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Sample records for pagrus major temminck

  1. A new species of Glugea Thélohan, 1891 in the red sea bream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Su, Youlu; Feng, Juan; Sun, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Jingzhe; Guo, Zhixun; Ye, Lingtong; Xu, Liwen

    2014-10-01

    A new microsporidian species is described from farmed red sea bream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Sparidae). Large numbers of spherical whitish xenomas were observed throughout the visceral organs of the host. Histological examination showed that the microsporidia caused several xenomas that were embedded in the intestinal muscularis externa or submucosa. Light and transmission electron microscopy examination of the spores also revealed morphological features typical of species of Glugea Thélohan, 1891. This microsporidian parasite has two different types of mature spores: microspores and macrospores. The spores are elongate-ovoid, with a large posterior vacuole. The polaroplast is bi-partite, with anterior and posterior parts comprising densely packed lamellae and loose membranes, respectively, and occupies approximately the anterior half of the spore. The polar filament is anisofilar, with 12-13 coils in a single layer almost touching the posterior spore wall. Comparison of the small subunit rDNA sequences revealed 92.7-98.1% identity with the sequences available from other Glugea spp. from piscine hosts. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the microsporidian species studied clustered within the Glugea clade with strong support. Based on the differences in the morphological characteristics and molecular data, the microsporidian infecting P. major is considered to represent a species new to science, Glugea pagri n. sp.

  2. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) Populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Blanco Gonzalez, Enrique; Aritaki, Masato; Knutsen, Halvor; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (F(ST) = 0.002, p < 0.001). Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes) appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure.

  3. Effects of Large-Scale Releases on the Genetic Structure of Red Sea Bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) Populations in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Blanco Gonzalez, Enrique; Aritaki, Masato; Knutsen, Halvor; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale hatchery releases are carried out for many marine fish species worldwide; nevertheless, the long-term effects of this practice on the genetic structure of natural populations remains unclear. The lack of knowledge is especially evident when independent stock enhancement programs are conducted simultaneously on the same species at different geographical locations, as occurs with red sea bream (Pagrus major, Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. In this study, we examined the putative effects of intensive offspring releases on the genetic structure of red sea bream populations along the Japanese archipelago by genotyping 848 fish at fifteen microsatellite loci. Our results suggests weak but consistent patterns of genetic divergence (FST = 0.002, p < 0.001). Red sea bream in Japan appeared spatially structured with several patches of distinct allelic composition, which corresponded to areas receiving an important influx of fish of hatchery origin, either released intentionally or from unintentional escapees from aquaculture operations. In addition to impacts upon local populations inhabiting semi-enclosed embayments, large-scale releases (either intentionally or from unintentional escapes) appeared also to have perturbed genetic structure in open areas. Hence, results of the present study suggest that independent large-scale marine stock enhancement programs conducted simultaneously on one species at different geographical locations may compromise native genetic structure and lead to patchy patterns in population genetic structure. PMID:25993089

  4. Microstructure, mechanical, and biomimetic properties of fish scales from Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Junzo; Walsh, Dominic; Mann, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    The fish scale of Pagrus major has an orthogonal plywood structure of stratified lamellae, 1-2 microm in thickness, consisting of closely packed 70- to 80-nm-diameter collagen fibers. X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and infrared spectroscopy indicate that the mineral phase in the scale is calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite containing a small amount of sodium and magnesium ions, as well as carbonate anions in phosphate sites of the apatite lattice. The tensile strength of the scale is high (approximately 90 MPa) because of the hierarchically ordered structure of mineralized collagen fibers. Mechanical failure occurs by sliding of the lamellae and associated pulling out and fracture of the collagen fibers. In contrast, demineralized scales have significantly lower tensile strength (36 MPa), indicating that interactions between the apatite crystals and collagen fibers are of fundamental importance in determining the mechanical properties. Thermal treatment of fish scales to remove the organic components produces remarkable inorganic replicas of the native orthogonal plywood structure of the fibrillary plate. The biomimetic replica produced by heating to 873 K consists of stratified porous lamellae of c-axis-aligned apatite crystals that are long, narrow plates, 0.5-0.6 microm in length and 0.1-0.2 microm in width. The textured inorganic material remains intact when heated to 1473 K, although the size of the constituent crystals increases as a result of thermal sintering. PMID:12781659

  5. Metabolism of 2-nitrofluorene, an environmental pollutant, by liver preparations of sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Ueda, O; Kitamura, S; Ohta, S

    2002-08-01

    1. The in vitro metabolism of 2-nitrofluorene (NF), an environmental pollutant, was examined in fish, focusing on nitro-reduction followed by N-acylation and hydroxylation. 2. When NF was incubated with liver microsomes or cytosol of sea bream, Pagrus major, in the presence of NADPH or 2-hydroxypyrimidine, 2-aminofluorene (AF) was formed. 3. When AF was incubated with liver cytosol in the presence of acetyl-CoA or N-formyl-L-kynurenine, 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) or 2-formylaminofluorene (FAF) was formed, respectively. AAF and FAF thus formed were deacylated to the parent AF by the liver preparations. 4. AF, AAF and FAF were oxidized to 7-hydroxy or 5-hydroxy derivatives by the liver microsomes. 5. Nitro-reduction, N-acylation and ring-hydroxylation of NF and the metabolites were also observed in rat liver preparations. These activities in sea bream livers were lower than those of rat liver. However, the order of magnitude of these activities in fish was the same as in rat. 6. It is suggested that NF is effectively reduced to AF by the cytochrome P450 system or aldehyde oxidase, and the acylated metabolites, AAF and FAF, generated by arylamine acetyltransferase and formamidase were hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 system in fish in the same way as in rat. Further, the acetylamino and formylamino derivatives were interconverted via amino derivatives in the fish. PMID:12296988

  6. Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Esteban, M Angeles; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2016-10-01

    A usual strategy in modern aquaculture to combat production bottlenecks associated with intensification is preventive health care through the use of consumer and environment-friendly alternatives including probiotics. The current study evaluates the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), a lyophilized probiotic bacterium, on health status and performance of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Probiotics were incorporated in the diets at four different concentrations: 0 (control diet, LR0), 10(2) (LR1), 10(4) (LR2) and 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1) and diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, final body weight, body weight gain, specific growth rate, protease activity, protein digestibility, Lactobacillus sp. intestinal count, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in all probiotic-fed groups (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and dry matter digestibility, reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, and humoral and mucosal immune parameters including (total serum protein, alternative complement pathway, bactericidal and peroxidase activities) were also significantly elevated in fish fed probiotic supplementations being the effects dose-dependent. All growth, feed utilization, immune and oxidative parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration. Present results revealed that L. rhamnosus is a promising probiotic candidate employed to help red sea bream protect themselves, thus promoting safe farming that would be less dependent on chemotherapy against infectious diseases. PMID:27542618

  7. Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Esteban, M Angeles; Zaineldin, Amr I

    2016-10-01

    A usual strategy in modern aquaculture to combat production bottlenecks associated with intensification is preventive health care through the use of consumer and environment-friendly alternatives including probiotics. The current study evaluates the influence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), a lyophilized probiotic bacterium, on health status and performance of red sea bream (Pagrus major). Probiotics were incorporated in the diets at four different concentrations: 0 (control diet, LR0), 10(2) (LR1), 10(4) (LR2) and 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1) and diets were administered to the fish for a period of 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, final body weight, body weight gain, specific growth rate, protease activity, protein digestibility, Lactobacillus sp. intestinal count, and superoxide dismutase were significantly higher in all probiotic-fed groups (P < 0.05). In addition, lipid and dry matter digestibility, reactive oxygen metabolites, biological antioxidant potential, and humoral and mucosal immune parameters including (total serum protein, alternative complement pathway, bactericidal and peroxidase activities) were also significantly elevated in fish fed probiotic supplementations being the effects dose-dependent. All growth, feed utilization, immune and oxidative parameters were significantly improved following probiotic administration. Present results revealed that L. rhamnosus is a promising probiotic candidate employed to help red sea bream protect themselves, thus promoting safe farming that would be less dependent on chemotherapy against infectious diseases.

  8. Exposure of eggs to solar UV-B leads to reduced hatching rates in two sparid fishes, red sea bream Pagrus major and black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli.

    PubMed

    Fukunishi, Y; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2010-02-01

    Hatching success was examined under exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) using filters to give three different light conditions [C1: UV-B, UV-A and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), C2: UV-A and PAR, C3: PAR] in red Pagrus major and black Acanthopagrus schlegeli sea bream. Hatching rate of both species was reduced by an exposure over a 2 day period to UVR and was not significantly different between two species under the three light conditions. PMID:20666911

  9. Fine structure of Longicollum pagrosomi (Acanthocephala: Pomphorhynchidae) and intestinal histopathology of the red sea bream, Pagrus major, infected with acanthocephalans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Ryel; Lee, Jung Sick; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Myung-Joo; Kim, Choon-Sub; Park, Myoung Ae; Park, Jung Jun

    2011-07-01

    The results described the structure of Longicollum pagrosomi and histopathological characters of the intestine of the red sea bream, Pagrus major, infected with acanthocephalans, using the light and electron microscopes. Among the six samples of P. major, L. pagrosomi was identified in the posterior intestine of five fish samples. Adult L. pagrosomi (total length, 8-27 mm) is divided into the presoma (proboscis, anterior neck, and posterior neck) and metasoma (trunk). The proboscis had vertically arranged hooks (40 μm in length), with ten hooks per row, and the septum was observed between the posterior neck and trunk. The tegument thickness of the proboscis was approximately 15 μm, and it was composed of thin, circular muscle fibers. The outer fibrous membrane was approximately 1 μm, and the connective tissue layer was approximately 35 μm in thickness in the anterior neck. The tegument of the posterior neck enclosed the cephalic ganglion and had longitudinal and vertical muscle fibers, and the tegument thickness was approximately 45 μm. The tegument of the body, which was approximately 1 mm in thickness, was composed primarily of muscle and collagen fibers, and the structure of the tegument was different, depending on the body region. The acanthocephalans had ovaries and oval-shaped eggs with an eggshell (77.5 × 17.1 μm), floating within the body cavity of the trunk. In the infected posterior intestine of P. major, the presoma and the anterior part of the metasoma of L. pagrosomi passed through the intestinal wall and infected the intestinal tissue, perforating the loose connective tissue. In the inflammatory connective tissue, collagen and muscle fibers were fragmented and revealed partial necrosis. Lipid drops and eosinophilic granular cells aggregated in the connective tissue of the tissue capsule. In the vicinity of the acanthocephalan, the mucosal epithelia contained hypertrophied nuclei, and the epithelial layer was collapsed. In an extreme case

  10. Toxic effects of zinc on the development, growth, and survival of red sea bream Pagrus major embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Liang; Shan, Xiujuan; Xiao, Zhizhong; Wang, Qiyao; Dou, Shuozeng

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the zinc toxicity to red sea bream Pagrus major embryos and larvae at 18 +/- 1 degrees C (33 +/- 1 per thousand in salinity) under laboratory conditions. The acute toxicity tests indicated that zinc 48-h LC50 to embryos and 96-h LC50 to larvae were 4.3 (3.3-6.3; 95% confidence limits) and 10.1 (9.0-11.4) mg l(-1), respectively, suggesting that embryos were more sensitive than larvae to zinc exposure. The subchronic toxicity test, in which embryos and larvae were continuously exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg Zn2+ l(-1) solutions for 10 days, demonstrated that waterborne zinc had distinctly toxic effects on the development, growth, and survival of red sea bream embryos and larvae. Zinc exposure at concentrations > or = 0.5 mg l(-1) would lead to a low hatching rate (19-78%, vs. 98% in controls), high mortality (29-91%, vs. 10% in controls), and morphological abnormality (12-77%, vs. 0.3% in controls) in embryos and larvae, while it caused delay in time-to-hatch in embryos at concentrations > or = 1.0 mg l(-1). These four biological parameters were zinc concentration dependent and could be effective bioindicators for evaluating the toxicity of zinc to the early life stage of this fish. Heartbeats of embryos (9-13 beats 10 s(-1)) were relatively low and were not significantly influenced by zinc concentration, although they rose remarkably with elevated zinc concentration in larvae at the end of the test, particularly when it was > or = 1.0 mg l(-1) (36-38, vs. 31 beats 10 s(-1) in controls). The total length (LT) of the larvae at the end of the test was reduced by 12.2% and 15.6% in the 1.0 and 2.0 mg l(-1) solutions but did not vary significantly in other solutions in comparison with the controls. Heartbeat and LT were less sensitive to zinc exposure and might not be good biological parameters for determining the toxicity of zinc to the early life stage of red sea bream. PMID:19504147

  11. The selenium accumulation and its effect on growth, and haematological parameters in red sea bream, Pagrus major, exposed to waterborne selenium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kang, Ju-Chan

    2014-06-01

    Juvenile Pagrus major (mean length 15.8±1.6cm, and mean weight 90.4±4.7g) were exposed for 4 weeks with waterborne selenium concentration (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400µg/L). The profile of Se accumulation among tissue in P. major is dependent on the exposure periods and Se concentration. After 4 weeks, the highest accumulation of Se was observed in the kidney, and the order of Se accumulation in tissues was kidney≈liver>spleen>intestine>gill>muscle. Se decreased the growth rate, and there was an inverse proportion between growth and Se concentration. The major hematological findings were significant decrease in the RBC count, Ht value, and Hb concentration exposed to ≥100µg/L Se concentrations. Se exposure (≥100µg/L) led to significant increase in the glucose, GOT, and GPT levels, whereas the levels of calcium, magnesium, cholesterol, and total protein did not increase. The results suggest that waterborne Se exposure can induce significant Se accumulation in tissues, inhibition of growth, and hematological alterations. PMID:24636952

  12. Comparison of Growth Performance and Whole-body Amino Acid Composition in Red Seabream (Pagrus major) Fed Free or Dipeptide Form of Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Sam; Rahimnejad, Samad; Song, Jin-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the dipeptide form of phenylalanine as a new source of amino acid in terms of growth performance and whole-body amino acid composition in comparison to the free form for red seabream (Pagrus major). Fish (1.46±0.001 g) were fed four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets containing 0.7 or 1.4% phenylalanine either in free or dipeptide form. A feeding trial was carried out in three replicates and the fish were fed to apparent satiation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, feed intake of fish was influenced by both phenylalanine form and level and significantly higher values were obtained at an inclusion level of 0.7% and by the use of dipeptide form. However, the other growth parameters did not significantly differ among treatments. Whole-body amino acid compositions revealed no significant changes in concentrations of both essential and non-essential amino acids regardless of the increase in phenylalanine levels or the use of its different forms. The finding in this study indicates that juvenile red seabream can utilize dipeptide phenylalanine as efficiently as free form without any undesirable effects on growth performance or whole-body amino acid composition.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum lysozyme activity (LZY) significantly increased in LR + LL when compared with the control group. Additionally, fish fed the LR + LL diet showed a higher growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P < 0.05) in growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture.

  14. Immune responses and stress resistance in red sea bream, Pagrus major, after oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluated the interactive benefits of dietary administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and vitamin C (VC) on the growth, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream (Pagrus major). A diet without LP and VC supplements was employed as a control diet. Four other test diets with 0 or 1 g LP kg(-1) combined with 0.5 or 1 g VC kg(-1) (2 × 2 factorial design) were fed to red sea bream (2 ± 0.01 g) for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between LP and VC on final body weight (FNW), weight gain (WG), hematocrit (HCT), serum bactericidal (BA) and lysozyme (LZY) activities, mucus LZY and peroxidase (PA) activities, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), catalase, mucus secretion and tolerance against low salinity stress test (LT50) (P < 0.05). In addition, FNW, WG, specific growth rate, feed and protein efficiency ratio, serum (BA, LZY, PA and NBT), mucus (LZY and PA), superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde and mucus secretion were significantly affected by either LP or VC (P < 0.05). Furthermore, only LP was a significant factor on survival, plasma total cholesterol, mucus BA and alternative complement pathway (P < 0.05). However, VC supplementation affected on HCT and LT50. Interestingly, fish fed with both LP at 1 g kg(-1) diet with VC at 0.5 or 1 g kg(-1) diet showed higher growth, humoral and mucosal immune responses, anti-oxidative status, mucus secretion and LT50 as well as decreased plasma, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels than the fish fed control diet (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that dietary LP and VC had a significant interaction for red sea bream with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing stress resistance by immunomodulation. PMID:27095173

  15. Effects of dietary supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or/and Lactococcus lactis on the growth, gut microbiota and immune responses of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; El Basuini, Mohammed F; Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Nhu, Truong H; Dossou, Serge; Moss, Amina S

    2016-02-01

    Pagrus major fingerlings (3·29 ± 0·02 g) were fed with basal diet (control) supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactococcus lactis (LL), and L. rhamnosus + L. lactis (LR + LL) at 10(6) cell g(-1) feed for 56 days. Feeding a mixture of LR and LL significantly increased feed utilization (FER and PER), intestine lactic acid bacteria (LAB) count, plasma total protein, alternative complement pathway (ACP), peroxidase, and mucus secretion compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). Serum lysozyme activity (LZY) significantly increased in LR + LL when compared with the control group. Additionally, fish fed the LR + LL diet showed a higher growth performance (Fn wt, WG, and SGR) and protein digestibility than the groups fed an individual LR or the control diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased in LR and LR + LL groups when compared with the other groups. Moreover, the fish fed LR or LL had better improvement (P < 0.05) in growth, feed utilization, body protein and lipid contents, digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein, and lipid), protease activity, total intestine and LAB counts, hematocrit, total plasma protein, biological antioxidant potential, ACP, serum and mucus LZY and bactericidal activities, peroxidase, SOD, and mucus secretion than the control group. Interestingly, fish fed diets with LR + LL showed significantly lower total cholesterol and triglycerides when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). These data strongly suggest that a mixture of LR and LL probiotics may serve as a healthy immunostimulating feed additive in red sea bream aquaculture. PMID:26766177

  16. Rice Distillers Dried Grain Is a Promising Ingredient as a Partial Replacement of Plant Origin Sources in the Diet for Juvenile Red Seabream (Pagrus major)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Lee, Sang-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to test the effects of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG) level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant activity of juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major). Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% DDG from rice (designated as DDG0, DDG5, DDG10, DDG15, DDG20, and DDG25), respectively. Juvenile red seabream averaging 10.1±0.05 g were randomly distributed into 400-L tanks in a flow through systems. Three replicate groups of fish were fed one of the experimental diets to visual satiation two times a day for 10 weeks. Survival, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body in juvenile red seabream were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). Plasma content of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phospholipid and triglyceride were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and alkyl radical scavenging activities in plasma and liver of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05). The results of this experiment suggest that DDG has the potential to replace plant origin ingredients such as wheat flour and corn gluten meal and could be used up to 25% in diet without incurring negative effects on the growth performance of juvenile red seabream. PMID:25358367

  17. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P < 0.05) when fish fed the diets containing GMP and diet group GMP-0.4 showed the significantly higher value in compared to control. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by GMP supplementation and the significantly higher protein digestibility was observed in fish fed diet groups GMP-0.2, GMP-0.4 and GMP-0.8. Among the measured non specific immune parameters peroxidase activity (PA), respiratory burst activity (NBT), Bactericidal activity (BA) were significantly affected by dietary supplementation and highest value obtained in diet group GMP-0.4. Total serum protein, lysozyme activity (LA), and agglutination antibody titer also increased (P > 0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP

  18. Different effects of growth hormone and fasting on the induction patterns of two hormone-sensitive lipase genes in red seabream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Khieokhajonkhet, Anurak; Kaneko, Gen; Hirano, Yuki; Wang, Lu; Ushio, Hideki

    2016-09-15

    Growth hormone (GH) increases phosphorylation and mRNA levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the livers of some marine teleosts. The hepatic GH-HSL axis appears to play important roles in fasting-induced lipolysis. However, it is not known whether GH exerts similar effects on HSL in fish adipose tissues. Functional differentiation of two fish-specific HSL isoforms (HSL1 and HSL2) also remains unclear. The present study seeks to address two unanswered questions about fish lipolysis using red seabream (Pagrus major): (1) Does GH increase phosphorylation and mRNA levels of HSL in adipose tissue? (2) How do GH and fasting affect mRNA levels of two HSL isoform genes in the liver and adipose tissue? To this end, we first cloned HSL1 and HSL2 cDNAs and investigated their tissue distribution. Transcripts of both HSLs and HSL1 proteins were abundant in the visceral adipose tissue, gonads, and liver, suggesting the important role of HSL in adipose tissue lipolysis. HSL2 transcript levels were 20-65% those of HSL1 except in the skin, and HSL2 proteins were not detected by our in-house antisera. Ex vivo administration of GH increased HSL1 phosphorylation, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) release, and levels of HSL1 and HSL2 mRNA in both the liver and visceral adipose tissue. Hepatic HSL2 mRNA was particularly sensitive to GH administration and sometimes exceeded HSL1 mRNA levels with up to 13-fold induction. In contrast, fasting for 4 and 7d increased HSL1 mRNA levels, but had only marginal effects on HSL2 mRNA levels in both adipose tissue or liver. We concluded that GH would increase HSL mRNAs during adipose tissue lipolysis in red seabream; however, GH and fasting result in different induction ratio of two HSL isoform genes, suggesting that other hormone(s) also contributes to fasting-induced lipolysis.

  19. [Larval Anisakidae in musculature of Pagrus pagrus from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Saad, Caroline D R; Luque, José L

    2009-12-01

    Musculature of 36 specimens of Pagrus pagrus from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro were examined to study larval of anisakid nematodes between January and May 2008. A total of 24 larval of Anisakis sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp. and Raphidascaris sp. were collected infecting seven fishes (19.4%). Larval Hysterothylacium sp. and Contracaecum sp. showed highest prevalence and Hysterothylacium sp. highest parasite abundance. This is the first record of larval anisakids in the somatic musculature of P. pagrus. PMID:20040196

  20. Toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in developing red seabream (Pagrus major) embryo: an association of morphological deformities with AHR1, AHR2 and CYP1A expressions.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masanobu; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Shima, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-16

    The toxicity of dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is mainly mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which regulates the multiple target genes including cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). In general, bony fishes, which possess at least two distinct AHRs are one of the most sensitive vertebrates to TCDD in early life stage. However, the physiological and toxicological roles of piscine multiple AHRs are not fully understood, especially in marine fish. To understand which AHR is responsible for TCDD toxicity in a marine fish species, we characterized the early life stage toxicity related to the expression of AHRs and CYP1A in red seabream (Pagrus major). The embryos at 10h post-fertilization (hpf) were treated with 0-100 microg/L TCDD for 80 min waterborne exposure. TCDD dose-dependently elicited developmental toxicities including mortality, yolk sac edema, retarded body growth, spinal deformity, reduced heart rate, shortened snout, underdeveloped fin, heart, and lower jaw. Intriguingly, hemorrhage and pericardium edema, typical TCDD developmental defects noticed in other fish species, were not found in red seabream until test termination. The EC(egg)50s for yolk sac edema, underdeveloped fin, and spinal deformity were 170, 240, and 340 pg/g, respectively. The LC(egg)50 was 360 pg/g embryo, indicating that this species is one of the most sensitive fishes to TCDD toxicity. The expression levels of rsAHR1, rsAHR2 and CYP1A mRNAs were also determined in different developmental stages. The rsAHR2 mRNA expression dose-dependently increased following TCDD exposure, while rsAHR1 mRNA level was not altered. Level of rsAHR2 mRNA measured by two-step real-time PCR was 30 times higher than rsAHR1 in embryos treated with the highest dose. Temporal patterns of rsAHR2 and CYP1A mRNAs were similar in TCDD-treated embryos, representing a significant positive correlation between rsAHR2 and CYP1A mRNA levels, but not between rsAHR1 and CYP1A. In comparison of

  1. Larval organogenesis of Pagrus pagrus L., 1758 with special attention to the digestive system development.

    PubMed

    Darias, M J; Ortiz-Delgado, J B; Sarasquete, C; Martínez-Rodríguez, G; Yúfera, M

    2007-07-01

    Organogenesis of the red porgy (Pagrus pagrus L., 1758) was examined from hatching until 63 days post-hatching (dph) using histological and histochemical techniques. At hatching, the heart appeared as a tubular structure which progressively developed into four differentiated regions at 2 dph: bulbus arteriosus, atrium, ventricle and sinus venosus. First ventricle and atrium trabeculae were appreciated at 6 and 26 dph, respectively. Primordial gill arches were evident at 2 dph. Primordial filaments and first lamellae were observed at 6 and 15 dph, respectively. At mouth opening (3dph), larvae exhausted their yolk-sac reserves. The pancreatic zymogen granules appeared at 6 dph. Glycogen granules, proteins and neutral lipids (vacuoles in paraffin sections) were detected in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes from 4-6 dph. Hepatic sinusoids could be observed from 9 dph. Pharyngeal and buccal teeth were observed at 9 and 15 dph, respectively. Oesophageal goblet cells appeared around 6 dph, containing neutral and acid mucosubstances. An incipient stomach could be distinguished at 2 dph. The first signs of gastric gland development were detected at 26 dph, increasing in number and size by 35-40 dph. Gastric glands were concentrated in the cardiac stomach region and presented a high content of protein rich in tyrosine, arginine and tryptophan. The intestinal mucous cells appeared at 15 dph and contained neutral and acid glycoconjugates, the carboxylated mucins being more abundant than the sulphated ones. Acidophilic supranuclear inclusions in the intestinal cells of the posterior intestine, related to pynocitosis of proteins, were observed at 4-6 dph.

