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Sample records for pah luminous galaxies

  1. CO excitation in four IR luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, Simon J. E.; Solomon, P. M.; Downes, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    The correlation between the CO and far infrared luminosities of spiral galaxies is well established. The luminosity ration, L sub FIR/L sub CO in IR luminous active galaxies is, however, systematically five to ten times higher than in ordinary spirals and molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Furthermore, the masses of molecular hydrogen in luminous galaxies are large, M (H2) approx. equals 10(exp 10) solar magnitude, which indicates the observed luminosity ratios are due to an excess of infrared output, rather than a deficiency of molecular gas. These large amounts of molecular gas may fuel luminous galaxies through either star formation or nuclear activity. This interpretation rests on applying the M (H2)/L sub CO ratio calibrated in our Galaxy to galaxies with strikingly different luminosity ratios. But are the physical conditions of the molecular gas different in galaxies with different luminosity ratios. And, if so, does the proportionality between CO and H2 also vary among galaxies. To investigate these questions researchers observed CO (2 to 1) and (1 to 0) emission from four luminous galaxies with the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter range (IRAM) 30 m telescope. Researchers conclude that most of the CO emission from these Arp 193, Arp 220, and Mrk 231 arises in regions with moderate ambient densities similar to the clouds in the Milky Way molecular ring. The emission is neither from dense hot cloud cores nor from the cold low density gas characteristic of the envelopes of dark clouds.

  2. Kinematics of luminous blue compact galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östlin, Göran; Amram, Philippe; Boulesteix, Jaques; Bergvall, Nils; Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    We present results from a Fabry-Perot study of the Hα velocity fields and morphologies of a sample of luminous blue compact galaxies. We estimate masses from photometry and kinematics and show that many of these BCGs are not rotationally supported. Mergers or strong interactions appear to be the triggering mechanism of the extreme starbursts seen in these galaxies.

  3. Orbital masses of nearby luminous galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Kudrya, Yuri N. E-mail: yukudrya@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    We use observational properties of galaxies accumulated in the Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog to derive a dark matter mass of luminous galaxies via motions of their companions. The data on orbital-to-stellar mass ratio are presented for 15 luminous galaxies situated within 11 Mpc from us: the Milky Way, M31, M81, NGC 5128, IC342, NGC 253, NGC 4736, NGC 5236, NGC 6946, M101, NGC 4258, NGC 4594, NGC 3115, NGC 3627, and NGC 3368, as well as for a composite suite around other nearby galaxies of moderate and low luminosity. The typical ratio for these galaxies is M {sub orb}/M {sub *} = 31, corresponding to the mean local density of matter Ω {sub m} = 0.09, i.e., one-third of the global cosmic density. This quantity seems to be rather an upper limit of dark matter density, since the peripheric population of the suites may suffer from the presence of fictitious unbound members. We note that the Milky Way and M31 halos have lower dimensions and lower stellar masses than those of the other 13 nearby luminous galaxies. However, the dark-to-stellar mass ratio for both the Milky Way and M31 is typical for other neighboring luminous galaxies. The distortion in the Hubble flow, observed around the Local Group and five other neighboring groups, yields their total masses within the radius of a zero velocity surface, R {sub 0}; these masses are slightly lower than the orbital and virial values. This difference may be due to the effect of dark energy producing a kind of 'mass defect' within R {sub 0}.

  4. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  5. Over-Luminous Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, William; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The first paper from our work has been completed and accepted for publication. Another paper presents a study of the ESO 30601 70 galaxy group, combining Chandra, XMM-Newton, and optical observations. We find that the system is a true fossil galaxy group - a group whose optical light is dominated by a single galaxy. The group X-ray emission is composed of a central, dense, cool core (10 kpc in radius) and an isothermal medium beyond the central 10 kpc. The region between 10 and 50 kpc (the cooling radius) has the same temperature as the gas from 50 to 400 kpc, although the gas cooling time between 10 and 50 kpc (2-6 Gyr) is shorter than the Hubble time. Thus, the ESO 3060170 group does not have a group-sized cooling core. We suggest that the group cooling core may have been heated by a central active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst in the past and that the small, dense, cool core is the truncated relic of a previous cooling core. The Chandra observations also reveal a variety of X-ray features in the central region, including a finger, an edge-like feature, and a small tail, all aligned along a north-south axis, as are the galaxy light and group galaxy distribution. The proposed AGN outburst may cause gas to slosh around the center and produce these asymmetric features. The observed flat temperature profile to 1/3rvir is not consistent with the predicted temperature profile in recent numerical simulations. We compare the entropy profile of the ESO 3060170 group with those of three other groups and find a flatter relation than that predicted by simulations involving only shock heating, S approximately r approximately 0.85. This is direct evidence of the importance of non-gravitational processes in group centers. We derive the mass profiles within 1/3rvir and find that the ESO 3060170 group is the most massive fossil group known.

  6. Luminous Blue Compact Galaxies: Probes of galaxy assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Cassidy Louann

    The life cycles of galaxies over cosmic time is yet to be fully understood. How did galaxies evolve from their formative stages to the structures we observe today? This dissertation details the identification and analysis of a sample of Luminous Blue Compact Galaxies (LBCGs), a class of galaxy in the local (z < 0.05) universe exhibiting blue colors, high surface brightness, and high star formation rates. These systems appear to be very similar in their global properties to the early evolutionary phases of most galaxies, however their locality permits detailed investigation over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum in contrast to the smaller angular sizes and extreme faintness of distant galaxies. We use a combination of optical, ultraviolet, and infrared data to investigate a sample of LBCGs utilizing space and ground-based data.

  7. ISM Properties of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Armus, Lee; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Elbaz, David; Malhotra, Sangeeta

    2015-08-01

    Luminous and Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) represent the most important galaxy population at redshifts z > 1 as they account for more than 50% of all star formation produced in the Universe at those epochs; and encompass what it is called the main-sequence (MS) of star-forming galaxies. Investigating their local counterparts -low luminosity LIRGs- is therefore key to understand the physical properties and phases of their inter-stellar medium (ISM) - a task that is rather challenging in the distant Universe. On the other hand, high-z star-bursting (out of the MS) systems, although small in number, account for a modest yet still significant fraction of the total energy production. Here I present far-IR line emission observations ([CII]158μm, [OI]63μm, [OIII]88μm and [NII]122μm) obtained with Herschel for two large samples of nearby LIRGs: The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS), a sample of more than 240 relatively cold LIRGs, and a survey of 30 LIRGs selected to have very warm mid- to far-IR colors, suggestive of an ongoing intense nuclear starburst and/or an AGN. Using photo-dissociation region (PDR) models we derive the basic characteristics of the ISM (ionization intensity and density) for both samples and study differences among systems as a function of AGN activity, merger stage, dust temperature, and compactness of the starburst - parameters that are thought to control the life cycle of galaxies moving in and out of the MS, locally and at high-z.

  8. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath; Papovich, Casey

    2015-08-01

    We provide a new robust star-formation rate (SFR) calibration using the luminosity from polycyclic aromatic hydrogen (PAH) molecules. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 3-19μm), mitigating dust extinction, and they are very luminous, containing 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. We derive the calibration of the PAH luminosity as a SFR indicator using a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.6. The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the dust-corrected Hα luminosity (using the sum of the Hα and rest-frame 24μm luminosity from Kennicutt et al. 2009), with tight scatter of ~0.15 dex, comparable to the scatter in the dust-corrected Hα SFRs and Paα SFRs. We show this relation is sensitive to galaxy metallicity, where the PAH luminosity of galaxies with Z < 0.7 Z⊙ departs from the linear SFR relationship but in a behaved manor. We derive for this a correction to galaxies below solar metallicity. As a case study for observations with JWST, we apply the PAH SFR calibration to a sample of lensed galaxies at 1 < z < 3 with Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) data, and we demonstrate the utility of PAHs to derive SFRs as accurate as those available from any other indicator. This new SFR indicator will be useful for probing the peak of the SFR density of the universe (1 < z < 3) and for studying the coevolution of star-formation and supermassive blackhole accretion contemporaneously in a galaxy.

  9. THE MOST LUMINOUS GALAXIES DISCOVERED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Assef, Roberto J.; Blain, Andrew W.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Sayers, Jack; Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, David T.; Cutri, Roc M.; Masci, Frank J.; Yan, Lin; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Petty, Sara M.; Stanford, S. Adam; and others

    2015-06-01

    We present 20 Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}, including five with infrared luminosities L{sub IR} ≡ L{sub (rest} {sub 8–1000} {sub μm)} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉}. These “extremely luminous infrared galaxies,” or ELIRGs, were discovered using the “W1W2-dropout” selection criteria which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 μm (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 μm in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4–10 μm, suggesting that hot dust with T{sub d} ∼ 450 K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L{sub bol} level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 μm luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%–80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. The existence of AGNs with L{sub bol} > 10{sup 14} L{sub ☉} at z > 3 suggests that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly. For black hole seed masses ∼10{sup 3} M{sub ☉}, either sustained super-Eddington accretion is needed, or the radiative efficiency must be <15%, implying a black hole with slow spin, possibly due to chaotic accretion.

  10. STAR FORMATION IN TWO LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Ashburn, Allison; Wright, Teresa; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Rubin, Vera C.; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Struve, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We examined star formation in two very luminous (M{sub V} = –22 to –23) Sc-type spiral galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, using ultra-deep Hα images. We combine these Hα images with UBV and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey JHK images and H I maps to explore the star formation characteristics of disk galaxies at high luminosity. Hα traces star formation in these galaxies to 4-6 disk scale lengths, but the lack of detection of Hα further out is likely due to the loss of Lyman continuum photons. Considering gravitational instabilities alone, we find that the gas and stars in the outer regions are marginally stable in an average sense, but considering dissipative gas and radial and azimuthal forcing, the outer regions are marginally unstable to forming spiral arms. Star formation is taking place in spiral arms, which are regions of locally higher gas densities. Furthermore, we have traced smooth exponential stellar disks over four magnitudes in V-band surface brightness and 4-6 disk scale lengths, in spite of a highly variable gravitational instability parameter. Thus, gravitational instability thresholds do not seem relevant to the stellar disk. One possibility for creating an exponential disk is that the molecular cloud densities and star formation rates have exponential profiles and this fact forces the stellar disk to build up such a profile. Another possibility is that the stellar disk is continuously adjusted to an exponential shape regardless of the star formation profile, for example, through global dynamical processes that scatter stars. However, such scattering processes are only known to operate in spiral systems, in which case they cannot explain the same dilemma of smooth exponential disks observed in dwarf irregular galaxies.

  11. The Luminous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features: Applications to High Redshift Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath V.

    2016-01-01

    For decades, significant work has been applied to calibrating emission from the ultra-violet, nebular emission lines, far-infrared, X-ray and radio as tracers of the star-formation rate (SFR) in distant galaxies. Understanding the exact rate of star-formation and how it evolves with time and galaxy mass has deep implications for how galaxies form. The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. But, many of these SFR indicators are influenced by SMBH accretion in galaxies and result in unreliable SFRs. Utilizing the luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features, I provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from the PAHs at 6.2μm, 7.7μm and 11.3μm to solve this. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-infrared (mid-IR; 5-25μm) mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5-10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. I use a sample of 105 star-forming galaxies covering a range of total IR luminosity, LIR = L(8-1000μm) = 109 - 1012 L⊙ and redshift 0 < z < 0.4, with mid-IR spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS), and data covering other SFR indicators (Hα emission and rest-frame 24μm continuum emission). The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the Hα luminosity (corrected for attenuation using the mono-chromatic rest-frame 24μm emission), with a tight scatter of <0.15 dex. The scatter is comparable to that between SFRs derived from the Paα and dust-corrected Hα emission lines. We present a case study in advance of JWST, which will be capable of measuring SFRs (from 8μm rest-frame photometry, i.e. PAHs) in distant galaxies (z ≤ 2) with JWST/MIRI to SFRs as low as ~10 M⊙yr-1, because the PAH features are so bright. We use Spitzer/IRS observations of PAH features in lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 to demonstrate the utility of the PAHs to derive SFRs that agree with

  12. Hot DOGs: The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Griffith, Roger; Yan, Lin; Stern, Daniel; Stanford, Adam; Blain, Andrew; Benford, Dominic; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Petty, Sara

    2013-02-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has achieved its fundamental goal by delivering its all-sky survey at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. One of the two primary science objectives for WISE is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe (Ultra-Luminous IR Galaxies, or ULIRGs). We have used WISE photometry to select an all- sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous, and for which Herschel far-IR follow-up observations are underway. The objects are prominent in W3 and W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2. Available spectroscopy and far IR photometry for these objects show they typically have redshifts z > 2 and luminosities over 10^13 L_odot, with about 10% exceeding 10^14 L_odot and rivaling the brightest known QSOs. Their dust is more than twice as hot as other IR luminous objects: they are hot dust obscured galaxies or ``hot DOGs," and may represent a new phase in galaxy evolution. We request NOAO time to obtain redshifts and optical and near IR photometry for the all-sky sample of the brightest hot DOGs, all of which are in our Herschel program. With existing and allocated observations, this request should complete the acquisition of these crucial data for this primary WISE science objective.

  13. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. I. Spatially Resolved Observations with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Rieke, George H.; Colina, Luis; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Smith, J.-D. T.; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2010-06-01

    We present results from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral mapping observations of 15 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs). In this paper, we investigate the spatial variations of the mid-IR emission which includes fine structure lines, molecular hydrogen lines, polycyclic aromatic features (PAHs), continuum emission, and the 9.7 μm silicate feature. We also compare the nuclear and integrated spectra. We find that the star formation takes place in extended regions (several kpc) as probed by the PAH emission, as well as the [Ne II]12.81 μm and [Ne III]15.56 μm emissions. The behavior of the integrated PAH emission and 9.7 μm silicate feature is similar to that of local starburst galaxies. We also find that the minima of the [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratio tends to be located at the nuclei and its value is lower than that of H II regions in our LIRGs and nearby galaxies. It is likely that increased densities in the nuclei of LIRGs are responsible for the smaller nuclear [Ne III]15.56 μm/[Ne II]12.81 μm ratios. This includes the possibility that some of the most massive stars in the nuclei are still embedded in ultracompact H II regions. In a large fraction of our sample, the 11.3 μm PAH emission appears more extended than the dust 5.5 μm continuum emission. We find a dependency of the 11.3 μm PAH/7.7 μm PAH and [Ne II]12.81 μm/11.3 μm PAH ratios with the age of the stellar populations. Smaller and larger ratios, respectively, indicate recent star formation. The estimated warm (300 K galaxies. Finally we find that the [Ne II]12.81 μm velocity fields for most of the LIRGs in our sample are compatible with a rotating disk at ~kpc scales, and they are in a good agreement with Hα velocity fields. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet

  14. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, YU

    1993-01-01

    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  15. The luminous and dark matter content of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, J.; Avila-Reese, V.; Hernández-Toledo, H.; Firmani, C.

    2003-12-01

    We have compiled a sample of disk galaxies with available photometry in the B and K bands, velocity line-widths and HI integral fluxes. Several parameters that trace the luminous, baryonic and dark matter contents were inferred. We investigated how these parameters vary with different galaxy properties, and compared the results with predictions of galaxy evolutionary models in the context of the Λ Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmogony. The ratio of disk-to-total maximum circular velocity, (Vd,m/Vt,m), depends mainly on the central disk surface density Σd,0 (or surface brightness, SB), increasing roughly as Σd,00.15. While a fraction of high SB galaxies have a (Vd,m/Vt,m) ratio corresponding to the maximum disk solution, the low SB are completely dark matter dominated. The trend is similar for the models, although they have slightly smaller (Vd,m/Vt,m) ratios than observations, in particular at the highest SBs and when small baryon fractions are used. The scatter in the (Vd,m/Vt,m)- Σd,0 plot is large. An analysis of residuals shows that (Vd,m/Vt,m) tends to decrease as the galaxy is redder, more luminous (massive), and of earlier type. The models allow us to explain the physics of these results, which imply a connexion between halo structure and luminous properties. The dynamical-to-baryon mass and dynamical mass-to-light (B and K) ratios at a given radius were also estimated. All these ratios, for observations and models, decrease with Σd,0; (or SB) and do not correlate significantly with the galaxy scale, contrary to what has been reported in previous works, based on the analysis of rotation curve shapes. We discuss this difference and state the importance of solving the controversy of whether the dark and luminous contents in disk galaxies depend on SB or luminosity. The broad agreement between the models and observations presented here regarding the trends of the dynamical-to-baryon matter and mass-to-light ratios with several galaxy properties favors the

  16. Hot DOGs: The Most Luminous Galaxies Found by WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has achieved its fundamental goal by delivering an all-sky survey at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 (micron) (W1, W2, W3, and W4), reaching sensitivities hundreds of times deeper than IRAS. One of the two primary science objectives for WISE is to identify the most luminous galaxies in the Universe. We have used WISE photometry to select an all-sky sample of objects which are extremely luminous, and for which Herschel far-IR follow-up observations are 99% complete. The objects are prominent in W3 and W4, but faint or undetected in W1 and W2. The spectroscopy and far IR photometry for these objects show they typically have redshifts z > 2 and luminosities over 10^13 L_⊙, with about 5 - 10% exceeding 10^14 L_⊙ and rivaling the brightest known QSOs. Their dust is more than twice as hot as other IR luminous objects: they are hot dust obscured galaxies or ``hot DOGs," and may represent a new phase in galaxy evolution. Because our 2012B allocation had mixed weather, we request 2013B NOAO time to complete the collection of redshifts and optical and near IR photometry for this all-sky sample of the brightest hot DOGs. With existing and allocated observations, this request should complete the acquisition of these crucial data for this primary WISE science objective.

  17. Extended [C II] Emission in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Stacey, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Malhotra, S.; Appleton, P.; Inami, H.; Magdis, G. E.; Elbaz, D.; Evans, A. S.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Surace, J. A.; van der Werf, P. P.; Xu, C. K.; Lu, N.; Meijerink, R.; Howell, J. H.; Petric, A. O.; Veilleux, S.; Sanders, D. B.

    2014-06-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of extended [C II] 157.7 μm line emission detected on ~1-10 kpc scales in 60 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. We find that most of the extra-nuclear emission show [C II]/FIR ratios >=4 × 10-3, larger than the mean ratio seen in the nuclei, and similar to those found in the extended disks of normal star-forming galaxies and the diffuse interstellar medium of our Galaxy. The [C II] "deficits" found in the most luminous local LIRGs are therefore restricted to their nuclei. There is a trend for LIRGs with warmer nuclei to show larger differences between their nuclear and extra-nuclear [C II]/FIR ratios. We find an anti-correlation between [C II]/FIR and the luminosity surface density, ΣIR, for the extended emission in the spatially resolved galaxies. However, there is an offset between this trend and that found for the LIRG nuclei. We use this offset to derive a beam filling-factor for the star-forming regions within the LIRG disks of ~6% relative to their nuclei. We confront the observed trend to photo-dissociation region models and find that the slope of the correlation is much shallower than the model predictions. Finally, we compare the correlation found between [C II]/FIR and ΣIR with measurements of high-redshift starbursting IR-luminous galaxies.

  18. Luminous red galaxies in the Sloan digital sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Yeong-Shang

    2004-04-01

    We determine the luminosity function and evolution of 22,562 Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) with 0.08 < z < 0.44 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The universal field galaxy luminosity function with a steep exponential bright end cut-off expected from a Schechter form is confirmed to z ˜ 0.4. We do not discern any evolution in the comoving number density of these luminous early-type galaxies, once biases due to photometric errors are taken into account. Using 2099 deg2 of SDSS imaging data, we search for bright early-type galaxies within 1 h-1 Mpc of LRG with 0.12 < z < 0.38 to study the bright end of the luminosity distribution at this scale. The brightest galaxies (nearly always an LRG) in LRG fields are too bright if other members in the same field are drawn from an exponentially decaying luminosity function. The luminosity gap between the brightest and the second brightest galaxy is large (˜0.8 mag). When the LRG fields were split into group-like and cluster- like environments, the former gives a larger gap. The gap shows little evolution with redshifts, putting stringent constraints on the scenario of the growth of Brightest Cluster (or Group) Galaxies by recent cannibalism of cluster members. We calibrate the observed color-magnitude-redshift relation for early-type galaxies. We use LRGs as spectroscopic references and measure the color of imaging galaxies that clustered around each LRG. We bin these galaxies in redshift and perform an optimal background subtraction to recover the color-magnitude relation. The observed scatter around this color-magnitude relation is also measured. We study the environments of LRG by counting the number of early-type galaxies brighter than M* within 1 h-1 Mpc of the LRG. LRGs are binned in redshift and treated as a single population to infer the evolution trend of their environments. Both the rich optical clusters and moderately X-ray bright clusters host at least one LRG. However, LRG are most common in group

  19. Temperature distribution of dust in luminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carico, David P.

    1989-01-01

    Work is currently in progress to obtain temperature distributions of dust in the most infrared-luminous galaxies. The results presented are of a preliminary nature, representing a zeroth-order approximation. The objects which have been analyzed so far are all galaxies from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities L sub IR greater than or equal to 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. They are: Arp 220, Mrk 231, Mrk 273, NGC 1614, NGC 3690, NGC 6285/6, and Zw 049.057. The analysis utilized 3.7 micron data from the Palomar 5 m Hale telescope, IRAS data at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, and 1 mm continuum data from the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea.

  20. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dvorkin, Cora E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  1. Super Star Clusters in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: the SUNBIRD Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väisänen, P.; Randriamanakoto, Z.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kniazev, A.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Mattila, S.; Ramphul, R.; Ryder, S.; Tekola, A.

    2014-09-01

    We summarize recent results from an Adaptive Optics (AO) imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs). We have constructed the first statistically significant sample of Luminosity Functions (LFs) of Super Star Clusters (SSCs) in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates of the hosts and find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. Finally we present early results of using SSC age and mass properties to trace the histories of the target LIRG systems.

  2. Mid-infrared properties of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Probing the dust and gas physics of the goals sample

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Murphy, E. J.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D. C.; Rich, J. A.; Spoon, H. W. W.; U, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ{sub 9.7μm}, τ{sub ice}, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW{sub 6.2{sub μm}} decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L{sub IR}/L{sub 8{sub μm}}) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ∼6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s{sub 9.7{sub μm}} < –1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ∼11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH

  3. Mid-infrared Properties of Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Probing the Dust and Gas Physics of the GOALS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Marshall, J.; Evans, A. S.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Iwasawa, K.; Kim, D. C.; Murphy, E. J.; Rich, J. A.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; U, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here, we present the results of a multi-component, spectral decomposition analysis of the low-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra from 5-38 μm of 244 LIRG nuclei. The detailed fits and high-quality spectra allow for characterization of the individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features, warm molecular hydrogen emission, and optical depths for both silicate dust grains and water ices. We find that starbursting LIRGs, which make up the majority of the GOALS sample, are very consistent in their MIR properties (i.e., τ9.7 μm, τice, neon line ratios, and PAH feature ratios). However, as their EQW6.2 μm decreases, usually an indicator of an increasingly dominant active galactic nucleus (AGN), LIRGs cover a larger spread in these MIR parameters. The contribution from PAH emission to the total IR luminosity (L(PAH)/L(IR)) in LIRGs varies from 2%-29% and LIRGs prior to their first encounter show significantly higher L(PAH)/L(IR) ratios on average. We observe a correlation between the strength of the starburst (represented by IR8 = L IR/L 8 μm) and the PAH fraction at 8 μm but no obvious link between IR8 and the 7.7 to 11.3 PAH ratio, suggesting that the fractional photodissociation region (PDR) emission, and not the overall grain properties, is associated with the rise in IR8 for galaxies off the starburst main sequence. We detect crystalline silicate features in ~6% of the sample but only in the most obscure sources (s 9.7 μm < -1.24). Ice absorption features are observed in ~11% (56%) of GOALS LIRGs (ULIRGs) in sources with a range of silicate depths. Most GOALS LIRGs have L(H2)/L(PAH) ratios elevated above those observed for normal star-forming galaxies and exhibit a trend for increasing L(H2)/L(PAH) ratio with increasing L(H2). While star formation appears to be the

  4. LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER-SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, J. B.; Bianchi, L.

    2010-02-15

    We have a Galaxy Evolution Explorer-Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample that isolates intermediate redshift QSOs. Some 1% of the spectroscopic sample consists of galaxies in starburst or post-starburst stages. We discuss the most luminous 10 of these, which have redshifts between 0.18 and 0.6. We present spectroscopic measures and derive star formation rates. Two of the six with Mg II coverage reveal outflows in this line. None shows any sign of active galactic nucleus activity. We discuss their star formation histories and their place in galaxy evolution.

  5. X-Ray Emission from Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies and Lyman Break Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, A. F.; Salim, S.; Heckman, T. P.; Overzier, R.; Mallery, R.; Rich, M.; Strickland, D.; Grimes, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from an XMM mini-survey of GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs) that appear to include an interesting subset that are analogs to the distant (3Galaxies (LBGs). The 2-10 kev X-ray emission of LBGs appear to be broadly similar to that of galaxies in the local Universe, possibly indicating similarity in the production of accreting binaries over large evolutionary timescales in the Universe. We have detected luminous X-ray emission from one UVLG that permits basic X-ray spectroscopic analysis, and have direct X-ray constraints on a total of 6 UVLGs. We find evidence for likely large scatter in the assumed X-ray/star-formation rate relation for LBGs.

  6. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 × 107 M ⊙ using [Ne III] 15.56 μm and optical [O III] λ5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  7. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A z = 2.79 MULTIPLY IMAGED LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY BEHIND THE BULLET CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Papovich, Casey; Bradac, Marusa; Jones, Christine

    2010-09-01

    We report spectroscopic confirmation and high-resolution infrared imaging of a z = 2.79 triply imaged galaxy behind the Bullet Cluster. This source, a Spitzer-selected luminous infrared galaxy, is confirmed via polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features using the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and resolved with Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 imaging. In this galaxy, which with a stellar mass M{sub *} {approx} 4 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun} is one of the two least massive ones studied with IRS at z>2, we also detect H{sub 2} S(4) and H{sub 2} S(5) pure rotational lines (at 3.1{sigma} and 2.1{sigma})-the first detection of these molecular hydrogen lines in a high-redshift galaxy. From the molecular hydrogen lines we infer an excitation temperature T = 377{sup +68}{sub -84} K. The detection of these lines indicates that the warm molecular gas mass is 6{sup +36}{sub -4}% of the stellar mass and implies the likely existence of a substantial reservoir of cold molecular gas in the galaxy. Future spectral observations at longer wavelengths with facilities such as the Herschel Space Observatory, the Large Millimeter Telescope, and the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment thus hold the promise of precisely determining the total molecular gas mass. Given the redshift, and using refined astrometric positions from the high-resolution imaging, we also update the magnification estimate and derived fundamental physical properties of this system. The previously published values for L{sub IR}, star formation rate, and dust temperature are confirmed modulo the revised magnification; however, we find that PAH emission is roughly a factor of 5 stronger than would be predicted by the relations between L{sub IR} and L{sub PAH} reported for SMGs and starbursts in Pope et al.

  9. XMM-Newton observations of three interacting luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Mudd, Dale; Mathur, Smita; Guainazzi, Matteo; Piconcelli, Enrico; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Bianchi, Stefano; Komossa, S.; Vignali, Cristian; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the X-ray properties of three interacting luminous infrared galaxy systems. In one of these systems, IRAS 18329+5950, we resolve two separate sources. A second and third source, IRAS 19354+4559 and IRAS 20550+1656, have only a single X-ray source detected. We compare the observed emission to point-spread function (PSF) profiles and determine that they are all consistent with the PSF, albeit with large uncertainties for some of our sources. We then model the spectra to determine soft (0.5-2 keV) and hard (2-10 keV) luminosities for the resolved sources and compare these to relationships found in the literature between infrared and X-ray luminosities for starburst galaxies. We obtain luminosities (0.5-10 keV) ranging from 1.7 to 7.3 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1} for our systems. These X-ray luminosities are consistent with predictions for star-formation-dominated sources and thus are most likely due to starbursts, but we cannot conclusively rule out active galactic nuclei.

  10. VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN IN THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Evans, Aaron S.; Wiedner, Martina C.; Wilner, David J.

    2010-12-20

    Infrared pumping and its effect on the excitation of HCN molecules can be important when using rotational lines of HCN to probe dense molecular gas in galaxy nuclei. We report the first extragalactic detection of (sub)millimeter rotational lines of vibrationally excited HCN, in the dust-enshrouded nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. We estimate the excitation temperature of T{sub vib} {approx} 230 K between the vibrational ground and excited (v{sub 2} = 1) states. This excitation is most likely due to infrared radiation. At this high vibrational temperature the path through the v{sub 2} = 1 state must have a strong impact on the rotational excitation in the vibrational ground level, although it may not be dominant for all rotational levels. Our observations also revealed nearly confusion-limited lines of CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, CS, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HC{sub 3}N at {lambda} {approx} 1 mm. Their relative intensities may also be affected by the infrared pumping.

  11. MODELING THE VERY SMALL SCALE CLUSTERING OF LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; McBride, Cameron K.; Masjedi, Morad

    2010-01-20

    We model the small-scale clustering of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Specifically, we use the halo occupation distribution formalism to model the projected two-point correlation function of LRGs on scales well within the sizes of their host halos (0.016 h {sup -1} Mpc <= r <= 0.42 h {sup -1} Mpc). We start by varying P(N|M), the probability distribution that a dark matter halo of mass M contains N LRGs, and assuming that the radial distribution of satellite LRGs within halos traces the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profile. We find that varying P(N|M) alone is not sufficient to match the small-scale data. We next allow the concentration of satellite LRG galaxies to differ from that of dark matter and find that this is also not sufficient. Finally, we relax the assumption of an NFW profile and allow the inner slope of the density profile to vary. We find that this model provides a good fit to the data and the resulting value of the slope is -2.17 +- 0.12. The radial density profile of satellite LRGs within halos is thus not compatible with that of the underlying dark matter, but rather is closer to an isothermal distribution.

  12. ULTRA-DEEP MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z{approx} 1 AND z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fadda, Dario; Yan Lin; Frayer, David T.; Helou, George; Lagache, Guilaine; Marcillac, Delphine; Sajina, Anna; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caputi, Karina; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Blain, Andrew E-mail: lyan@ipac.caltech.ed

    2010-08-10

    We present ultra-deep mid-infrared spectra of 48 infrared-luminous galaxies in the GOODS-south field obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These galaxies are selected among faint infrared sources (0.14-0.5 mJy at 24 {mu}m) in two redshift bins (0.76-1.05 and 1.75-2.4) to sample the major contributors to the cosmic infrared background at the most active epochs. We estimate redshifts for 92% of the sample using polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and Si absorption features obtaining, in particular, eight new redshifts difficult to measure from ground-based observations. Only a few of these galaxies (5% at z {approx} 1 and 12% at z {approx} 2) have their total infrared luminosity dominated by emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The averaged mid-IR spectrum of the z {approx} 1 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) is a very good match to the averaged spectrum of local starbursts. The averaged spectrum of the z {approx} 2 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), because of a deeper Si absorption, is better fitted by the averaged spectrum of H II-like local ULIRGs. Combining this sample with other published data, we find that 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EW) reach a plateau of {approx} 1 {mu}m for L {sub 24{mu}m} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}. At higher luminosities, EW{sub 6.2{mu}m} anti-correlates with L{sub 24{mu}m}. Intriguingly, high-z ULIRGs and sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) lie above the local EW{sub 6.2{mu}m}-L{sub 24{mu}m} relationship suggesting that, at a given luminosity, high-z ULIRGs have AGN contributions to their dust emission lower than those of local counterparts. A quantitative analysis of their morphology shows that most of the luminous IR galaxies have morphologies similar to those of IR-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. All z {approx} 2 ULIRGs of our sample are IR-excess BzK galaxies and most of them have L{sub FIR}/L{sub 1600A} ratios higher than those of starburst galaxies at a given UV slope. The 'IR

  13. Ultra-deep Mid-infrared Spectroscopy of Luminous Infrared Galaxies at z ~ 1 and z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Dario; Yan, Lin; Lagache, Guilaine; Sajina, Anna; Lutz, Dieter; Wuyts, Stijn; Frayer, David T.; Marcillac, Delphine; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caputi, Karina; Spoon, Henrik W. W.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Blain, Andrew; Helou, George

    2010-08-01

    We present ultra-deep mid-infrared spectra of 48 infrared-luminous galaxies in the GOODS-south field obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These galaxies are selected among faint infrared sources (0.14-0.5 mJy at 24 μm) in two redshift bins (0.76-1.05 and 1.75-2.4) to sample the major contributors to the cosmic infrared background at the most active epochs. We estimate redshifts for 92% of the sample using polycyclic aromatic (PAH) and Si absorption features obtaining, in particular, eight new redshifts difficult to measure from ground-based observations. Only a few of these galaxies (5% at z ~ 1 and 12% at z ~ 2) have their total infrared luminosity dominated by emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The averaged mid-IR spectrum of the z ~ 1 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) is a very good match to the averaged spectrum of local starbursts. The averaged spectrum of the z ~ 2 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), because of a deeper Si absorption, is better fitted by the averaged spectrum of H II-like local ULIRGs. Combining this sample with other published data, we find that 6.2 μm PAH equivalent widths (EW) reach a plateau of ~ 1 μm for L 24 μm <~ 1011 L sun. At higher luminosities, EW6.2 μm anti-correlates with L 24 μm. Intriguingly, high-z ULIRGs and sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) lie above the local EW6.2 μm-L 24 μm relationship suggesting that, at a given luminosity, high-z ULIRGs have AGN contributions to their dust emission lower than those of local counterparts. A quantitative analysis of their morphology shows that most of the luminous IR galaxies have morphologies similar to those of IR-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. All z ~ 2 ULIRGs of our sample are IR-excess BzK galaxies and most of them have L FIR/L 1600 Å ratios higher than those of starburst galaxies at a given UV slope. The "IR excess" is mostly due to strong 7.7 μm PAH emission and underestimation of UV dust extinction. On the basis of

  14. BARYONS MATTER: WHY LUMINOUS SATELLITE GALAXIES HAVE REDUCED CENTRAL MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotov, Adi; Dekel, Avishai; Brooks, Alyson M.; Willman, Beth; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Tom; Pontzen, Andrew; Christensen, Charlotte; Wadsley, James

    2012-12-10

    Using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of Milky Way-massed disk galaxies, we demonstrate that supernovae feedback and tidal stripping lower the central masses of bright (-15 < M{sub V} < -8) satellite galaxies. These simulations resolve high-density regions, comparable to giant molecular clouds, where stars form. This resolution allows us to adopt a prescription for H{sub 2} formation and destruction that ties star formation to the presence of shielded, molecular gas. Before infall, supernova feedback from the clumpy, bursty star formation captured by this physically motivated model leads to reduced dark matter (DM) densities and shallower inner density profiles in the massive satellite progenitors (M{sub vir} {>=} 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }) compared with DM-only simulations. The progenitors of the lower mass satellites are unable to maintain bursty star formation histories, due to both heating at reionization and gas loss from initial star-forming events, preserving the steep inner density profile predicted by DM-only simulations. After infall, gas stripping from satellites reduces the total central masses of satellites simulated with DM+baryons relative to DM-only satellites. Additionally, enhanced tidal stripping after infall due to the baryonic disk acts to further reduce the central DM densities of the luminous satellites. Satellites that enter with cored DM halos are particularly vulnerable to the tidal effects of the disk, exacerbating the discrepancy in the central masses predicted by baryon+DM and DM-only simulations. We show that DM-only simulations, which neglect the highly non-adiabatic evolution of baryons described in this work, produce denser satellites with larger central velocities. We provide a simple correction to the central DM mass predicted for satellites by DM-only simulations. We conclude that DM-only simulations should be used with great caution when interpreting kinematic observations

  15. Detection of stacked filament lensing between SDSS luminous red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Miyatake, Hironao; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Takada, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    We search for the lensing signal of massive filaments between 135 000 pairs of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We develop a new estimator that cleanly removes the much larger shear signal of the neighbouring LRG haloes, relying only on the assumption of spherical symmetry. We consider two models: a `thick'-filament model constructed from ray-tracing simulations for Λ cold dark matter model, and a `thin'-filament model which models the filament by a string of haloes along the line connecting the two LRGs. We show that the filament lensing signal is in nice agreement with the thick simulation filament, while strongly disfavouring the thin model. The magnitude of the lensing shear due to the filament is below 10-4. Employing the likelihood ratio test, we find a 4.5σ significance for the detection of the filament lensing signal, corresponding to a null hypothesis fluctuation probability of 3 × 10-6. We also carried out several null tests to verify that the residual shear signal from neighbouring LRGs and other shear systematics are minimized.

  16. On the Cusp around Central Black Holes in Luminous Elliptical Galaxies.

    PubMed

    Nakano; Makino

    1999-11-10

    In this Letter, we show that a massive black hole (MBH) that falls into the center of a galaxy on the dynamical timescale leaves a weak cusp (rho~r-1&solm0;2) around it, which is in good agreement with the recent observations of luminous elliptical galaxies by the Hubble Space Telescope. Such an event is a natural outcome of the merging of two galaxies that have central MBHs. This is the only known mechanism for forming weak cusps in luminous elliptical galaxies. Therefore, the existence of the weak cusps indicates that the central black holes of luminous elliptical galaxies have fallen to the center from outside, most likely during a major merger event. PMID:10525458

  17. Stellar Evolutionary Effects on the Abundance of PAHS and SN-Condensed Dust in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Spectral aid photometric observations of nearby galaxies show a correlation between the strength of their mid-IR aromatic features and their metal abundance, and a deficiency of these features in low-metallicity galaxies. The aromatic features are most commonly attributed to emission from PAH molecules. In this paper, we suggest that the observed correlation represents a trend of PAH abundance with galactic age, reflecting the delayed injection of PAHs and carbon dust into the ISM, by AGB stars in their final, post-AGB phase of their evolution. These AGB stars are the primary sources of PAHs and carbon dust in galaxies, and recycle their ejecta back to the interstellar medium only after a few hundred million years of evolution on the main sequence. In contrast, more massive stars that explode as Type II supernovae inject their metals and dust almost instantaneously after their formation. After determining the PAH abundances in 35 nearby galaxies, we use a chemical evolution model to show that the delayed injection of carbon dust by AGB stars provides a natural explanation to the dependence of the PAH content, in galaxies with metallicity. We also show that larger dust particles giving rise to the far-IR emission follow a distinct evolutionary trend closely related to the injection of dust by massive stars into the ISM.

  18. The First Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxy Discovered by WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie; Condon, J. J.; Cushing, Michael C.; Cutri, Roc; Evans, Neal J., III; Gelino, Chris; Griffith, Roger L.; Grillmair, Carl J.; Jarrett, Tom; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Masci, Frank J.; Mason, Brian S.; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer of the z = 2.452 source WISEJ181417.29+341224.9, the first hyperluminous source found in the WISE survey. WISE 1814+3412 is also the prototype for an all-sky sample of approximately 1000 extremely luminous "W1W2-dropouts" (sources faint or undetected by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 micrometers and well detected at 12 or 22 micrometers). The WISE data and a 350 micrometers detection give a minimum bolometric luminosity of 3.7 x 10(exp 13) solar luminosity, with approximately 10(exp 14) solar luminosity plausible. Followup images reveal four nearby sources: a QSO and two Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z = 2.45, and an M dwarf star. The brighter LBG dominates the bolometric emission. Gravitational lensing is unlikely given the source locations and their different spectra and colors. The dominant LBG spectrum indicates a star formation rate approximately 300 solar mass yr(exp -1), accounting for less than or equal to 10 percent of the bolometric luminosity. Strong 22 micrometer emission relative to 350 micrometer implies that warm dust contributes significantly to the luminosity, while cooler dust normally associated with starbursts is constrained by an upper limit at 1.1 mm. Radio emission is approximately 10? above the far-infrared/radio correlation, indicating an active galactic nucleus is present. An obscured AGN combined with starburst and evolved stellar components can account for the observations. If the black hole mass follows the local MBH-bulge mass relation, the implied Eddington ratio is approximately greater than 4. WISE 1814+3412 may be a heavily obscured object where the peak AGN activity occurred prior to the peak era of star formation.

  19. OBSERVATIONS OF DARK AND LUMINOUS MATTER: THE RADIAL DISTRIBUTION OF SATELLITE GALAXIES AROUND MASSIVE RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, Tomer; Wake, David A.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2012-05-20

    We study the projected radial distribution of satellite galaxies around more than 28,000 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) at 0.28 < z < 0.40 and trace the gravitational potential of LRG groups in the range 15 < r/kpc < 700. We show that at large radii the satellite number-density profile is well fitted by a projected Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile with r{sub s} {approx} 270 kpc and that at small radii this model underestimates the number of satellite galaxies. Utilizing the previously measured stellar light distribution of LRGs from deep imaging stacks, we demonstrate that this small-scale excess is consistent with a non-negligible baryonic mass contribution to the gravitational potential of massive groups and clusters. The combined NFW+scaled stellar profile provides an excellent fit to the satellite number-density profile all the way from 15 kpc to 700 kpc. Dark matter dominates the total mass profile of LRG halos at r > 25 kpc whereas baryons account for more than 50% of the mass at smaller radii. We calculate the total dark-to-baryonic mass ratio and show that it is consistent with measurements from weak lensing for environments dominated by massive early-type galaxies. Finally, we divide the satellite galaxies in our sample into three luminosity bins and show that the satellite light profiles of all brightness levels are consistent with each other outside of roughly 25 kpc. At smaller radii we find evidence for a mild mass segregation with an increasing fraction of bright satellites close to the central LRG.

  20. The luminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features: Applications to high redshift galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath Vernon

    The co-evolution of star-formation and supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion in galaxies is one of the key problems in galaxy formation theory. Understanding the formation of galaxies, and their subsequent evolution, will be coupled to intensive study of the evolution of SMBHs. This thesis focuses on studying diagnostics of star-formation and SMBH accretion to develop tools to study this co-evolution. Chapter 2 consists of using mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) to study the nature of star-formation and SMBH accretion. The mid-IR spectra cover wavelengths 5-38mum, spanning the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features and important atomic diagnostic lines. We divide our sample into a subsample of galaxies with Spitzer IRAC colors indicative of warm dust heated by an AGN (IRAGN) and those galaxies whose colors indicate star-formation processes (non-IRAGN). In both the IRAGN and star-forming samples, the luminosity in the PAH features correlates strongly with [Ne II]lambda12.8&mum emission line, from which we conclude that the PAH luminosity directly traces the instantaneous star-formation rate (SFR) in both the IRAGN and star-forming galaxies. There is no measurable difference between the PAH luminosity ratios of L11:3/L7:7 and L6:2/L7:7 for the IRAGN and non-IRAGN, suggesting that AGN do not significantly excite or destroy PAH molecules on galaxy-wide scales. In chapter 3, I calibrate the PAH luminosity as a SFR indicator. We provide a new robust SFR calibration using the luminosity emitted from PAH molecules at 6.2mum, 7.7mum and 11.3mum. The PAH features emit strongly in the mid-IR mitigating dust extinction, containing on average 5--10% of the total IR luminosity in galaxies. We use mid-IR spectroscopy from the Spitzer/IRS, and data covering other SFR indicators (Halpha emission and rest-frame 24mum continuum emission). The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the Halpha luminosity

  1. Keck Long Wavelength Spectrometer Images of Luminous IR Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Barbara; Puetter, Richard C.; Smith, Harding E.; Stein, Wayne A.; Wang, Michael C.; Campbell, Randy

    1998-05-01

    We have used the UCSD/Keck Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS; Jones & Puetter 1993, Proc. S.P.I.E., 1946, 610) in its initial (72 x 64) imaging mode to observe the luminous IR Galaxies Mrk 231, Arp 220, and NGC 7469, as well as NGC 1068 at mid-infrared wavelengths from 8--18\\micron. Pixon-based image reconstruction techniques (Puetter 1995, Int. J. Image Sys. & Tech., 6, 314) have been employed to achieve resolution as high as 50 mas. The mid-infrared emission in Arp 220 is resolved into the two nuclei plus a faint knot of emission 0.5 arcsec SE of the western nucleus. The SEDs show that the the W nucleus dominates at the longest wavelengths and probably in the far-infrared. Silicate absorption at 10\\micron\\ is present in all three components, but is strongest in the E nucleus, suggesting that the emission comes from an optically thick shell around a very compact mid-IR source. The E nucleus is unresolved at 0.2 arcsec resolution. The nucleus of NGC 7469 is marginally resolved at 50mas resolution. On the average the nuclear emission is redder than the surrounding starburst ring; the active nucleus dominates at all mid-infrared wavelengths and the ratio of Nucleus/Starburst increases toward the FIR. Mrk 231 shows a compact, unresolved nucleus with a faint, resolved star-formation ring. These observations will be discussed in terms of the Sanders et al. (1988, ApJ, 325 74) model in which LIGs evolve from Starbursts to AGN. The LWS is being upgraded with a Boeing 128 x 128 BIB array which is expected to be delivered in early summer. A 128 x 128 element multiplexer has been installed and optical performance reverified; further temperature stability tests and signal-to-noise optimization are being performed with an engineering array. The upgraded spectrometer with 11" FOV for imaging and spectroscopic resolutions, R=100 and 1000, is expected to be recommissioned this summer and to be available for scheduling in second semester 1998.

  2. Rapid evolution of the most luminous galaxies during the first 900 million years.

    PubMed

    Bouwens, Rychard J; Illingworth, Garth D

    2006-09-14

    The first 900 million years (Myr) to redshift z approximately 6 (the first seven per cent of the age of the Universe) remains largely unexplored for the formation of galaxies. Large samples of galaxies have been found at z approximately 6 (refs 1-4) but detections at earlier times are uncertain and unreliable. It is not at all clear how galaxies built up from the first stars when the Universe was about 300 Myr old (z approximately 12-15) to z approximately 6, just 600 Myr later. Here we report the results of a search for galaxies at z approximately 7-8, about 700 Myr after the Big Bang, using the deepest near-infrared and optical images ever taken. Under conservative selection criteria we find only one candidate galaxy at z approximately 7-8, where ten would be expected if there were no evolution in the galaxy population between z approximately 7-8 and z approximately 6. Using less conservative criteria, there are four candidates, where 17 would be expected with no evolution. This demonstrates that very luminous galaxies are quite rare 700 Myr after the Big Bang. The simplest explanation is that the Universe is just too young to have built up many luminous galaxies at z approximately 7-8 by the hierarchical merging of small galaxies.

  3. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA FOR THE GOALS SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L.; Surace, J. A.; Inami, H.; Petric, A. O.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Haan, S.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Kim, D. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Chan, B.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Veilleux, S.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Appleton, P.; Bothun, G.; Bridge, C. R.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is a comprehensive, multiwavelength study of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe. Here we present low resolution Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra covering 5-38 {mu}m and provide a basic analysis of the mid-IR spectral properties observed for nearby LIRGs. In a companion paper, we discuss detailed fits to the spectra and compare the LIRGs to other classes of galaxies. The GOALS sample of 244 nuclei in 180 luminous (10{sup 11} {<=} L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} < 10{sup 12}) and 22 ultraluminous (L {sub IR}/L {sub Sun} {>=} 10{sup 12}) IR galaxies represents a complete subset of the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample and covers a range of merger stages, morphologies, and spectral types. The majority (>60%) of the GOALS LIRGs have high 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} > 0.4 {mu}m) and low levels of silicate absorption (s {sub 9.7{mu}m} > -1.0). There is a general trend among the U/LIRGs for both silicate depth and mid-infrared (MIR) slope to increase with increasing L {sub IR}. U/LIRGs in the late to final stages of a merger also have, on average, steeper MIR slopes and higher levels of dust obscuration. Together, these trends suggest that as gas and dust is funneled toward the center of a coalescing merger, the nuclei become more compact and more obscured. As a result, the dust temperature increases also leading to a steeper MIR slope. The sources that depart from these correlations have very low PAH equivalent width (EQW{sub 6.2{mu}m} < 0.1 {mu}m) consistent with their emission being dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the MIR. These extremely low PAH EQW sources separate into two distinct types: relatively unobscured sources with a very hot dust component (and thus very shallow MIR slopes) and heavily dust obscured nuclei with a steep temperature gradient. The most heavily dust obscured sources are also the most compact in their MIR

  4. SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES: DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, Heath V.; Papovich, Casey; Rieke, George H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Weiner, Benjamin; Dey, Arjun; Moustakas, John

    2013-05-20

    We use mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study the nature of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion for a sample of 65 IR-luminous galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.6 with F(24 {mu}m) > 1.2 mJy. The MIR spectra cover wavelengths 5-38 {mu}m, spanning the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features and important atomic diagnostic lines. Our sample of galaxies corresponds to a range of total IR luminosity, L{sub IR} = L(8-1000 {mu}m) = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} (median L{sub IR} of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }). We divide our sample into a subsample of galaxies with Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6-8.0 {mu}m colors indicative of warm dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; IRAGN) and those galaxies whose colors indicate star-formation processes (non-IRAGN). Compared to the non-IRAGN, the IRAGN show smaller PAH emission equivalent widths, which we attribute to an increase in mid-IR continuum from the AGN. We find that in both the IRAGN and star-forming samples, the luminosity in the PAH features correlates strongly with [Ne II] {lambda}12.8 {mu}m emission line, from which we conclude that the PAH luminosity directly traces the instantaneous star-formation rate (SFR) in both the IRAGN and star-forming galaxies. We compare the ratio of PAH luminosity to the total IR luminosity, and we show that for most IRAGN star-formation accounts for 10%-50% of the total IR luminosity. We also find no measurable difference between the PAH luminosity ratios of L{sub 11.3}/L{sub 7.7} and L{sub 6.2}/L{sub 7.7} for the IRAGN and non-IRAGN, suggesting that AGN do not significantly excite or destroy PAH molecules on galaxy-wide scales. Interestingly, a small subset of galaxies (8 of 65 galaxies) show a strong excess of [O IV] {lambda}25.9 {mu}m emission compared to their PAH emission, which indicates the presence of heavily-obscured AGN, including 3 galaxies that are not otherwise selected as IRAGN. The low

  5. MORPHOLOGY AND SIZE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN LOCAL AND HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rieke, George H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-10

    We show that the star-forming regions in high-redshift luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) have similar physical scales to those in local normal star-forming galaxies. To first order, their higher infrared (IR) luminosities result from higher luminosity surface density. We also find a good correlation between the IR luminosity and IR luminosity surface density in starburst galaxies across over five orders of magnitude of IR luminosity from local normal galaxies to z {approx} 2 SMGs. The intensely star-forming regions of local ULIRGs are significantly smaller than those in their high-redshift counterparts and hence diverge significantly from this correlation, indicating that the ULIRGs found locally are a different population from the high-redshift ULIRGs and SMGs. Based on this relationship, we suggest that luminosity surface density should serve as a more accurate indicator for the IR emitting environment, and hence the observable properties, of star-forming galaxies than their IR luminosity. We demonstrate this approach by showing that ULIRGs at z {approx} 1 and a lensed galaxy at z {approx} 2.5 exhibit aromatic features agreeing with local LIRGs that are an order of magnitude less luminous, but have similar IR luminosity surface density. A consequence of this relationship is that the aromatic emission strength in star-forming galaxies will appear to increase at z>1 for a given IR luminosity compared to their local counterparts.

  6. Luminous Infrared Galaxies as Plausible y-ray Sources for GLAST and IACTs

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D F; Reimer, O; Domingo-Santamaria, E; Digel, S W

    2004-07-08

    We argue that luminous infrared galaxies (LIGs) may constitute a newly detectable population of {gamma}-ray sources for the next generation of ground and space-based high energy telescopes. Additionally, we report for the first time upper limits on their fluxes using data obtained with the EGRET telescope.

  7. Luminous and Dark Matter in Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Three open problems in our understanding of early-type galaxies are 1) identifying the process(es) responsible for their rapid size evolution, 2) accurately constraining the stellar IMF and its variations in the population, 3) measuring the density profile of their dark matter halo. We use strong lensing as the main diagnostic tool to address these issues. We first dissected a massive elliptical galaxy in its stellar and dark matter components, measuring both its IMF and the inner slope of the dark matter halo. We then collected a sample of 45 strong lenses in the redshift interval 0.2 < z < 0.8 and used them, in combination with lenses from other surveys, to measure the slope of the total density profile, the stellar IMF and the dark matter mass in the population of massive early-type galaxies, and their time evolution. Finally, we used our measurements of the evolution of the density slope to test a galaxy growth scenario based on purely dissipationless mergers. Our main results are: the stellar IMF of massive early-type galaxies is significantly heavier than that of the Milky Way and correlates with galaxy mass; the dark matter halo has a steep slope in at least one system; more compact galaxies have less dark matter than their extended counterparts at fixed redshift and stellar mass; early-type galaxies evolve while keeping the slope of their total density profile approximately constant. This last result cannot be reproduced with purely dissipationless mergers, therefore a little amount of dissipation is required.

  8. Investigating the Relationship of Luminosity and Curvature Using the Luminous Convolution Model for Spiral Galaxy Rotation Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Meagan

    2016-03-01

    The Luminous Convolution Model maps velocities of galaxies given by data of visible matter with respect to the relative curvature of the emitter and receiver galaxy using five different models of the Milky Way. This model purports that observations made of the luminous profiles of galaxies do not take the relative curvatures of the emitter and receiver galaxies into account, and thus maps the luminous profile onto the curvature using Lorentz transformations, and then back into the flat frame where local observations are made. The five models of the Milky Way used to compile galaxy data are proposed by Klypin:Anatoly (2002) A and B, Xue (2008), Sofue (2013), and a mixture of Xue and Sofue data. The Luminous Convolution Model has been able to accurately describe the rotation of spiral galaxies through this method without the need for dark matter. In each fitting of a given galaxy, the luminous profile graph exhibits a crossing with the graph of the curvature component, suggesting a correlation between the two. This correlation is currently under investigation as being related to phenomena apparent within each galaxy. To determine the correlation between the luminous profile and the curvature component, a functional analysis of the Luminous Convolution Model will be presented

  9. STUDYING LARGE- AND SMALL-SCALE ENVIRONMENTS OF ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Schiminovich, David; Heinis, Sebastien; Heckman, Tim; Bianchi, Luciana; Overzier, Roderik; Zamojski, Michel; Barlow, Tom A.; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl G.; Friedman, Peter G.; Martin, D. Christopher; Morrissey, Patrick; Ilbert, Olivier; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry F.; Neff, Susan G.

    2009-07-10

    Studying the environments of 0.4 < z < 1.2 ultraviolet (UV)-selected galaxies, as examples of extreme star-forming galaxies (with star formation rates (SFRs) in the range of 3-30 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}), we explore the relationship between high rates of star formation, host halo mass, and pair fractions. We study the large- and small-scale environments of local ultraviolet luminous galaxies (UVLGs) by measuring angular correlation functions. We cross-correlate these systems with other galaxy samples: a volume-limited sample (ALL), a blue luminous galaxy sample, and a luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample. We determine the UVLG comoving correlation length to be r{sub 0} = 4.8{sup +11.6}{sub -2.4} h {sup -1} Mpc at (z) = 1.0, which is unable to constrain the halo mass for this sample. However, we find that UVLGs form close (separation <30 kpc) pairs with the ALL sample, but do not frequently form pairs with LRGs. A rare subset of UVLGs, those with the highest FUV surface brightnesses, are believed to be local analogs of high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and are called Lyman break analogs (LBAs). LBGs and LBAs share similar characteristics (i.e., color, size, surface brightness, specific SFRs, metallicities, and dust content). Recent Hubble Space Telescope images of z {approx} 0.2 LBAs show disturbed morphologies, signs of mergers and interactions. UVLGs may be influenced by interactions with other galaxies and we discuss this result in terms of other high star-forming, merging systems.

  10. Modeling the Destruction and Survival of PAHs in Astrophysical Regions: from Low-metallicity Galaxies to Elliptical Galaxies and Galactic Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2006-05-01

    The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 micron emission features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been seen in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic objects. However, the PAH features are weak or absent in low-metallicity galaxies and AGN, as generally interpreted as the destruction of PAHs by hard UV photons in metal-poor galaxies or by extreme UV and soft X-ray photons in AGN. On the other hand, the PAH emission features have recently been detected in elliptical galaxies, tidal dwarf galaxies, galaxy halos, and distant galaxies at redshift >=2. However, it is not clear how PAHs can survive in elliptical galaxies containing X-ray emitting hot gas where PAHs are expected to be easily destroyed through sputtering by hot plasma ions. It is also not clear how PAHs get ``levitated'' and survive from galactic plane to galaxy halo where the physical conditions are similar to those of elliptical galaxies. We propose to study the destruction of PAHs (1) by UV photons in low-metallicity galaxies, (2) by extreme UV and X-ray photons in AGN, (3) by intense UV radiation in regions with strong star-forming activities, and (4) through sputtering by plasma ions in hot gas. This will allow us, by the first time, to quantitatively investigate the deficiency or lack of PAHs in AGN and low-metallicity galaxies, as well as the survivability of PAHs in elliptical galaxies, galaxy halo, and superwind, and the method of using the IRAC 8 micron photometry as a tracer of star formation rates. This program will create a web-based ``library'' of the destruction rates of PAHs by UV and X-ray photons as a function of size, intensity and hardness of the radiation field, and the sputtering rates of PAHs by plasma ions as a function of size, gas density and temperature. This library will be made publicly available to the astronomical community by May 2007 on the internet at http://www.missouri.edu/~lia/.

  11. Submillimeter Imaging of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy Pair VV114

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frayer, D.; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, I.; Yun, M. S.; Armus, L.

    1999-01-01

    We report on 450 and 850 mue observations of the interacting galaxy pair, VV114E+W (IC 1623), taken with the SCUBA camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, and near-infrared observations taken with UFTI on the UK Infrared Telescope.

  12. Adaptive Optics Imaging Survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Laag, E A; Canalizo, G; van Breugel, W; Gates, E L; de Vries, W; Stanford, S A

    2006-03-13

    We present high resolution imaging observations of a sample of previously unidentified far-infrared galaxies at z < 0.3. The objects were selected by cross-correlating the IRAS Faint Source Catalog with the VLA FIRST catalog and the HST Guide Star Catalog to allow for adaptive optics observations. We found two new ULIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 12} L{sub {circle_dot}}) and 19 new LIGs (with L{sub FIR} {ge} 10{sup 11} L{sub {circle_dot}}). Twenty of the galaxies in the sample were imaged with either the Lick or Keck adaptive optics systems in H or K{prime}. Galaxy morphologies were determined using the two dimensional fitting program GALFIT and the residuals examined to look for interesting structure. The morphologies reveal that at least 30% are involved in tidal interactions, with 20% being clear mergers. An additional 50% show signs of possible interaction. Line ratios were used to determine powering mechanism; of the 17 objects in the sample showing clear emission lines--four are active galactic nuclei and seven are starburst galaxies. The rest exhibit a combination of both phenomena.

  13. LUMINOUS SATELLITES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2011-04-10

    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 < z < 0.8), early-type galaxies, selected from the GOODS fields. We combine high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images and state-of-the-art host subtraction techniques to detect satellites of unprecedented faintness and proximity to intermediate redshift host galaxies (up to 5.5 mag fainter and as close as 0.''5/2.5 kpc to the host centers). We model the spatial distribution of objects near the hosts as a combination of an isotropic, homogeneous background/foreground population and a satellite population with a power-law radial profile and an elliptical angular distribution. We detect a significant population of satellites (N{sub s} = 1.7{sup +0.9}{sub -0.8}) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal ({gamma}{sub p} = -1.0{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4}), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining {phi} to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of {phi} = 0 and |{phi}| less than 42{sup 0} at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  14. Unusual broad-line Mg II emitters among luminous galaxies in the baryon oscillation spectroscopic survey

    SciTech Connect

    Roig, Benjamin; Blanton, Michael R.; Ross, Nicholas P.

    2014-02-01

    Many classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been observed and recorded since the discovery of Seyfert galaxies. In this paper, we examine the sample of luminous galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a potentially new observational class of AGNs, one with strong and broad Mg II λ2799 line emission, but very weak emission in other normal indicators of AGN activity, such as the broad-line Hα, Hβ, and the near-ultraviolet AGN continuum, leading to an extreme ratio of broad Hα/Mg II flux relative to normal quasars. Meanwhile, these objects' narrow-line flux ratios reveal AGN narrow-line regions with levels of activity consistent with the Mg II fluxes and in agreement with that of normal quasars. These AGN may represent an extreme case of the Baldwin effect, with very low continuum and high equivalent width relative to typical quasars, but their ratio of broad Mg II to broad Balmer emission remains very unusual. They may also be representative of a class of AGN where the central engine is observed indirectly with scattered light. These galaxies represent a small fraction of the total population of luminous galaxies (≅ 0.1%), but are more likely (about 3.5 times) to have AGN-like nuclear line emission properties than other luminous galaxies. Because Mg II is usually inaccessible for the population of nearby galaxies, there may exist a related population of broad-line Mg II emitters in the local universe which is currently classified as narrow-line emitters (Seyfert 2 galaxies) or low ionization nuclear emission-line regions.

  15. Finding and Studying Luminous Dust-Enshrouded Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blain, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    This meeting was convened to celebrate the career and science interests of Tom Phillips. The possibility of investigating the physics and chemistry of the molecular interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies, at mm/submm wavelengths has been enabled by many, but Tom's long-standing and consistent contributions are amongst the greatest. Here I will summarize some of the key developments and prospects for better understanding galaxy evolution, by exploiting the energy generated by stars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) after it has been absorbed and reprocessed by the solid and gaseous components of the ISM. I highlight the difficulties of identifying and diagnosing the discovered objects. The initial burst of activity associated with the galaxies detected when the first mm/submm-wave imaging instruments were fielded is maturing; however, the advent of in particular Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel), the Atacama Large (Sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Cornell-Caltech Atacama Telescope (CCAT) mean that the complimentary view provided by far-infrared (IR) sensors to reveal both the detailed astrophysics of star formation taking place star by star, and of the great bursts of activity seen across the Universe is becoming much more powerful.

  16. A Significant Population of Very Luminous Dust-Obscured Galaxies at Redshift z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Arjun; Soifer, B. T.; Desai, Vandana; Brand, Kate; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Brown, Michael J. I.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Armus, Lee; Bussmann, Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Bian, Chao; Eisenhardt, Peter; Higdon, Sarah J.; Weedman, Daniel; Willner, S. P.

    2008-04-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has revealed a significant population of high-redshift (z ~ 2) dust-obscured galaxies with large mid-infrared to ultraviolet luminosity ratios. Due to their optical faintness, these galaxies have been previously missed in traditional optical studies of the distant universe. We present a simple method for selecting this high-redshift population based solely on the ratio of the observed mid-infrared 24 μm to optical R-band flux density. We apply this method to observations of the ≈8.6 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field, and uncover ≈2600 dust-obscured galaxy candidates [i.e., 0.089 arcmin-2) with 24 μm flux densities F24 μ m >= 0.3 mJy and (R - [ 24]) >= 14 (i.e., Fν(24 μ m)/Fν(R) gtrsim 1000]. These galaxies have no counterparts in the local universe. They represent 7% +/- 0.6% of the 24 μm source population at F24 μ m >= 1 mJy but increase to ≈13% +/- 1% of the population at ≈0.3 mJy. These galaxies exhibit evidence of both star formation and AGN activity, with the brighter 24 μm sources being more AGN-dominated. We have measured spectroscopic redshifts for 86 of these galaxies, and find a broad redshift distribution centered at \\overline{z}≈ 1.99+/- 0.05. The space density of this population is ΣDOG(F24μ m >= 0.3 mJy) = (2.82 +/- 0.05) × 10-5h370 Mpc -3, similar to that of bright submillimeter-selected galaxies at comparable redshifts. These redshifts imply large luminosities, with median ν Lν(8 μ m) ≈ 4 × 1011 L⊙. The infrared luminosity density contributed by this relatively rare dust-obscured galaxy population is log (IRLD) ≈ 8.23+ 0.18-0.30. This is ≈60+ 40-15% of that contributed by z ~ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs, with LIR > 1012 L⊙) our simple selection thus identifies a significant fraction of z ~ 2 ULIRGs. This IRLD is ≈26% +/- 14% of the total contributed by all z ~ 2 galaxies. We suggest that these dust-obscured galaxies are the progenitors of luminous (~4L

  17. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous, dusty galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.; Blain, Andrew W.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Cutri, Roc; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2014-09-01

    We present SCUBA-2 (Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array) 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of the fields of 10 dusty, luminous galaxies at z ˜ 1.7-4.6, detected at 12 and/or 22 μm by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey, but faint or undetected at 3.4 and 4.6 μm; dubbed hot, dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs). The six detected targets all have total infrared luminosities greater than 1013 L⊙, with one greater than 1014 L⊙. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are very blue from mid-infrared to submm wavelengths and not well fitted by standard active galactic nuclei (AGN) SED templates, without adding extra dust extinction to fit the WISE 3.4 and 4.6 μm data. The SCUBA-2 850 μm observations confirm that the Hot DOGs have less cold and/or more warm dust emission than standard AGN templates, and limit an underlying extended spiral or ULIRG-type galaxy to contribute less than about 2 or 55 per cent of the typical total Hot DOG IR luminosity, respectively. The two most distant and luminous targets have similar observed submm to mid-infrared ratios to the rest, and thus appear to have even hotter SEDs. The number of serendipitous submm galaxies detected in the 1.5-arcmin-radius SCUBA-2 850 μm maps indicates there is a significant overdensity of serendipitous sources around Hot DOGs. These submm observations confirm that the WISE-selected ultraluminous galaxies have very blue mid-infrared to submm SEDs, suggesting that they contain very powerful AGN, and are apparently located in unusual arcmin-scale overdensities of very luminous dusty galaxies.

  18. Discovery of Two Supernovae in the Nuclear Regions of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy IC 883

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, E.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.; Väisänen, P.; Alberdi, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Colina, L.; Efstathiou, A.; Kotilainen, J.; Melinder, J.; Pérez-Torres, M.-A.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Takalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of two consecutive supernovae (SNe), 2010cu and 2011hi, located at 0farcs37 (180 pc) and 0farcs79 (380 pc) projected distance, respectively, from the center of the K-band nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 883. The SNe were discovered in an ongoing near-infrared K-band search for core-collapse SNe in such galaxies using the ALTAIR/NIRI adaptive optics system with laser guide star at the Gemini-North Telescope. These are thus the closest SNe yet discovered to an LIRG nucleus in optical or near-infrared wavelengths. The near-infrared light curves and colors of both SNe are consistent with core-collapse events. Both SNe seem to suffer from relatively low host galaxy extinction suggesting that regardless of their low projected galactocentric distances, they are not deeply buried in the nuclear regions of the host galaxy.

  19. Are extremely luminous far-infrared galaxies the result of merging quasar cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. P.

    1990-11-01

    Extremely Luminous far-infrared galaxies (ELFs) are a class of galaxy discovered independently by several groups. The class is characterized by a quasar-like total luminosity (1011 to 1013 solar luminosity) which is radiated almost entirely in the far-infrared. It has been suggested that obscured quasar cores may be responsible for generating this luminosity. Here the author demonstrates that ELFs appear in several guises which can be characterized by the number of quasar cores they contain (zero, one or two). The author develops a unified model to account for these differences.

  20. The most luminous stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Barniske, Andreas; Liermann, Adriane; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Pasemann, Diana; Rühling, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Some of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are found to have very high bolometric luminosities (log L/L_⊙ > 6). We employ the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) model atmospheres for their spectral analysis, which yields the bolometric corrections. Distance and interstellar reddening also enter the luminosity estimates. Among the Galactic stars, there is a group of very luminous WNL stars (i.e. WR stars of late subtype from nitrogen sequence with hydrogen being depleted in their atmospheres, but not absent). Their distances are often the major source of uncertainty. From K-band spectroscopy we found a very luminous star (log L/L_⊙ = 6.5) in the Galactic center region, which we termed the Peony Star because of the form of its surrounding dusty nebula. A similar group of very luminous WNL stars is found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) the majority of WR stars resides in binary systems. The single WNL stars in the SMC are not very luminous. We conclude that a significant number of very luminous WNL stars exist in the Galaxy and the LMC. With initial masses above 60 M_⊙, they apparently evolved directly to the WNL stage without a prior excursion to the red side of the HRD. At the low metallicity of the SMC, the binary channel may be dominant for the formation of WR stars.

  1. Discovery of GeV emission from the direction of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Thomas Tam, Pak-Hin E-mail: phtam@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-10-10

    Recent detections of high-energy gamma-ray emission from starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 suggest that starburst galaxies are huge reservoirs of cosmic rays and these cosmic rays convert a significant fraction of their energy into gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. In this paper, we report the search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from several nearby star-forming and starburst galaxies using the 68 month data obtained with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We found a ∼5.5σ detection of gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from a source spatially coincident with the location of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 2146. Also taking into account the temporal and spectral properties of the gamma-ray emission, we suggest that the gamma-ray source is likely to be the counterpart of NGC 2146. The gamma-ray luminosity suggests that cosmic rays in NGC 2146 convert most of their energy into secondary pions, so NGC 2146 is a 'proton calorimeter'. It is also found that NGC 2146 obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, strengthening the connection between massive star formation and gamma-ray emission of star-forming galaxies. Possible TeV emission from NGC 2146 is predicted and the implications for high-energy neutrino emission from starburst galaxies are discussed.

  2. Luminous compact blue galaxies in the local Universe: A key reference for high-redshift studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.

    2005-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are high surface brightness starburst galaxies, bluer than a typical Sbc and brighter than ˜0.25Lstar. LCBGs have evolved more than any other galaxy class in the last ˜8 Gyr, and are a major contributor to the observed enhancement of the UV luminosity density of the Universe at z≤1. Despite the key role LCBGs may play in galaxy evolution, their statistical properties are still largely unknown. We have selected a complete sample of ˜25 LCBGs within 100 Mpc, after investigating over 106 nearby galaxies from the DR1 of the SDSS database. This sample, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar galaxies at high redshift, including the population of Lyman-break galaxies. We present preliminary results of this study using 3D spectroscopic observations obtained over a very wide range in wavelength, using WIYN/DENSEPAK in the optical, FISICA in the infrared, and the VLA at cm wavelengths.

  3. IR Fine-Structure Line Signatures of Central Dust-Bounded Nebulae in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J.; Allen, R.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; Luhman, M.; Wolfire, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2004-01-01

    To date, the only far-infrared spectroscopic observations of ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been obtained with the European Space Agency s Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer. The spectra of these galaxies are characterized by molecular absorption lines and weak emission lines from photodissociation regions (PDRs), but no far-infrared (greater than 40 microns) lines from ionized regions have been detected. ESA s Herschel Space Observatory, slated for launch in 2007, will likely be able to detect these lines in samples of local and moderate redshift ultra luminous galaxies and to enable measurement of the ionization parameters, the slope of the ionizing continuum, and densities present in the ionized regions of these galaxies. The higher spatial resolution of proposed observatories discussed in this workshop will enable isolation of the central regions of local galaxies and detection of these lines in high-redshift galaxies for study of the evolution of galaxies. Here we discuss evidence for the e.ects of absorption by dust within ionized regions and present the spectroscopic signatures predicted by photoionization modeling of dust-bounded regions.

  4. THE WHIQII SURVEY: METALLICITIES AND SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF LUMINOUS COMPACT BLUE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tollerud, Erik J.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff; Van Zee, Liese

    2010-01-10

    As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana-Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of faint emission-line galaxies, selected to focus on intermediate redshift (0.4 approx< z approx< 0.8) galaxies with blue colors that appear physically compact on the sky. The sample includes 15 true Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) and an additional 27 slightly less extreme emission-line systems. These galaxies represent a highly evolving class that may play an important role in the decline of star formation since z approx 1, but their exact nature and evolutionary pathways remain a mystery. Here, we use emission lines to determine metallicities and ionization parameters, constraining their intrinsic properties and state of star formation. Some LCBG metallicities are consistent with a 'bursting dwarf' scenario, while a substantial fraction of others are not, further confirming that LCBGs are a highly heterogeneous population but are broadly consistent with the intermediate redshift field. In agreement with previous studies, we observe overall evolution in the luminosity-metallicity relation at intermediate redshift. Our sample, and particularly the LCBGs, occupies a region in the empirical R{sub 23}-O{sub 32} plane that differs from luminous local galaxies and is more consistent with dwarf irregulars at the present epoch, suggesting that cosmic 'downsizing' is observable in even the most fundamental parameters that describe star formation. These properties for our sample are also generally consistent with lying between local galaxies and those at high redshift, as expected by this scenario. Surprisingly, our sample exhibits no detectable correlation between compactness and metallicity, strongly suggesting that at these epochs of rapid star formation, the morphology of compact star-forming galaxies is largely transient.

  5. Buried Quasars in Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    We were awarded l00kS of INTEGRAL spacecraft time (Priority A) to observe the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIG) Mrk 2273 in order to measure the integrated flux of the 20-1003 KeV gamma-Ray emission, and to use this information to search for the presence of an highly obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). With this observation we hope to be able to better assess the role of AGN in the complete class of ULIGs and therefore to better constrain their contribution to the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray backgrounds. Our Priority A 100 kS observation of Mrk 273 was successfully carried out during revolution #73 using 4 separate exposures with the IBIS camera during May, 2003. Our IBIS observations of Mrk 273 were successfully executed, and the source was properly centered in the Field-of-view of the detectors. We are still in the process of interpreting the IBIS gamma-ray data.

  6. Very Small Scale Clustering and Merger Rate of Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masjedi, Morad; Hogg, David W.; Cool, Richard J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Blanton, Michael R.; Zehavi, Idit; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bell, Eric F.; Schneider, Donald P.; Warren, Michael S.; Brinkmann, Jon

    2006-06-01

    We present the small-scale (0.01 Mpcluminous early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample (0.16galaxy pairs. We find that the correlation function ξ(r) is surprisingly close to a r-2 power law over more than 4 orders of magnitude in separation r. This result is too steep at small scales to be explained in current versions of the halo model for galaxy clustering. We infer an LRG-LRG merger rate of <~0.6×104 Gyr-1 Gpc-3 for this sample. This result suggests that the LRG-LRG mergers are not the main mode of mass growth for LRGs at z<0.36.

  7. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    PubMed

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution. PMID:25700515

  8. Galaxy evolution. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456.

    PubMed

    Nardini, E; Reeves, J N; Gofford, J; Harrison, F A; Risaliti, G; Braito, V; Costa, M T; Matzeu, G A; Walton, D J; Behar, E; Boggs, S E; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Matt, G; Miller, J M; O'Brien, P T; Stern, D; Turner, T J; Ward, M J

    2015-02-20

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different epochs, we detected the signatures of a nearly spherical stream of highly ionized gas in the broadband x-ray spectra of the luminous quasar PDS 456. This persistent wind is expelled at relativistic speeds from the inner accretion disk, and its wide aperture suggests an effective coupling with the ambient gas. The outflow's kinetic power larger than 10(46) ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution.

  9. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF OUTFLOWS FROM INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Chandar, Rupali; Tremonti, Christy A.; Schaerer, Daniel E-mail: wofford@stsci.edu E-mail: tremonti@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-08-01

    We obtained medium-resolution ultraviolet (UV) spectra between 1150 and 1450 A of the four UV-bright, infrared-luminous starburst galaxies IRAS F08339+6517, NGC 3256, NGC 6090, and NGC 7552 using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The selected sightlines toward the starburst nuclei probe the properties of the recently formed massive stars and the physical conditions in the starburst-driven galactic superwinds. Despite being metal-rich and dusty, all four galaxies are strong Ly{alpha} emitters with equivalent widths ranging between 2 and 13 A. The UV spectra show strong P Cygni-type high-ionization features indicative of stellar winds and blueshifted low-ionization lines formed in the interstellar and circumgalactic medium. We detect outflowing gas with bulk velocities of {approx}400 km s{sup -1} and maximum velocities of almost 900 km s{sup -1}. These are among the highest values found in the local universe and comparable to outflow velocities found in luminous Lyman-break galaxies at intermediate and high redshift. The outflow velocities are unlikely to be high enough to cause escape of material from the galactic gravitational potential. However, the winds are significant for the evolution of the galaxies by transporting heavy elements from the starburst nuclei and enriching the galaxy halos. The derived mass outflow rates of {approx}100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} are comparable to or even higher than the star formation rates. The outflows can quench star formation and ultimately regulate the starburst as has been suggested for high-redshift galaxies.

  10. Disentangling star formation and AGN activity in powerful infrared luminous radio galaxies at 1 < z < 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouart, G.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; De Breuck, C.; Fioc, M.; Lehnert, M.; Seymour, N.; Stern, D.; Vernet, J.

    2016-09-01

    High-redshift radio galaxies present signs of both star formation and AGN activity, making them ideal candidates to investigate the connection and coevolution of AGN and star formation in the progenitors of present-day massive galaxies. We make use of a sample of 11 powerful radio galaxies spanning 1 galaxy evolution code PÉGASE.3 with an AGN torus model. We find that three components are necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs: an evolved and massive stellar component, a submm bright young starburst, and an AGN torus. We find that powerful radio galaxies form at very high-redshift, but experience episodic and important growth at 1 luminous high-redshift radio galaxies and no correlation with the AGN bolometric luminosity. Moreover, we find that AGN scattered light have a very limited impact on broad-band SED fitting on our sample. Finally, our analysis also suggests a wide range in origins for the observed star formation,which we partially constrain for some sources.

  11. Cold Galaxies on FIRE: Modeling the Most Luminous Starbursts in the Universe with Cosmological Zoom Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Desika

    2014-10-01

    As the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe, Submillimeter Galaxies at z 2-4 are key players in galaxy evolution. Since their discovery, SMGs have received significant attention from HST in characterizing their physical morphology, stellar masses, and star formation histories. Unfortunately, these physical constraints have been difficult for theorists to reconcile with galaxy formation simulations. Previous generations of simulations have all either {a} neglected baryons; {b} neglected radiative transfer {and connecting to observations}; or {c} neglected cosmological conditions. Here, we propose to conduct the first ever cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of Submillimeter Galaxy formation that couple with bona fide 3D dust radiative transfer calculations. These ultra-high resolution simulations {parsec-scale} will be the first to resolve the sites of dust obscuration, the cosmic growth history of SMGs, and their evolutionary destiny. Our proposal has two principle goals: {1} Develop the first ever model for SMG formation from cosmological simulations that include both baryons and dust radiative transfer; {2} Capitalize on our parsec-scale resolution to understand the connection between the physical properties of star-forming regions in high-z starbursts, and recent IMF constraints from present-epoch massive galaxies.

  12. WISE Discovery of Hyper Luminous Galaxies at z=2-4 and Their Implications for Galaxy and AGN Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Chao Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Bridge, Carrie; Assef, Roberto; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Robert L.; Jarrett, Thomas; Lonsdale, Carol; Petty, Sara; Sayers, Jack; Stanford, Adam; Stern, Daniel; Wright, Edward L.; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    On behalf of the WISE Science team, we present the discovery of a class of distant dust-enshrouded galaxies with extremely high luminosity. These galaxies are selected to have extreme red colors in the mid-IR using NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). They are faint in the optical and near-IR, predominantly at zeta = 2-4, and with IR luminosity > 10(exp 13) Solar Luminosity, making them Hyper-Luminous Infrared Galaxies (HyLIRGs). SEDs incorporating the WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry indicate hot dust dominates the bolometric luminosity, presumably powered by AGN. Preliminary multi-wavelength follow-up suggests that they are different from normal populations in the local M-sigma relation. Their low source density implies that these objects are either intrinsically rare, or a short-lived phase in a more numerous population. If the latter is the case, these hot, dust-enshrouded galaxies may be an early stage in the interplay between AGN and galaxies.

  13. LUMINOUS RED GALAXY HALO DENSITY FIELD RECONSTRUCTION AND APPLICATION TO LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Beth A.; Spergel, David N.; Bode, Paul E-mail: dns@astro.princeton.edu

    2009-09-01

    The nontrivial relationship between observations of galaxy positions in redshift space and the underlying matter field complicates our ability to determine the linear theory power spectrum and extract cosmological information from galaxy surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalog has the potential to place powerful constraints on cosmological parameters. LRGs are bright, highly biased tracers of large-scale structure. However, because they are highly biased, the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies to the galaxy power spectrum is large and fingers-of-God (FOGs) are significant. The combination of these effects leads to a {approx}10% correction in the underlying power spectrum at k = 0.1 h Mpc{sup -1} and {approx}40% correction at k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1} in the LRG P(k) analysis of Tegmark et al., thereby compromising the cosmological constraints when this potentially large correction is left as a free parameter. We propose an alternative approach to recovering the matter field from galaxy observations. Our approach is to use halos rather than galaxies to trace the underlying mass distribution. We identify FOGs and replace each FOG with a single halo object. This removes the nonlinear contribution of satellite galaxies, the one-halo term. We test our method on a large set of high-fidelity mock SDSS LRG catalogs and find that the power spectrum of the reconstructed halo density field deviates from the underlying matter power spectrum at the {<=}1% level for k {<=} 0.1 h Mpc{sup -1} and {<=}4% at k = 0.2 h Mpc{sup -1}. The reconstructed halo density field also removes the bias in the measurement of the redshift space distortion parameter {beta} induced by the FOG smearing of the linear redshift space distortions.

  14. Search for Obscured Nucleus in a Luminous IRAS Galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen

    1999-01-01

    IRAS discovered very luminous objects which emit the vast majority of their radiation in the infrared wavelength. The energy source of such a tremendous amount of emission is not understood. Starburst and active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to be the origin of their power. X-ray observations are expected to be able to reveal the characteristics of the AGN component. However, some are very X-ray quiet, because the AGN is thought to be obscured by a large column density. In order to determine the primary luminosity of the nucleus, we need an X-ray observation with a wide energy band at least up to several tens of keV. We propose to observe NGC 6240, one of the luminous IRAS galaxies, to investigate the characteristics of its AGN, which must be obscured by large column density.

  15. Structural Properties and Evidence for Interactions in a Sample of Luminous Blue Compact Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Cassidy L.; Fanelli, M.; Marcum, P.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the life cycles of galaxies over cosmic time is a primary effort in modern astrophysics. Here we explore the nature of luminous blue compact galaxies (LBCGs), a class of galaxy in the local (z < 0.05) universe exhibiting blue optical colors [(B-V) < 0.5], high luminosity (MB < -19), one or more high surface brightness regions, and moderate to high star formation rates [> 5 M(sun) per year]. LBCGs appear to be similar in their global properties to the early evolutionary phases of most galaxies, but are more amenable to detailed analysis due to their low redshifts. We describe an ultraviolet and optical investigation of a sample of 50 LBCGs using UBVR & Hα imagery obtained at McDonald Observatory, ultraviolet photometry from GALEX, and correlative data from IRAS, 2MASS, and SDSS. Using these data, we explore the evolutionary state of LBCGs. In particular, we determine the radial and azimuthal light distributions, explore the spatial extent of ionized gas (e.g., centrally- concentrated versus spatially diffuse), compare multiwavelength measures of the high-mass star formation rate, and quantify the interaction strength using a variety of merger diagnostics. Although selected independent of their environment, most systems display either a close companion or the signature of an interaction such as tails, bridges, and possible polar rings. Interpretation of the assembly history of LBCGs provides insight on massive galaxy evolution at earlier epochs.

  16. Optical Morphology Evolution of Infrared Luminous Galaxies in GOODS-N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melbourne, J.; Koo, D. C.; Le Floc'h, E.

    2005-10-01

    We combine optical morphologies and photometry from HST, redshifts from Keck, and mid-infrared luminosities from Spitzer for an optically selected sample of ~800 galaxies in GOODS-N to track the morphology evolution of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) since redshift z=1. We find a 50% decline in the number of LIRGs from z~1 to lower redshift, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, there is evidence for a morphological evolution of the populations of LIRGs. Above z=0.5, roughly half of all LIRGs are spiral, the peculiar/irregular-to-spiral ratio is ~0.7, and both classes span a similar range of LIR and MB. At low z, spirals account for one-third of LIRGs, the peculiar-to-spiral fraction rises to 1.3, and for a given MB spirals tend to have lower IR luminosity than peculiars. Only a few percent of LIRGs at any redshift are red early-type galaxies. For blue galaxies (U-B<0.2), MB is well correlated with logLIR with an rms scatter (about a bivariate linear fit) of ~0.25 dex in IR luminosity. Among blue galaxies that are brighter than MB=-21, 75% are LIRGs, regardless of redshift. These results can be explained by a scenario in which at high z, most large spirals experience an elevated star formation rate as LIRGs. Gas consumption results in a decline of LIRGs, especially in spirals, to lower redshifts.

  17. A massive, cooling-flow-induced starburst in the core of a luminous cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Foley, R J; Ruel, J; Sullivan, P; Veilleux, S; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bazin, G; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Egami, E; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Miller, E D; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Rawle, T D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rex, M; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Simcoe, R; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Suhada, R; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2012-08-16

    In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 10(45) erg s(-1)) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers.

  18. Dark vs. luminous matter in the CenA/M83 galaxy complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachentsev, Igor

    2004-07-01

    The distribution of dark vs. luminous matter on scales of 0.1-1.0 Mpc remains poorly understood. For a nearby group, the total mass can be determined from the radius of "the zero-velocity surface", which separates the group from the general Hubble flow. This new method requires the measurement of accurate distances and radial velocities of galaxies around the group, but gives total mass estimates independent of assumptions about the state of relaxation or orbital characteristics. The mass pertains to the group at the full scale to which it is bound. Upon application in several nearest groups, the method yields mass estimates in agreement with the sum of the virial masses of subcomponents. However, the typical total M/L ratio for the nearby groups of ~30 Mo/Lo implies a local mean density of matter which is only 1/7 the canonical global density . The nearby complex of galaxies around Cen A and M83 resembles our Local Group by the dumb-bell concentration of objects around a pair of dominant galaxies. Accurate distances have been acquired recently for ~20 group members by the TRGB method using HST. We will measure TRGB distances to the 17 remaining galaxies in the region. These observations will constrain the dynamical state of the halo surrounding the nearest giant E-galaxy Cen A, providing a comparison with the halos of the nearest spirals.

  19. The Most Luminous Object in the Universe: Shrouded Quasar or Proto-Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.

    1999-01-01

    We have used ASCA to observe the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724, which is identified with a galaxy at a redshift of 2.286. When first discovered, it was believed to be the most luminous object in the universe. Subsequent HST images have established that it is gravitationally-lensed by a foreground cluster. It is still a very powerful object, but not extraordinarily so. Observations at other wavebands have not established whether it is a dust-shrouded quasar or a young, massive galaxy in the process of formation. Since quasars are strong emitters of hard X-rays, while proto-galaxies would not be, and since the opacity of gas and dust is relatively small in the energy regime probed by ASCA (3 to 30 keV in the galaxy rest frame), we undertook these observations to search for a heavily shrouded quasar that might be invisible at lower energies. However, the observations did not detect any emission from this object. This either means that the galaxy is in fact powered by a starburst or that the putative quasar is located behind a very high column density of absorbing gas (N_H > 10(exp 25)/sq cm), so that not even hard X-rays are transmitted. A hidden quasar should be visible in reflected light in X-ray data of higher sensitivity. Observations with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory or ESA's XMM are required to settle the matter. No publication resulted from our null result.

  20. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO{sup +}/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  1. Monsters in the dark: predictions for luminous galaxies in the early Universe from the BLUETIDES simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Dacen; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Feng, Yu; Croft, Rupert; Nagai, Daisuke

    2016-09-01

    Using deep Hubble and Spitzer observations Oesch et al. have identified a bright (MUV ≈ -22) star-forming galaxy candidate at z ≈ 11. The presence of GN-z11 implies a number density ˜10-6 Mpc-3, roughly an order of magnitude higher than the expected value based on extrapolations from lower redshift. Using the unprecedented volume and high resolution of the BLUETIDES cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, we study the population of luminous rare objects at z > 10. The luminosity function in BLUETIDES implies an enhanced number of massive galaxies, consistent with the observation of GN-z11. We find about 30 galaxies at MUV ≈ -22 at z = 11 in the BLUETIDES volume, including a few objects about 1.5 mag brighter. The probability of observing GN-z11 in the volume probed by Oesch et al. is ˜13 per cent. The predicted properties of the rare bright galaxies at z = 11 in BLUETIDES closely match those inferred from the observations of GN-z11. BLUETIDES predicts a negligible contribution from faint AGN in the observed SED. The enormous increase in volume surveyed by WFIRST will provide observations of ˜1000 galaxies with MUV < -22 beyond z = 11 out to z = 13.5.

  2. Luminous clusters of Wolf-Rayet stars in the SBmIII galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1991-01-01

    Observations are reported of strong broad emission lines attributed to WR stars in the spectra of several bright knots in the nearby Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4214 (classified as type SBmIII), in addition to the emission produced by the more prevalent WN stars). Data are presented on measurements of the line fluxes, the line equivalent widths, and continuum flux densities in the four observed knots, showing that the strongest WR lines generally appear in knots having the most luminous stellar continuum. The significance of this observation is discussed.

  3. Extra-nuclear starbursts: young luminous Hinge clumps in interacting galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Beverly J.; Giroux, Mark L.; Soria, Roberto; Struck, Curtis; Swartz, Douglas A.; Yukita, Mihoko E-mail: girouxm@etsu.edu E-mail: curt@iastate.edu

    2014-03-01

    Hinge clumps are luminous knots of star formation near the base of tidal features in some interacting galaxies. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV/optical/IR images and Chandra X-ray maps along with Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV, Spitzer IR, and ground-based optical/near-IR images to investigate the star forming properties in a sample of 12 hinge clumps in five interacting galaxies. The most extreme of these hinge clumps have star formation rates of 1-9 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, comparable to or larger than the 'overlap' region of intense star formation between the two disks of the colliding galaxy system the Antennae. In the HST images, we have found remarkably large and luminous sources at the centers of these hinge clumps. These objects are much larger and more luminous than typical 'super star clusters' in interacting galaxies, and are sometimes embedded in a linear ridge of fainter star clusters, consistent with star formation along a narrow caustic. These central sources have FWHM diameters of ∼70 pc, compared to ∼3 pc in 'ordinary' super star clusters. Their absolute I magnitudes range from M{sub I} ∼ – 12.2 to –16.5; thus, if they are individual star clusters they would lie near the top of the 'super star cluster' luminosity function of star clusters. These sources may not be individual star clusters, but instead may be tightly packed groups of clusters that are blended together in the HST images. Comparison to population synthesis modeling indicates that the hinge clumps contain a range of stellar ages. This is consistent with expectations based on models of galaxy interactions, which suggest that star formation may be prolonged in these regions. In the Chandra images, we have found strong X-ray emission from several of these hinge clumps. In most cases, this emission is well-resolved with Chandra and has a thermal X-ray spectrum, thus it is likely due to hot gas associated with the star formation. The ratio of the extinction

  4. Sloshing Gas in the Core of the Most Luminous Galaxy Cluster RXJ1347.5-1145

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Ryan E.; Zuhone, John; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Markevitvh, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    We present new constraints on the merger history of the most X-ray luminous cluster of galaxies, RXJ1347.5-1145, based on its unique multiwavelength morphology. Our X-ray analysis confirms the core gas is undergoing "sloshing" resulting from a prior, large scale, gravitational perturbation. In combination with extensive multiwavelength observations, the sloshing gas points to the primary and secondary clusters having had at least two prior strong gravitational interactions. The evidence supports a model in which the secondary subcluster with mass M=4.8+/-2.4x10(exp 14) solar Mass has previously (> or approx.0.6 Gyr ago) passed by the primary cluster, and has now returned for a subsequent crossing where the subcluster's gas has been completely stripped from its dark matter halo. RXJ1347 is a prime example of how core gas sloshing may be used to constrain the merger histories of galaxy clusters through multiwavelength analyses.

  5. MegaZ-LRG: a photometric redshift catalogue of one million SDSS luminous red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collister, Adrian; Lahav, Ofer; Blake, Chris; Cannon, Russell; Croom, Scott; Drinkwater, Michael; Edge, Alastair; Eisenstein, Daniel; Loveday, Jon; Nichol, Robert; Pimbblet, Kevin; de Propris, Roberto; Roseboom, Isaac; Ross, Nic; Schneider, Donald P.; Shanks, Tom; Wake, David

    2007-02-01

    We describe the construction of MegaZ-LRG, a photometric redshift catalogue of over one million luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the redshift range 0.4 < z < 0.7 with limiting magnitude i < 20. The catalogue is selected from the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 4. The 2dF-SDSS LRG and Quasar (2SLAQ) spectroscopic redshift catalogue of 13000 intermediate-redshift LRGs provides a photometric redshift training set, allowing use of ANNz, a neural network-based photometric-redshift estimator. The rms photometric redshift accuracy obtained for an evaluation set selected from the 2SLAQ sample is σz = 0.049 averaged over all galaxies, and σz = 0.040 for a brighter subsample (i < 19.0). The catalogue is expected to contain ~5 per cent stellar contamination. The ANNz code is used to compute a refined star/galaxy probability based on a range of photometric parameters; this allows the contamination fraction to be reduced to 2 per cent with negligible loss of genuine galaxies. The MegaZ-LRG catalogue is publicly available on the World Wide Web from http://www.2slaq.info.

  6. Highly-luminous Cool Core Clusters of Galaxies: Mechanically-driven or Radiatively-driven AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie; Fabian, Andy

    2011-12-01

    Cool core clusters of galaxies require strong feedback from their central AGN to offset cooling. We present a study of strong cool core, highly-luminous (most with Lx >= 1045 erg s-1), clusters of galaxies in which the mean central AGN jet power must be very high yet no central point X-ray source is detected. Using the unique spatial resolution of Chandra, a sample of 13 clusters is analysed, including A1835, A2204, and one of the most massive cool core clusters, RXCJ1504.1-0248. All of the central galaxies host a radio source, indicating an active nucleus, and no obvious X-ray point source. For all clusters in the sample, the nucleus has an X-ray bolometric luminosity below 2 per cent of that of the entire cluster. We investigate how these clusters can have such strong X-ray luminosities, short radiative cooling-times of the inner intracluster gas requiring strong energy feedback to counterbalance that cooling, and yet have such radiatively-inefficient cores with, on average, Lkin/Lnuc exceeding 200. Explanations of this puzzle carry significant implications for the origin and operation of jets, as well as on establishing the importance of kinetic feedback for the evolution of galaxies and their surrounding medium.

  7. The Cambridge-Cambridge X-ray Serendipity Survey: I X-ray luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the first results obtained from a new optical identification program of 123 faint X-ray sources with S(0.5-2 keV) greater than 2 x 10(exp -14) erg/s/sq cm serendipitously detected in ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. We have spectroscopically identified the optical counterparts to more than 100 sources in this survey. Although the majority of the sample (68 objects) are QSO's, we have also identified 12 narrow emission line galaxies which have extreme X-ray luminosities (10(exp 42) less than L(sub X) less than 10(exp 43.5) erg/s). Subsequent spectroscopy reveals them to be a mixture of star-burst galaxies and Seyfert 2 galaxies in approximately equal numbers. Combined with potentially similar objects identified in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, these X-ray luminous galaxies exhibit a rate of cosmological evolution, L(sub X) varies as (1 + z)(exp 2.5 +/- 1.0), consistent with that derived for X-ray QSO's. This evolution, coupled with the steep slope determined for the faint end of the X-ray luminosity function (Phi(L(sub X)) varies as L(sub X)(exp -1.9)), implies that such objects could comprise 15-35% of the soft (1-2 keV) X-ray background.

  8. Spectroscopy of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Distant Clusters. I. Spectroscopic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Hon, Kimo

    2011-11-01

    We used the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II Telescope to obtain spectra of galaxies in the fields of five distant, rich galaxy clusters over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.9 in a search for luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). Unlike traditional studies of galaxy clusters, we preferentially targeted blue cluster members identified via multi-band photometric pre-selection based on imaging data from the WIYN telescope. Of the 1288 sources that we targeted, we determined secure spectroscopic redshifts for 848 sources, yielding a total success rate of 66%. Our redshift measurements are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature, except for 11 targets which we believe were previously in error. Within our sample, we confirm the presence of 53 LCBGs in the five galaxy clusters. The clusters all stand out as distinct peaks in the redshift distribution of LCBGs with the average number density of LCBGs ranging from 1.65 ± 0.25 Mpc-3 at z = 0.55 to 3.13 ± 0.65 Mpc-3 at z = 0.8. The number density of LCBGs in clusters exceeds the field density by a factor of 749 ± 116 at z = 0.55; at z = 0.8, the corresponding ratio is E = 416 ± 95. At z = 0.55, this enhancement is well above that seen for blue galaxies or the overall cluster population, indicating that LCBGs are preferentially triggered in high-density environments at intermediate redshifts. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS COMPACT BLUE GALAXIES IN DISTANT CLUSTERS. I. SPECTROSCOPIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Hon, Kimo; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu E-mail: mab@astro.wisc.edu

    2011-11-10

    We used the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II Telescope to obtain spectra of galaxies in the fields of five distant, rich galaxy clusters over the redshift range 0.5 < z < 0.9 in a search for luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). Unlike traditional studies of galaxy clusters, we preferentially targeted blue cluster members identified via multi-band photometric pre-selection based on imaging data from the WIYN telescope. Of the 1288 sources that we targeted, we determined secure spectroscopic redshifts for 848 sources, yielding a total success rate of 66%. Our redshift measurements are in good agreement with those previously reported in the literature, except for 11 targets which we believe were previously in error. Within our sample, we confirm the presence of 53 LCBGs in the five galaxy clusters. The clusters all stand out as distinct peaks in the redshift distribution of LCBGs with the average number density of LCBGs ranging from 1.65 {+-} 0.25 Mpc{sup -3} at z = 0.55 to 3.13 {+-} 0.65 Mpc{sup -3} at z = 0.8. The number density of LCBGs in clusters exceeds the field density by a factor of 749 {+-} 116 at z = 0.55; at z = 0.8, the corresponding ratio is E = 416 {+-} 95. At z = 0.55, this enhancement is well above that seen for blue galaxies or the overall cluster population, indicating that LCBGs are preferentially triggered in high-density environments at intermediate redshifts.

  10. Mapping luminous blue compact galaxies with VIRUS-P. Morphology, line ratios, and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairós, L. M.; Caon, N.; García Lorenzo, B.; Kelz, A.; Roth, M.; Papaderos, P.; Streicher, O.

    2012-11-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are narrow emission-line systems that undergo a violent burst of star formation. They are compact, low-luminosity galaxies, with blue colors and low chemical abundances, which offer us a unique opportunity to investigate collective star formation and its effects on galaxy evolution in a relatively simple, dynamically unperturbed environment. Spatially resolved spectrophotometric studies of BCGs are essential for a better understanding of the role of starburst-driven feedback processes on the kinematical and chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies near and far. Aims: We carry out an integral field spectroscopy (IFS) study of a sample of luminous BCGs, with the aim to probe the morphology, kinematics, dust extinction, and excitation mechanisms of their warm interstellar medium (ISM). Methods: We obtained IFS data for five luminous BCGs with VIRUS-P, the prototype instrument for the Visible Integral Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph, attached to the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at the McDonald Observatory. VIRUS-P consists of a square array of 247 optical fibers, which covers a 109″ × 109″ field of view, with a spatial sampling of 4farcs2 and a 0.3 filling factor. We observed in the 3550-5850 Å spectral range, with a resolution of 5 Å FWHM. From these data we built two-dimensional maps of the continuum and the most prominent emission-lines ([O ii] λ3727, Hγ, Hβ and [O iii] λ5007), and investigated the morphology of diagnostic emission-line ratios and the extinction patterns in the ISM as well as stellar and gas kinematics. Additionally, from integrated spectra we inferred total line fluxes and luminosity-weighted extinction coefficients and gas-phase metallicities. Results: All galaxies exhibit an overall regular morphology in the stellar continuum, while their warm ISM morphology is more complex: in II Zw 33 and Mrk 314, the star-forming regions are aligned along a chain-structure; Haro 1, NGC 4670 and III Zw 102

  11. Properties of luminous red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Tom; Meiksin, Avery; Murphy, Tara

    2007-05-01

    We perform population-synthesis modelling of a magnitude-limited sample of 4391 luminous red galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4). We fit measured spectral indices using a large library of high-resolution spectra, covering a wide range of metallicities and assuming an exponentially decaying star formation rate punctuated by bursts, to obtain median-likelihood estimates for the light-weighted age, metallicity, stellar mass and internal extinction for the galaxies. The ages lie predominantly in the range 4-10 Gyr, peaking near 6 Gyr, with metallicities in the range -0.4 < [Z/H] < 0.4, peaking at [Z/H] ~ 0.2. Only a few per cent of the spectra are better fitted allowing for a burst in addition to continuous star formation. For these systems, typically one-quarter to one-third of the stars are formed in the burst. The total stellar masses of all the galaxies are confined to a very narrow range around ~3 × 1011Msolar, consistent with the expected homogeneity of the sample. Our results broadly agree with those of previous groups using an independent population-synthesis code. We find, however, that our choice in priors results in ages 1-2 Gyr smaller, decreasing the peak formation epoch from about z = 2.3 to 1.3 for the stars. To describe the distribution in measured mean metallicity of the galaxies, we develop a metal evolution model incorporating stochastic star formation quenching motivated by recent attempts to account for the apparent `antihierarchical' formation of elliptical galaxies. Two scenarios emerge, a closed box with an effective stellar yield of 0.26, and an accreting box with an effective stellar yield of 0.10. Both scenarios require an initial mass function weighted towards massive stars. They also require characteristic star formation quenching times of about 108 yr, the expected lifetime of luminous quasi-stellar objects. The models predict an anticorrelation between the age and mean metallicity of the galaxies

  12. Ground-based Submm/mm Follow-up Observations For Wise Selected Hyper-luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, C.; Benford, D.; Bridge, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Blain, A.; Sayers, J.; Petty, S.; WISE Team

    2012-01-01

    One of the major objectives of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission is to search for the most luminous galaxies in the universe. The most productive method so far to select hyper luminous galaxies from WISE is to select targets that undetectable by WISE at 3.4 and 4.6 microns, while clearly detected at 12 and 22 microns, the so called W12 dropout galaxies. We have used the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory to follow-up these high-z (z=1.6-4.6) galaxies with SHARC-II at 350 to 850 microns, and BOLOCAM at 1.1 mm. Based on Spitzer 3.3 and 4.7 microns follow-ups, WISE W3, W4, and CSO observations, we constructed the SEDs and estimate the infrared luminosity and dust temperature for these W12 dropout galaxies. The inferred infrared luminosities are at least 10^13 to 10^14 solar luminosities, making them one of the most luminous population. The typical SEDs of these galaxies are flat from mid-IR to submillimeter, peaking at shorter wavelengths than other infrared luminous galaxies, indicating hotter dust temperature than known populations. Their SEDs can not be well fitted with existing templates, suggesting they may be a distinct new population. They may be extreme cases of Dust-Obsecured Galaxies (DOGs) with very high luminosities and dust temperature, and tracing a short transiting phase with booming luminosity at the peak epoch of AGN/starburst galaxy evolution.

  13. Ionized gas outflows and global kinematics of low-z luminous star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arribas, S.; Colina, L.; Bellocchi, E.; Maiolino, R.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2014-08-01

    We study the kinematic properties of the ionised gas outflows and ambient interstellar medium (ISM) in a large and representative sample of local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) (58 systems, 75 galaxies) at galactic and sub-galactic (i.e., star-forming clumps) scales, thanks to integral field spectroscopy (IFS)-based high signal-to-noise integrated spectra. The velocity dispersion of the ionized ISM in U/LIRGs (⟨ σ ⟩ ~ 70 km s-1) is larger than in lower luminosity local star-forming galaxies (⟨ σ ⟩ ~ 25 km s-1). While for isolated disc LIRGs star formation appears to sustain turbulence, gravitational energy release associated with interactions and mergers plays an important role in driving σ in the U/LIRG range. We find that σ has a dependency on the star formation rate density (ΣSFR), which is weaker than expected if it were driven by the energy released by the starburst. The relatively small role of star formation (SF) driving the σ in U/LIRGs is reinforced by the lack of an increase in σ associated with high luminosity SF clumps. We also find that the impact of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) in ULIRGs is strong, increasing on average σ by a factor 1.5. Low-z U/LIRGs cover a range of velocity dispersion (σ ~ 30 to 100 km s-1) and star formation rate density (ΣSFR ~ 0.1 to 20 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) similar to those of high-z SFGs. Moreover, the observed weak dependency of σ on ΣSFR for local U/LIRGs (σ ∝ ΣSFR+0.06) is in very good agreement with that measured in some high-z samples. The presence of ionized gas outflows in U/LIRGs seems universal based on the detection of a broad, usually blueshifted, Hα line. The observed dependency of the maximum velocity of the outflow (Vmax) on the star formation rate (SFR) is of the type Vmax(non - AGN) ∝ SFR(LIR)+ 0.24. We find that AGNs in U/LIRGs are able to generate faster (~×2) and more massive (~× 1.4) ionized gas outflows than pure starbursts. The derived ionized mass

  14. Identification of Luminous Infrared Galaxies at 1 <~ z <~ 2.51,2,3,4,

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Floc'h, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Rieke, G. H.; Papovich, C.; Huang, J.-S.; Barmby, P.; Dole, H.; Egami, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Wilson, G.; Miyazaki, S.; Rigby, J. R.; Bei, L.; Blaylock, M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Fazio, G. G.; Frayer, D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Hines, D. C.; Misselt, K. A.; Morrison, J. E.; Muzerolle, J.; Rieke, M. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Su, K. Y. L.; Willner, S. P.; Young, E. T.

    2004-09-01

    We present preliminary results on 24 μm detections of luminous infrared galaxies at z>~1 with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). Observations were performed in the Lockman Hole and the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) and were supplemented by data obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) between 3 and 9 μm. The positional accuracy of <~2" for most MIPS/IRAC detections provides unambiguous identifications of their optical counterparts. Using spectroscopic redshifts from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe survey, we identify 24 μm sources at z>~1 in the EGS, while the combination of the MIPS/IRAC observations with BVRIJHK ancillary data in the Lockman Hole also shows very clear cases of galaxies with photometric redshifts at 1<~z<~2.5. The observed 24 μm fluxes indicate infrared luminosities greater than 1011 Lsolar, while the data at shorter wavelengths reveal rather red and probably massive (M>~M*) galaxy counterparts. It is the first time that this population of luminous objects is detected up to z~2.5 in the infrared. Our work demonstrates the ability of the MIPS instrument to probe the dusty universe at very high redshift and illustrates how the forthcoming Spitzer deep surveys will offer a unique opportunity to illuminate a dark side of cosmic history not explored by previous infrared experiments. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated jointly by Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucia (CSIC). Based on observations made with the Isaac Newton Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  15. OT1_nlu_1: Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, N.

    2010-07-01

    We propose to survey CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED), from J=4-3 up to J=13-12, on 93 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L_{IR} > 1.0E11 L_{sun}) with Herschel SPIRE FTS spectrometer. These galaxies, plus 32 additional LIRGs that will have similar data from existing Herschel programs (mainly the HerCULES project), form a flux-limited subset of the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRGs Survey (GOALS) sample. Our proposal is built on the legacy of GOALS and extends beyond the existing Herschel HerCULES program, which emphasizes more on ULIRGs, to a much needed sample coverage of the more numerous and diverse population of less luminous LIRGs. The data from the proposed observations will not only provide much needed local LIRG templates for future ALMA studies of high-redshift counterparts, but also lend us a powerful diagnostic tool to probe the warm and dense molecular gas that are more closely related to the starburst or AGN activity in the nuclei of LIRGs. The data from this proposal will provide important statistical clues to the interplay between the cold and warm molecular gas, IR luminosity, star formation rate and efficiency, and the diverse properties of LIRGs. Specifically, using the homogeneous CO SLED data from this proposal, together with ground-base, low-order CO line data (mainly J=1-0) and other data that have been compiled for the GOALS sample, we will address the following questions: (1) What is the dominant nuclear power source in individual sample galaxy: starburst or AGN? (2) What are the typical physical properties of warm molecular gas in the nuclei of LIRGs? (3) How do the nuclear warm gas components correlate to the cold gas component, star formation rate and efficiency, dust temperature, etc? and (4) How does molecular gas excitation change along a merger sequence?

  16. DETECTION OF A LUMINOUS HOT X-RAY CORONA AROUND THE MASSIVE SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 266

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jones, Christine

    2013-08-01

    The presence of luminous hot X-ray coronae in the dark matter halos of massive spiral galaxies is a basic prediction of galaxy formation models. However, observational evidence for such coronae is very scarce, with the first few examples having only been detected recently. In this paper, we study the large-scale diffuse X-ray emission associated with the massive spiral galaxy NGC 266. Using ROSAT and Chandra X-ray observations we argue that the diffuse emission extends at least {approx}70 kpc, whereas the bulk of the stellar light is confined to within {approx}25 kpc. Based on X-ray hardness ratios, we find that most of the diffuse emission is released at energies {approx}< 1.2 keV, which indicates that this emission originates from hot X-ray gas. Adopting a realistic gas temperature and metallicity, we derive that in the (0.05-0.15)r{sub 200} region (where r{sub 200} is the virial radius) the bolometric X-ray luminosity of the hot gas is (4.3 {+-} 0.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} and the gas mass is (9.1 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }. These values are comparable to those observed for the two other well-studied X-ray coronae in spiral galaxies, suggesting that the physical properties of such coronae are similar. This detection offers an excellent opportunity for comparison of observations with detailed galaxy formation simulations.

  17. A deficit of ultraluminous X-ray sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, W.; Roberts, T. P.; Mineo, S.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Jackson, F. E.; Goulding, A. D.; Fischer, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a Chandra study of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in a sample of 17 nearby (DL < 60 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), selected to have star formation rates (SFRs) in excess of 7 M⊙ yr-1 and low foreground Galactic column densities (NH ≲ 5 × 1020 cm-2). A total of 53 ULXs were detected and we confirm that this is a complete catalogue of ULXs for the LIRG sample. We examine the evolution of ULX spectra with luminosity in these galaxies by stacking the spectra of individual objects in three luminosity bins, finding a distinct change in spectral index at luminosity ˜2 × 1039 erg s-1. This may be a change in spectrum as 10 M⊙ black holes transit from an ˜ Eddington to a super-Eddington accretion regime, and is supported by a plausible detection of partially ionized absorption imprinted on the spectrum of the luminous ULX (LX ≈ 5 × 1039 erg s-1) CXOU J024238.9-000055 in NGC 1068, consistent with the highly ionized massive wind that we would expect to see driven by a super-Eddington accretion flow. This sample shows a large deficit in the number of ULXs detected per unit SFR (0.2 versus 2 ULXs, per M⊙ yr-1) compared to the detection rate in nearby (DL < 14.5 Mpc) normal star-forming galaxies. This deficit also manifests itself as a lower differential X-ray luminosity function normalization for the LIRG sample than for samples of other star-forming galaxies. We show that it is unlikely that this deficit is a purely observational effect. Part of this deficit might be attributable to the high metallicity of the LIRGs impeding the production efficiency of ULXs and/or a lag between the star formation starting and the production of ULXs; however, we argue that the evidence - including very low NULX/LFIR, and an even lower ULX incidence in the central regions of the LIRGs - shows that the main culprit for this deficit is likely to be the high column of gas and dust in these galaxies, that fuels the high SFR but also acts to

  18. A far-infrared spectroscopic survey of intermediate redshift (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Farrah, D.; Pearson, C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Perez Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Thatte, N.; Scott, D.; Valtchanov, I.; Vaccari, M.

    2014-11-20

    We present Herschel far-IR photometry and spectroscopy as well as ground-based CO observations of an intermediate redshift (0.21 ≤ z ≤ 0.88) sample of Herschel-selected (ultra)-luminous infrared galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}). With these measurements, we trace the dust continuum, far-IR atomic line emission, in particular [C II] 157.7 μm, as well as the molecular gas of z ∼ 0.3 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) and perform a detailed investigation of the interstellar medium of the population. We find that the majority of Herschel-selected intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs have L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios that are a factor of about 10 higher than that of local ULIRGs and comparable to that of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Using our sample to bridge local and high-z [C II] observations, we find that the majority of galaxies at all redshifts and all luminosities follow an L {sub C} {sub II}–L {sub FIR} relation with a slope of unity, from which local ULIRGs and high- z active-galactic-nucleus-dominated sources are clear outliers. We also confirm that the strong anti-correlation between the L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratio and the far-IR color L {sub 60}/L {sub 100} observed in the local universe holds over a broad range of redshifts and luminosities, in the sense that warmer sources exhibit lower L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} at any epoch. Intermediate redshift ULIRGs are also characterized by large molecular gas reservoirs and by lower star formation efficiencies compared to that of local ULIRGs. The high L {sub C} {sub II}/L {sub FIR} ratios, the moderate star formation efficiencies (L {sub IR}/L{sub CO}{sup ′} or L {sub IR}/M{sub H{sub 2}}), and the relatively low dust temperatures of our sample (which are also common characteristics of high-z star-forming galaxies with ULIRG-like luminosities) indicate that the evolution of the physical properties of (U)LIRGs between the

  19. Lensing measurements of the ellipticity of luminous red galaxies dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2016-04-01

    Lensing measurements of the shapes of dark matter haloes can provide tests of gravity theories and possible dark matter interactions. We measure the quadrupole weak lensing signal from the elliptical haloes of 70 000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies. We use a new estimator that nulls the spherical halo lensing signal, isolating the shear due to anisotropy in the dark matter distribution. One of the two Cartesian components of our estimator is insensitive to the primary systematic, a spurious alignment of lens and source ellipticities, allowing us to make robust measurements of halo ellipticity. Our best-fitting value for the ellipticity of the surface mass density is 0.24 ± 0.06, which translates to an axis ratio of 0.78. We rule out the hypothesis of no ellipticity at the 4σ confidence level, and ellipticity <0.12 (axis ratio >0.89) at the 2σ level. We discuss how our measurements of halo ellipticity are revised to higher values using estimates of the misalignment of mass and light from simulations. Finally, we apply the same techniques to a smaller sample of redMaPPer galaxy clusters and obtain a 3σ measurement of cluster ellipticity. We discuss how the improved signal-to-noise ratio properties of our estimator can enable studies of halo shapes for different galaxy populations with upcoming surveys.

  20. Hydrogen fluoride toward luminous nearby galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    SciTech Connect

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Lord, S.; Falgarone, E.; Güsten, R.

    2014-04-10

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in two luminous nearby galaxies, NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H{sub 2}){sub out} ∼ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} and an outflow rate as large as M-dot ∼6.4 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile are compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of ≤1.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, inside an inner radius of ≤200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central active galactic nucleus is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow may be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF J = 1-0 line is seen to provide an important probe of the kinematics of absorbing material along the sight-line to nearby galaxies with bright dust continuum and a promising new tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies.

  1. Hydrogen Fluoride toward Luminous Nearby Galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monje, R. R.; Lord, S.; Falgarone, E.; Lis, D. C.; Neufeld, D. A.; Phillips, T. G.; Güsten, R.

    2014-04-01

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in two luminous nearby galaxies, NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H2)out ~ 1 × 107 M ⊙ and an outflow rate as large as dot M ~6.4 M ⊙ yr-1. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile are compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of <=1.2 M ⊙ yr-1, inside an inner radius of <=200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central active galactic nucleus is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow may be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF J = 1-0 line is seen to provide an important probe of the kinematics of absorbing material along the sight-line to nearby galaxies with bright dust continuum and a promising new tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies.

  2. UNUSUAL PAH EMISSION IN NEARBY EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: A SIGNATURE OF AN INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Vega, O.; Bressan, A.; Panuzzo, P.; Granato, G. L.; Silva, L.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2010-10-01

    We present the analysis of Spitzer-IRS spectra of four early-type galaxies (ETGs), NGC 1297, NGC 5044, NGC 6868, and NGC 7079, all classified as LINERs in the optical bands. Their IRS spectra present the full series of H{sub 2} rotational emission lines in the range 5-38 {mu}m, atomic lines, and prominent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features. We investigate the nature and origin of the PAH emission, characterized by unusually low 6-9/11.3 {mu}m interband ratios. After the subtraction of a passive ETG template, we find that the 7-9 {mu}m spectral region requires dust features not normally present in star-forming galaxies. Each spectrum is then analyzed with the aim of identifying their components and origin. In contrast to normal star-forming galaxies, where cationic PAH emission prevails, our 6-14 {mu}m spectra seem to be dominated by large and neutral PAH emission, responsible for the low 6-9/11.3 {mu}m ratios, plus two broad dust emission features peaking at 8.2 {mu}m and 12 {mu}m. These broad components, observed until now mainly in evolved carbon stars and usually attributed to pristine material, contribute approximately 30%-50% of the total PAH flux in the 6-14 {mu}m region. We propose that the PAH molecules in our ETGs arise from fresh carbonaceous material that is continuously released by a population of carbon stars, formed in a rejuvenation episode that occurred within the last few Gyr. The analysis of the MIR spectra allows us to infer that, in order to maintain the peculiar size and charge distributions biased to large and neutral PAHs, this material must be shocked and excited by the weak UV interstellar radiation field of our ETGs.

  3. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M. E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.n E-mail: xilouris@astro.noa.g

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}> 10{sup 11} L {sub sun}), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L {sub IR}>10{sup 12} L {sub sun}), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C{sup +} line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these

  4. A MAP OF THE INTEGRATED SACHS-WOLFE SIGNAL FROM LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Granett, Benjamin R.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szapudi, Istvan

    2009-08-10

    We construct a map of the time derivative of the gravitational potential traced by Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The potential decays on large scales due to cosmic acceleration, leaving an imprint on cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. With a template fit, we directly measure this signature on the CMB at a 2{sigma} confidence level. The measurement is consistent with the cross-correlation statistic, strengthening the claim that dark energy is indeed the cause of the correlation. This new approach potentially simplifies the cosmological interpretation. Our constructed linear ISW map shows no evidence for degree-scale cold and hot spots associated with supervoid and supercluster structures. This suggests that the linear ISW effect in a concordance {lambda}CDM cosmology is insufficient to explain the strong CMB imprints from these structures that we previously reported.

  5. HOST GALAXIES OF LUMINOUS TYPE 2 QUASARS AT z {approx} 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-10

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z {approx} 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (M{sub V} < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] {lambda}5007 A emission-line luminosity (L[{sub OIII}]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of {approx}10{sup 8.8} M{sub sun} inferred assuming the local M {sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation and a median Eddington ratio of {approx}0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions {sigma}{sub *} measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad H{beta}, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L {sub [OIII]}; the scattered-light fraction is {approx}30% of L{sub 5100} for objects with L {sub [OIII]} = 10{sup 9.5} L{sub sun}. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II {lambda}4686 A with luminosities up to 10{sup 8.3} L{sub sun} are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that {approx}5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L{sub 5100}) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Luminous X-ray candidates within D25 of galaxies (Gong+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, H.; Liu, J.; Maccarone, T.

    2016-02-01

    Using Chandra archive data we conduct a thorough survey of luminous X-ray sources. We directly analyze about 9400 ACIS Observations and cross-correlate the X-ray sources with 77000 galaxies within 250Mpc. The final catalog includes 119 unique luminous X-ray source candidates with LX>3x1040erg/s from 93 galaxies or 41 HLX candidates with LX>1x1041erg/s from 35 galaxies. We derive a moderate contamination rate due to foreground or background sources. We also cross-correlate the catalog with FIRST, perform variability and periodicity tests, and analyze one HLX candidate in particular. Our catalog could be a starting point to perform follow-up observations. (2 data files).

  7. The SDSS-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey: Luminous Red Galaxy Target Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Licquia, Timothy C.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Ross, Ashley J.; Myers, Adam D.; Dawson, Kyle S.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Percival, Will J.; Bautista, Julian E.; Comparat, Johan; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Schlegel, David J.; Tojeiro, Rita; Ho, Shirley; Lang, Dustin; Rao, Sandhya M.; McBride, Cameron K.; Ben Zhu, Guangtun; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bailey, Stephen; Bolton, Adam S.; Delubac, Timothée; Mariappan, Vivek; Blanton, Michael R.; Reid, Beth; Schneider, Donald P.; Seo, Hee-Jong; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Prada, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    We describe the algorithm used to select the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample for the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV) using photometric data from both the SDSS and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. LRG targets are required to meet a set of color selection criteria and have z-band and i-band MODEL magnitudes z < 19.95 and 19.9 < i < 21.8, respectively. Our algorithm selects roughly 50 LRG targets per square degree, the great majority of which lie in the redshift range 0.6 < z < 1.0 (median redshift 0.71). We demonstrate that our methods are highly effective at eliminating stellar contamination and lower-redshift galaxies. We perform a number of tests using spectroscopic data from SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs to determine the redshift reliability of our target selection and its ability to meet the science requirements of eBOSS. The SDSS spectra are of high enough signal-to-noise ratio that at least ˜89% of the target sample yields secure redshift measurements. We also present tests of the uniformity and homogeneity of the sample, demonstrating that it should be clean enough for studies of the large-scale structure of the universe at higher redshifts than SDSS-III/BOSS LRGs reached.

  8. The molecular gas in Luminous Infrared Galaxies: a new emergent picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Gao, Yu; Xilouris, Manolis; Greve, Thomas R.

    2013-03-01

    Results from a large, multi-J CO, 13CO, and HCN line survey of Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs: LIR≥ 1010 L⊙) in the local Universe (z≤0.1), complemented by CO J=4-3 up to J=13-12 observations from the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO), paints a new picture for the average conditions of the molecular gas of the most luminous of these galaxies with turbulence and/or large cosmic ray (CR) energy densities UCR rather than far-UV/optical photons from star-forming sites as the dominant heating sources. Especially in ULIRGs (LIR>1012 L⊙) the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs) can encompass at most a few % of their molecular gas mass while the large UCR˜ 103 UCR, Galaxy, and the strong turbulence in these merger/starbursts, can volumetrically heat much of their molecular gas to Tkin˜ (100-200) K, unhindered by the high dust extinctions. Moreover the strong supersonic turbulence in ULIRGs relocates much of their molecular gas at much higher average densities (≥104 cm-3) than in isolated spirals (˜ 102-103 cm-3). This renders low-J CO lines incapable of constraining the properties of the bulk of the molecular gas in ULIRGs, with substantial and systematic underestimates of its mass possible when only such lines are used. Finally a comparative study of multi-J HCN lines and CO SLEDs from J=1-0 up to J=13-12 of NGC 6240 and Arp 193 offers a clear example of two merger/starbursts whose similar low-J CO SLEDs, and LIR/LCO,1-0 and LHCN, 1-0/LCO,1-0 ratios (proxies of the so-called SF efficiency and dense gas mass fraction), yield no indications about their strongly diverging CO SLEDs beyond J=4-3, and ultimately the different physical conditions in their molecular ISM. The much larger sensitivity of ALMA and its excellent site in the Atacama desert now allows the observations necessary to assess the dominant energy sources of the molecular gas and its mass in LIRGs without depending on the low-J CO lines.

  9. ACOUSTIC SCALE FROM THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRA OF SDSS-III DR8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Reid, Beth; Schlegel, David J.; Cuesta, Antonio J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Saito, Shun; De Putter, Roland; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Xu Xiaoying; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Donald P.; Verde, Licia; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Brinkmann, J.; and others

    2012-12-10

    We measure the acoustic scale from the angular power spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III) Data Release 8 imaging catalog that includes 872, 921 galaxies over {approx}10,000 deg{sup 2} between 0.45 < z < 0.65. The extensive spectroscopic training set of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous galaxies allows precise estimates of the true redshift distributions of galaxies in our imaging catalog. Utilizing the redshift distribution information, we build templates and fit to the power spectra of the data, which are measured in our companion paper, to derive the location of Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) while marginalizing over many free parameters to exclude nearly all of the non-BAO signal. We derive the ratio of the angular diameter distance to the sound horizon scale D{sub A} (z)/r{sub s} = 9.212{sup +0.416}{sub -{sub 0.404}} at z = 0.54, and therefore D{sub A} (z) = 1411 {+-} 65 Mpc at z = 0.54; the result is fairly independent of assumptions on the underlying cosmology. Our measurement of angular diameter distance D{sub A} (z) is 1.4{sigma} higher than what is expected for the concordance {Lambda}CDM, in accordance to the trend of other spectroscopic BAO measurements for z {approx}> 0.35. We report constraints on cosmological parameters from our measurement in combination with the WMAP7 data and the previous spectroscopic BAO measurements of SDSS and WiggleZ. We refer to our companion papers (Ho et al.; de Putter et al.) for investigations on information of the full power spectrum.

  10. Evolutionary paths along the BPT diagram for luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorenza, Stephanie L.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Małek, Katarzyna E.; Liu, Charles T.

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, we present and examine new spectrophotometric data for five U/LIRGs (10{sup 11} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) within the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.05 ≲ z ≲ 0.07. We show that our sample consists almost entirely of composite objects—thus hosting both a nuclear starburst and an AGN—using the BPT diagrams. We then show that for our sample of U/LIRGs the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGNs (e.g., star formation rate, L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hδ)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these parameters and the object locations on the BPT diagrams. Finally, we derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Hα that are based on how these parameters vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points of these paths. The U/LIRGs at the end-points of a given path represent the beginning and end states of a U/LIRG evolving along that path. These paths may be able to specifically explain how all local U/LIRGs evolve along the BPT diagram, and serve as a starting point for future quantitative analysis on the evolution of U/LIRGs.

  11. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. II. Active Galactic Nucleus Activity from Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 μm) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L IR = 1011-1012 L ⊙). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 μm spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is ~62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L bol(AGN) = (0.4-50) × 1043 erg s-1. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L bol[AGN]/L IR <= 0.05. Only ~= 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L bol[AGN]/L IR > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L IR = 1012-1013 L ⊙), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%^{+8%}_{-3%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of ΩAGN IR = 3 × 105 L ⊙ Mpc-3 in LIRGs. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet

  12. NEW NEUTRINO MASS BOUNDS FROM SDSS-III DATA RELEASE 8 PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    De Putter, Roland; Mena, Olga; Giusarma, Elena; Ho, Shirley; Seo, Hee-Jong; White, Martin; Ross, Nicholas P.; Cuesta, Antonio; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Shelden, Alaina; Simmons, Audrey; Kirkby, David; Schneider, Donald P.; and others

    2012-12-10

    We present neutrino mass bounds using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts measured from Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Data Release 8. The galaxies have photometric redshifts between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65 and cover 10,000 deg{sup 2}, thus probing a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3} and enabling tight constraints to be derived on the amount of dark matter in the form of massive neutrinos. A new bound on the sum of neutrino masses {Sigma}m{sub {nu}} < 0.27 eV, at the 95% confidence level (CL), is obtained after combining our sample of galaxies, which we call ''CMASS'', with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) seven-year cosmic microwave background data and the most recent measurement of the Hubble parameter from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This constraint is obtained with a conservative multipole range of 30 < l < 200 in order to minimize nonlinearities, and a free bias parameter in each of the four redshift bins. We study the impact of assuming this linear galaxy bias model using mock catalogs and find that this model causes a small ({approx}1{sigma}-1.5{sigma}) bias in {Omega}{sub DM} h {sup 2}. For this reason, we also quote neutrino bounds based on a conservative galaxy bias model containing additional, shot-noise-like free parameters. In this conservative case, the bounds are significantly weakened, e.g., {Sigma}m{sub {nu}} < 0.38 eV (95% CL) for WMAP+HST+CMASS (l{sub max} = 200). We also study the dependence of the neutrino bound on the multipole range (l{sub max} = 150 versus l{sub max} = 200) and on which combination of data sets is included as a prior. The addition of supernova and/or baryon acoustic oscillation data does not significantly improve the neutrino mass bound once the HST prior is included. A companion paper describes the construction of the angular power spectra in detail and derives constraints on a general cosmological model, including the dark energy equation of state w and the spatial curvature {Omega}{sub K

  13. Understanding the nature of luminous red galaxies (LRGs): connecting LRGs to central and satellite subhaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaki, Shogo; Hikage, Chiaki; Takada, Masahiro; Spergel, David N.; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2013-08-01

    We develop a novel abundance matching method to construct a mock catalogue of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), using catalogues of haloes and subhaloes in N-body simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark matter model. Motivated by observations suggesting that LRGs are passively evolving, massive early-type galaxies with a typical age ≳5 Gyr, we assume that simulated haloes at z = 2 (z2-halo) are progenitors for LRG-host subhaloes observed today, and we label the most tightly bound particles in each progenitor z2-halo as LRG `stars'. We then identify the subhaloes containing these stars to z = 0.3 (SDSS redshift) in descending order of the masses of z2-haloes until the comoving number density of the matched subhaloes becomes comparable to the measured number density of SDSS LRGs, bar{n}_LRG=10^{-4} h^3 Mpc^{-3}. Once the above prescription is determined, our only free parameter is the number density of haloes identified at z = 2 and this parameter is fixed to match the observed number density at z = 0.3. By tracing subsequent merging and assembly histories of each progenitor z2-halo, we can directly compute, from the mock catalogue, the distributions of central and satellite LRGs and their internal motions in each host halo at z = 0.3. While the SDSS LRGs are galaxies selected by the magnitude and colour cuts from the SDSS images and are not necessarily a stellar-mass-selected sample, our mock catalogue reproduces a host of SDSS measurements: the halo occupation distribution for central and satellite LRGs, the projected autocorrelation function of LRGs, the cross-correlation of LRGs with shapes of background galaxies (LRG-galaxy weak lensing) and the non-linear redshift-space distortion effect, the Finger-of-God effect, in the angle-averaged redshift-space power spectrum. The mock catalogue generated based on our method can be used for removing or calibrating systematic errors in the cosmological interpretation of LRG clustering

  14. THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SUPER-LUMINOUS SN 2010gx AND LIMITS ON EXPLOSIVE {sup 56}Ni PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ting-Wan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Kotak, Rubina; McCrum, Matt; Fraser, Morgan; Bresolin, Fabio; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Valenti, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    Super-luminous supernovae have a tendency to occur in faint host galaxies which are likely to have low mass and low metallicity. While these extremely luminous explosions have been observed from z = 0.1 to 1.55, the closest explosions allow more detailed investigations of their host galaxies. We present a detailed analysis of the host galaxy of SN 2010gx (z = 0.23), one of the best studied super-luminous type Ic supernovae. The host is a dwarf galaxy (M{sub g} = -17.42 {+-} 0.17) with a high specific star formation rate. It has a remarkably low metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 {+-} 0.1 dex as determined from the detection of the [O III] {lambda}4363 line. This is the first reliable metallicity determination of a super-luminous stripped-envelope supernova host. We collected deep multi-epoch imaging with Gemini + GMOS between 240 and 560 days after explosion to search for any sign of radioactive {sup 56}Ni, which might provide further insights on the explosion mechanism and the progenitor's nature. We reach griz magnitudes of m{sub AB} {approx} 26, but do not detect SN 2010gx at these epochs. The limit implies that any {sup 56}Ni production was similar to or below that of SN 1998bw (a luminous type Ic SN that produced around 0.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni). The low volumetric rates of these supernovae ({approx}10{sup -4} of the core-collapse population) could be qualitatively matched if the explosion mechanism requires a combination of low-metallicity (below 0.2 Z{sub Sun }), high progenitor mass (>60 M{sub Sun }) and high rotation rate (fastest 10% of rotators).

  15. SPECTROSCOPY OF LUMINOUS z > 7 GALAXY CANDIDATES AND SOURCES OF CONTAMINATION IN z > 7 GALAXY SEARCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Capak, P.; Jullo, E.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Menendez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; LeFloch, E.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Kartaltepe, J.; Sanders, D. B.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z{sup +}-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 {mu}m colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 {mu}m with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 {mu}m and 1.52-1.80 {mu}m with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z {approx} 1.6 based on a 24 {mu}m and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the {lambda} > 1 {mu}m properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z {approx} 1.8, so the non-detection in the i {sup +} and z {sup +} bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z {approx} 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data.

  16. MOLECULAR GAS IN LENSED z >2 QUASAR HOST GALAXIES AND THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR GALAXIES WITH LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.

    2011-04-01

    We report the detection of luminous CO(J = 2{yields}1), CO(J = 3{yields}2), and CO(J = 4{yields}3) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars B1938+666 (z = 2.059), HE 0230-2130 (z = 2.166), HE 1104-1805 (z = 2.322), and B1359+154 (z = 3.240), using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. B1938+666 was identified in a 'blind' CO redshift search, demonstrating the feasibility of such investigations with millimeter interferometers. These galaxies are lensing-amplified by factors of {mu}{sub L} {approx_equal} 11-170, and thus allow us to probe the molecular gas in intrinsically fainter galaxies than currently possible without the aid of gravitational lensing. We report lensing-corrected intrinsic CO line luminosities of L'{sub CO} = 0.65-21x10{sup 9} K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}, translating to H{sub 2} masses of M(H{sub 2}) = 0.52-17 x 10{sup 9} ({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M{sub sun}. To investigate whether or not the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in luminous quasars substantially contributes to L{sub FIR}, we study the L'{sub CO}-L{sub FIR} relation for quasars relative to galaxies without a luminous AGN as a function of redshift. We find no substantial differences between submillimeter galaxies and high-z quasars, but marginal evidence for an excess in L{sub FIR} in nearby low-L{sub FIR} AGN galaxies. This may suggest that an AGN contribution to L{sub FIR} is significant in systems with relatively low gas and dust content, but only minor in the most far-infrared-luminous galaxies (in which L{sub FIR} is dominated by star formation).

  17. The molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies - I. CO lines, extreme physical conditions and their drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; van der Werf, Paul P.; Xilouris, E. M.; Isaak, K. G.; Gao, Yu; Mühle, S.

    2012-11-01

    We report results from a large molecular line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR ≳1011 L) in the local Universe (z ≤ 0.1), conducted during the last decade with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the IRAM 30-m telescope. This work presents the CO and 13CO line data for 36 galaxies, further augmented by multi-J total CO line luminosities available for other infrared (IR) bright galaxies from the literature. This yields a combined sample of N = 70 galaxies with the star formation (SF) powered fraction of their IR luminosities spanning L IR (*)˜(1010-2×1012) L and a wide range of morphologies. Simple comparisons of their available CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) with local ones, as well as radiative transfer models, discern a surprisingly wide range of average interstellar medium (ISM) conditions, with most of the surprises found in the high-excitation regime. These take the form of global CO SLEDs dominated by a very warm (Tkin ≳100 K) and dense (n ≥ 104 cm-3) gas phase, involving galaxy-sized (˜(few) × 109 M⊙) gas mass reservoirs under conditions that are typically found only for ˜(1-3) per cent of mass per typical SF molecular cloud in the Galaxy. Furthermore, some of the highest excitation CO SLEDs are found in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; LIR ≥ 1012 L⊙) and surpass even those found solely in compact SF-powered hot spots in Galactic molecular clouds. Strong supersonic turbulence and high cosmic ray energy densities rather than far-ultraviolet/optical photons or supernova remnant induced shocks from individual SF sites can globally warm the large amounts of dense gas found in these merger-driven starbursts and easily power their extraordinary CO line excitation. This exciting possibility can now be systematically investigated with Herschel and the Atacama Large Milimeter Array (ALMA). As expected for an IR-selected (and thus SF rate selected) galaxy sample, only few 'cold' CO SLEDs are found, and for

  18. HIGHLY IONIZED PLASMA IN THE HALO OF A LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXY NEAR z = 0.225

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Anand; Savage, Blair D.; Wakker, Bart P. E-mail: savage@astro.wisc.ed

    2010-04-01

    We present analyses of the physical conditions in the z(O{sub VI})=0.22496 and z(O{sub VI})=0.22638 multiphase absorption systems detected in the ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope/STIS and FUSE spectra of the quasar H 1821+643 (m{sub V} = 14.2, z{sub em} = 0.297). Both absorbers are likely associated with the extended halo of a {approx}2L*{sub B} Sbc-Sc galaxy situated at a projected distance of {approx}116 h {sup -1}{sub 71} kpc from the sight line. The z = 0.22496 absorber is detected in C II, C III, C IV, O III, O VI, Si II, Si III, and H I (Ly alpha-Lytheta) at >3sigma significance. The components of Si III and Si II are narrow with implied temperatures of T {approx}< 3 x 10{sup 4} K. The low and intermediate ions in this absorber are consistent with an origin in a T {approx} 10{sup 4} K photoionized gas with [Si/H] and [C/H] of {approx}-0.6 dex. In contrast, the broader O VI absorption is likely produced in collisionally ionized plasma under nonequilibrium conditions. The z(O{sub VI})=0.22638 system has broad Ly alpha (BLA) and C III absorption offset by v = -53 km s{sup -1} from O VI. The H I and C III line widths for the BLA imply T = 1.1 x 10{sup 5} K. For non-equilibrium cooling we obtain [C/H] {approx}-1.5 dex and N(H) = 3.2 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} in the BLA. The O VI, offset from the BLA with no detected H I or C III, is likely collisionally ionized at T {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} K. From the observed multiphase properties and the proximity to a luminous galaxy, we propose that the z = 0.22496 absorber is an extragalactic analog of a highly ionized Galactic HVC, in which the O VI is produced in transition temperature plasma (T {approx} 10{sup 5} K) at the interface layers between the warm (T < 5 x 10{sup 4} K) HVC gas phase and the hot (T {approx}> 10{sup 6} K) coronal halo of the galaxy. The z = 0.22638 O VI-BLA absorber could be tracing a cooling condensing fragment in the nearby galaxy's hot gaseous halo.

  19. The Relation Between Accretion Rate And Jet Power in X-Ray Luminous Elliptical Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Steven W.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; Taylor, G.B.; Reynolds, C.S.; /Maryland U.

    2006-03-10

    Using Chandra X-ray observations of nine nearby, X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies with good optical velocity dispersion measurements, we show that a tight correlation exists between the Bondi accretion rates calculated from the observed gas temperature and density profiles and estimated black hole masses, and the power emerging from these systems in relativistic jets. The jet powers, which are inferred from the energies and timescales required to inflate cavities observed in the surrounding X-ray emitting gas, can be related to the accretion rates using a power law model of the form log (P{sub Bondi}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) = A + B log (P{sub jet}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), with A = 0.62 {+-} 0.15 and B = 0.77 {+-} 0.18. Our results show that a significant fraction of the energy associated with the rest mass of material entering the Bondi accretion radius (2.4{sub -0.7}{sup +1.0} per cent, for P{sub jet} = 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) eventually emerges in the relativistic jets. Our results have significant implications for studies of accretion, jet formation and galaxy formation. The observed tight correlation suggests that the Bondi formulae provide a reasonable description of the accretion process in these systems, despite the likely presence of magnetic pressure and angular momentum in the accreting gas. The similarity of the P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} values argues that a significant fraction of the matter entering the accretion radius flows down to regions close to the black holes, where the jets are presumably formed. The tight correlation between P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} also suggests that the accretion flows are approximately stable over timescales of a few million years. Our results show that the black hole ''engines'' at the hearts of large elliptical galaxies and groups feed back sufficient energy to stem cooling and star formation, leading naturally to the observed exponential cut off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function.

  20. Host Galaxies of Luminous Type 2 Quasars at z ~ 0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.; Krolik, Julian H.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2009-09-01

    We present deep Gemini GMOS optical spectroscopy of nine luminous quasars at redshifts z ~ 0.5, drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey type 2 quasar sample. Our targets were selected to have high intrinsic luminosities (MV < -26 mag) as indicated by the [O III] λ5007 Å emission-line luminosity (L [O III]). Our sample has a median black hole mass of ~108.8 M sun inferred assuming the local M BH-σ* relation and a median Eddington ratio of ~0.7, using stellar velocity dispersions σ* measured from the G band. We estimate the contamination of the stellar continuum from scattered quasar light based on the strength of broad Hβ, and provide an empirical calibration of the contamination as a function of L [O III]; the scattered-light fraction is ~30% of L 5100 for objects with L [O III] = 109.5 L sun. Population synthesis indicates that young poststarburst populations (<0.1 Gyr) are prevalent in luminous type 2 quasars, in addition to a relatively old population (>1 Gyr) which dominates the stellar mass. Broad emission complexes around He II λ4686 Å with luminosities up to 108.3 L sun are unambiguously detected in three out of the nine targets, indicative of Wolf-Rayet (WR) populations. Population synthesis shows that ~5 Myr poststarburst populations contribute substantially to the luminosities (>50% of L 5100) of all three objects with WR detections. We find two objects with double cores and four with close companions. Our results may suggest that luminous type 2 quasars trace an early stage of galaxy interaction, perhaps responsible for both the quasar and the starburst activity. Based, in part, on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada

  1. Interferometric follow-up of WISE hyper-luminous hot, dust-obscured galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas; Petric, Andreea; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Assef, Roberto J.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2014-09-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies that are faint in the two bluer passbands (3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE (12 μm and 22 μm). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Submillimeter Array interferometer arrays at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. We report continuum detections at ∼1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1''-2'' and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and 3.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2σ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with the WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.

  2. Interferometric Follow-up of WISE Hyper-luminous Hot, Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingwen; Bussmann, R. Shane; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Petric, Andreea; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Bridge, Carrie R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Moustakas, Leonidas; Wright, Edward L.

    2014-09-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies that are faint in the two bluer passbands (3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE (12 μm and 22 μm). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Submillimeter Array interferometer arrays at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. We report continuum detections at ~1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1''-2'' and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0 × 108 M ⊙ for W0149+2350 and 3.9 × 108 M ⊙ for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2σ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.3 × 1010 M ⊙ and 2.3 × 1010 M ⊙ for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with the WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.

  3. Spectroscopy of Luminous z > 7 Galaxy Candidates and Sources of Contamination in z > 7 Galaxy Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capak, P.; Mobasher, B.; Scoville, N. Z.; McCracken, H.; Ilbert, O.; Salvato, M.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Carilli, C.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Jullo, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kneib, J.-P.; LeFloch, E.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Shioya, Y.; Shopbell, P.; Tanaguchi, Y.; Thompson, D.; Willott, C. J.

    2011-04-01

    We present three bright z +-dropout candidates selected from deep near-infrared (NIR) imaging of the COSMOS 2 deg2 field. All three objects match the 0.8-8 μm colors of other published z > 7 candidates but are 3 mag brighter, facilitating further study. Deep spectroscopy of two of the candidates covering 0.64-1.02 μm with Keck-DEIMOS and all three covering 0.94-1.10 μm and 1.52-1.80 μm with Keck-NIRSPEC detects weak spectral features tentatively identified as Lyα at z = 6.95 and z = 7.69 in two of the objects. The third object is placed at z ~ 1.6 based on a 24 μm and weak optical detection. A comparison with the spectral energy distributions of known z < 7 galaxies, including objects with strong spectral lines, large extinction, and large systematic uncertainties in the photometry, yields no objects with similar colors. However, the λ > 1 μm properties of all three objects can be matched to optically detected sources with photometric redshifts at z ~ 1.8, so the non-detection in the i + and z + bands is the primary factor which favors a z > 7 solution. If any of these objects are at z ~ 7, the bright end of the luminosity function is significantly higher at z > 7 than suggested by previous studies, but consistent within the statistical uncertainty and the dark matter halo distribution. If these objects are at low redshift, the Lyman break selection must be contaminated by a previously unknown population of low-redshift objects with very strong breaks in their broadband spectral energy distributions and blue NIR colors. The implications of this result on luminosity function evolution at high redshift are discussed. We show that the primary limitation of z > 7 galaxy searches with broad filters is the depth of the available optical data. Based on observations with the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space

  4. Gas Chemistry in the Inner Disk of the Nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 04296+2923

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) represent the most active members of the starburst population in the nearby universe. In the closest LIRGs, for example IRAS 04296+2923 (D = 29 Mpc) located behind the Taurus Molecular Cloud, it is possible to image the intimate connection between dense gas and star formation directly. We present high resolution 3'') imaging of selected dense gas tracers, including 13CO, C18O, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CN, HNCO, and CH3OH, towards the nuclear starburst and inner disk of IRAS 04296+2923 compiled with the OVRO and CARMA millimeter interferometers. HCN, HCO+ and HNC are used to constrain the properties of the dense gas component. On nuclear scales we observe the same correlation between dense gas column and the star formation rate seen in earlier global surveys of LIRGs. HCN/CO, HCN/HCO+ and HCN/HNC line ratios suggest that both the dense gas fraction and density are high toward the starburst and fall non-monotonically with radius. CO isotopic line ratios in the inner disk are anomalous, having extremely low 13CO/C18O values. To explain these ratios very high gas opacities, anomalously low 13CO abundances or pronounced non-LTE effects must be invoked. The HCN/CN ratio is used to characterize the extent of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) across the inner disk. This ratio is large compared to starbursts like M 82 and NGC 253 suggesting the burst is still in a young, embedded phase. HNCO and CH3OH are use to trace large scale shocks in this barred galaxy. The chemical morphology of the large-scale bar is compared with nuclear bars in Maffei 2, NGC 6946 and IC 342. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation grant AST-1009620.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: [NII]205um emission in local luminous IR galaxies (Zhao+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Lu, N.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Lord, S. D.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Evans, A.; Howell, J.; Petric, A. O.; van der Werf, P. P.; Sanders, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    The primary sample studied in this paper is from the Herschel open time project Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (OT1nlu1; PI: N. Lu). The observations were conducted with the Herschel SPIRE/FTS in its point source spectroscopy mode and high spectral resolution configuration, yielding a spectral resolution of 0.04/cm (or 1.2GHz) over the spectral coverage of 194-672um. (1 data file).

  6. VLT/VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies: 2D kinematic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellocchi, Enrica; Arribas, Santiago; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Context. (Ultra) Luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] host the most extreme star-forming events in the present universe and are places where a significant fraction of the past star formation beyond z ~ 1 has occurred. The kinematic characterization of this population is important to constrain the processes that govern such events. Aims: We present and discuss the 2D kinematic properties of the ionized gas (Hα) in sample local (U)LIRGs, for which relatively high linear resolution and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio can be obtained. Methods: We have obtained Very Large Telescope VIMOS optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) for 38 local (z < 0.1) (U)LIRGs (31 LIRGs and 7 ULIRGs, 51 individual galaxies). This sample covers well the less studied LIRG luminosity range, and it includes the morphological types corresponding to the different phases along the merging process (i.e., isolated disks, interacting and merging systems). Results: The vast majority of objects have two main kinematically distinct components. One component (i.e., narrow or systemic) extends over the whole line-emitting region and is characterized by small-to-intermediate velocity dispersions (i.e., σ from 30 to 160 km s-1). The second component (broad) has a larger velocity dispersion (up to 320 km s-1); it is mainly found in the inner regions and is generally blueshifted with respect to the systemic component. The largest extensions and extreme kinematic properties are observed in interacting and merging systems, and they are likely associated with nuclear outflows. The systemic component traces the overall velocity field, showing a large variety of kinematic 2D structures, from very regular velocity patterns typical of pure rotating disks (29%) to kinematically perturbed disks (47%) and highly disrupted and complex velocity fields (24%). Thus, most of the objects (76%) are dominated by rotation. We find that rotation is more relevant in LIRGs than in ULIRGs. There is a clear correlation between

  7. redMaGiC: selecting luminous red galaxies from the DES Science Verification data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Abate, A.; Bonnett, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, C.; Hoyle, B.; Leistedt, B.; Peiris, H. V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Carollo, D.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Childress, M. J.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, T.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lidman, C.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Uddin, S.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.; da Costa, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    We introduce redMaGiC, an automated algorithm for selecting luminous red galaxies (LRGs). The algorithm was specifically developed to minimize photometric redshift uncertainties in photometric large-scale structure studies. redMaGiC achieves this by self-training the colour cuts necessary to produce a luminosity-thresholded LRG sample of constant comoving density. We demonstrate that redMaGiC photo-zs are very nearly as accurate as the best machine learning-based methods, yet they require minimal spectroscopic training, do not suffer from extrapolation biases, and are very nearly Gaussian. We apply our algorithm to Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data to produce a redMaGiC catalogue sampling the redshift range z ∈ [0.2, 0.8]. Our fiducial sample has a comoving space density of 10-3 (h-1 Mpc)-3, and a median photo-z bias (zspec - zphoto) and scatter (σz/(1 + z)) of 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The corresponding 5σ outlier fraction is 1.4 per cent. We also test our algorithm with Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 and Stripe 82 data, and discuss how spectroscopic training can be used to control photo-z biases at the 0.1 per cent level.

  8. FAINT CO LINE WINGS IN FOUR STAR-FORMING (ULTRA)LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Adam K.; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Zschaechner, Laura; Bolatto, Alberto; Weiss, Axel

    2015-09-20

    We report the results of a search for large velocity width, low-intensity line wings—a commonly used signature of molecular outflows—in four low redshift (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies that appear to be dominated by star formation. The targets were drawn from a sample of fourteen targets presented in Chung et al., who showed the stacked CO spectrum of the sample to exhibit 1000 km s{sup −1}-wide line wings. We obtained sensitive, wide bandwidth imaging of our targets using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We detect each target at very high significance but do not find the claimed line wings in these four targets. Instead, we constrain the flux in the line wings to be only a few percent. Casting our results as mass outflow rates following Cicone et al. we show them to be consistent with a picture in which very high mass loading factors preferentially occur in systems with high active galactic nucleus contributions to their bolometric luminosity. We identify one of our targets, IRAS 05083 (VII Zw 31), as a candidate molecular outflow.

  9. Cosmological baryonic and matter densities from 600000 SDSS luminous red galaxies with photometric redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Chris; Collister, Adrian; Bridle, Sarah; Lahav, Ofer

    2007-02-01

    We analyse MegaZ-LRG, a photometric-redshift catalogue of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) based on the imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) 4th Data Release. MegaZ-LRG, presented in a companion paper, contains >106 photometric redshifts derived with ANNZ, an artificial neural network method, constrained by a spectroscopic subsample of ~13000 galaxies obtained by the 2dF-SDSS LRG and Quasar (2SLAQ) survey. The catalogue spans the redshift range 0.4 < z < 0.7 with an rms redshift error σz ~ 0.03(1 + z), covering 5914 deg2 to map out a total cosmic volume 2.5h-3Gpc3. In this study we use the most reliable 600000 photometric redshifts to measure the large-scale structure using two methods: (1) a spherical harmonic analysis in redshift slices, and (2) a direct re-construction of the spatial clustering pattern using Fourier techniques. We present the first cosmological parameter fits to galaxy angular power spectra from a photometric-redshift survey. Combining the redshift slices with appropriate covariances, we determine best-fitting values for the matter density Ωm and baryon density Ωb of Ωmh = 0.195 +/- 0.023 and Ωb/Ωm = 0.16 +/- 0.036 (with the Hubble parameter h = 0.75 and scalar index of primordial fluctuations nscalar = 1 held fixed). These results are in agreement with and independent of the latest studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and their precision is comparable to analyses of contemporary spectroscopic-redshift surveys. We perform an extensive series of tests which conclude that our power spectrum measurements are robust against potential systematic photometric errors in the catalogue. We conclude that photometric-redshift surveys are competitive with spectroscopic surveys for measuring cosmological parameters in the simplest `vanilla' models. Future deep imaging surveys have great potential for further improvement, provided that systematic errors can be controlled.

  10. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. III. The Dense Kiloparsec Molecular Concentrations of Arp 299

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S.

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution (~2farcs3) observations of the local (D L = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The 12CO J = 3-2, 12CO J = 2-1, and 13CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the 12CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T kin > 30 K and n(H2) ~ 0.3-3 × 103 cm-3 to cold dense gas with T kin ~ 10-30 K and n(H2) > 3 × 103 cm-3. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T kin ~ 10-50 K and n(H2) ~ 1-30 × 103 cm-3. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H2 factor, αco to be 0.4 ± 0.3(3 × 10-4/x CO) M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  11. LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY. III. THE DENSE KILOPARSEC MOLECULAR CONCENTRATIONS OF Arp 299

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Armus, Lee; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison B.; Yun, Min S. E-mail: wilson@physics.mcmaster.ca E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: satoki@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw E-mail: myun@astro.umass.edu

    2012-07-01

    We have used high-resolution ({approx}2.''3) observations of the local (D{sub L} = 46 Mpc) luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299 to map out the physical properties of the molecular gas that provides the fuel for its extreme star formation activity. The {sup 12}CO J = 3-2, {sup 12}CO J = 2-1, and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1 lines were observed with the Submillimeter Array, and the short spacings of the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 observations have been recovered using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope single dish observations. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX to estimate the physical properties (density, column density, and temperature) of the different regions in this system. The RADEX solutions of the two galaxy nuclei, IC 694 and NGC 3690, are consistent with a wide range of gas components, from warm moderately dense gas with T{sub kin} > 30 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 0.3-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} to cold dense gas with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-30 K and n(H{sub 2}) > 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The overlap region is shown to have a better constrained solution with T{sub kin} {approx} 10-50 K and n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 1-30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. We estimate the gas masses and star formation rates of each region in order to derive molecular gas depletion times. The depletion times of all regions (20-50 Myr) are found to be about two orders of magnitude lower than those of normal spiral galaxies. This rapid depletion time can probably be explained by a high fraction of dense gas on kiloparsec scales in Arp 299. We estimate the CO-to-H{sub 2} factor, {alpha}{sub co} to be 0.4 {+-} 0.3(3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}/x{sub CO}) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} for the overlap region. This value agrees well with values determined previously for more advanced merger systems.

  12. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  13. Clustering analysis of high-redshift luminous red galaxies in Stripe 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoloudakis, N.; Shanks, T.; Sawangwit, U.

    2013-03-01

    We present a clustering analysis of luminous red galaxies (LRGs) in Stripe 82 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We study the angular two-point autocorrelation function, w(θ), of a selected sample of over 130 000 LRG candidates via colour-cut selections in izK with the K-band coverage coming from UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). We have used the cross-correlation technique of Newman to establish the redshift distribution of the LRGs. Cross-correlating them with SDSS quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), MegaZ-LRGs and DEEP Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP2) galaxies, implies an average redshift of the LRGs to be z ≈ 1 with space density, ng ≈ 3.20 ± 0.16 × 10-4 h3 Mpc-3. For θ ≤ 10 arcmin (corresponding to ≈10 h-1 Mpc), the LRG w(θ) significantly deviates from a conventional single power law as noted by previous clustering studies of highly biased and luminous galaxies. A double power law with a break at rb ≈ 2.4 h-1 Mpc fits the data better, with best-fitting scale length, r0, 1 = 7.63 ± 0.27 h-1 Mpc and slope γ1 = 2.01 ± 0.02 at small scales and r0, 2 = 9.92 ± 0.40 h-1 Mpc and γ2 = 1.64 ± 0.04 at large scales. Due to the flat slope at large scales, we find that a standard Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM) linear model is accepted only at 2-3σ, with the best-fitting bias factor, b = 2.74 ± 0.07. We also fitted the halo occupation distribution (HOD) models to compare our measurements with the predictions of the dark matter clustering. The effective halo mass of Stripe 82 LRGs is estimated as Meff = 3.3 ± 0.6 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. But at large scales, the current HOD models did not help explain the power excess in the clustering signal. We then compare the w(θ) results to the results of Sawangwit et al. from three samples of photometrically selected LRGs at lower redshifts to measure clustering evolution. We find that a long-lived model may be a poorer fit than at lower

  14. Morphology and Molecular Gas Fractions of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies as a Function of Infrared Luminosity and Merger Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, K. L.; Sanders, D. B.; Barnes, J. E.; Ishida, C. M.; Evans, A. S.; U, V.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Kim, D.-C.; Privon, G. C.; Mirabel, I. F.; Flewelling, H. A.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new, detailed analysis of the morphologies and molecular gas fractions (MGFs) for a complete sample of 65 local luminous infrared galaxies from Great Observatories All-Sky Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRG) Survey using high resolution I-band images from The Hubble Space Telescope, the University of Hawaii 2.2 m Telescope and the Pan-STARRS1 Survey. Our classification scheme includes single undisturbed galaxies, minor mergers, and major mergers, with the latter divided into five distinct stages from pre-first pericenter passage to final nuclear coalescence. We find that major mergers of molecular gas-rich spirals clearly play a major role for all sources with {L}{IR}\\gt {10}11.5{L}ȯ ; however, below this luminosity threshold, minor mergers and secular processes dominate. Additionally, galaxies do not reach {L}{IR}\\gt {10}12.0{L}ȯ until late in the merger process when both disks are near final coalescence. The mean MGF ({MGF} = {M}{{{H}}2}/({M}* +{M}{{{H}}2})) for non-interacting and early-stage major merger LIRGs is 18 ± 2%, which increases to 33 ± 3%, for intermediate stage major merger LIRGs, consistent with the hypothesis that, during the early-mid stages of major mergers, most of the initial large reservoir of atomic gas (HI) at large galactocentric radii is swept inward where it is converted into molecular gas (H2).

  15. THE ATACAMA COSMOLOGY TELESCOPE: DETECTION OF SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH DECREMENT IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS ASSOCIATED WITH LUMINOUS RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, Nick; Das, Sudeep; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Appel, John W.; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hincks, Adam D.; Battaglia, Nick; Richard Bond, J.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Duenner, Rolando; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Kosowsky, Arthur

    2011-07-20

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central SZ temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y{sub 200} and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity to halo mass. We also use a relation between brightest cluster galaxy luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be around 10{sup 14} M{sub sun}.

  16. Rest-Frame Mid-Infrared Detection of an Extremely Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teplitz, H. I.; Charmandaris, V.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Houck, J. R.; Soifer, B. T.; Weedman, D.; Brandl, B. R.; vanCleve, J.; Grillmair, C.; Uchid, K. I.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first rest-frame of approximately 4 microns detection of a Lyman break galaxy. The data were obtained using the 16 microns imaging capability of the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. The target object, J134026.44+634433.2, is an extremely luminous Lyman break galaxy at z=2.79, first identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra (as reported by Bentz et al.). The source is strongly detected with a flux of 0.94 +/- 0.02 mJy. Combining Spitzer and SDSS photometry with supporting ground-based J- and K-band data, we show that the spectral energy distribution is consistent with an actively star-forming galaxy. We also detect other objects in the Spitzer field of view, including a very red mid-infrared source. We find no evidence of a strong lens among the mid-infrared sources.

  17. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sanchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  18. Clustering of Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Photometric Luminous Galaxies: The Measurement, Systematics, and Cosmological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Shirley; Cuesta, Antonio; Seo, Hee-Jong; de Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; White, Martin; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Saito, Shun; Schlegel, David J.; Schlafly, Eddie; Seljak, Uros; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Percival, Will J.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Reid, Beth; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Prada, Francisco; Weaver, Benjamin A.; Bahcall, Neta; Bizyaev, Dimitry; Brewinton, Howard; Brinkman, Jon; Nicolaci da Costa, Luiz; Gott, John R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Nichol, Bob; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Simmons, Audrey; de Simoni, Fernando; Snedden, Stephanie; Yeche, Christophe

    2012-12-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg2, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg2 and probes a volume of 3 h -3 Gpc3, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ~15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ~ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find ΩΛ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s-1 Mpc-1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s-1 Mpc-1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power spectra give consistent

  19. A New 350 GHz Heterodyne Array Receiver (HARP) and Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, Jamie

    2002-08-01

    injection system is assessed experimentally, and is shown to be capable of delivering LO power to two prototype mixers. When the HARP receiver is commissioned on the JCMT, one potential astronomical application will be the spectroscopic observations of J=3 → 2 rotational transitions of CO in external galaxies, which occur in regions of dense molecular hydrogen gas. Observations of a sample of luminous infrared galaxies (LIGs), made with the current single element 350 GHz receiver on the JCMT, are presented. High infrared luminosity in galaxies is often triggered by galactic interactions, and the sample studied here is chosen to include LIGs with a variety of component nuclear separations. The CO(3-2) measurements allow important constraints to be placed on the excitation conditions of the molecular gas in LIGs, hence facilitating a greater understanding of the evolution of the molecular gas component, and star formation activity, as galactic merging progresses.

  20. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A.; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Bridge, C.; Inami, H.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M{sub 20} parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M{sub 20} (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M{sub 20} parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M{sub 20} at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M{sub 20} for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M{sub 20} is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  1. A search for moderate-redshift survivors from the population of luminous compact passive galaxies at high redshift

    SciTech Connect

    Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Larson, Kirsten; Mann, Andrew W. E-mail: hsshih@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: amann@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-01-10

    From a search of a ∼2400 deg{sup 2} region covered by both the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey databases, we have attempted to identify galaxies at z ∼ 0.5 that are consistent with their being essentially unmodified examples of the luminous passive compact galaxies found at z ∼ 2.5. After isolating good candidates via deeper imaging, we further refine the sample with Keck moderate-resolution spectroscopy and laser guide star adaptive-optics imaging. For four of the five galaxies that so far remain after passing through this sieve, we analyze plausible star-formation histories based on our spectra in order to identify galaxies that may have survived with little modification from the population formed at high redshift. We find two galaxies that are consistent with having formed ≳ 95% of their mass at z > 5. We attempt to estimate masses both from our stellar population determinations and from velocity dispersions. Given the high frequency of small axial ratios, both in our small sample and among samples found at high redshifts, we tentatively suggest that some of the more extreme examples of passive compact galaxies may have prolate morphologies.

  2. Interpreting the IR SED of z~0.3-2.8 IR-Luminous Galaxies and AGN Using Hydrodynamic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roebuck, Eric John; Sajina, Anna; Hayward, Christopher C.; Pope, Alexandra; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Hernquist, Lars E.; Yan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We use three-dimensional hydrodynamical galaxy merger simulations to further investigate the nature of a sample of 342 24 μm-selected (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies at z~0.3-2.8. All of our sources have low-resolution Spitzer/IRS spectra -- the largest such sample outside the local universe. These spectra allow us to determine that our sample consists of a mixture of star forming galaxies (SFGs), AGN, and composites. We address the question of how well do empirical IR AGN fraction estimates trace the intrinsic AGN fraction (i.e. the AGN-to-total power in the galaxy prior to dust re-processing), including how they relate to galaxy properties such as merger stage, dust/gas content, and star formation rates. We do this by fitting the observed SEDs of our sample with theoretical SEDs based on GADGET hydrodynamic merger simulations additionally processed through the SUNRISE radiative transfer code. We additionally investigate systematic uncertainties associated with these quantities using the goodness of fits to our model library. The key findings are: 1) our simulation-based fits are in broad agreement with the empirical model-based fits, 2) much of the AGN fraction of LIR is missed if the AGN's contribution to heating the host galaxy dust is not accounted for, and 3) the IR AGN fraction traces the intrinsic AGN fraction up to the coalescence stage, however may underestimate the intrinsic AGN fraction post coalescence.

  3. A multiwavelength and multiscale study of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies in the local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén

    2014-10-01

    This dissertation deals with the multiwavelength study of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs, respectively) in the local Universe under different spatial scales. The work is focused on the properties of massive starbursts, the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the interplay between both phenomena. The study of local (U)LIRGs is the best scenario where to understand the properties of these objects at cosmological distances, where their luminosity contribution dominates the cosmic infrared background. Our first approach to the study of (U)LIRGs consisted of a spectral line study in the millimeter range, obtained with the IRAM 30m radio-telescope in Pico Veleta, Granada of a subsample of 56 (U)LIRGs from the GOALS project sample. We observed and analyzed spectra of several molecular features, focusing in the study of carbon monoxide (CO), a well-known tracer of cold molecular gas. We explored the relation between them as well as the properties of molecular gas. Besides of the sample characterization, we confirmed the increase of the isotopic ratio 12CO/13CO with the dust temperature, explained by the 12CO optical depth decreasing with temperature. We have also studied the kinematics and gas distribution using the spectral profiles of several molecular transitions. In a second part of this thesis, we analyzed the central kiloparsec region of a sample of 12 LIRGs, stressing the importance of the multiwavelength approach, aimed at deriving the star formation processes of these galaxies, as well as to study the contribution of the putative AGN to the bolometric luminosity in our sample. For one of these LIRGs, NGC1614, we performed a deep multiwavelength study, including data from radio, infrared, optical and X-rays. These data allowed us to establish that the the IR emission in the circumnuclear region is completely dominated by a powerful starburst and, in case it hosts an AGN, its contribution is irrelevant. We also performed

  4. NUSTAR Unveils a Heavily Obscured Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Arevalo, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Imanishi, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286 identified in a 17.5 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation. The source is in an early merging stage and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured (NH ≃(0.95-1.32) × 1024 cm-2) with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick (CT, {log}({N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2)≥slant 24). The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity (L2-10 keV ˜ 3-20 × 1041 erg s-1) and contributes ≲1% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band (<10 keV) and in the infrared did not notice the presence of a buried AGN. NGC 6286 has multiwavelength characteristics typical of objects with the same infrared luminosity and in the same merger stage, which might imply that there is a significant population of obscured low-luminosity AGNs in LIRGs that can only be detected by sensitive hard X-ray observations.

  5. A new giant luminous arc gravitational lens associated with a z = 0.62 galaxy cluster, and the environments of distant radio galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    In the course of a survey investigating the cluster environments of distant 3CR radio galaxies, I have identified a previously unknown 'giant luminous arc' gravitational lens. The lensing cluster is associated with the radio galaxy 3C 220.1 at z = 0.62 and is the most distant cluster now known to produce such arcs. I present imaging and spectroscopic observations of the cluster and the arc, and discuss the implications for the cluster mass. At z greater than 0.6 the cluster velocity dispersions implied by such giant arcs may provide an interesting constraint on theories of large scale structure formation. The parent investigation in which this arc was identified concerns galaxy clusters and radio galaxy environments at 0.35 less than z less than 0.8. At the present epoch, powerful FR 2 radio galaxies tend to be found in environments of poor or average galaxy density. In contrast, at the higher redshifts investigated here, richer group and cluster environments are common. I present additional data on other clusters from this survey, and discuss its extension to z greater than 1 through a program of near-infrared and optical imaging.

  6. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies. V. The dust and PAH emission SEDs of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Fischera, J.; Kylafis, N. D.; Madore, B. F.

    2011-03-01

    We present a self-consistent model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of spiral galaxies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR)/far-infrared (FIR)/submillimeter (submm) based on a full radiative transfer calculation of the propagation of starlight in galaxy disks. This model predicts not only the total integrated energy absorbed in the UV/optical and re-emitted in the infrared/submm, but also the colours of the dust emission based on an explicit calculation of the strength and colour of the UV/optical radiation fields heating the dust, and incorporating a full calculation of the stochastic heating of small dust grains and PAH molecules. The geometry of the translucent components of the model is empirically constrained using the results from the radiation transfer analysis of Xilouris et al. on spirals in the middle range of the Hubble sequence, while the geometry of the optically thick components is constrained from physical considerations with a posteriori checks of the model predictions with observational data. Following the observational constraints, the model has both a distribution of diffuse dust associated with the old and young disk stellar populations as well as a clumpy component arising from dust in the parent molecular clouds in star forming regions. In accordance with the fragmented nature of dense molecular gas in typical star-forming regions, UV light from massive stars is allowed to either freely stream away into the diffuse medium in some fraction of directions or be geometrically blocked and locally absorbed in clumps. These geometrical constraints enable the dust emission to be predicted in terms of a minimum set of free parameters: the central face-on dust opacity in the B-band τ^f_B, a clumpiness factor F for the star-forming regions, the star-formation rate SFR, the normalised luminosity of the old stellar population old and the bulge-to-disk ratio B/D. We show that these parameters are almost orthogonal in their

  7. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies. V. The dust and PAH emission SEDs of disk galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Fischera, J.; Kylafis, N. D.; Madore, B. F.

    2011-03-01

    We present a self-consistent model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of spiral galaxies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the mid-infrared (MIR)/far-infrared (FIR)/submillimeter (submm) based on a full radiative transfer calculation of the propagation of starlight in galaxy disks. This model predicts not only the total integrated energy absorbed in the UV/optical and re-emitted in the infrared/submm, but also the colours of the dust emission based on an explicit calculation of the strength and colour of the UV/optical radiation fields heating the dust, and incorporating a full calculation of the stochastic heating of small dust grains and PAH molecules. The geometry of the translucent components of the model is empirically constrained using the results from the radiation transfer analysis of Xilouris et al. on spirals in the middle range of the Hubble sequence, while the geometry of the optically thick components is constrained from physical considerations with a posteriori checks of the model predictions with observational data. Following the observational constraints, the model has both a distribution of diffuse dust associated with the old and young disk stellar populations as well as a clumpy component arising from dust in the parent molecular clouds in star forming regions. In accordance with the fragmented nature of dense molecular gas in typical star-forming regions, UV light from massive stars is allowed to either freely stream away into the diffuse medium in some fraction of directions or be geometrically blocked and locally absorbed in clumps. These geometrical constraints enable the dust emission to be predicted in terms of a minimum set of free parameters: the central face-on dust opacity in the B-band τ^f_B, a clumpiness factor F for the star-forming regions, the star-formation rate SFR, the normalised luminosity of the old stellar population old and the bulge-to-disk ratio B/D. We show that these parameters are almost orthogonal in their

  8. The Cambridge-Cambridge x-ray serendipity survey. 2: Classification of x-ray luminous galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, Martin

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5 A) spectroscopic study of 17 x-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey and the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H alpha emission lines lie in the range 170 - 460 km s(exp -1). Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the (OIII) lambda 5007 emission-line profile. Broad H alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is FWHM = 3900 +/- 1750 km s(exp -1). Broad (FWHM = 2200 +/- 600 km s(exp -1) H alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or supernovae remnants. The mean Balmer decrement for the sample is H alpha / H beta = 3, consistent with little or no reddening for the bulk of the sample. There is no evidence for any trend with x-ray luminosity in the ratio of starburst galaxies to Seyfert galaxies. Based on our previous observations, it is therefore likely that both classes of object comprise approximately 10 percent of the 2 keV x-ray background.

  9. 2D kinematical study in local luminous compact blue galaxies. Starburst origin in UCM2325+2318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Pérez-Gallego, J.; Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F.; Garland, C.; Gruel, N.; Pisano, D. J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Ocaña, F.; Zamorano, J.

    2013-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are small, but vigorously star forming galaxies. Their presence at different redshifts denotes their cosmological relevance and implies that local starburst galaxies, when properly selected, are unique laboratories for studying the complex ecosystem of the star formation process over time. We have selected a representative sample of 22 LCBGs from the SDSS and UCM databases which, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar starbursts at high-z. We are carrying out a 2D optical spectroscopic study of this LCBG sample, including spatially resolved maps of kinematics, extinction, SFR and metallicity. This will help us to answer questions regarding the nature of these objects. In this poster we show our results on the kinematical study (Pérez-Gallego et al. 2011) which allows us to classify these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disk (RD) 48%, perturbed rotation (PR) 28% and complex kinematics (CK) 24%. We find 5% of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10% of a minor merger, and 45% of a companion. This argues in favor of ongoing interactions with close companions as a mechanism for the enhanced star formation activity in these galaxies. We find only 5% of objects with clear evidence of AGN activity, and 27% with kinematics consistent with SN-driven galactic winds. Therefore, a different mechanism may be responsible for quenching the star formation in LCBGs. The detailed analysis of the physical properties for each galaxy in the sample is on progress and we show in this poster the results on UCM2325+2318 as a prototype LCBG. Between the possible mechanisms to explain the starburst activity in this galaxy, our 2D spectroscopic data support the scenario of an on-going interaction with the possibility for clump B to be the dwarf satellite galaxy (Castillo-Morales et al. 2011, Pérez-Gallego et al. 2010).

  10. Lyα and CIII] Emission in z = 7 - 9 Galaxies: Accelerated Reionization Around Luminous Star Forming Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Charlot, Stéphane; Chevallard, Jacopo; Tang, Mengtao; Belli, Sirio; Zitrin, Adi; Mainali, Ramesh; Gutkin, Julia; Vidal-García, Alba; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    We discuss new Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations of four luminous galaxies at z ≃ 7 - 9 selected to have intense optical line emission by Roberts-Borsani et al. (2016). Previous follow-up has revealed Lyα in two of the four galaxies. Our new MOSFIRE observations confirm that Lyα is present in the entire sample. We detect Lyα emission in the galaxy COS-zs7-1, confirming its redshift as zLyα = 7.154, and we detect Lyα in EGS-zs8-2 at zLyα = 7.477, verifying an earlier tentative detection. The ubiquity of Lyα in this sample is puzzling given that the IGM is expected to be significantly neutral over 7 < z < 9. To investigate this result in more detail, we have initiated a campaign to target UV metal lines in the four Lyα emitters as a probe of both the ionizing field and the Lyα velocity offset at early times. Here we present the detection of CIII] emission in the z = 7.73 galaxy EGS-zs8-1, requiring an intense radiation field and moderately low metallicity. We argue that the radiation field is likely to affect the local environment, increasing the transmission of Lyα through the galaxy. Moreover, the centroid of CIII] indicates that Lyα is redshifted by 340 km sec-1. This velocity offset is larger than that seen in less luminous systems, providing an explanation for the transmission of Lyα emission through the IGM. Since the transmission is further enhanced by the likelihood that such systems are also situated in large ionized bubbles, the visibility of Lyα at z > 7 is expected to be strongly luminosity-dependent, with transmission accelerated in systems with intense star formation.

  11. Where are the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs)? Using correlation measurements and lensing to relate LRGs to dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Takada, Masahiro; Spergel, David N.

    2013-11-01

    Non-linear redshift-space distortions, the Finger-of-God (FoG) effect, can complicate the interpretation of the galaxy power spectrum. Here, we demonstrate the method proposed by Hikage, Takada & Spergel to use complimentary observations to directly constrain this effect on the data. We use catalogues of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) and photometric galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 (DR7) to measure the redshift-space power spectrum of LRGs, the cross-correlation of LRGs with the shapes of background photometric galaxies (galaxy-galaxy weak lensing) and the projected cross-correlation of LRGs with photometric galaxies having similar photometric redshifts to the LRG spectroscopic redshift. All of these measurements use a reconstructed halo field. While we use the position of each LRG for single LRG systems, we compare the measurements using different halo-centre proxies for multiple-LRG systems (4.5 per cent of all the haloes): the brightest LRG position (BLRG), the faintest LRG position (FLRG) and their arithmetical mean position (Mean), respectively, in each system. We find significant differences in the measured correlations of different centres, showing consistent off-centring effects in the three observables. By comparing the measurements with a halo model that treats the satellite photometric galaxies as being distributed according to a generalized Navarro, Frenk and White profile, we find that ˜40 (70) per cent of BLRGs (FLRGs) are off-centred satellite galaxies in the multiple-LRG systems. The satellite LRGs have typical off-centring radius of ˜400 kpc h-1, and velocity dispersion of about 500 km s-1 in host haloes with a mean mass of 1.6 × 1014 M⊙ h-1. We show that, if LRGs in the single LRG systems have similar offsets, the residual FoG contamination in the LRG power spectrum can be significant at k ≳ 0.1 h Mpc-1, which may cause a bias in cosmological parameters determined by the shape of the power spectrum, such as

  12. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Detection or Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Decrement in Groups and Clusters Associated with Luminous Red Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hand, Nick; Appel, John William; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Dunner, Rolando; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D.; Hlozek, Renee; Hughes, John P.; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeff; Kosowsky, Arthur; Lin, Yen-Ting; Marriage, Tobias A.; Marsden, Danica; McLaren, Mike; Wollack, Ed

    2010-01-01

    We present a detection of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) decrement associated with the Luminous Red Galaxy (LRG) sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The SZ data come from 148 GHz maps of the equatorial region made by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). The LRG sample is divided by luminosity into four bins, and estimates for the central Sunyaev-Zel'dovich temperature decrement are calculated through a stacking process. We detect and account for a bias of the SZ signal due to weak radio sources. We use numerical simulations to relate the observed decrement to Y(sub 200) and clustering properties to relate the galaxy luminosity bins to mass. We also use a relation between BCG luminosity and cluster mass based on stacked gravitational lensing measurements to estimate the characteristic halo masses. The masses are found to be in the range approx.10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14)/h Stellar Mass, a lower range than has been previously probed.

  13. Neutral carbon and CO in 76 (U)LIRGs and starburst galaxy centers. A method to determine molecular gas properties in luminous galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, F. P.; Rosenberg, M. J. F.; van der Werf, P.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we present fluxes in the [ CI ] lines of neutral carbon at the centers of some 76 galaxies with far-infrared luminosities ranging from 109 to 1012L⊙, as obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory and ground-based facilities, along with the line fluxes of the J = 7-6, J = 4-3, J = 2-112CO, and J = 2-113CO transitions. With this dataset, we determine the behavior of the observed lines with respect to each other and then investigate whether they can be used to characterize the molecular interstellar medium (ISM) of the parent galaxies in simple ways and how the molecular gas properties define the model results. In most starburst galaxies, the [ CI ] to 13CO line flux ratio is much higher than in Galactic star-forming regions, and it is correlated to the total far-infrared luminosity. The [ CI ] (1-0)/12CO (4-3), the [ CI ] (2-1)/12CO (7-6), and the [ CI ] (2-1)/(1-0) flux ratios are correlated, and they trace the excitation of the molecular gas. In the most luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), the ISM is fully dominated by dense (n( H2) = 104-105 cm-3) and moderately warm (Tkin ≈ 30 K) gas clouds that appear to have low [C°]/[CO] and [13CO]/[12CO] abundances. In less luminous galaxies, emission from gas clouds at lower densities becomes progressively more important, and a multiple-phase analysis is required to determine consistent physical characteristics. Neither the 12CO nor the [ CI ] velocity-integrated line fluxes are good predictors of molecular hydrogen column densities in individual galaxies. In particular, so-called X( [ CI ]) conversion factors are not superior to X( 12CO) factors. The methods and diagnostic diagrams outlined in this paper also provide a new and relatively straightforward means of deriving the physical characteristics of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies up to z = 5, which are otherwise hard to determine.

  14. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    SciTech Connect

    Akyuz, A.; Avdan, H.; Kayaci, S.; Ozel, M. E.; Sonbas, E.; Balman, S.

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D{sub 25} regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of {approx}2-5 during a time interval of {approx}2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  15. The Relation between Luminous AGNs and Star Formation in Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Rieke, G. H.; Egami, E.; Haines, C. P.; Pereira, M. J.; Smith, G. P.

    2015-08-01

    We study the relation of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to star formation in their host galaxies. Our sample includes 205 Type-1 and 85 Type-2 AGNs, 162 detected with Herschel, from fields surrounding 30 galaxy clusters in the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. The sample is identified by optical line widths and ratios after selection to be brighter than 1 mJy at 24 μm. We show that Type-2 AGN [O iii]λ5007 line fluxes at high z can be contaminated by their host galaxies with typical spectrograph entrance apertures (but our sample is not compromised in this way). We use spectral energy distribution (SED) templates to decompose the galaxy SEDs and estimate star formation rates (SFRs), AGN luminosities, and host galaxy stellar masses (described in an accompanying paper). The AGNs arise from massive black holes (˜ 3× {10}8{M}⊙ ) accreting at ˜10% of the Eddington rate and residing in galaxies with stellar mass \\gt 3× {10}10{M}⊙ ; those detected with Herschel have IR luminosity from star formation in the range of {L}{SF,{IR}}˜ {10}10-{10}12{L}⊙ . We find that (1) the specific SFRs in the host galaxies are generally consistent with those of normal star-forming (main sequence) galaxies; (2) there is a strong correlation between the luminosities from star formation and the AGN; and (3) the correlation may not result from a causal connection, but could arise because the black hole mass (and hence AGN Eddington luminosity) and star formation are both correlated with the galaxy mass.

  16. Declining rotation curves - The end of a conspiracy. [HI rotation velocity decrease of two galaxies as indication of large luminous to dark mass ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Casertano, S.; Van gorkom, J.H. Pittsburgh Univ., PA Columbia Univ., New York National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM )

    1991-04-01

    Two new H I rotation curves, observed at the Very Large Array as part of a search for galaxies with extended H I envelopes, are presented. The two curves are characterized by a large decrease in rotation velocity (more than 50 km/s, or about 25 percent of the maximum rotation velocity) between 1 and 3 optical radii. The velocity decrease is present on both sides of each galaxy and is not due to projection effects. The decrease in rotation velocity is interpreted as an indication of a large ratio of luminous to dark mass in the luminous regions of these systems. While confirming the idea that dark matter is ubiquitous, the discovery indicates that the match between the properties of luminous and dark matter required by the well-known 'conspiracy' is not perfect. 69 refs.

  17. A 3D view of galactic winds in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Fernández, P.; Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Zurita, A.; Mediavilla, E.; Castillo-Morales, A.

    2015-02-01

    Galactic winds and outflows are an ubiquitous phenomenon in galaxies with active star formation and/or active nuclei. They constitute the main mechanism for redistributing dust and metals on large scales and are therefore a key ingredient to understand the life cycle of galaxies. Among galaxies, ULIRGs are of particular interest in this context, as they host intense starbursts and are likely to be the dominant star formers at z > 1. These objects have been shown to host important winds, but it is not yet known what is the frequency of galactic winds and their properties in galaxies with lower star formation rates (SFR). We are studying galactic winds in a sample of 21 galaxies with different SFRs (including ULIRGs) from observations with the INTEGRAL fiber spectrograph on the 4.2m WHT. In order to be able to address the complex multi-phase nature of the wind phenomenon, we have used the Na I D doublet absorption lines to trace cold gas, and a few emission lines (Hα, [N ii] and [S ii]) to trace the warmer ionized gas of the wind. The distribution and kinematics of both components in these objects is then analysed. Preliminary results show strong spatial correlation between regions with high non-circular velocities, areas with high star formation activity and regions with two different components in the emission lines. This set of data will help us to characterise the distribution and kinematics of the winds and their relation with the host galaxy type.

  18. Resolving the Chemistry of Molecular Gas that Fuels Luminous Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David; Turner, Jean; Anderson, Crystal

    2012-10-01

    Energy input from massive stars profoundly impact on how starburst galaxies evolve. Both the triggers of and feedback from star formation manifest themselves in the gas chemistry. We use millimeter interferometry to obtain high spatial resolution maps of CO, HCO^+, CCH, NNH^+, HNCO, CH3OH and SiO, toward the starbursts, Maffei 2, M 82, IRAS 04296+2923 and Arp 220. Dramatic variations in gas chemistry are observed both within the individual galaxies and from galaxy to galaxy. These variations correlate with star formation and gas dynamics. CO isotopologues are used to constrain the evolutionary history of star formation. Species preferentially formed (CCH) and destroyed (NNH^+) in the presence of strong UV radiation map out where energy input from the massive stars dominate. CCH abundances are correlated with star formation rate, except in the most extreme starburst, Arp 220, whereas NNH^+ abundances drop, except for Arp 220. The abundance anomalies in Arp 220 hint that the molecular medium in the most extreme starbursts is different. HNCO, CH3OH and SiO locate shocks due to bars and galaxy-galaxy mergers in these systems. Comparisons between these species suggest shock strength does not change across bars, but does for merger remnants.

  19. GROUND-BASED Paα NARROW-BAND IMAGING OF LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. I. STAR FORMATION RATES AND SURFACE DENSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tateuchi, Ken; Konishi, Masahiro; Motohara, Kentaro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko Mitani; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Todo, Soya; Toshikawa, Koji; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K.; Ohsawa, Ryou; Asano, Kentaro; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Ita, Yoshifusa; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Nakashima, Asami; and others

    2015-03-15

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are enshrouded by a large amount of dust produced by their active star formation, and it is difficult to measure their activity in optical wavelengths. We have carried out Paα narrow-band imaging observations of 38 nearby star forming galaxies including 33 LIRGs listed in the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample catalog with the Atacama Near InfraRed camera on the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 1.0 m telescope (miniTAO). Star formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the Paα fluxes, corrected for dust extinction using the Balmer decrement method (typically A{sub V} ∼ 4.3 mag), show a good correlation with those from the bolometric infrared luminosity of the IRAS data within a scatter of 0.27 dex. This suggests that the correction of dust extinction for the Paα flux is sufficient in our sample. We measure the physical sizes and surface densities of infrared luminosities (Σ{sub L(IR)}) and the SFR (Σ{sub SFR}) of star forming regions for individual galaxies, and we find that most of the galaxies follow a sequence of local ultra-luminous or luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) on the L(IR)-Σ{sub L(IR)} and SFR-Σ{sub SFR} plane. We confirm that a transition of the sequence from normal galaxies to U/LIRGs is seen at L(IR) = 8 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}. Also, we find that there is a large scatter in physical size, different from normal galaxies or ULIRGs. Considering the fact that most U/LIRGs are merging or interacting galaxies, this scatter may be caused by strong external factors or differences in their merging stages.

  20. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (˜4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8-100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10-10 phot cm-2 s-1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s-1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray-IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray-radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  1. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Rhiannon D.; Dai, Xinyu; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only two LIRGs have been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic-ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi-LAT data for 82 of the brightest Infrared Astronomical Satellite LIRGs and ULIRGs. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (˜4.6σ). We observe a gamma-ray flux (0.8–100 GeV) of 2.4 × 10‑10 phot cm‑2 s‑1 with a photon index of 2.23 (8.2 × 1041 erg s‑1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits (ULs) for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked ULs agree with calorimetric predictions for dense star-forming galaxies. With the detection of Arp 220, we extend the gamma-ray–IR luminosity correlation to the high-luminosity regime with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.25× {log}{L}8-1000μ {{m}}+26.7 as well as the gamma-ray–radio continuum luminosity correlation with {log}{L}0.1-100{GeV}=1.22× {log}{L}1.4{GHz}+13.3. The current survey of Fermi-LAT is on the verge of detecting more LIRGs/ULIRGs in the local universe, and we expect even more detections with deeper Fermi-LAT observations or the next generation of gamma-ray detectors.

  2. Three-dimensional spectroscopy of local luminous compact blue galaxies: kinematic maps of a sample of 22 objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Gallego, J.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Gruel, N.; Pisano, D. J.; Zamorano, J.

    2011-12-01

    We use three-dimensional optical spectroscopy observations of a sample of 22 local luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) to create kinematic maps. By means of these, we classify the kinematics of these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disc (RD), perturbed rotation (PR) and complex kinematics (CK). We find 48 per cent are RDs, 28 per cent are PRs and 24 per cent are CKs. RDs show rotational velocities that range between ˜50 and ˜200 km s-1, and dynamical masses that range between ˜1 × 109 and ˜3 × 1010 M⊙. We also address the following two fundamental questions through the study of the kinematic maps: (i) What processes are triggering the current starburst in LCBGs? We search our maps of the galaxy velocity fields for signatures of recent interactions and close companions that may be responsible for the enhanced star formation in our sample. We find that 5 per cent of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10 per cent of a minor merger and 45 per cent of a companion. This argues in favour of ongoing interactions with close companions as a mechanism for the enhanced star formation activity in these galaxies. (ii) What processes may eventually quench the current starbust in LCBGs? Velocity and velocity width maps, together with emission line ratio maps, can reveal signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) activity or supernova (SN)-driven galactic winds that could halt the current burst. We find only 5 per cent of objects with clear evidence of AGN activity and 27 per cent with kinematics consistent with SN-driven galactic winds. Therefore, a different mechanism may be responsible for quenching the star formation in LCBGs. Finally, from our analysis, we find that the velocity widths of RDs, rather than accounting exclusively for the rotational nature of these objects, may account as well for other kinematic components and may not be good tracers of their dynamical masses.

  3. Constraints on cold dark matter theories from observations of massive x-ray-luminous clusters of galaxies at high redshift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luppino, G. A.; Gioia, I. M.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of a gravitational lensing survey of distant, X-ray selected Einstein Observatory Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) clusters of galaxies, we have studied six X-ray-luminous (L(sub x) greater than 5 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) clusters at redshifts exceeding z = 0.5. All of these clusters are apparently massive. In addition to their high X-ray luminosity, two of the clusters at z approximately 0.6 exhibit gravitationally lensed arcs. Furthermore, the highest redshift cluster in our sample, MS 1054-0321 at z = 0.826, is both extremely X-ray luminous (L(sub 0.3-3.5keV)=9.3 x 10(exp 44)(h(sub 50)(exp -2))ergs/sec) and exceedingly rich with an optical richness comparable to an Abell Richness Class 4 cluster. In this Letter, we discuss the cosmological implications of the very existence of these clusters for hierarchical structure formation theories such as standard Omega = 1 CDM (cold dark matter), hybrid Omega = 1 C + HDM (hot dark matter), and flat, low-density Lambda + CDM models.

  4. Luminous Infrared Galaxies with the Submillimeter Array. IV. 12CO J = 6-5 Observations of VV 114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Wilson, Christine D.; Krips, Melanie; Petitpas, Glen R.; Iono, Daisuke; Juvela, Mika; Matsushita, Satoki; Peck, Alison; Yun, Min

    2013-11-01

    We present high-resolution (~2.''5) observations of 12CO J = 6-5 toward the luminous infrared galaxy VV 114 using the Submillimeter Array. We detect 12CO J = 6-5 emission from the eastern nucleus of VV 114 but do not detect the western nucleus or the central region. We combine the new 12CO J = 6-5 observations with previously published or archival low-J CO observations, which include 13CO J = 1-0 Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array cycle 0 observations, to analyze the beam-averaged physical conditions of the molecular gas in the eastern nucleus. We use the radiative transfer code RADEX and a Bayesian likelihood code to constrain the temperature (T kin), density (n_{H_{2}}), and column density (N_{^{12CO}}) of the molecular gas. We find that the most probable scenario for the eastern nucleus is a cold (T kin = 38 K), moderately dense (n_{H_{2}} = 102.89 cm-3) molecular gas component. We find that the most probable 12CO to 13CO abundance ratio ([12CO]/[13CO]) is 229, which is roughly three times higher than the Milky Way value. This high abundance ratio may explain the observed high 12CO/ 13CO line ratio (>25). The unusual 13CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 line ratio of 0.6 is produced by a combination of moderate 13CO optical depths (τ = 0.4-1.1) and extremely subthermal excitation temperatures. We measure the CO-to-H2 conversion factor, αCO, to be 0.5^{+0.6}_{-0.3} M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1, which agrees with the widely used factor for ultra luminous infrared galaxies of Downes & Solomon (αCO = 0.8 M ⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1).

  5. DYNAMO - I. A sample of Hα-luminous galaxies with resolved kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Andrew W.; Glazebrook, Karl; McGregor, Peter J.; Damjanov, Ivana; Wisnioski, Emily; Abraham, Roberto G.; Colless, Matthew; Sharp, Robert G.; Crain, Robert A.; Poole, Gregory B.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    DYNAMO is a multiwavelength, spatially resolved survey of local (z ˜ 0.1) star-forming galaxies designed to study evolution through comparison with samples at z ≃ 2. Half of the sample has integrated Hα luminosities of >1042 erg s-1, the typical lower limit for resolved spectroscopy at z ≃ 2. The sample covers a range in stellar mass (109-1011 M⊙) and star formation rate (0.2-100 M⊙ yr-1). In this first paper of a series, we present integral-field spectroscopy of Hα emission for the sample of 67 galaxies. We infer gas fractions in our sample as high as ≃0.8, higher than typical for local galaxies. Gas fraction correlates with stellar mass in galaxies with star formation rates below 10 M⊙ yr-1, as found by COLDGASS, but galaxies with higher star formation rates have higher than expected gas fractions. There is only a weak correlation, if any, between gas fraction and gas velocity dispersion. Galaxies in the sample visually classified as disc-like are offset from the local stellar mass Tully-Fisher relation to higher circular velocities, but this offset vanishes when both gas and stars are included in the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. The mean gas velocity dispersion of the sample is ≃ 50 km s-1, and V/σ ranges from 2 to 10 for most of the discs, similar to `turbulent' galaxies at high redshift. Half of our sample show disc-like rotation, while ˜20 per cent show no signs of rotation. The division between rotating and non-rotating is approximately equal for the sub-samples with either star formation rates >10 M⊙ yr-1, or specific star formation rates typical of the star formation `main sequence' at z ≃ 2. Across our whole sample, we find good correlation between the dominance of `turbulence' in galaxy discs (as expressed by V/σ) and gas fraction as has been predicted for marginally stable Toomre discs. Comparing our sample with many others at low- and high-redshift reveals a correlation between gas velocity dispersion and star formation rate

  6. Searching for the Most UV-Luminous Galaxies in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevans, Matthew L.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Wold, Isak; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Papovich, Casey J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Acquaviva, Viviana; Casey, Caitlin; HETDEX Team

    2016-01-01

    How galaxies grow and evolve over cosmic time is one of the largest unanswered questions in astronomy. With 50% of the stellar mass in today's galaxies having formed before z~1 (Dickinson et al. 2003) and the cosmic star formation density peaking between 1 < z < 3 (Madau & Dickinson 2014), the epoch at z>3 is particularly important for understanding the rise of the Hubble sequence at later times. We present multi-wavelength photometry from the the unprecedentedly large 28 deg2 Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) / Spitzer-HETDEX Exploratory Large Area (SHELA) survey in a study of 800,000 galaxies at redshifts of 1.9 to 3.5 including significant numbers of the most massive and most rare galaxies, unseen in pencil-beam deep field surveys. We use ugriz photometry from the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) and fit galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with stellar population spectral templates to select LBGs at z~3-4 and measure the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Our survey's large area and moderate depth provide a unique view of the bright-end (MAB<-22). Contamination by stellar sources or active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be ruled out by the inclusion of multi-wavelength data. Probing a volume of 0.5 Gpc3 at 1.9 < z < 3.5, similar to that of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at z < 0.5, we provide the most definitive constraints for numerical models of cosmic galaxy evolution, expanding our knowledge of galaxy growth during this critical era in cosmic history.

  7. The X-ray halo of an extremely luminous LSB disk galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiner, Benjamin J.

    2004-01-01

    We are continuing to refine our upper limit on emission from halo gas in Malin 2. The upper limit is, of course, below the detected flux, but is made more difficult to quantify by the disk and possible AGN sources. We are also exploring spectral and spatial-size constraints to help separate the sources of emission. On the theory side, more recent work on the X-ray halo luminosity from halo gas leftover from galaxy formation has lowered the prediction for disk galaxies (e.g. Toft et al. 2002, MNRAS, 335, 799). While our upper limit is well below the original prediction, refinements in model have moved the theoretical goalposts, so that the observation may be consistent with newer models. A recent theoretical development, which our observations of Malin 2 appear to support, is that a substantial amount of mass can be accreted onto galaxies without being heated at a virial shock. The previous standard theory was that gas accreting into a halo hits a virial shock and is heated to high temperatures, which could produce X-ray halos in massive galaxies. Recent models show that "smooth accretion" of matter bypasses the virial shocking (Murali e t al. 2002, ApJ, 571, 1; Birnboim & Dekel 2003, MNRAS, 345, 349). Additionally, new hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy mergers by UCSC graduate student T. J. Cox show that hot gas halos can be created by gas blown out from the merger, taking up orbital energy of the merging galaxies (Cox et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, L87). If mergers rather than virial shocking are the origin of hot gas halos, the existence of an X-ray halo should depend more on past merger activity than halo mass. Then it makes sense that elliptical galaxies and poor groups with ellipticals, which are probably formed in mergers, have X-ray gas halos; while a giant, quiescent LSB disk galaxy like Malin 2, which has never suffered a major merger, does not have an X-ray halo. While both the observational expectations and theoretical models have changed since we began this

  8. An Extremely Luminous Panchromatic Outburst from the Nucleus of a Distant Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Cenko, S. B.; Perley, D. A.; Wiersema, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Fruchter, A. S.; Postigo, A. de Ugarte; O'Brien, P. T.; Butler, N.; van der Horst, A. J.; Leloudas, G.; Morgan, A. N.; Misra, K.; Bower, G. C.; Farihi, J.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Modjaz, M.; Silverman, J. M.; Hjorth, J.; Thöne, C.; Cucchiara, A.; Cerón, J. M. Castro; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Arnold, J. A.; Bremer, M.; Brodie, J. P.; Carroll, T.; Cooper, M. C.; Curran, P. A.; Cutri, R. M.; Ehle, J.; Forbes, D.; Fynbo, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Graham, J.; Hoffman, D. I.; Guziy, S.; Jakobsson, P.; Kamble, A.; Kerr, T.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kocevski, D.; Law, N. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Ofek, E. O.; Poznanski, D.; Quimby, R. M.; Rol, E.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schulze, S.; Singh, N.; van Spaandonk, L.; Starling, R. L. C.; Strom, R. G.; Tello, J. C.; Vaduvescu, O.; Wheatley, P. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Winters, J. M.; Xu, D.

    2011-07-01

    Variable x-ray and γ-ray emission is characteristic of the most extreme physical processes in the universe. We present multiwavelength observations of a unique γ-ray-selected transient detected by the Swift satellite, accompanied by bright emission across the electromagnetic spectrum, and whose properties are unlike any previously observed source. We pinpoint the event to the center of a small, star-forming galaxy at redshift z = 0.3534. Its high-energy emission has lasted much longer than any γ-ray burst, whereas its peak luminosity was ˜100 times higher than bright active galactic nuclei. The association of the outburst with the center of its host galaxy suggests that this phenomenon has its origin in a rare mechanism involving the massive black hole in the nucleus of that galaxy.

  9. Infrared emission from central dominant galaxies in X-ray luminous clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Mcnamara, Brian R.; O'Connell, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    IRAS strip scans are used to study the emission properties of 27 dominant galaxies that lie in the center of clusters rich in hot gas. In this sample, 30 percent of the objects were detected at 12/25 microns, while 46 percent were detected at 60/100 microns. The ratio of the IR to optical flux densities is an order of magnitude greater than for elliptical and S0 galaxies. The presence of IR emission is not obviously correlated with z, m(v), Mv, the presence of young stellar populations, emission-line gas, the X-ray luminosity, or the cooling rate of hot gas.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  11. Hyper-luminous dust-obscured galaxies discovered by the Hyper Suprime-Cam on Subaru and WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Yoshiki; Nagao, Tohru; Strauss, Michael A.; Aoki, Kentaro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Bosch, James; Bundy, Kevin; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Inami, Hanae; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H.; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Oi, Nagisa; Onoue, Masafusa; Oyabu, Shinki; Price, Paul; Tait, Philip J.; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Turner, Edwin L.; Uchida, Tomohisa; Usuda, Tomonori; Utsumi, Yousuke; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Wang, Shiang-Yu

    2015-10-01

    We present the photometric properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR (MIR) images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, we discovered 48 DOGs with i - Ks > 1.2 and i - [22] > 7.0, where i, Ks, and [22] represent AB magnitude in the i-band, Ks-band, and 22 μm, respectively, in the GAMA 14 hr field (˜ 9 deg2). Among these objects, 31 (˜ 65%) show power-law spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the near-IR (NIR) and MIR regime, while the remainder show an NIR bump in their SEDs. Assuming that the redshift distribution for our DOGs sample is Gaussian, with mean and sigma z = 1.99 ± 0.45, we calculated their total IR luminosity using an empirical relation between 22 μm luminosity and total IR luminosity. The average value of the total IR luminosity is (3.5 ± 1.1) × 1013 L⊙, which classifies them as hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. We also derived the total IR luminosity function (LF) and IR luminosity density (LD) for a flux-limited subsample of 18 DOGs with 22 μm flux greater than 3.0 mJy and with i-band magnitude brighter than 24 AB magnitude. The derived space density for this subsample is log φ = -6.59 ± 0.11 [Mpc-3]. The IR LF for DOGs including data obtained from the literature is fitted well by a double-power law. The derived lower limit for the IR LD for our sample is ρIR ˜ 3.8 × 107 [L⊙ Mpc-3] and its contributions to the total IR LD, IR LD of all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, and that of all DOGs are > 3%, > 9%, and > 15%, respectively.

  12. A substantial population of low-mass stars in luminous elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    van Dokkum, Pieter G; Conroy, Charlie

    2010-12-16

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) describes the mass distribution of stars at the time of their formation and is of fundamental importance for many areas of astrophysics. The IMF is reasonably well constrained in the disk of the Milky Way but we have very little direct information on the form of the IMF in other galaxies and at earlier cosmic epochs. Here we report observations of the Na (I) doublet and the Wing-Ford molecular FeH band in the spectra of elliptical galaxies. These lines are strong in stars with masses less than 0.3M(⊙) (where M(⊙) is the mass of the Sun) and are weak or absent in all other types of stars. We unambiguously detect both signatures, consistent with previous studies that were based on data of lower signal-to-noise ratio. The direct detection of the light of low-mass stars implies that they are very abundant in elliptical galaxies, making up over 80% of the total number of stars and contributing more than 60% of the total stellar mass. We infer that the IMF in massive star-forming galaxies in the early Universe produced many more low-mass stars than the IMF in the Milky Way disk, and was probably slightly steeper than the Salpeter form in the mass range 0.1M(⊙) to 1M(⊙).

  13. A Multi-wavelength View of the Central Kiloparsec Region in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alberdi, Antxon; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Hernández-García, Lorena; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-01

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ~100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r <~ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  14. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  15. Investigating the [CII]-PAHs relation in a large sample of local galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contursi, Alessandra; Brauher, James; Helou, George

    2003-02-01

    We present preliminary results about the linear correlation existing between the Mid Infrared (MIR) Aromatic Features seen in emission (AFEs) and the emission of the main cooling line of the neutral atomic medium, [CII] at 158 μm, for a sample of 140 galaxies. A similar analysis on a smaller sample of normal galaxies only, has been already published by Helou et al. (2001ApJ...548L..73H). The final aim of the work presented here is to further investigate the physical origin and implications of such a relation and to see if the same results hold for a much wider variety of galaxy types and activities. When only spiral galaxies are considered, we confirm the results already obtained in previous works by Malhotra et al. (Malhotra et al. 2001ApJ...561..766M) and Helou et al. (2001ApJ...548L..73H): there exists a difference between the behavior of the [CII]/FIR and [CII]/AFE ratios as a function of the 60 μm 100 μm IRAS colors: while [CII]/FIR decreases with the IRAS color, the [CII]/AFE ratio stays constant. The same result seems to hold also for early-type and irregular galaxies although they show a much higher dispersion in the [CII]/AFE ratio. As first step of the analysis, we concentrate on understanding the origin of the dispersion in order to separate intrinsic physical behavior from errors in the ISOCAM photometry. There exist few outsiders with a [CII]/AFE ratio lower than the main trend outlined from late spiral and irregular galaxies, although, at this preliminary stage of the analysis, we are not yet able to explain the physical origin.

  16. High-resolution study of luminous infrared galaxies. I - The composite nature of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 20044-6114 (NGC 6860)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipari, Sebastian; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Macchetto, F.

    1993-01-01

    The physical conditions in the ionized gas, the stellar population, and the kinematics of the Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 20044-6114 (NGC 6860) are studied by high spatial resolution optical imaging and optical and near-IR spectroscopy of this luminous IR source. The broadband images show a compact nucleus, two weak spiral arms, a bar, a bulge, an inner ring, and a possible outer ring. The I-alpha image reveals bright emission-line regions associated with the Seyfert nucleus and an inner ring of intense star formation. The forbidden O III 5007-A image shows that the high-excitation gas is elongated perpendicularly to the direction of the bar, and reveals a bright compact object at about 40 arcsec NE of the nucleus which is undetectable in the broadband images. This object is interpreted as a dwarf young H II galaxy. The optical, near-IR, and FIR results show clear evidence that the nuclear and circumnuclear regions have composite and complex structure: a variable Seyfert 1 nucleus embedded in an intense and dusty star formation. environment.

  17. NGC 1614 - An IR-luminous merger but not (yet?) an active galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, S. G.; Hutchings, J. B.; Standord, S. A.; Unger, S. W.

    1990-01-01

    New observations of the merging galaxy NGC 1614 are described. The system has a nuclear region of QSO-like luminosity, but shows no direct evidence for an active nucleus. It is heavily and unevenly reddened across its nucleus, while infrared imaging also shows a 'ridge' of dust. The inner spiral structure of the galaxy has normal rotation for an inclined disk, as indicated by the H-alpha emission. A linear 'tail' to the S and extended arms to the E have more positive velocities, and probably are the remains of an interacting companion and the tidal plume(s) caused by the collision. The only H I seen in emission appears to coincide with bright knots of H-alpha and forbidden O III emission of the base of the tail. The lack of direct evidence for an active nucleus indicates that if NGC 1614 is a precursor to a Seyfert-like system the AGN has not yet turned on.

  18. Identification of an Extensive Luminous Halo Around the Ringed Spiral Galaxy NGC 7217

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buta, R.; van Driel, W.; Braine, J.; Combes, F.

    1993-12-01

    The isolated spiral galaxy NGC 7217 is characterized by flocculent spiral structure and three optical ring-like zones: a stellar nuclear ring, a weak inner pseudoring, and a bright patchy outer ring. The rings all have nearly the same shape and position angle in projection. To understand this kind of ringed galaxy, we have obtained deep CCD BVRI surface photometry and mapping of the CO and HI gas distributions and kinematics. Our images reveal something that was missed in previous studies: a large, nearly round halo of light extending far beyond the outer ring. We interpret this as bulge light which comes back to dominate the luminosity distribution at large radii. Ellipse fits to isophotes out to 240('') radius reveal a minimum axis ratio of 0.83 just outside the outer ring at 90('') , and then a rise to 0.96 at about 140('') . The luminosity profiles are well-fitted by a combined r({1/) 4} bulge and exponential disk model. In all filters, the bulge dominates at all radii, and the bulge-to-total disk ratio is about 2.3 (B). If the minimum axis ratio of 0.83 approximates the apparent flattening of the disk, then NGC 7217 is remarkably axisymmetric. Nevertheless, the I-band image reveals a tightly-wrapped, two-armed spiral pattern in the outer ring region. The outer ring includes 4.5% of the total B luminosity and is the locus of most of the recent star formation in the galaxy; it is also where the HI gas is concentrated. An additional noteworthy feature is a circumnuclear dust ring 1.2 kpc in diameter. Other dust lanes are seen only on the near side of the galaxy. The rings of NGC 7217 could be resonances with a very weak internal perturbation. We are attempting to simulate the structure using the I-band light distribution to help define the potential. But most interesting is the recent discovery of a substantial population of counter-rotating stars in the galaxy (Kuijken 1993, PASP, 105, 1016). One possible explanation for these stars is that the bulge is more

  19. The distribution of dark and luminous matter in the unique galaxy cluster merger Abell 2146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lindsay J.; Clowe, Douglas I.; Coleman, Joseph E.; Russell, Helen R.; Santana, Rebecca; White, Jacob A.; Canning, Rebecca E. A.; Deering, Nicole J.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Lee, Brandyn E.; Li, Baojiu; McNamara, Brian R.

    2016-06-01

    Abell 2146 (z = 0.232) consists of two galaxy clusters undergoing a major merger. The system was discovered in previous work, where two large shock fronts were detected using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, consistent with a merger close to the plane of the sky, caught soon after first core passage. A weak gravitational lensing analysis of the total gravitating mass in the system, using the distorted shapes of distant galaxies seen with Advanced Camera for Surveys - Wide Field Channel on Hubble Space Telescope, is presented. The highest peak in the reconstruction of the projected mass is centred on the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in Abell 2146-A. The mass associated with Abell 2146-B is more extended. Bootstrapped noise mass reconstructions show the mass peak in Abell 2146-A to be consistently centred on the BCG. Previous work showed that BCG-A appears to lag behind an X-ray cool core; although the peak of the mass reconstruction is centred on the BCG, it is also consistent with the X-ray peak given the resolution of the weak lensing mass map. The best-fitting mass model with two components centred on the BCGs yields M200 = 1.1^{+0.3}_{-0.4} × 1015 and 3^{+1}_{-2} × 1014 M⊙ for Abell 2146-A and Abell 2146-B, respectively, assuming a mass concentration parameter of c = 3.5 for each cluster. From the weak lensing analysis, Abell 2146-A is the primary halo component, and the origin of the apparent discrepancy with the X-ray analysis where Abell 2146-B is the primary halo is being assessed using simulations of the merger.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: DYNAMO. Hα luminous galaxies sample (Green+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. W.; Glazebrook, K.; McGregor, P. J.; Damjanov, I.; Wisnioski, E.; Abraham, R. G.; Colless, M.; Sharp, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Poole, G. B.; McCarthy, P. J.

    2014-11-01

    We have selected a representative sample of 67 galaxies classified as star forming in the Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik and Johns Hopkins University (MPA-JHU) value-added catalogue (http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/SDSS/DR4/) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, York et al., 2000AJ....120.1579Y). Integral-field spectroscopic data were obtained using two different telescopes; the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope and the ANU 2.3m Telescope, both situated at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. (4 data files).

  1. ROSAT HRI and ASCA Observations of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946 and its Northeast Complex of Luminous Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, E.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of 80 ks ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) and 60 ks ROSAT HRI (High Resolution Image) observations of the face-on spiral galaxy NGC 6946 are presented. The ASCA image is the first observation of this galaxy above approximately 2 keV. Diffuse emission may be present in the inner approximately 4' extending to energies above approximately 2-3 keV. In the HRI data, 14 pointlike sources are detected, the brightest two being a source very close to the nucleus and a source to the northeast that corresponds to a luminous complex of interacting supernova remnants (SNRs). We detect a point source that lies approximately 30" west of the SNR complex but with a luminosity -1115 of the SNR complex. None of the point sources show evidence of strong variability; weak variability would escape our detection. The ASCA spectrum of the SNR complex shows evidence for an emission line at approximately 0.9 keV that could be either Ne IX at approximately 0.915 keV or a blend of ion stages of Fe L-shell emission if the continuum is fitted with a power law. However, a two-component, Raymond-Smith thermal spectrum with no lines gives an equally valid continuum fit and may be more physically plausible given the observed spectrum below 3 keV. Adopting this latter model, we derive a density for the SNR complex of 10-35 cm(exp -3), consistent with estimates inferred from optical emission-line ratios. The complex's extraordinary X-ray luminosity may be related more to the high density of the surrounding medium than to a small but intense interaction region where two of the complex's SNRs are apparently colliding.

  2. SUBMILLIMETER INTERFEROMETRY OF THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418: A HIDDEN HOT NUCLEUS WITH AN INFLOW AND AN OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Ohyama, Youichi; Aalto, Susanne; Costagliola, Francesco; Martin, Sergio; Wiedner, Martina C.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-02-10

    We have observed the nucleus of the nearby luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418 with subarcsec resolution at 860 and 450 {mu}m for the first time to characterize its hidden power source. A {approx}20 pc (0.''1) hot dusty core was found inside a 100 pc scale concentration of molecular gas at the galactic center. The 860 {mu}m continuum core has a deconvolved (peak) brightness temperature of 120-210 K. The CO(3-2) peak brightness temperature there is as high as 90 K at 50 pc resolution. The core has a bolometric luminosity of about 10{sup 11} L {sub Sun }, which accounts for most of the galaxy luminosity. It is Compton thick (N {sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 25} cm{sup -2}) and has a high luminosity-to-mass ratio (L/M) {approx} 500 L {sub Sun} M {sub Sun} {sup -1} as well as a high luminosity surface density 10{sup 8.5{+-}0.5} L {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. These parameters are consistent with an active galactic nucleus to be the main luminosity source (with an Eddington ratio about 0.3), while they can be also due to a young starburst near its maximum L/M. We also found an optical color (reddening) feature that we attribute to an outflow cone emanating from the nucleus. The hidden hot nucleus thus shows evidence of both an inflow, previously seen with absorption lines, and the new outflow reported here in a different direction. The nucleus must be rapidly evolving with these gas flows.

  3. HERSCHEL DETECTION OF DUST EMISSION FROM UV-LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Atlee, David; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Reddy, Naveen; Brown, Michael J. I.

    2012-10-20

    We report the Herschel/SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L {approx}> L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3. Our sample of 1913 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates is selected over an area of 5.3 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This is one of the largest samples of UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch and enables an investigation of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. We divide our sample into three luminosity bins and stack the Herschel/SPIRE data to measure the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of LBGs at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. We find that these galaxies have average IR luminosities of (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} and 60%-70% of their star formation obscured by dust. The FIR SEDs peak at {lambda}{sub rest} {approx}> 100 {mu}m suggesting dust temperatures (T{sub d} = 27-30 K) significantly colder than that of local galaxies of comparable IR luminosities. The observed IR-to-UV luminosity ratio (IRX {identical_to} L{sub IR}/L{sub UV}) is low ( Almost-Equal-To 3-4) compared with that observed for z Almost-Equal-To 2 LBGs (IRX{sub z{approx}2} Almost-Equal-To 7.1 {+-} 1.1). The correlation between the slope of the UV continuum and IRX for galaxies in the two lower luminosity bins suggests dust properties similar to those of local starburst galaxies. However, the galaxies in the highest luminosity bin appear to deviate from the local relation, suggesting that their dust properties may differ from those of their lower-luminosity and low-redshift counterparts. We speculate that the most UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch are being observed in a short-lived and young evolutionary phase.

  4. Discovery of a 3.6-hr Eclipsing Luminous X-Ray Binary in the Galaxy NGC 4214

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Rappaport, Saul; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Pooley, David; Madhusudhan, N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing X-ray binary with a 3.62-hr period within 24 arcsec of the center of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214. The orbital period places interesting constraints on the nature of the binary, and allows for a few very different interpretations. The most likely possibility is that the source lies within NGC 4214 and has an X-ray luminosity of up to 7e38. In this case the binary may well be comprised of a naked He-burning donor star with a neutron-star accretor, though a stellar-mass black-hole accretor cannot be completely excluded. There is no obvious evidence for a strong stellar wind in the X-ray orbital light curve that would be expected from a massive He star; thus, the mass of the He star should be <3-4 solar masses. If correct, this would represent a new class of very luminous X-ray binary----perhaps related to Cyg X-3. Other less likely possibilities include a conventional low-mass X-ray binary that somehow manages to produce such a high X-ray luminosity and is apparently persistent over an interval of years; or a foreground AM Her binary of much lower luminosity that fortuitously lies in the direction of NGC 4214. Any model for this system must accommodate the lack of an optical counterpart down to a limiting magnitude of 22.6 in the visible.

  5. A High Resolution, Unobscured View of the Active Regions in (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from a VLA 33 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos-Muñoz, Loreto; Leroy, Adam K.; Evans, Aaron S.; Armus, Lee; Condon, James J.; Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Murphy, Eric J.; Ott, Juergen; Privon, George C.; Reichardt, Ashley; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sanders, David B.; Schinnerer, Eva; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Walter, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    I will present a new survey of 33 GHz radio continuum emission from local U/LIRGs carried out using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first such survey and it combines high resolution, good sensitivity, and multi-configuration observations that should have sensitivity to emission on all spatial scales. (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies host some of the most extreme star-forming environments in the local universe, with large reservoirs of molecular gas and dust concentrated in the central few kpc. Our VLA observations allow us to see through the dust in these systems and to resolve the sizes of their active regions, which is essential to understand the surface and volume densities of star formation and gas in these extreme systems. I will present the best size measurements to date of the active regions for our 22 targets. I will show what these sizes imply about gas volume and surface density and infrared luminosity surface densities. I will also lay out the physical implications of these values for the strength of star formation and feedback (especially radiative feedback) in extreme environments.

  6. A High Resolution, Unobscured View of the Active Regions in (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies from a VLA 33 GHz Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Leroy, A.; Evans, A.; et al.

    2016-06-01

    I will present a new survey of 33 GHz radio continuum emission from local U/LIRGs carried out using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). This is the first such survey and it combines high resolution, good sensitivity, and multi-configuration observations that should have sensitivity to emission on all spatial scales. (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies host some of the most extreme star-forming environments in the local universe, with large reservoirs of molecular gas and dust concentrated in the central few kpc. Our VLA observations allow us to see through the dust in these systems to resolve the sizes of their active regions, which is essential to understand the surface and volume densities of star formation and gas in these extreme systems. I will present the best size measurements to date of the active regions for our 22 targets. I will show what these sizes imply about gas volume and surface density and infrared luminosity surface densities. I will also lay out the physical implications of these values for the strength of star formation and feedback (especially radiative feedback) in extreme environments.

  7. THE BLACK HOLE SPIN AND SOFT X-RAY EXCESS OF THE LUMINOUS SEYFERT GALAXY FAIRALL 9

    SciTech Connect

    Lohfink, Anne M.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Miller, Jon M.; Brenneman, Laura W.; Nowak, Michael A.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2012-10-10

    We present an analysis of all XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-ray spectra of the nearby luminous Seyfert galaxy Fairall 9. Confirming previous analyses, we find robust evidence for a broad iron line associated with X-ray reflection from the innermost accretion disk. By fitting a spectral model that includes a relativistically ionized reflection component, we examine the constraints on the inclination of the inner accretion disk and the black hole spin, and the complications introduced by the presence of a photoionized emission line system. Employing multi-epoch fitting, we attempt to obtain robust and concordant measures of the accretion disk parameters. We also clearly see a soft X-ray excess in Fairall 9. During certain epochs, the soft excess can be described with the same disk reflection component that produces the iron line. However, there are epochs where an additional soft component is required. This can be attributed to either an additional highly ionized, strongly blurred disk reflection component or a new X-ray continuum component.

  8. Resolving the Large Scale Spectral Variability of the Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below approximately 1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonized thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable soft excess is seen to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the core soft emission is attributed to recombination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. This new analysis underlines the importance of fully accounting for absorption in characterizing AGN X-ray spectra.

  9. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; deJong, J. A.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H.; Polisensky, E.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 micron silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than-50 km/s, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (approx. 145 deg.) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km/s is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of approx. -1000 km/s are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically approx.-200 km/s-1. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L(sub AGN)/L(sub solar)) => 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  10. FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN LUMINOUS GALAXY MERGERS: EVIDENCE FOR QUASAR FEEDBACK FROM HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A.; Fischer, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Sternberg, A.; Netzer, H.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Verma, A.; Rupke, D. S. N.; Maiolino, R.; Teng, S. H. E-mail: marcio@astro.umd.edu; and others

    2013-10-10

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 μm) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z < 0.3) galaxy mergers, mostly ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and QSOs. We find that the character of the OH feature (strength of the absorption relative to the emission) correlates with that of the 9.7 μm silicate feature, a measure of obscuration in ULIRGs. Unambiguous evidence for molecular outflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more blueshifted than –50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in 26 (70%) of the 37 OH-detected targets, suggesting a wide-angle (∼145°) outflow geometry. Conversely, unambiguous evidence for molecular inflows, based on the detection of OH absorption profiles with median velocities more redshifted than +50 km s{sup –1}, is seen in only four objects, suggesting a planar or filamentary geometry for the inflowing gas. Terminal outflow velocities of ∼–1000 km s{sup –1} are measured in several objects, but median outflow velocities are typically ∼–200 km s{sup –1}. While the outflow velocities show no statistically significant dependence on the star formation rate, they are distinctly more blueshifted among systems with large active galactic nucleus (AGN) fractions and luminosities [log (L{sub AGN}/L{sub ☉}) ≥ 11.8 ± 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  11. AGN feedback in X-ray luminous galaxy cluster: PKS 0745-191

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonkamble, Satish Shripati; Vagshette, Nilkanth Dattatray; Patil, Madhav Khushalrao

    2015-08-01

    We present 117 ks Chandra observation of the cooling flow cluster PKS 0745-191 providing evidence of the strong interaction between the radio source associated with the center dominant galaxy PGC 021813 and the intra-cluster gas. This system is one of the strongest cool core cluster, requiring extreme mechanical feedback from its central AGN to offset cooling of the ICM. This analysis has enabled us to detect two pairs of X-ray cavities in the central ˜ 20 kpc region. In addition to the cavities, we have also evidenced relatively cooler X-ray arc and a temperature jump due to the shock front at 92'' (184 kpc) on the western side. 2D temperature maps as well as spectral analysis of X-ray photons extracted from wedge shaped reigns revealed six different cold fronts, 3 along the eastern direction, 2 on the west direction and one in the south direction of the X-ray peak. The apparent positions of cold fronts are found to match with the spiral structure apparent in the X-ray surface brightness distribution of PKS 0745-191 that is probably due to the gas sloshing. The Mach number for this shock is found to be ˜ 1.36. Systematic study of the X-ray cavities revealed a mechanical power of ˜ 2.95 X 1045 erg s-1 and is sufficient to offset the cooling due to radiative loss. We found that the radio source associated with the center dominant galaxy of this cluster is efficient enough to carve the observed cavities. The ratio of radio luminosity to mechanical cavity power is ˜ 10-3 .

  12. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Stern, D.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J.; Wylezalek, D.; Blain, A. W.; Bridge, C. R.; Donoso, E.; Gonzales, A.; Griffith, R. L.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift (z = 1-4.6), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities {{L}IR}\\gt {{10}13} {{L}⊙ }, and sometimes exceeding {{10}14} {{L}⊙ }. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are significantly hotter than expected to be powered by star formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-infrared SEDs for a large sample of these so-called “hot, dust-obscured galaxies” (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that dominates the rest-frame emission at λ \\gt 1 μ m and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as 1011-1012 M⊙, the AGN emission, with a range of luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either Hot DOGs have black hole masses significantly in excess of the local relations, or that they radiate significantly above the Eddington limit, at a level at least 10 times more efficiently than z ˜ 2 QSOs. We show that, while rare, the number density of Hot DOGs is comparable to that of equally luminous but unobscured (i.e., Type 1) QSOs. This may be at odds with the trend suggested at lower luminosities for the fraction of obscured AGNs to decrease with increasing luminosity. That trend may, instead, reverse at higher luminosities. Alternatively, Hot DOGs may not be the torus-obscured counterparts of the known optically selected, largely unobscured, hyper-luminous QSOs, and may represent a new component of the galaxy evolution paradigm. Finally, we discuss the environments of Hot DOGs and statistically show that these objects are in regions as dense as

  13. PMAS optical integral field spectroscopy of luminous infrared galaxies. II. Spatially resolved stellar populations and excitation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; García-Marín, M.; Rodríguez Zaurín, J.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Colina, L.; Arribas, S.

    2010-11-01

    Context. The general properties (e.g., activity class, star formation rates, metallicities, extinctions, average ages, etc.) of luminous (LIRGs) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the local universe are well known because large samples of these objects have been the subject of numerous spectroscopic works over the past three decades. There are, however, relatively few studies of the spatially-resolved spectroscopic properties of large samples of LIRGs and ULIRGs using integral field spectroscopy (IFS). Aims: We are carrying out an IFS survey of local (z<0.26) samples of LIRGs and ULIRGs to characterize their two-dimensional spectroscopic properties. The main goal of this paper is to study the spatially resolved properties of the stellar populations and the excitation conditions in a sample of LIRGs. Methods: We analyze optical (3800-7200 Å) IFS data taken with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer (PMAS) of the central few kiloparsecs of eleven LIRGs. To study these stellar populations, we fit the optical stellar continuum and the hydrogen recombination lines of selected regions in the galaxies. We analyzed the excitation conditions of the gas using the spatially resolved properties of the brightest optical emission lines. We complemented the PMAS observations with existing HST/NICMOS near-infrared continuum and Paα imaging. Results: The optical continua of selected regions in our LIRGs are well fitted with a combination of an evolved (~0.7-10 Gyr) stellar population with an ionizing stellar population (1-20 Myr). The latter population is more obscured than the evolved population, and has visual extinctions in good agreement with those obtained from the Balmer decrement. Except for NGC 7771, we find no clear that there is an important contribution to the optical light from an intermediate-aged stellar population (~100-500 Myr). Even after correcting for the presence of stellar absorption, a large number of spaxels with low observed equivalent

  14. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N.; Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2013-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  15. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Kirshner, R. P.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waterson, M. F.

    2012-09-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3π survey just ~4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR ≈ -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si ≈ 19 × 103 km s-1 at ~40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines ~2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, M Ni = 0.9 M ⊙. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, M ej ≈ 4.7 M ⊙, and total kinetic energy, EK ≈ 11 × 1051 erg. The ratio of M Ni to M ej is ~2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log (O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and ~0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E γ <~ 6 × 1048 erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E >~ 1048 erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF 060218. If this SN did not harbor a GRB, these observations challenge the importance of progenitor metallicity for the production of relativistic ejecta and suggest that other parameters

  16. SN 2010ay Is a Luminous and Broad-Lined Type Ic Supernova Within a Low-Metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and follow-up observations of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2010ay at z = 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approximately 4 days after explosion. The supernova (SN) had a peak luminosity, MR approx. -20.2 mag, significantly more luminous than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ib/c ever discovered. The absorption velocity of SN 2010ay is v Si (is) approx. 19×10(exp 3) km s-1 at approximately 40 days after explosion, 2-5 times higher than other broad-lined SNe and similar to the GRB-SN 2010bh at comparable epochs. Moreover, the velocity declines approximately 2 times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of 56Ni, MNi = 0.9 solar mass. Applying scaling relations to the light curve, we estimate a total ejecta mass, Mej (is) approx. 4.7 solar mass, and total kinetic energy, EK (is) approx. 11 × 10(exp 51) erg. The ratio of MNi to Mej is approximately 2 times as large for SN 2010ay as typical GRB-SNe and may suggest an additional energy reservoir. The metallicity (log(O/H)PP04 + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy places SN 2010ay in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and (is) approximately 0.5(0.2) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) SNe Ic. We constrain any gamma-ray emission with E(gamma) (is) approximately less than 6 × 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV), and our deep radio follow-up observations with the Expanded Very Large Array rule out relativistic ejecta with energy E (is) approximately greater than 10(exp 48) erg. We therefore rule out the association of a relativistic outflow like those that accompanied SN 1998bw and traditional long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), but we place less-stringent constraints on a weak afterglow like that seen from XRF

  17. The Aromatic Features in Very Faint Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ronin; Hogg, David W.; Moustakas, John

    2011-04-01

    We present optical and mid-infrared photometry of a statistically complete sample of 29 dwarf galaxies (Mr > - 15 mag) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic sample and observed in the mid-infrared with Spitzer IRAC. This sample contains nearby (redshift lsim0.005) galaxies 3 mag fainter than previously studied samples. We compare our sample with other star-forming galaxies that have been observed with both IRAC and SDSS. We examine the relationship of the infrared color, [3.6]-[7.8], sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance and also hot dust and stellar continuum, with star formation rates (SFRs), oxygen abundances, and radiation hardness, all estimated by optical emission lines. Consistent with studies of more luminous dwarfs, we find that these dwarf galaxies show much redder [3.6]-[7.8] color than luminous galaxies with similar specific SFRs. Unlike luminous galaxies, we find that these dwarf galaxies show no significant dependence at all of the [3.6]-[7.8] color on SFR, oxygen abundance, or radiation hardness, despite the fact that the sample spans a significant range in all of these quantities. When the dwarfs in our sample are compared with more luminous dwarfs, we find that the [3.6]-[7.8] color, potentially tracing the PAH emission, depends on oxygen abundance and radiation hardness. However, these two parameters are correlated with one another as well; we break this degeneracy by looking at the PAH-oxygen abundance relation at a fixed radiation hardness and the PAH-hardness relation at a fixed oxygen abundance. This test shows that the [3.6]-[7.8] color in dwarf galaxies appears to depend more directly on oxygen abundance based on the data currently available.

  18. A Distant, X-Ray Luminous Cluster of Galaxies at Redshift 0.83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan

    1999-01-01

    We have observed the most distant (= 0.829) cluster of galaxies in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS), with the ASCA and ROSAT satellites. We find an X-ray temperature of 12.3(sup 3.1, sub 2.2) keV for this cluster, and the ROSAT map reveals significant substructure. The high temperature of MS1054-0321 is consistent with both its approximate velocity dispersion, based on the redshifts of 12 cluster members we have obtained at the Keck and the Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes, and with its weak lensing signature. The X-ray temperature of this cluster implies a virial mass approximately 7.4 x 10(exp 14) /h solar mass, if the mean matter density in the universe equals the critical value (OMEGA(sub 0) = 1), or larger if OMEGA(sub 0) < 1. Finding such a hot, massive cluster in the EMSS is extremely improbable if clusters grew from Gaussian perturbations in an OMEGA(sub 0) = 1 universe. Combining the assumptions that OMEGA(sub 0) = 1 and that the initial perturbations were Gaussian with the observed X-ray temperature function at low redshift, we show that this probability of this cluster occurring in the volume sampled by the EMSS is less than a few times 10(exp -5). Nor is MS1054-0321 the only hot cluster at high redshift; the only two other z > 0.5 EMSS clusters already observed with ASCA also have temperatures exceeding 8 keV. Assuming again that the initial perturbations were Gaussian and OMEGA(sub 0) = 1, we find that each one is improbable at the < 10(exp -2) level. These observations, along with the fact that these luminosities and temperatures of the high-z clusters all agree with the low-z L(sub x) - T(sub x) relation, argue strongly that OMEGA(sub 0) < 1. Otherwise, the initial perturbations must be non-Gaussian, if these clusters' temperatures do indeed reflect their gravitational potentials.

  19. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters. II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the normalisation of scaling relations between X-ray properties of clusters and their masses (the M-TX and the M-LX relations) and also estimating the scatter in these relations at a fixed luminosity. Methods: The eleven clusters in our sample are all X-ray luminous and span a narrow redshift range at z = 0.21 ± 0.04. The weak lensing analysis of the sample is based on ground-based wide-field imaging obtained with the CFH12k camera on CFHT. We use the methodology developed and applied previously on the massive cluster Abell 1689. A Bayesian method, implemented in the Im2shape software, is used to fit the shape parameters of the faint background galaxies and to correct for PSF smearing. A multi-color selection of the background galaxies is applied to retrieve the weak lensing signal, resulting in a background density of sources of ~10 galaxies per square arc minute. With the present data, shear profiles are measured in all clusters out to at least 2 Mpc (more than 15´ from the center) with high confidence. The radial shear profiles are fitted with different parametric mass profiles and the virial mass M200 is estimated for each cluster and then compared to other physical properties. Results: Scaling relations between mass and optical luminosity indicate an increase of the M/L ratio with luminosity (M/L ∝ L0.8) and a LX-M200 relation scaling as LX ∝ M2000.83 ± 0.11 while the normalization of the M200 ∝ TX3/2 relation is close to the one expected from hydrodynamical simulations of cluster formation as well as previous X-ray analyses. We suggest that the dispersion in the M200-TX and M200-LX relations reflects the different merging and dynamical histories for clusters of similar

  20. High-velocity extended molecular outflow in the star-formation dominated luminous infrared galaxy ESO 320-G030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Planesas, P.; Storchi Bergmann, T.; Usero, A.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze new high spatial resolution (~60 pc) ALMA CO(2-1) observations of the isolated luminous infrared galaxy ESO 320-G030 (d = 48 Mpc) in combination with ancillary Hubble Space Telescope optical and near infrared (IR) imaging, as well as VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy. We detect a high-velocity (~450 km s-1) spatially resolved (size~2.5 kpc; dynamical time ~3 Myr) massive (~107 M⊙; Ṁ ~ 2-8 M⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow that has originated in the central ~250 pc. We observe a clumpy structure in the outflowing cold molecular gas with clump sizes between 60 and 150 pc and masses between 105.5 and 106.4 M⊙. The mass of the clumps decreases with increasing distance, while the velocity is approximately constant. Therefore, both the momentum and kinetic energy of the clumps decrease outwards. In the innermost (~100 pc) part of the outflow, we measure a hot-to-cold molecular gas ratio of 7 × 10-5, which is similar to that measured in other resolved molecular outflows. We do not find evidence of an ionized phase in this outflow. The nuclear IR and radio properties are compatible with strong and highly obscured star-formation (Ak ~ 4.6 mag; star formation rate ~ 15 M⊙ yr-1). We do not find any evidence for the presence of an active galactic nucleus. We estimate that supernova explosions in the nuclear starburst (νSN ~ 0.2 yr-1) can power the observed molecular outflow. The kinetic energy and radial momentum of the cold molecular phase of the outflow correspond to about 2% and 20%, respectively, of the supernovae output. The cold molecular outflow velocity is lower than the escape velocity, so the gas will likely return to the galaxy disk. The mass loading factor is ~0.1-0.5, so the negative feedback owing to this star-formation-powered molecular outflow is probably limited. The reduced images and datacubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  1. Neutrino mass constraint from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey power spectrum of luminous red galaxies and perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shun; Takada, Masahiro; Taruya, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    We compare the model power spectrum, computed based on perturbation theory, with the power spectrum of luminous red galaxies (LRG) measured from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 catalog, assuming a flat, cold dark matter-dominated cosmology. The model includes the effects of massive neutrinos, nonlinear matter clustering and nonlinear, scale-dependent galaxy bias in a self-consistent manner. We first test the accuracy of the perturbation theory model by comparing the model predictions with the halo power spectrum in real- and redshift-space, measured from 70 simulation realizations for a cold dark matter model without massive neutrinos. We show that the perturbation theory model with bias parameters being properly adjusted can fairly well reproduce the simulation results. As a result, the best-fit parameters obtained from the hypothetical parameter fitting recover, within statistical uncertainties, the input cosmological parameters in simulations, including an upper bound on neutrino mass, if the power spectrum information up to k≃0.15hMpc-1 is used. However, for the redshift-space power spectrum, the best-fit cosmological parameters show a sizable bias from the input values if using the information up to k≃0.2hMpc-1, probably due to nonlinear redshift distortion effect. Given these tests, we decided, as a conservative choice, to use the LRG power spectrum up to k=0.1hMpc-1 in order to minimize possible unknown nonlinearity effects. In combination with the recent results from Wilkinson Microwave Background Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), we derive a robust upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses, given as ∑mν≤0.81eV (95% C.L.), marginalized over other parameters including nonlinear bias parameters and dark energy equation of state parameter. The upper bound is only slightly improved to ∑mν≤0.80eV if including the LRG spectrum up to k=0.2hMpc-1, due to severe parameter degeneracies, although the constraint may be biased as discussed above. The

  2. Sub-kpc star formation law in the local luminous infrared galaxy IC 4687 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Planesas, P.; Usero, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the spatially resolved (250 pc scales) and integrated star formation (SF) law in the local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 4687. This is one of the first studies of the SF law on a starburst LIRG at these small spatial scales. We combined new interferometric ALMA CO(2-1) data with existing HST/NICMOS Paα narrowband imaging and VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy to obtain accurate extinction-corrected SF rate (SFR) and cold molecular gas surface densities (Σgas and ΣSFR). We find that IC 4687 forms stars very efficiently with an average depletion time (tdep) of 160 Myr for the individual 250 pc regions. This is approximately one order of magnitude shorter than the tdep of local normal spirals and also shorter than that of main-sequence high-z objects, even when we use a Galactic αCO conversion factor. This result suggests a bimodal SF law in the ΣSFR∝ΣgasN representation. A universal SF law is recovered if we normalize the Σgas by the global dynamical time. However, at the spatial scales studied here, we find that the SF efficiency (or tdep) does not depend on the local dynamical time for this object. Therefore, an alternative normalization (e.g., free-fall time) should be found if a universal SF law exists at these scales. A FITS file for the reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A44

  3. Detection of the baryon acoustic peak in the large-scale correlation function of SDSS luminous red galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Zehavi, Idit; Hogg, David W.; Scoccimarro, Roman; Blanton, Michael R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Scranton, Ryan; Seo, Hee-Jong; Tegmark, Max; Zheng, Zheng; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, Jim; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jon; Burles, Scott; Castander, Francisco J.; Connolly, Andrew; Csabai, Istvan; Doi, Mamoru; Fukugita, Masataka; Frieman, Joshua A.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /CCPP, New York /Portsmouth U., ICG /Pittsburgh U. /Pennsylvania U. /MIT /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Fermilab /Princeton U. Observ. /Apache Point Observ. /Barcelona, IEEC /Eotvos U. /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /Tokyo U., ICRR /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Johns Hopkins U. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Colorado U., CASA /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Michigan U.

    2005-01-01

    We present the large-scale correlation function measured from a spectroscopic sample of 46,748 luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The survey region covers 0.72h{sup -3} Gpc{sup 3} over 3816 square degrees and 0.16 < z < 0.47, making it the best sample yet for the study of large-scale structure. We find a well-detected peak in the correlation function at 100h{sup -1} Mpc separation that is an excellent match to the predicted shape and location of the imprint of the recombination-epoch acoustic oscillations on the low-redshift clustering of matter. This detection demonstrates the linear growth of structure by gravitational instability between z {approx} 1000 and the present and confirms a firm prediction of the standard cosmological theory. The acoustic peak provides a standard ruler by which we can measure the ratio of the distances to z = 0.35 and z = 1089 to 4% fractional accuracy and the absolute distance to z = 0.35 to 5% accuracy. From the overall shape of the correlation function, we measure the matter density {Omega}{sub m}h{sup 2} to 8% and find agreement with the value from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. Independent of the constraints provided by the CMB acoustic scale, we find {Omega}{sub m} = 0.273 {+-} 0.025 + 0.123(1 + w{sub 0}) + 0.137{Omega}{sub K}. Including the CMB acoustic scale, we find that the spatial curvature is {Omega}{sub K} = -0.010 {+-} 0.009 if the dark energy is a cosmological constant. More generally, our results provide a measurement of cosmological distance, and hence an argument for dark energy, based on a geometric method with the same simple physics as the microwave background anisotropies. The standard cosmological model convincingly passes these new and robust tests of its fundamental properties.

  4. PKS 2349-014: A Luminous Quasar With Thin Wisps, A Large Off-Center Nebulosity, and A Close Companion Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images (WFC2) of PKS 2349-014 show that this luminous nearby quasar is interacting with diffuse (presumably galactic) material. Two thin wisps that have a total extent of about 20 kpc (for H0 = 100 km s(exp -1) and Omega0 = 1.0) are observed to approximately surround the quasar. One of the wisps appears to pass through a companion galaxy that is located at a projected distance of 3 kpc from the center of the quasar light. The companion galaxy, if located at the distance of PKS 2349-014, has an intrinsic size and luminosity similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud. A faint extended nebulosity, which is detected over a region of 35 kpc x 50 kpc and is centered about 5 kpc from the quasar nucleus, overlaps the wisps. The immediate environment of PKS 2349-014 is different from the environments of the other eight luminous quasars that we have studied previously with the HST. If the multiple light components of the HST images are fit to a single de Vaucouleurs profile, as was done in previous analyses of ground-based data, then the results obtained for the total luminosity of the model galaxy is in agreement with the earlier ground-based studies.

  5. A comparison of the morphological properties between local and z ∼ 1 infrared luminous galaxies: Are local and high-z (U)LIRGs different?

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Larson, Kirsten L.; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Yanxia; Lockhart, Kelly; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Barnes, Joshua E.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Koss, Michael; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Smith, Howard A.

    2014-08-10

    Ultraluminous and luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs and LIRGs) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe and dominate the total star formation rate density at z > 1. In the local universe (z < 0.3), the majority of ULIRGs and a significant portion of LIRGs are triggered by interactions between gas-rich spiral galaxies, yet it is unclear if this is still the case at high z. To investigate the relative importance of galaxy interactions in infrared luminous galaxies, we carry out a comparison of optical morphological properties between local (U)LIRGs and (U)LIRGs at z = 0.5-1.5 based on the same sample selection, morphology classification scheme, and optical morphology at similar rest-frame wavelengths. In addition, we quantify the systematics in comparing local and high-z data sets by constructing a redshifted data set from local (U)LIRGs, in which its data quality mimics the high-z data set. Based on the Gini-M{sub 20} classification scheme, we find that the fraction of interacting systems decreases by ∼8% from local to z ≲ 1, and it is consistent with the reduction between local and redshifted data sets (6{sub −6}{sup +14}%). Based on visual classifications, the merger fraction of local ULIRGs is found to be ∼20% lower compared to published results, and the reduction due to redshifting is 15{sub −8}{sup +10}%. Consequently, the differences of merger fractions between local and z ≲ 1 (U)LIRGs is only ∼17%. These results demonstrate that there is no strong evolution in the fraction of (U)LIRGs classified as mergers at least out to z ∼ 1. At z > 1, the morphology types of ∼30% of (U)LIRGs cannot be determined due to their faintness in the F814W band; thus, the merger fraction measured at z > 1 suffers from large uncertainties.

  6. ALMA DETECTION OF THE VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED HCN J = 4-3 EMISSION LINE IN THE AGN-HOSTING LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IRAS 20551–4250

    SciTech Connect

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro

    2013-10-01

    We present results from our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, at the frequencies around the HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 transition lines, of the luminous infrared galaxy IRAS 20551–4250 at z = 0.043, which is known to host an energetically important obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). In addition to the targeted HCN, HCO{sup +}, and HNC J = 4-3 emission lines, two additional strong emission lines are seen, which we attribute to H{sub 2}S and CH{sub 3}CN(+CCH). The HCN-to-HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 flux ratio (∼0.7) is higher than in the other starburst-dominated galaxy (∼0.2) observed in our ALMA Cycle 0 program. We tentatively (∼5σ) detected the vibrationally excited (v {sub 2} = 1) HCN J = 4-3 (l = 1f) emission line, which is important for testing an infrared radiative pumping scenario for HCN. This is the second detection of this molecular transition in external galaxies. The most likely reason for this detection is not only the high flux of this emission line, but also the small molecular line widths observed in this galaxy, suggesting that vibrational excitation of HCN may be relatively common in AGN-hosting galaxies.

  7. The Most Luminous z ~ 9-10 Galaxy Candidates Yet Found: The Luminosity Function, Cosmic Star-formation Rate, and the First Mass Density Estimate at 500 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Smit, R.; Franx, M.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Momcheva, I.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Willner, S. P.; Gonzalez, V.; Magee, D.; Trenti, M.; Brammer, G. B.; Skelton, R. E.; Spitler, L. R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the discovery of four surprisingly bright (H 160 ~ 26-27 mag AB) galaxy candidates at z ~ 9-10 in the complete HST CANDELS WFC3/IR GOODS-N imaging data, doubling the number of z ~ 10 galaxy candidates that are known, just ~500 Myr after the big bang. Two similarly bright sources are also detected in a reanalysis of the GOODS-S data set. Three of the four galaxies in GOODS-N are significantly detected at 4.5σ-6.2σ in the very deep Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm data, as is one of the GOODS-S candidates. Furthermore, the brightest of our candidates (at z = 10.2 ± 0.4) is robustly detected also at 3.6 μm (6.9σ), revealing a flat UV spectral energy distribution with a slope β = -2.0 ± 0.2, consistent with demonstrated trends with luminosity at high redshift. Thorough testing and use of grism data excludes known low-redshift contamination at high significance, including single emission-line sources, but as-yet unknown low redshift sources could provide an alternative solution given the surprising luminosity of these candidates. Finding such bright galaxies at z ~ 9-10 suggests that the luminosity function for luminous galaxies might evolve in a complex way at z > 8. The cosmic star formation rate density still shows, however, an order-of-magnitude increase from z ~ 10 to z ~ 8 since the dominant contribution comes from low-luminosity sources. Based on the IRAC detections, we derive galaxy stellar masses at z ~ 10, finding that these luminous objects are typically 109 M ⊙. This allows for a first estimate of the cosmic stellar mass density at z ~ 10 resulting in log _{10}\\rho _{*} = 4.7^{+0.5}_{-0.8} M ⊙ Mpc-3 for galaxies brighter than M UV ~ -18. The remarkable brightness, and hence luminosity, of these z ~ 9-10 candidates will enable deep spectroscopy to determine their redshift and nature, and highlights the opportunity for the James Webb Space Telescope to map the buildup of galaxies at redshifts much earlier than z ~ 10. Based on data obtained with the

  8. SN 2010ay is a Luminous and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova within a Low-metallicity Host Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Valenti, S.; Chomiuk, L.; Berger, E.; Smartt, S.; Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Levesque, E. M.; Narayan, G.; Botticella, M. T.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Terada, Y.; Gehrels, N.; Golenetskii, S.; Mazets, E.; Cline, T.; von Kienlin, A.; Boynton, W.; Chambers, K. C.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on our serendipitous pre-discovery detection and detailed follow-up of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova SN2010ay at z approx 0.067 imaged by the Pan-STARRS1 3pi survey just approx 4 days after explosion. Combining our photometric observations with those available in the literature, we estimate the explosion date and the peak luminosity of the SN, M(sub R) approximately equals 20.2 mag, significantly brighter than known GRB-SNe and one of the most luminous SNe Ibc ever discovered. We measure the photospheric expansion velocity of the explosion from our spectroscopic follow-up observations, v(sub ph) approximately equals 19.2 X 10 (exp 3) km/s at approx 40 days after explosion. In comparison with other broad-lined SNe, the characteristic velocity of SN2010ay is 2 - 5 X higher and similar to the measurements for GRB-SNe at comparable epochs. Moreover the velocity declines two times slower than other SNe Ic-BL and GRB-SNe. Assuming that the optical emission is powered by radioactive decay, the peak magnitude implies the synthesis of an unusually large mass of Ni-56, M(sub Ni) = 0.9(+0.1/-0.1) solar mass. Our modeling of the light-curve points to a total ejecta mass, M(sub ej) approx 4.7 Solar Mass, and total kinetic energy, E(sub K,51) approximately equals 11. Thus the ratio of M(sub Ni) to M(sub ej) is at least twice as large for SN2010ay than in GRB-SNe and may indicate an additional energy reservoir. We also measure the metallicity (log(O/H) + 12 = 8.19) of the explosion site within the host galaxy using a high S/N optical spectrum. Our abundance measurement places this SN in the low-metallicity regime populated by GRB-SNe, and approx 0.2(0.5) dex lower than that typically measured for the host environments of normal (broad-lined) Ic supernovae. Despite striking similarities to the recent GRB-SN100316D/2010bh, we show that gamma-ray observations rule out an associated GRB with E(sub gamma) approx < 6 X 10(exp 48) erg (25-150 keV). Similarly, our deep

  9. A COSMIC-RAY-DOMINATED INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: NEW INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.

    2010-09-01

    The high-density star formation typical of the merger/starburst events that power the large IR luminosities of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L{sub IR}(8-1000 {mu}m) {approx}>10{sup 12} L{sub sun}) throughout the universe results in extraordinarily high cosmic-ray (CR) energy densities of U{sub CR} {approx} few x(10{sup 3}-10{sup 4}) U{sub CR,Gal} permeating their interstellar medium, a direct consequence of the large supernova remnant number densities in such systems. Unlike far-UV photons emanating from numerous star-forming (SF) sites, these large CR energy densities in ULIRGs will volumetrically heat and raise the ionization fraction of dense (n > 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) UV-shielded gas cores throughout their compact SF volumes. Such conditions can turn most of the large molecular gas masses found in such systems and their high redshift counterparts ({approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} M {sub sun}) into giant CR-dominated regions (CRDRs) rather than ensembles of photon-dominated regions (PDRs) which dominate in less IR-luminous systems where star formation and molecular gas distributions are much more extended. The molecular gas in CRDRs will have a minimum temperature of T{sub kin} {approx} (80-160) K, and very high ionization fractions of x(e) > 10{sup -6} throughout its UV-shielded dense core, which in turn will fundamentally alter the initial conditions for star formation in such systems. Observational tests of CRDRs can be provided by high-J CO and {sup 13}CO lines or multi-J transitions of any heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) and their isotopologs. Chemical signatures of very high ionization fractions in dense UV-shielded gas such as low [DCO{sup +}]/[HCO{sup +}] and high [HCO{sup +}]/[CO] abundance ratios would be good probes of CRDRs in extreme starbursts. These tests, along with direct measurements of the high CO line brightness temperatures expected over the areas of compact dense gas disks found in ULIRGs, will soon be feasible as sub

  10. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at z ~ 2. III. Far-IR to Radio Properties and Optical Spectral Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajina, Anna; Yan, Lin; Lutz, Dieter; Steffen, Aaron; Helou, George; Huynh, Minh; Frayer, David; Choi, Philip; Tacconi, Linda; Dasyra, Kalliopi

    2008-08-01

    We present the FIR, millimeter, and radio photometry and optical and NIR spectroscopy of a sample of 48 z ~ 1-3 Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with IRS MIR spectra. Our goals are to compute their bolometric emission and to determine both the presence and relative strength of their AGN and starburst components. We find that strong-PAH sources tend to have higher MIPS 160 μm and MAMBO 1.2 mm fluxes than weak-PAH sources. The depth of the 9.7 μm silicate feature does not affect MAMBO detectability. We fit the far-IR SEDs of our sample and find an average langleLIRrangle ~ 7 × 1012 L⊙ for our z > 1.5 sources. Our spectral decomposition suggests that strong-PAH sources typically have ~20%-30% AGN fractions of LIR. The weak-PAH sources by contrast tend to have gtrsim70% AGN fractions, with a few sources having comparable contributions of AGN and starbursts. The optical line diagnostics support the presence of AGNs in the bulk of the weak-PAH sources. With one exception, our sources are narrow-line sources, show no obvious correspondence between the available optical extinction and the silicate feature depth, and, in two cases, show some evidence for outflows. Radio AGNs are present in both strong- and weak-PAH sources. This is supported by our sample's FIR-to-radio ratios (q) being consistently below the average value of 2.34 for local star-forming galaxies. We use survival analysis to include the lower limits given by the radio-undetected sources, arriving at langleqrangle = 2.07 +/- 0.01 for our z > 1.5 sample. In total, radio and, where available, optical line diagnostics support the presence of AGNs in 57% of the z > 1.5 sources, independent of IR-based diagnostics. For higher z sources, the AGN luminosities alone are estimated to be >1012 L⊙, which, supported by the available [O III] luminosities, implies that the bulk of our sources host obscured quasars.

  11. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ˜ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (˜1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  12. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  13. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  14. Multi-wavelength study of X-ray luminous clusters at z ~ 0.3. I. Star-formation activity of cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braglia, F. G.; Pierini, D.; Biviano, A.; Böhringer, H.

    2009-06-01

    Context: The current paradigm of cosmic formation and evolution of galaxy clusters foresees growth mostly through merging. Galaxies in the infall region or in the core of a cluster undergo transformations owing to different environmental stresses. Aims: For two X-ray luminous clusters at redshift z 0.3 with opposite X-ray morphologies (i.e., dynamical states), RXCJ 0014.3-3022 and RXCJ 2308.3-0211, we assess differences in galaxy populations as a function of cluster topography. This is a pilot study for the joint X-ray and optical analysis of the REFLEX-DXL cluster sample. Methods: Cluster large-scale structure and substructure are determined from the combined photometry in the B, V, and R bands, and from multi-object optical spectroscopy at low resolution. Photometric redshifts and broad-band optical colours are determined. A spectral index analysis is performed, based on the [O II](λλ3726, 3728 Å) and Hδ(λ4102 Å) features, and the D4000 break, which are available for more than 100 member galaxies per cluster. Additional far-ultraviolet (FUV) photometry is retrieved from the GALEX archive. Combination of spectral indices and FUV-optical colours provides a picture of the star-formation history in galaxies. Results: In spite of the potential presence of a small fraction of galaxies with obscured star-formation activity, the average star-formation history of cluster members is found to depend on clustercentric distance and, more interestingly, on cluster substructure. The core regions of both clusters mainly host galaxies dominated by old, passively evolving stellar populations, which define the same red sequence in a (B-R) colour-R magnitude diagram. However, a sharp increase in star-formation activity is found along two clearly evident filamentary structures of the merging cluster RXCJ 0014.3-3022, out to its virial radius and beyond. It is produced by luminous (i.e., LR ≥ LRstar) and sub-Lstar galaxies. In contrast, the regular cool-core cluster RXCJ 2308

  15. Galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z = 1.58. Red-sequence formation, massive galaxy assembly, and central star formation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, R.; Nastasi, A.; Santos, J. S.; Lidman, C.; Verdugo, M.; Koyama, Y.; Rosati, P.; Pierini, D.; Padilla, N.; Romeo, A. D.; Menci, N.; Bongiorno, A.; Castellano, M.; Cerulo, P.; Fontana, A.; Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; Lamastra, A.; Pentericci, L.; Sommariva, V.; Strazzullo, V.; Šuhada, R.; Tozzi, P.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Recent observational progress has enabled the detection of galaxy clusters and groups out to very high redshifts and for the first time allows detailed studies of galaxy population properties in these densest environments in what was formerly known as the "redshift desert" at z> 1.5. Aims: We aim to investigate various galaxy population properties of the massive X-ray luminous galaxy cluster XDCP J0044.0-2033 at z = 1.58, which constitutes the most extreme currently known matter-density peak at this redshift. Methods: We analyzed deep VLT/HAWK-I near-infrared data with an image quality of 0.5'' and limiting Vega magnitudes (50% completeness) of 24.2 in J- and 22.8 in the Ks band, complemented by similarly deep Subaru imaging in i and V, Spitzer observations at 4.5 μm, and new spectroscopic observations with VLT/FORS 2. Results: We detect a cluster-associated excess population of about 90 galaxies, most of them located within the inner 30'' (250 kpc) of the X-ray centroid, which follows a centrally peaked, compact NFW galaxy surface-density profile with a concentration of c200 ≃ 10. Based on the Spitzer 4.5 μm imaging data, we measure a total enclosed stellar mass of M∗500 ≃ (6.3 ± 1.6) × 1012 M⊙ and a resulting stellar mass fraction of f∗,500 = M∗,500/M500 = (3.3 ± 1.4)%, consistent with local values. The total J- and Ks-band galaxy luminosity functions of the core region yield characteristic magnitudes J* and Ks* consistent with expectations from simple zf = 3 burst models. However, a detailed look at the morphologies and color distributions of the spectroscopically confirmed members reveals that the most massive galaxies are undergoing a very active mass-assembly epoch through merging processes. Consequently, the bright end of the cluster red sequence is not in place, while a red-locus population is present at intermediate magnitudes [Ks*, Ks* + 1.6], which is then sharply truncated at magnitudes fainter than Ks* + 1.6. The dominant

  16. Measurements of H(z) and DA(z) from the two-dimensional two-point correlation function of Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Wang, Yun

    2012-10-01

    We present a method for measuring the Hubble parameter, H(z), and angular diameter distance, DA(z), from the two-dimensional two-point correlation function and validate it using LasDamas mock galaxy catalogues. Applying our method to the sample of luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we measure H(z=0.35)≡H(0.35)=82.1-4.9+4.8 km s-1 Mpc -1 and DA(z=0.35)≡DA(0.35)=1048-58+60 Mpc without assuming a dark energy model or a flat universe. We find that the derived measurements of H(0.35) rs(zd)/c and DA(0.35)/rs(zd) [where rs(zd) is the sound horizon at the drag epoch] are nearly uncorrelated, have tighter constraints and are more robust with respect to possible systematic effects. