field of health care. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Slongo, Theddy F; Audigé, Laurent
The AO Pediatric Expert Group and the AO Pediatric Classification Group, in cooperation with the AO Investigation and Documentation Group introduce and present the first comprehensive classification of pediatric long bone fractures. The anatomy is related to the 4 long bones and their 3 segments defined as proximal (1), shaft (2) and distal (3). It is further described by the fracture subsegment recorded as epiphyseal (E), metaphyseal (M) and diaphyseal (D), whereby proximal and distal fractures are classified as E or M and shaft fractures are always D. The distinction between metaphyseal and diaphyseal fractures is achieved by localizing the center of fracture lines with regard to a square drawn over the respective growth plates. The morphology of the fracture is documented by a subsegment-specific child pattern code, a severity code as well as an additional code for displacement of specific fractures such as supracondylar fractures and radial heads. The classification process requires trained observers to read standard radiographic images.
Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Rottier, Bart; Lindblad, Anders; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr; Eber, Ernst
This update will describe the paediatric highlights from the 2013 European Respiratory Society (ERS) annual congress in Barcelona, Spain. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) have been chosen by group officers and are presented in the context of current literature. ©ERS 2014.
Midulla, Fabio; Lombardi, Enrico; Pijnenburg, Marielle; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M.; Grigg, Jonathan; Bohlin, Kajsa; Rusconi, Franca; Pohunek, Petr
The aim of this article is to describe paediatric highlights from the 2014 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Munich, Germany. Abstracts from the seven groups of the ERS Paediatric Assembly (Respiratory Physiology and Sleep, Asthma and Allergy, Cystic Fibrosis, Respiratory Infection and Immunology, Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, Respiratory Epidemiology, and Bronchology) are presented in the context of the current literature. PMID:27730136
Arena, C. B.; Holbert, J. A.; Hennrikus, W. L.
Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the spectrum of injuries sustained by competitive paediatric motocross athletes at a level I trauma centre. Patients and Methods A retrospective study of paediatric competitive motocross injuries treated at a level I trauma centre between 2004 and 2014 was performed. Athletes were included if aged less than 18 years and injured while practising or competing on a competitive motocross track. Medical records were reviewed for age, gender, race, location of accident, use of safety equipment, mechanism of injury, injury type and severity, Glasgow Coma Score at hospital presentation and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Results In total, 35 athletes were studied. The average age was 14 years. One athlete died. Thirty athletes were injured during competition; five were injured during practice. Twenty-four athletes (69%) suffered an orthopaedic injury with a total of 32 fractures and two dislocations. Two fractures were open (6.3%). Lower extremity fractures were twice as common as upper extremity fractures. Surgery was more common for lower extremity fractures—83% versus 30%. The most common fractures were femoral shaft (18.8%), fibula (12.5%), clavicle (12.5%), tibial shaft (9.4%) and forearm (9.4%). Conclusions Competitive paediatric motocross athletes suffer serious, potentially life-threatening injuries despite the required use of protective safety equipment. Femoral shaft, fibula and clavicle were found to be the most commonly fractured bones. Further prospective research into track regulations, protective equipment and course design may reduce the trauma burden in this athlete population. PMID:28828059
The Hugh Greenwood Lecture acknowledges the extremely generous support from Mr Greenwood that has enabled the BAPS to establish funds to advance paediatric surgical training in developing countries. In this Inaugural Lecture, Dr. Sekabira, the first Hugh Greenwood Fellow, describes the influence that this has had on his career and reviews the state of paediatric surgery in Uganda.
Barbato, A; Bertuola, F; Kuehni, C; Korppi, M; Kotecha, S; Pijnenburg, M W; Ratjen, F; Seddon, P; Bush, A
The aim of this report is to describe the highlights of the European Respiratory Society annual congress in Berlin, Germany. The best abstracts in asthma and allergy, cystic fibrosis, respiratory infection, paediatric and neonatal intensive care, paediatric investigative techniques (in particular respiratory physiology and bronchoscopy) and respiratory epidemiology are presented and set in the context of the current literature.
Study protocol of a randomised controlled trial of intranasal ketamine compared with intranasal fentanyl for analgesia in children with suspected, isolated extremity fractures in the paediatric emergency department
Reynolds, Stacy L; Studnek, Jonathan R; Bryant, Kathleen; VanderHave, Kelly; Grossman, Eric; Moore, Charity G; Young, James; Hogg, Melanie; Runyon, Michael S
Introduction Fentanyl is the most widely studied intranasal (IN) analgesic in children. IN subdissociative (INSD) ketamine may offer a safe and efficacious alternative to IN fentanyl and may decrease overall opioid use during the emergency department (ED) stay. This study examines the feasibility of a larger, multicentre clinical trial comparing the safety and efficacy of INSD ketamine to IN fentanyl and the potential role for INSD ketamine in reducing total opioid medication usage. Methods and analysis This double-blind, randomised controlled, pilot trial will compare INSD ketamine (1 mg/kg) to IN fentanyl (1.5 μg/kg) for analgesia in 80 children aged 4–17 years with acute pain from a suspected, single extremity fracture. The primary safety outcome for this pilot trial will be the frequency of cumulative side effects and adverse events at 60 min after drug administration. The primary efficacy outcome will be exploratory and will be the mean reduction of pain scale scores at 20 min. The study is not powered to examine efficacy. Secondary outcome measures will include the total dose of opioid pain medication in morphine equivalents/kg/hour (excluding study drug) required during the ED stay, number and reason for screen failures, time to consent, and the number and type of protocol deviations. Patients may receive up to 2 doses of study drug. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, the local institutional review board and the study data safety monitoring board. This study data will be submitted for publication regardless of results and will be used to establish feasibility for a multicentre, non-inferiority trial. Trial registration number NCT02521415. PMID:27609854
Beckmann, Nicholas M; Crawford, Lindsay
Neonatal Salter-Harris I fractures of the distal humerus are a rare injury. This injury can be easily mistaken for a posterior elbow dislocation, creating a delay in diagnosis. We present a case of a neonate with a distal humerus Salter-Harris I fracture secondary to trauma during delivery. The patient presented with pseudoparesis of the left arm following birth. Posterior displacement of the elbow was identified on radiographs. Ultrasound of the elbow was performed after a gentle closed reduction of the left elbow was unsuccessful. A transphyseal supracondylar distal humerus fracture was identified on ultrasound. The patient subsequently had an intraoperative left elbow arthrogram to assist in visualization of the supracondylar fracture during closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. At 2-month follow-up, the patient was neurologically intact with full passive range of motion and had normal alignment of the capitellar ossification center and distal humerus on follow-up radiographs.
Estrade, Marie; Tessier-Levêque, Mélanie; Wanquet-Thibault, Pascale
Restraint in general, and particularly when giving paediatric care, is a sensitive subject. This practice continues to appear often as a solution when children are disorientated or struggle during care. However, it is generally traumatic for the different care agents: the child, the parent and the care-giver. Reflection on this subject has been carried out after exchanges with professionals about the use of restraint with children aged 2-4 during paediatric emergency care.
Pincus, Daniel; Morrison, Steven; Gargan, Martin F.; Camp, Mark W.
Background: Operative management of pediatric fractures is an expected competency in the specialty of Orthopedic Surgery. However, specialized pediatric centres may be providing care for increasing numbers of patients with fractures previously treated at community hospitals. The primary objective of this study was to examine trends in presentation of children with fractures to a specialized pediatric centre. Methods: We performed a detailed chart review to examine trends in presentation of children aged 14 years or less with supracondylar humerus or femur fractures to a specialized pediatric centre (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto) from anywhere in the Greater Toronto Area between Apr. 1, 2008, and Mar. 31, 2015. Consecutive patients admitted to hospital and requiring operative intervention for a supracondylar humerus or femur fracture were considered. We calculated changes in operation incidence rates per year using multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results: A total of 945 children with supracondylar humerus fractures and 421 with femur fractures underwent operative intervention during the study period. The baseline characteristics of the 2 groups were similar irrespective of which year fixation occurred. The annual incidence rate of supracondylar humerus fractures increased from 108 to 169 (56.5%) over the study period, at an adjusted rate of 7.5% per year (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.072-1.079, p < 0.001). The annual incidence rate of femur fractures increased from 49 to 69 (40.8%), at an adjusted rate of 5.3% per year (adjusted IRR 1.053, 95% CI 1.044-1.062, p < 0.001). Significant increases were observed independent of fracture classification, stabilization method, whether patients were transferred from an outside hospital or presented directly, patient geographic location or the season in which the fracture occurred. Interpretation: Adjusted annual incidence rates of supracondylar humerus and
Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo
Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144
Regular analysis of the major journals in dermatology and paediatrics has been used to select forty articles which are representative of the past year in paediatric dermatology. This selection is not exhaustive but rather reflects the interests of the author and also the dominant topics in paediatric dermatology in 2013-2014.
Theodore, Jane E; Theodore, Sigrid G; Stockton, Kellie A; Kimble, Roy M
This retrospective cohort study reported on the epidemiology of horse-related injuries for patients presenting to the only tertiary paediatric trauma hospital in Queensland. The secondary outcome was to examine the use of helmets and adult supervision. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in relation to helmet use. Morbidity and mortality were also recorded. Included were all patients presenting with any horse-related trauma to the Royal Children's Hospital in Brisbane from January 2008 to August 2014. Data were retrospectively collected on patient demographics, hospital length of stay (LOS), mechanism of injury (MOI), safety precautions taken, diagnoses and surgical procedures performed. Included in the analysis were 187 incidents involving 171 patients. Most patients were aged 12-14 years (36.9%) and female (84.5%). The most common MOI were falls while riding horses (97.1%). Mild TBI (24.6%) and upper limb fractures (20.9%) were common injuries sustained. Patients who wore helmets had significantly reduced hospital LOS and severity of TBI when compared with those who did not wear helmets (P < 0.001 and P = 0.028, respectively). Morbidity was reported in 7.5% of patients. There were three deaths in Queensland. Helmet use is recommended for non-riders when handling horses, in addition to being a compulsory requirement whilst horse riding. Prompts in documentation may assist doctors to record the use of safety attire and adult supervision. This will allow future studies to further investigate these factors in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Cameron, Hugh U.; Botsford, Deke J.; Park, Youn-Soo
Objective To identify the demographic and operative factors that determine outcome in supracondylar femoral osteotomy for lateral compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. Design Clinical and radiologic review of a nonrandomized, consecutive one-surgeon series. Setting A university-affiliated, elective surgical referral centre. Patients Forty-nine consecutive patients with unicompartmental osteoarthritis of the knee, involving the lateral compartment, and of sufficient severity that the alternative surgical procedure would be total knee replacement. Intervention Supracondylar varus osteotomy stabilized with a blade plate. Main outcome measures Knee function measured by the Knee Society Score and time to conversion to total knee replacement. Results A Knee Society Score greater than 80 was obtained in 81% of patients, but in the function portion of the measurement only 30% had a similar score. After discarding the patients who died, life-table analysis demonstrated the predicted survival before conversion to total knee replacement to be 87% at 7 years. There was no correlation with patient age or sex, femorotibial angulation, amount of correction or time after the intervention. Removal of the fixation device improved the clinical result. Conclusion The role of supracondylar femoral osteotomy remains poorly defined, but the procedure can delay total knee replacement for considerable time in appropriate patients. PMID:9126124
Barben, Jürg; Bohlin, Kajsa; Everard, Mark L.; Hall, Graham; Pijnenburg, Mariëlle; Priftis, Kostas N.; Rusconi, Franca; Midulla, Fabio
The Paediatric Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) maintained its high profile at the 2015 ERS International Congress in Amsterdam. There were symposia on preschool wheeze, respiratory sounds and cystic fibrosis; an educational skills workshop on paediatric respiratory resuscitation; a hot topic session on risk factors and early origins of respiratory diseases; a meet the expert session on paediatric lung function test reference values; and the annual paediatric grand round. In this report the Chairs of the Paediatric Assembly's Groups highlight the key messages from the abstracts presented at the Congress. PMID:27730186
Pollack, Allan; Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena
A 2011 BEACH-based study showed that over the past 40 years there has been increasing general practitioner (GP) involvement in the management of paediatric mental health in Australia. There has also been a changing mix of psychological conditions managed, including increased management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Firica, A; Troianescu, O; Petre, M
The authors discuss their use of Ender's method in the treatment of fractures of the femur. The diameter and length of the nails depends on the type of fracture. 1) Three nails of 4 mm diameter are introduced in parallel from the medial condyle in fractures of the femoral neck; 2) 5 mm nails are used, in similar fashion, for the fixation of intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures; 3) 5 mm nails are used for diaphyseal, supracondylar and intercondylar fractures, introduced in crossed fashion ("Eiffel Tower" technique) from both medial and lateral condyles. This method of fixation has proved to be extremely stable. The operation itself is quick, with no blood loss or shock. The patient can resume partial weight bearing after a week in stabilised intertrochanteric and shaft fractures, after a month in less stable types, and after three to four months in fractures of the neck of the femur. This report is based on the first 250 cases treated by this method.
Population pharmacokinetic (PK) approach is now often used to evaluate PK characteristics of a new compound during its clinical development. Recently, new legislation governing the development and authorization of medicines for use in children aged 0-17 years was introduced in the European Union. Among the strategies proposed in relation to clinical aspects, use of population PKs is stated. In this manuscript, comparison between standard PK and population PK methods will be briefly addressed to understand why the second is particularly adapted to perform PK studies in paediatrics. Then, specific patients' characteristics (covariates) in paediatrics will be presented. Examples of PK and PK-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) studies will be finally given. The number of population PK studies published still exceeds largely those of PK-PD.
Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis
A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821
Paediatric sports injuries are common. Fortunately, most children self-modulate their activity levels when injured until they recover, but some will seek medical help. Injury pattern varies with age, mechanism and the chosen sport. The aim of this article is to give a general overview of some of the more common paediatric sports injuries, including common patterns of pathogenesis, the effects of growth and biomechanics on tissue load, and issues particular to specific sports. The immature body has different strength ratios of bone, muscle and tendon, and is constantly developing coordination and body awareness, which are affected by growth and neurological maturation. When planning the return to sport after an injury, the demands of the chosen sport, hours and periodisation of training, and requirements of schooling need to be considered. Bio-mechanical issues are best addressed early in treatment to improve return-to-activity outcomes.
Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis
A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.
Avez-Couturier, Justine; Wood, Chantal
There are a number of different types of analgesics in paediatrics. They must be used in accordance with the situation, the type of pain and the characteristics of the child. In all cases, strict compliance with the posology and the instructions for use is essential to avoid any risk of error. Finally, pharmacological, physical and psychological treatments are employed in a complementary manner, for the biopsychosocial management of the child's care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Altet Gómez, N; Baquero-Artigao, F; Escribano Montaner, A; Gómez-Pastrana Durán, D; González Montero, R; Mellado Peña, M J; Rodrigo-Gonzalo-de-Liria, C; Ruiz Serrano, M J
Tuberculosis is one of the most important health problems worldwide. There are an increasing number of cases, including children, due to different reasons in developed countries. The most likely determining cause is immigration from highly endemic areas. Measures to optimise early and appropriate diagnosis of the different forms of tuberculosis in children are a real priority. Two Societies of the Spanish Paediatric Association (Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectology and Spanish Society of Paediatric Pneumology) have agreed this Consensus Document in order to homogenise diagnostic criteria in paediatric patients.
Stoyanova-Beninska, Violeta V; Wohlfarth, Tamar; Isaac, Maria; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; van den Berg, Henk; Gispen-de Wied, Christine
Child and adolescent psychiatry is a relatively young field and the recognition, classification, and treatment of disorders in children and adolescents lag behind those in adults. In recent years there is an increasing awareness of the differences between children and adults in psychopathology and pharmacology. Related to this new paediatric regulations have been introduced. This article reviews the regulatory and legislative measures that were adopted in the EU in 2007 and the subsequent impact of these measures on the field of paediatric psychopharmacology. The consequences of the paediatric regulation in the EU are reflected in several domains: regulatory, research aimed at drug development and clinical practices. In the regulatory domain, the consequences include: new paediatric indications, inclusion of special (class) warnings, specification of dose regimens, and information on safety specific to children and adolescents, and development of new medicinal formulations. The paediatric regulation leads to timely development of paediatric friendly formulations and better quality of the clinical evidence. In clinical practices, an increased awareness of the uniqueness of paediatric pharmacology is emerging among medical professionals, and subsequent improvement of medical care (i.e. correct doses, appropriate formulation, monitoring for expected adverse events). In addition, clinical guidelines will have to be revised more frequently in order to integrate the recently acquired knowledge. The new regulations stimulate transparency and discussions between academia, pharmaceutical industry, and regulators. The purpose is to optimize clinical research and obtain evidence for paediatric psychopharmacology, thereby providing adequate support for treatment.
Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A; Danish, Qazi
Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation.
Manaan, Qazi; Bashir, Adil; Zahoor, Adnan; Mokhdomi, Taseem A.
Floating arm injury represents a common yet complicated injury of the childhood severely associated with limb deformation and even morbidity, if not precisely addressed and credibly operated. Here, we report a rare floating upper limb case of a 9-year-old boy with multiple injuries of ipsilateral proximal humeral, supracondylar and distal radial limb. This is the first report to document such a combined floating elbow and floating arm injury in the same limb. In this report, we discuss the surgical procedures used and recovery of the patient monitored to ascertain the effectiveness of the method in limb reorganisation. PMID:27583121
Shores, Jaimie T; Higgins, James P; Lee, W P Andrew
Vascularized composite allotransplantation, also known as "Reconstructive Transplantation" is becoming more commonplace worldwide. Hand and upper extremity transplantation make up the majority of clinical vascularized composite allotransplantation cases performed so far. As success with reconstructive transplantation becomes more common, more challenging examples of limb loss are being addressed, including above-elbow, or "supracondylar" upper extremity transplants. Although very few of these cases have been performed worldwide, the authors' experience includes the only 2 cases performed in the United States at the time of this report. This article will discuss indications, challenges, surgical technique, expected outcomes, and alternative technologies for treatment of limb loss above the elbow.
Turk, Gamze; Kabakus, Ismail M.; Akpinar, Erhan
Cervical fractures are rare in paediatric population. In younger children, cervical fractures usually occur above the level of C4; whereas in older population, fractures or dislocations more commonly involve the lower cervical spine. Greater elasticity of intervertebral ligaments and also the spinal vertebrae explains why cervical fractures in paediatric ages are rare. The injury usually results from a symmetric or asymmetric axial loading. In paediatric cases, most fractures occur through the synchondroses which are the weakest links of the atlas. The prognosis depends on the severity of the spinal cord injury. In this case, we presented an anterior fracture in synchondrosis of atlas after falling on head treated with cervical collar. There was no neurologic deficit for the following 2 years. PMID:24327927
Abuamara, S; Dacher, J N; Lechevallier, J
Fracture of the atlas vertebra is rare in children. We report two paediatric cases of bifocal pedicular fracture of the posterior arch of C1. Evaluation was performed by nonenhanced computed tomography scan, which successively confirmed both diagnosis and healing. In both cases, nonoperative management was successful.
Garcia-Lopez, Isabel; Peñorrocha-Teres, Julio; Perez-Ortin, Magdalena; Cerpa, Mauricio; Rabanal, Ignacio; Gavilan, Javier
Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is a relatively common cause of stridor and dysphonia in the paediatric population. This report summarises our experience with VFP in the paediatric age group. All patients presenting with vocal fold paralysis over a 12-month period were included. Medical charts were revised retrospectively. The diagnosis was performed by flexible endoscopic examination. The cases were evaluated with respect to aetiology of the paralysis, presenting symptoms, delay in diagnosis, affected side, vocal fold position, need for surgical treatment and outcome. The presenting symptoms were stridor and dysphonia. Iatrogenic causes formed the largest group, followed by idiopathic, neurological and obstetric VFP. Unilateral paralysis was found in most cases. The median value for delay in diagnosis was 1 month and it was significantly higher in the iatrogenic group. Surgical treatment was not necessary in most part of cases. The diagnosis of VFP may be suspected based on the patient's symptoms and confirmed by flexible endoscopy. Infants who develop stridor or dysphonia following a surgical procedure have to be examined without delay. The surgeon has to keep in mind that there is a possibility of late spontaneous recovery or compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Biassoni, Lorenzo; Easty, Marina
Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject. Nuclear medicine imaging is well-established in paediatric nephro-urology in the context of urinary tract infection, ante-natally diagnosed hydronephrosis and other congenital renal anomalies. Also, in paediatric oncology, I-123-meta-iodobenzyl-guanidine has a key role in the management of children with neuroblastic tumours. Bone scintigraphy is still highly valuable to localize the source of symptoms in children and adolescents with bone pain when other imaging techniques have failed. Thyroid scintigraphy in neonates with congenital hypothyroidism is the most accurate imaging technique to confirm the presence of ectopic functioning thyroid tissue. Radionuclide transit studies of the gastro-intestinal tract are potentially useful in suspected gastroparesis or small bowel or colonic dysmotility. However, until now a standardized protocol and a validated normal range have not been agreed, and more work is necessary. Research is ongoing on whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its great advantage of great anatomical detail and no ionizing radiations, can replace nuclear medicine imaging in some clinical context. On the other hand, access to MRI is often difficult in many district general hospitals and general anaesthesia is frequently required, thus adding to the complexity of the examination. Patients with bone pain and no cause for it demonstrated on MRI can benefit from bone scintigraphy with single photon emission tomography and low-dose computed tomography. This technique can identify areas of mechanical stress at
Patel, Ramnik; Kumar, Hemant; More, Bharat; Patricolo, Mario
We present a case of recurrent painful blisters of middle phalanx of the left ring finger of a 15-month-old previously healthy and immunocompetent female child. These lesions initially were confused with infective bacterial whitlow, treated with incision and drainage, and later with cigarette burns which led to referral to child protection team. Paediatric dermatologist finally diagnosed after scrapping and virology culture. The patient had recovery following full treatment with topical and systemic acyclovir. She presented again at the age of 4 with recurrence which required topical and systemic acyclovir therapy with good recovery. It is important to be aware of the danger of incorrect diagnosis, raising child protection concerns and management leading to danger of cross infection and serious illness especially in the immunocompromised patients.
Hall, C.M.; Lingam, S.
This book is a case study teaching manual presenting radiographs and examples of other imaging modalities from 100 paediatric patients. The material comes from the radiological teaching collection at the Hospital for Sick Children at Great Ormond Street in London and was compiled over a ten year period. With each case a short clinical history is given and a series of questions posed, similar to those encountered in postgraduate medical examinations. Sample answers with comments and more illustrations are presented on the following page. The last decade has seen a rapid expansion in the range and sophistication of diagnostic imaging modalities which are available to clinicians. Since it is impossible to achieve comprehensive coverage in a book of this size, the authors have selected examples of cases which illustrate the range of imaging modalities currently available and which may be encountered in both clinical practice and in examinations.
Garcia-Algar, Óscar; Cuadrado González, Ainoha; Falcon, María
The prevalence of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse in paediatric patients, from the neonatal period to adolescence, is not well established as most cases go unnoticed. Regardless of clinical cases of acute poisoning leading to visits to emergency room, the exposure is usually detected by a questionnaire to the parents or children. In the last few years, new validated analytical methodologies have been developed in order to detect parent drugs and their metabolites in different biological matrices. These biological matrices have different time windows for detection of the exposure: acute (i.e., urine, blood, oral fluid), and chronic (i.e., hair, meconium or teeth). The aim of this paper was to review the scenarios where the use of biological matrices is indicated for the detection of acute or chronic exposure to substances of abuse.
Rozycki, Henry J; Zhao, Wei
Interleukins are critical immune modulators and since their first description in 1977, there has been a steady increase in the recognition of their roles in many paediatric respiratory diseases. This basic and clinical knowledge is now maturing into both approved and investigational therapies aimed at blocking or modifying the interleukin response. The purpose of this review is to bring up to date what is known about interleukin function in paediatric pulmonology, focusing on nine important lung conditions. This is followed by summaries about 18 interleukins which have been associated with these paediatric pulmonary conditions. Throughout, emphasis is placed on where interventions have been tested. Over the next several years, it is likely that many more treatments based on interleukin biology and function will become available and understanding the basis for these therapies will allow the practicing paediatric pulmonologist to take appropriate advantage of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.
Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913
In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes. In paediatric ethics, the story of the last 50 years is a bit more complicated. In ethics, the idea of progress, rather than just change, is not so straightforward and is sometimes hotly contested. There has certainly been change, including some quite radical shifts in attitudes and practices, but on some issues, the ethical debate now looks remarkably similar to that of 40-50 years ago. This is the story of some things that have changed in paediatric ethics, some things that have stayed the same and the key ethical ideas lying beneath the surface.
Spriggs, Merle; Caldwell, Patrina H Y
Paediatric research is essential for improving health outcomes of children. Waiting for adult studies before conducting paediatric studies will prolong the denial of effective treatment for children. If we rely on information from adult studies rather than conducting studies with children, we risk causing harm to children. In this paper, we identify and examine ethical issues unique to conducting research with children. These include the function and the value of a child's assent and the criteria that should guide a proxy in making decisions about a child's involvement in research, offering payment to children for research participation and acceptable levels of risk for paediatric research. Justice demands that children not be denied the benefits of research, and it is the role of the paediatric medical community to advocate not only for more research for children but also to ensure that the research conducted is of the highest quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Mortazavi, S M J; Heidari, P; Esfandiari, H; Motamedi, M
Flexion deformity of the haemophilic knee is a considerable cause of disability and may need to be managed surgically in severe cases. We have used a trapezoid supracondylar femoral extension osteotomy to correct severe knee flexion deformity. Nine severe haemophilic patients with contractures >30 degrees that were unresponsive to conservative measures underwent 11 trapezoid osteotomies. The angle of deformity was measured using anteroposterior and lateral knee X-ray films at maximum extension. Factor levels of 80-100% were achieved before the operation. A trapezoid osteotomy of the distal femur bone was performed using a lateral approach. The frontal plane angular deformity (if any) was corrected at the same time. The osteotomy site was fixed using an Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteo synthesefragen (AO) condylar blade plate. Following surgery, the knee was supported by a plaster splint at 20 degrees of flexion. Physiotherapy was started on third postoperative day and continued three times a week. There was no serious complication. The deformities were corrected in all of the patients and the mean range of motion increased form 68.6 degrees to 98.1 degrees . Bleeding episodes decreased in all four knees which had a bleeding score of 3 before surgery. Using the Orthopaedic Advisory Committee of the World Federation of Haemophilia scores, nine good and two fair results were obtained. All patients regained the ability to walk for both short and long distance without any aid, climb the stairs, bath, and use public transportation. Trapezoid supracondylar femoral extension osteotomy should be considered in the surgical management of severe haemophilic flexion deformity of the knee joint.
Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina
In paediatrics, there are 2 liver disorders in which liver damage most likely stems from an autoimmune attack: 'classical' autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and the AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome (also known as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, ASC). The presentation of childhood autoimmune liver disease (AILD) is non-specific and can mimic most other liver disorders. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted promptly to prevent rapid deterioration and promote remission and long-term survival. Difficult-to-treat or non-responsive patients should be treated with mycophenolate mofetil; if this fails then calcineurin inhibitors can be tried. Persistent failure to respond or lack of adherence to treatment result in end-stage liver disease. These patients, and those with fulminant liver failure at diagnosis, will require liver transplantation. ASC responds to the same immunosuppressive treatment used for AIH when treatment is initiated early. Abnormal liver function tests often resolve within a few months of treatment, although medium- to long-term prognosis is worse than that of AIH because bile duct disease continues to progress despite treatment in approximately 50% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid is usually added to conventional treatment regimen in ASC, but whether this actually helps arrest the progression of bile duct disease remains to be established. The pathogenesis of paediatric-onset AILD is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4pos T-cells. While Th1 effector cells are associated with hepatocyte damage in both AIH and ASC, Th17 immune responses predominate in the latter where they correlate with biochemical indices of cholestasis, indicating that IL-17 is involved in the
Ho, W S; Ying, S Y; Wong, T W
Child abuse and neglect account for a significant number of paediatric burn injuries. It is of great importance because of the high mortality, high frequency of repeated abuse, as well as the physical, psychological and social sequelae that it causes. Burn abuse is often under-recognized and under-reported because it is difficult to define non-accidental injury. On the other hand, false accusation of burn abuse is extremely damaging to the family. Bizarre and unusual burn injuries can be caused by accident and should not automatically be assumed to be deliberate injury. Three boys of age 1-7 years with bizarre facial burns were admitted to the Burns Unit at the Prince of Wales Hospital between February 1995 and July 1999. One was burned by his baby-sitter with hot water steam and the other two were burned by their mothers with hot boiled eggs. The unusual causes of their burns raised the suspicion of child abuse and formal investigations were carried out by the Social Services Department. Detail assessment including a developmental history of the child and the psychosocial assessment of the family revealed that these three boys were burned because of poor medical advice and innocent cultural belief.
Appleyard, W J; Jackson, A D
The British Paediatric Association (BPA) has carried out a national survey of paediatric medical manpower in the hospital and community child health services. The results of the survey relating to England and Wales are presented and compared with Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS) manpower statistics. On the basis of the survey findings and current trends in the pattern of paediatric care paediatric manpower requirements over the next 10 years are estimated. PMID:3178274
Gnessin, Ehud; Chertin, Leonid; Chertin, Boris
We aimed to review a current management of paediatric nephrolithiasis. The current literature, including our own experience on the treatment of paediatric nephrolithiasis was reviewed by MEDLINE/PubMed search. We have used in our search following keywords: urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, paediatrics, surgical treatment, conservative management, ESWL, ureteroscopy, and open renal surgery. The search was limited to the English language literature during the period of time from 1990 to 2011. All papers were reviewed independently by all co-authors and only the manuscripts directly related to the reviewed subjects were included into the current review. Due to the high incidence of predisposing factors for urolithiasis in children and high stone recurrence rates, every child with urinary stone should be given a complete metabolic evaluation. Most stones in children can be managed by ESWL and endoscopic techniques. Paediatric stone disease is an important clinical problem in paediatric urology practice. Because of its recurrent nature, every effort should be made to discover the underlying metabolic abnormality so that it can be treated appropriately. Obtaining a stone-free state with interventional management and close follow-up are of utmost importance.
Harris, C C; McNicholas, J J K
Our recent experience of paediatric critical care during UK military operations in Afghanistan is discussed alongside consideration of the background to the paediatric critical care service on deployment. We describe the intensive care unit's capabilities, details of recent paediatric critical care admissions during July to September 2008 and some of the ethical issues arising. Some desirable future developments will be suggested.
... may have been drinking alcohol or is otherwise impaired. Alternative Names Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture Images Skull of an adult Skull fracture Skull fracture ...
Kumar, Virendra; Jumali, Ismail Bin
The main aim of this study was to determine the causes and epidemiological aspects of paediatric death. Data was collected on 143 cases of paediatric death from a total of 2,895 autopsies performed in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, over a five-year period from 2000 to 2004. There were 78 males and 65 females. The largest number of cases (32.9%) were stillborn. The highest proportion of cases (30.1%) were Chinese. The majority of cases of paediatric death were non-traumatic (74.8%) of which intrauterine death (IUD) was the most common (32.9%). Amongst the traumatic deaths (25.2%), accidental injury (23.8%) was observed in the majority of cases.
van't Hoff, William G
The aetiology of stones in children differs from that in adults. Young children, especially boys, are prone to infective stones, although this type of calculi is decreasing in frequency over time in prosperous countries. Two monogenic causes, cystinuria and hyperoxaluria, each account for 5-15% of paediatric stones. Increased factors for stone formation in children include prematurity, neurological problems, ketogenic diet and reconstructed or augmented bladders. Hypercalciuria is commonly found in paediatric stone formers, is usually idiopathic and is only rarely associated with hypercalcaemia. All children with stones should undergo a metabolic evaluation.
THIS EXCITING new edition to the Oxford Handbook Series provides a compact guide to all aspects of acute and chronic paediatrics. A team of 23 specialist contributors and medical editors has condensed many years of clinical experience into a pocket-sized compendium of clinical problems and treatment options.
Background Remote ballistic femoral fractures are rare fractures reported in the literature but still debated as to their existence and, indeed, their treatment. This study aimed to prove their existence, understand how they occur and determine which ammunition provides the greatest threat. In addition, fracture patterns, soft tissue disruption and contamination were assessed to aid in treatment planning. Method We filmed 42 deer femora embedded in ballistic gelatine and shot with four different military (5.56 × 45 mm, 7.62 × 39 mm) and civilian (9 × 19 mm, .44 in.) bullets, at varying distances off the bone (0–10 cm). Results Two remote ballistic fractures occurred, both with .44 in. hollow-point bullets shot 3 cm off the bone. These fractures occurred when the leading edge of the expanding temporary cavity impacted the femur's supracondylar region, producing a wedge-shaped fracture with an undisplaced limb, deceivingly giving the appearance of a spiral fracture. No communication was seen between the fracture and permanent cavity, despite the temporary cavity encasing the fracture and stripping periosteum from its base. Conclusion These fractures occur with civilian ammunition, but cannot prove their existence with military rounds. They result from the expanding temporary cavity affecting the weakest part of the bone, creating a potentially contaminated wedge-shaped fracture, important for surgeons considering operative intervention. PMID:23721113
Omoregie, F O; Akpata, O
This study aims to determine the incidence, age, gender, orofacial sites and histological pattern of paediatric orofacial tumours in a Nigerian population. The yearly findings will be analysed to identify the interval for increase in the incidence of paediatric orofacial tumours. A 21-year (1990 to 2010) retrospective analysis of paediatric orofacial tumours in children younger than 16 years was carried out in the Department of Oral Pathology/Oral Medicine, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Of the 1013 diagnosed lesions within the study period, there were 137 (13.5%) paediatric orofacial tumours, among which 71 (51.8%) cases occurred within the last 6 years (2005 to 2010). There was male predilection for the lesions (78 males to 59 females, ratio = 1.3:1). The mean age was 9 + 4.3 years, with peak age group of 11 to 15 years (n=60, 43.8%). The mandible (n=44, 32.1%), followed by the maxilla (n=42, 30.7%) and orofacial soft tissue (n=19, 13.9%) were the most common sites. The benign tumours (n=72, 52.6%) were slightly more than the malignant tumours (n=65, 47.4%). There were more malignant tumours (n=23, 16.8%) than benign tumours (n=20, 14.6%) within the last 3 years (2008 to 2010) under review. Burkitt's lymphoma (n=38, 27.7%) was the commonest malignant lesion. This study showed a recent increase in the incidence of paediatric orofacial tumours, particularly due to a higher incidence of Burkitt's lymphoma.
Zennaro, Floriana; Grosso, Daniele; Fascetta, Riccardo; Marini, Marta; Odoni, Luca; Di Carlo, Valentina; Dibello, Daniela; Vittoria, Francesca; Lazzerini, Marzia
The growing cost of health care and lack of specialised staff have set e-Health high on the European political agenda. In a prospective study we evaluated the effect of providing images for remote consultation through an iPad on the number of in-hospital orthopaedic consultations for children with bone fractures. Children from 0 to 18 years diagnosed with a bone fracture by the radiologist during the hours when an orthopaedic service is provided only on-call were eligible for enrollment. Cases were enrolled prospectively during September and October 2013. A standard approach (verbal information only, no X-Ray provided remotely) was compared to an experimental approach (standard approach plus the provision of X-ray for remote consultation through an iPad). The primary outcome was the number of orthopaedic in-hospital consultations that occurred. Other outcomes included: immediate activation of other services; time needed for decision-making; technical difficulties; quality of images and diagnostic confidence (on a likert scale of 1 to 10). Forty-two children were enrolled in the study. Number of in-hospital consultancies dropped from 32/42 (76.1%) when no X-ray was provided to 16/42 (38%) when the X-rays was provided (p < 0.001). With remote X-ray consultation in 14/42 (33.3%) cases services such as surgery and plaster room could be immediately activated, compared to no service activated without teleradiology (p < 0.001). Average time for decision making was 23.4 ± 21.8 minutes with remote X-ray consultation, compared to 56.2 ± 16.1 when the X-ray was not provided (p < 0.001). The comparison between images on the iPad and on the standard system for X- Ray visualisation resulted in a non statistically significant difference in the quality of images (average score 9.89 ± 0.37 vs 9.91 ± 0.30; p = 0.79), and in non statistically significant difference in diagnostic confidence (average score 9.91 ± 0.32 vs 9.92 ± 0.31; p = 0.88). Remote X-ray consultation through
Hyodo, Kojiro; Nishino, Tomofumi; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Daisuke; Mishima, Hajime; Yamazaki, Masashi
The purpose of this study was to determine fracture location and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). We studied 38 AFFs in 34 patients admitted to our institution between November 2007 and July 2013. The diagnostic criteria for the AFFs were based on 2014 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research guidelines. We classified the fracture location as proximal, middle, or distal to trisect the femoral diaphysis from just distal to the lesser trochanter to just proximal to the supracondylar flare. Bowing was defined as a line through the inside of the tip of the great trochanter and a condylar center that was outside the medullary cavity. We investigated the fracture's location, existence of coronal bowing, and bisphosphonates (BPs), glucocorticoids (GCs), and proton pump inhibitors therapy. We analyzed associations between fracture location and demographic and clinical factors. Twelve fractures were proximal, 25 were middle, and one was distal. Nineteen limbs showed femoral bowing. Thirty-one patients received BP treatment-20 patients received alendronic acid, eight risedronic acid, and three minodronic acid. Fourteen patients received a GC, and 16 received a proton pump inhibitor. There was a significant association between coronal bowing and middle fracture locations, GC therapy and proximal fracture locations, and older age and middle fracture locations. Tall height and heavy weight had an association with proximal fracture location, and short height and light weight had an association with middle fracture location. In conclusion, we provide evidence supporting a causal relationship between BP-related severely suppressed bone turnover and AFFs. We also provide evidence supporting additional influences from altered distribution of mechanical stress with femoral bowing and various factors, such as GC therapy, age, body weight, and height, which might negatively affect bone intensity and quality and result in fracture.
Moore, Dorothy L
Young children readily transmit and acquire nosocomial infections. Children are also vulnerable to endogenous infections as a result of the breakdown of their normal defences by disease, invasive procedures or therapy. The increasing acuity of illness in hospitalized children and therapeutic advances have resulted in a patient population that is increasingly at higher risk for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some paediatric hospitals, usually in intensive care and oncology units. Infection rates are the highest in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (where bloodstream infections are the most frequent), and are usually associated with intravascular devices. On general paediatric wards, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections predominate, reflecting the occurrence in the community. The surveillance of nosocomial infections identifies priorities for infection control activities and permits evaluation of interventions. The prevention of transmission between patients and to personnel requires that certain measures be taken with all patients, and that additional precautions be taken with some infections, based on the route of transmission. The prevention of transmission from personnel involves ensuring that personnel are appropriately immunized and counselled about working with infections. The prevention of nosocomial infection also involves control of visitors, appropriate management of invasive procedures and devices, sterilization and disinfection of equipment, provision of a clean environment and adequate staffing. Severely immunocompromised children require extra protection, including ventilation systems that reduce the risk of exposure to filamentous fungi. Infection control in paediatrics is an evolving field that must adapt to changes in the paediatric patient population and in health care technology. PMID:20084127
Macleod, C; McElroy, G; O'Loan, D; Kennedy, F; Kerr, R M; Jenkins, J; Lim, J
To determine whether a paediatric ambulatory assessment service is an effective and acceptable replacement for an inpatient unit. Analysis of hospital paediatric medical admissions. Postal questionnaire survey of local general practitioners. Telephone survey of parents of children who had attended the ambulatory service. Rural General Hospital in Northern Ireland. General practitioners. Parents of children referred to assessment service. Number of paediatric medical hospital admissions from the local area before and after the introduction of an ambulatory assessment service. General practitioner satisfaction levels. Parental satisfaction levels. Since the introduction of the new service in April 1996 there has been a marked progressive reduction in paediatric medical hospital admissions from the local area. By the third year of operation of the ambulatory service (1998/99), a 47% reduction in admissions was recorded, compared to the 1995/96 baseline year. The response rate to the general practitioner questionnaire was 65% (37 of 57) of whom most (31, 84%) found the service beneficial. Of the 37 respondents, 31 had referred patients to the service. The majority of these general practitioners (30, 97%) reported that the service was easy to access, and the same proportion felt that requests for consultation were met promptly. Most felt that feedback was appropriate (29, 94%). A telephone survey of 50 parents showed that most were either very satisfied (38, 76%), or satisfied (11, 22%) with the service. Most parents (41, 82%) felt their child had benefited by not being admitted to hospital. Most (46, 92%) felt they had received adequate information regarding their child's illness. A paediatric ambulatory assessment unit can reduce the number of children admitted to hospital and meet the needs of children, their families and general practitioners.
Depallens, Sarah; Lutz, Nicolas; Carlomagno, Raffaella; Meyrat, Blaise; Barazzoni, Mirjam Schuler; Tchameni, Yves Yamgoue; Pascual, Andres; Scerba, François; Superti-Furga, Andrea
Every pediatrician will be confronted with newborns oryoung infants with skin lesions in proximity of the vertebral column. It is important not to miss a spinal dysraphism because of the risk of meningeal infection or of the possible presence of a tethered cord. A practical algorithm is presented. Non-accidental injury in young infants and toddlers is not rare but difficult to detect. Bruises and fractures are highly suspicious for non-accidental injury and should trigger specific investigations. Emergency departments and hospitals are switching from hypotonic to isotonic solutions as maintenance infusions of children. They reduce the risk of hyponatremia without increasing that of hypernatremia, and they should be used preferentially in the majority of pediatric clinical settings.
Joeris, Alexander; Audigé, Laurent; Ziebarth, Kai; Slongo, Theddy
Osteotomies of the proximal femur and stable fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures are demanding operations. An LCP Paediatric Hip Plate was developed to make these operations safer and less demanding. The article focuses on the surgical technique and critically analyses the device. Between 2006 and 2008, 30 hips in 22 patients underwent surgery. Patients' demographics, perioperative details, postoperative outcome and complications were retrospectively collected and analysed. Patients' diagnoses included persistent congenital hip dysplasia (n = 4), neuropathic hip dysplasia (n = 9), idiopathic ante/retroversion (n = 8), femoral neck fracture (n = 3), Perthes' disease (n = 2), deformity after slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), congenital femoral neck pseudarthrosis, deformity after pelvic tumour resection and malunion following proximal femoral fracture (one each). In 21 of 22 patients, the postoperative radiographs showed corrections as planned. Two cases had to be revised for screw loosening. Intraoperative handling using the plate was excellent in all cases. In our case series of 30 hip operations, the LCP Paediatric Hip Plate was shown to be safe and applicable in the clinical setting with excellent results and a low complication rate. We consider that the LCP Paediatric Hip Plate is a valuable device for correction of pathological conditions of the proximal femur and for fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures in children. Larger studies should be carried out to better quantify the risk of clinically relevant complications.
Background The growing cost of health care and lack of specialised staff have set e-Health high on the European political agenda. In a prospective study we evaluated the effect of providing images for remote consultation through an iPad on the number of in-hospital orthopaedic consultations for children with bone fractures. Methods Children from 0 to 18 years diagnosed with a bone fracture by the radiologist during the hours when an orthopaedic service is provided only on-call were eligible for enrollment. Cases were enrolled prospectively during September and October 2013. A standard approach (verbal information only, no X-Ray provided remotely) was compared to an experimental approach (standard approach plus the provision of X-ray for remote consultation through an iPad). The primary outcome was the number of orthopaedic in-hospital consultations that occurred. Other outcomes included: immediate activation of other services; time needed for decision-making; technical difficulties; quality of images and diagnostic confidence (on a likert scale of 1 to 10). Results Forty-two children were enrolled in the study. Number of in-hospital consultancies dropped from 32/42 (76.1%) when no X-ray was provided to 16/42 (38%) when the X-rays was provided (p < 0.001). With remote X-ray consultation in 14/42 (33.3%) cases services such as surgery and plaster room could be immediately activated, compared to no service activated without teleradiology (p < 0.001). Average time for decision making was 23.4 ± 21.8 minutes with remote X-ray consultation, compared to 56.2 ± 16.1 when the X-ray was not provided (p < 0.001). The comparison between images on the iPad and on the standard system for X- Ray visualisation resulted in a non statistically significant difference in the quality of images (average score 9.89 ± 0.37 vs 9.91 ± 0.30; p =0.79), and in non statistically significant difference in diagnostic confidence (average score 9.91 ± 0.32 vs
Beslikas, T A; Kirkos, J M; Sayegh, F E; Papavasiliou, V A
The authors report the results of corrective osteotomy of the humerus in 11 children with severe posttraumatic cubitus varus deformity. The average carrying angle on the affected side was -24.4 degrees, and there was an average internal rotation deformity of the distal humerus of 22 degrees. Flexion and extension of the injured elbow were severely limited. A supracondylar lateral wedge osteotomy of the humerus was performed keeping the medial cortex intact. Two K-wires served as levers to correct the angular and rotational deformity of the elbow and then as fixation material to hold the osteotomy fragments. Postoperatively we immobilized the elbows in 90 degrees flexion for 3 to 4 weeks. There was no loss of the postoperative osteotomy alignment in most cases. Recurrence of mild varus deformity (-5 degrees and -7 degrees) occurred in only two patients. At the end of the follow-up we observed excellent results in 9 patients with an average carrying angle of 7.2 degrees (range 5-10 degrees).
Berruto, M; Bianchi, M; Laurà, G
Twenty-two of the 24 patients operated on with femoral supracondylar osteotomy for arthritic valgus knee between 1978 and 1987 were evaluated, comparing the results with those obtained in a similar group of 10 patients with the same disorder treated with knee replacement during the same period. From a functional viewpoint and according to the Hospital for Special Surgery rating scale, the results of the osteotomy were not significantly different from the extremely positive outcome of the knee replacement. However, as far as pain is concerned, only 50% of the osteotomy patients were completely asymptomatic after the operation. In the 50% of the osteotomy patients with post-operative under or over correction of the mechanical axis of the knee, the results were unsatisfactory. Finally, there was only one case of delayed union. In the light of these results, in contrast to what has been said by other authors, femoral osteotomy may be considered a valid alternative to knee replacement in the treatment of arthritic valgus knee in active subjects, less than 65 years old, with a valgus angulation of no more than 15 degrees and Ahlback stage 2 beta arthritis of the lateral compartment. It is, however, a technique which requires extreme precision both in planning and performing the operation.
Gunasekera, Hasantha; Kilham, Henry
In this article, we address how general paediatrics has evolved and adapted to change over the past 50 years and speculate on its future directions. We compare the state of general paediatrics with that of general adult medicine. We argue that general paediatrics must continue to have a strong role both in paediatric teaching hospitals and the community. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Vitale, M. C.
Since the early 80's, the use of laser has been introduced in the daily dental practice and the technological development has also provided over time to optimize its use. Various types of lasers with different wavelengths have been developed for use in a handy, easy and ergonomic manner. In daily paediatric dentistry, laser could be a very useful medical device which can completely replace the traditional high hand-piece and bur to realize a "micro-invasive" dentistry and a "clean" surgery, without bleeding and sutures. According to the international literature and in the light of recent researches, this work could give an overview on assisted laser therapy in paediatric dentistry, highlighting advantages and disadvantages of this new technology and pointing out the high compliance of the young patient.
McBride, Joshua J; Vlieger, Arine M; Anbar, Ran D
Hypnotherapy is an often misunderstood yet effective therapy. It has been reported to be useful within the field of paediatric respiratory medicine as both a primary and an adjunctive therapy. This article gives a brief overview of how hypnotherapy is performed followed by a review of its applications in paediatric patients with asthma, cystic fibrosis, dyspnea, habit cough, vocal cord dysfunction, and those requiring non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. As the available literature is comprised mostly of case series, retrospective studies, and only a single small randomized study, the field would be strengthened by additional randomized, controlled trials in order to better establish the effectiveness of hypnosis as a treatment, and to identify the processes leading to hypnosis-induced physiologic changes. As examples of the utility of hypnosis and how it can be taught to children with respiratory disease, the article includes videos that demonstrate its use for patients with cystic fibrosis.
Shires, Peter M; Chow, Gabriel
Trismus is a rare presentation affecting neonates, children, and adults. In newborns there are serious implications, with potential to affect feeding, cause airway problems, and make intubation difficult. Causes of trismus seen in the paediatric patient are discussed in this review article; they are divided into intra- and extra-articular types. The extra-articular group consists of congenital and acquired disorders. The acquired group includes infective causes such as tetanus, iatrogenic causes related to drugs, cancer or dental treatment, and trauma causing articulation difficulty or triggering a rare type of bone growth in myositis ossificans. Changes in the mouth resulting from oral submucous fibrosis can undergo malignant transformation. This review aims to raise awareness of potential causes of trismus in paediatric populations, helping clinicians identify the underlying pathology so appropriate strategies for treatment be applied, with the ultimate aim of improving long-term outlook and quality of life for affected children. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.
Thomas, J P; Volkenstein, S; Minovi, A; Dazert, S
Cholesteatomas can be subclassified into genuine and acquired forms. Whilst epidermoid formations are the generally accepted cause of genuine cholesteatomas, metaplasia, immigration, proliferation and retraction pocket theories have all been proposed to explain the development of acquired cholesteatomas. Clinically, paediatric cholesteatomas exhibit more extensive and aggressive growth than those arising in adulthood. Molecular biological differences in terms of angiogenesis, cytokine expression and particularly the more marked inflammatory responses of the perimatrix could potentially explain these clinical differences. The surgical therapy of paediatric cholesteatomas should be adapted to the individual pathological findings, although where possible a canal wall up procedure is preferred during initial surgery. The "inside-out" mastoidectomy tracking-technique combines the benefits of a good surgical overview with those of a physiological postoperative auditory canal.
Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen
The step-by-step preoperative planning for supracondylar opening wedge osteotomy of the femur for precise correction of the load axis of the lower limb using a fixed-angle implant (95° AO blade plate) is presented. The surgical technique and the use of a bone graft from the same site for filling in the defect are also presented. PMID:27026976
Er, Jeremy; Wallis, Peter; Maloney, Samuel; Norton, Robert
Bacteraemias in children are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of local epidemiology and trends is important to inform practitioners of likely pathogens in the sick child. This study aimed to determine trends over time in pathogenic organisms causing paediatric bacteraemia in North Queensland and to audit a hospital's blood culture results with respect to contamination rate. This was a retrospective review of 8385 blood cultures collected from children attending a tertiary centre in North Queensland over a 10-year period (2001-2010). There were 696 positive blood cultures (8.3%) with 70 different bacterial species detected. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria accounted for 48.6% and 51.4% of isolates, respectively. Overall, bacteraemia accounted for 4.7 per 1000 admissions. The rate of contamination was 60.6% among positive blood cultures and 5.0% for all blood cultures sampled. These results were compared with previous published reports. Notable differences were seen in the frequencies of Salmonella and group A Streptococcus bacteraemias in North Queensland when compared with other reports. There was also a decline in vaccine-preventable infections such as S. pneumoniae and an increasing trend of community-acquired MRSA bacteraemia. This study has demonstrated the unique profile of causative pathogens of paediatric bacteraemias in tropical Australia. In light of the increasing prevalence of MRSA, empiric treatment for sepsis for children in this region needs to be reconsidered. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin
Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083
Martínez-Álvarez, S; Maldonado-Morillo, A; Vara-Patudo, I; Martínez-González, C; Miranda-Gorozarri, C
Evaluation of clinical and functional outcome of ray resection in paediatric population and description of key aspects of surgical technique. We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing surgery between 2010-2015. one or more ray resections of the hand and a minimum of one year follow-up. Evaluation of clinical characteristics, functional and cosmetic results, complications, need for psychological support and patient or family satisfaction. Four patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age at surgery was 5 years (range, 1-14 years). Aetiology was: fibrolipomatous hamartoma, traumatic amputation, radial deficiency and complex syndactyly. Second ray was resected in three patients and third and fourth ray in one. No finger transfer was performed. No immediate post-operative complications were found at the final evaluation. None of them needed psychological support. All the patients showed excellent clinical and functional results with a high grade of satisfaction. Ray resection of the hand has been used as salvage procedure in patients with vascular lesions, tumours, trauma, infections or congenital malformations. There are only a few published studies including small samples in adults or case reports, with no references in the paediatric population. Ray resection of the hand is a useful and safe technique in paediatric population, obtaining excellent cosmetic and functional results in those cases in which it is impossible to preserve one or more fingers. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jöhr, Martin; Berger, Thomas M
The aim of this review was to discuss recent developments in paediatric anaesthesia, which are particularly relevant to the practitioner involved in paediatric outpatient anaesthesia. The use of a pharmacological premedication is still a matter of debate. Several publications are focussing on nasal dexmedetomidine; however, its exact place has not yet been defined. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthesia techniques still have their advocates; for diagnostic imaging, however, propofol is emerging as the agent of choice. The disappearance of codeine has left a breach for an oral opioid and has probably worsened postoperative analgesia following tonsillectomy. In recent years, a large body of evidence for the prevention of postoperative agitation has appeared. Alpha-2-agonists as well as the transition to propofol play an important role. There is now some consensus that for reasons of practicability prophylactic antiemetics should be administered to all and not only to selected high-risk patients. Perfect organization of the whole process is a prerequisite for successful paediatric outpatient anaesthesia. In addition, the skilled practitioner is able to provide a smooth anaesthetic, minimizing complications, and, finally, he has a clear concept for avoiding postoperative pain, agitation and vomiting.
Ricci, William M; Streubel, Philipp N; Morshed, Saam; Collinge, Cory A; Nork, Sean E; Gardner, Michael J
Locked plating has become a standard method to treat supracondylar femur fractures. Emerging evidence indicates that this method of treatment is associated with modest failure rates. The goals of this study were to determine risk factors for complications and to provide technical recommendations for locked plating of supracondylar femur fractures. Retrospective review. Three level I or II trauma centers. Three hundred twenty-six patients with 335 distal femur fractures (OTA 33A or C, 33% open) treated with lateral locked plates were studied. The average patient age was 57 years (range 17-97 years), 55% were women, 34% were obese, 19% were diabetic, and 24% were smokers. All patients were managed with open reduction internal fixation using a lateral distal femoral locked plate construct that included locked screws in the distal fragment and nonlocked, locked, or a combination of locked and nonlocked screws in the proximal fragment. Risk factors for reoperation to promote union, deep infection, and implant failure. After the index procedure, 64 fractures (19%) required reoperation to promote union, including 30 that had a planned staged bone grafting because of the metaphyseal defect after debridement of an open fracture. Independent risk factors for reoperation to promote union and deep infection included diabetes and open fracture. Risk factors for proximal implant failure included open fracture, smoking, increased body mass index, and shorter plate length. The identified risk factors for reoperation to promote union and complications included open fracture, diabetes, smoking, increased body mass index, and shorter plate length. Most factors are out of surgeon control but are useful when considering prognosis. Use of relatively long plates is a technical factor that can reduce risk for fixation failure. Prognostic level II. See instructions for authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Koelink, Eric; Boutis, Kathy
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that minor paediatric fractures can be followed by primary care paediatricians (PCPs). OBJECTIVES: To determine PCP opinions, knowledge and perceived barriers to managing minor paediatric fractures in the office. METHODS: An online survey was sent between June and September 2013 to all paediatricians who subscribed to the American Academy of Pediatrics PROS-Net Listerv and to those who were registered with the Scott’s Canadian Medical Directory as paediatricians who treated children in a primary care capacity. The primary outcome was the proportion of PCPs who agreed with PCP follow-up of minor paediatric fractures. Secondary outcomes included PCP’s perceived barriers to office follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 1752 surveys were sent; 1235 were eligible and 459 (37.2%) responded to the survey. Overall, 296 (69.5% [95% CI 65.2% to 74.0%]) PCPs agreed that minor paediatric fractures could be followed in a PCP office. The most frequently reported barriers were lack of materials to replace immobilization (58.1%), PCP knowledge deficits (44.8%) and a perceived parental preference for an orthopedic surgeon (38.6%). Finally, 58.8% of respondents believed that further education was necessary if PCPs assumed responsibility for follow-up of midshaft clavicle fractures, while 66.5% and 77.1% (P<0.0001) believed this was necessary for distal radius buckle and fibular fractures, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of responding PCPs in Canada and the United States agreed that minor common paediatric fractures can be followed-up by paediatricians. However, PCPs reported some barriers to this management strategy, including a desire for more education on this topic. PMID:25382996
Hagedorn, Judith C.; Voelzke, Bryan B.
Objective To review paediatric posterior urethral injuries and the current potential management options; because urethral injury due to pelvic fracture in children is rare and has a low incidence, the management of this type of trauma and its complications remains controversial. Methods We reviewed previous reports identified by searching the PubMed Medline electronic database for clinically relevant articles published in the past 25 years. The search was limited to the keywords ‘pediatric’, ‘pelvic fracture’, ‘urethral injury’, ‘stricture’, ‘trauma’ and ‘reconstruction’. Results Most paediatric urethral injuries are a result of pelvic fractures after high-impact blunt trauma. After the diagnosis, immediate bladder drainage via a suprapubic cystotomy, or urethral realignment, are the initial management options, except for a possible immediate primary repair in girls. The common complications of pelvic fracture-associated urethral injury include urethral stricture formation, incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Excellent results can be achieved with delayed urethroplasty for pelvic fracture-associated urethral injuries. Conclusion Traumatic injury to the paediatric urethra is rare and calls for an immediate diagnosis and management. These devastating injuries have a high complication rate and therefore a close follow-up is warranted to assure adequate delayed repair by a reconstructive urologist. PMID:26019977
Mousavi, Hamid; Mir, Behrouz; Safaei, Ali
Posttraumatic and/or postsurgical knee stiffness is one of the orthopedic complications which is difficult to be treated and can affect individual's life negatively. The aim of this study is to investigate the results of quadricepsplasty in patients with knee stiffness resulted from femoral fracture. This is a cross-sectional study on all patients with femoral fracture which has caused knee flexion limitation referred to Kashani and Al-Zahra Hospitals in Isfahan from January 2010 to March 2013. The type and site of fracture, joint extension, and fracture fixation technique were recorded. Moreover, the range of motion (ROM) before surgery, under general anesthesia, and 3- and 6-month postoperation were measured. Among the patients, 13 had a simple fracture (48%) and 14 had a segmental fracture (51.9%). Considering the fracture site, 11, 10, and 6 patients had femoral (40.74%), supracondylar (37.3%), and femoral supracondylar (22.2%) fractures, respectively. The fracture fixation was performed by the plate, external, and Wagner fixation techniques for 24 (88.9%), 2 (7.4%), and 1 (3.7%) patients, respectively. The mean ROM before operation, under general anesthesia, and 3- and 6-month postoperation were determined to be 33.15° ± 24.73°, 122.60° ± 10.22°, 99.63° ± 16.52°, and 100.74° ± 15.67°, respectively. The mean ROM value at various stages was not similar (P < 0.001). The mean changes in the ROM were 79.2° ± 24.6° and 62.1° ± 19.7° in the cases with simple and segmental fractures, respectively. The mean changes in the knee ROM were significantly higher in simple fractures in comparison with the segmental femoral fracture (P = 0.03). We found Thompson's quadricepsplasty may successfully increase the range of knee flexion in knee fracture and also regardless of quadriceps time.
Farnetani, I; Farnetani, F
No other Italian city has contributed to the birth and development of paediatrics more than Naples. This is why it can be considered the historic capital of Italian paediatrics. Here are the main reasons: Luigi Somma was the first professor of Italian paediatrics whereas Francesco Fede was the first president of the Italian Paediatrics Association. Neapolitan paediatricians have been the most numerous amongst the founder members. The first three Italian journals of paediatrics were founded in Naples as well as the journal ''La Pediatria'' which was the most distributed and long-lasting journal in this field. Moreover, Neapolitans have been the most numerous presidents of the Italian Paediatrics Association, while Rocco Jemma was the one who remained the longest in charge. ''Rocco Jemma's school'' taught not only to most professors in paediatrics who afterwards taught in most Italian universities, but also four out of five paediatricians who took charge of the position as president. The first regional department of the Italian Paediatrics Association was founded in Naples as well as the Association of Nipiology.
Gursu, Hazım A; Cetin, Ibrahim I
Paediatric cardiology is arguably the sub-specialty in which the greatest advances have been made in both disease diagnosis and treatment over the past half a century. Paediatric cardiology emerged as a discipline in the 1930s. Since then, advances in imaging techniques such as echocardiography, angiography, CT, or magnetic resonance and extracorporeal circulation have provided excellent diagnosis and treatment of CHD. The pioneers of paediatric cardiology are more than eponyms, for each used in new and original ways the tools and concepts available in his or her era. This brief overview of the history of paediatric cardiology on stamps begins from William Harvey up to our own time, and includes the milestones in paediatric cardiology.
Arastu, M H; Kokke, M C; Duffy, P J; Korley, R E C; Buckley, R E
Coronal plane fractures of the posterior femoral condyle, also known as Hoffa fractures, are rare. Lateral fractures are three times more common than medial fractures, although the reason for this is not clear. The exact mechanism of injury is likely to be a vertical shear force on the posterior femoral condyle with varying degrees of knee flexion. These fractures are commonly associated with high-energy trauma and are a diagnostic and surgical challenge. Hoffa fractures are often associated with inter- or supracondylar distal femoral fractures and CT scans are useful in delineating the coronal shear component, which can easily be missed. There are few recommendations in the literature regarding the surgical approach and methods of fixation that may be used for this injury. Non-operative treatment has been associated with poor outcomes. The goals of treatment are anatomical reduction of the articular surface with rigid, stable fixation to allow early mobilisation in order to restore function. A surgical approach that allows access to the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle is described and the use of postero-anterior lag screws with or without an additional buttress plate for fixation of these difficult fractures.
Monteggia fracture constitutes about 5-10% of the forearm fractures. Monteggia fracture by definition is proximal ulnar fracture with disruption of proximal radioulnar joint. Bado classified Monteggia fracture dislocation into four types and Jupiter subclassified type II Bado’s fractures into four types. The associated injury in the form of distal radial fractures and distal humerus fractures are rare though many cases of distal radial physeal injuries have been reported in paediatric population. Hereby we report a rare association of type IIA Monteggia fracture dislocation with ipsilateral distal radius fracture in an adult patient. This case report also highlights on proper examination and full length radiographs of forearm to avoid missing injury at wrist in cases of elbow injuries. Management of such complex injuries included open reduction and internal fixation of olecronon fracture, distal radius fracture and radial head resection. Functional outcome at six months was good at wrist whereas at elbow, stiffness was a major concern with elbow range of movement from 40°-110°. PMID:27656518
van Egmond, Pim W; van der Sluijs, Hans A; van Royen, Barend J; Saouti, Rachid
Forearm fractures in children are common. When conservative treatment fails, internal fixation with Elastic Stable Intramedullary Nailing (ESIN) become the first choice in the operative treatment of diaphyseal forearm shaft fractures. Refractures with the intramedullary nail in situ are known to occur but formal guidelines to guide management in such fractures are lacking. We present a well-documented case of a radius midshaft refracture in a 12-year-old boy with the intramedullary nail in situ, managed by closed reduction. Literature is reviewed for this type of complication, the treatment of 30 similar cases is discussed and a treatment strategy is defined. The refracture of the paediatric forearm fracture with the intramedullary nail in situ is a rare, but probably under recognised complication which is observed in approximately 2.3% of the study population. Closed reduction may be considered in these cases. PMID:24068378
Stress fractures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by ... up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of a ...
Greenstick fractures Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone bends and cracks, instead of breaking completely into separate pieces. The fracture looks similar to what happens when you try ...
Doja, Asif; Orr, Serena L; McMillan, Hugh J; Kirton, Adam; Brna, Paula; Esser, Michael; Tang-Wai, Richard; Major, Philippe; Poulin, Chantal; Prasad, Narayan; Selby, Kathryn; Weiss, Shelly K; Yeh, E Ann; Callen, David Ja
Little knowledge exists on the availability of academic and community paediatric neurology positions. This knowledge is crucial for making workforce decisions. Our study aimed to: 1) obtain information regarding the availability of positions for paediatric neurologists in academic centres; 2) survey paediatric neurology trainees regarding their perceptions of employment issues and career plans; 3) survey practicing community paediatric neurologists 4) convene a group of paediatric neurologists to develop consensus regarding how to address these workforce issues. Surveys addressing workforce issues regarding paediatric neurology in Canada were sent to: 1) all paediatric neurology program directors in Canada (n=9) who then solicited information from division heads and from paediatric neurologists in surrounding areas; 2) paediatric neurology trainees in Canada (n=57) and; 3) community paediatric neurologists (n=27). A meeting was held with relevant stakeholders to develop a consensus on how to approach employment issues. The response rate was 100% from program directors, 57.9% from residents and 44% from community paediatric neurologists. We found that the number of projected positions in academic paediatric neurology is fewer than the number of paediatric neurologists that are being trained over the next five to ten years, despite a clinical need for paediatric neurologists. Paediatric neurology residents are concerned about job availability and desire more career counselling. There is a current and projected clinical demand for paediatric neurologists despite a lack of academic positions. Training programs should focus on community neurology as a viable career option.
Završnik, Jernej; Kokol, Peter; Del Torso, Stefano; Blažun Vošner, Helena
Objectives 'Sleeping beauties', i.e. publications that are not cited for a long while, present interesting findings in science. This study analysed the citation trends of sleeping beauties in paediatric research. Methods The study used bibliometric software to analyse the papers citing sleeping beauties in paediatric research, to understand the context in which paediatric sleeping beauties were finally cited and the impact of these sleeping beauties on paediatric research. Results Two paediatric sleeping beauties, addressing medical homes and the transition from paediatric to adult health care, respectively, awakened in response to organizational needs. Both presented novel concepts of paediatric service organization that became important because of an increased need for optimization of services. Conclusion All sleeping beauties bring new knowledge that becomes important only after several years. Paediatric sleeping beauties exhibited unique characteristics; however, their presence in paediatric research shows that knowledge acquisition in paediatrics resembles that in other disciplines.
Consolaro, Alessandro; Morgan, Esi M; Giancane, Gabriella; Rosina, Silvia; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo
Information technology in paediatric rheumatology has seen several exciting developments in recent years. The new multidimensional questionnaires for juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, and juvenile autoinflammatory diseases integrate all major parent- and child-reported outcomes (PCROs) used in these diseases into a single tool, and provide an effective guide to manage, document change in health, assess effectiveness of therapeutic interventions, and verify the parent and child satisfaction with illness outcome. The Pharmachild registry is aimed to gain information concerning the long-term effectiveness and safety of the medications currently used in juvenile idiopathic arthritis, particularly biologic agents, through collection of prospective data in a large, multinational sample of patients. Children and their parents are directly involved in the data collection by means of the regular completion of a digital version of a multidimensional questionnaire. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) employs modern measurement science to advance assessment of PCROs, particularly HRQL, and offers multidimensional profile measures. The conceptual link of paediatric PROMIS with adult instruments facilitates harmonisation of assessments made in children and adolescents with those carried out in young adults in the process of transition of medical care. Development of electronic versions of questionnaires that permit their completion through smartphones or touch-screen devices will revolutionise information collection from parents and children, foster the regular collection of PCROs in routine care, and ultimately improve the quality of self-reported health data, and patient outcomes.
Pieles, Guido E; Horn, Richard; Williams, Craig A; Stuart, A Graham
Exercise training is an underused intervention in paediatric healthcare. This is surprising, since initial evidence demonstrates its effectiveness and safety; furthermore it confers socioeconomic benefits for healthcare systems. Pilot studies have assessed and confirmed the feasibility of exercise training in many paediatric disease settings. However, more research is needed to understand the pathophysiology, quantify treatment effects and monitor outcomes. A concerted effort from researchers, health professionals and police makers will be necessary to make exercise training an evidence-based and cost-effective intervention in paediatric care.
Sanches, M; Coelho, A; Oliveira, E; Lopes, A
A properly interpreted electrocardiogram (ECG) provides important information and is an inexpensive and easy test to perform. It continues to be the method of choice for the diagnosis of arrhythmias. Although the principles of cardiac electrophysiology are the same, there are anatomical and physiological age-dependent changes which produce specific alterations in the paediatric ECG, and which may be misinterpreted as pathological. The intention of this article is to address in a systematic way the most relevant aspects of the paediatric ECG, to propose a possible reading scheme of the ECG and to review the electrocardiograph tracings most frequently found in the paediatric age group.
The use of unlicensed and "off-label" medicines in children is widespread. Between 50-80% of the medicines currently administered to children have neither been tested nor authorized for their use in the paediatric population which represents approximately 25% of the whole European population. On 26 January 2007, entered into force the European Regulation of Paediatric Medicines. It aims at the quality of research into medicines for children but without subjecting the paediatric population to unnecessary clinical trial. This article addresses ethical and legal issues arising from the regulation and makes recommendations for the framework conditions facilitating the development of clinical research with children. PMID:21345195
Ruperto, Nicolino; Vesely, Richard; Saint-Raymond, Agnes; Martini, Alberto
Conducting clinical trials in paediatric rheumatology has been difficult mainly because of the lack of funding for academic studies and the lack of interest by pharmaceutical companies in the small and non-rewarding paediatric market. The situation changed dramatically a few years ago with the introduction of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act in the USA and of specific legislation for the development of paediatric medicines (Paediatric Regulation) in the European Union (EU). The EU Paediatric Regulation had a positive impact in paediatric rheumatology-in particular, on the development of new treatments for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Some problems remain, however, such as greater harmonisation of the regulatory aspects of medicines, how to handle me-too agents, how to conduct adequate pharmacokinetic studies and develop age-appropriate formulations, ethical problems in study review and implementation, and a change in the current JIA classification. The introduction of specific legislation, coupled with the existence of large international networks such as the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG at http://www.prcsg.org), covering North America, and the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO at http://www.printo.it), covering more than 50 countries, has led to great advances in paediatric rheumatology. Future changes might increase the possibility of conducting trials with similar approaches in other paediatric rheumatological conditions and provide evidence-based treatments for children affected by rheumatic diseases.
Fontan, J E; Mille, F; Brion, F; Aubin, F; Ballereau, F; Benoît, G; Brunet, M L; Braguier, D; Combeau, D; Dugast, P; Gérout, A C; May, I; Meunier, P; Naveau-Ploux, C; Proust, V; Samdjee, F; Schlatter, J; Thébault, A; Vié, M
Available commercial drugs in France are often unsuitable for children. The aim of this study was, for every medicinal form orally or parenterally administered, to identify and to quantify difficulties met by the nurses administering drugs to paediatric inpatients and to propose solutions to main identified problems. The study was realized in 14 hospitals by direct observation. The observer, provided with a questionnaire, followed during a time slot of at least 2 h for one or several nurses and raised all the oral or injectable administrations. One thousand and nine hundred forty-six observations were performed. The children were 12.6 +/- 17 months old, and weighed 8.5 +/- 9.4 kg. Injectable drugs: half of the observations showed a posology and a mode of dilution not corresponding to the summary of product characteristics. Eight percent of orally administered drugs were injectable drugs. In 35.5% of cases, administered amount was lower than the quarter of the present quantity in the therapeutic unity. The rest of the therapeutic unity was thrown (77.2% of cases). Liquid oral forms: liquid oral forms were ready for use regarding 83.8% of cases. The medicine was readministered to the same patient (23.5%), and/or administered to other patients (80.0%). Capsules: 66.9% of the administered capsules were prepared by the hospital pharmacies. The pharmacies organized with an unit dose drug dispensing system produced significantly more preparations than those working by global distribution (P < 0.0001). In 58.4% of cases, the administered capsule was an off-label drug. Tablets: 46% of drug administration concerned a tablet without pediatric indication. 46.7% of tablets were cut, 74% were crushed. Bags: in 35.2% of observations, the bag was not administered in its entirety. Our study confirms the unsuitability of drugs to paediatric inpatients, the necessity of recommendations of good practices in the administration of drugs to paediatric inpatients, and proposes corrective
Finlay, Fiona; Baverstock, Anna; Lenton, Simon
Over the past 30 years, there has been much research into the health benefits of humour and laughter. Although often viewed very positively, rigorous evaluation of the therapeutic effect of clowning is complex. Clowning is a multi-modal intervention, which may have an impact on medical conditions, procedures, family functioning and health care teams. Clowns help children to adapt to their hospital surroundings and can distract from, and demystify, painful or frightening procedures through 'doses of fun' to complement traditional clinical interventions. This paper provides a review of the paediatric literature and reveals studies looking at the effect of clown interventions on various practical procedures and individual medical conditions, and the effects of clowning within clinical teams.
Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21274330
van As, A B; Millar, Alastair J W
Of all the intra-abdominal solid organs, the liver is the most vulnerable to blunt abdominal trauma. The majority of liver ruptures present in combination with other abdominal or extra-abdominal injuries. Over the last three decades, the management of blunt liver trauma has evolved from obligatory operative to non-operative management in over 90% of cases. Penetrating liver injuries more often require operative intervention and are managed according to adult protocols. The greatest clinical challenge remains the timely identification of the severely damaged liver with immediate and aggressive resuscitation and expedition to laparotomy. The operative management can be taxing and should ideally be performed in a dedicated paediatric surgical centre with experience in dealing with such trauma. Complications can occur early or late and include haemobilia, intrahepatic duct rupture with persistent biliary fistula, bilaemia, intrahepatic haematoma, post-traumatic cysts, vascular outflow obstruction, and gallstones. The prognosis is generally excellent.
Honour, John W
Most steroid disorders of the adrenal cortex come to clinical attention in childhood and in order to investigate these problems, there are many challenges to the laboratory which need to be appreciated to a certain extent by clinicians. The analysis of sex steroids in biological fluids from neonates, over adrenarche and puberty present challenges of specificities and concentrations often in small sample sizes. Different reference ranges are also needed for interpretations. For around 40 years, quantitative assays for the steroids and their regulatory peptide hormones have been possible using immunoassay techniques. Problems are recognised and this review aims to summarise the benefits and failings of immunoassays and introduce where tandem mass spectrometry is anticipated to meet the clinical needs for steroid analysis in paediatric endocrine investigations. It is important to keep a dialogue between clinicians and the laboratory, especially when any laboratory result does not make sense in the clinical investigation.
Hasan, Zeeshaan U; Absamara, Rania; Ahmed, Mas
Chvostek's Sign was first described in 1876, as a clinical clue associated with patients who suffered from latent tetany, and is induced by percussion of the angle of the jaw. However, over the years many clinicians have called into question the strength of the association with latent tetany, particularly in paediatric practice. This review examines the variation in techniques used to elicit the sign in studies conducted on this phenomenon in children as well as how differences in the classification of a positive Chvostek's sign have lead to varied reports on the strength of the association. Furthermore, an appraisal of the literature regarding the proposed mechanism of Chvostek's sign is reported alongside analysing other diseases which have been associated with Chvostek's sign to uncover any unifying mechanism for the presence of this clinical sign in children.
Akman, Ozlem; Ozturk, Candan; Bektas, Murat; Ayar, Dijle; Armstrong, Merry A
This study aims to determine factors of job satisfaction and burnout levels of paediatric nurses. A total of 165 nurses working in paediatric clinics completed the Minnesota job satisfaction scale and the Maslach burnout scale. Average scores of the emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation score were low, while personal accomplishment scores were high. A high level of job satisfaction, being married, increased age and a decreased number of assigned patients were significantly associated with a low level of burnout. Paediatric nurses experience burnout at significant levels. The most important variable that affected job satisfaction was income. The results of the study could guide development of strategies that might prevent or alleviate burnout of paediatric nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, S; Davies, P
Chronic cough is a common presentation in paediatrics. We describe a case which highlights the need for careful history taking and summarize the key clinical features which should prompt a clinician to perform a chest X-ray.
Cook, Kerry; Daniels, Amanda; Sheehan, Karen; Langton, Helen
Educational courses for staff working in paediatric specialties may not be financially viable because of the small numbers involved and the difficulties that potential students have in getting released from their units. The UK Paediatric Cardiac Nurses Association worked with other groups to explore the feasibility of a national multi-professional paediatric cardiac education pathway. Three options were identified, including the continuation of local in-house provision with its associated variation in standards. The relative benefits and resource implications of each option were explored and approaches made to educational institutions for support in developing the pathway. A university with an established reputation for e-learning undertook this development and a post graduate certificate in Paediatric Cardiothoracic Practice will soon be available.
Harris, R; Mitton, S; Chong, S; Daya, H
The prevalence of eosinophilic oesophagitis is increasing. A Pubmed search for 'eosinophilic oesophagitis' and 'eosinophilic esophagitis' yielded 345 publications since 1976. Only seven were in otolaryngology journals.1-7 Patients typically present with dysphagia, vomiting, dyspepsia or food impaction and are therefore usually referred to a paediatric gastroenterologist; otolaryngologists are not usually involved in management. A missed diagnosis may result in oesophageal stricture. Two patients, aged two and four years, were referred to the paediatric otolaryngology department with intermittent upper oesophageal food impaction. A paediatric gastroenterologist was involved in the investigation. Histological examination of oesophageal biopsies demonstrated changes consistent with eosinophilic oesophagitis. Both patients were expediently diagnosed, investigated and managed. A diagnosis of eosinophilic oesophagitis must be considered in patients presenting with food bolus impaction. Early involvement of a paediatric gastroenterology team in the diagnosis is recommended in children presenting with oesophageal symptoms, in order to avoid delayed diagnosis.
Ngiam, Joachim; Cistulli, Peter A
Paediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common and its prevalence is expected to increase due to the rise in childhood obesity. Recent research has shown that many children, both syndromic and non-syndromic, who exhibit mouth breathing as a result of upper airway obstruction, may also exhibit dentofacial anomalies. Although adenotonsillectomy and continuous positive airway pressure have been classically proposed as the primary treatment modalities for paediatric OSA, there are significant limitations to both therapies. Therefore newer treatment modalities are needed. Current research has focused on emerging dental treatment options for paediatric OSA, such as rapid maxillary expansion, oral appliances and distraction osteogenesis. However, there are few randomized trials assessing the effectiveness of these novel dental therapies for paediatric OSA, and hence further research is required to advance the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baillie, Colin T; Smith, Jennifer A
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises two distinct but related chronic relapsing inflammatory conditions affecting different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s disease is characterised by a patchy transmural inflammation affecting both small and large bowel segments with several distinct phenotypic presentations. Ulcerative colitis classically presents as mucosal inflammation of the rectosigmoid (distal colitis), variably extending in a contiguous manner more proximally through the colon but not beyond the caecum (pancolitis). This article highlights aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of IBD that have relevance for paediatric practice with particular emphasis on surgical considerations. Since 25% of IBD cases present in childhood or teenage years, the unique considerations and challenges of paediatric management should be widely appreciated. Conversely, we argue that the organizational separation of the paediatric and adult healthcare worlds has often resulted in late adoption of new approaches particularly in paediatric surgical practice. PMID:26034347
Polat, Gökhan; Karademir, Gökhan; Akgül, Turgut; Ceylan, Hasan Hüseyin
INTRODUCTION Elbow dislocations in children are rare injuries. These injuries are often in the form of complex injuries that is accompanied by the median nerve damage and medial epicondyle fracture in the pediatric age group. Open elbow dislocation without fracture in the pediatric age group has been reported very rarely in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE The purpose of this study is to present an 8-year-old patient who has open elbow dislocation without fracture accompanying with brachial artery injury. In the clinical examination of the patient, there was an open wound in the transverse antecubital region. After repair of brachial artery injury, open reduction was performed under general anesthesia. In the postoperative clinical examination at 6 months, left elbow flexion was 140°, extension was full and there were no deficit in the supination and pronation of the forearm. DISCUSSION Elbow dislocation without fracture in pediatric patients is a very rare injury. Usually the trauma mechanism of elbow dislocation is falling on outstretched hand with elbow in approximately 30° of flexion. However our patient had fallen on outstretched hand with elbow in full extension. Although this type of trauma mechanism is typical for supracondylar humerus fractures in pediatric age group, in our patient an open posterior elbow dislocation without fracture had occurred. CONCLUSION Pediatric elbow dislocations are rare injuries and the management of these injuries can be technically demanding due to concurrent neurovascular injuries. An open dislocation without fracture is very rare and it should be treated with immediate intervention, an effective teamwork and good rehabilitation. PMID:25460475
Borràs, Eva; Domínguez, Àngela; Fuentes, Miriam; Batalla, Joan; Cardeñosa, Neus; Plasencia, Antoni
Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged < 3 years recruited by random sampling from municipal districts of all health regions of Catalonia. The total sample was 630 children. Parents completed a standard questionnaire for each child, which included vaccination coverage and knowledge about vaccination. The level of knowledge of vaccination was scored according to parental answers. Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose) and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43) and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72). The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination. PMID:19473498
Within the history of paediatrics is the history of the name used to describe it. The etymology of the word 'paediatrics' dates from its first written use, recorded as 'pädiatrik' in the German literature and as 'paediatric', later 'pediatric' in the USA, both first in 1850. Professor Robley Dunglison (1788-1869), the British and American medical lexicographer, first defined 'paediatria' as 'the treatment of the diseases of children' in 1855. 'Pediatric medicine' was promoted as a specialty in the USA in 1880. The oldest monumental inscription defining the specialty of 'paediatrics' in the UK is to be found on a plaque added (in 1950) to the memorial to Dr George Armstrong (1719-1789), a founder of the specialty of paediatrics, in Castleton Cemetery, Scottish Borders, Roxburghshire. 'Paediatrics' and 'child health', with subtle semantic distinctions, had become well established in the English-speaking world by the middle of the 20th century. This paper presents an interpretative chronology of the etymology of the descriptors of the specialty that enjoins all who care for children.
Zander, Melissa; Hutton, Alison; King, Lindy
Resilience has been suggested as an important coping strategy for nurses working in demanding settings, such as paediatric oncology. This qualitative study explored paediatric oncology nurses' perceptions of their development of resilience and how this resilience underpinned their ability to deal with work-related stressors. Five paediatric oncology nurses were interviewed about their understanding of the concept of resilience, their preferred coping mechanisms, and their day-today work in paediatric oncology. Using thematic analysis, the interviews were subsequently grouped together into seventeen initial themes. These themes were then grouped into seven major aspects that described how the participants perceived resilience underpinned their work. These "seven aspects of forming resilience" contributed to an initial understanding of how paediatric oncology nurses develop resilience in the face of their personal and professional challenges. Several key strategies derived from the findings, such as improved rostering, support to a nurse's friend and family, and a clinical support nursing role, could be implemented at an organizational level to support resilience development within the paediatric oncology setting.
Rocchi, Francesca; Paolucci, Paolo; Ceci, Adriana; Rossi, Paolo
The lack of availability of appropriate medicines for children is an extensive and well known problem. Paediatricians and Physicians who take care of the paediatric population are primarily exposed to cope with this negative situation very often as more than half of the children are prescribed off-label or unlicensed medicines. Medicinal products used to treat this population should be subjected to ethical research of high quality and be explicitly authorized for use in children as it happens in adults. For that reason, and following the US experience, the European Paediatric Regulation has been amended in January 2007 by the European Commission. The objective of the Paediatric Regulation is to improve the development of high quality and ethically researched medicines for children aged 0 to 17 years, to facilitate the availability of information on the use of medicines for children, without subjecting children to unnecessary trials, or delaying the authorization of medicines for use in adults. The Paediatric Regulation is dramatically changing the regulatory environment for paediatric medicines in Europe and is fuelling an increased number of clinical trials in the paediatric population. Nevertheless, there are some risks and pitfalls that need to be anticipated and controlled in order to ensure that children will ultimately benefit from this European initiative.
Ruperto, Nicolino; Martini, Alberto
Networking is key to overcoming the logistical, methodological and ethical problems related to the implementation of paediatric studies. The adoption of legislation to encourage paediatric clinical trials by the American and European regulatory agencies has opened a new era in the assessment of drug safety and efficacy in children. Two very large international trial networks--the Pediatric Rheumatology Collaborative Study Group (PRCSG) and the Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO)--have played a critical role in the implementation of this legislation and have facilitated several successful controlled studies on the safety and the efficacy of new and old drugs in paediatric rheumatic diseases. The PRINTO and PRCSG networks can be seen as a model for international co-operation in other paediatric subspecialties.
Schären, S; Jeanneret, B
Fractures of the atlas account for 1-2% of all vertebral fractures. We divide atlas fractures into 5 groups: isolated fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas, isolated fractures of the posterior arch, combined fractures of the anterior and posterior arch (so-called Jefferson fractures), isolated fractures of the lateral mass and fractures of the transverse process. Isolated fractures of the anterior or posterior arch are benign and are treated conservatively with a soft collar until the neck pain has disappeared. Jefferson fractures are divided into stable and unstable fracture depending on the integrity of the transverse ligament. Stable Jefferson fractures are treated conservatively with good outcome while unstable Jefferson fractures are probably best treated operatively with a posterior atlanto-axial or occipito-axial stabilization and fusion. The authors preferred treatment modality is the immediate open reduction of the dislocated lateral masses combined with a stabilization in the reduced position using a transarticular screw fixation C1/C2 according to Magerl. This has the advantage of saving the atlanto-occipital joints and offering an immediate stability which makes immobilization in an halo or Minerva cast superfluous. In late instabilities C1/2 with incongruency of the lateral masses occurring after primary conservative treatment, an occipito-cervical fusion is indicated. Isolated fractures of the lateral masses are very rare and may, if the lateral mass is totally destroyed, be a reason for an occipito-cervical fusion. Fractures of the transverse processes may be the cause for a thrombosis of the vertebral artery. No treatment is necessary for the fracture itself.
Arul, G S; Spicer, R D
We have tried to review the evidence for the organisation of paediatric surgical care. Difficulties arise because of the lack of published data from district general hospitals concerning paediatric surgical conditions. Hence much of the debate about the surgical management of children is based on anecdotal evidence. However, at a time when the provision of health care is being radically reorganised to an internal market based on a system of purchasers and providers it is more important than ever to understand the issues at stake. Two separate issues have been discussed: the role of the specialist paediatric centre and the provision of non-specialist paediatric surgery in district general hospitals. There are arguments for and against large regional specialist paediatric centres. The benefits of centralisation include concentration of expertise, more appropriate consultant on call commitment, development of support services, and junior doctor training. The disadvantages include children and their families having to travel long distances for care, and the loss of expertise at a local level. If specialist paediatric emergency transport is available the benefits of centralisation far outweigh the adverse effects of having to take children to a regional paediatric intensive care centre. Specialist paediatric centres are aware of the importance of treating children and their parents as a family unit as highlighted by the Platt committee; this is an important challenge and enormous improvements have occurred to provide proper accommodation for families while their children are treated in hospital. To keep these arguments of large distances and separation from the home in context, one paediatric intensive care unit in Victoria, Australia, providing a centralised service to a region larger in are than England and with a similar admission rate, has a lower mortality rate than the decentralised paediatric intensive care provided in the Trent region of the UK. There is clear
With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this book eighty-five papers look at fractures. Topics covered are fracture mechanics, fracture mechanisms, evaluating fracture resistance, fracture toughness, predicting crack growth, surface cracking, crack initiation and propagation, weld fractures, engineering applications of fracture mechanics, fracture and failure in nonmetallic materials, dynamic fractures, test techniques, radiation embrittlement, applications of fracture mechanics, design concepts, and creep.
Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.
Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509
Stress fractures Overview Stress fractures are tiny cracks in a bone. They're caused by repetitive force, often from overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Stress fractures can also arise from normal use of ...
Busoni, P; Crescioli, M; Agostino, R; Sestini, G
Postoperative vomiting is a common and unpleasant complication. The purpose of the present study was to verify if dexamethasone reduces the incidence of vomiting when injected IV in children anaesthetized with halothane for common paediatric operations. We also studied the incidence of vomiting when sevoflurane was used instead. Five hundred and 69 boys, aged 2-12 years (ASA physical status I, II), scheduled for inguinal field surgery were randomly assigned to receive halothane, halothane and dexamethasone and sevoflurane in three groups: halothane (n=180), halothane and IV dexamethasone (n=188) and sevoflurane (n=201). Anaesthesia was induced by inhalation of halothane or sevoflurane in oxygen and nitrous oxide and was maintained at minimum alveolar concentration of each agent throughout the surgery. For intra- and postoperative pain control iliac crest block was used in all the boys. Vomiting was defined as any expulsion of liquid gastric contents. The incidence of postoperative vomiting was 23% in the halothane group, which was significantly greater than that in the other groups (halothane and dexamethasone group, 9%; sevoflurane group, 13%). In conclusion, dexamethasone reduces the incidence and frequency of multiple emetic episodes when administered intravenously after halothane anaesthesia; sevoflurane reduces the overall incidence of vomiting, but not multiple emetic episodes.
Vega-Mata, Nataliz; Fernández-García, Laura; Lara-Cardenas, Carolina; Raposo-Rodríguez, Lucía; Montes-Granda, María
Pharmacobezoars are aggregates of undigested medications that accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract and can cause obstructive or toxic complications. In this paper, the first case is reported of a paediatric pharmacobezoar formation after a vitamin overdose. The objective of this report is to prevent the occurrence of this complication and the action to be taken. A 6-year-old child, 6h after ingesting 40 chewable tablets of a hydrophobic vitamin E with high capacity to form a pharmacobezoar, underwent urgent oesophagogastroscopy. A viscoelastic mass of 10×4cm was observed stretching from the cardia to the greater curvature. Seventy-five percent of the mass was removed and the remainder was fragmented, hydrated and aspirated. The patient remains asymptomatic to date. An overdose of hydrophobic drugs can produce a bezoar formation therefore prompt evacuation is recommended with an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, which is a safe and effective technique in gastric bezoars. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Bacha, Emile; Kalfa, David
The concept of minimally invasive surgery for congenital heart disease in paediatric patients is broad, and has the aim of reducing the trauma of the operation at each stage of management. Firstly, in the operating room using minimally invasive incisions, video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotically assisted surgery, hybrid procedures, image-guided intracardiac surgery, and minimally invasive cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. Secondly, in the intensive-care unit with neuroprotection and 'fast-tracking' strategies that involve early extubation, early hospital discharge, and less exposure to transfused blood products. Thirdly, during postoperative mid-term and long-term follow-up by providing the children and their families with adequate support after hospital discharge. Improvement of these strategies relies on the development of new devices, real-time multimodality imaging, aids to instrument navigation, miniaturized and specialized instrumentation, robotic technology, and computer-assisted modelling of flow dynamics and tissue mechanics. In addition, dedicated multidisciplinary co-ordinated teams involving congenital cardiac surgeons, perfusionists, intensivists, anaesthesiologists, cardiologists, nurses, psychologists, and counsellors are needed before, during, and after surgery to go beyond apparent technological and medical limitations with the goal to 'treat more while hurting less'.
Moraleda, L; Castellote, M
The aim of this study was to identify the commonest referrals to a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic and, therefore, to be able to improve the paediatric residency program in managing musculoskeletal problems. Demographic data, referrals and final diagnosis were collected prospectively on all patients that were evaluated in a paediatric orthopaedic outpatient clinic. The majority of referrals were to evaluate musculoskeletal pain (37%), foot deformity (20%), spine deformity (15%), walking pattern (11%), alignment of the lower limbs (4%), and development of the hip (4%). A normal physical examination or a normal variation was observed in 42% of patients. A mild condition was observed in 17% of patients that should have only been referred to a paediatric orthopaedic clinic after failing to resolve pain with anti-inflammatories or physiotherapy. A mild deformity that only needed treatment if it became symptomatic was seen in 8% of patients. The majority of referrals were due to a normal variation or mild conditions that only required symptomatic treatment. Paediatric residency programs do not reflect the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Albert P.
The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Awareness of sequelae due to the original illness and its treatment may result in changes in treatment and support during and after the acute phase. To determine the current knowledge on physical and psychological sequelae and the quality of life in survivors of paediatric intensive care, we undertook a computerised comprehensive search of online databases for studies reporting sequelae in survivors of paediatric intensive care. Studies reporting sequelae in paediatric survivors of cardiothoracic surgery and trauma were excluded, as were studies reporting only mortality. All other studies reporting aspects of physical and psychological sequelae were analysed. Twenty-seven studies consisting of 3,444 survivors met the selection criteria. Distinct physical and psychological sequelae in patients have been determined and seemed to interfere with quality of life. Psychological sequelae in parents seem to be common. Small numbers, methodological limitations and quantitative and qualitative heterogeneity hamper the interpretation of data. We conclude that paediatric intensive care survivors and their parents have physical and psychological sequelae affecting quality of life. Further well-designed prospective studies evaluating sequelae of the original illness and its treatment are warranted. PMID:17823815
Mammas, Ioannis N; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Thiagarajan, Prakash; Gardner, Sharryn; Papaioannou, Georgia; Melidou, Angeliki; Koutsaki, Maria; Kostagianni, Georgia; Achtsidis, Vassilis; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Calachanis, Marcos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Greenough, Anne; Spandidos, Demetrios A
The '2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology', which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. A brief historical overview of the anti-vaccination movement was also provided, as well as presentations on the educational challenge of Paediatric Virology as a new subspecialty of Paediatrics. This review highlights selected lectures and discussions of the workshop.
Mammas, Ioannis N.; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Thiagarajan, Prakash; Gardner, Sharryn; Papaioannou, Georgia; Melidou, Angeliki; Koutsaki, Maria; Kostagianni, Georgia; Achtsidis, Vassilis; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Calachanis, Marcos; Zaravinos, Apostolos; Greenough, Anne; Spandidos, Demetrios A.
The ‘2nd Workshop on Paediatric Virology’, which took place on Saturday the 8th of October 2016 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview on recent views and advances on Paediatric Virology. Emphasis was given to HIV-1 management in Greece, a country under continuous financial crisis, hepatitis B vaccination in Africa, treatment options for hepatitis C virus in childhood, Zika virus in pregnancy and infancy, the burden of influenza on childhood, hand-foot-mouth disease and myocarditis associated with Coxsackie viruses. Other general topics covered included a critical evaluation of Paediatric Accident and Emergency viral infections, multimodality imaging of viral infections in children, surgical approaches of otolaryngologists to complex viral infections, new advances in the diagnosis and treatment of viral conjunctivitis and novel molecular diagnostic methods for HPV in childhood. A brief historical overview of the anti-vaccination movement was also provided, as well as presentations on the educational challenge of Paediatric Virology as a new subspecialty of Paediatrics. This review highlights selected lectures and discussions of the workshop. PMID:28352303
Patel, Nimesh; Wilson, Lance; Wansbrough, Guy
Displaced paediatric forearm fractures are most often treated by manipulation under anaesthetic, followed by the application of a circumferential Plaster of Paris (POP) splint. Some surgeons choose to split the cast in order to facilitate immediate "spreading" with minimal distress to the patient, should the distal limb become compromised. Usually however, this does not occur, and the cast is completed at a later visit to the plaster room. Time, money and inconvenience could be saved if this modification was not necessary, and the final plaster would be lighter. To establish whether the mechanical properties of a split POP are sufficient to stabilise a forearm fracture, and protect the patient from further injury. The repeatability of all tests was established on control samples before undertaking the trial. 42 standardised 8 layer POP cylinders of appropriate dimensions were fabricated, of which 21 were split longitudinally. The splints were subjected to non-destructive tests in 4-point bending (Bending), 3-Point Kinking (kinking) and torsion modes, and the load at clinically relevant end-points was recorded. These simulated the deformity at which the splint no longer provided adequate stability and alignment, or at which the wearer was no longer protected. The splints were then loaded to destruction to establish the mode of ultimate failure. The mean loads at the clinical end points for split POP splints were: 1375N in Bending, 544N in Kinking and 12 Nm in Torsion (equalling 67.3%, 70.4% and 47.4% of the equivalent values for a circumferential splints). Loads were in excess of body weight for most paediatric patients. After ultimate failure, the proportion of casts that became unstable was similar (44% of full casts and 50% of split casts). Split POP splints which have not been spread, provide adequate stabilisation and protection of paediatric forearm fractures, and do not routinely require completion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The paediatric life support working party of the European Resuscitation Council was set up in 1992 with the aim of producing guidelines for basic and advanced paediatric resuscitation that would be acceptable throughout Europe. The commonest cause of cardiac arrest in children is problems with the airway. The resulting difficulties in breathing and the associated hypoxia rapidly cause a severe bradycardia or asystole. In contrast, adults have primary cardiac events resulting in ventricular fibrillation. This important difference in the pathogenesis of paediatric and adult cardiac arrest is reflected in these European Resuscitation Council guidelines, which complement those already published for adults. PMID:8019227
Schauseil-Zipf, Ulrike; Karay, Yassin; Ehrlich, Roland; Knoop, Kai; Michalk, Dietrich
Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students. Medical student peers in their 6(th) year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5(th) year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies. The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training. The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors. Paediatric doctors seem to be more
Schauseil-Zipf, Ulrike; Karay, Yassin; Ehrlich, Roland; Knoop, Kai; Michalk, Dietrich
Background: Peer assisted learning is known as an effective educational strategy in medical teaching. We established a peer assisted teaching program by student tutors with a focus on clinical competencies for students during their practical training on paediatric wards. It was the purpose of this study to investigate the effects of a clinical skills training by tutors, residents and consultants on students evaluations of the teaching quality and the effects of a peer teaching program on self assessed clinical competencies by the students. Methods: Medical student peers in their 6th year were trained by an intensive instruction program for teaching clinical skills by paediatric consultants, doctors and psychologists. 109 students in their 5th year (study group) participated in a peer assisted teaching program for training clinical skills in paediatrics. The skills training by student peer teachers were supervised by paediatric doctors. 45 students (control group) participated in a conventional paediatric skills training by paediatric doctors and consultants. Students from both groups, which were consecutively investigated, completed a questionnaire with an evaluation of the satisfaction with their practical training and a self assessment of their practical competencies. Results: The paediatric skills training with student peer teachers received significantly better ratings than the conventional skills training by paediatric doctors concerning both the quality of the practical training and the support by the teaching medical staff. Self assessed learning success in practical skills was higher rated in the peer teaching program than in the conventional training. Conclusions: The peer assisted teaching program of paediatric skills training was rated higher by the students regarding their satisfaction with the teaching quality and their self assessment of the acquired skills. Clinical skills training by student peer teachers have to be supervised by paediatric doctors
López-Herce, Jesús; Rodríguez, Antonio; Carrillo, Angel; de Lucas, Nieves; Calvo, Custodio; Civantos, Eva; Suárez, Eva; Pons, Sara; Manrique, Ignacio
Cardiac arrest has a high mortality in children. To improve the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, it is essential to disseminate the international recommendations and the training of health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article summarises the 2015 European Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, which are based on a review of the advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and consensus in the science and treatment by the International Council on Resuscitation. The Spanish Paediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation recommendations, developed by the Spanish Group of Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation, are an adaptation of the European recommendations, and will be used for training health professionals and the general population in resuscitation. This article highlights the main changes from the previous 2010 recommendations on prevention of cardiac arrest, the diagnosis of cardiac arrest, basic life support, advanced life support and post-resuscitation care, as well as reviewing the algorithms of treatment of basic life support, obstruction of the airway and advanced life support.
Patel, Preena; Koh, Michelle; Carr, Lucinda; McHugh, Kieran
Palliative care is an expanding specialty within paediatrics, which has attracted little attention in the paediatric radiological literature. Paediatric patients under a palliative care team will have numerous radiological tests which we traditionally categorise under organ systems rather than under the umbrella of palliative medicine. The prevalence of children with life-limiting illness is significant. It has been estimated to be one per thousand, and this may be an underestimate. In this review, we will focus on our experience at one institution, where radiology has proven to be an invaluable partner to palliative care. We will discuss examples of conditions commonly referred to our palliative care team and delineate the crucial role of diagnostic radiology in determining treatment options.
Burt, N; Dorman, B H; Reeves, S T; Rust, P F; Pinosky, M L; Abboud, M R; Barredo, J C; Laver, J H
Previous studies have not determined the correlation between dural puncture and postural headache in paediatric patients. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the correlation between atypical headache and dural puncture in the paediatric population. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the incidence of typical postdural puncture headache (PDPHA) and atypical headache in paediatric oncology patients following dural puncture. The study population consisted of 66 paediatric patients undergoing 128 consecutive procedures, including 99 lumbar punctures and 29 bone marrow aspirations without concomitant lumbar puncture. Patients were prospectively randomized into four groups: Group I, preteens (< 13 yr) undergoing lumbar puncture, Group II, adolescents (13-21 yr) undergoing lumbar puncture, Group III, preteens undergoing bone marrow aspiration, and Group IV, adolescents undergoing bone marrow aspiration. The presence and description of headache was documented immediately after dural puncture or bone marrow aspiration, and on post-procedure days # 1, 3 and 5 by personnel blinded to the type of procedure. There was an increase in the incidence of headache (9.1%) after lumbar puncture in patients < 21 yr relative to patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration (P < 0.05). No difference was found between the incidence of typical PDPHA after dural puncture in preteens and adolescents. There was also no difference in the incidence of atypical headache after dural puncture or after bone marrow aspiration among preteens and adolescents. Paediatric patients experience an increased incidence of typical postdural puncture headache after dural puncture compared with age-matched patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration only. Atypical headache is relatively common in the paediatric population after dural puncture or bone marrow aspiration.
Lawton, Ben; Deuble, Natalie
Seizures are a common presentation to emergency departments. Early intervention improves treatment response. Use of consensus guidelines is highly recommended to decrease drug side effects and reduce intensive care requirements. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of first-line treatment. Choice of drugs for second-line treatment is expanding and some important studies are currently underway to determine which of these agents has the best safety and effectiveness profile in children. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Valente, Enza Maria; Ferraris, Alessandro; Dallapiccola, Bruno
Paediatric neurological disorders encompass a large group of clinically heterogeneous diseases, of which some are known to have a genetic cause. Over the past few years, advances in nosological classifications and in strategies for molecular testing have substantially improved the diagnosis, genetic counselling, and clinical management of many patients, and have facilitated the possibility of prenatal diagnoses for future pregnancies. However, the increasing availability of genetic tests for paediatric neurological disorders is raising important questions with regard to the appropriateness, choice of protocols, interpretation of results, and ethical and social concerns of these services. In this Review, we discuss these topics and how these concerns affect genetic counselling.
Deverell, Marie; Zurynski, Yvonne A; Elliott, Elizabeth J
This report provides an update on the surveillance conducted by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) during the period January to December 2013. The APSU facilitates national active surveillance of uncommon diseases of childhood including selected communicable diseases. This report includes data on the following conditions: acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV), congenital rubella, perinatal exposure to HIV and paediatric HIV infection, neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), congenital varicella, neonatal varicella, severe complications of varicella and juvenile onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JoRRP). Surveillance of severe complications of influenza was undertaken during the influenza season (July to September 2013).
Panos, Georgios D; Kozeis, Nikolaos; Balidis, Miltiadis; Moschos, Marilita M; Hafezi, Farhad
Since the late 1990s corneal crosslinking (CXL) has been proposed as a new treatment option which can stop progression of keratoconus with promising results in adults. Keratoconus presents a higher rate and faster progression in paediatric patients and for this reason prompt and effective treatment is essential. Due to its success in adult keratoconus patients, CXL has been recently applied to children in order to stop or slow progression of keratoconus in paediatric patients. This article will present an update of the literature on the topic of CXL in this age group.
Wacogne, I; Scott-Jupp, R; Chambers, T
"The report of my death was an exaggeration", said Mark Twain. For a dying specialty, general paediatrics has certainly been looking very healthy recently. It is timely to examine why our specialty was thought to be at such risk, and to explore why, although in many cases shocked and confused, it is well on the way to recovery. This article explores what is needed to keep it healthy to ensure that the general paediatrician is at the centre of the delivery of paediatrics in the UK.
Das, Sakti Prasad; Pradhan, Sudhakar; Ganesh, Shankar; Sahu, Pabitra Kumar; Mohanty, Ram Narayan; Das, Sanjay Kumar
Background: Severe crouch gait in adolescent cerebral palsy is a difficult problem to manage. The patients develop loading of patellofemoral joint, leading to pain, gait deviation, excessive energy expenditure and progressive loss of function. Patella alta and avulsion of patella are the other complications. Different treatment options have been described in the literature to deal with this difficult problem. We evaluated outcome of supracondylar femoral extension osteotomy (SCFEO) and patellar tendon advancement (PTA) in the treatment of crouch gait in patients with cerebral palsy. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescents with crouch gait were operated by SCFEO and PTA. All subjects were evaluated pre and postoperatively. Clinical, radiographic, observational gait analysis and functional measures were included to assess the changes in knee function. Results: Cases were followed up to 3 years. The patients walked with increased knee extension and improvement in quadriceps muscle strength. Knee pain was decreased and improvements in functional mobility and radiologic improvement were found. Conclusion: SCFEO and PTA for adolescent crouch gait is effective in improving knee extensor strength, reducing knee pain and improving function. PMID:22448063
Bickler, S. W.; Sanno-Duanda, B.
INTRODUCTION: There is a paucity of published data on the type of conditions that require surgery among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Such information is necessary for assessing the impact of such conditions on child health and for setting priorities to improve paediatric surgical care. METHODS: Described in the article is a 29-month prospective study of all children aged < 15 years who were admitted to a government referral hospital in the Gambia from January 1996 to May 1998. RESULTS: A total of 1726 children were admitted with surgical problems. Surgical patients accounted for 11.3% of paediatric admissions and 34,625 total inpatient days. The most common admission diagnoses were injuries (46.9%), congenital anomalies (24.3%), and infections requiring surgery (14.5%). The diagnoses that accounted for the greatest number of inpatient days were burns (18.8%), osteomyelitis (15.4%), fractures (12.7%), soft tissue injuries (3.9%), and head injuries (3.4%). Gambian children were rarely admitted for appendicitis and never admitted for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The leading causes of surgical deaths were burns, congenital anomalies, and injuries other than burns. DISCUSSION: Prevention of childhood injuries and better trauma management, especially at the primary and secondary health care levels, should be the priorities for improving paediatric surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa. Surgical care of children should be considered an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:11143193
Sarabia Condés, J M; Ibañez Martínez, L; Sánchez Carrasco, M A; Carrillo Julia, F J; Salmerón Martínez, E L
The purpose of this paper is to present our experience in the treatment of the fractures of the hamate and to make a review of the literature on this topic. We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients treated in our clinic between 2005-2012 suffering from fractures of the hamate. Six cases were fractures of the body and four were fractures of the hamate. Five cases were of associated injuries. Diagnostic delay ranged from 30 days to 2 years. Patient follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the DASH questionnaire. Five patients with a fracture of the body underwent surgery, and one was treated conservatively. Two patients with fracture of the hook of the hamate were treated with immobilization, and two more patients had the fragment removed. The grip strength and the digital clip were reduced in 2 cases. Flexion and extension of the wrist was limited in 3 cases. The mobility of the fingers was normal in all the cases, except in one. The results obtained from the DASH questionnaire were normal in all the cases, except in one case of fracture of the hamate, and in two cases of fracture of the body. The surgical treatment should reduce the dislocation and stabilize the injuries with osteosynthesis. The fractures of the hamate are usually diagnosed late, and the most recommended treatment is removal of the fragment, although it cannot be deduced from this study. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Background Injuries continue to be the leading cause of death and disability for children. The is a paucity of published data on paediatric injuries in our local environment. This study describes the etiological spectrum, injury characteristics and treatment outcome of paediatric injuries in our local setting and provides baseline data for establishment of prevention strategies as well as treatment guidelines. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving paediatric injury patients admitted to Bugando Medical Centre from August 2011 to April 2012. Statistical data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0 and STATA version 12.0. Results A total of 150 patients were studied. The age of patients ranged from 1 month to 10 years with a median age of 5 years. The male to female ratio was 2.3:1. Road traffic accident was the most common cause of injury (39.3%) and motorcycle (71.2%) was responsible for the majority of road traffic accidents. Only 11 (7.3%) patients received pre-hospital care. The head /neck (32.7%) and musculoskeletal (28.0%) were the most frequent body region injured. Open wounds (51.4%), foreign bodies (31.3%) and fractures (17.3%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. The majority of patients 84 (56.0%) were treated surgically. Complication rate was 3.9%. The mean duration of hospitalization was 9.7 ± 13.1 days. Mortality rate was 12.7%. Age of the patient (< 5 years), late presentation and presence of complications were the main predictors of length of hospital stay (P < 0.001), whereas burn injuries, severe head injuries and severity of injury (Paediatric trauma score = 0–5) significantly predicted mortality (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Paediatric injuries resulting from road traffic accidents (RTAs) remain a major public health problem in this part of Tanzania. Urgent preventive measures targeting at reducing the occurrence of RTAs is necessary to reduce the incidence of paediatric injuries in this region
Severity scoring systems for adult familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) are established and used as important clinical and analytical tools in disease management and research. A recent paper highlights the need for a paediatric FMF severity measure. How should such a score be built and what challenges might be faced?
The medicine use pathway is a process which is constantly evolving in order to comply with intangible rules. As in other therapeutic fields, the drug regimen in paediatrics must tolerate no error and must be able to detect all warning signs, however minor, in order to optimise this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
MAMMAS, IOANNIS N.; SOURVINOS, GEORGE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is composed of a particularly heterogeneous family of DNA viruses, which has gained much attention in recent years due to the discoveries of Professor Harald zur Hausen, who first identified a connection between HPV and cervical cancer. Professor Harald zur Hausen, the ‘Father of HPV Virology’, was the recipient of the 2008 Nobel Prize. HPV can be transmitted through physical contact via autoinoculation or fomites, sexual contact, as well as vertically from the HPV-positive mother to her newborn, causing subclinical or clinical infections. In infancy and childhood, HPV-associated clinical infections include skin warts, genital warts and juvenile recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, while cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions have also been reported among adolescent girls. To date, several research teams, worldwide, have extensively investigated HPV from the paediatric point of view. This primitive effort has been performed before the recent great expansion of paediatric HPV research due to the vaccination programmes against HPV, which were introduced into clinical practice in 2006. In this review article, we present a brief overview of paediatric HPV research after the first report in 1978 involving children in the research of HPV until the time point of this great expansion. In the future, it is expected that further unresolved issues will be addressed and clarified, as the paediatric story of HPV remains a challenging research target. PMID:25013461
King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah
This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…
The implementation of paediatric palliative care aims to fulfil objectives regarding the support provided for the child and his/her family in all aspects of care. It is guided by regulations and recommendations relating to pain relief, quality of life and support for families.
King, Gillian; Bartlett, Doreen J.; Currie, Melissa; Gilpin, Michelle; Baxter, Donna; Willoughby, Colleen; Tucker, Mary Ann; Strachan, Deborah
This article describes the development of a classification system to measure the expertise levels of practicing paediatric rehabilitation therapists. Seventy-five therapists from five disciplines (physical, occupational, speech-language, behaviour, and recreational therapy) were involved, along with 170 peers, and 188 parents of children with…
We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case. PMID:21418566
Vijayan, Sridhar; Bentley, George
We report the 8-year clinical and radiographic outcome of an adolescent patient with a large osteochondral defect of the lateral femoral condyle, and ipsilateral genu valgum secondary to an epiphyseal injury, managed with autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) and supracondylar re-alignment femoral osteotomy. Long-term clinical success was achieved using this method, illustrating the effective use of re-alignment osteotomy in correcting mal-alignment of the knee, protecting the ACI graft site and providing the optimum environment for cartilage repair and regeneration. This is the first report of the combined use of ACI and femoral osteotomy for such a case.
Sharpe, Abigail N; Forsyth, Rob
Paediatric paraplegia resulting from spinal cord pathology of any cause is rare; hence prognostic information for children less than 16 years is limited. This case series review aims to ascertain all cases of paediatric paraplegia from 1997 to 2012 in the former Northern Region of England. Children presenting with sudden paraplegia before the age of 16 years were multiply ascertained from databases in the regional paediatric neurology, neuroradiology, neuro-oncology and adult spinal injuries units. Data were obtained from retrospective case note review. A total of 44 cases (24 female) were identified. The incidence is estimated at 0.49 per 100,000 children under 16/year (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57). Mean age of onset was 8.8 years and the most common aetiology was inflammatory. Twelve months post presentation, mortality was zero and a good outcome (defined as Gross Motor Function Classification System grades I or II) was seen in 66.6%. Motor outcome at 12 months was associated with the presence of bladder/bowel signs at presentation, previous viral illness and initial severity of paraplegia. Bladder signs at presentation were the strongest predictor of prognosis (OR for poor motor outcome 10.3). We were unable to demonstrate a relationship between aetiology and late outcome. Paediatric paraplegia is rare. Mortality rates are low and 66.6% have a good outcome with fully or nearly independent walking. Bladder signs are the strongest predictor of prognosis. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Penazzato, Martina; Bendaud, Victoria; Nelson, Lisa; Stover, John; Mahy, Mary
Background: Paediatric treatment continues to lag behind adult treatment and significant efforts are urgently needed to scale up antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children. As efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission expand, better understanding of future trends and age characterization of the population that will be in need of ART is needed to inform policymakers, as well as drug developers and manufacturers. Methods: The Spectrum model was used to estimate the total number of expected paediatric infections by 2020 in 21 priority countries in Africa. Different ART scale-up scenarios were investigated and age characterization of the population was explored. Results: By 2020, new paediatric infections in the 21 countries will decline in all the scenarios. Total paediatric infections will also decline in the 21 high-burden countries, but with a differential effect by scenario and age group. On the basis of the optimal scale-up scenario, 1 940 000 [1 760 000–2 120 000] children will be expected to be living with HIV in 2020. The number of children dying of AIDS is notably different in the three models. Assuming optimal scale-up and based on 2013 treatment initiation criteria, the estimates of children to receive ART in the 21 high-burden countries will increase to 1 670 000 (1 500 000–1 800 000). Conclusion: By 2020, even under the most optimistic scenarios, a considerable number of children will still be living with HIV. Age-appropriate drugs and formulations will be needed to meet the treatment needs of this vulnerable population. Improved estimates will be critical to guide the development and forecasting of commodities to close the existing paediatric treatment gap. PMID:25409099
McColgan, Martin; Winch, Rachel; Clark, Simon J; Ewing, Carol; Modi, Neena; Greenough, Anne
To determine if there had been changes in the size of the UK paediatric workforce and working patterns between 1999 and 2013. Analysis of prospectively collected datasets. UK consultant paediatricians. Data from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health's workforce census from 1999 to 2013 and the annual surveys of new paediatric Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) and Certificate of Equivalence of Specialist Registration (CESR) holders between 2010 and 2013. Paediatric consultant numbers, programmed activities (PAs) and resident shift working. The UK paediatric consultant workforce grew from 1933 in 1999 to 3718 in 2013. Over the same time period, there was a decline in the number of consultants with a primary academic contract from 210 to 143. There was an increase in the proportion of consultants who were female (40% in 1999 to 50% in 2013, p<0.01). The median number of PAs declined from 11 in 2009 to 10 in 2013 (p<0.001) as did the median number of PAs for supporting professional activities (2.5-2.3, p<0.001). In 2013, 38% of new consultants in general paediatrics or neonatology were working resident shifts. Between 2009 and 2013, the proportion of less than full-time working consultants rose from 18% to 22%, which was more common among female consultants (35% vs 9%). The paediatric consultant workforce has doubled since 1999, but more are working less than full time. The decline in those with a primary academic contract is of concern. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Malleolar fracture; Tri-malleolar; Bi-malleolar; Distal tibia fracture; Distal fibula fracture; Malleolus fracture ... Some ankle fractures may require surgery when: The ends of the bone are out of line with each other (displaced). The ...
Benech, A; Gerbino, G
Results of early combined maxillo-facial and neurosurgical treatment of 53 craniofacial fractures are referred. The fracture location was in 31 cases central midfrontal, 10 lateral supraorbital and 12 combined central and lateral fractures. 35 fractures interested the floor and the posterior wall of frontal sinus, lacerating the underlying dura and cortical tissue. In 19 fractures orbital displacement was present. The key points in the management of these patients are: 1) Early (within 1 to 5 days) and one stage neurosurgical-maxillofacial procedure. Immediate intervention is indicated only in case of evolutive neurological lesions; 2) wide exposition of all the injuries through bicoronal incision and bone flap; 3) assessment of fractures pattern and amount of bone loss; 4) reconstruction of craniofacial frame with osteosynthesis and autologous bone grafts (35 cases iliac crest, 7 split calvarial graft); 5) interosseous wiring is used in sutured mosaic, small bone fragments and intraoperative temporary fixation; miniplates are used for rigid fixation of craniofacial pillars; 6) for optimal cosmetic result reconstruction of supraorbital ridge, nasoglabellar region and zygomatic arch is essential; 7) fractures involving the sinus floor, posterior wall and the nasofrontal duct result in direct communication between the nose and intracranial cavity with high risk of infection and mucocele formation. Cranialization of the sinus removing the posterior wall and all the mucosa is mandatory. The nasofrontal duct, the floor and sinus dead space are obliterated with autologous bone chips. Osteoneogenesis occurred in all the cases.
Lubberts, Bart; Mellema, Jos J; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David
The association between specific olecranon fracture characteristics (e.g., displacement, fragmentation, subluxation) and fracture line distribution might help surgeons predict intra-articular fracture location based on fracture characteristics that can be determined on radiographs. We hypothesized that fracture mapping techniques would reveal different fracture patterns for minimally displaced fractures, displaced fractures, and fracture-dislocations of the olecranon. A consecutive series of 78 patients with olecranon fractures were evaluated using initial radiographs and computed tomography scans and characterized according to the Mayo classification. Fracture lines were identified based on reduced three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions and graphically superimposed onto a standard template to create two-dimensional fracture maps. The fracture maps were then converted into fracture heat maps. Based on fracture and heat maps, fracture line location and patterns were determined. Six (7.7%) patients had a non- or minimally displaced fracture, 22 (28%) a displaced fracture, and 50 (64%) a fracture-dislocation of the olecranon. There were 27 (54%) anterior and 23 (46%) posterior olecranon fracture-dislocations. Fracture lines of non- or minimally displaced fractures and posterior fracture-dislocations enter and exit the trochlear notch at the base of the coronoid, while fracture lines of displaced fractures and anterior fracture-dislocations were spread more broadly over the depths of the trochlear notch. Based on fracture characteristics depicted on radiographs, one can anticipate the amount of the olecranon involved (how close is the fracture line to the coronoid) and the orientation of the fracture line. Computer tomography could be reserved for when more specific knowledge of the fracture line might affect treatment. III.
Harry, Christina L; Mccormack, Jon; Donald, Michael; Corfield, Alasdair R
The Emergency Medical Retrieval Service (EMRS) provides adults with life-threatening conditions in remote areas with timely interventions and rapid access to definitive medical care, including a primary response service. Paediatric patients are managed under a separate network. Despite this, there has been an increase in paediatric retrievals by EMRS. We aim to inform future service development and ascertain how EMRS can serve the needs of this cohort. This is a retrospective, observational study. Raw data were retrieved from the database of paediatric patients retrieved by EMRS for 9 years. A total of 112 paediatric patients were retrieved; 46% were primary retrievals. The most common injuries were head injuries (n=29) and orthopaedic injuries (n=16). Common interventions include fluid resuscitation (n=34), ventilation (n=22) and sedation/paralysis (n=22).This study describes the evolution of an adult retrieval service to cover paediatric patients in Scotland outside the remit of the paediatric retrieval service.
Mammas, Ioannis N; Greenough, Anne; Theodoridou, Maria; Kramvis, Anna; Christaki, Iliana; Koutsaftiki, Chryssie; Koutsaki, Maria; Portaliou, Dimitra M; Kostagianni, Georgia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A
Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents. During the Workshop, the topics covered included the challenges of vaccine implementation against human papillomaviruses in countries under financial crisis, strategies for eradicating poliomyelitis and its 60th vaccine anniversary, as well as the debate on the association between autism and vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Among the non-vaccine related topics, emphasis was given to viral infections in prematurely born infants and their long-term outcomes, new paediatric intensive care management options for bronchiolitis related to respiratory syncytial virus, the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus genotyping, the Ebola virus threat and preparedness in Paediatric Emergency Departments, oral, oropharynx, laryngeal, nasal and ocular viral infections and Merkel cell polyomavirus as a novel emerging virus of infancy and childhood. In this review, we provide selected presentations and reports discussed at the Workshop.
MAMMAS, IOANNIS N.; GREENOUGH, ANNE; THEODORIDOU, MARIA; KRAMVIS, ANNA; CHRISTAKI, ILIANA; KOUTSAFTIKI, CHRYSSIE; KOUTSAKI, MARIA; PORTALIOU, DIMITRA M.; KOSTAGIANNI, GEORGIA; PANAGOPOULOU, PARASKEVI; SOURVINOS, GEORGE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.
Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 delegates from the five continents. During the Workshop, the topics covered included the challenges of vaccine implementation against human papillomaviruses in countries under financial crisis, strategies for eradicating poliomyelitis and its 60th vaccine anniversary, as well as the debate on the association between autism and vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. Among the non-vaccine related topics, emphasis was given to viral infections in prematurely born infants and their long-term outcomes, new paediatric intensive care management options for bronchiolitis related to respiratory syncytial virus, the clinical implications of hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus genotyping, the Ebola virus threat and preparedness in Paediatric Emergency Departments, oral, oropharynx, laryngeal, nasal and ocular viral infections and Merkel cell polyomavirus as a novel emerging virus of infancy and childhood. In this review, we provide selected presentations and reports discussed at the Workshop. PMID:26889211
Wright, Tracey B; Punaro, Marilynn
Investigations in paediatric SLE contributed significantly to the discovery of the association of type I IFNs with lupus and underscored the potential application of this knowledge by informing the use of glucocorticoid therapy. Recent, promising research reveals biomarkers that may yield more focused clinical monitoring and assessment of response to treatment. This article reviews unique features of paediatric SLE and details important developments in paediatric lupus research.
Grant, V J
The topic of consent in paediatrics is made more difficult, and at the same time more interesting, by the complexity of the issues involved and the consequent diversity of viewpoints. In a teaching session for senior medical students on consent in paediatrics it proved necessary to reinstate previous learning from a range of disciplines. Philosophical medical ethics, developmental psychology, communication skills and the appropriate legal definitions all contributed to a proper understanding of the cases presented. The two most important additional components appeared to be a) a basic knowledge of cognitive development and how to apply it, and b) an awareness of the need to balance an individual child's rights or best interests, with those of the family unit, as well as the wider society. PMID:1787521
Atia, Gahder-Sara; May, Joanna
Exposure to excessive fluoride intake during the early childhood years can disrupt the normal development of enamel, resulting in dental fluorosis. This varies in severity, ranging from white opacities in mild cases to more severe black and brown discoloration or enamel pitting. This article aims to give the reader a better understanding of the aetiology, diagnosis and subsequent treatment of dental fluorosis in the paediatric patient. Fluorosis can have a marked effect on dental aesthetics. The prevalence of fluorosis in the United Kingdom may increase following the publication of Delivering Better Oral Health, published by the Department of Health in 2007, which suggested changes to fluoride levels in children's toothpastes. This article highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of fluorosis and also explains the treatment options available to paediatric patients.
Sabaté Rotés, A; Sancosmed Ron, M; Cebrián Rubio, R; Canet Ponsa, M; Martín González, M
To describe the epidemiology of child abuse in an emergency department of a tertiary paediatric hospital. Descriptive and retrospective study from January 2008 to January 2006 including patients less than sixteen years of age who were suspected of being abused during the examination in the emergency department. Child maltreatment was 0.07% of all paediatric emergencies (45% physical abuse, 35% sexual abuse and 20% neglect). Mean age of 6 years old, with no gender differences. 86% were suspected of maltreatment. An adult living with the child was suspected in 67% of cases. Social and judicial procedures were activated. A total of 24 children were admitted, 14 under medical criteria and the rest in order to protect the child; 2 had serious neurological consequences and one died. Eight patients were discharged to social service care centres. We believe it is necessary to improve the pediatrician's knowledge of child abuse and to create specialized units.
Moore, M M; Kulaylat, A N; Brian, J M; Khaku, A; Hulse, M A; Engbrecht, B W; Methratta, S T; Boal, D K B
As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis-colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed.
Harrop, Michele; Amegavie, Laweh
Throughout the development, implementation and dissemination of the Paediatric Respiratory Newsletter, effective channels of communication between healthcare professionals have been established, highlighting the importance of collaboration. Promoting education, training, audit and research, the newsletter has nurtured both professional and practice development. The work begun during this project, and the outcomes it has achieved, have been developed into an ethos that recognises effective clinical practice and organisational development as central to the delivery of a quality service. This work informs and is informed by strategic developments, in particular, research and development, clinical audit, quality, practice development and clinical risk, all of which are observed to be the key elements of clinical governance. On a personal level, the project has provided me with an opportunity to consolidate information, forge links with the multidisciplinary team and establish a framework for the development of paediatric respiratory services. We hope it will continue to respond to, and be influenced by, changing health and social care demands.
Kausman, Joshua Y; Powell, Harley R
In 1965, the specialty of paediatric nephrology was in its infancy. Following the development of a landmark collaborative research study, the International Study of Kidney Disease in Childhood in the mid-1960s, the first specialist societies were formed: the European Society of Pediatric Nephrology in 1967 and the American Society of Pediatric Nephrology in 1969. The extraordinary improvements in care delivered to children with kidney disease over the past 50 years are too broad to cover in any one paper. They traverse the spectrum of diagnosis, classification, therapeutics, social well-being and transition to adult care. We have selected four case scenarios to highlight these changes in key areas of paediatric nephrology: post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, nephrotic syndrome, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and neonatal dialysis and childhood transplantation.
Thompson, Clare; Gunny, Roxanne; Jones, Rod; Cox, Tim; Chong, Wui Khean
Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologist’s review of each patient’s images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement in diagnostic ability. The difficulties of imaging small children and the challenges presented to the radiologist as the brain develops are discussed. We present our protocols for imaging the brain and spine of children based on 20 years experience of paediatric neurological MRI. The protocols are adapted to suit children under the age of 2 years, small body parts and paediatric clinical scenarios. PMID:17487479
Paterson, A; Frush, D P
The number of multi-detector array computed tomography (MDCT) examinations performed per annum continues to increase in both the adult and paediatric populations. Estimates from 2003 suggested that CT contributed 17% of a radiology department's workload, yet was responsible for up to 75% of the collective population dose from medical radiation. The effective doses for some CT examinations today overlap with those argued to have an increased risk of cancer. This is especially pertinent for paediatric CT, as children are more radiosensitive than adults (and girls more radiosensitive than boys). In addition, children have a longer life ahead of them, in which radiation induced cancers may become manifest. Radiologists must be aware of these facts and practise the ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) principle, when it comes to deciding CT protocols and parameters.
Trachsel, D; Svendsen, J; Erb, T O; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S
Respiratory adverse events are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in paediatric anaesthesia. Aside from predisposing conditions associated with an increased risk of respiratory incidents in children such as concurrent infections and chronic airway irritation, there are adverse respiratory events directly attributable to the impact of anaesthesia on the respiratory system. Anaesthesia can negatively affect respiratory drive, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) matching and tidal breathing, all resulting in potentially devastating hypoxaemia. Understanding paediatric respiratory physiology and its changes during anaesthesia will enable anaesthetists to anticipate, recognize and prevent deterioration that can lead to respiratory failure. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of the effects of anaesthesia on respiration in children. It focuses on the impact of the different components of anaesthesia, patient positioning and procedure-related changes on respiratory physiology.
Tileston, Kali; Bishop, Julius A
Emergency medicine and pediatric physicians often provide initial pediatric fracture care. Therefore, basic knowledge of the various treatment options is essential. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of information commonly available to these physicians in textbooks and online regarding the management of pediatric supracondylar humerus and femoral shaft fractures. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for pediatric supracondylar humerus and femoral shaft fractures were used to assess the content of top selling emergency medicine and pediatric textbooks as well as the top returned Web sites after a Google search. Only guidelines that addressed initial patient management were included. Information provided in the texts was graded as consistent, inconsistent, or omitted. Five emergency medicine textbooks, 4 pediatric textbooks, and 5 Web sites were assessed. Overall, these resources contained a mean 31.6% (SD=32.5) complete and correct information, whereas 3.6 % of the information was incorrect or inconsistent, and 64.8% was omitted. Emergency medicine textbooks had a mean of 34.3% (SD=28.3) correct and complete recommendations, 5.7% incorrect or incomplete recommendations, and 60% omissions. Pediatric textbooks were poor in addressing any of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons guidelines with an overall mean of 7.14% (SD=18.9) complete and correct recommendations, a single incorrect/incomplete recommendation, and 91.1% omissions. Online resources had a mean of 48.6% (SD=33.1) complete and correct recommendations, 5.72% incomplete or incorrect recommendations, and 45.7% omissions. This study highlights important deficiencies in resources available to pediatric and emergency medicine physicians seeking information on pediatric fracture management. Information in emergency medicine and pediatric textbooks as well as online is variable, with both inaccuracies and omissions being common. This lack of high
Adefurin, Abiodun; Sammons, Helen; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti
Objective To determine the safety of ciprofloxacin in paediatric patients in relation to arthropathy, any other adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL and bibliographies of relevant articles was carried out for all published articles, regardless of design, that involved the use of ciprofloxacin in any paediatric age group ≤17 years. Only articles that reported on safety were included. Results 105 articles met the inclusion criteria and involved 16 184 paediatric patients. There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97). Conclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy. PMID:21785119
Nixon, G; Brouillette, R
In the past 25 years there has been increasing recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) as a common condition of childhood. Morbidity includes impairment of growth, cardiovascular complications, learning impairment, and behavioural problems. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition in children differs in many respects from that in adults. We review here the key features of paediatric OSA, highlighting differences from adult OSA, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:15923253
Wa Somwe, Somwe; Jumbe-Marsden, Emilia; Mateyo, Kondwelani; Senkwe, Mutale Nsakashalo; Sotomayor-Ruiz, Maria; Musuku, John; Soriano, Joan B; Ancochea, Julio; Fishman, Mark C
In 2008, the prevalence of paediatric asthma in Zambia was unknown and the national treatment guideline was outdated. We created an international partnership between Zambian clinicians, the Zambian Government and a pharmaceutical company to address shortcomings in asthma treatment. We did two studies, one to estimate prevalence in the capital of Lusaka and one to assess attitudes and practices of patients. Based on the information obtained, we educated health workers and the public. The information from the studies was also used to modernize government policy for paediatric asthma management. The health-care system in Zambia is primarily focused on acute care delivery with a focus on infectious diseases. Comprehensive services for noncommunicable diseases are lacking. Asthma management relies on treatment of acute exacerbations instead of disease control. Seven percent of children surveyed had asthma (255/3911). Of the 120 patients interviewed, most (82/120, 68%) used oral short-acting β2-agonists for symptom control; almost half (59/120, 49%) did not think the symptoms were preventable and 43% (52/120) thought inhalers were addictive. These misconceptions informed broad-based educational programmes. We used a train-the-trainer model to educate health-care workers and ran public awareness campaigns. Access to inhalers was increased and the Zambian standard treatment guideline for paediatric asthma was revised to include steroid inhalers as a control treatment. Joint activities were required to change paediatric asthma care in Zambia. Success will depend on local sustainability, and it may be necessary to shift resources to mirror the disease burden.
Freeman, H; Patel, J; Fernandez, D; Sharples, P; Ramanan, A V
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune condition where the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is thought to predispose to thrombotic events. It is uncommon in the paediatric population, but current diagnostic criteria are based on adult population studies, making assessment of its true paediatric prevalence difficult. We present two cases of paediatric APS, who presented with primary neurological events, and discuss approaches to diagnosis, interpretation of screening investigations, including antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) antibodies and lupus anticoagulant. Possible approaches to the management of paediatric APS are discussed.
Sawant, Ajit S.; Kumar, Vikash; Pawar, Prakash; Tamhankar, Ashwin S.
The bladder neck distraction is a rare posterior urethral injury in paediatric age group. It mostly occurs secondary to road traffic accidents. We report three cases of paediatric bladder neck distraction injury. Three paediatric patients aged between 4 to 7 years (mean 5 year), who presented with post traumatic bladder neck distraction injury but no other major injury, they were treated with early urethro-vesical anastomosis. Postoperatively all patients were continent and with good urine flow rates. In paediatric bladder neck distraction injury, immediate urethro-vesical anastomosis gives good results. PMID:28384935
Hart, Dieter; Mühlbauer, Bernd
The off-label use of drugs in paediatrics is a common practice casting doubts on the adequate safety of drug therapy. Regulatory initiatives of European and national legislators aim to address this paucity of clinical drug trials in paediatrics through clarifying regulations and incentives in pharmaceutical law, thereby promoting an increase in the approval of paediatric drugs, the improvement of drug and thus treatment safety. This paper describes the present situation in paediatrics and the legal status of off-label use in pharmaceutical law, medical malpractice law and statutory health insurance law.
Damasio, M B; Darge, K; Riccabona, M
The use of paediatric multi-slice CT (MSCT) is rapidly increasing worldwide. As technology advances its application in paediatric care is constantly expanding with an increasing need for radiation dose control and appropriate utilization. Recommendations on how and when to use CT for assessment of the paediatric urinary tract appear to be an important issue. Therefore the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) uroradiology task force and European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) paediatric working groups created a proposal for performing renal CT in children that has recently been published. The objective of this paper is to discuss paediatric urinary tract CT (uro-CT) in more detail and depth. The specific aim is not only to offer general recommendations on clinical indications and optimization processes of paediatric CT examination, but also to address various childhood characteristics and phenomena that facilitate understanding the different approach and use of uro-CT in children compared to adults. According to ALARA principles, paediatric uro-CT should only be considered for selected indications provided high-level comprehensive US is not conclusive and alternative non-ionizing techniques such as MR are not available or appropriate. Optimization of paediatric uro-CT protocols (considering lower age-adapted kV and mAs) is mandatory, and the number of phases and acquisition series should be kept as few as possible.
... make older people more likely to trip and fall — one of the most common causes of hip ... Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent hip fracture. Signs and symptoms ...
... to hold the fracture in the correct position. • Fiberglass casting is lighter and stronger and the exterior ... with your physician if this occurs. • When a fiberglass cast is used in conjunction with a GORE- ...
The management of patients with headaches is a major component of every paediatric practice. In a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents, it was found that 26.6% of those 12 to 13 years of age and 31.2% of those 14 to 15 years of age reported that they experienced headaches at least once per week. The diagnosis of headaches in children and adolescents is established through a headache history in the vast majority of patients. Specific questions can identify those at most risk for headaches secondary to underlying pathology. Similarly, the examination should be tailored to identify those who require further investigation. Investigations are not routinely indicated for paediatric headache, but neuroimaging should be considered in children whose headaches do not meet the criteria for one of the primary headache syndromes and in those with an abnormal neurological examination. The optimal treatment of primary headaches should begin with nonpharmacological methods. Preventive pharmacological therapy should be considered when headaches significantly impair the patient’s quality of life. Flunarizine may be valuable in paediatric headache prevention, and ibuprofen, acetaminophen and nasal sumatriptan may be effective in the acute management of headaches. PMID:19436460
Introduction: Iliopsoas abscess is an uncommon condition in the paediatric population. The clinical presentation is variable and may be confused with other conditions such as septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and appendicular abscess. A suspicion of iliopsoas abscess requires a prompt diagnosis so that rapid management and treatment can be undertaken. Discussion: This case describes the presence of an iliopsoas abscess in a paediatric patient presenting to the emergency department within a rural community. Due to the variability in clinical presentation imaging studies are necessary to distinguish an iliopsoas abscess from other inflammatory processes. Ultrasound is often the modality of choice. Imaging guided percutaneous drainage and/or aspiration and the administration of intravenous antibiotics are minimally invasive modern techniques providing a safe treatment options in the presence of an iliopsoas abscess. Conclusion: Iliopsoas abscess is an uncommon condition in the paediatric population. Due to the variability in clinical presentation, imaging, and in particular, ultrasound play a vital role in the diagnosis of cases with a high suspicion of abscess formation. Accurate diagnosis leads to a rapid treatment plan, avoiding further insult.
Long, Elliot; Duke, Trevor
Sepsis and septic shock are the final common pathway for many decompensated paediatric infections. Fluid resuscitation therapy has been the cornerstone of haemodynamic resuscitation in these children. Good evidence for equivalence between 0.9% saline and 4% albumin, with the relative expense of the latter, has meant that 0.9% saline is currently the most commonly used resuscitation fluid world-wide. Evidence for harm from the chloride load in 0.9% saline has generated interest in balanced solutions as first line resuscitation fluids. Their safety has been well established in observational studies, and they may well be the most reasonable default fluid for resuscitation. Semi-synthetic colloids have been associated with renal dysfunction and death and should be avoided. There is evidence for harm from excessive administration of any resuscitation fluid. Resuscitation fluid volumes should be treated in the same way as the dose of any other intravenously administered medication, and the potential benefits versus harms for the individual patient weighed prior to administration. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Tsapaki, Virginia; Kottou, Sofia; Korniotis, Sarantis; Nikolaki, Niki; Rammos, Spyridon; Apostolopoulou, Sotiria C
The objective was to investigate paediatric doses in coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in the largest cardiac hospital in Greece. Forty procedures were carried out by two board-certified senior interventional cardiologists. Data collected were: patient weight, height, age, fluoroscopy time (FT), total number of images (N) and kerma-area product (KAP). Median (range) age was 7.5 y (17 d to 17 y). Median FT, N and KAP were 4 min, 655, 2.1 Gy cm2 for CA and 12.1 min, 1296, 14.7 Gy cm2 for PTCA (corresponding adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are: 6.5 min, 700, 45 Gy cm2 for CA and 15.5 min, 1000 and 85 Gy cm2 for PTCA). The highest percentage of cine dose was in newborns (0-1 y) (CA: 92% and PTCA: 100%). As age increased, cine dose percentage decreased, whereas total radiation dose increased. Median paediatric FT and N recorded reached or even exceeded adult DRL and should be optimised. Paediatric DRL should be set.
Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.
Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241
Shaikh, Furqan; Murray, Matthew J; Amatruda, James F; Coleman, Nicholas; Nicholson, James C; Hale, Juliet P; Pashankar, Farzana; Stoneham, Sara J; Poynter, Jenny N; Olson, Thomas A; Billmire, Deborah F; Stark, Daniel; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Frazier, A Lindsay
Management of paediatric extracranial germ-cell tumours carries a unique set of challenges. Germ-cell tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present across a wide age range and vary in site, histology, and clinical behaviour. Patients with germ-cell tumours are managed by a diverse array of specialists. Thus, staging, risk stratification, and treatment approaches for germ-cell tumours have evolved disparately along several trajectories. Paediatric germ-cell tumours differ from the adolescent and adult disease in many ways, leading to complexities in applying age-appropriate, evidence-based care. Suboptimal outcomes remain for several groups of patients, including adolescents, and patients with extragonadal tumours, high tumour markers at diagnosis, or platinum-resistant disease. Survivors have significant long-term toxicities. The challenge moving forward will be to translate new insights from molecular studies and collaborative clinical data into improved patient outcomes. Future trials will be characterised by improved risk-stratification systems, biomarkers for response and toxic effects, rational reduction of therapy for low-risk patients and novel approaches for poor-risk patients, and improved international collaboration across paediatric and adult cooperative research groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pinto, Emilia M; Chen, Xiang; Easton, John; Finkelstein, David; Liu, Zhifa; Pounds, Stanley; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Lund, Troy C; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Boggs, Kristy; Yergeau, Donald; Cheng, Jinjun; Mulder, Heather L; Manne, Jayanthi; Jenkins, Jesse; Mastellaro, Maria J; Figueiredo, Bonald C; Dyer, Michael A; Pappo, Alberto; Zhang, Jinghui; Downing, James R; Ribeiro, Raul C; Zambetti, Gerard P
Paediatric adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy with poor prognosis. Here we analyse 37 adrenocortical tumours (ACTs) by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. Most cases (91%) show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 11p, with uniform selection against the maternal chromosome. IGF2 on chromosome 11p is overexpressed in 100% of the tumours. TP53 mutations and chromosome 17 LOH with selection against wild-type TP53 are observed in 28 ACTs (76%). Chromosomes 11p and 17 undergo copy-neutral LOH early during tumorigenesis, suggesting tumour-driver events. Additional genetic alterations include recurrent somatic mutations in ATRX and CTNNB1 and integration of human herpesvirus-6 in chromosome 11p. A dismal outcome is predicted by concomitant TP53 and ATRX mutations and associated genomic abnormalities, including massive structural variations and frequent background mutations. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the nature, timing and potential prognostic significance of key genetic alterations in paediatric ACT and outline a hypothetical model of paediatric adrenocortical tumorigenesis.
Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R; Archana, SR
Airway management plays a pivotal role in Paediatric Anaesthesia. Over the last two decades many improvements in this area have helped us to overcome this final frontier. From an era where intubation with a conventional laryngoscope or blind nasal intubation was the only tool for airway management, we have come a long way. Today supraglottic airway devices have pride of place in the Operating Room and are becoming important airway devices used in routine procedures. Direct and indirect fibreoptic laryngoscopes and transtracheal devices help us overcome difficult and previously impossible airway situations. These developments mean that we need to update our knowledge on these devices. Also much of our basic understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the paediatric airway has changed. This article attempts to shed light on some of the most important advances/opinions in paediatric airway management like, cuffed endotracheal tubes, supraglottic airway devices, video laryngoscopes, rapid sequence intubation, the newly proposed algorithm for difficult airway management and the role of Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) procedure in the management of the neonatal airway. PMID:23293383
Segu, Smitha; Tataria, Rachana
An alarming rise in rates of paediatric population committing self-immolation acts is a growing social and medical problem. In recent times there seems to be a rising concern in paediatric population. A study was conducted at a government tertiary care burn centre over 5 years in paediatric age group of <18 years who had committed self-immolation. Demographic data, aetiology, burn severity, associated illnesses, treatment and outcomes of the patients were collected with preventive strategies. Of total 89 patients, 12 patients were below 12 years (children) and 77 between 12-18 years (adolescent) with female preponderance. Majority belonged to lower middle and upper lower class families. Most had deep partial thickness burns. Psychiatric and personality disorder were found in 24.03% and 31.46% patients respectively. Kerosene was the main agent chosen to inflict injury. The average length of hospital stay was 19.8 days. The crude mortality rate observed was 38.2%. With cultural and socio-economic changes children and adolescents are exposed to increased levels of stress and peer pressure leaving them vulnerable. A multidisciplinary care involving medical, psychological and social support is required. Identifying children at risk and proper counselling and support can form an important strategy at prevention rather than cure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Rijnbeek, P R; Witsenburg, M; Schrama, E; Hess, J; Kors, J A
Previous studies that determined the normal limits for the paediatric ECG had their imperfections: ECGs were recorded at a relatively low sampling rate, ECG measurements were conducted manually, or normal limits were presented for only a limited set of parameters. The aim of this study was to establish an up-to-date and complete set of clinically relevant normal limits for the paediatric ECG. ECGs from 1912 healthy Dutch children (age 11 days to 16 years) were recorded at a sampling rate of 1200 Hz. The digitally stored ECGs were analysed using a well-validated ECG computer program. The normal limits of all clinically relevant ECG measurements were determined for nine age groups. Clinically significant differences were shown to exist, compared with previously established normal limits. Sex differences could be demonstrated for QRS duration and several amplitude measurements. These new normal limits differ substantially from those commonly used and suggest that diagnostic criteria for the paediatric ECG should be adjusted. Copyright 2001 The European Society of Cardiology.
Wright, Amanda; Gerhart, Ann E
Injuries of the tarsometatarsal, or Lisfranc, joint are rarely seen. Lisfranc fractures and fracture dislocations are among the most frequently misdiagnosed foot injuries in the emergency department. A misdiagnosed injury may have severe consequences including chronic pain and loss of foot biomechanics. Evaluation of a foot injury should include a high level of suspicion of a Lisfranc injury, and a thorough work-up is needed for correct diagnosis.
Altizer, Linda L
Many people "slip and fall", especially in the icy areas of the winter season. To prevent an injury to the head, most people put their hand out to hit the ground first, so the wrist usually gets injured. The most frequent injury from this type of "intervention" is a fracture to the distal radius and/or ulna, which is frequently called a "Colles' fracture."
Boxer's fracture is a common name for a fracture of the distal fifth metacarpal and received its name from one of its most common causes, punching an object with a closed fist. It can occur from a fistfight or from punching a hard object. The injury of a "Boxer's Fracture" earned the name from the way in which the injury occurred, punching an immovable object with a closed fist and no boxing mitt (Figure 1). Naturally, a "Boxer" usually punches his fist into his opponent's face or body. An angry person may perform the same action into a person, or into the wall. The third person may be performing a task and strike something with his fist with forceful action accidentally. In any event, if the closed fist "punches" into an immovable or firm object with force, the most frequent injury sustained would be a fracture of the fifth metacarpal neck. Some caregivers would also call a fourth metacarpal neck fracture a boxer's fracture.
Islam, M I; Talukder, M K; Islam, M M; Laila, K; Rahman, S A
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a potentially fatal complication of rheumatic disorders, which commonly occurs in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA).This study was carried out with the aims of describing the clinical features, laboratory findings and outcomes of MAS associated with paediatric rheumatic diseases in the Department of Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and compare these results with previous studies on MAS. This retrospective study was conducted in the paediatric rheumatology wing of the Department of Paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh. Clinical and laboratory profile of all the diagnosed cases of MAS were analyzed from the medical records from January 2010 to July 2015. Among 10 MAS patients, 6 were female and 4 were male. Seven patients of systemic JIA, two patients of SLE and one patient with Kawasaki Disease developed MAS in their course of primary disease. Mean duration of primary disease prior to development of MAS was 2.9 years and mean age of onset was 9.1 years. High continued fever and new onset hepatosplenomegaly were the hallmark of the clinical presentation. White blood cell count and platelet count came down from the mean of 16.2 to 10.2×10⁹/L and 254 to 90×10⁹/L. Mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was dropped from 56 to 29 mm/hr. Six patients had abnormal liver enzyme level (ALT) and 5 had evidence of coagulopathy (prolonged prothrombin time and APTT) at the onset of disease. Hyperferritinnemia were found in all the patients. Bone marrow study was done in 5 patients but features of hamophagocytosis were found only in 2 patients. All patients received intravenous steroid and 3 patients who did not respond to steroid received additional cyclosporine. Mortality rate was 30% in this series. Macrophage activation syndrome is a fatal complication of paediatric rheumatic diseases among which s-JIA was predominant. Early diagnosis and
Haddad, Behrooz; Khan, Wasim; Zaghloul, Ahmed; Grimes, Lisa; Schenk, Willem
Olecranon fractures are common skeletal injuries accounting for approximately 10% of upper extremity fractures in adults. Simple non-comminuted fractures are traditionally fixed using the tension band wiring technique. This technique, however, has several complications, most commonly prominence of the metalwork frequently requiring surgery for removal. We describe a retrospective review of a new method of fixation for these fractures using partially threaded screws in an attempt to avoid these complications. We used two 3.5 and/or 4 mm partially threaded screws to fix seven simple olecranon fractures and two olecranon osteotomies. Notes and clinic letters of all nine patients were reviewed for demographic data, operation details and complications. Radiographs were reviewed at final clinical follow-up. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was completed during a telephone consultation. One patient injured her elbow postoperatively, which resulted in fragmentation of the proximal segment and loss of fixation. In one patient the tip of the screws broke after a fall but this did not result in loss of fixation. There were no problems with metalwork prominence or skin irritation in any of the patients. Two patients had low scores due to loss of fixation, and severely comminuted supracondylar fracture of the humerus. Six patients had good scores. We believe that use of AO compression screws is a valid method for the fixation of simple fractures of the olecranon. It is a safe technique and has several advantages over tension band fixation. There is minimal tissue dissection and operating time is decreased. There is minimal risk of metalwork prominence as screws obtain good purchase in the anterior cortex of ulna. Good interfragmentary compression is achieved as screws are perpendicular to the fracture line and two screws provide good rotational stability. Protection of fixation for 1014 days does not result in significant loss of range of motion. Further clinical and
Rossin, Sara; Divisic, Antuan; De Gregorio, Alesandra; Agosto, Caterina; Catalano, Igor; Mazza, Alessandro; Sartori, Leonardo; Benini, Franca
We describe a case of a paediatric patient affected by mandibular fibrous dysplasia (FD) with severe and chronic pain who was successfully treated with zoledronic acid (ZOL): a third-generation bisphosphonate. Further research is needed to assess its safety and efficacy as a treatment option for FD in the paediatric population. PMID:27747122
Bindal, Taruna; Wall, David; Goodyear, Helen M
Despite increasing numbers of UK medical students, the number of trainees selecting paediatrics as their specialty choice has decreased. Previous studies show that most students will choose their ultimate career during undergraduate training. We therefore explored the views of students in the final year at Birmingham University about a career in paediatrics. Students completed a 27-item questionnaire during the penultimate week of their paediatric clerkship (PC) and 97% responded (127/131). Prior to the PC, 29% (37/127) of students had considered a career in paediatrics, rising to 50% (63/127) after the PC (p < 0.001). Students felt that paediatricians were enthusiastic and keen on teaching, and the ward working atmosphere was good. However, students perceived paediatrics as a difficult specialty with high competition for training posts. Students felt their paediatric experience was too limited and advice was needed on paediatric careers early in undergraduate training. This study confirmed that focusing on improving the PC is not sufficient if we are to inspire medical students to consider a career in paediatrics. Exposure to the specialty is needed from year 1 of undergraduate training along with career advice to dispel current myths about specialty training. Students would then be able to make more informed career decisions.
López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Rodríguez Núñez, Antonio; Carrillo Álvarez, Ángel; Zeballos Sarrato, Gonzalo; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, Cecilia; Calvo Macías, Custodio
Cardio-respiratory arrest (CPA) is infrequent in children, but it can occur in any place and at any time. This fact means that every health care facility must always have the staff and material ready to resuscitate a child. These recommendations are the consensus of experts of the Spanish Paediatric and Neonatal Resuscitation Group on the material and medication for paediatric and neonatal resuscitation and their distribution and use. CPR trolleys and backpacks must include the essential material to quickly and efficiently perform a paediatric CPR. At least one CPR trolley must be available in every Primary Care facility, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department, and Pre-hospital Emergency Areas, as well as in paediatric wards, paediatric ambulatory areas, and radiology suites. This trolley must be easily accessible and exclusively include the essential items to perform a CPR and to assist children (from newborns to adolescents) who present with a life-threatening event. Such material must be familiar to all healthcare staff and also include the needed spare parts, as well as enough drug doses. It must also be re-checked periodically. The standardisation and unification of the material and medication of paediatric CPR carts, trolleys, and backpacks, as well as the training of the personnel in their use are an essential part of the paediatric CPR. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Walsh, Anne M; Edwards, Helen E; Courtney, Mary D; Wilson, Jenny E; Monaghan, Sarah J
This study examined the influence of level of practice, additional paediatric education and length of paediatric and current experience on nurses' knowledge of and beliefs about fever and fever management. Fifty-one nurses from medical wards in an Australian metropolitan paediatric hospital completed a self-report descriptive survey. Knowledge of fever management was mediocre (Mean 12.4, SD 2.18 on 20 items). Nurses practicing at a higher level and those with between one and four years paediatric or current experience were more knowledgeable than novices or more experienced nurses. Negative beliefs that would impact nursing practice were identified. Interestingly, beliefs about fever, antipyretic use in fever management and febrile seizures were similar; they were not influenced by nurses' knowledge, experience, education or level of practice. Paediatric nurses are not expert fever managers. Knowledge deficits and negative attitudes influence their practice irrespective of additional paediatric education, paediatric or current experience or level of practice. Continuing education is therefore needed for all paediatric nurses to ensure the latest clear evidence available in the literature for best practice in fever management is applied.
... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...
This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.
... fracture which goes at an angle to the axis Comminuted - a fracture of many relatively small fragments Spiral - a fracture which runs around the axis of the bone Compound - a fracture (also called ...
Atesok, Kivanc I; Jupiter, Jesse B; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C
Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the radial diaphysis with disruption at the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Typically, the mechanism of injury is forceful axial loading and torsion of the forearm. Diagnosis is established on radiographic evaluation. Underdiagnosis is common because disruption of the ligamentous restraints of the DRUJ may be overlooked. Nonsurgical management with anatomic reduction and immobilization in a long-arm cast has been successful in children. In adults, nonsurgical treatment typically fails because of deforming forces acting on the distal radius and DRUJ. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred surgical option. Anatomic reduction and rigid fixation should be followed by intraoperative assessment of the DRUJ. Further intraoperative interventions are based on the reducibility and postreduction stability of the DRUJ. Misdiagnosis or inadequate management of Galeazzi fracture may result in disabling complications, such as DRUJ instability, malunion, limited forearm range of motion, chronic wrist pain, and osteoarthritis.
Khan, Farhan Raza; Mahmud, Sadia; Rahman, Munawar
In the last decade, a rapid increase has been observed in the number of dentists due to establishment of a number of dental colleges in Pakistan. Very few of these institutions have Paediatric Dentistry Department. Similarly, no postgraduate Paediatric Dentistry training program exists in the two major provinces of the country. The objectives of this study were to map the pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the clinicians in teaching institutions and private practices. A cross-sectional study was conducted at dental departments of academic institutions and selected dental practices in Karachi. There was a statistically significant difference in preferences, selection of dental materials and pattern of paediatric dentistry services provided by the teaching dentists compared to the private practitioners. Both the teaching and non-teaching dentists need to update themselves in the provision of Paediatric Dentistry services such as fluoride application and fissure sealant placement.
Kneyber, Martin C J; van Heerde, Marc; Henneveld, Hetty Th
Paediatric shock is common. Hypovolaemic and septic shock are the main forms. Early and rapid results-oriented therapy of paediatric septic shock has a favourable effect on survival. There is an international guideline for the primary management of paediatric shock during the first hour after presentation of the patient. The goal of treatment is to prevent oxygen debt and consequently organ failure. The main symptoms of paediatric shock are tachycardia and reduced consciousness. In a child in shock, the clinical picture should be recognized within 15 minutes and an attempt should be made to reverse the situation by rapid fluid infusion. If the shock persists after 15 minutes, vasoactive medication should be given and the child should be transferred to a local paediatric intensive care unit. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are then also required.
Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin
Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3-6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery.
Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin
Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3–6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820
Introduction: The risk of growth arrest following paediatric ankle fractures type 1 A is very high. Therefore all attempts should be done to anatomically reduce this kind of fracture. The advances in ankle arthroscopy have brought the possibility to reduce these fractures under direct vision, without the need of capsulotomy. The purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of the use of arthroscopically assisted reduction of type 1 A fractures. Case Report: We describe two cases with SH type IV fractures of the distal medial tibia, one treated with open reduction and percutaneous screw fixation and the other treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and percutaneous screw fixation. The first case ended with severe growth disturbance, while the second gave a very good result. Conclusion: The use of arthroscopically assisted reduction of type 1 A fractures should be considered to ensure anatomical reduction. PMID:27298899
Randall, Melinda; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Brignell, Amanda; Gulenc, Alisha; Hennel, Sabine; Coates, Cathy; Symeonides, Christos; Hiscock, Harriet; Marraffa, Catherine; Silove, Natalie; Bayl, Vivian; Woolfenden, Susan; Williams, Katrina
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with reported prevalence of more than 1/100. In Australia, paediatricians are often involved in diagnosing ASD and providing long-term management. However, it is not known how paediatricians diagnose ASD. This study aimed to investigate whether the way Australian paediatricians diagnose ASD is in line with current recommendations. Members of the Australian Paediatric Research Network were invited to answer questions about their ASD diagnostic practice in a multi-topic survey and also as part of a study about parents needs around the time of a diagnosis of ASD. The majority of the 124 paediatricians who responded to the multi-topic survey and most who responded to the parent needs survey reported taking more than one session to make a diagnosis of ASD. Most paediatricians included information from preschool, child care or school when making a diagnosis, and over half included information from speech pathology or psychology colleagues more than 50% of the time. The main reasons for not including assessment information in the diagnostic process were service barriers such as no regular service available or long waiting lists. More than 70% reported ordering audiology and genetic tests more than half of the time. Not all paediatricians are following current recommendations for diagnosing ASD more than 50% of the time. While there are good reasons why current diagnostic approaches may fall short of expected standards, these need to be overcome to ensure diagnostic validity and optimal services for all children and their families. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Baquero-Sánchez, E; Bernabéu-Wittel, J; Dominguez-Cruz, J J; Conejo-Mir, J
In recent years, the increasing demand for dermatological consultations in the Emergency department has resulted in the publication of a variety of studies on this subject. However, most of them deal with the general population, without taking into account the changes in frequencies found in young children (ages 0-14). To determine the frequency of various dermatological diagnoses made by the on-call paediatrician in the Emergency Department, and after referral to Paediatric Dermatology. Firstly, a descriptive retrospective study was performed that included all patients aged between 0 and 14 years old who were seen after being referred to the emergency paediatric dermatologist by the on-call paediatrician from June 2010 to December 2013. Secondly, an analytical study was carried by calculating the kappa index calculus, in order to establish the diagnostic concordance between the emergency paediatrician and the paediatric dermatologist. A total of 861 patients, with a mean age of 4.5 years were included. More than half of the skin disorders analysed were eczema (27%) and infections (26%). The 5 main diagnoses were: atopic dermatitis (16%), acute prurigo simplex (5%), tinea (5%), pyogenic granuloma (4%), and molluscum contagiosum (4%). Additional tests were only required in 16% of the cases. The kappa index obtained was 0.206 (95% CI: 0.170-0.241). The dermatology consultations in the Emergency Department were shown to be frequent and mostly involved minor diseases. Collaboration between paediatricians and dermatologists resulted in a high treatment success rate, leading to a low percentage of additional tests required and a high rate of discharges. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Stavrou, Stavroula; Nicolaides, Nicolas C; Critselis, Elena; Darviri, Christina; Charmandari, Evangelia; Chrousos, George P
Stress is defined as a state of threatened or perceived as threatened homeostasis. A broad spectrum of extrinsic or intrinsic, real or perceived stressful stimuli, called 'stressors', activates a highly conserved system, the 'stress system', which adjusts homeostasis through central and peripheral neuroendocrine responses. Inadequate, excessive or prolonged adaptive responses to stress may underlie the pathogenesis of several disease states prevalent in modern societies. The development and severity of these conditions primarily depend on the genetic vulnerability of the individual, the exposure to adverse environmental factors and the timing of the stressful event(s), given that prenatal life, infancy, childhood and adolescence are critical periods characterized by increased vulnerability to stressors. We conducted a systematic review of original articles and reviews published in MEDLINE from 1975 through June 2016. The search terms were 'childhood stress', 'pediatric stress', 'stress and disorders' and 'stress management'. In this review, we discuss the historical and neuroendocrine aspects of stress, and we present representative examples of paediatric stress system disorders, such as early-life adversity, obesity and bullying. We also discuss the adverse impact of a socio-economic crisis on childhood health. The tremendous progress of epigenetics has enabled us to have a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying paediatric stress-related disorders. The need for early successful stress management techniques to decrease the incidence of paediatric stress-related diseases, as well as to prevent the development of several pathologic conditions in adolescence and adulthood, is imperative. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Lavigne, Mikael; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Straus, Sharon; Laupacis, Andreas
To identify the unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care that are most important to parents and clinicians, and to explore how questions from parents and clinicians may differ. Iterative mixed methods research priority setting process. Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Parents of children aged 0-5 years enrolled in a research network in Toronto, and clinicians practising in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Informed by the James Lind Alliance's methodology, an online questionnaire collected unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from study participants. Similar submissions were combined and ranked. A consensus workshop attended by 28 parents and clinicians considered the most highly ranked submissions and used the nominal group technique to select the 10 most important unanswered research questions. Forty-two clinicians and 115 parents submitted 255 and 791 research questions, respectively, which were combined into 79 indicative questions. Most submissions were about nutrition, illness prevention, parenting and behaviour management. Parents were more likely to ask questions about screen time (49 parents vs 8 clinicians, p<0.05) and environmental toxins (18 parents vs 0 clinicians, p<0.05). The top 10 unanswered questions identified at the workshop related to mental health, parental stress, physical activity, obesity, childhood development, behaviour management and screen time. The top 10 most important unanswered research questions in paediatric preventive care from the perspective of parents and clinicians were identified. These research priorities may be important in advancing preventive healthcare for children. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Halliday, K; Drinkwater, K; Howlett, D C
To compare paediatric radiology provision across the UK with national standards published by the Department of Health and the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR). Audit standards and indicators for paediatric imaging were derived from "Delivering quality imaging services for children",(1) "Standards for imaging in cases of suspected non-accidental injury"(2) and "Improving paediatric interventional radiology services"(3) and agreed jointly by the Clinical Radiology Audit Committee and the British Society of Paediatric Radiology. A questionnaire was sent to all hospitals and NHS trusts imaging children aged 16 or younger in the UK in October 2013. The target for all indicators was 100%. Eighty-seven of 196 (44%) eligible institutions submitted data, the size distribution of the institutions was representative when compared to data from "Facing the future: a review of paediatric services"(4) published by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child health. Only 65% of paediatric images were obtained by staff who had had specific training and only 60% were reported by radiographers or radiologists with appropriate training. Sixty-two percent of centres did not have access to a paediatric opinion 24 hours a day, 7 days a week all year; only 34% of radiographers who regularly imaged children had had any access to continuing professional development (CPD) in the 12 months of the audit. Although all hospitals had facilities for image transfer, only 57% had any formal funding arrangements in place for external reporting of images. The standards set for a network approach to paediatric radiology provision in "Delivering quality imaging services for children" are largely unmet. This failure to make the most of the workforce and resources puts vulnerable children at risk. The authors urge NHS England to work with the RCR to organise and administer a national network for paediatric imaging. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All
Vincent, Stephen J; Lee, Graham A
Acquired limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) describes a condition in which the corneal limbal stem cells are altered or destroyed, typically due to ocular trauma, chronic allergy or inflammation. Idiopathic LSCD is a term used to describe limbal stem cell failure in the absence of any identifiable causative factor. While several cases of adult-onset LSCD have been identified previously, this case report describes a rare presentation of bilateral asymmetric idiopathic paediatric limbal stem cell deficiency in a sixteen-year-old male with an otherwise unremarkable ocular history.
Dejong, Margaret; Fombonne, Eric
Research into depression in paediatric cancer is in its early stages, but nevertheless has presented interesting challenges regarding the recognition and measurement of depression in a medically ill population. In this article we discuss the complex interaction between physical and psychological variables, and the diagnostic difficulties arising from this. We review the epidemiological findings regarding prevalence, evaluating the apparently low prevalence rate in the light of methodological weaknesses. Hypotheses put forward to explain the findings are discussed. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research.
Branchard, Delphine; Tentillier, Éric; Gillet, Stéphane; Naud, Julien
In France, the organisation of aid involves the intervention of the emergency medical services (Samu), which coordinate the medical regulation platforms for site 15 and the mobile emergency and intensive care services (Smur). Since they were created, the Samu have been tirelessly adapting their response to the various characteristics of pre-hospital assignments. Pre- and inter-hospital paediatrics has seen the development of specialised teams with the aim of providing effective aid which is adapted to the youngest and most vulnerable patients.
Transmission of infection in the paediatric office is of increasing concern. The present document discusses routes of transmission of infection and the principles of current infection control measures. Prevention includes appropriate office design and administrative policies, triage, routine practices for the care of all patients (eg, hand hygiene; use of gloves, masks, eye protection and gowns for specific procedures; adequate cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surfaces and equipment including toys, and aseptic technique for invasive procedures), and additional precautions for specific infections. Personnel should be adequately immunized, and those infected should follow work-restriction policies. PMID:19412374
Durand, L; Sachs, P; Lemaitre, C; Lorrot, M; Bassehila, J; Bourdon, O; Prot-Labarthe, S
Anti-inflammatory drugs have been suspected on several occasions to have promoted development of bacterial infection among varicella patients. Some countries have not implemented childhood varicella vaccination. Three cases in our hospital suggested the predisposing role of NSAIDs in varicella patient deterioration. Open access to these drugs widely increases their use and patient information should be continually provided in the medical offices and at dispensing pharmacy counters. Taking account of the benefit/risk balance and applying the simple precautionary principle, it would be appropriate to be cautious about the use of NSAIDs in the paediatric population.
The paediatric aspects of travel medicine can be complex, and individual advice is often required. Nonetheless, children are much more likely to acquire common infections than exotic tropical diseases whilst travelling. Important exceptions are malaria and tuberculosis, which are more frequent and severe in children. Overall, travellers' diarrhoea is the most common illness affecting travellers. This review discusses vaccines and medications that may be indicated for children who are travelling overseas. It focuses on immunizations that are given as part of the routine schedule, as well as those that are more specific to travel. Malaria and travellers' diarrhoea are also discussed. PMID:23163285
Losty, Paul D
Surgeons play a pivotal role in the decision-making and multidisciplinary management of childhood solid tumours.(1) Evidence-based medicine-"aims to optimise decision making by emphasising on the use of best evidence from well-designed conducted research." This article offers a brief overview in an effort to demonstrate how a selection of well-conducted, recently published studies can help address some topical and controversial themes in paediatric surgical oncology practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ovetchkine, Philippe; Rieder, Michael J
Azithromycin is an antibiotic that is commonly prescribed for upper and lower respiratory tract infections in children. While it has proven benefits, some concerns regarding azithromycin use have arisen in recent years. This practice point considers azithromycin therapy for acute respiratory infections in otherwise healthy children. Pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, the problem of resistant bacteria and clinical aspects are considered, along with recommendations for use and contraindications. Azithromycin should be avoided in patients with a significant risk of bacteremia. It is associated with pneumococcal resistance and, with stated exceptions, is generally not recommended for the treatment of acute pharyngitis, acute otitis media or pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the paediatric population.
CONDÒ, R.; PERUGIA, C.; MATURO, P.; DOCIMO, R.
SUMMARY The Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) is a qualitative and quantitative defect of the enamel structure of the first permanent molars, which may vary from 1 to 4 with involvement of maxillary and jaw permanent incisors. Aim. Aim of this study is that to evaluate, among 1500 paediatric patients chosen at random aged between 0 and 14 years, afferent by the Paediatric Dentistry of the Azienda Ospedialiera Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome from 1996 to 2011, the incidents and the prevalence of the MIH distribution, and furthermore to ascertain the possible relationship with the data described in the literature. Results and discussion. From the sample of 1500 paediatric patients, the number of those affections from MIH has turned out to be pairs to 110 (7.3%) aged between 4 and 15 years, and an average age equal to 9.7. The incidence of the hypoplastic defects is greater in the elements of the permanents series in which the functional class mainly interested is that of the first molars, with a percentage of 39.8%. Regarding the elements of the deciduous series affections from hypoplasia, they turn out to be in all in number of 20 represented in 80% of the cases from the seconds molars while in the remaining 20% of the cases the items involved are the central incisors. About the percentage of elements involved in the MIH: the molars, involved with a frequency of 56%, turn out to be more hit regarding incisors (44%). As reported in the literature, it can be asserted that the MIH can hit in equal measure both the male sex that feminine one. Conclusions. MIH represents a condition quite frequent in the paediatric population. In managing this anomaly takes an essential role in the early diagnosis and in the differential one. The study done underlined the importance of a correct application of the therapeutic protocol which, starting from a careful diagnosis and articulating themselves in the execution of preventive treatments and in severe cases restorative and
Sawhney, Raja; Brown, Ryan; Ducic, Yadranko
The purpose of this article is to review the basic indications for different treatments of condylar and subcondylar fractures. It also reviews the steps of different surgical approaches to access the surgical area and explains the pros and cons of each procedure.
... Brain Damage in Boxers (News) Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? Additional Content Medical News Rib Fractures By Thomas ... often... More News News HealthDay Which High School Sport Has the Most Concussions? WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Female soccer ...
Završnik, Jernej; del Torso, Stefano; Blažun Vošner, Helena
Objectives ‘Sleeping beauties’, i.e. publications that are not cited for a long while, present interesting findings in science. This study analysed the citation trends of sleeping beauties in paediatric research. Methods The study used bibliometric software to analyse the papers citing sleeping beauties in paediatric research, to understand the context in which paediatric sleeping beauties were finally cited and the impact of these sleeping beauties on paediatric research. Results Two paediatric sleeping beauties, addressing medical homes and the transition from paediatric to adult health care, respectively, awakened in response to organizational needs. Both presented novel concepts of paediatric service organization that became important because of an increased need for optimization of services. Conclusion All sleeping beauties bring new knowledge that becomes important only after several years. Paediatric sleeping beauties exhibited unique characteristics; however, their presence in paediatric research shows that knowledge acquisition in paediatrics resembles that in other disciplines. PMID:27834306
Knight, Stephen P
The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.
Serafini, Gianpaolo; Zadra, Nicola
The purpose of the present review is to focus on the literature in the past year and specifically the development of recent guidelines, the debate on who does the sedation anaesthesia for MRI in a paediatric patient, the use of medications and techniques, and the use of monitors and equipment. The revised guidelines of American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry underline the serious risks associated with the sedation of paediatric patients and emphasize the need for proper preparation and proper evaluation. Most children require deep sedation for MRI and the practitioner must have appropriate skills to rescue the patient from general anaesthesia. In the debate on 'who does the sedation', the most important goal is to achieve uniformity in the formal training of the practitioners in key practice elements (airway management, resuscitation, vascular access, medications). Recent findings about the use of anaesthetic techniques, monitors and equipment, and complications are reported. The MRI suite is a challenging environment for anaesthetists and nonanaesthetists, and has serious risks. A systematic approach, similar to that of anaesthesia provided in the operating room, is mandatory. A well equipped anaesthesia machine, standard monitoring, trained personnel and adequate planning should be standard for all procedures out of the operating room.
Knight, Stephen P
The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies - body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior-posterior (AP)/posterior-anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes.
Molina, J; Sagaseta de Ilúrdoz, M; Busto, N; Lezáun, I; Cía, M L; Carrascosa, S; Azanza, M J
The paper presents a review of pain at the paediatric age, which can be considered a question of maximum interest given the novel application of analgesia or other procedures for avoiding and controlling the different types of pain in the course of normal practice during childhood. After a brief introduction on the history of pain and the scarce attention that it has received until recently, the concepts and different actions for dealing with pain are set out, which depend on its aetiology and localisation: pain in oncology, post-operational pain, pain in chronic or acute diseases, pain in intensive care, etc. Tables are presented with the normal doses used at these ages in the different situations required by the child and which the professional might find himself facing. The non-pharmacological attitude is set out as this can be of great use in the initial stages of controlling pain at these ages, and the different forms of sedation and analgesia at the paediatric age are explained, with regard to the medicines employed, the form of administering them and the importance of a multidisciplinary team: paediatricians, child anaesthetists, nursing personnel as well as the necessary technical support for taking the corresponding action.
Cheng, Adam; Duff, Jonathan; Grant, Estee; Kissoon, Niranjan; Grant, Vincent J
Recent changes in the culture of medical education have highlighted deficiencies in the traditional apprenticeship model of education, and emphasized the need for more experiential modalities of learning. Simulations, which are scenarios or environments designed to closely approximate real-world situations, have recently found their way into the medical training of health care providers. High-fidelity simulators are life-like mannequins connected to computer systems that control the physiological and physical responses of the mannequin. These simulators are able to provide direct feedback to learners in safe, risk-free environments. This technology has been used to teach all aspects of medical care, including medical knowledge, technical skills, and behavioural training or communication skills. The present article provides a general overview of simulation that will hopefully help to generate interest in paediatric simulation across Canada. Several tertiary care paediatric hospitals in Canada are already using simulation to teach health care providers; continued growth and interest is expected in this exciting area of medical education. PMID:19030409
Knight, Stephen P
The aim of this review was to develop a radiographic optimisation strategy to make use of digital radiography (DR) and needle phosphor computerised radiography (CR) detectors, in order to lower radiation dose and improve image quality for paediatrics. This review was based on evidence-based practice, of which a component was a review of the relevant literature. The resulting exposure chart was developed with two distinct groups of exposure optimisation strategies – body exposures (for head, trunk, humerus, femur) and distal extremity exposures (elbow to finger, knee to toe). Exposure variables manipulated included kilovoltage peak (kVp), target detector exposure and milli-ampere-seconds (mAs), automatic exposure control (AEC), additional beam filtration, and use of antiscatter grid. Mean dose area product (DAP) reductions of up to 83% for anterior–posterior (AP)/posterior–anterior (PA) abdomen projections were recorded postoptimisation due to manipulation of multiple-exposure variables. For body exposures, the target EI and detector exposure, and thus the required mAs were typically 20% less postoptimisation. Image quality for some distal extremity exposures was improved by lowering kVp and increasing mAs around constant entrance skin dose. It is recommended that purchasing digital X-ray equipment with high detective quantum efficiency detectors, and then optimising the exposure chart for use with these detectors is of high importance for sites performing paediatric imaging. Multiple-exposure variables may need to be manipulated to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:26229655
Ungerechts, R; Grenzebach, U; Harder, B; Emmerich, K-H
The diagnosis of and therapy for paediatric ptosis present challenges because of difficulties in performing preoperative examinations and the inability of the patient to provide intraoperative cooperation for proper lid placement. The authors provide an overview of the different forms and findings in congenital ptosis patients and point out the difficulties of the surgical procedures. The majority of paediatric ptosis cases is simple unilateral congenital ptosis with dysgenesis of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. Other different forms exist due to neurological, neuro-myogenic, aponeurotic, sympathic, and mechanical reasons or syndromes. The relevant history is obtained, including birth history and family history, careful observation and full ophthalmological examination are necessary. Amblyopia because of ptosis, strabismus or anisometropia with corneal astigmatism should be recognised and treated early. The preoperative examination is vital for determining the appropriate diagnosis and is useful for selecting the appropriate procedure. Ptosis correction is based on ptosis severity, Bell phenomenon and levator function. The primary goal is symmetry of the upper lids. Most frequently a levator resection is performed between the 3rd and 5th year with a levator function of more than 3 mm. The most common complication is undercorrection, poor lid contour or amblyopia. Overcorrection may be associated with dry eye syndrome and keratopathy. Levator resection is a useful procedure for the correction of mild to moderate ptosis. Frontalis suspension surgery is effective for congenital ptosis with poor levator function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Melville, C; Wall, D; Anderson, J
There is controversy as to how best to train general practitioners for the paediatric challenges they will meet in practice, in particular what should be included in training, what should be left out and how long should it last? All 615 general practice principals referring to 6 hospitals were surveyed (40% response rate). West Midlands region of England. Postal questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of responses. Quantitative responses were analysed by hospital, decade of qualification, and duration of paediatric training. Qualitative responses were analysed using grounded theory. Satisfaction with training was directly related to its duration, with low levels of satisfaction for less than 6 months paediatrics, moderate levels for 6-11 months, and high levels with 12 months or more. The most important item of training was recognition of the sick child. Acute and chronic paediatrics was generally well covered. Psychosocial aspects, public health and immunisation were poorly addressed. Neonatal resuscitation and first day checks were seen as relevant, but neonatal intensive care was not. At least 6 months of paediatrics is necessary for GPs in training, but longer paediatric exposure further increases their satisfaction with training. GPs have a biopsychosocial rather than biomedical approach to their child patients, suggesting potential benefits from a greater emphasis on psychosocial and public health aspects at the expense of neonatal intensive care. Recognition of the sick child is essential, and acute and chronic organic illness should be covered in breadth. Possible future models for GP training in paediatrics are discussed.
Eckert, K; Tröbs, R-B; Schweiger, B; Liedgens, P; Radeloff, E; Ackermann, O
Carpal fractures in children are rare, but can be missed, as their clinical symptoms are unspecific and discrete. Even X-ray diagnosis is difficult. Timely diagnosis and consistent therapy are especially important for scaphoid fractures, as they can help to avoid complications such as non-union or avascular necrosis. A diagnostic approach to paediatric carpal fractures will be discussed on the basis of the following group of patients. Retrospective analysis of children under 14 years treated in our institution between 09/2010 and 02/2012 for clinically suspected carpal fracture. In the primary evaluation, all children underwent standard X-rays of the hand and/or wrist. All patients were treated by cast immobilisation until complete clinical recovery. All patients with clinical signs of carpal fracture were treated by cast immobilization, even with normal X-rays. The clinical follow-up examination was after 10 to 14 days. In patients with persistent complaints, MRI was performed. We retrospectively evaluated the records of all patients: the fractured carpal bone, and X-ray and MRI-diagnosis were stated. We calculated the mean difference between first presentation and MRI and the mean period for total recovery, in patients with fracture or non-fracture. 61 children (27 boys and 34 girls, mean age 11.5 y) were included in our study. The mean delay between accident and time of first presentation to our paediatric ED was 0.6 days. In primary X-rays, a carpal fracture was demonstrated in only in 2 (3.3 %) patients, but was suspected in only 6 (9.8 %) of patients. In 53 (87.9 %) patients, there was no radiographic evidence of carpal fracture. 14 patients underwent additional scaphoid views, but scaphoid fracture was confirmed in only 1 (7 %) of these patients. In 3 (21.4 %) patients, a scaphoid fracture was suspected and in 10 patients a carpal fracture could be excluded. After a mean time of 11.8 days, all patients underwent a clinical follow-up examination
Trinh, A; Wong, P; Brown, J; Hennel, S; Ebeling, P R; Fuller, P J; Milat, F
This study assessed the prevalence and types of fractures in spina bifida and examined risk factors for fracture. Fracture prevalence was highest in childhood and reduced in adolescence and young adulthood. The importance of maintaining mobility is highlighted by the increased risk of fracture in those who are non-ambulatory. The aims of this study are to study the prevalence and types of fractures according to age group in spina bifida and examine risk factors associated with fracture. This is a retrospective cohort study of 146 individuals with spina bifida aged 2 years or older who attended the paediatric or adult spina bifida multidisciplinary clinic at a single tertiary hospital. Median age at which first fracture occurred was 7 years (interquartile range 4-13 years). Fracture rates in children (ages 2-10), adolescents (ages 11-18) and adults (age > 18) were 10.9/1000 (95 % confidence interval 5.9-18.3), 5.4/1000 (95 % CI 1.5-13.8) and 2.9/1000 (95 % CI 0.6-8.1) patient years respectively. Childhood fractures predominantly involved the distal femur and femoral shaft; these fractures were rarely seen in adulthood. Non-ambulatory status was associated with a 9.8 times higher risk of fracture compared with ambulatory patients (odds ratio 9.8, p = 0.016, 95 % CI 1.5-63.0). Relative risk of re-fracture was 3.1 (95 % CI 1.4-6.8). Urological intervention with intestinal segments was associated with renal calculi (p = 0.037) but neither was associated with fracture. The risk of fracture is lower in adults compared with children with spina bifida. The predominant childhood fracture affects the distal femur, and immobility is the most significant risk factor for fracture. Clinical factors contributing to fracture risk need to be elucidated to enable selection of patients who require investigation and treatment of osteoporosis.
Biopharmaceutical methods are routinely used in the design of medicines to predict in vivo absorption and hence guide the development of new products. Differences in anatomy and physiology of paediatric patients require adaptation of existing biopharmaceutical methods to ensure that in vivo predictions are relevant for this population. The biopharmaceutics classification system is a tool used in drug development to guide formulation selection and manufacture from early clinical studies through to product launch. The applicability of the biopharmaceutics system to paediatric product development has yet to be explored; this note brings together some key issues in direct extrapolation from adults into paediatric populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Naqvi, G; Johansson, G; Yip, G; Rehm, A; Carrothers, A; Stöhr, K
Introduction Paediatric trauma is a significant burden to healthcare worldwide and accounts for a large proportion of deaths in the UK. Methods This retrospective study examined the epidemiological data from a major trauma centre in the UK between January 2012 and December 2014, reviewing all cases of moderate to severe trauma in children. Patients were included if aged ≤16 years and if they had an abbreviated injury scale score of ≥2 in one or more body region. Results A total of 213 patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 7.8 years (standard deviation [SD]: 5.2 years). The most common cause of injury was vehicle related incidents (46%). The median length of hospital stay was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 4-10 days). Approximately half (52%) of the patients had to stay in the intensive care unit, for a median of 1 day (IQR: 0-2 days). The mortality rate was 6.6%. The mean injury severity score was 19 (SD: 10). Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation for injury severity score with length of stay in hospital (p<0.001). Conclusions There is significant variation in mechanism of injury, severity and pattern of paediatric trauma across age groups. A multidisciplinary team approach is imperative, and patients should be managed in specialist centres to optimise their care and eventual functional recovery. Head injury remained the most common, with significant mortality in all age groups. Rib fractures and pelvic fractures should be considered a marker for the severity of injury, and should alert doctors to look for other associated injuries.
Sharma, H; Taylor, GR; Clarke, NMP
INTRODUCTION Kirschner wires (K-wires) are immensely versatile in fracture fixation in the paediatric population. Complications associated with the K-wiring procedure vary from minor to a life-threatening. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcome of fracture fixation using K-wires in all types of upper-extremity fractures in children in order to assess the incidence and type of complication critically. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between September 1999 and September 2001, we retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 105 fractures in 103 paediatric trauma cases (below 12 years) treated with K-wires in a university teaching hospital. The case notes and radiographs were reviewed by an independent single assessor. All paediatric, acute, upper-extremity, displaced and unstable fractures were included. All elective procedures using K-wires were excluded. RESULTS We observed an overall 32.3% complication rate associated with the K-wiring procedure affecting 34 pins (24 patients). Wound-related complications included over-granulation in 13 cases, pin tract infection in 6 cases and hypersensitive scar in 1 case. Neurapraxia was found in 3 patients and axonotmesis in 1 patient. Wire loosening at the time of removal in 14 cases and retrograde wire migration in 4 cases were observed. There were 2 cases of penetrating tendonitis and 1 case of osteomyelitis. There was a higher complication rate in terms of wire loosening and pin tract infection when the K-wires: (i) were left outside the skin compared with those placed under the skin; (ii) stayed longer in the patients; and (iii) did not traverse both cortices. There were more complications in complex operations performed by senior surgeons (P = 0.056). The duration of K-wire stay, associated co-morbidity and anatomical location were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS Complications are part of operative procedures; an important point to consider is what causes them in order to take preventative measures. We
White, Lawrence M.; Marotta, Thomas R.; McLennan, Michael K.; Kassel, Edward E.
Appropriate clinical radiographic investigation, together with an understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the facial skeleton, allows for precise delineation of facial fracutres and associated soft tissue injuries encountered in clinical practice. A combination of multiple plain radiographic views and coronal and axial computed tomographic images allow for optimal delineation of fracture patterns. This information is beneficial in the clinical and surgical management patients with facial injuries
Paget, W John; Balderston, Catherine; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone
The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003-2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0-4 and 5-14 years in England, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0-4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47-83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making concerning
Weiss, Katja; Simon, Arne; Graf, Norbert; Schöpe, Jakob; Oertel, Joachim; Linsler, Stefan
Perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (PAP) has been identified as an important target for internal audits, concerning the judicious use of antibiotics. Paediatric oncology patients with brain tumours face an increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after neurosurgery and receive routine PAP in this setting. All patients younger than 18 years admitted to the paediatric oncology centre (POC) with a neurosurgical intervention. Systematic audit of routine clinical data is divided in two groups: retrospective (Jan 01, 2012-March 31, 2014) and prospective (April 01, 2014-March 31, 2015) referring to an internal PAP guideline, invented in Jan. 2014). Surveillance of SSI up to 30 days after the operation with standard criteria (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, USA). In total, 53 neurosurgical operations were analysed in 33 paediatric oncology patients. Twelve patients received more than one operation. The detailed analysis of PAP revealed prophylactic cefuroxim doses about 30 mg/kg instead of 50 mg/kg and no repeated dosing in operations lasting longer than 4 h. In addition, Cefotaxim, which is not indicated as PAP in neurosurgery, was used instead of Cefuroxim (or Ampicillin-Sulbactam) in 23 % of all cases in the retrospective and 18 % of all cases in the prospective audit. PAP for more than 3 doses (>24 h) was administered in 66 % in the retrospective group and in 60 % in the prospective group (p = n.s.). In both groups, no SSI was detected. This first comprehensive audit of PAP in paediatric oncology patients undergoing neurosurgery outlines significant opportunities to improve clinical practice in terms of correct dosing, the correct choice of the antibiotic, a correct timing schedule and a shorter duration of PAP. In addition, our results illustrate in detail the challenges in clinical practice when an evidence-based approach to improve a standard workflow has to be implemented.
Slongo, Theddy; Audigé, Laurent; Clavert, Jean-Michel; Lutz, Nicolas; Frick, Steve; Hunter, James
The first AO comprehensive pediatric long-bone fracture classification system has been proposed following a structured path of development and validation with experienced pediatric surgeons. A Web-based multicenter agreement study involving 70 surgeons in 15 clinics and 5 countries was conducted to assess the reliability and accuracy of this classification when used by a wide range of surgeons with various levels of experience. Training was provided at each clinic before the session. Using the Internet, participants could log in at any time and classify 275 supracondylar, radius, and tibia fractures at their own pace. The fracture diagnosis was made following the hierarchy of the classification system using both clinical terminology and codes. kappa coefficients for the single-surgeon diagnosis of epiphyseal, metaphyseal, or diaphyseal fracture type were 0.66, 0.80, and 0.91, respectively. Median accuracy estimates for each bone and type were all greater than 80%. Depending on their experience and specialization, surgeons greatly varied in their ability to classify fractures. Pediatric training and at least 2 years of experience were associated with significant improvement in reliability and accuracy. Kappa coefficients for diagnosis of specific child patterns were 0.51, 0.63, and 0.48 for epiphyseal, metaphyseal, and diaphyseal fractures, respectively. Identified reasons for coding discrepancies were related to different understandings of terminology and definitions, as well as poor quality radiographic images. Results supported some minor adjustments in the coding of fracture type and child patterns. This classification system received wide acceptance and support among the surgeons involved. As long as appropriate training could be performed, the system classification was reliable, especially among surgeons with a minimum of 2 years of clinical experience. We encourage broad-based consultation between surgeons' international societies and the use of this
Ibáñez Pradas, Vicente; Pérez Montejano, Rut
Trauma care in Spain is not provided in specific centres, which means that health professionals have limited contact to trauma patients. After the setting up of a training program in paediatric trauma, the aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the initial care provided to these patients before they were admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a third level hospital (trauma centre), as an indirect measurement of the increase in the number of health professionals trained in trauma. Two cohorts of PICU admissions were reviewed, the first one during the four years immediately before the training courses started (Group 1, period 2001-2004), and the second one during the 4 years (Group 2, period 2012-2015) after nearly 500 professionals were trained. A record was made of the injury mechanism, attending professional, Glasgow coma score (GCS), and paediatric trauma score (PTS). Initial care quality was assessed using five indicators: use of cervical collar, vascular access, orotracheal intubation if GCS ≤ 8, gastric decompression if PTS≤8, and number of actions carried out from the initial four recommended (neck control, provide oxygen, get vascular access, provide IV fluids). Compliance was compared between the 2 periods. A P<.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 218 patient records were analysed, 105 in Group 1, and 113 in Group 2. The groups showed differences both in injury mechanism and in initial care team. A shift in injury mechanism pattern was observed, with a decrease in car accidents (28% vs 6%; P<.0001). Patients attended to in low complexity hospitals increased from 29.4% to 51.9% (P=.008), and their severity decreased when assessed using the GCS ≤ 8 (29.8% vs 13.5%; P=.004), or PTS≤8 (48.5% vs 29.7%; P=.005). As regards quality indicators, only the use of neck collar improved its compliance (17.3% to 32.7%; P=.01). Patients who received no action in the initial care remained unchanged (19% vs 11%%; P=.15
McNicholas, F; Orakwue, N
Psychotropic medications are now a well-established and evidenced based treatment for increasing number of child mental health disorders prescribed at increasing frequencies and by increasing number of professional groups. Clinicians' perceived levels of competence and standardised monitoring lag behind prescribing practice and should be addressed by regular continuous professional development. A study specific questionnaire on psychotropic prescribing practice in children was mailed to all child psychiatrists and paediatricians working in Ireland and GPs from a selected Dublin CAMHS catchment area. Of the 116 who replied, (39% response rate), antidepressants (58.7%), antipsychotics (57.1%) and ADHD medications (36.5%) were most commonly prescribed. Results suggest increasing trends of monitoring amongst Irish clinicians over time, but with some lack of specificity. Commensurate with the wish of clinicians, ongoing training in paediatric psychopharmacology is considered essential in order to benefit from the increasing advances in pharmacology.
Subtil, João; Rodrigues, João Carlos; Reis, Lúcia; Freitas, Luís; Filipe, Joana; Santos, Alberto; Macor, Carlos; Duarte, Aida; Jordao, Luisa
Adenoids play a key role in both respiratory and ear infection in children. It has also been shown that adenoidectomy improves these symptoms in this population. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate adenoid bacterial colonization and document a possible relation with infectious respiratory disease. A prospective observational study was designed to evaluate the proposed hypothesis in a paediatric population submitted to adenoidectomy by either infectious or non-infectious indications and compare these two cohorts. A total of 62 patients with ages ranging from 1 to 12 years old were enrolled in the study. Adenoid surface, adenoid core and middle meatus microbiota were compared. A close association between adenoid colonization and nasal infection was found, supporting that adenoids may function as bacterial reservoir for upper airway infection. The obtained results also contribute to explain the success of adenoidectomy in patients with infectious indications.
Dedieu, Natalie; Giardini, Alessandro; Khambadkone, Sachin; Marek, Jan
A 12-year-old child with no previous medical history was referred with a 4-day history of cough, shortness of breath, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a soft tissue infiltrating the left ventricular free wall, the lateral mitral annulus, and the mitral valve leaflets. A soft tissue strand connecting the lateral left atrial wall and mitral leaflets across the mitral valve orifice was also identified, causing reduced opening and functional mitral stenosis. The diagnosis of Löeffler endocarditis was made, and after 10 weeks of treatment with oral prednisolone, there was complete resolution of symptoms and of the infiltrative tissue with normalization of mitral valve function. The present case highlights some atypical features of eosinophilic heart disease-like occurrence in paediatric age, the complete preservation of the right ventricle and left ventricular apex, and the presentation with mitral stenosis compared with mitral regurgitation typically observed in the late phase of the disease.
Stott, N Susan
Paediatric musculoskeletal infection remains an important cause of morbidity. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus is still the most common organism although the incidence of methicillin resistant S. aureus in the community is rising. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis due to Haemophilus influenzae is decreasing in incidence secondary to immunisation and in some units has been replaced by infections with the gram negative bacillus, Kingella kingae. Recent prospective studies indicate that uncomplicated osteomyelitis can be treated by three to four weeks of antibiotics. However, there is still a small group of children who will have overwhelming disseminated infection. These children require aggressive surgical and medical intervention. Two recent reports have identified an increased incidence of septic arthritis in children who have hemophilia and are HIV positive.
Children's attendance at emergency departments (EDs) is increasing every year, yet many children present with minor, self-limiting illnesses that could be managed at home. In light of Williams et al (2009) suggestion that healthcare professionals should improve the care available to patients at point of contact rather than try to change their health-seeking behaviours, this article describes how Tameside and Glossop Primary Care Trust has developed an advanced paediatric nurse practitioner (APNP) service in the ED to improve the care of children, and to reduce the number of admissions. The APNPs treat children in the ED then divert them to more appropriate services where support is given to the families to care for their children at home. The role contributes to meeting ED clinical quality indicators, frees up medical staff to deal with more seriously ill patients, and makes financial savings for the trust.
Wendel, H P; Scheule, A M; Eckstein, F S; Ziemer, G
Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in paediatric patients with heparin-coated oxygenation systems is rarely investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate, preclinically, the haemocompatibility of paediatric membrane oxygenators with heparin-coated surfaces. We compared 16 paediatric membrane oxygenators (Minimax, Medtronic) in an in vitro heart-lung machine model with fresh human blood. Eight of these oxygenation systems had a covalent heparin coating (Carmeda bioactive surface). After 90 min simulated ECC, the heparin-coated systems showed significantly higher platelet count, lower platelet-factor 4 release, reduced contact activation (factor XIIa and kallikrein), and lower neutrophil elastase levels (p < 0.05), compared to the noncoated oxygenator group. More biocompatible materials for paediatric operations may ameliorate the various postperfusion syndromes arising from ECC procedures, particularly unspecific inflammation, hyperfibrinolysis and blood loss.
For our specialist paediatric workforce to be suitably equipped to deal with current childhood morbidity, a high level of competence in developmental-behavioural paediatrics (DBP) is necessary. New models of training and assessment are required to meet this challenge. An evolution of training in DBP, built around the centrepiece of competency-based medical education, is proposed. Summative assessment based upon entrustable professional activities, and a menu of formative workplace-based assessments specific to the DBP context are key components. A pilot project to develop and implement these changes is recommended. © 2013 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Williams, Susanne K; Ellis, Lloyd A; Williams, Gigi
In 2004, traditional clinical photography services at the Educational Resource Centre were extended using new technology. This paper describes the establishment of a 3D digital imaging system in a paediatric setting at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne.
Colligan, Lacey; Bass, Ellen J
Interruptions are a part of many hospital settings. During medication administration, interruptions have been shown to lead to medication errors. Understanding interruption management strategies during medical management could lead to the design of interventions to reduce and mitigate related errors. Semi-structured interviews with paediatric nurses in an in-patient setting were used to identify types of interruptions, strategies for safe medication administration and interruption management, as well as factors influencing the interruption management strategy choice. Nurses also worked through use cases and provided verbal protocols about their strategies. To confirm and refine a framework for interruption handling, on-the-job observations were also conducted. Four case studies of medication administration highlight four interruption handling strategies. Three allow the interruption: 1) the primary task is suspended so that the higher priority secondary task may be engaged immediately; 2) multi-task by dividing attention between the primary and secondary tasks; and 3) mediating the interruption with an action that supports resumption of the primary task. The fourth blocks the interruption, keeping attention on the primary task (blocking). Interviews and on-the-job observation suggest that nurses dynamically assess the primary and (interrupting) secondary tasks. They prioritise task execution based on both risk and workflow efficiency assessments. Specific interruption handling depends on both task and experience related factors. Paediatric nurses have developed sophisticated strategies to manage interruptions and maintain patient safety and work efficiency during medication administration. To support a more resilient healthcare system, interruption management strategies should be supported through process, task support tools and education.
Reid, Julia E.; Reem, Rachel E.; Aylward, Shawn C.; Rogers, David L.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to report the incidence and describe the characteristics of sixth cranial nerve (CN VI) palsy in paediatric patients with intracranial hypertension (IH). A retrospective chart review of central Ohio children diagnosed with IH over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2013 was conducted. IH without identifiable cause was defined as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), whereas IH with identifiable pathologic aetiology was deemed secondary intracranial hypertension (SIH). A subset of patients with CN VI palsy was identified. Data collected included patient age, gender, past medical history, aetiology of SIH, ophthalmic examination, lumbar puncture results, neuroimaging results, and response to treatment. Seventy-eight children with intracranial hypertension were included in the study. Nine (11.5%) children (four males, five females; median age 14, range: 3–18) were found to have a unilateral (n = 2) or bilateral (n = 7) CN VI palsy. Five children had IIH; the remaining four had SIH from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (n = 2) and infection (n = 2). The mean lumbar puncture opening pressure for the nine patients with CN VI palsy was 40 cm H2O (range: 21–65 cm H2O). Papilloedema was present in 8/9 (89%) patients. One patient required a lumboperitoneal shunt, and two others required optic nerve sheath fenestrations in addition to medical management. All cases of CN VI palsy resolved with treatment. In our primary service area, the incidence of CN VI palsy is approximately 12% among paediatric IH patients. The majority of cases with CN VI palsy presented with papilloedema and all cases resolved with treatment of intracranial hypertension. PMID:27928378
Primary central nervous system malignancies incorporate a variety of tumours with diverse biology and clinical behaviour and represent the most common solid tumour entity of childhood, accounting for approximate 20-25% of all primary paediatric malignancies. Recent findings regarding the underlying tumour biology may open up new avenues of clinical trial design, particularly identifying possible targets for biological modifiers. Over the last 12-18 months a significant number of institutional and national studies have been reported which are likely to impact on the design of future clinical trials. In low-grade gliomas, stereotactically guided conformal radiotherapy should lead to a significant reduction in radiation-associated late toxicity, while in selected groups of high-grade gliomas the use of adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy may improve survival. Completeness of resection and use of adjuvant focal radiotherapy remains the most important prognostic factor for outcome in patients with ependymomas, although in infants the use of post-surgical chemotherapy alone may allow the postponing of radiotherapy in selected cases. In primitive neuroectodermal tumours prognostic biological markers have been identified that are undergoing prospective evaluation. For patients with localized medulloblastomas a new standard treatment is emerging that uses reduced-dose craniospinal radiotherapy followed by platinum-based chemotherapy, while in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours future treatment will be aimed at improving local control. Given the rarity of paediatric primary central nervous system malignancies, further progress can only be achieved in the context of national or multinational prospective clinical trials incorporating biological studies, and participation in these should be strongly encouraged. Copyright 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Hollingsworth, Clare E; Wesley, Carla; Huckridge, Jaymie; Finn, Gabrielle M; Griksaitis, Michael J
To assess the prevalence of symptoms of acute stress reactions (ASR) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in paediatric trainees following their involvement in child death. A survey designed to identify trainees' previous experiences of child death combined with questions to identify features of PTSD. Quantitative interpretation was used alongside a χ(2) test. A p value of <0.05 was considered significant. 604 surveys were distributed across 13 UK health education deaneries. 303/604 (50%) of trainees completed the surveys. 251/280 (90%) of trainees had been involved with the death of a child, although 190/284 (67%) had no training in child death. 118/248 (48%) of trainees were given a formal debrief session following their most recent experience. 203/251 (81%) of trainees reported one or more symptoms or behaviours that could contribute to a diagnosis of ASR/PTSD. 23/251 (9%) of trainees met the complete criteria for ASR and 13/251 (5%) for PTSD. Attending a formal debrief and reporting feelings of guilt were associated with an increase in diagnostic criteria for ASR/PTSD (p=0.036 and p<0.001, respectively). Paediatric trainees are at risk of developing ASR and PTSD following the death of a child. The feeling of guilt should be identified and acknowledged to allow prompt signposting to further support, including psychological assessment or intervention if required. Clear recommendations need to be made about the safety of debriefing sessions as, in keeping with existing evidence, our data suggest that debrief after the death of a child may be associated with the development of symptoms suggestive of ASR/PTSD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Khong, P-L; Frush, D; Ringertz, H
It is well known that paediatric patients are generally at greater risk for the development of cancer per unit of radiation dose compared with adults, due both to the longer life expectancy for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and the fact that developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. Multiple computed tomography (CT) examinations may cumulatively involve absorbed doses to organs and tissues that can sometimes approach or exceed the levels known from epidemiological studies to significantly increase the probability of cancer development. Radiation protection strategies include rigorous justification of CT examinations and the use of imaging techniques that are non-ionising, followed by optimisation of radiation dose exposure (according to the 'as low as reasonably achievable' principle). Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction technology when acquiring CT scanners. Dose reduction should be optimised by adjustment of scan parameters (such as mAs, kVp, and pitch) according to patient weight or age, region scanned, and study indication (e.g. images with greater noise should be accepted if they are of sufficient diagnostic quality). Other strategies include restricting multiphase examination protocols, avoiding overlapping of scan regions, and only scanning the area in question. Newer technologies such as tube current modulation, organ-based dose modulation, and iterative reconstruction should be used when appropriate. Attention should also be paid to optimising study quality (e.g. by image post-processing to facilitate radiological diagnoses and interpretation). Finally, improving awareness through education and advocacy, and further research in paediatric radiological protection are important to help reduce patient dose. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Julliand, Sébastien; Lodé, Noëlla
The paediatric mobile emergency and intensive care service care teams have expertise in taking care of children in life-threatening circumstances. At the Robert-Debré Hospital in Paris, the paediatric Smur is multi-skilled, specialising particularly in transporting neonates and infants with severe cardiac or respiratory difficulties. The pathologies handled are very varied and include both neonatal pathologies and trauma pathologies in older children.
Baird, G; Hall, D M
There is little agreement about what constitutes good developmental paediatric practice at the level of primary care. Many of the available screening tests are intrinsically unsatisfactory or badly performed, but screening is only a small part of developmental paediatrics. Every primary care doctor should be familiar with the scientific basis of the subject even if a decision is made not to embark on a formal screening programme. PMID:2412629
Noonan, S; Spuur, K; Nielsen, S
The primary aim of this study is to document the use of paediatric immobilisation techniques in medical imaging. Secondary aims are to investigate differences between current practice of paediatric and non-paediatric facilities and radiographer gender and to investigate immobilisation protocols. A SurveyMonkey link was distributed through the Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy (ASMIRT) newsletter. Radiographer members of ASMIRT were invited to participate. Frequency percentage analysis was undertaken; as the 'frequency of immobilisation' response was on a Likert scale and the ages categorical, a Fisher's exact test could determine dependency. The use of paediatric immobilisation techniques was determined to be related to age. The most commonly used technique in general X-ray was "other people"; in computed tomography, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques; and in magnetic resonance imaging, sedation and Velcro. A comparison of immobilisation techniques demonstrated that Velcro use in X-ray was dependent on facility (p = 0.017) with paediatric facilities using it up to 17 years. Immobilisation frequency was dependent in 13-17 years (p = 0.035) with paediatric facilities rarely immobilising and non-paediatric facilities never. No dependencies resulted upon comparing genders. Immobilisation frequency was not dependent between protocols or current practice. The use of paediatric immobilisation technique is related to age with "other people", sedation, Velcro, verbal reminders and distraction techniques being regularly used. The dependency of Velcro use and immobilisation frequency in 13-17 years is for unknown reasons and further investigation is required. A larger study should be carried out to validate these findings. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allen, Amy R; Spittal, Matthew J; Nicolas, Caroline; Oakley, Ed; Freed, Gary L
To determine the accuracy and reliability of triage of children in public hospital EDs using the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS). This is the first study to examine these issues in paediatric triage following the 2007 development of the Emergency Triage Education Kit (ETEK) to foster accurate and consistent application of the ATS. A convenience sample of 167 triage nurses working at three general hospitals and one speciality paediatric hospital in greater metropolitan Melbourne assigned triage ratings for nine paediatric clinical scenarios using the ATS. Scenarios were derived from the ETEK or from other published sources. Kappa was used to assess interrater reliability within and between hospitals. Triage nurses correctly assigned triage scores to an average of 5.3 of nine paediatric clinical scenarios. Accuracy in specific hospitals ranged from a low of 15% on one scenario, to 100% accuracy on a different scenario at a different hospital. Interrater reliability within and across the EDs studied was found to be kappa = 0.27. Both accuracy and interrater reliability were marginally higher at the speciality paediatric hospital. Our findings demonstrate inconsistencies in the accuracy and reliability in which sick children presenting to EDs receive triage scores both within and across hospitals. These results suggest the need for improvements either in current triage nurse training or training resources. Use of the ETEK alone has not resulted in high levels of paediatric triage accuracy or reliability. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Klingberg, Gunilla; Andersson-Wenckert, Ingrid; Grindefjord, Margaret; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Ridell, Karin; Tsilingaridis, Georgios; Ullbro, Christer
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 313-321 Background. Paediatric dentistry in Sweden has been surveyed four times over the past 25 years. During this period postgraduate training, dental health, and the organization of child dental care have changed considerably. Aim. To investigate services provided by specialists in paediatric dentistry in Sweden in 2008, and to compare with data from previous surveys. Design. The same questionnaire was sent to all 30 specialist paediatric dental clinics in Sweden that had been used in previous surveys. Comparisons were made with data from 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2003. Results. Despite an unchanged number of specialists (N = 81 in 2008), the number of referrals had increased by 16% since 2003 and by almost 50% since 1983. There was greater variation in reasons for referrals. The main reason was still dental anxiety/behaviour management problems in