  2. Hypoxia impairs visual acuity in snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    PubMed

    Robinson, Esme; Jerrett, Alistair; Black, Suzanne; Davison, William

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the effect of environmental hypoxia on vision in snapper (Pagrus auratus). Juvenile snapper inhabit estuarine environments where oxygen conditions fluctuate on a seasonal basis. Optomotor experiments demonstrated that visual acuity is impaired by environmental hypoxia, but not until levels approach the critical oxygen tension (P crit) of this species (around 25% air-saturated seawater). In 100, 80, and 60% air-saturated seawater, a positive optomotor response was present at a minimum separable angle (M SA) of 1°. In 40% air-saturated seawater, vision was partially impaired with positive responses at M SAs of 2° and above. However, in 25% air-saturated seawater, visual acuity was seriously impaired, with positive responses only present at M SAs of 6° and above. Snapper were found to possess a choroid rete, facilitating the maintenance of high ocular oxygen partial pressures (PO2) during normoxia and moderate hypoxia (PO2, between 269 and 290 mmHg). However, at 40 and 25% water oxygen saturation, ocular PO2 was reduced to below 175 mmHg, which is perhaps linked to impairment of visual acuity in these conditions. The ability to preserve visual function during moderate hypoxia is beneficial for the maintenance of a visual lifestyle in the fluctuating oxygen environments of estuaries.

  3. Low O2 avoidance is associated with physiological perturbation but not exhaustion in the snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae).

    PubMed

    Cook, Denham G; Herbert, Neill A

    2012-08-01

    It is already known that the New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus, Sparidae) does not avoid hypoxia until reaching an oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) of 3.1±1.2 kPa at 18 °C. Avoidance at this level of PO(2) and temperature is below the critical oxygen partial pressure of the species (P(crit)=5.8±0.6 kPa, 43.5±4.5 mmHg) and is therefore expected to result in major physiological stress. Results from the current study showed that avoidance was associated with numerous physiological perturbations, including a significant endocrine response, haematological changes, osmoregulatory disturbance and metabolic adjustments in the heart, liver and muscle. Snapper clearly experienced physiological stress at the point of avoidance but they were not however in a state of physiological exhaustion since some fuel reserves were still available. In addition to avoidance, snapper also showed a subtle reduction in swimming speed - this energy-saving response may have helped snapper minimise the physiological challenge of low O(2) residence. It is therefore concluded that snapper can reside in water below their P(crit) threshold for brief periods of time and, without any evidence of physiological exhaustion at the point of avoidance, fish should recover quickly once normoxia is selected. Lastly, with signs of anaerobic metabolism in cardiac tissue at the point of avoidance, we tentatively suggest that snapper may leave hypoxia to protect heart function.

  4. Review of the type series of Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825 (Aves, Pterocliformes, Pteroclidae) and designation of a lectotype

    PubMed Central

    Gouraud, Christophe; Frahnert, Sylke; Gamauf, Anita; van der Mije, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The type locality of Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825, is ‘West coast of Africa, Egypt and Nubia’. This is problematic because it includes the type locality of Pterocles exustus floweri (Nicoll, 1921), which is Fayum, Egypt. In the interest of clarification and to preserve stability of nomenclature, a non-Egyptian specimen from the type series of Pterocles exustus is designated as lectotype of the taxon, and the type locality is restricted to Senegal. PMID:27110210

  5. Review of the type series of Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825 (Aves, Pterocliformes, Pteroclidae) and designation of a lectotype.

    PubMed

    Gouraud, Christophe; Frahnert, Sylke; Gamauf, Anita; van der Mije, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The type locality of Pterocles exustus Temminck, 1825, is 'West coast of Africa, Egypt and Nubia'. This is problematic because it includes the type locality of Pterocles exustus floweri (Nicoll, 1921), which is Fayum, Egypt. In the interest of clarification and to preserve stability of nomenclature, a non-Egyptian specimen from the type series of Pterocles exustus is designated as lectotype of the taxon, and the type locality is restricted to Senegal. PMID:27110210

  6. Two new species of mazocraeid monogeneans from Clupanodon punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) found in Daya Bay, South China Sea, with the proposal of Chelimazocraes n. g.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Xiao, Zhi; Ding, Xuejuan; Liu, Lin

    2013-11-01

    Chelimazocraes liaoi n. g., n. sp. and Chelimazocraes ascidiformis n. sp. (Monogenea: Mazocraeidae) are described from the gills of Clupanodon punctatus (Temminck & Schlegel) in Daya Bay (South China Sea). The new genus is characterised by the following features: (i) the haptor is distinctly separated from the body proper, and the arrangement of the clamps is bilaterally symmetrical but longitudinally heteromorphic; (ii) the anterior three pairs of clamps are of the mazocraeid-type, whereas the fourth pair is of a non-mazocraeid type with three sclerites; (iii) all three pairs of clamps are similar in shape but their size gradually becomes smaller from the anterior to the posterior; (iv) the inner spines of the copulatory organ have a similar shape; and (v) the testes are numerous and arranged longitudinally posterior to the ovary. The two new species are easily distinguished from other members of the Mazocraeidae by the unique structure of the fourth pair of clamps; however, there are some noticeable differences between the two species. The major differences are as follows: (i) the body of C. liaoi n. sp. is significantly larger than that of C. ascidiformis n. sp.; (ii) the anterior three pairs of clamps consist of different sclerites in the two species; and (iii) the copulatory organ has one pair of outer spines and 15-16 pieces of inner spines in C. liaoi n. sp. (vs two pairs of outer spines and 22-26 pieces of inner spines in C. ascidiformis n. sp.).

  7. New host and locality records of two nematode parasites Dujardinnascaris mujibii (Heterocheilidae) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Anisakidae) from the common seabream Pagrus pagrus: a light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mostafa, Nesma

    2013-02-01

    In the present study, the morphology and morphometric characterization of Dujardinnascaris mujibii (Heterocheilidae) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Anisakidae), new nematode parasites infecting the sea bream Pagrus pagrus (Osteichthyes, Sparidae), were described for the first time from the Gulf of Suez and Hurghada City of the Red Sea, Egypt. Ninety-eight (70 %) and 62 (44.2 %) out of 140 of the examined fish were naturally infected with these nematodes, respectively. The infection was investigated macroscopically by the occurrence of these parasites in the flesh, stomach, intestines, as well as their body cavities as adult and larval stages. D. mujibii is characterized by an elongated body with a length of 36.4 ± 3 (23-38) mm (female) and 20 ± 3.0 (17-24) mm (males); the head is provided with three prominent lips each with four teeth like structures and the apical lip is embossed with a regular zigzag pattern as revealed by SEM. Interlabia were present, with prominent grooves. Juvenile stage is smaller than adults and provided with a spiny mucron. H. aduncum was small, measured 22.5 ± 2.0 (20.0-24.3) mm in length (female) and 16.3 ± 2.0 (14.5-17.4) mm (male). The head region bears three large lips which were clearly separated from each other, with the apical one having two rounded ends and the space between the two adjacent lips occupied by very prominent interlabia. The present study represents new host and locality records from P. pagrus fish in Egypt. PMID:23315190

  8. Assessment of snapper (Pagrus auratus) natural IgM binding to bromelain treated sheep erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Richard N; Bruce Lyons, A; Nowak, Barbara F; Hayball, John D

    2005-01-01

    Normal snapper (Pagrus auratus Bloch and Schneider) serum was examined for natural IgM that binds to protease (bromelain) treated sheep erythrocytes (BrSRBC) in a model assay system that has been used to appraise natural IgM of various mammals. Normal snapper serum lysed BrSRBC while haemolysis was abrogated by heat inactivation of serum and in divalent cation-deficient conditions, indicative of classical complement mediated lysis. In addition, heat inactivated normal snapper serum agglutinated BrSRBC while phosphatidylcholine (PtC) liposomes partially inhibited both haemolysis and agglutination. Inhibition of haemolysis and agglutination may have been mediated by an interaction between immunoglobulin (Ig) and PtC as protein A purified snapper Ig bound to PtC liposomes. However it is not known if this binding was PtC specific nor if the binding was initiated by either the Fab and/or Fc domains of snapper Ig. BrSRBC plaque forming cells (PFC) were detected in the peritoneal cavity, spleen, head kidney and peripheral blood of normal snapper. The greatest proportion of BrSRBC PFC per B cell was within the peritoneal cavity followed by the spleen, peripheral blood and head kidney. Together, these data suggest that normal snapper serum may contain natural Ig that binds BrSRBC, activating the classical complement cascade.

  9. Anti-resorptive effect of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Hong; Cao, Yi; Wang, Rui-Lin; Fei, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Pu; Liu, Jing

    2010-06-01

    Anti-bone resorption activity of pilose antler blood (Cervus nippon Temminck) were evaluated in ovariectomized Wistar rats. The rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized group (OVX) and pilose antler blood treated group. The ovariectomized rats were treated with pilose antler blood orally in 4000 microl/kg daily doses for 10 weeks. Compared with SHAM group, serum 17 beta-estradiol level decreased significantly and osteocalcin level increased significantly in OVX group, indicating successful model of osteoporosis. The experiments showed that the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and left femur in OVX group decreased remarkably compared to SHAM group but normalized by treatment with pilose antler blood. Additionally, serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-land testosterone were lower obviously in OVX group than those in SHAM group but preserved by pilose antler blood treatment. However, no obvious changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase and osteoprotegerin were observed among three groups. These results suggested that administration of pilose antler blood was effective in alleviating osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats.

  10. Swim bladder function and buoyancy control in pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Stewart, John; Hughes, Julian M

    2014-04-01

    Physoclist fish are able to regulate their buoyancy by secreting gas into their hydrostatic organ, the swim bladder, as they descend through the water column and by resorbing gas from their swim bladder as they ascend. Physoclists are restricted in their vertical movements due to increases in swim bladder gas volume that occur as a result of a reduction in hydrostatic pressure, causing fish to become positively buoyant and risking swim bladder rupture. Buoyancy control, rates of swim bladder gas exchange and restrictions to vertical movements are little understood in marine teleosts. We used custom-built hyperbaric chambers and laboratory experiments to examine these aspects of physiology for two important fishing target species in southern Australia, pink snapper (Pagrus auratus) and mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus). The swim bladders of pink snapper and mulloway averaged 4.2 and 4.9 % of their total body volumes, respectively. The density of pink snapper was not significantly different to the density of seawater (1.026 g/ml), whereas mulloway were significantly denser than seawater. Pink snapper secreted gas into their swim bladders at a rate of 0.027 ± 0.005 ml/kg/min (mean ± SE), almost 4 times faster than mulloway (0.007 ± 0.001 ml/kg/min). Rates of swim bladder gas resorption were 11 and 6 times faster than the rates of gas secretion for pink snapper and mulloway, respectively. Pink snapper resorbed swim bladder gas at a rate of 0.309 ± 0.069 ml/kg/min, 7 times faster than mulloway (0.044 ± 0.009 ml/kg/min). Rates of gas exchange were not affected by water pressure or water temperature over the ranges examined in either species. Pink snapper were able to acclimate to changes in hydrostatic pressure reasonably quickly when compared to other marine teleosts, taking approximately 27 h to refill their swim bladders from empty. Mulloway were able to acclimate at a much slower rate, taking approximately 99 h to refill their swim bladders. We estimated that the

  11. The effects of 2-bromopalmitate on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    PubMed

    Oku, Hiromi; Tokuda, Masaharu; Umino, Tetsuya

    2009-04-01

    To determine whether external factors affect the adipogenic function of fish adipocytes, the effects of 2-bromopalmitate (a PPAR agonist) on the fatty acid composition in differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream were investigated in vitro. In the presence of 2-bromopalmitate, the red sea bream adipocytes were differentiated and the effects on the fatty acid composition and the adipogenic gene expression were analyzed. With the level of 2-bromopalmitate, the content of 16:1n-7, a delta-9 desaturation product, increased in association with the increase in a stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression level while the triglyceride accumulation was not affected. Subsequently, the effects on the bioconversion of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which are main series of dietary essential fatty acids, were examined. In the presence of 300 microM of 18:3n-3 or 18:2n-6, red sea bream stromal-vascular cells accumulated the lipid in the cytoplasm within 3 days by the fatty acid uptake with the increase of corresponding fatty acid contents. Furthermore, in both the 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 stored cells, the products of delta-6 desaturation (18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively) and C(18-20) elongation (20:3n-3 and 20:2n-6, respectively) were detected. However, neither the delta-6 desatutration nor C(18-20) elongation of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 were enhanced by 2-bromopalmitate treatment. In conclusion, the results indicate that the adipocyte function in fish, e.g. adipogenic gene expression and fatty acid composition, can be modified by external factors and a main effect of 2-bromopalmitate is the increase in the content of delta-9 desaturation product by stimulating the SCD gene expression.

  12. Starvation beneficially influences the liver physiology and nutrient metabolism in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sipra; Chakraborty, Tapas; Shimizu, Sonoko; Urasaki, Shintaro; Matsubara, Takahiro; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Ohta, Kohei

    2015-11-01

    Dietary compromises, especially food restrictions, possess species-specific effects on the health status and infection control in several organisms, including fish. To understand the starvation-mediated physiological responses in Edwardsiella tarda infected red sea bream, especially in the liver, we performed a 20-day starvation experiment using 4 treatment (2 fed and 2 starved) groups, namely, fed-placebo, starved-placebo, fed-infected, and starved-infected, wherein bacterial exposure was done on the 11th day. In the present study, the starved groups showed reduced hepatosomatic index and drastic depletion in glycogen storage and vacuole formation. The fed-infected fish showed significant (P<0.05) increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in relation to its starved equivalent. Significant (P<0.05) alteration in glucose and energy metabolism, as evident from hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, was recorded in the starved groups. Interestingly, coinciding with the liver histology, PPAR (peroxisome proliferator activated receptors) α transcription followed a time-dependent activation in starved groups while PPARγ exhibited an opposite pattern. The transcription of hepcidin 1 and transferrin, initially increased in 0dai (days after infection) starved fish but reduced significantly (P<0.05) at later stages. Two-color immunohistochemistry and subsequent cell counting showed significant increase in P63-positive cells at 0dai and 5dai but later reduced slightly at 10dai. Similar results were also obtained in the lysosomal (cathepsin D) and non-lysosomal (ubiquitin) gene transcription level. All together, our data suggest that starvation exerts multidirectional responses, which allows for better physiological adaptations during any infectious period, in red sea bream.

  13. Morphological re-description and molecular characterization of Kudoa pagrusi (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida) infecting the heart muscles of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus (Perciformes: Sparidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, 100 samples of different sizes of the common sea bream fish Pagrus pagrus were collected from the Egyptian water along the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea and examined for the prevalence of myxosporidian parasites in general and Kudoa spp. in particular. Fish samples were thoroughly externally examined. After dissection, all the internal organs were removed and examined. A total of 60 out of 100 fish specimens were found to be infected with Kudoa stages. Parasitic infection was restricted to the heart muscles of the examined fish. None of the other organs was found to be infected. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) heavily infested the different parts of the heart muscles. Each plasmodium measured 1.2-2.5 (1.53 ± 0.2) mm × 0.63-0.80 (0.65 ± 0.2) mm. Mature spores are quadratic in shape in the apical view showing four equal valves and four symmetrical polar capsules. Fresh spores were 5.0-7.1 (5.7 ± 0.2) μm long × 5.4-8.5 (6.1 ± 0.3) μm wide. On the basis of spore morphology, the present species was identified as Kudoa pagrusi. Morphometric characterization revealed that the relatively small size of this Kudoa species was the distinctive feature that separates it from all previously described species. Molecular analysis based on small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences revealed that the highest percentage of identity was observed with K. scomberomori and followed by K. shiomitsui, K. hypoepicarclialis, K. amamiensis, and K. kenti. The kudoid spores showed morphometric variations to some extents but had essentially identical nucleotide sequences of the SSU rDNA gene sequences closest to those of K. scomberomori and K. shiomitsui recorded from elasmobranchs in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The present findings support the identification of an ancestral marine origin of the present Kudoa species. PMID:27146899

  14. A new record of blue-spotted seabream Pagrus caeruleostictus from Chinese coastal waters documented from morphology and DNA barcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Liu, Jing; Wu, Renxie

    2015-03-01

    A new record of Pagrus caeruleostictus (Valenciennes, 1830), collected from the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea in April 2013, was documented based on morphology and cytochrome oxidase I subunit (COI) gene barcoding analyses. It can be distinguished by a combination of the following characteristics: head scaled to above eyes; cheeks with 5 or 6 rows of scales; lateral line scales 51-52; 5 rows of scales above the lateral line; 4 and 6 cuspidate teeth in front of upper and lower jaws, respectively, followed by 2 rows of blunter teeth posteriorly; gill rakers on first arch 12 to 15; D XI-XII +9-11; A III +8-9; the first two dorsal spines very short, the third to fifth extended, filamentous in the young; the first pelvic ray filamentous; silvery pink with dark blue spots on back and sides; caudal fin pinkish; other fins bluish or pinkish; the blue spots generally disappear in large specimens. The present report of P. caeruleostictus suggests that its distribution in Chinese coastal waters may be attributed to human effort, since this species is unlikely to have expanded naturally from the eastern Atlantic to the South China Sea, with no other records from the Indian or Pacific Oceans. We recommend that a precautionary approach should be adopted for the management of P. caeruleostictus.

  15. Immunosuppressive activity of deer antler extracts of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Kap-Sung; Kim, Sung-Il; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Unossified horn or pilose antler cut from deer, which belong to the Cervidae generally is termed Nokyong. Nokyong is one of the most famous Korean traditional medicines and has been considered to possess sexual-reinforcing and antiaging actions. In this study, water extract of deer antler extract (DAA) prepared from the growing antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe was used to investigate the efficacy of the DAA on the development of type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Male rats were immunized with an emulsion of 200 microg of CII and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The rats then were administered by injection a suspension of DAA or phosphate-buffered saline. The effect of DAA on cellular responses to CII was examined. The injection of DAA suppressed the CII-specific secretion of interferon (IFN)-gamma from splenocytes ex vivo. The influence of DAA also was evaluated on the incidence and development of arthritis in rat CIA. Rats were immunized twice at a 3-wk interval with bovine CII, with DAA being given by injection once a d for 14 d with four different regimens. A 14-d course of DAA treatment at a daily dose of 100 microg/kg, which began on the d of the first CII immunization, suppressed the development of arthritis, as well as antibody formation and delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII. Treatment with DAA resulted in inhibition of development of arthritis and immune responses to CII.

  16. Anaemia adjusts the aerobic physiology of snapper (Pagrus auratus) and modulates hypoxia avoidance behaviour during oxygen choice presentations.

    PubMed

    Cook, Denham G; Wells, Rufus M G; Herbert, Neill A

    2011-09-01

    The effect of altered oxygen transport potential on behavioural responses to environmental hypoxia was tested experimentally in snapper, Pagrus auratus, treated with a haemolytic agent (phenylhydrazine) or a sham protocol. Standard metabolic rate was not different between anaemic and normocythaemic snapper (Hct=6.7 and 25.7 g dl(-1), respectively), whereas maximum metabolic rate, and hence aerobic scope (AS), was consistently reduced in anaemic groups at all levels of water P(O(2)) investigated (P<0.01). This reduction of AS conferred a higher critical oxygen limit (P(crit)) to anaemic fish (8.6±0.6 kPa) compared with normocythaemic fish (5.3±0.4 kPa), thus demonstrating reduced hypoxic tolerance in anaemic groups. In behavioural choice experiments, the critical avoidance P(O(2)) in anaemic fish was 6.6±2.5 kPa compared with 2.9±0.5 kPa for controls (P<0.01). Behavioural avoidance was not associated with modulation of swimming speed. Despite differences in physiological and behavioural parameters, both groups avoided low P(O(2)) just below their P(crit), indicating that avoidance was triggered consistently when AS limits were reached and anaerobic metabolism was unavoidable. This was confirmed by high levels of plasma lactate in both treatments at the point of avoidance. This is the first experimental demonstration of avoidance behaviour being modulated by internal physiological state. From an ecological perspective, fish with disturbed oxygen delivery potential arising from anaemia, pollution or stress are likely to avoid environmental hypoxia at a higher P(O(2)) than normal fish.

  17. A new feather mite species of the genus Neumannella Trouessart, 1916 (Analgoidea, Dermoglyphidae) from the Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (Aves, Tinamiformes) with remarks to the evolution of host-parasite associations of the genus.

    PubMed

    Dabert, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    Neumannella skorackii, a new species of the feather mite family Dermoglyphidae (Acari, Astigmata) is described from the Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (Aves, Tinamiformes) from Paraguay and a key to all known species of the genus is provided. The phylogenetic relationships (MP analysis of 25 morphological characters) between Neumannella species along with the evolutionary history of host-parasite associations revealed by Jungle reconciliation method are reconstructed. Relatively low cospeciation contribution to the recent host-parasite associations is discovered.

  18. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided.

  19. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided. PMID:26691264

  20. Dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-09-01

    Our study explored the dietary effects of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to enhance growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (AMP-0.1), 0.2% (AMP-0.2), 0.4% (AMP-0.4) and 0.8% (AMP-0.8) purified AMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The results indicated that dietary AMP supplements tended to improve growth performances. One of the best ones was found in diet group AMP-0.2, followed by diet groups AMP-0.1, AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. The Apparent digestibility coefficients (dry matter, protein and lipid) also improved by AMP supplementation and the significantly highest dry matter digestibility was observed in diet group AMP-0.2. Fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 had significantly higher peroxidase and bactericidal activities than fish fed the control diet. Nitro-blue-tetrazolium (NBT) activity was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) greater in fish fed diet groups AMP-0.4 and AMP-0.8. Total serum protein, lysozyme activity and agglutination antibody titer were also increased (P > 0.05) by dietary supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with AMP supplementation. Moreover, the fish fed AMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P < 0.05) in body lipid contents, condition factor, hematocrit content and glutamyl oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) level than the control group. Supplementation also improved both freshwater and oxidative stress resistances. Interestingly, the fish fed diet groups AMP-0.2 and AMP-0.4 showed the least oxidative stress condition. Finally it is concluded that, dietary AMP supplementation enhanced the growth, digestibility, immune response and stress resistance of red sea bream. The regression analysis revealed that a dietary AMP supplementation between 0.2 and 0.4% supported weight gain and lysozyme activity as a marker of immune functions for red sea bream, which is also inline with the most of the growth and health performance parameters of fish under present experimental conditions. PMID:27514786

  1. A new feather mite species of the genus Neumannella Trouessart, 1916 (Analgoidea, Dermoglyphidae) from the Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (Aves, Tinamiformes) with remarks to the evolution of host-parasite associations of the genus.

    PubMed

    Dabert, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    Neumannella skorackii, a new species of the feather mite family Dermoglyphidae (Acari, Astigmata) is described from the Red-winged Tinamou Rhynchotus rufescens (Temminck, 1815) (Aves, Tinamiformes) from Paraguay and a key to all known species of the genus is provided. The phylogenetic relationships (MP analysis of 25 morphological characters) between Neumannella species along with the evolutionary history of host-parasite associations revealed by Jungle reconciliation method are reconstructed. Relatively low cospeciation contribution to the recent host-parasite associations is discovered. PMID:24827087

  2. Low-O₂ acclimation shifts the hypoxia avoidance behaviour of snapper (Pagrus auratus) with only subtle changes in aerobic and anaerobic function.

    PubMed

    Cook, Denham G; Iftikar, Fathima I; Baker, Daniel W; Hickey, Anthony J R; Herbert, Neill A

    2013-02-01

    It was hypothesised that chronic hypoxia acclimation (preconditioning) would alter the behavioural low-O(2) avoidance strategy of fish as a result of both aerobic and anaerobic physiological adaptations. Avoidance and physiological responses of juvenile snapper (Pagrus auratus) were therefore investigated following a 6 week period of moderate hypoxia exposure (10.2-12.1 kPa P(O(2)), 21 ± 1 °C) and compared with those of normoxic controls (P(O(2))=20-21 kPa, 21 ± 1 °C). The critical oxygen pressure (P(crit)) limit of both groups was unchanged at ~7 kPa, as were standard, routine and maximum metabolic rates. However, hypoxia-acclimated fish showed increased tolerances to hypoxia in behavioural choice chambers by avoiding lower P(O(2)) levels (3.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 1.1 kPa) without displaying greater perturbations of lactate or glucose. This behavioural change was associated with unexpected physiological adjustments. For example, a decrease in blood O(2) carrying capacity was observed after hypoxia acclimation. Also unexpected was an increase in whole-blood P(50) following acclimation to low O(2), perhaps facilitating Hb-O(2) off-loading to tissues. In addition, cardiac mitochondria measured in situ using permeabilised fibres showed improved O(2) uptake efficiencies. The proportion of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, at least relative to the aerobic marker enzyme citrate synthase, also increased in heart and skeletal red muscle, indicating enhanced anaerobic potential, or in situ lactate metabolism, in these tissues. Overall, these data suggest that a prioritization of O(2) delivery and O(2) utilisation over O(2) uptake during long-term hypoxia may convey a significant survival benefit to snapper in terms of behavioural low-O(2) tolerance.

  3. Inhibitory effects of deer antler aqua-acupuncture, the pilose antler of Cervus Korean TEMMINCK var mantchuricus Swinhoe, on type II collagen-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Kye; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Young-Choon; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2003-07-01

    Water extract of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA) prepared from the growing antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, was used to investigate the efficacy of a traditional immunosuppressive and immuno-activating Korean aqua-acupuncture, on the development of type II collagen (CII)-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. The onset of arthritis was observed at the 24th day after the CII-immunization in rats, and the severity of CIA was gradually developed. As compared with rats treated with saline, DAA i.p. injected at doses of more than 50 microg/kg once a day for 14 days inhibited the ability of inguinal lymph node cells to produce T cell cytokines interleukin 2 and interferon-gamma when the cells were obtained from rats 24 days after immunization and cultured in vitro with CII. Treatment with DAA also inhibited the production of macrophage cytokines interleukin-1beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to in vitro stimulation of lymph node and macrophage cells with CII. In addition, in order to evaluate the influence of DAA on the incidence and development of arthritis in rat CIA, rats were immunized twice at a 3-week interval with bovine CII, with DAA being given i.p. once a day for 14 days with four different regimens. A 14-day course of DAA treatment at a daily dose of 100 microg/kg, which began on the day of the first CII immunization, suppressed the development of arthritis, as well as antibody formation and delayed-type hypersensitivity to CII. Treatment with DAA, which started on the same day as the booster immunization, also resulted in inhibition of development of arthritis and of immune responses to CII. However, treatment with DAA, which was prophylactically started prior to a primary immunization, did not inhibit the development of arthritis and immune response to CII. Furthermore, DAA extract did not affect the established diseases.

  4. Ranking of length-class, seasonal and regional effects on dietary compositions of the co-occurring Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) and Pseudocaranx georgianus (Carangidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Ben; Platell, Margaret E.; Clarke, K. Robert; Potter, Ian C.

    2012-12-01

    Using an effective combination of multivariate testing and ordination analyses, this study compares the extents to which the diets of two co-occurring fish species (Pagrus auratus and Pseudocaranx georgianus) are related to body size (length class), season and region and the rank order importance of those effects. Thus, volumetric dietary compositions were determined for these species on the lower west coast of Australia, where both are abundant, and for P. auratus from the mid west coast and P. georgianus from the south coast. The diet of P. auratus on the lower west coast was strongly related to body size and slightly less to season. With increasing body size, its diet shifted from predominantly ophiuroids to larger prey, such as brachyuran crabs, teleosts, echinoids and ultimately asteroids, probably reflecting a shift from foraging over soft sediments to areas over and around reefs. Seasonal changes on the lower west coast were restricted mainly to small P. auratus, while larger fish underwent seasonal changes further north. Analyses using a common size range of medium to larger P. auratus demonstrated that dietary composition differed more between regions than seasons. The relationships between diet and length class of P. georgianus on both the lower west and south coasts were less pronounced than for P. auratus and seasonal changes were restricted to the south coast, where amphipod consumption increased markedly in summer. The diet of P. georgianus was related far more to region than length class and season, with more small teleosts, small crabs, carideans and littorinids and less amphipods, isopods and small bivalves being ingested on the lower west than south coasts. Although crabs and teleosts were important typifying prey of P. auratus and P. georgianus, when co-occurring, the former predator tended to ingest greater volumes of larger and often less mobile prey. This reflects differences in dentition, jaw morphology and feeding behaviour and reduces the

  5. Barium variation in Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) otoliths: A potential indicator of migration between an embayment and ocean waters in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, Paul A.; Jenkins, Gregory P.; Coutin, Patrick

    2006-07-01

    Chronological variation in otolith chemistry can be used to reconstruct migration histories of fish. The use of otolith chemistry to study migration, however, requires knowledge of relationships between the chemical properties of the water and elemental incorporation into otoliths, and how water chemistry varies in space and time. We explored the potential for otolith chemistry of snapper, Pagrus auratus, to provide information on movement history between a large semi-enclosed bay, Port Phillip, and coastal waters in south-eastern Australia. Comparisons of water chemistry across two years demonstrated that ambient barium (Ba) levels in Port Phillip Bay were approximately double those in coastal waters (11 μg L -1 versus 6 μg L -1). Ba levels in otolith margins of wild juvenile snapper were highly positively correlated with ambient levels across 17 sampling locations, and levels in otolith margins of adult snapper collected from Port Phillip Bay were approximately double those of snapper collected in coastal waters. Mean partition coefficients for Ba ( DBa) were similar for juvenile (0.43) and adult (0.46) otoliths, suggesting that otolith Ba incorporation relative to ambient levels was similar across life-stages. Low Ba variation across otoliths from adult snapper maintained in tanks for three years indicated that annual temperature and/or growth cycles did not strongly influence otolith Ba variation. We concluded that chronological Ba variation in snapper otoliths would be a reliable proxy for life-history exposure to variable ambient Ba. We used water chemistry data and Ba levels across otoliths of ocean resident snapper to estimate otolith Ba levels indicative of residence in Port Phillip Bay (>10 μg g -1) or coastal waters (<6 μg g -1). Peaks in Ba exceeding 10 μg g -1 were common across otoliths of snapper collected in Port Phillip Bay and a nearby coastal region. The location of strong Ba peaks within otoliths was consistent with residence in Port

  6. Anti-bone resorption activity of deer antler aqua-acupunture, the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe (Nokyong) in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Kap-Sung; Choi, Byeong-Joon; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Chang, Young-Chae; Lee, Seung-Duk; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Kim, Hyung-Min; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-01-15

    Effect of deer antler aqua-acupunture (DAA), prepared from the pilose antler of Cervus korean TEMMINCK var. mantchuricus Swinhoe, a traditional immunosuppressive acupuncture, was evaluated to assess the reductions in bone mass, strength, and turnover in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. For measuring the above parameters, a 20-day dosing experiment was performed using 6-week-old female Lewis rats. Arthritis was induced by injecting the adjuvant into the hind paw of the Lewis rats. The age-dependent increases in the body weight, lumbar bone mineral content and density (BMC and BMD) and compressive strength were disturbed in the arthritic rats. At 10 days, the histomorphometric parameters of bone formation (BFR/BS and BFR/BV) and the serum osteocalcin levels were significantly reduced compared with the baseline controls of Lewis rats. However, the BMC values corrected for body weight did not differ significantly between the arthritic and normal rats, and the bone minerals were not reduced when they were compared with the baseline controls. At 20 days, the parameters of bone minerals and strength of the lumbar body in the arthritic rats, both with and without correction for body weight, were significantly reduced compared with the baseline controls. The trabecular mineralizing surface remained significantly reduced and the osteoclast numbers were increased. DAA at the doses of 10, 20, 50 and 100 microg/kg, administered by Shinsu (B23) acupuncture daily from the start of the experiment, significantly prevented the development of the chronic paw edema at 20 days. The reductions in the parameters such as bone minerals, strength, and trabecular bone formation, and the increase in osteoclast number were alleviated by this DAA. Age-dependent increases in the lumbar height, disturbed by the adjuvant injection, were also maintained. These results indicated that a 20-day-period is necessary to obtain sufficient reductions in the bone mass and strength of the lumbar body

  7. Interaction effects of dietary supplementation of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and β-glucan on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro

    2015-07-01

    Both heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) and β-glucan (BG) play important roles in growth performance, feed utilization and health status of fish. Therefore, a feeding trial was conducted to determine the interactive effects of dietary HK-LP and BG on growth performance, digestibility, oxidative status and immune response of red sea bream for 56 days. A significant interaction was found between HK-LP and BG on final body weight, total plasma protein, glucose, serum bactericidal activity (BA), total serum protein, serum alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity, protein and dry matter digestibility coefficients (P < 0.05). In addition, body weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio as well as serum lysozyme activity, ACP activity and mucus secretion were significantly affected by either HK-LP or BG (P < 0.05). Further, feeding 0.025% HK-LP combined with 0.1% BG significantly increased serum peroxidase activity compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). However, protein body content, somatic parameters, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, glutamyl oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), triglycerides and mucus BA were not significantly altered by supplementations (P > 0.05). Interestingly, fish fed with both HK-LP at (0.025 and 0.1%) in combination with BG at (0 and 0.1%) showed higher oxidative stress resistance. Under the experimental conditions, dietary HK-LP and BG had a significant interaction on enhancing the growth, digestibility and immune responses of red sea bream.

  8. Major Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatwin, Marshall

    This paper describes a computer program, Major Advisor (MA), which helps students identify college majors. Used in conjunction with career counseling and advising, MA provides information to students who are developing their educational plans. The program matches students' personal preferences and the requirements/characteristics of 130 common…

  9. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  10. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  11. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  12. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  13. Observations on a cucullanid nematode of marine fishes from Taiwan Strait, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp.

    PubMed

    Luo, Damin; Guo, Shulin; Fang, Wenzhen; Huang, Heqin

    2004-06-01

    During a helminthological examination of marine fishes from south of the Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait, Fujian, China, a new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp., was removed from the intestine of the red seabream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1834). The new species differs from its congeners mainly in the following characters: body size medium but with relative long spicules of 1.01 mm (0.97-1.06) in length or 20.0% (18.21-21.8%) of the body length; proximal end of spicules somewhat expanded and distal end rounded; gubernaculum I-shaped, slightly narrow in the middle part, both ends rounded; both anterior and posterior cloaca lips round or oval, prominent and unequal in size. The anterior cloaca lip is at least 2 times larger than the posterior one. There is a conspicuous papilliform structure within the central of anterior and posterior cloacal lip. Vulva of female is not prominent, slightly postequatorial; distance from vulva to anterior end of body is 4.3 (3.0-5.5) mm or 58.0% (54.0-62.0%) of the body length. Considering the result of comparing the structure of so-called unpaired median papilla with the 10 pairs of caudal petiolated papillae in the body of the same individual. the papilliform structures are just a backstop for the cloacal lips, this new species represents the first record of a nematode of the Dichelyne, subgenus Cucullanellus in marine fishes of China Sea.

  14. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  15. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  16. The Emerging Minority Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baccus, R. Eileen

    The United States is experiencing a major demographic transformation. Some studies have projected that by the year 2020, whites will be in the minority as their number is surpassed by those of Indian, Asian, African, and Spanish descent, to name a few. Educators must make a major commitment to see that all students have the opportunity to perform…

  17. Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) from marine fishes of Tongyeong, Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Kim, Chong-Kwan; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-09-01

    Monogeneans (Platyhelminthes) mostly parasitize on fins, skin and gills of fishes. In Korea, the study on monogeneans is limited, although, fishes are frequently encountered with severe infection of monogeneans. Hence, some of ranched and wild fishes were collected from Tongyeong marine living resources research and conservation center, southern part of Korea to screen and understand the infection of monogeneans. All three fish hosts were found with the infection of monogeneans including five species from four different families. They are: (1) Anoplodiscus spari Yamaguti (Publ Seto Mar Biol Lab Kyoto Univ 7:53-88, 1958) (Anoplodiscidae) from the fins and body surface of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Bleeker); (2) A. tai Ogawa (Fish Pathol 29:5-10, 1994) from the fins of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel); (3) Benedenia sekii Yamaguti (Studies on the helminth fauna of Japan. Part 19. Fourteen new ectoparasitic trematodes of fishes. Published by the author, Kyoto, 1937), Meserve (Rep Allan Hancock Paci Exped (1932-1937) 2:31-89, 1938) (Capsalidae) from the body surface of P. major; (4) Choricotyle elongata Goto (J Coll Sci Imp Univ Tokyo 8:1-273, 1894) (Diclidophoridae) from the gills of P. major; (5) Udonella fugu Freeman and Ogawa (Int J Parasitol 40:255-264, 2010) (Udonellidae) hyperparasitized on the body of parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu (Yamaguti 1936) (Caligidae) infecting the wild grass puffer Takifugu niphobles (Jordan and Snyder). Capsalids are commonly reported in Korea, except B. sekii, however, other reported genera are uncommon. Hence, all reported monogeneans are considered as a first record from Korea.

  18. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  19. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape. PMID:27381794

  20. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  1. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  2. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  3. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  4. The major evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, E; Smith, J M

    1995-03-16

    There is no theoretical reason to expect evolutionary lineages to increase in complexity with time, and no empirical evidence that they do so. Nevertheless, eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic ones, animals and plants are more complex than protists, and so on. This increase in complexity may have been achieved as a result of a series of major evolutionary transitions. These involved changes in the way information is stored and transmitted.

  5. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  6. Majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-07-01

    Entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space are investigated. Making use of the majorization technique we derive explicit lower bounds for the sum of Rényi entropies describing probability distributions associated with a given pure state expanded in eigenbases of two observables. Obtained bounds are expressed in terms of the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary rotation matrix. Numerical simulations show that for a generic unitary matrix of size N = 5, our bound is stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink (MU) with a probability larger than 98%. We also show that the bounds investigated are invariant under the dephasing and permutation operations. Finally, we derive a classical analogue of the MU uncertainty relation, which is formulated for stochastic transition matrices. Dedicated to Iwo Białynicki-Birula on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  7. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  8. [Major salmonellosis in Benin].

    PubMed

    Dovonou, A; Adoukonou, T; Sanni, A; Gandaho, P

    2011-12-01

    Although salmonellosis is a common endemo-epidemic disease in Benin, there is a paucity of data about it. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the incidence of major salmonellosis requiring hospitalizaton and to describe its epidemiological, clinical, and serologic features as well as treatment and outcome. Consecutive cases observed at the Medical Department of Parakou University Hospital in Benin between January 1, 2005 and December 31 2007 were included. Salmonellosis was defined on the basis of clinical and serological criteria. Among the 2,520 patients hospitalized during the study period, salmonellosis was diagnosed in 135 (5.4% [95% CI 4.5%-6.3%]). Highest incidences were observed in January, July, October and November. The main symptoms were headache, fever, fatigue and abdominal pain. The Salmonella typhi serotype was identified in 94.8% of patients. Two patients presented co-infection, i.e., Salmonella typhi with paratyphi A in one case and Salmonella typhi with paratyphi B in the other. Fluoroquinolones were used for treatment in 79.3% of patients. Outcome was favorable in 62.2%. The main complications were,typhoid digestive perforation in 11.1%, and gastrointestinal bleeding in 8.1%. The mortality rate was 4.4% (n=6). These data are consistent with previous reports in the literature and confirm the frequency and severity of salmonellosis in Benin. PMID:22393642

  9. Major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Otte, Christian; Gold, Stefan M; Penninx, Brenda W; Pariante, Carmine M; Etkin, Amit; Fava, Maurizio; Mohr, David C; Schatzberg, Alan F

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease that is characterized by depressed mood, diminished interests, impaired cognitive function and vegetative symptoms, such as disturbed sleep or appetite. MDD occurs about twice as often in women than it does in men and affects one in six adults in their lifetime. The aetiology of MDD is multifactorial and its heritability is estimated to be approximately 35%. In addition, environmental factors, such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse during childhood, are strongly associated with the risk of developing MDD. No established mechanism can explain all aspects of the disease. However, MDD is associated with alterations in regional brain volumes, particularly the hippocampus, and with functional changes in brain circuits, such as the cognitive control network and the affective-salience network. Furthermore, disturbances in the main neurobiological stress-responsive systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system, occur in MDD. Management primarily comprises psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment. For treatment-resistant patients who have not responded to several augmentation or combination treatment attempts, electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment with the best empirical evidence. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the current evidence of MDD, including its epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27629598

  10. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  11. Mars and Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Taking advantage of Mars's closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space- based observatory's sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. The telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped these images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images, which, together, show the entire planet. Each view depicts the planet as it completes one quarter of its daily rotation. In these views the north polar cap is tilted toward the Earth and is visible prominently at the top of each picture. The images were taken in the middle of the Martian northern summer, when the polar cap had shrunk to its smallest size. During this season the Sun shines continuously on the polar cap. Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have shown that this summertime 'residual' polar cap is composed of water ice, just like Earth's polar caps. These Hubble telescope snapshots reveal that substantial changes in the bright and dark markings on Mars have occurred in the 20 years since the NASA Viking spacecraft missions first mapped the planet. The Martian surface is dynamic and ever changing. Some regions that were dark 20 years ago are now bright red; some areas that were bright red are now dark. Winds move sand and dust from region to region, often in spectacular dust storms. Over long timescales many of the larger bright and dark markings remain stable, but smaller details come and go as they are covered and then uncovered by sand and dust. The dark feature known as Syrtis Major was first seen telescopically by the astronomer Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century. Many small, dark, circular impact craters can be seen in this region, attesting to the Hubble telescope's ability to reveal fine detail on the planet's surface. To the south of

  12. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  13. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  14. Followup review of major system aquisitions and major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    In 1985, we reviewed the Department's procedures and practices for managing and controlling its major acquisition program, both for major systems and major projects. The 1985 review resulted in the identification of significant deficiencies. We found, for example, deficiencies relating to documentation and reporting requirements for major acquisitions. The purpose of this review was to determine if this condition had been corrected. The review included an examination of applicable laws, Executive Orders, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars, and Department policies. We examined key documents prepared for major acquisitions and reviewed reports used by senior Departmental officials to monitor these projects. Our audit was based primarily on a limited review of documentation available at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. We did not extend our review of the issues raised in this report because we concluded that the management of major acquisitions was of such importance to the Department at this time that expedited reporting was needed.

  15. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  16. Planning for the Neglected Majority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.

    2007-01-01

    The "Neglected Majority" represents that 70 to 80 percent of our nation's population who, for a myriad of reasons, do not hold baccalaureate degrees. In 1985, Dale Parnell, Ed.D., described this "Neglected Majority" for the first time in one of the most influential works in the history of the community college movement. This article presents some…

  17. The Neglected Majority--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    Dale Parnell's "The Neglected Majority" is one of the most influential works by a community college leader in the history of the community college movement. This essay explores the impact of "The Neglected Majority" since publication in 1985 and includes an interview with Parnell that assesses his perspective of the nearly 20 years following his…

  18. Major Directions in Creativity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatena, Joe

    Reviewed are major directions in creativity research in the following areas: theories of creativity; definitions; instruments to measure creativity; nurturing creativity; the disabled, disturbed, and disadvantaged; cross cultural patterns; creative imagination imagery; and measuring creative imagination imagery. (LS)

  19. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major ...

  20. Osteochondral Lesions of Major Joints

    PubMed Central

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Yildirim, Omer Selim

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides information about osteochondral lesions (OCL) and example cases of OCL occurring in major joints, some of which are rarely seen. This simple tutorial is presented in question and answer format. PMID:26180500

  1. Implementation of the Second Major Requirement for Teacher Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polen, Deborah A.; And Others

    An exploratory study was conducted in North Carolina to examine the impact on teacher education programs of improved academic preparation for undergraduate teacher education majors. This report describes one such approach--the requirement that in addition to general college and teacher preparation courses, undergraduate education students complete…

  2. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a…

  3. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  4. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  5. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  6. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  7. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  8. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  9. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  10. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  11. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'.

  12. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  13. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  14. Distance majorization and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.

  15. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  16. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  17. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  18. Strong majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-05-01

    We analyze entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space and derive several strong bounds for the sum of two entropies obtained in projective measurements with respect to any two orthogonal bases. We improve the recent bounds by Coles and Piani [P. Coles and M. Piani, Phys. Rev. A 89, 022112 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.022112], which are known to be stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink [H. Maassen and J. B. M. Uffink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1103 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.60.1103]. Furthermore, we find a bound based on majorization techniques, which also happens to be stronger than the recent results involving the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary matrix connecting both bases. The first set of bounds gives better results for unitary matrices close to the Fourier matrix, while the second one provides a significant improvement in the opposite sectors. Some results derived admit generalization to arbitrary mixed states, so that corresponding bounds are increased by the von Neumann entropy of the measured state. The majorization approach is finally extended to the case of several measurements.

  19. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  20. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  1. [MAJOR DEPRESSION AND PERSONALIZED MEDICINE].

    PubMed

    Pitchot, W

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health problem. According to the World Health Organization (OMS), depression is currently the second cause of disability in developing countries. Depression is also one of the most frequent mental illnesses. When treating depression, the main objective is to achieve complete remission and to prevent recurrence. Unfor-tunately, in clinical practice, this aim is particularly difficult to reach. Indeed, in clinical trials and in naturalistic studies, remission levels are rather low. The challenge is to individualize the treatment of depression taking account clinical specificities, but also advances in the field of biological and genetic research. Today, intense psychiatric research tries to discover biomarkers to predict treatment response. Because individuals are highly different from a biological, psychological and sociological point of view, more personalized therapeutic approaches are recommended. PMID:26285462

  2. Cardiac complications in thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Auger, Dominique; Pennell, Dudley J

    2016-03-01

    The myocardium is particularly susceptible to complications from iron loading in thalassemia major. In the first years of life, severe anemia leads to high-output cardiac failure and death if not treated. The necessary supportive blood transfusions create loading of iron that cannot be naturally excreted, and this iron accumulates within tissues, including the heart. Free unbound iron catalyzes the formation of toxic hydroxyl radicals, which damage cells and cause cardiac dysfunction. Significant cardiac siderosis may present by the age of 10 and may lead to acute clinical heart failure, which must be treated urgently. Atrial fibrillation is the most frequently encountered iron-related arrhythmia. Iron chelation is effective at removing iron from the myocardium, at the expense of side effects that hamper compliance to therapy. Monitoring of myocardial iron content is mandatory for clinical management of cardiac risk. T2* cardiac magnetic resonance measures myocardial iron and is the strongest biomarker for prediction of heart failure and arrhythmic events. It has been calibrated to human myocardial tissue iron concentration and is highly reproducible across all magnetic resonance scanner vendors. As survival and patient age increases, endothelial dysfunction and diabetes may become new factors in the cardiovascular health of thalassemia patients. Promising new imaging technology and therapies could ameliorate the long-term prognosis.

  3. Major transitions in information technology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'.

  4. Major transitions in information technology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431527

  5. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L A

    1989-01-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

  6. Anomia in major depressive state.

    PubMed

    Georgieff, N; Dominey, P F; Michel, F; Marie-Cardine, M; Dalery, J

    1998-02-27

    Anomia, or word finding difficulty, is a frequent clinical symptom of the depressive state. This study investigates naming and lexicalization processes (or word production processes) in 11 depressive patients (major depressive state), through a picture naming task of 53 images corresponding to low frequency words. Depressives showed significantly more anomia and made more naming errors (semantically related substitution words) than control subjects. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states, which correspond to an impairment at a later stage of phonological encoding with partial activation of phonological shape, remained rare in depressives despite the increase of lexicalization difficulties observed. Anomia observed in depressives could thus be related to an impairment at the early stage of lexicalization or word production processes (pre-phonological item selection and access, or storage of the semantic lexical item in Working Memory for further phonological encoding), without lexical-semantic disorganization. We discuss the relationship between such an elementary speech production disorder and cognitive impairments demonstrated in the depressive state (deficit of effortful and attentional processes, impairment in activation or initiation of cognitive processes and responses).

  7. Major sources of benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  8. Major natural disaster afteraction assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    In recent years, a wide variety of natural disasters has disrupted energy supplies. Some incidents occurred in the continental US, others in offshore US territory, and still others in foreign countries. Each locale provided a unique backdrop against which energy emergency activities were conducted. Minimizing the consequences of these incidents is considered to be both good business and in national interest. It is often achieved through a combination of emergency preparedness and emergency response activities, usually taken in coordination and as appropriate, by industry, State and local government and Federal agencies. This project was undertaken to capture the experience gained during recent natural disasters, subject it to careful scrutiny, and thereby improve future energy emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities. It considered the emergency activities actually undertaken, the level and effectiveness of coordination between the various agents engaged in the response, and the appropriateness of established roles and responsibilities of each. The material forming the basis for this assessment was obtained through numerous in-depth interviews with personnel involved at all levels of response activities, afteraction reports by others, and articles in the technical and general press. Energy types considered were electricity, natural gas and petroleum products. Major attention was focused on telecommunications and military interdependencies with the energy supply infrastructure.

  9. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  10. Major General Robert A. Rushworth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Air Force test pilot Robert A. Rushworth is shown in an X-15. He was selected for the X-15 program in 1958, and made his first flight on November 4, 1960. Over the next six years, he made 34 flights in the X-15, the most of any pilot. This included a flight to an altitude of 285,000 feet, made on June 27, 1963. This flight above 50 miles qualified Rushworth for astronaut wings. On a later X-15 flight, he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for successfully landing an X-15 after its nose wheel extended while flying at nearly Mach 5. He made his final X-15 flight on July 1, 1966, then returned to regular Air Force duties. These included a tour in Vietnam as an F-4 pilot, flying 189 combat missions. He also served as the Commander of the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, and as the Commander of the Air Force Test and Evaluation Center at Kirtland AFB. At the time of his retirement as a major general, he was Vice Commander, Aeronautical Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, at Wright-Patterson AFB. Rushworth flew C-47s and C-46s as a transport pilot in World War II, as well as F-80Cs, F-101s, TF-102s, F-104s, F-105s, F-106s, and F-4s. He died on March 17, 1993.

  11. Population policy: major party positions.

    PubMed

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues.

  12. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  13. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  14. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. Wind Streaks in Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located on the lava flows of Meroe Patera in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.7, Longitude 73.2 East (286.8 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 9002.6, candidate means, with respect to any preceding Presidential election, an individual... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office...

  17. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 9002.6, candidate means, with respect to any preceding Presidential election, an individual... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office...

  18. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential election received, as a candidate of such party, 25 percent or more... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6...

  19. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential election received, as a candidate of such party, 25 percent or more... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6...

  20. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential election received, as a candidate of such party, 25 percent or more... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6...

  1. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  2. Major affective disorders and forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kunjukrishnan, R; Varan, L R

    1992-09-01

    Major mental illnesses, such as major affective disorders and schizophrenias, form a relatively small diagnostic group among mentally disordered offenders. The major affective disorders are less common when compared with schizophrenics among such offenders. Yet, some of the most violent crimes, such as murder, attempted murder, and serious assaults, especially intrafamilial violence, are committed by major affective disorder patients. The offenses by this group of patients are committed while suffering from active symptoms of the illness. As such, a substantial majority is not considered fully criminally responsible for the offense. Many such offenders are found not guilty by reason of insanity and are sent to psychiatric hospitals.

  3. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  5. 11 CFR 9004.1 - Major parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... candidates of each major party in a Presidential election shall be entitled to equal payments under 11 CFR... Consumer Price Index in the manner described in 11 CFR 110.17(a). ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major parties. 9004.1 Section 9004.1...

  6. Work Values and College Major Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  7. Major Topics of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James E., Ed.; Hertz, Karl V., Ed.

    Thirteen articles on major topics facing school business officials in the 1980s are presented in this book. The titles and their authors are (1) "The Pursuit of Equity in Financing Public Education," by R. Craig Wood, Helene B. Jones, and William L. Riley; (2) "Facilities: Major Issues Ahead," by C. William Day; (3) "Cooperative Decision Making in…

  8. U.S. vulnerable to major hurricane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The nation is ‘in the most vulnerable position in history’ should a major hurricane strike this year, according to James P. Walsh, acting NOAA Administrator.He warned that mushrooming coastal populations, public inexperience and apathy, and limited evacuation routes could combine to create a major catastrophe.

  9. The College Double Major and Subsequent Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the relationship between graduating from college with two majors rather than one and labor market earnings using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates. Because institutions are heterogeneous both in terms of overall quality and in the availability of opportunities to double major, I attempt to control for such…

  10. Profile of an Engaged Sociology Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kathleen; Reed, Laura

    2007-01-01

    In this research note, the authors report on an exploratory study of the profile of an engaged sociology major. The purpose of this note is to assess which factors relate to senior majors' self-perceived, overall engagement in the discipline. Possible factors include demographic variables, attitudes about learning, and academic or study behaviors.…

  11. Management of burns in major disasters.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, D T; Foo, I T

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of handling major burns in disasters with particular reference to the disaster that occurred in Bradford. Several major features of the Bradford fire, in which 56 people died, made its management much simpler than might be expected in subsequent burns disasters; these are discussed. Lessons that have been learned from handling this disaster are indicated. PMID:2347631

  12. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  13. 11 CFR 9004.1 - Major parties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Consumer Price Index in the manner described in 11 CFR 110.17(a). ... ENTITLEMENT OF ELIGIBLE CANDIDATES TO PAYMENTS; USE OF PAYMENTS § 9004.1 Major parties. The eligible candidates of each major party in a Presidential election shall be entitled to equal payments under 11...

  14. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  16. Contributions of Estuarine Habitats to Major Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide unique habitat conditions that are essential to the production of major fisheries throughout the world, but quantitatively demonstrating the value of these habitats to fisheries presents some difficult problems. The questions are important, because critical hab...

  17. A Course in Nanotechnology for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry is a good entry to many topics in nanotechnology. This paper describes a non-science majors' course in which chemical concepts provide the background to the study of this new field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis Contact Jessica Meade nibibpress@mail.nih.gov 301- ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  19. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  1. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  3. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake.

    PubMed

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  4. Majorization formulation of uncertainty in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Partovi, M. Hossein

    2011-11-15

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is formulated for a set of generalized measurements within the framework of majorization theory, resulting in a partial uncertainty order on probability vectors that is stronger than those based on quasientropic measures. The theorem that emerges from this formulation guarantees that the uncertainty of the results of a set of generalized measurements without a common eigenstate has an inviolable lower bound which depends on the measurement set but not the state. A corollary to this theorem yields a parallel formulation of the uncertainty principle for generalized measurements corresponding to the entire class of quasientropic measures. Optimal majorization bounds for two and three mutually unbiased bases in two dimensions are calculated. Similarly, the leading term of the majorization bound for position and momentum measurements is calculated which provides a strong statement of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in direct operational terms. Another theorem provides a majorization condition for the least-uncertain generalized measurement of a given state with interesting physical implications.

  5. Three Major banks adopt carbon principles

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-15

    People in the electric power sector stopped and took notice in early February when three major Wall Street banks announced that they were adopting new carbon principles in considering investment loans for power plants because of pending federal CO2 regulation 'could make such investments more risky'. The principles, meant to become industry-wide practice, could slow investment in coal plants and other major emitters, as banks require power companies to offer plans to deal with greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions. PMID:21957324

  7. Factors Associated With Major Bleeding Events

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Shaun G.; Wojdyla, Daniel M.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; White, Harvey D.; Paolini, John F.; Nessel, Christopher C.; Berkowitz, Scott D.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Patel, Manesh R.; Sherwood, Matthew W.; Becker, Richard C.; Halperin, Jonathan L.; Hacke, Werner; Singer, Daniel E.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Breithardt, Gunter; Fox, Keith A. A.; Califf, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to report additional safety results from the ROCKET AF (Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation). Background The ROCKET AF trial demonstrated similar risks of stroke/systemic embolism and major/nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding (principal safety endpoint) with rivaroxaban and warfarin. Methods The risk of the principal safety and component bleeding endpoints with rivaroxaban versus warfarin were compared, and factors associated with major bleeding were examined in a multivariable model. Results The principal safety endpoint was similar in the rivaroxaban and warfarin groups (14.9 vs. 14.5 events/100 patient-years; hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.96 to 1.11). Major bleeding risk increased with age, but there were no differences between treatments in each age category (<65, 65 to 74, ≥75 years; pinteraction = 0.59). Compared with those without (n = 13,455), patients with a major bleed (n = 781) were more likely to be older, current/prior smokers, have prior gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, mild anemia, and a lower calculated creatinine clearance and less likely to be female or have a prior stroke/transient ischemic attack. Increasing age, baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or GI bleeding, prior acetylsalicylic acid use, and anemia were independently associated with major bleeding risk; female sex and DBP <90 mm Hg were associated with a decreased risk. Conclusions Rivaroxaban and warfarin had similar risk for major/nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding. Age, sex, DBP, prior GI bleeding, prior acetylsalicylic acid use, and anemia were associated with the risk of major bleeding. (An Efficacy and Safety Study of Rivaroxaban With Warfarin for the Prevention of Stroke and Non-Central Nervous System Systemic Embolism in Patients With Non

  8. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  9. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  10. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems.

  12. Peptidoglycan: a major aetiological factor for psoriasis?

    PubMed

    Baker, Barbara S; Powles, Anne; Fry, Lionel

    2006-12-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG), a major cell-wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, has been detected within antigen-presenting cells in various inflammatory conditions, including psoriasis. The additional presence of T-helper 1 cells specific for streptococcal or staphylococcal PG in psoriasis skin lesions implicates PG as an important T-cell stimulator for the disease. PG is a major target for the innate immune system, and associations between genetic polymorphisms of recognition receptors for PG and various auto-inflammatory diseases have been identified. The location of these genes within four linkage sites for psoriasis raises the possibility that an altered innate recognition of PG might contribute to the enhanced T-cell response to the bacterial antigen. These observations suggest that PG is a major aetiological factor for psoriasis and emphasize the importance of PG in bacterial-infection-induced inflammatory disease.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  14. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  15. The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2012-09-01

    Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

  16. Longevity of major league baseball players.

    PubMed

    Abel, Ernest L; Kruger, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether major league baseball players live lontger than the general public. Ages of death of major league baseball players who debuted between 1900 and 1950 were obtained, and differences between ages of death and age-adjusted life expectancies were determined by analysis of variance and t-tests, taking into account player position. Correlational analysis also was conducted to determine if career length affected longevity. Baseball players lived an average of four years longer than age-matched controls from the general public. Career length did not affect longevity among players. We concluded that professional athletes, as represented by major league baseball players, have increased life expectancies. This increase cannot be explained by increased fitness associated with working as a professionral athlete, but is likely the result of an initial selection process for becoming a professional athlete.

  17. Hippocampal atrophy in recurrent major depression.

    PubMed Central

    Sheline, Y I; Wang, P W; Gado, M H; Csernansky, J G; Vannier, M W

    1996-01-01

    Hippocampal volumes of subjects with a history of major depressive episodes but currently in remission and with no known medical comorbidity were compared to matched normal controls by using volumetric magnetic resonance images. Subjects with a history of major depression had significantly smaller left and right hippocampal volumes with no differences in total cerebral volumes. The degree of hippocampal volume reduction correlated with total duration of major depression. In addition, large (diameter > or = 4.5 mm)-hippocampal low signal foci (LSF) were found within the hippocampus, and their number also correlated with the total number of days depressed. These results suggest that depression is associated with hippocampal atrophy, perhaps due to a progressive process mediated by glucocorticoid neurotoxicity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8632988

  18. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and pre-planned for the Skylab Mission, was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs include the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The Skylab experience proves conclusively that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools.

  19. Perinatal Management of Major Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Eiméar; Sands, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of congenital anomaly. Prenatal diagnosis of CHD has been associated with decreased morbidity and mortality for some forms of major CHD. As most cases of major CHD are not identified prenatally, clinical examination of the newborn and pulse oximetry are also important means of identifying more cases. Clinicians must suspect CHD as a diagnosis in a cyanosed or shocked neonate and be familiar with appropriate management, namely the commencement of prostaglandin if a duct dependent cardiac lesion is suspected. Telemedicine can aid prompt diagnosis of CHD and therefore direct appropriate management. PMID:25484461

  20. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  1. Reproduction and mortality in a colony of captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck.

    PubMed

    Adu, E K; Aning, K G; Wallace, P A; Ocloo, T O

    2000-02-01

    The reproductive performance and mortalities in a colony of captive greater cane rats, Thryonomys swinderianus, were monitored from 1992 to 1998 at the Grasscutter Domestication Centre, Achimota, Ghana. The animals were kept in cages and exposed to constant lighting from a 100 W electric light bulb during the night. The diet consisted mainly of freshly cut Panicum maximum (guinea grass) fed ad libitum, with occasional supplements of cassava and cane sugar. The results indicate that the mean litter size and litter weight were 2.9 +/- 0.51 and 439.4 +/- 81.23 g, respectively. These figures are low compared to those reported elsewhere. However, the mean birth weight was 151.2 +/- 11.08 g, higher by 12% than previously reported values. It is considered that poor nutrition, excessive exposure to light and stress were responsible for the relatively poor reproductive performance reported in these animals. The main causes of death were traumatic injuries (32%) and pulmonary congestion (16%). PMID:10717939

  2. A checklist of macroparasites of Liza haematocheila (Temminck & Schlegel) (Teleostei: Mugilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Aneta

    2008-01-01

    Background The mugilid fish Liza haematocheila (syn. Mugil soiuy), native to the Western North Pacific, provides opportunities to examine the changes of its parasite fauna after its translocation to the Sea of Azov and subsequent establishment in the Black Sea. However, the information on macroparasites of this host in both ranges of its current distribution comes from isolated studies published in difficult-to-access literature sources. Materials and methods Data from 53 publications, predominantly in Chinese, Russian and Ukrainian, were compiled from an extensive search of the literature and the Host-Parasite Database maintained up to 2005 at the Natural History Museum, London. Results The complete checklist of the metazoan parasites of L. haematocheila throughout its distributional range comprises summarised information for 69 nominal species of helminth and ectoparasitic crustacean parasites, from 45 genera and 27 families (370 host-parasite records in total) and includes the name of the parasite species, the area/locality of the host capture, and the author and date of the published record. The taxonomy is updated and the validity of the records and synonymies are critically evaluated. A comparison of the parasite faunas based on the records in the native and introduced/invasive range of L. haematocheila suggests that a large number of parasite species was 'lost' in the new distributional range whereas an even greater number was 'gained'. Conclusion Although the present checklist provides information that will facilitate future studies, the interesting question of macroparasite faunal diversity in L. haematocheila in its natural and introduced/invasive ranges cannot be dealt with the current data because of unreliability associated with the large number of non-documented and questionable records. This stresses the importance of data quality analysis in using host-parasite database and checklist data. PMID:19117506

  3. Double Majors Produce Dynamic Thinkers, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrett, Dan

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate education is traditionally supposed to provide students with both breadth and depth of knowledge, which derive from their general-education requirements and major, respectively. Increasingly, education experts also want students to develop a third skill, integrative thinking. It entails learning the deeper, underlying meaning of a…

  4. The Liberal Education of STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Cuba, Lee; Day, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges produce a disproportionate number of PhDs in the sciences (National Science Foundation 2008), and knowledgeable observers praise the "cross-training" of these colleges' science majors (Cech 1999; Connell 2004; Ekman 2007; Pascarella et al. 2004; Steitz 2001; Tilghman 2010). While many of the positive outcomes of…

  5. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  6. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major features. 9701.311 Section 9701.311 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  7. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness.…

  8. Mother-blaming in major clinical journals.

    PubMed

    Caplan, P J; Hall-McCorquodale, I

    1985-07-01

    The incidence of mother-blaming in major clinical journals was investigated for the years 1970, 1976, and 1982 to determine whether reductions have resulted from the efforts of the women's movement. Very few changes were found across the target years, and mother-blaming was only slightly affected by type of journal and by sex of author.

  9. Assessing the English Major: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNew, Janet; Malone, Cindy

    1994-01-01

    Considers how departments of English can evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum and teaching throughout the entire program. Outlines the way that the joint English department at the College of St. Benedict and St. John's University developed a full-scale assessment program for the undergraduate major. (HB)

  10. Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Susan C.

    This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…

  11. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  12. The Classics Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Over the course of eighteen months, a project based at the Center for Hellenic Studies in Washington, DC, studied undergraduate programs in classics with the goal of developing a better sense of how a major in classics fit within the broader agenda of liberal education. The study adopted a student-centered approach, employing a team of six…

  13. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major features. 9701.311 Section 9701.311 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  14. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Major features. 9701.311 Section 9701.311 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  15. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  16. Career Counselling the Graduate History Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Robert M.

    Employment opportunities for history majors are discussed. The author contends that historians have been brainwashed into believing that they are fit only to be college professors. However, the practice of history academic setting (public history) involves management of industrial corporations, formulation of public policy, and the preservation of…

  17. Academic Major, Environmental Concern, and Arboretum Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherburn, Meghan; Devlin, Ann Sloan

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between academic major, environmental concern, and the presence of a campus arboretum. Twenty-seven men and 43 women from a small liberal arts college, ages 18-36, completed a series of surveys including the Environmental Preference Questionnaire (EPQ), the Environmental Concern Scale (EC), and the New…

  18. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  19. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  20. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  1. A Summary of Major Reports on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This document condenses the recommendations of 10 major reports: "The Paideia Proposal"; "America's Competitive Challenge: The Need for a National Response"; "High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America"; "Academic Preparation for College: What Students Need to Know and Be Able to Do"; "A Place Called School: Prospects for the Future";…

  2. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  3. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent...

  4. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY... published on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in...

  5. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  6. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  7. Major Disorders of Mind and Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Elliot S.; Rieder, Ronald O.

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings relating to the major disorders of the mind and brain. Discusses the anatomic, biochemical and hereditary bases of schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness. Vignettes provide additional information and diagrams of the brain stress system, medicines for mental disorders, and a graph of generational trends. (MCO)

  8. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  9. The Social Impact of Majorities and Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latane, Bibb; Wolf, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    A new theory of social impact is proposed and related to prior work. Social influences result from forces operating in a social force field. Influence by either a majority or a minority is a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of its members. Conformity and innovation are compared. (Author/RD)

  10. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  11. Floor Fractured Craters around Syrtis Major, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, M.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2012-04-01

    Craters around Syrtis Major are eroded and/or refilled. Syrtis Major is one of the large Hesperian-aged volcanic regions on Mars. Basaltic deposits originating from nearby Syrtis Major cover the floor of impact craters. In particular some craters exhibit a fractured floor. Floor Fractured Craters can be divided in types. The grade of erosion and the geologic process, which formed the crater, can be different. Type 1: Crater floor affected by pit chains or narrow crevices which are sometimes discontinuous. Type 2: More developed and dense networks of crevices as type 1. Crevices are wide and deep enough to be detected. A circular moat starts to develop as crevices concentrate along the rim. Type 3: Mainly distinguished from type 2 by the presence of a fully developed circular moat. The flat central part is divided into several blocks by crevices. Type 4: They show also a continuous moat along the rim but the central part consists of many flat-top blocks and small conical mounds. Type 5: Crater floor has many mounds of irregular sizes, but the flattop blocks are absent. It should be noted that the knobby surface shows typical characteristics of chaotic terrains and could be alternatively classified as such. Type 6: Crater without a circular moat, crevices are not fully developed, flat-top blocks are present. Fractured floor could have been reshaped through geologic processes. Floor fractured craters can be found in three different areas. The first area is located in the south-eastern part of Syrtis Major, bordering to the highlands. Volcanic features like lava flow fronts, lava flows and wrinkle ridges dominate this region. The crater floor is separated in sharp-edged plates and the interior seems to be flooded by basaltic material. The second area is in the north of Syrtis Major and transcend to the chaotic terrain further north. Near the martian dichotomy boundary fluvial activity was the decisive process. The crater rims are highly eroded, channels are cutting

  12. Major ablative procedures in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Soucacos, P N; Dailiana, Z H; Beris, A E; Xenakis, T H; Malizos, K N; Chrisovitsinos, J

    1996-01-01

    In the presence of the notable progress in limb-sparing techniques afforded by the developments in microsurgery and musculoskeletal oncology, major ablative surgery of the extremities still remains a last-resort, yet powerful tool in managing patients with primary tumors in whom wide excision is not possible, as well as in cases with severe trauma to the limbs. During the last thirteen years, eight major ablative procedures were performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the University of Ioannina Medical School. Seven out of the eight procedures were performed in patients with primary malignant tumors either because the anatomical location or multiple recurrences of the tumor did not allow removal by wide local excision or by amputation at a lower level. In one patient, the procedure was related to a severe, mangling trauma. Four illustrative cases of the eight major ablative procedures performed are reported to highlight the current indications of this rarely used, complex, and extensive surgery. The characteristic cases presented are: hemipelvectomy in a patient with chondrosarcoma of the pelvis, disarticulation of the hip in a patient with a malignant histiocytoma of the supracondylar area of the knee, forequarter amputation in a patient with a basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, and disarticulation of the shoulder in a patient with an incomplete nonviable amputation at the level of the shoulder girdle associated with severe damage to the brachial plexus and axillary artery. After a five to over a ten year follow-up, six of the eight patients who where subjected to major ablative procedures are doing well and are satisfactorily active. These cases reflect the dilemma that orthopaedic surgeons geons still face in selecting limb salvage or major ablative surgery in cases of aggressive malignant tumors to severe trauma. PMID:8771355

  13. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors.

    PubMed

    Henning, Rebecca L Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  14. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors.

    PubMed

    Henning, Rebecca L Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  15. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  16. Major vascular injuries complicating knee arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancu, Serban; Muresan, Mircea; Sala, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Starting with a case report, we made a detailed review of the literature, with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the type of iatrogenic vascular lesion following knee arthroscopy and the method of vascular repair. A PubMed literature search was undertaken to locate all reported cases of major vascular iatrogenic injuries during arthroscopic knee procedures. We identified 39 papers which report a total of 62 cases of major iatrogenic popliteal lesions after knee arthroscopy, between 1985 and 2014. The type of arthroscopic intervention performed, the type of iatrogenic vascular lesion encountered, the time passed until its discovery and treatment, the method of vascular reconstruction, and the postoperative course are presented. Postarthroscopy vascular complications are infrequent but potentially disastrous for the condition of the affected inferior limb. An early diagnosis and reintervention are mandatory for a good postoperative outcome. PMID:26240627

  17. Physics for Occupational Therapy Majors Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Aurora, Tarlok

    1998-03-01

    In Spring 1996, a one semester course - "Survey of Physics" - was taught for students majoring in Occupational Therapy (O. T.), in contrast to the two semester physics sequence for all other health science majors. The course was designed to expose the students to the concept of physics, develop problem solving skills and to emphasize the importance of physics to O.T. In developing the course content, students' preparedness in mathematics and the perceived future applications of physics in O. T. was taken in to consideration, and steps were taken to remedy the deficiencies in students' background. The course was comprised of lecture, laboratory, and considerable self study due to the time constraints, and these will be described.

  18. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in major vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    So, V C; Poon, C C M

    2016-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in using intraoperative neuromonitoring to reduce the incidence of stroke and paralysis in major vascular interventions. Electroencephalography, various neurophysiological evoked potential measurements, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy are some of the modalities currently used to detect neural injuries. A good understanding of these modalities and their interactions with anaesthesia is important to maximize their value and to allow meaningful interpretation of their results. In view of the inter-individual differences in anatomy, physiological reserves, and severity of pathological processes, neuromonitoring may be a valuable method to evaluate the well-being of the nervous system during and after surgical interventions. In this review, we summarize some of their applications, efficacies, and drawbacks in major carotid and aortic surgeries. PMID:27566804

  19. Majorization entropic uncertainty relations for quantum operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-09-01

    Majorization uncertainty relations are derived for arbitrary quantum operations acting on a finite-dimensional space. The basic idea is to consider submatrices of block matrices comprised of the corresponding Kraus operators. This is an extension of the previous formulation, which deals with submatrices of a unitary matrix relating orthogonal bases in which measurements are performed. Two classes of majorization relations are considered: one related to the tensor product of probability vectors and another one related to their direct sum. We explicitly discuss an example of a pair of one-qubit operations, each of them represented by two Kraus operators. In the particular case of quantum maps describing orthogonal measurements the presented formulation reduces to earlier results derived for measurements in orthogonal bases. The presented approach allows us also to bound the entropy characterizing results of a single generalized measurement.

  20. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization for instance as a nucleus or nidus for the formation of the stone, or simply contaminate the stone structure. This review presents a comprehensive account of the basic principles of the basic data and the role of major and trace elements in lithogenesis. PMID:24578864

  1. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population.

  2. Controlling firms through the majority voting rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Ariane; Szafarz, Ariane

    2005-09-01

    Pyramids, cross-ownership, rings and other complex features inducing control tunnelling are frequent in the European and Asian industrial world. Based on the matrix methodology, this paper offers a model for measuring integrated ownership and threshold-based control, applicable to any group of interrelated firms. In line with the theory on pyramidal control, the model avoids the double counting problem and sets the full control threshold at the conservative-but incontestable-majority level of 50% of the voting shares. Any lower threshold leads to potential inconsistencies and leaves the observed high level of ownership of many dominant shareholders unexplained. Furthermore, the models leads to ultimate shareholders’ control ratios consistent with the majority voting rule. Finally, it is applied to the Frère Group, a large European pyramidal holding company known for mastering control leverages.

  3. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct.

  4. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  5. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010.

  6. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. PMID:26743401

  7. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  8. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  9. Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions show all are gradual save one, which is a catastrophic extinction of terrestrial origin. These extinctions show a continuum of environmental insults from major to minor. The major causes of these extinctions are positive and negative eustatic sea level changes, temperature, or ecological competition. Extraterrestrial causes should not be posited without positive association with a stratigraphically sharp extinction. The Cretaceous-Tertiary terrestrial extinction is considerably smaller in percentage of extinction than the marine extinction and is spread over 10 my of the Cretaceous and 1 my of the Tertiary. Sixty percent of the 30 dinosaurs in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada had become extinct in the 9 my before the late Maastrichtian sea level drop. The best data on the Permo-Triassic terrestrial extinction are from the Karoo basin of South Africa. This is a series of 6 extinctions in some 8 my, recorded in some 2800 meters of sediment. Precision of dating is enhanced by the high rate of accumulation of these sediments. Few data are readily available on the timing of the marine Permo-Triassic extinction, due to the very restricted number of sequences of Tatarian marine rocks. The terminal Ordovician extinction at 438 my is relatively rapid, taking place over about 0.5 my. The most significant aspect of this extinction is a eustatic sea level lowering associated with a major episode of glaciation. New data on this extinction is the reduction from 61 genera of trilobites in North America to 14, for a 77 percent extinction. Another Ordovician extinction present over 10 percent of the North American craton occurs at 454 my in the form of a catastrophic extinction due to a volcanic eruption which blanketed the U.S. east of the Transcontinental Arch. This is the only other sizeable extinction in the Ordovician.

  10. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed.

  11. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  12. Terminating major war in Europe. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.F.

    1989-11-17

    This essay addresses termination of major war in Europe, where potential escalation to use of nuclear weapon has become a conspicuous but necessary aspect of our strategy and structure. The author takes the war termination objective from its origins in the major European war context and develops the implied concepts, determinants of escalation, and elements of termination theory. He then examines the strategy and force structure of opposing sides in Europe to illuminate some of the key issues surrounding this often neglected but fundamental aspect of military strategy. He contends that, although termination is the only politically sensible objective in a major war between the superpowers, NATO's political organization and force structure do not currently provide the flexibility needed to effect termination decisions. Termination is the objective of choice for the United States and NATO, he concludes, but it may still be only a policy waiting for a corresponding strategy and structure. This document reviews the main points addressed in developing a termination theory and evaluating NATO strategy and structure from a U.S., Alliance and Soviet standpoint. It then describes the military implications arising from this evaluation, as well as military tasks corresponding to a viable termination strategy. Finally, it discusses a few issues that might concern military commanders because of the political and military requirements of termination.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  14. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  15. Comorbidity of Leishmania Major with Cutaneous Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Moravvej, Hamideh; Vesal, Parvaneh; Abolhasani, Ehsan; Nahidi, Shizar; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: leishmaniasis infection might manifest as sarcoidosis; on the other hand, some evidences propose an association between sarcoidosis and leishmaniasis. Most of the times, it is impossible to discriminate idiopathic sarcoidosis from leishmaniasis by conventional histopathologic exam. Aim: We performed a cross-sectional study to examine the association of sarcoidosis with leishmaniasis in histopathologically diagnosed sarcoidal granuloma biopsy samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: We examined paraffin-embedded skin biopsy samples obtained from patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis as naked sarcoidal granuloma, referred to Skin Research Center of Shaheed Beheshti Medical University from January 2001 to March 2010, in order to isolate Leishmania parasite. The samples were reassessed by an independent dermatopathologist. DNA extracted from all specimens was analyzed by the commercially available PCR kits (DNPTM Kit, CinnaGen, Tehran, Iran) to detect endemic Leishmania species, namely leishmania major (L. major). Results: L. major was positive in PCR of Eight out of twenty-five examined samples. Conclusion: Cutaneous leishmaniasis may be misinterpreted as sarcoidosis; in endemic areas, when conventional methods fail to detect Leishmania parasite, PCR should be utilized in any granulomatous skin disease compatible with sarcoidosis, regardless of the clinical presentation or histopathological interpretation. PMID:24891680

  16. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns.

  17. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  18. An Internet-based Expert System for Selecting an Academic Major: www.MyMajors.com.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based expert system found at http://www.MyMajors.com which provides advice to high school students or college freshmen who are seeking assistance in selecting a potential major by emulating a professional academic advisor. Highlights include computer-assisted advisement programs; knowledge acquisition; evaluating expert…

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alterations B Appendix B to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. B Appendix B to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations (a) Except as provided in paragraphs...

  20. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  1. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance A Appendix A to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... controllable pitch propellers. (xiii) Repairs to deep dents, cuts, scars, nicks, etc., and straightening...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance A Appendix A to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... controllable pitch propellers. (xiii) Repairs to deep dents, cuts, scars, nicks, etc., and straightening...

  3. 78 FR 58855 - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... destabilizing effects of increasing drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime... on Drugs and Crime estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25..., 2013 Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries...

  4. Variant and Invariant Predictors of Perceived Popularity across Majority-Black and Majority-White Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, E. B.; Blake, J. J.; Lease, A. M.; Palardy, G. J.; Olejnik, S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral descriptors were identified as variant or invariant predictors of perceived popularity in a sample of 516 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children located in 26 majority-Black or majority-White classrooms. Athletic ability, prosocial behavior, being "cool", social withdrawal, and "personal privilege" (i.e., having a lot of expensive…

  5. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  6. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts... in the engine specifications. (3) Propeller major alterations. The following alterations of a propeller when not authorized in the propeller specifications issued by the FAA are propeller...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts... in the engine specifications. (3) Propeller major alterations. The following alterations of a propeller when not authorized in the propeller specifications issued by the FAA are propeller...

  8. Student Perceptions of the First Course in Accounting: Majors versus Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickell, Geoffrey; Lim, Tiong Kiong; Balachandran, Balasinghan

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the continuing debate regarding the curriculum for the first undergraduate course in accounting by examining student perceptions from studying such a course. Participants are divided into two cohorts--Accounting & Finance Majors (AFM) and Other Business Majors (OBM). Results reported in this paper indicate that…

  9. Does the majority always know best? Young children's flexible trust in majority opinion.

    PubMed

    Einav, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Copying the majority is generally an adaptive social learning strategy but the majority does not always know best. Previous work has demonstrated young children's selective uptake of information from a consensus over a lone dissenter. The current study examined children's flexibility in following the majority: do they overextend their reliance on this heuristic to situations where the dissenting individual has privileged knowledge and should be trusted instead? Four- to six- year-olds (N = 103) heard conflicting claims about the identity of hidden drawings from a majority and a dissenter in two between-subject conditions: in one, the dissenter had privileged knowledge over the majority (he drew the pictures); in the other he did not (they were drawn by an absent third party). Overall, children were less likely to trust the majority in the Privileged Dissenter condition. Moreover, 5- and 6- year-olds made majority-based inferences when the dissenter had no privileged knowledge but systematically endorsed the dissenter when he drew the pictures. The current findings suggest that by 5 years, children are able to make an epistemic-based judgment to decide whether or not to follow the majority rather than automatically following the most common view. PMID:25116936

  10. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the first project year (July 1 through September 30, 2002). This work included producing general descriptions of Utah's major petroleum provinces, gathering field data, and analyzing best practices in the Utah Wyoming thrust belt. Major Utah oil reservoirs and/or source rocks are found in Devonian through Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary rocks. Stratigraphic traps include carbonate buildups and fluvial-deltaic pinchouts, and structural traps include basement-involved and detached faulted anticlines. Best practices used in Utah's oil fields consist of waterflood, carbon-dioxide flood, gas-injection, and horizontal drilling programs. Nitrogen injection and horizontal drilling

  11. Use of Amiodarone after Major Lung Resection

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mark F.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the association of respiratory complications and amiodarone use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after major lung resection. METHODS Outcomes of patients who had postoperative AF treated with or without amiodarone after lobectomy, bilobectomy, or pneumonectomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2010 were evaluated using multivariable logistic modeling. RESULTS Of 1412 patients who underwent lobectomy, bilobectomy, or pneumonectomy, AF occurred in 232 (16%). AF developed after a respiratory complication in 31 patients, who were excluded from subsequent analysis. The remaining 201 patients that had AF without an antecedent respiratory complication had similar mortality (3.0% [6/201] versus 2.5% [30 /1180], p=0.6) and respiratory morbidity (10% [20/201] versus 9% [101/1180], p=0.5) but longer hospital stays (5 [4,7] versus 4 days [3,6], p<0.0001) compared to the 1180 patients that did not have AF. Amiodarone was used in 101 (50%) of these 201 patients, including 5 patients who had a pneumonectomy. Age, pulmonary function, and operative resection were similar between the patients treated with/without amiodarone. Amiodarone use was not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of subsequent respiratory complications [12% (12/101 amiodarone patients) versus 8% (8/100 non-amiodarone patients), p=0.5)]. CONCLUSIONS AF that occurs without an antecedent respiratory complication in patients after major lung resection results in longer hospital stay but not increased mortality or respiratory morbidity. Using amiodarone to treat atrial fibrillation after major lung resection is not associated with an increased incidence of respiratory complications. PMID:25106684

  12. Parvalbumin--the major tropical fish allergen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dawn Li-Chern; Neo, Keng Hwee; Yi, Fong Cheng; Chua, Kaw Yan; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Giam, Yoke Chin; Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah

    2008-08-01

    Fish allergy is common in countries where consumption is high. Asian nations are amongst the world's largest consumers of fish but the allergen profiles of tropical fish are unknown. This study sought to evaluate the allergenicity of four commonly consumed tropical fish, the threadfin (Polynemus indicus), Indian anchovy (Stolephorus indicus), pomfret (Pampus chinensis) and tengirri (Scomberomorus guttatus). Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity with parvalbumin of cod fish (Gad c 1), the major fish allergen, was also studied. Detection of tropical fish and cod specific-IgE was performed by UniCap assay, and skin prick tests were also carried out. The IgE-binding components of tropical fish were identified using IgE immunoblot techniques, and cross-reactivity with Gad c 1 was assessed by ELISA inhibition and IgE immunoblot inhibition. Clinically, nine of 10 patients studied were allergic to multiple fish. All patients exhibited detectable specific-IgE to cod fish (10 of 10 skin prick test positive, eight of 10 UniCap assay positive) despite lack of previous exposure. The major allergen of the four tropical fish was the 12-kDa parvalbumin. IgE cross-reactivity of these allergens to Gad c 1 was observed to be moderate to high in the tropical fish studied. Parvalbumins are the major allergens in commonly consumed tropical fish. They are cross-reactive with each other as well as with Gad c 1. Commercial tests for cod fish appear to be sufficient for the detection of tropical fish specific-IgE.

  13. Introducing Stereochemistry to Non-science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luján-Upton, Hannia

    2001-04-01

    Stereochemistry is often a difficult topic for both science and non-science majors to learn. The topics covered in most undergraduate textbooks, although fundamental, seem very abstract to most students. This manuscript describes two simple exercises that can be used to introduce concepts associated with stereochemistry such as "sameness", superimposability, chirality, enantiomers, optical activity, polarimetry, and racemic mixtures. One exercise compares chirality in hands with the achiral nature of two textbooks. The other exercise involves a murder mystery, the solution of which hinges upon understanding the concept of optical activity, specifically in natural products such as toxins from poisonous mushrooms.

  14. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video.

    PubMed

    Ordas Bayon, Alejandro; Sandoval, Enrique; Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  15. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  16. Major Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The studies listed below represent the first major clinical trials to evaluate risk reduction for people at high risk of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian, cervical, and lung cancer. Analysis of the data gathered from these large trials continues to contribute valuable understanding about related issues, including screening, patient-reported symptoms, quality of life, nutrient impact, population/ethnicity differences, study design and implementation, and many others.  | Information on landmark clinical trials that evaluated cancer prevention interventions and cancer screening tests.

  17. Desvenlafaxine succinate for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Sproule, Beth A; Hazra, Monica; Pollock, Bruce G

    2008-07-01

    Desvenlafaxine (O-desmethylvenlafaxine) is the major active metabolite of venlafaxine. Desvenlafaxine succinate is now undergoing active evaluation for its therapeutic efficacy in a variety of disorders, including major depressive disorder, vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy. Desvenlafaxine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) with similar activity to its parent compound venlafaxine, and little affinity for other brain targets, including muscarinic, cholinergic, histamine H(1) and alpha-adrenergic receptors. Desvenlafaxine has linear pharmacokinetics, low protein binding, a half-life of approximately 10 hours and is metabolized primarily via glucuronidation, and to a minor extent through CYP3A4. The desvenlafaxine succinate formulation appears to have good oral bioavailability. Clearance rates are reduced in the elderly, those with severe renal dysfunction and those with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction, which may require dosage adjustments. Three published clinical trials have shown supportive but mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder with daily doses ranging from 100 mg to 400 mg. One published clinical trial has shown mixed results for the efficacy of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause with daily doses ranging from 50 mg to 200 mg. In these four clinical trials, desvenlafaxine was associated with several mild adverse effects, with the most common effect being nausea. Less common, but more serious, adverse effects reported in these trials included hypertension, QTc interval prolongation, exacerbation of ischemic cardiac disease, elevated lipids and elevated liver enzymes. The exact nature of these serious adverse effects, including the prevalence, clinical significance and potential risk factors, still needs to be fully elucidated. Desvenlafaxine has a low propensity for pharmacokinetic

  18. Providing a cure for beta thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Chan, L L; Lin, H P; Ariffn, W A; Ariffin, H

    2001-12-01

    The current treatment options for beta thalassaemia major patients include conservative treatment with blood cell transfusions and iron chelation or stem cell transplantation. Regular blood transfusions inevitably lead to multi-organ haemosiderosis and are attended by risks of blood-borne infections. Results from stem cell transplantation are good and suggest that this should be offered as first line therapy when a matched sibling donor is available because the patient is often cured and able to live a normal life. Of 38 Malaysian children who underwent bone marrow or cord blood transplantations using matched sibling donors, 29 (76%) are now cured.

  19. Emerging antidepressants to treat major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Block, Samantha G; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Depression is a common disorder with an annual risk of a depressive episode in the United States of 6.6%. Only 30-40% of patients remit with antidepressant monotherapy, leaving 60-70% of patients who do not optimally respond to therapy. Unremitted depressive patients are at increased risk for suicide. Considering the prevalence of treatment resistant depression and its consequences, treatment optimization is imperative. This review summarizes the latest treatment modalities for major depressive disorder including pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and psychotherapy. Through advancements in research to better understand the pathophysiology of depression, advances in treatment will be realized.

  20. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  1. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  2. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident.

  3. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents–MRMI course

    PubMed Central

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise („learning by doing„). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  4. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and preplanned for the Skylab mission was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Tools and spares were provided accordingly. However, failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs included the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment, and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The repairs were conducted both inside the spacecraft and during extravehicular activities. Some of the repair tasks required team effort on the part of the crewmen including close procedural coordination between internal and extravehicular crewmen. The Skylab experience indicates that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools. Design of future spacecraft systems should acknowledge this capability and provide for more extensive in-flight repair and maintenance.

  5. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection. PMID:15601592

  6. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients.

  7. MOST SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES ARE MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.; Tacconi, L. J.; Davies, R. I.; Genzel, R.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Smail, I.; Chapman, S. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Omont, A.

    2010-11-20

    We analyze subarcsecond resolution interferometric CO line data for 12 submillimeter-luminous (S{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} {>=} 5 mJy) galaxies with redshifts between 1 and 3, presenting new data for 4 of them. Morphologically and kinematically, most of the 12 systems appear to be major mergers. Five of them are well-resolved binary systems, and seven are compact or poorly resolved. Of the four binary systems for which mass measurements for both separate components can be made, all have mass ratios of 1:3 or closer. Furthermore, comparison of the ratio of compact to binary systems with that observed in local ULIRGs indicates that at least a significant fraction of the compact submillimeter-luminous galaxies (SMGs) must also be late-stage mergers. In addition, the dynamical and gas masses we derive are most consistent with the lower end of the range of stellar masses published for these systems, favoring cosmological models in which SMGs result from mergers. These results all point to the same conclusion that most of the bright SMGs with L{sub IR} {approx}> 5 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun} are likely major mergers.

  8. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  9. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  10. Disability days in major league baseball.

    PubMed

    Conte, S; Requa, R K; Garrick, J G

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the injury experience in Major League Baseball as reflected by the disabled list, based on data presented by American Specialty Companies in their publications, to examine any changes in injury rates over the past 11 years. It is reasonable to expect that improvements in training and conditioning, diagnostic methods, and surgical treatment over the last 11 years would have reduced injuries and resulted in fewer players on the disabled list. Yet, such does not appear to be the case. There is no evidence that the number of injuries in Major League Baseball has declined over the last decade; on the contrary, it appears that both the number of players and player days on the disabled list have increased. Team membership, injury location, and position do not appear to be related to the increase. Nor does it appear that the increase in injuries is a result of more sensitive diagnostic tests allowing the diagnoses of previously unrecognized injuries. Whatever the reason, it is significant that publicly available data, when viewed over an 11-year period, reveal a gradual and consistent increase in reported injuries--suggesting a problem that deserves attention.

  11. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Ted R.; Brady, Seán G.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved ≈50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently (≈8–12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems. PMID:18362345

  12. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia in major mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Darko, D F; Rose, J; Gillin, J C; Golshan, S; Baird, S M

    1988-09-01

    Alterations in peripheral blood leukocyte distribution in major depression, including lymphopenia, neutrophilia, eosinopenia, and monocytopenia, have been described. The present study was designed to replicate these results, but with methodological improvements, including age-, sex-, and race-matched control subjects; DSM-III and Research Diagnostic Criteria diagnoses based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia interview; objective and subjective severity of depression measured quantitatively; and consideration of psychosocial stressors (DSM-III, Axis IV). We found relative lymphopenia and absolute neutrophilia and leukocytosis in depression, but did not find decreased numbers of eosinophils or monocytes. The relative lymphopenia and absolute neutrophilia were present in the subgroup of only unipolar depressed patients, but not in the bipolar, currently depressed subgroup. However, these blood cell changes were not found in a subgroup of patients who had been medication free greater than or equal to 1 month but only in the subgroup of patients using medication at the time of phlebotomy. Groups formed on the basis of psychosocial stress levels were not found to have significant significant intergroup differences in white blood cell (WBC) counts. The clinical significance of these findings needs study. While leukocytosis and neutrophilia can be found in major depression, these changes are perhaps secondary to medication use.

  13. Major and minor salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Guzzo, Marco; Locati, Laura D; Prott, Franz J; Gatta, Gemma; McGurk, Mark; Licitra, Lisa

    2010-05-01

    Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare. The most common tumor site is the parotid. Aetiologic factors are not clear. Nutrition may be a risk factor, as well as irradiation or a long-standing histologically benign tumor that occurs at youth. Painless swelling of a salivary gland should always be considered as suspicious, especially if no sign of inflammation is present. Signs and symptoms related to major salivary gland tumors differ from those concerning minor salivary gland tumors, as they depend on the different location of the salivary gland. Surgical excision represents the standard option in the treatment of resectable tumors of both major and minor salivary glands. Neutron, heavy ions or proton radiotherapy may be a treatment option for inoperable locoregional disease. Surgery, irradiation or re-irradiation are treatment options for local relapse, whereas radical neck dissection is indicated for regional relapses. Metastatic disease may be either treated with radiotherapy or palliative chemotherapy, depending on the site of metastases. For highly selected patients the employment of anti-androgen therapy is indicated.

  14. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-04-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the second quarter of the first project year (October 1 through December 31, 2002). This work included (1) gathering field and pipeline data to produce a digital oil and gas field and pipeline map, and (2) Uinta Basin well database compilation. The oil and gas field map will help to delineate the various oil plays to be described later in the project. The map will also identify CO{sub 2} resources, and will be useful in the planning and economic evaluation of best practices using CO{sub 2} to flood mature oil reservoirs. The play descriptions will be enhanced with the updated oil and gas pipeline map. It can be used to plan economic evaluation of exploration activities and field development, particularly if H

  15. Some mechanistic requirements for major transitions.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-08-19

    Major transitions in nature and human society are accompanied by a substantial change towards higher complexity in the core of the evolving system. New features are established, novel hierarchies emerge, new regulatory mechanisms are required and so on. An obvious way to achieve higher complexity is integration of autonomous elements into new organized systems whereby the previously independent units give up their autonomy at least in part. In this contribution, we reconsider the more than 40 years old hypercycle model and analyse it by the tools of stochastic chemical kinetics. An open system is implemented in the form of a flow reactor. The formation of new dynamically organized units through integration of competitors is identified with transcritical bifurcations. In the stochastic model, the fully organized state is quasi-stationary whereas the unorganized state corresponds to a population with natural selection. The stability of the organized state depends strongly on the number of individual subspecies, n, that have to be integrated: two and three classes of individuals, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], readily form quasi-stationary states. The four-membered deterministic dynamical system, [Formula: see text], is stable but in the stochastic approach self-enhancing fluctuations drive it into extinction. In systems with five and more classes of individuals, [Formula: see text], the state of cooperation is unstable and the solutions of the deterministic ODEs exhibit large amplitude oscillations. In the stochastic system self-enhancing fluctuations lead to extinction as observed with [Formula: see text] Interestingly, cooperative systems in nature are commonly two-membered as shown by numerous examples of binary symbiosis. A few cases of symbiosis of three partners, called three-way symbiosis, have been found and were analysed within the past decade. Four-way symbiosis is rather rare but was reported to occur in fungus-growing ants. The model

  16. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Roger L. Bon

    2003-07-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall

  17. Mars at Ls 193o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 April 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 193o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 193o occurred in mid-April 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern summer.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  18. Mars at Ls 230o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 June 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 230o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 230o occurs in mid-June 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  19. Mars at Ls 176o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 March 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 176o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 176o occurs in mid-March 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer

  20. Mars at Ls 211o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    17 May 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 211o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 211o occurs in mid-May 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  1. Major element composition of stratospheric micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, L. S.; Brownlee, D. E.; Wheelock, M. M.

    1989-06-01

    Results are presented on an element-composition study conducted on 200 interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected with NASA's U2 and RB 47 aircraft at altitudes near 20 km. These IDPs could be classified into two major morphological types, i.e., the 'porous' and the 'smooth' particle types, which showed significant compositional differences. Namely, elemental abundances found in porous particles are closely matching those of the CI chondrites, while the smooth particle group displayed systematic Ca and Mg depletions and contained stoichiometric 'excess' oxygen, consistent with the presence of hydrous phases. This fact, together with the occurrence of carbonates, magnetite framboids, and layer silicates, provides evidence that at least a significant number of the smooth-type IDPs were processed by aqueous activity. It is hypothesized that extensive aqueous activity only occurs in asteroids (as opposed to comets) and that the smooth class of IDPs is of an asteroidal origin.

  2. Mars at Ls 249o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    19 July 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 249o during a previous Mars year.

    This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 249o occurs in mid-July 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  3. Relationship between major histocompatibility antigens and disease

    PubMed Central

    Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Histocompatibility antigens, virus infections, and disease are discussed relative to avenues of research in humans with arenavirus infections. The data implicating a relationship between histocompatibility complexes in man and animals and diseases of the central nervous system are reviewed. Histocompatibility antigens may share common antigenic determinants with viruses, act as receptor sites for attachment of viruses, and be altered by viruses. In addition, genes regulating immune responses to a variety of natural and synthetic antigens are linked, in many species, to the major histocompatibility complex. Since injury associated with virus infections may be largely due to the activity of the immune system, study of immune response genes may provide insight into understanding resistance to disease. Further, histoincompatibility reactions can activate latent viruses with resultant disease. PMID:60183

  4. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil-P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  5. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop

  6. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered.

  7. Erythema Multiforme Major Following Treatment with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Dean; Boritz, Eli; Cowen, Edward W.; Brown, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The growth in the use of anti-TNF-α agents for treatment of inflammatory conditions has led to increased recognition of the side effects associated with this class of drugs. Case Description We report a case of a patient who developed erythema multiforme (EM) major with characteristic oral and cutaneous lesions following treatment with the anti-TNF-α medication infliximab therapy for Crohn’s Disease (CD). Clinical Implications To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of infliximab-induced EM secondary to the treatment of CD. It is important for dental clinicians evaluating patients using anti-TNF-α agents to be aware of this possible complication. PMID:23036796

  8. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  9. Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-03-26

    We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records. PMID:21436819

  10. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  11. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  12. Craniofacial manifestations of β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Javid, Bahram; Said-Al-Naief, Nasser

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are by far the most common genetic diseases, affecting millions worldwide with a prevalence for natives of Iran, Southeast Asia, and the Caspian Sea, as part of the so-called Thalassemia Belt, and an overall incidence ranging approximately from 3 to 100 patients per 100,000 population. β-Thalassemia major is of particular significance, providing bad outcomes despite aggressive therapeutic approaches. We report a case of β-thalassemia in a 5-year-old Persian boy who presented with classical diagnostic features of the disease and who did not survive despite an aggressive management approach. A review of the clinical, radiographic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics as well as diagnostic tests of this disease is also presented. The multifactorial challenges that face clinicians in the management of this serious disease are also reviewed.

  13. Tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A new tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts in the past millennium that may have contributed to the decline of some pre-Hispanic civilizations. Although there is other evidence of droughts during the past millennium, the paleoclimate record had gaps. Stahle et al. used core samples from Montezuma bald cypress trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Querétaro, Mexico, to develop a 1238-year tree ring chronology. They reconstructed the soil moisture record from the tree ring growth patterns. The new record provides the first dated, annually resolved climate record for Mexico and Central America spanning this time period.(Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046472, 2011)

  14. Zebrafish models of major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fonseka, Trehani M; Wen, Xiao-Yan; Foster, Jane A; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a model species for translational research in various neuroscience areas, including depressive disorders. Because of their physiological (neuroanatomical, neuroendocrine, neurochemical) and genetic homology to mammals, robust phenotypes, and value in high-throughput genetic and chemical genetic screens, zebrafish are ideal for developing valid experimental models of major depression and discovering novel therapeutics. Behavioral testing approaches, such as approach-avoidance, cognitive, and social paradigms, are available in zebrafish and have utility in identifying depression-like indices in zebrafish in response to physiological, genetic, environmental, and/or psychopharmacological alterations. In addition, the high sensitivity of zebrafish to commonly prescribed psychotropic drugs supports the use of this model as an invaluable tool for pharmacological research and drug screening. This Review outlines the benefits of using the zebrafish model for depression studies and summarizes the current research in this field.

  15. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  16. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual’s decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual’s local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the “majority illusion,” leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  17. Mars at Ls 341o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    20 December 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 341o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 341o occurs in mid-December 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Southern Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  18. Mars at Ls 39o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 April 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 39o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 39o occurs in mid-April 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  19. Mars at Ls 107o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    19 September 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 107o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 107o occurs in mid-September 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  20. Mars at Ls 25o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 March 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 25o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 25o occurs in mid-March 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring

  1. Mars at Ls 306o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 October 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 306o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 306o occurs in mid-October 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  2. Mars at Ls 79o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    18 July 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 79o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 79o occurs in mid-July 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  3. Mars at Ls 324o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 November 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 324o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 324o occurs in mid-November 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  4. Mars at Ls 66o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    20 June 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 66o during a previous Mars year This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 66o occurs in mid-June 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  5. Mars at Ls 357o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    17 January 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 357o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 357o occurs in mid-January 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  6. Mars at Ls 93o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 August 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 93o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 93o occurs in mid-August 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Summer/Southern Winter

  7. Mars at Ls 288o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    21 September 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 288o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 288o occurred in mid-September 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, are a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  8. Mars at Ls 269o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 August 2005 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 269o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 269o occurs in mid-August 2005. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: last days of Northern Autumn/Southern Spring

  9. Mars at Ls 53o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    16 May 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 53o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 53o occurs in mid-May 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Spring/Southern Autumn

  10. Mars at Ls 12o: Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 February 2006 This picture is a composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) daily global images acquired at Ls 12o during a previous Mars year. This month, Mars looks similar, as Ls 12o occurs in mid-February 2006. The picture shows the Syrtis Major face of Mars. Over the course of the month, additional faces of Mars as it appears at this time of year are being posted for MOC Picture of the Day. Ls, solar longitude, is a measure of the time of year on Mars. Mars travels 360o around the Sun in 1 Mars year. The year begins at Ls 0o, the start of northern spring and southern autumn.

    Season: Northern Winter/Southern Summer

  11. A capstone research experience for physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, David

    2013-03-01

    Dickinson College is a small liberal arts college with a thriving physics program. For years, one of the key features of our program has been a year-long senior research project that was required for each student. Unfortunately, as our number of majors increased, it became more and more difficult to supervise such a large number of senior research projects. To deal with this growing challenge, we developed a capstone research experience that involves a larger number of students working together on an independent group project. In this talk I will give a broad overview of our new senior research model and provide a few examples of projects that have been carried out over the past few years. I will also briefly describe the positive and negative aspects of this model from the perspective of faculty and students.

  12. [Glutamate transporter dysfunction and major mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in most aspects of normal brain function. In spite of its importance as a neurotransmitter, excess glutamate is toxic to neurons. Clearance of extracellular glutamate is critical for maintenance of low extracellular glutamate concentration, and occurs in large part through the activity of GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), which are primarily expressed by astrocytes. Rare variants and down-regulation of GLT1 and GLAST, in psychiatric disorders have been reported. In this review, we demonstrate that various kinds of GLT1 and/or GLAST knockout mice replicate many aspects of the behavioral abnormalities seen in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorders, autism, epilepsy and addiction. PMID:26793898

  13. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  14. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  15. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  16. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  17. Tumors of the major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, E M; Friedman, M; Becker, S; Sisson, G A; Keyes, G A

    1977-06-01

    Tumors of the major salivary glands are reviewed according to classification, location, surgical procedure and end results. Our data of the incidence of benign and malignant tumors show that the most commonly involved area is the parotid gland and the most frequent is of the mixed variety. In the parotid region 80 percent are benign and 20 percent are malignant; whereas, in the submandibular gland, the malignant and benign tumors are equally distributed. The need for an extensive surgical attack and inclusion of contiguous structure is dictated by the nature of the malignant disease. The role of postoperative irradiation is discussed as is the indication for neck dissection. Management of the facial nerve, relative to malignant tumors of the parotid gland, is considered in detail.

  18. The major histocompatibility complex of primates.

    PubMed

    Heise, E R; Cook, D J; Schepart, B S; Manning, C H; McMahan, M R; Chedid, M; Keever, C A

    1987-08-31

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes cell surface glycoproteins that function in self-nonself recognition and in allograft rejection. Among primates, the MHC has been well defined only in the human; in the chimpanzee and in two species of macaque monkeys the MHC is less well characterized. Serologic, biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that the basic organization of the MHC linkage group has been phylogenetically conserved. However, the number of genes and their linear relationship on the chromosomes differ between species. Class I MHC loci encode molecules that are the most polymorphic genes known. These molecules are ubiquitous in their tissue distribution and typically are recognized together with nominal antigens by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Class II MHC loci constitute a smaller family of serotypes serving as restricting elements for regulatory T lymphocytes. The distribution of class II antigens is limited mainly to cell types serving immune functions, and their expression is subject to up and down modulation. Class III loci code for components C2, C4 and Factor B (Bf) of the complement system. Interspecies differences in the extent of polymorphism occur, but the significance of this finding in relation to fitness and natural selection is unclear. Detailed information on the structure and regulation of MHC gene expression will be required to understand fully the biologic role of the MHC and the evolutionary relationships between species. Meanwhile, MHC testing has numerous applications to biomedical research, especially in preclinical tissue and organ transplantation studies, the study of disease mechanisms, parentage determination and breeding colony management. In this review, the current status of MHC definition in nonhuman primates will be summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the CyLA system of M. fascicularis which is a major focus in our laboratory. A highly polymorphic cynomolgus MHC has been partially characterized and consists

  19. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed

  20. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the

  1. The College Board Guide to 150 Popular College Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This guide to college major fields of study informs users about the array of undergraduate majors and common features of those majors. Following a discussion of how to use the book and essays by actual college students on how they chose a major, the guide describes 151 majors grouped in the following 17 categories: agriculture; architecture and…

  2. MAJOR PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey

    2003-11-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land-use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the second project year (July 1 through September 30, 2003). This work included (1) describing the Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play, subplays, and outcrop reservoir analogs of the Uinta Green River Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (Eocene Green River Formation), and (2) technology transfer activities. The Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit can be divided into plays having a dominantly southern sediment source (Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play) and plays having a dominantly northern sediment source (Conventional Northern Uinta Basin Play). The Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play is divided into six subplays: (1) conventional Uteland Butte interval, (2) conventional

  3. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a total of 414 non-TIVA general anesthetics. Some patients had more than one operation during the study: as appropriate for the analysis in question, each operation or each patient was entered as an individual case. For inter-patient analysis, exposure to 1 or more TIVAs was used to categorize a patient as member of the TIVA group. Results: Excision and grafting comprised 78.2% of the operations. 14 TIVA regimens were used, employing combinations of 4 i.v. drugs: ketamine (K, 91 cases); i.v. methadone (M, 62); fentanyl (F, 58); and propofol (P, 21). The most common regimens were KM (34 cases); KF (26); KMF (16); and K alone (8). Doses used often exceeded those used in non-burn patients. TIVA was preferred for those patients who were more critically ill prior to surgery, with a higher ASA score (3.87 vs. 3.11). Consistent with this, inhalation injury (26.7 vs. 1.6%), burn size (TBSA, 36.3 vs. 15.8%), and full-thickness burn size (FULL, 19.8 vs. 6.5%) were higher in TIVA than in non-TIVA patients. Despite this, intraoperative pressor use was as common in TIVA as in non-TIVA cases (23.9 vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: TIVA was used in patients whose inhalation injury rate and TBSA were greater than those of non-TIVA patients. TIVA cases were not associated with increased hemodynamic instability. TIVA is a viable approach to general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. PMID:23638329

  4. Contraction of online response to major events.

    PubMed

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499

  5. Statistical insights into major human muscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shakti; Kim, Sung-Min; Wang, Yu; Dinasarapu, Ashok Reddy; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2014-07-15

    Muscular diseases lead to muscle fiber degeneration, impairment of mobility, and in some cases premature death. Many of these muscular diseases are largely idiopathic. The goal of this study was to identify biomarkers based on their functional role and possible mechanisms of pathogenesis, specific to individual muscular disease. We analyzed the muscle transcriptome from five major muscular diseases: acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) using pairwise statistical comparison to identify uniquely regulated genes in each muscular disease. The genome-wide information encoded in the transcriptome provided biomarkers and functional insights into dysregulation in each muscular disease. The analysis showed that the dysregulation of genes in forward membrane pathway, responsible for transmitting action potential from neural excitation, is unique to AQM, while the dysregulation of myofibril genes, determinant of the mechanical properties of muscle, is unique to ALS, dysregulation of ER protein processing, responsible for correct protein folding, is unique to DM, and upregulation of immune response genes is unique to PM. We have identified biomarkers specific to each muscular disease which can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  6. Deep brain stimulation for major depression.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, T E; Bewernick, B H

    2013-01-01

    A third of patients suffering from major depression cannot be helped by conventional treatment methods. These patients face reduced quality of life, high risk of suicide, and little hope of recovery. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under scientific evaluation as a new treatment option for these treatment-resistant patients. First clinical studies with small samples have been stimulated at the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Cg25/24), the anterior limb of the capsula interna (ALIC), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Long-term antidepressant effects, augmentation of social functioning, and normalization of brain metabolism have been shown in about 50% of patients. Cognitive safety regarding attention, learning, and memory has been reported. Adverse events were wound infection, suicide, and hypomania, amongst others. Larger studies are under way to confirm these preliminary encouraging results. New hypothesis-guided targets (e.g., medial forebrain bundle, habenula) are about to be assessed in clinical trials. The application of DBS for other psychiatric diseases (e.g., bipolar disorder, alcohol dependency, opioid addiction, schizophrenia) is debated and single case studies are under way. Standards are needed for study registration, target selection, patient inclusion and monitoring, and publication of results to guarantee safety for the patients and scientific exchange.

  7. Major hazards—Thinking the unthinkable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Stuart; Tromp, Fred; Lam, Alain

    1992-11-01

    It is a common experience that public administrations tend to shy away from the explicit acknowledgment of quantitative risk levels. Faced with extreme concentrations of population and of industrial activities, including LPG and liquid chlorine storage, within a very small land area, Hong Kong has faced up to the issue of major man-made hazards by “thinking the unthinkable” and adopting explicit risk guidelines. This article describes how these guidelines were developed and the arguments that led to their adoption. It is emphasized that the risk guidelines are not rigid standards but simply a method of focusing decision making and ensuring that any decision to contravene the guidelines is taken at an appropriately senior level in the administration. The way in which the guidelines have been incorporated intimately into the planning and decision-making process is described and details are given on how this has led to the implementation of a variety of measures that have greatly reduced both societal and individual risk from certain types of chemical storage and chemical processing installations in Hong Kong.

  8. Glutamate Metabolism in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Chadi G.; Jiang, Lihong; De Feyter, Henk M.; Fasula, Madonna; Krystal, John H.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Mason, Graeme F.; Sanacora, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests abnormalities in amino acid neurotransmitter function and impaired energy metabolism contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). To test whether impairments in energetics and glutamate neurotransmitter cycling are present in MDD we used in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C MRS) to measure these fluxes in individuals diagnosed with MDD relative to non-depressed subjects. Method 1H MRS and 13C MRS data were collected on 23 medication-free MDD and 17 healthy subjects. 1H MRS provided total glutamate and GABA concentrations, and 13C MRS, coupled with intravenous infusion of [1-13C]-glucose, provided measures of the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle (VTCAN) for mitochondrial energy production, GABA synthesis, and glutamate/glutamine cycling, from voxels placed in the occipital cortex. Results Our main finding was that mitochondrial energy production of glutamatergic neurons was reduced by 26% in MDD subjects (t = 2.57, p = 0.01). Paradoxically we found no difference in the rate of glutamate/glutamine cycle (Vcycle). We also found a significant correlation between glutamate concentrations and Vcycle considering the total sample. Conclusions We interpret the reduction in mitochondrial energy production as being due to either mitochondrial dysfunction or a reduction in proper neuronal input or synaptic strength. Future MRS studies could help distinguish these possibilities. PMID:25073688

  9. Geant4 - Towards major release 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmo, G.; Geant4 Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Geant4 simulation toolkit has reached maturity in the middle of the previous decade, providing a wide variety of established features coherently aggregated in a software product, which has become the standard for detector simulation in HEP and is used in a variety of other application domains. We review the most recent capabilities introduced in the kernel, highlighting those, which are being prepared for the next major release (version 10.0) that is scheduled for the end of 2013. A significant new feature contained in this release will be the integration of multi-threading processing, aiming at targeting efficient use of modern many-cores system architectures and minimization of the memory footprint for exploiting event-level parallelism. We discuss its design features and impact on the existing API and user-interface of Geant4. Revisions are made to balance the need for preserving backwards compatibility and to consolidate and improve the interfaces; taking into account requirements from the multithreaded extensions and from the evolution of the data processing models of the LHC experiments.

  10. Immunoenhancing properties of Plantago major leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Flores, R; Calderon, C L; Scheibel, L W; Tamez-Guerra, P; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Weber, R J

    2000-12-01

    Plantago major (PM), also known as plantain, is a weed found in temperate zones worldwide. PM leaves have been associated with various biological properties ranging from antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumour to wound healing. However, its mechanism of action associated with boosting of the immune function remains to be elucidated. We found that endotoxin-free methanol extracts from PM leaves, at doses of 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg/mL, were associated with 4.4 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 12 +/- 0.4, and 18 +/- 0.4-fold increases of nitric oxide (NO) production, and increased TNF-alpha production (621 +/- 31, 721 +/- 36, 727 +/- 36, and 1056 +/- 52 U/mL, respectively) by rat peritoneal macrophages, in the absence of IFN-gamma or LPS. NO and TNF-alpha production by untreated macrophages was negligible. In addition, PM extracts potentiated Con A-induced lymphoproliferation (3- to 12-fold increases) in a dose-dependent fashion, compared with the effect of Con A alone. The regulation of immune parameters induced by plant extracts may be clinically relevant in numerous diseases including chronic viral infections, tuberculosis, AIDS and cancer.

  11. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  12. Obtaining parotid saliva specimens after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at 4 time points on postoperative day 2. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch, and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by collection time in minutes. Attrition was 9% due to ineligibility after enrollment and 1 withdrawal. In participating patients (n = 68), there were 272 tests planned and 28% were missing. The reasons were postoperative health problems, hospital discharge, and not wanting to be bothered. When saliva collection attempts were made, three-fourths were successful, but the remainder resulted in "dry mouth." Milliliters, minutes, and flow rate were calculated with and without those with dry mouth. Mean flow rates were 0.23 to 0.33 ml/min excluding those with dry mouth and 0.17 to 0.24 ml/min including those with dry mouth. Saliva variables were correlated with antihypertension medications, opioids, opioid side effects, and length of surgery, but statistically significant correlations were not found consistently at all 4 time points. The findings suggest that nurse-researchers studying biological markers can successfully collect saliva from postoperative patients if they recognize the difficulties and make efforts to minimize and control for them.

  13. Contraction of Online Response to Major Events

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation—the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499

  14. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor. PMID:9311151

  15. Biomass Burning: Major Uncertainties, Advances, and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokelson, R. J.; Stockwell, C.; Veres, P. R.; Hatch, L. E.; Barsanti, K. C.; Liu, X.; Huey, L. G.; Ryerson, T. B.; Dibb, J. E.; Wisthaler, A.; Müller, M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Toon, O. B.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    Domestic and open biomass burning are poorly-understood, major influences on Earth's atmosphere composed of countless individual fires that (along with their products) are difficult to quantify spatially and temporally. Each fire is a minimally-controlled complex phenomenon producing a diverse suite of gases and aerosols that experience many different atmospheric processing scenarios. New lab, airborne, and space-based observations along with model and algorithm development are significantly improving our knowledge of biomass burning. Several campaigns provided new detailed emissions profiles for previously undersampled fire types; including wildfires, cooking fires, peat fires, and agricultural burning; which may increase in importance with climate change and rising population. Multiple campaigns have better characterized black and brown carbon and used new instruments such as high resolution PTR-TOF-MS and 2D-GC/TOF-MS to improve quantification of semi-volatile precursors to aerosol and ozone. The aerosol evolution and formation of PAN and ozone, within hours after emission, have now been measured extensively. The NASA DC-8 sampled smoke before and after cloud-processing in two campaigns. The DC-8 performed continuous intensive sampling of a wildfire plume from the source in California to Canada probing multi-day aerosol and trace gas aging. Night-time plume chemistry has now been measured in detail. Fire inventories are being compared and improved, as is modeling of mass transfer between phases and sub-grid photochemistry for global models.

  16. Two Components in Major Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Cane, H. V.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of 29 intense, solar particle events observed in the energy range 25-100 MeV/nuc near Earth in the years 1997 through 2001. It is found that the majority of the events (19/29) had Fe to O ratios which were reasonably constant with time and energy, and with values above coronal. These all originated on the Sun s western hemisphere and most had intensities that rose rapidly at the time of an associated flare, and coronal mass ejection (CME), and then decayed more gradually. Few interplanetary shocks were observed during these increases. The spectra were mainly power laws. The remaining 10 events had different intensity-time profiles and Fe to O ratios that varied with time and energy with values at or below coronal. Most of these originated near central meridian and 6 had strong interplanetary shocks that were observed near Earth. In general the spectra were not power laws but steepened at high energies, particularly for Fe. There were four events with two peaks in the intensity-time profiles, the first near the time of the associated flare and the other at shock passage. The results, considered in the light of other recent work, suggest that the high energy particles that occur shortly after flares are indeed flare particles. At the highest rigidities considered here shock-accelerated particles are uncommon and are observed only in association with unusually fast shocks.

  17. Hippocampal neuroplasticity in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Malykhin, N V; Coupland, N J

    2015-11-19

    One of the most replicated findings has been that hippocampus volume is decreased in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that localized differences in hippocampal volume may be more prominent than global differences. Preclinical and post-mortem studies in MDD indicated that different subfields of the hippocampus may respond differently to stress and may also have differential levels of plasticity in response to antidepressant treatment. Advances in high-field MRI allowed researchers to visualize and measure hippocampal subfield volumes in MDD patients in vivo. The results of these studies provide the first in vivo evidence that hippocampal volume reductions in MDD are specific to the cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus hippocampal subfields, findings that appear, on the surface, consistent with preclinical evidence for localized mechanisms of hippocampal neuroplasticity. In this review we discuss how recent advances in neuroimaging allow researchers to further understand hippocampal neuroplasticity in MDD and how it is related to antidepressant treatment, memory function, and disease progression.

  18. Catalytic Majorization and ell_p Norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrun, Guillaume; Nechita, Ion

    2008-02-01

    An important problem in quantum information theory is the mathematical characterization of the phenomenon of quantum catalysis: when can the surrounding entanglement be used to perform transformations of a jointly held quantum state under LOCC (local operations and classical communication)? Mathematically, the question amounts to describe, for a fixed vector y, the set T( y) of vectors x such that we have x ⊗ z prec y ⊗ z for some z, where prec denotes the standard majorization relation. Our main result is that the closure of T(y) in the ell_1 norm can be fully described by inequalities on the ell_p norms: ||x||_p ≤ ||y||_p for all p ≥ 1. This is a first step towards a complete description of T( y) itself. It can also be seen as a ell_p -norm analogue of the Ky Fan dominance theorem about unitarily invariant norms. The proof exploits links with another quantum phenomenon: the possibiliy of multiple-copy transformations (x^{⊗ n} prec y^{⊗ n} for given n). The main new tool is a variant of Cramér’s theorem on large deviations for sums of i.i.d. random variables.

  19. Major Extremity Injuries Associated with Farmyard Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Copuroglu, Cem; Heybeli, Nurettin; Ozcan, Mert; Yilmaz, Baris; Ciftdemir, Mert; Copuroglu, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study is to analyze the major agricultural injuries related to the extremities. Patients. We evaluated a 3-year period including 41 patients. Data on age, sex, injury patterns, anatomical localizations, injury season, length of stay in the hospital, and infections were evaluated, and the patients were examined with SF-36 in the follow-up period. Results. Hand was the most commonly injured part (n: 9) followed by the distal part of the lower limb (cruris) (n: 7) and foot (n: 7). Mean time between trauma and emergency-department arrival was 115 minutes (60–360). Mean length of stay was 24 days (4–150), and mean number of operations during hospitalization was 2.4 (1–30). Deep wound infection was seen in 8 patients. Seasonal distribution for accidents was even for spring and fall (27% each), high for summer (36%), and less for winter (10%). Conclusions. Distal parts of the elbow and knee were affected more frequently. Due to the high microbiological load and high incidence of crush-type injuries, repetitive debridements and long duration of hospital stay were needed. Attention should be paid in the harvesting times to the farmyard injuries. Due to the seasonal variation, more resources should be allocated to treat the increasing incidence of injury over the period from spring to fall. PMID:23002385

  20. Principles of major geomagnetic storms forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagnetko, Alexander; Applbaum, David; Dorman, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zukerman, Igor

    According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider all types of observed precursor effects in CR what can be used for forecasting of great geomagnetic storms and possible mechanisms of these precursor effects origin. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their pre-diction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).

  1. Major crustal fractures in the Baltic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuominen, H. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Black and white prints and transparencies of images 1039-09315, 1039-09322, and 1040-09371 with all bands of MSS have been used for the analyses. Bands 4 and 5 reveal the major urban areas, agricultural and timbering areas, highways as well as airfields, and an open pit mine. Even the border between Norway and Finland is clearly visible. Lakes, rivers, and wet swamps were best discerned on IR bands 6 and 7. Block fields formed by frost action are best seen on bands 4 and 5. The ancient shoreline on image 1039-09322 is seen as a narrow block field on bands 4 and 5. The effects of the Quaternary ice sheet on the morphography can be seen quite well in the images. The peat bogs are best seen in band 5, but can also be traced in bands 6 and 7. Eskers, glaciofluvial deposits, and deltas are distinguishable in bands 4 and 5, but can be traced in places also in the IR bands. Fluvial deposits are seen in the image 1039-09322 in the valleys of the Tornio and Kemi Rivers. They are easily discerned in bands 4 and 5, evidently because of the cultivated fields and pasture lands. Bands 4, 5, and 6 of image 1039-09315 reveal parts of eskers and glaciofluvial deltas which are affected by eolian activity. It seems evident that ERTS-1 imagery will be a great help in mapping Quaternary features.

  2. Major NLTE Corrections to HST Boron Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Douglas

    1995-07-01

    A theoretical study of NLTE effects in the analysis of HST boron observations indicates that all currently-reported abundances are wrong by factors of 2.5-4X. (A systematic effect much larger than any measurement error). If true, this would force major changes in the modelling of Be and B abundances as products of cosmic ray spallation plus direct production by supernovae in the early galaxy. It would help explain why no simple model of galactic chemical evolution can yet explain the evolution of the light elements Li, Be, and B at the same time as the evolution of heavier elements such as Fe and O. We can test the NLTE prediction by observing the BII line at 1362 Angstrom in the star Procyon, whose BI abundance has been extremely well determined from two groups previous HST observations of the BI 2500Angstrom line. (The repaired GHRS opens the possibility of observing the BII line). Our calculations (see figures) demonstrate we should easily see if large amounts of B are being "hidden" (from BI observations) by being in the form of BII. We will use the star Sirius as a reference for differential analysis. BII was observed in Vega and Sirius by the Copernicus satellite 20 years ago, and our re-analysis of this data (see figure) shows we have an excellent chance of success in the present proposal.

  3. Immunoenhancing properties of Plantago major leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Flores, R; Calderon, C L; Scheibel, L W; Tamez-Guerra, P; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, R; Weber, R J

    2000-12-01

    Plantago major (PM), also known as plantain, is a weed found in temperate zones worldwide. PM leaves have been associated with various biological properties ranging from antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antitumour to wound healing. However, its mechanism of action associated with boosting of the immune function remains to be elucidated. We found that endotoxin-free methanol extracts from PM leaves, at doses of 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg/mL, were associated with 4.4 +/- 1, 6 +/- 1, 12 +/- 0.4, and 18 +/- 0.4-fold increases of nitric oxide (NO) production, and increased TNF-alpha production (621 +/- 31, 721 +/- 36, 727 +/- 36, and 1056 +/- 52 U/mL, respectively) by rat peritoneal macrophages, in the absence of IFN-gamma or LPS. NO and TNF-alpha production by untreated macrophages was negligible. In addition, PM extracts potentiated Con A-induced lymphoproliferation (3- to 12-fold increases) in a dose-dependent fashion, compared with the effect of Con A alone. The regulation of immune parameters induced by plant extracts may be clinically relevant in numerous diseases including chronic viral infections, tuberculosis, AIDS and cancer. PMID:11113999

  4. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  5. Major technological advances and trends in cheese.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2006-04-01

    Over the last 25 yr, cheese production in the United States has more than doubled with most of the increase due to production in the western states. Processing large volumes of milk into cheese has necessitated changes in vat size and design, reliance on computer software, and milk standardization, including use of membrane concentration of milk either at the cheese plant or on the farm. There has been increased interest in specialty cheeses including cheese made from sheep, goat, and organic milks. In addition, membrane processing of whey into various value-added components has become routine. Changes in cheese manufacturing protocols have resulted in a reduction of the manufacturing time and the necessity for consistent and reliable starter activity. Major advances in the genetics of microorganisms have not only resulted in widespread use of fermentation-produced chymosin but also in starter bacteria with improved resistance to bacteriophage infection. Genomics and proteomics have increased the likelihood of the development of nonstarter adjuncts with specific enzymatic activity. Indeed, the use of adjunct microorganisms to produce cheese with a unique flavor profile or to produce cheese with more consistent or better quality flavor has gained almost universal acceptance.

  6. Contraction of online response to major events.

    PubMed

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  7. Does Major Illness Cause Financial Catastrophe?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Keziah; Dranove, David; Sfekas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examine the financial impact of major illnesses on the near-elderly and how this impact is affected by health insurance. Data Sources We use RAND Corporation extracts from the Health and Retirement Study from 1992 to 2006.1 Study Design Our dependent variable is the change in household assets, excluding the value of the primary home. We use triple difference median regressions on a sample of newly ill/uninsured near elderly (under age 65) matched to newly ill/insured near elderly. We also include a matched control group of households whose members are not ill. Results Controlling for the effects of insurance status and illness, we find that the median household with a newly ill, uninsured individual suffers a statistically significant decline in household assets of between 30 and 50 percent relative to households with matched insured individuals. Newly ill, insured individuals do not experience a decline in wealth. Conclusions Newly ill/uninsured households appear to be one illness away from financial catastrophe. Newly ill insured households who are matched to uninsured households appear to be protected against financial loss, at least in the near term. PMID:19840132

  8. Environmental influences on major waterfowl diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decline of North American waterfowl resources since the 1960s is well-known to this audience and need not be detailed to establish that population numbers for several key waterfowl species are at or near their lowest levels since records have been kept. Loss of habitat is an accepted major cause for the decline of waterfowl numbers and the wildlife conservation community is responding with initiatives to prevent further loss of existing wetland acreage, restoration for degraded wetlands and creation of new wetlands. Numerous joint ventures focusing on key waterfowl habitat requirements are being developed under the North American Waterfowl Plan. The importance of habitat loss also is reflected in many of the presentations at this conference on wetland conservation, including one special session devoted solely to that topic. A basic premise of the focus on wetlands is that restoration of waterfowl populations is habitat dependent. This is a tenable thesis if other factors suppressing waterfowl numbers are dealt with and the habitat base being enhanced sustains waterfowl rather than contributes to their death. My presentation addresses disease as a factor suppressing waterfowl numbers and the relation of habitat quantity and quality with waterfowl disease.

  9. Epidemiology of child psychopathology: major milestones.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2015-06-01

    Child psychiatric epidemiology has developed rapidly from descriptive, cross-sectional studies in the 1960s to the current large-scale prospective cohorts that unravel aetiological mechanisms. The objective of the study was to give an overview of epidemiological studies that have influenced child psychiatry. A chronological overview of selected major milestone studies was obtained to demonstrate the development of child psychiatric epidemiology, with a more in-depth discussion of findings and methodological issues exemplified in one cohort, the Generation R Study. Epidemiological studies have been successful in describing the frequency and course of child psychiatric problems. The high expectations that biological factors can be used to better explain, diagnose or predict child psychiatric problems have not been met. More ambitious large-scale child psychiatric cohort studies are needed, carefully applying genetics, neuroscience or other molecular research to better understand how the brain produces maladaptive behaviour. Progress will only be attained if the basic sciences are systematically integrated in cohorts with rigorous epidemiological designs rather than hurriedly inserted in child psychiatric studies.

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  11. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing and approving Financial Plans. The proposed Major Project Financial Plan Guidance incorporates changes...

  12. Serum proteomic profiling of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bot, M; Chan, M K; Jansen, R; Lamers, F; Vogelzangs, N; Steiner, J; Leweke, F M; Rothermundt, M; Cooper, J; Bahn, S; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-01-01

    Much has still to be learned about the molecular mechanisms of depression. This study aims to gain insight into contributing mechanisms by identifying serum proteins related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in a large psychiatric cohort study. Our sample consisted of 1589 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, comprising 687 individuals with current MDD (cMDD), 482 individuals with remitted MDD (rMDD) and 420 controls. We studied the relationship between MDD status and the levels of 171 serum proteins detected on a multi-analyte profiling platform using adjusted linear regression models. Pooled analyses of two independent validation cohorts (totaling 78 MDD cases and 156 controls) was carried out to validate our top markers. Twenty-eight analytes differed significantly between cMDD cases and controls (P<0.05), whereas 10 partly overlapping markers differed significantly between rMDD cases and controls. Antidepressant medication use and comorbid anxiety status did not substantially impact on these findings. Sixteen of the cMDD-related markers had been assayed in the pooled validation cohorts, of which seven were associated with MDD. The analytes prominently associated with cMDD related to diverse cell communication and signal transduction processes (pancreatic polypeptide, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, ENRAGE, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tenascin-C), immune response (growth-regulated alpha protein) and protein metabolism (von Willebrand factor). Several proteins were implicated in depression. Changes were more prominent in cMDD, suggesting that molecular alterations in serum are associated with acute depression symptomatology. These findings may help to establish serum-based biomarkers of depression and could improve our understanding of its pathophysiology. PMID:26171980

  13. Polygenic dissection of major depression clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Milaneschi, Y; Lamers, F; Peyrot, W J; Abdellaoui, A; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Jansen, R; Mbarek, H; Dehghan, A; Lu, C; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) are largely unknown. Limited success of previous genetics studies may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the polygenic features of MDD and two common clinical subtypes (typical and atypical) defined by symptom profiles in a large sample of adults with established diagnoses. Data were from 1530 patients of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and 1700 controls mainly from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Diagnoses of MDD and its subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Genetic overlap of MDD and subtypes with psychiatric (MDD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) and metabolic (body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, triglycerides) traits was evaluated via genomic profile risk scores (GPRS) generated from meta-analysis results of large international consortia. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of MDD and subtypes was also estimated. MDD was associated with psychiatric GPRS, while no association was found for GPRS of metabolic traits. MDD subtypes had differential polygenic signatures: typical was strongly associated with schizophrenia GPRS (odds ratio (OR)=1.54, P=7.8e-9), while atypical was additionally associated with BMI (OR=1.29, P=2.7e-4) and triglycerides (OR=1.21, P=0.006) GPRS. Similar results were found when only the highly discriminatory symptoms of appetite/weight were used to define subtypes. SNP-heritability was 32% for MDD, 38% and 43% for subtypes with, respectively, decreased (typical) and increased (atypical) appetite/weight. In conclusion, MDD subtypes are characterized by partially distinct polygenic liabilities and may represent more homogeneous phenotypes. Disentangling MDD heterogeneity may help the psychiatric field moving forward in the search for molecular roots of depression.

  14. Polygenic dissection of major depression clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Milaneschi, Y; Lamers, F; Peyrot, W J; Abdellaoui, A; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Jansen, R; Mbarek, H; Dehghan, A; Lu, C; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) are largely unknown. Limited success of previous genetics studies may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the polygenic features of MDD and two common clinical subtypes (typical and atypical) defined by symptom profiles in a large sample of adults with established diagnoses. Data were from 1530 patients of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and 1700 controls mainly from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Diagnoses of MDD and its subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Genetic overlap of MDD and subtypes with psychiatric (MDD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) and metabolic (body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, triglycerides) traits was evaluated via genomic profile risk scores (GPRS) generated from meta-analysis results of large international consortia. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of MDD and subtypes was also estimated. MDD was associated with psychiatric GPRS, while no association was found for GPRS of metabolic traits. MDD subtypes had differential polygenic signatures: typical was strongly associated with schizophrenia GPRS (odds ratio (OR)=1.54, P=7.8e-9), while atypical was additionally associated with BMI (OR=1.29, P=2.7e-4) and triglycerides (OR=1.21, P=0.006) GPRS. Similar results were found when only the highly discriminatory symptoms of appetite/weight were used to define subtypes. SNP-heritability was 32% for MDD, 38% and 43% for subtypes with, respectively, decreased (typical) and increased (atypical) appetite/weight. In conclusion, MDD subtypes are characterized by partially distinct polygenic liabilities and may represent more homogeneous phenotypes. Disentangling MDD heterogeneity may help the psychiatric field moving forward in the search for molecular roots of depression. PMID:26122587

  15. Does escitalopram reduce neurotoxicity in major depression?

    PubMed

    Halaris, Angelos; Myint, Aye-Mu; Savant, Vidushi; Meresh, Edwin; Lim, Edwin; Guillemin, Gilles; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Sinacore, James

    2015-01-01

    A pro-inflammatory state and a dysregulation in the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway have been documented in depression. This study examined whether treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram (ESC), could suppress inflammation and favorably shift metabolites of the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) within the utilized treatment period. Twenty seven healthy control subjects were included for comparison. Thirty patients were enrolled after completing baseline assessments. They received a 12-week ESC monotherapy. Twenty subjects were completers. Clinical assessments were carried out at each visit using the HAM-D, HAM-A, CGI and BDI rating scales. Blood samples were collected at each assessment and stored until analyzed. Cytokines were analyzed with Randox multiplex assay and tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites were analyzed using HPLC/GCMS. Baseline plasma concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα, IL6 and MCP-1 were significantly higher in patients compared to healthy controls. IL10 trended toward an increase. Baseline plasma IL1β correlated significantly with IL1α, and IL4. Patients showed significant improvement in all outcome measures with a high remission rate. Significant correlations were obtained between specific symptoms and certain biomarkers at baseline but these correlations must be viewed as very preliminary. During ESC treatment concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers did not change except for TNFα that trended lower. Metabolites and ratios of the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway showed reductions of the neurotoxic metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenine, quinolinic acid/tryptophan, kynurenic acid/quinolinic acid and quinolinic acid/3-hydroxykynurenine. The results indicate that ESC may exert its antidepressant effect in part through inhibition of synthesis of certain neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites and possibly also through reduction of the inflammatory response, although there was no

  16. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in minor and major surgery.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, M; Righi, E; Astilean, A; Corcione, S; Petrolo, A; Farina, E C; De Rosa, F G

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Gram-positive cocci, particularly staphylococci, cause many of these infections, although Gram-negative organisms are also frequently involved. The risk of developing a SSI is associated with a number of factors, including aspects of the operative procedure itself, such as wound classification, and patient-related variables, such as preexisting medical conditions. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs, especially if patient-related risk factors for SSIs are present. The main components of antimicrobial prophylaxis are: timing, selection of drugs and patients, duration and costs. Compliance with these generally accepted preventive principles may lead to overall decreases in the incidence of these infections. Ideally the administration of the prophylactic agent should start within 30 minutes from the surgical incision. The duration of the AP should not exceed 24 hours for the majority of surgical procedures. The shortest effective period of prophylactic antimicrobial administration is not known and studies have demonstrated that post-surgical antibiotic administration is unnecessary. Furthermore, there were no proven benefits in multiple dose regimens when compared to single-dose regimens. The choice of an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial agent should be based primarily on efficacy and safety. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided due to the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis; specifically, cefazolin or cefuroxime are mainly used in the prophylaxis regimens for cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, hip or knee arthroplasty surgery, neurosurgical procedures and gynecologic and obstetric procedures. A review of the prophylactic regimens regarding the main surgical procedures is presented.

  17. Reproductive failure and the major histocompatibility complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, K.; Gill, T.J. III; Ho, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    The association between HLA sharing and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was tested in 123 couples and the association between HLA sharing, and the outcome of treatment for unexplained infertility by in vitro fertilization (IVF) was tested in 76 couples, by using a new shared-allele test in order to identify more precisely the region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influencing these reproductive defects. The shared-allele test circumvents the problem of rare alleles at HLA loci and at the same time provides a substantial gain in power over the simple {chi}{sup 2} test. Two statistical methods, a corrected homogeneity test and a bootstrap approach, were developed to compare the allele frequencies at each of the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ loci; they were not statistically different amount the three patient groups and the control group. There was a significant excess of HLA-DR sharing in couples with RSA and a significant excess of HLA-DQ sharing in couples with unexplained infertility who failed treatment by IVF. These findings indicate that genes located in different parts of the class II region of the MHC affect different aspects of reproduction and strongly suggest that the sharing of HLA antigens per se is not the mechanism involved in the reproductive defects. The segment of the MHC that has genes affecting reproduction also has genes associated with different autoimmune diseases, and this juxtaposition may explain the association between reproductive defects and autoimmune diseases. 58 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  18. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  19. Berkeley's Advanced Labs for Undergraduate Astronomy Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiles, C.

    1998-12-01

    We currently offer three advanced laboratory courses for undergraduate majors: optical, IR, and radio. These courses contain both intellectual and practical content; in this talk we focus on the radio lab as a representative example. The first half of the semester concentrates on fundamentals of microwave electronics and radio astronomy techniques in four formal laboratory exercises which emphasize hands-on use of microwave devices, laboratory instruments, and computer-controlled data taking. The second half of the course emphasizes astronomy, using a horn with ~ 1 m(2) aperture to map the HI in the Galaxy and a two-element interferometer composed of ~ 1 m diameter dishes on a ~ 10 m baseline to measure accurate positions of radio sources and accurate diameters for the Sun and Moon. These experiments and observations offer ideal opportunities for teaching coordinates, time, rotation matrices, data reduction techniques, least squares, signal processing, image processing, Fourier transforms, and laboratory and astronomical instrumentation. The students can't get along without using computers as actually used by astronomers. We stay away from packaged software such as IRAF, which are ``black boxes''; rather, students learn far more by writing their own software, usually for the first time. They use the IDL language to take and reduce data and prepare them for the lab reports. We insist on quality reports---including tables, postscript graphs and images, correct grammar, spelling, and all the rest---and we strongly urge (successfully!) the students to use LATEX. The other two lab courses have the same emphasis: the guiding spirit is to place the students in a real-life research-like situation. There is too much to do, so students perform the work in small groups of 3 or 4 and groups are encouraged to share their knowledge. Lab reports are written individually. These courses are very demanding, requiring an average of 20 hours per week from the students (and probably

  20. A major upgrade of the VALD database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Kurucz, R. L.; Stempels, H. C.; Heiter, U.; Pakhomov, Yu; Barklem, P. S.

    2015-05-01

    Vienna atomic line database (VALD) is a collection of critically evaluated laboratory parameters for individual atomic transitions, complemented by theoretical calculations. VALD is actively used by astronomers for stellar spectroscopic studies—model atmosphere calculations, atmospheric parameter determinations, abundance analysis etc. The two first VALD releases contained parameters for atomic transitions only. In a major upgrade of VALD—VALD3, publically available from spring 2014, atomic data was complemented with parameters of molecular lines. The diatomic molecules C2, CH, CN, CO, OH, MgH, SiH, TiO are now included. For each transition VALD provides species name, wavelength, energy, quantum number J and Landé-factor of the lower and upper levels, radiative, Stark and van der Waals damping factors and a full description of electronic configurarion and term information of both levels. Compared to the previous versions we have revised and verify all of the existing data and added new measurements and calculations for transitions in the range between 20 Å and 200 microns. All transitions were complemented with term designations in a consistent way and electron configurations when available. All data were checked for consistency: listed wavelength versus Ritz, selection rules etc. A new bibliographic system keeps track of literature references for each parameter in a given transition throughout the merging process so that every selected data entry can be traced to the original source. The query language and the extraction tools can now handle various units, vacuum and air wavelengths. In the upgrade process we had an intensive interaction with data producers, which was very helpful for improving the quality of the VALD content.

  1. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  2. The Discouraged-Business-Major Hypothesis Revisited: Could Economics Be the Encouraged-Business-Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarta, Carlos J.; Butters, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    The term "Discouraged-Business-Major" (DBM) describes students who become discouraged with the rigorous standards of colleges of business and migrate to colleges of arts and sciences to complete a degree in economics under relaxed requirements (Salemi and Eubanks 1996). Following Salemi and Eubanks, the present authors examine a decade of…

  3. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... States and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) estimate that cultivation in Helmand... objectives are achieved through U.S. support for Mexico's drug control policies and programs under the Merida... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Presidential Determination on Major Illicit...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approved model to another, involving any changes in compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller... of using fuel of a rating or grade other than that listed in the engine specifications. (3) Propeller major alterations. The following alterations of a propeller when not authorized in the...

  5. Choice of College Major: An Exploration of Appalachian Female Choice of an Early Childhood Education Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannoe, Lisa N.

    2013-01-01

    First generation Appalachian female students are exposed to gender differences in roles and career choices that are modeled in the family. A case study approach was used to obtain qualitative data from five students at Eastern Kentucky University and their mothers regarding why these students chose to major in child development and early childhood…

  6. The topographic signature of a Major Typhoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Ming; Lin, Ching-Weei; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot, characterized by a cumulative rainfall up to 3000 mm in about three days, triggered thousands of landslides and debris flows in Taiwan. The availability of detailed LiDAR surveys before and after the event offers a great opportunity to deeply investigate the topographic signatures of a major Thyphoon, thus providing a way to better understand the Earth Surface Processes and the landscape evolution in a region affected by these phenomena and where the uplift rate is significant. We considered six small catchments, located in the Central Taiwan, affected during the Typhoon Morakot by a different degree of slope failures (totally affected by shallow and deep-seated landslides, and not affected by any erosion). For each of these catchment high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) was derived by LiDAR data, before and after the Thypoon. The scaling regimes of local slope (S) versus drainage area (A) in a loglog diagram served as the basis upon which recognize topographic signatures. The results suggested that for the catchments affected by landslides it is possible to recognize in the third SA scaling regime a characteristic signature of the SA relation: the topographic gradient of the relation tends to vary a little (or slightly increase) increasing the drainage areas. According to literature (Stock and Dietrich, 2003; Tarolli et al., 2009) this behavior of the relation is due to channels incised by landslides and debris flows. Differently, for the catchments without slope failures this signature is not present. These results are interesting because they offer a real example of landscape evolution under rainfall forcing, demonstrating that a Maior Typhoon may significantly affect, in a short time, the SA scaling regimes. The possibility to obtain these information, immediately after an intense event, really represent a strategic tool for a first quantification of the processes that affected and significantly changed the earth surface

  7. Big, Dark Dunes Northeast of Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Big sand dunes! Mars is home to some very large, windblown dunes. The dunes shown here rise to almost 100 meters (275 feet) at their crests. Unlike dunes on Earth, the larger dunes of Mars are composed of dark, rather than light grains. This is probably related to the composition of the sand, since different materials will have different brightnesses. For example, beaches on the island of Oahu in Hawaii are light colored because they consist of ground-up particles of seashells, while beaches in the southern shores of the island of Hawaii (the 'Big Island' in the Hawaiian island chain) are dark because they consist of sand derived from dark lava rock.

    The dunes in this picture taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are located on the floor of an old, 72 km-(45 mi)-diameter crater located northeast of Syrtis Major. The sand is being blown from the upper right toward the lower left. The surface that the dunes have been travelling across is pitted and cratered. The substrate is also hard and bright--i.e., it is composed of a material of different composition than the sand in the dunes. The dark streaks on the dune surfaces area puzzle...at first glance one might conclude they are the result of holiday visitors with off-road vehicles. However, the streaks more likely result from passing dust devils or wind gusts that disturb the sand surface just enough to leave a streak. The image shown here covers an area approximately 2.6 km (1.6 mi) wide, and is illuminated from the lower right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  8. Teleneonatology: a major tool for the future.

    PubMed

    Minton, Stephen; Allan, Mark; Valdes, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Hospitals have, for centuries, maintained a central position in the health care system, providing care for critically ill patients. Despite being a cornerstone of health care delivery, we are witnessing the beginning of a major transformation in their function. There are several forces driving this transformation, including health care costs, shortage of health care professionals, volume of people with chronic diseases, consumerism, health care reform, and hospital errors. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah, began an aggressive redesign/quality improvement effort in 1990. It became obvious that our care processes were designed for health care deliverers and not for the families. An ongoing revamp of our care delivery processes was undertaken using significant input from a parent focus meeting, parental interviews, and development of a parent-to-parent support group. As a result of this work, it became obvious we needed a new model to truly empower parents. The idea of "NICU is Home" was born. We elected to make a mind shift, not to focus on what families think, but rather on how they think. Web cams and other video apparatus have been used in a number of NICUs across the country. We decided our equipment requirements would need to include high-resolution cameras, full high-definition video recording, autofocus, audio microphones, automatic noise reduction, and automatic low-light correction. Our conferencing software needed to accommodate multiple users and have multiple-picture capabilities, low band width, and inexpensive technology. It was recognized that a single video camera feed was insufficient to adequately capture the desired amount of information. Verbal communication between parents and their babies' principal care providers is critical. Parents loved the idea of expanding the remote NICU web cam of their baby to a two-way physician-parent communication bedside monitor. Doctors at Utah Valley

  9. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  10. Major intrinsic proteins in biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes define the structural and functional boundaries in living cells and their organelles. The integrity of the cell depends on its ability to separate inside from outside and yet at the same time allow massive transport of matter in and out the cell. Nature has elegantly met this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting-the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 10(9) molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other permeants such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and the metalloids antimonite, arsenite, silicic and boric acid depending on the effective restriction mechanism of the protein. The flux properties of MIPs thus lead to the question ifMIPs can be used in separation devices or as sensor devices based on, e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport

  11. Chemical composition of major ions in rainwater.

    PubMed

    Salve, P R; Maurya, A; Wate, S R; Devotta, Sukumar

    2008-03-01

    The present study investigated the chemical composition of rainwater at Kabir nagar, Nari, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The rainwater samples were collected on event basis during June-July-August-2006 and were analyzed for pH, major anions Cl, NO(3), SO(4)) and cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH4). The pH value varied from 6.0 to 7.3 (avg. 6.3 +/- 0.3) indicating alkaline nature of rainwater. The pH of the rainwater was found well above the reference pH (5.6), showing alkalinity during the monsoon season. The average and standard deviation of ionic composition was found to be 98.1 +/- 10.6 micro eql(-1). The total anions contribute 45.1% and cations 54.9%, respectively to rainwater. Neutralization factors (NF) followed a sequence of NF(Ca) > NF(Mg) > NF(NH4) with factors of 1.1, 0.38 and 0.15 indicating the crustal components are responsible for neutralization of anions. The average ratio of (NO(3) + Cl)/SO(4) observed as 1.1 indicates that nitric and hydrochloric acid influences the acidity of rainwater. The ratio of NH(4)/NO(3) and NH(4)/SO(4) was observed as 0.68 and 0.34 indicate that the possible compounds which may predominate in the atmosphere are NH(4)NO(3) and (NH(4))(2)SO(4). Ionic correlation was established to identify sources of origin. A good correlation was seen between Ca and Mg (r = 0.95); suggesting the common occurrence of these ions from crustal origin. Similarly, the acidic ions SO(4) and NO(3) correlated well (r = 0.60) indicating their origin from similar sources. Other relatively significant correlations were observed between Ca and SO4 (r = 0.92), Mg and SO(4) (r = 0.83), Ca and NO(3) (r = 0.09), Ca and Cl (r = 0.34) and Mg and Cl (r = 0.31), and Mg and NO(3) (r = 0.71). The observed rainwater ratio of Cl/Na (1.1) is closer to that of seawater ratio (1.16) indicates fractionation of sea-salt and modifications by non-marine constituents as the site is 834 km away from the sea coast. The nss-Ca contribution was observed as 95.7% suggesting their

  12. Major Conference about Astronomical Technology in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Press Conference on Monday, March 27, 2000 Which are the latest astronomical discoveries made with the new 8-10 metre class astronomical telescopes? Will it be possible to construct even more powerful instruments on the ground and in space to explore the near and distant Universe at all wavelengths from gamma-rays to radio waves? Which research areas in this dynamical science are likely to achieve break-throughs with emerging new technologies? These are some of the central themes that will be discussed by more than 600 specialists from all over the world at an international conference in Munich (Germany), "Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments 2000" , beginning on Monday, March 27, 2000. During five days, the modern architecture of the new International Congress Center in the Bavarian capital will be the scene of lively exchanges about recent progress at the world's top-class astronomical research facilities and the presentation of inspired new ideas about future technological opportunities. The conference will be accompanied by numerous on-site exhibition stands by the major industries and research organisations in this wide field. This meeting is the latest in a series, organised every second year, alternatively in the USA and Europe by the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) , this year with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) as co-sponsor and host institution. The conference will be opened in the morning of March 27 by the Bavarian Minister of Science, Research and Arts, Hans Zehetmair . His address will be followed by keynote speeches by Massimo Tarenghi (European Southern Observatory), James B. Breckenridge (National Science Foundation, USA), Harvey Butcher (Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy) and Albrecht Ruediger (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany). The conference is subtitled "Power Telescopes and Instrumentation into the New Millennium" and will be attended by leading scientists and engineers from all

  13. Absolutism versus Relativism: Philosophies of Education and Business Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deering, Thomas S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Results of the administration of Forsyth's Ethics Position Questionnaire to 20 student teachers, 20 experienced teachers, and 24 business majors were as follows: education majors and teachers were more idealistic and less relativistic than business majors; business majors showed significant disparity among themselves. Implications for the…

  14. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  15. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration... Procedures § 21.289 Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration. For types covered by a delegation option authorization, a manufacturer may— (a) After finding that a major repair or major alteration meets...

  16. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry.

  17. Lexical Collocations and Their Impact on the Online Writing of Taiwanese College English Majors and Non-English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jeng-yih

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English lexical collocations and their relation to the online writing of Taiwanese college English majors and non-English majors. Data for the study were collected from 41 English majors and 21 non-English majors at a national university of science and technology in southern Taiwan. Each student was asked…

  18. Ursa Major: ot losya do medvedya %t Ursa Major: from elk to bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikova, A. V.

    In the article material from various cultural and linguistic sources (Indo-European - Slavic, Indo-Iranian; Uralo-Altaic, Tungus, Ancient Egyptian, Babylonian) is used in order to trace up the chronology of the designation of Ursa Majopr, a constellation which has been playing an important role for people different regions since ancient times. It was used for observing of the visible yearly motion of the Sun, for working out seasonal changes; being a circumpolar and non-hiding behind the horizon it has been perceived as a symbol of immortality, its peculiar positional change during a year lay down in plot of the Uralo-Siberian myths about a cosmic hunt for the Elk, myths about deluge. Data from Uralo-Siberian mythology are analyzed. Designations of Ursa Major in the form of a horned hoofed animal such as elk, deer, cow (Uralo-Altaic, Tungus, Slavic, Indo-Iranian languages; Ancient Greece, Crete, Ancient Egypt) and connected with it (or derived from it) denominations and images of "enclosed space" - "vehicle for travelling and carrying goods" (a wagon, a boat) - "instrument for hunting-fishing, a ritual thing" - "household construction" are taken in consideration. The conclusion is made that the transition of the Ursa Major designation from elk to bear could follow the general tendency to shift from so-called matriarchy to patriarchy, to substitute female deities with male ones, which was reflected "in the rise" of the predatory animal cults (not earlier than II mil. B.C.). To prove this, lexical examples of resemblance and coincidences in designation of homed hoofed (elk, deer) and predatory (bear, wolf) animals should be analyzed. Such a goal-directed investigation of the chronology of Ursa Major designations has never been carried out.

  19. Increasing Underrepresented Student Participation in Science Majors: The Pre-Major in Astronomy Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggard, Daryl

    2006-12-01

    The University of Washington's Pre-Major in Astronomy Program (Pre-MAP) is designed to increase the number of highly qualified students graduating with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degrees. Pre-MAP recruits underrepresented first-year students into a special seminar where the students learn research techniques and apply them to research projects conducted in small groups. Pre-MAP students also receive one-on-one mentoring from Pre-MAP graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and faculty. The Pre-MAP seminar gives students skills that make them more attractive to U.W. faculty as research assistants, and also strengthens their candidacies as they apply for outside research programs (such as REUs) and later to graduate programs or for STEM jobs. Pre-MAP also provides an invaluable training experience for the graduate teaching assistant who leads the research seminar. This graduate student develops curricula, presents difficult concepts in the classroom, and trains students to conduct research, and thus will leave the U.W. with exceptional teaching skills and experience working with underrepresented students. By introducing undergraduate students to scientific research at the beginning of their college careers, and by providing them with academic advising and mentorship, Pre-MAP gives underrepresented students the tools and confidence they need to make the transition between entering college and declaring a STEM major. Pre-MAP is made possible in part by a two-year grant from the University of Washington's Diversity Appraisal Implementation Fund.

  20. Subcortical volumes differentiate Major Depressive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and remitted Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sacchet, Matthew D; Livermore, Emily E; Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Glover, Gary H; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-09-01

    Subcortical gray matter regions have been implicated in mood disorders, including Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). It is unclear, however, whether or how these regions differ among mood disorders and whether such abnormalities are state- or trait-like. In this study, we examined differences in subcortical gray matter volumes among euthymic BD, MDD, remitted MDD (RMD), and healthy (CTL) individuals. Using automated gray matter segmentation of T1-weighted MRI images, we estimated volumes of 16 major subcortical gray matter structures in 40 BD, 57 MDD, 35 RMD, and 61 CTL individuals. We used multivariate analysis of variance to examine group differences in these structures, and support vector machines (SVMs) to assess individual-by-individual classification. Analyses yielded significant group differences for caudate (p = 0.029) and ventral diencephalon (VD) volumes (p = 0.003). For the caudate, both the BD (p = 0.004) and the MDD (p = 0.037) participants had smaller volumes than did the CTL participants. For the VD, the MDD participants had larger volumes than did the BD and CTL participants (ps < 0.005). SVM distinguished MDD from BD with 59.5% accuracy. These findings indicate that mood disorders are characterized by anomalies in subcortical gray matter volumes and that the caudate and VD contribute uniquely to differential affective pathology. Identifying abnormalities in subcortical gray matter may prove useful for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mood disorders.

  1. Factors Identified When Selecting a Major in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Malissia; Torres, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural education majors at New Mexico State University (n=115) rated prior agricultural experiences as the most influential factor in their selection of a major. Department/college environment, professional role models, and job prospects were also influential. (SK)

  2. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally means a country that is designated in accordance with § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  3. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign... of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321(k)) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  4. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally, as defined in section 644(q) of the Foreign... of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321(k)) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  5. 78 FR 67382 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-4153-DR), dated October 29... declare that such a major disaster exists in the State of North Carolina. In order to provide Federal... sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T....

  6. Gender, Empathy, and the Choice of the Psychology Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harton, Helen C.; Lyons, Patrick C.

    2003-01-01

    We compared male and female psychology majors to psychology minors and nonmajors to understand the trends in a growing major in which women outnumber men. A total of 451 psychology majors, minors, and nonmajors from 4 institutions completed a questionnaire measuring empathy, career goals, and perceptions of the importance of empathy for therapy.…

  7. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  8. 75 FR 8098 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... major disaster: Bradley, Calhoun, Clark, Clay, Cleveland, Craighead, Dallas, Drew, Grant,...

  9. 76 FR 32984 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... a major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... this declared major disaster: Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties...

  10. 76 FR 21774 - Wisconsin; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Wisconsin; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  11. 78 FR 32415 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance...-0001] South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency...

  12. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  13. Selecting a Business Major within the College of Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…

  14. 77 FR 5750 - Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects (NPRM... Major Capital Investment Projects at 49 CFR 611. The docket for comments on the NPRM is open through... Transit Administration (FTA) for its discretionary Major Capital Investments program (``New Starts''...

  15. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  16. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  17. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  18. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  19. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  20. Distinguishing the Factors Influencing College Students' Choice of Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins; Bantham, John H.; Taylor, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Choosing a college major represents a major life decision--a decision that research has shown to be the most frequently identified life regret for Americans. The focus of this study is to identify the foundations of the psychological process by which undergraduate students select their academic majors. A means-end analysis was first employed to…

  1. Undergraduate Double Majors' Perceptions of Performer and Teacher Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate music performer/music teacher identity by examining double majors in various stages of their programs of study aspiring to become a performer and music educator. Unlike their single-major peers, double majors cope with additional challenges as they simultaneously develop both identities, determining…

  2. Documenting and Explaining Major Field Test Results among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Salvador; Badua, Frank; Chen, Jiun Shiu; Adrian, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the results of the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test (ETS-MFT) administered to business majors at a U.S. state university. Longitudinal trends and cross-sectional differences are documented, including significant performance differences among students of different majors. Findings suggest that a cohort affect…

  3. The Viability of the English Major in the Current Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiner, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In an April, 2012 Wall Street Journal article titled "Wealth or Waste? Rethinking the Value of a Business Major," national reporter Melissa Korn explores an intriguing fact: the business major, the most popular major on college campuses for over 30 years and the discipline believed to be most economically viable by prospective college students and…

  4. What's It Worth? The Economic Value of College Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Strohl, Jeff; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, there has been a persistent lack of available information about the economic consequences of choosing one academic major over another. As a result, students have had little financial data on hand to help them choose between majors. No longer. This report finds that different majors have different economic value. While going to…

  5. Evidence That Intracellular Stages of Leishmania major Utilize Amino Sugars as a Major Carbon Source

    PubMed Central

    McConville, Malcolm J.

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular parasites, such as Leishmania spp, must acquire suitable carbon sources from the host cell in order to replicate. Here we present evidence that intracellular amastigote stages of Leishmania exploit amino sugars in the phagolysosome of mammalian macrophages as a source of carbon and energy. L. major parasites are capable of using N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine as primarily carbon sources and contain key enzymes required for conversion of these sugars to fructose-6-phosphate. The last step in this pathway is catalyzed by glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (GND), which was targeted to glycosomes via a canonical C-terminal targeting signal when expressed as a GFP fusion protein. Mutant parasites lacking GND were unable to grow in medium containing amino sugars as sole carbohydrate source and rapidly lost viability, concomitant with the hyper-accumulation of hexosamine-phosphates. Expression of native GND, but not a cytosolic form of GND, in Δgnd parasites restored hexosamine-dependent growth, indicating that toxicity is due to depletion of glycosomal pools of ATP. Non-lethal increases in hexosamine phosphate levels in both Δgnd and wild type parasites was associated with a defect in promastigote metacyclogenesis, suggesting that hexosamine phosphate levels may influence parasite differentiation. Promastigote and amastigote stages of the Δgnd mutant were unable to replicate within macrophages and were either completely cleared or exhibited reduced lesion development in highly susceptible Balb/c mice. Our results suggest that hexosamines are a major class of sugars in the macrophage phagolysosome and that catabolism of scavenged amino sugars is required to sustain essential metabolic pathways and prevent hexosamine toxicity. PMID:21203480

  6. A Model for Cooperative Student Teaching Involving a Nearby Majority Black University and a Nearby Majority White University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Walter A.

    Major features of the cooperative student teaching model include 1) a pattern of student teaching assignments within the school system which would provide for proportional inclusion of prospective teachers--from the nearby majority black university and the nearby majority white university--to each school serving as a student teaching facility; 2)…

  7. Female STEM majors wanted: The impact of certain factors on choice of a college major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Walter Michael

    Although females have made significant strides in educational achievements and substantial inroads into academic majors, such as business and medicine, they have made considerably less progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This translates into a smaller number of female graduates prepared to work in the science career fields and results in American industry looking to other countries for its educated workforce. A mixed-methods research design was used to explore and understand the lived experiences and perceptions of faculty members and working STEM professionals in Northern and Central Virginia. Results indicated that although females are attaining STEM degrees and entering STEM fields in record numbers, obstacles such as a challenging STEM curriculum, bias, feelings of insecurity, lack of female role models, and inadequate preparation for the STEM workforce could impede the progress females have made. This research makes recommendations to the academic community and industry which may be used as retention and recruitment strategies for females considering a career in STEM. The ultimate goal is to significantly increase the number of highly skilled female graduates entering STEM fields, leading the U.S. to regain its previous position atop the world in technological innovation and leadership.

  8. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients.

  9. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  10. Major incidents in Britain over the past 28 years: the case for the centralised reporting of major incidents

    PubMed Central

    Carley, S.; Mackway-Jones, K.; Donnan, S.

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence and epidemiology of major incidents occurring in Britain over the past 28 years. METHODS: Major incidents were identified through a MEDLINE search, a hand search of journals and government reports at the Home Office Emergency Planning College, newspaper reports, a postal survey of ambulance emergency planning officers, and through requests for information posted on the internet. MAIN RESULTS: Brief incidents profiles from 108 British major incidents are presented. Most major incidents pass unreported in the medical literature. On average three to four major incidents occur in Britain each year (range 0-11). Sixty three of 108 (59.2%) of incidents involve public transportation. The next two largest groups are civil disturbance 22 of 108 (20.3%) and industrial accidents 16 of 108 (14.8%). Although incidents at sports stadiums are rare they produce large numbers of casualties. The data currently available on major incidents are difficult to find and of questionable accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of data makes planning for major incidents and exercising major incident plans difficult. Casualty incident profiles (CIPs) may assist major incidents exercises and planning. CIPs from future major incidents should be collated and made available to all major incident planners.   PMID:9764261

  11. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  12. 78 FR 27415 - Kansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... major disaster: Barber, Barton, Dickinson, Ellis, Franklin, Harper, Harvey, Hodgeman, Kingman, Marion... the Public Assistance program. Barton, Dickinson, Ellis, Franklin, Harper, Harvey, Hodgeman,...

  13. Current Issues in the Classification of Psychotic Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Jennifer; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Maj, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide. There are a number of depression subtypes, and there has been much debate about how to most accurately capture and organize the features and subtypes of major depression. We review the current state of categorizing unipolar major depression with psychotic features (psychotic major depression, PMD), including clinical, biological, and treatment aspects of the disorder. We then propose some improvements to the current unipolar major depression categorization system. Finally, we identify important issues in need of further research to help elucidate the subtype of unipolar PMD. PMID:17548842

  14. 75 FR 49506 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... major disaster: Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Maverick, Starr, Val Verde, Webb, and Zapata Counties for Individual Assistance. Cameron, Hidalgo, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, Maverick, Starr, Webb, Willacy, and...

  15. Loss of microsatellite diversity and low effective population size in an overexploited population of New Zealand snapper (Pagrus auratus).

    PubMed

    Hauser, Lorenz; Adcock, Greg J; Smith, Peter J; Ramiréz, Julio H Bernal; Carvalho, Gary R

    2002-09-01

    Although the effects of overfishing on species diversity and abundance are well documented, threats to the genetic diversity of marine fish populations have so far been largely neglected. Indeed, there seems to be little cause for concern, as even "collapsed" stocks usually consist of several million individuals, whereas population genetics theory suggests that only very small populations suffer significant loss of genetic diversity. On the other hand, in many marine species the genetically effective population size (N(e)), which determines the genetic properties of a population, may be orders of magnitude smaller than the census population size (N). Here, microsatellite analyses of a time series of archived scales demonstrated a significant decline in genetic diversity in a New Zealand snapper population during its exploitation history. Effective population sizes estimated both from the decline in heterozygosity and from temporal fluctuations in allele frequency were five orders of magnitude smaller than census population sizes from fishery data. If such low N(e)/N ratios are commonplace in marine species, many exploited marine fish stocks may be in danger of losing genetic variability, potentially resulting in reduced adaptability, population persistence, and productivity.

  16. Predictors of Scientific Majors for Black and White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M. L.; Pearson, W., Jr.

    The differences in the personality and social backgrounds of college students majoring in science and nonscience fields were assessed with 91 black and 109 white students. The following categories of majors were compared: natural science, social science, and nonscience (education, business, history, and all others). The personality and attitudes…

  17. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…

  18. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major...

  19. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major...

  20. 76 FR 44030 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1988-DR), dated May 27, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms...

  1. 77 FR 41195 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4064-DR), dated June 14, 2012, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms,...

  2. 77 FR 54601 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4078-DR), dated August 22, 2012, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from the...

  3. 75 FR 11904 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1876-DR), dated February 25, 2010, and related... the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm during...

  4. 75 FR 15450 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1883-DR), dated March 5, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm during the period...

  5. 76 FR 27076 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1970-DR), dated April 22, 2011, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe...

  6. 76 FR 44345 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1989-DR), dated June 6, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms,...

  7. 75 FR 32491 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1917-DR), dated May 24, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-...

  8. What Does Industry Really Want in a Mathematics Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussett, James C.

    1978-01-01

    A survey revealed the following: (1) courses in computer science, business, economics, accounting, finance, and communication skills will enhance a mathematics major's employment possibilities; (2) more mathematics majors will be hired in the near future; and (3) college co-op programs are recommended. (MP)

  9. College of Business Majors' Perceptions toward Globalization: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…

  10. A Conditional Logit Model of Collegiate Major Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milley, Donald J.; Bee, Richard H.

    1982-01-01

    Hypothesizes a conditional logit model of decision making to explain collegiate major selection. Results suggest a link between student environment and preference structure and preference structures and student major selection. Suggests findings are limited by use of a largely commuter student population. (KMF)

  11. Investigating the Motivations of the Pre-Engineering Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beronja, Terry A.; Bee, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    As enrollments in engineering programs soar, many schools have been forced to control enrollment, resulting in a large population of pre-engineering majors. To aid in the understanding and advising of these majors, student profiles reflecting motivation patterns are presented. (MLW)

  12. 75 FR 64320 - Arizona; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arizona; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arizona (FEMA-1940-DR), dated October 4, 2010, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Arizona resulting from severe...

  13. A Survey of Burnout among College Music Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhard, H. Christian, II

    2007-01-01

    Experts have reported a recent increase in the number of college students with severe psychological problems, including music majors. The principal purpose of the current study was to compare perceived burnout levels (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and lack of personal accomplishment) of college music students by year in school, major,…

  14. Retaining Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present results relating undergraduate student retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors to the use of Peer Instruction (PI) in an introductory physics course at a highly selective research institution. We compare the percentages of students who switch out of a STEM major after taking a physics…

  15. 75 FR 23792 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1900-DR), dated April 19, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from flooding beginning on March 1, 2010,...

  16. 76 FR 53141 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-4009-DR), dated July 28, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms,...

  17. 78 FR 51202 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-4131-DR), dated July 25, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms,...

  18. 75 FR 39959 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1921-DR), dated July 2, 2010, and related... damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, and...

  19. 77 FR 46103 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-4069-DR), dated July 6, 2012, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms...

  20. 76 FR 44348 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1990-DR), dated June 7, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms...

  1. 76 FR 36141 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1982-DR), dated May 10, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Minnesota resulting from severe storms...

  2. Recruiting English Majors: One View from a Public University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoblauch, Cy

    2001-01-01

    Considers that the issue behind English department recruitment is not the size of the major but the focus and pertinence of the curriculum, where success is defined by an effective articulation between what a faculty believes it has to offer and what serious, goal-oriented students--the sort wanted in the major in the first place--are looking to…

  3. Changing the Major: Innovation Priorities in the Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Debra

    The major in most colleges has been criticized as little more than a gathering of courses taken in one department, lacking structure and depth or emphasizing content to the neglect of inquiry on which the content is based. This report, based on the "Re-Forming Majors" project of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, presents…

  4. Age of Majority Cards and Drinking among Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Adlaf, Edward M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined use of age of majority cards (identification indicating legal drinking age status in Ontario) among 3,395 secondary school students. Found card status to be significantly related to frequency of alcohol use, problems, and place of drinking. Found little evidence that age of majority cards are an effective device for limiting access of…

  5. 22 CFR 120.8 - Major defense equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Major defense equipment. 120.8 Section 120.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.8 Major defense equipment. Pursuant to section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  6. 22 CFR 120.8 - Major defense equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Major defense equipment. 120.8 Section 120.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.8 Major defense equipment. Pursuant to section 47(6) of the Arms Export Control Act (22...

  7. An Intimate Discipline? Writing Studies, Undergraduate Majors, and Relational Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, T. J., II

    2015-01-01

    This article takes survey and interview responses from undergraduate writing majors in two independent writing programs as points of departure for reflection on the disciplinary work of writing studies. Though scholarship about writing majors focuses on these programs as sites for the distribution of disciplinary expertise, students in this study…

  8. 26 CFR 1.679-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.679-0 Section 1.679-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-0 Outline of major topics....

  9. 26 CFR 1.883-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.883-0 Section 1.883-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.883-0 Outline of major topics. This section lists...

  10. 26 CFR 1.679-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.679-0 Section 1.679-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... topics. This section lists the major paragraphs contained in §§ 1.679-1 through 1.679-7 as follows: §...

  11. 38 CFR 41.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Major program determination. 41.520 Section 41.520 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 41.520 Major...

  12. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Major program determination. 99.520 Section 99.520 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Auditors § 99.520 Major program determination. (a) General. The auditor shall use a risk-based approach...

  13. Intelligent Video Disc as a Major Component of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Richard E.

    Due to the importance of visual stimuli for learning, the videodisc is expected to have a major impact on education. When combined with the computer, it will greatly expand the capabilities of computer assisted instruction. There are two major types of videodisc equipment: the optical type with a laser beam to read the information from the disc,…

  14. Infection prevention and treatment in patients with major burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Rowley-Conwy, G

    Infection is a significant challenge in burn care, particularly for those patients who have major burn injuries. This article aims to review the literature and establish best practice in prevention and treatment of infection in patients with major burns. The article considers the causes and clinical features of wound infection, and examines systemic and local methods of prevention and treatment. PMID:21138123

  15. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  16. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  17. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November 27... West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is...

  18. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  19. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  20. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  1. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  2. 75 FR 63500 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1939-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from Hurricane Earl during the period of August 29-31, 2010,...

  3. 75 FR 71453 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1948-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from severe storms, flooding, mudslides, and...

  4. 78 FR 23278 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated March 22, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in the State of Rhode Island resulting from...

  5. 76 FR 61730 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4027-DR), dated September 3, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode...

  6. 75 FR 77889 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1949-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from severe storms, flooding, rockslides, and...

  7. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated November 3, 2012, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode...

  8. 75 FR 18521 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated March 29, 2010, and... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island resulting...

  9. Teaching Elementary Accounting to Non-Accounting Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Abbey, Augustus

    2009-01-01

    A central recurring theme in business education is the optimal strategy for improving introductory accounting, the gateway subject of business education. For many students, especially non-accounting majors, who are required to take introductory accounting as a requirement of the curriculum, introductory accounting has become a major obstacle for…

  10. Patterns of SAT Scores, Choice of STEM Major, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Mark L.; Jew, Gilbert B.; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Using Baccalaureate and Beyond 2001 data, we found that STEM major was associated with an SAT pattern less common among females than males, in which the student's quantitative score exceeded the verbal score. Verbal ability was negatively associated with STEM major. Implications for career theory and test interpretation are discussed.

  11. 77 FR 47655 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... dated July 27, 2012, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert... sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford..., Culpeper, Cumberland, Dinwiddie, Fauquier, Floyd, Fluvanna, Frederick, Giles, Greene, Halifax,...

  12. 76 FR 32983 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... major disaster under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Greene, Hamilton, and Washington Counties for Individual Assistance. Bradley, Greene, Hamilton,...

  13. 75 FR 25872 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... 27, 2010, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Greene, Highland, King George, Loudoun, Louisa, Madison, Nelson, Orange, Prince William,...

  14. 77 FR 55220 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... this major disaster: Amite, Attala, Carroll, Clarke, Copiah, Covington, Forrest, George,...

  15. 76 FR 61731 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... disaster: Albany, Delaware, Dutchess, Essex, Greene, Schenectady, Schoharie, and Ulster Counties...

  16. 75 FR 22610 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... 16, 2010, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief..., Dauphin, Delaware, Fayette, Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Huntingdon, Indiana, Juniata, Lancaster,...

  17. 78 FR 45549 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42..., Clay, Clayton, Crawford, Davis, Delaware, Des Moines, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Greene, Grundy,...

  18. 7 CFR 1753.5 - Methods of major construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... construction. To obtain RUS approval of the force account method for major construction the borrower must... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Methods of major construction. 1753.5 Section 1753.5... AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General § 1753.5 Methods of...

  19. 75 FR 47611 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  20. 78 FR 38727 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  1. 75 FR 65501 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  2. 75 FR 47612 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  3. 75 FR 30420 - New Hampshire; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Hampshire; Major Disaster and Related...

  4. 75 FR 65500 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related...

  5. 77 FR 73490 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  6. 78 FR 32415 - Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Iowa; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  7. 75 FR 48984 - Idaho; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Idaho; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  8. 77 FR 69647 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  9. 77 FR 69647 - New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  10. 76 FR 791 - Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Vermont; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  11. 78 FR 38728 - Michigan; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Michigan; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  12. 75 FR 2882 - Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Alabama; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  13. 76 FR 790 - Arizona; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    .... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arizona; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  14. 75 FR 30419 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency... declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  15. 76 FR 61374 - New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Jersey; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  16. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commanders of major Army commands. 536.14 Section 536.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army...

  17. 32 CFR 536.14 - Commanders of major Army commands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Commanders of major Army commands. 536.14 Section 536.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.14 Commanders of major Army...

  18. Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

  19. The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

  20. 76 FR 12362 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New York (FEMA-1957-DR), dated February 18, 2011, and related... follows :I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New York resulting from...

  1. 76 FR 44347 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New York (FEMA-1993-DR), dated June 10, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New York resulting from severe storms,...

  2. 78 FR 45549 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New York (FEMA-4129-DR), dated July 12, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New York resulting from severe storms...

  3. 75 FR 22610 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New York (FEMA-1899-DR), dated April 16, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of New York resulting from severe storms and flooding during the...

  4. 78 FR 27414 - New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New York; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New York (FEMA-4111-DR), dated April 23, 2013, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New York resulting from a...

  5. 76 FR 60516 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-4024-DR), dated September 3, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the Commonwealth of...

  6. 76 FR 76172 - Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Virginia (FEMA-4045-DR), dated November 17, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the Commonwealth of...

  7. Why Are Students Not Majoring in Information Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…

  8. Vertically Integrating Professional Skills throughout a Mathematics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziak, Clarice; Leventhal, Brian; Luttman, Aaron; Skufca, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In response to a university mandate to include "professional issues" as a component of every major, we have developed a vertically integrated approach to incorporating the study of professional skills and issues into the mathematics curriculum. Beginning in the first year of study, mathematics majors take an inquiry-based course in…

  9. 75 FR 65501 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Minnesota are eligible to apply for... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Minnesota (FEMA-1941-DR), dated October 13, 2010, and...

  10. 78 FR 32416 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Minnesota have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Cottonwood, Jackson, Murray, Nobles, and Rock Counties for Public Assistance. All counties within the State of Minnesota are eligible... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  11. 7 CFR 987.104 - Major marketing promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major marketing promotion. 987.104 Section 987.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.104 Major marketing...

  12. 7 CFR 987.104 - Major marketing promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major marketing promotion. 987.104 Section 987.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.104 Major marketing...

  13. Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

  14. 78 FR 64522 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4148-DR), dated September 30, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New...

  15. 76 FR 19118 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-1962-DR), dated March 24, 2011, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New Mexico resulting from a...

  16. 77 FR 54601 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4079-DR), dated August 24, 2012, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New Mexico resulting from...

  17. 76 FR 76171 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4047-DR), dated November 23, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New...

  18. 78 FR 67381 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-4152-DR), dated October 29, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New...

  19. 75 FR 58419 - New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency New Mexico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of New Mexico (FEMA-1936-DR), dated September 13, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of New...

  20. 78 FR 50437 - Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Texas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Texas (FEMA-4136-DR), dated August 2, 2013, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Texas resulting from an...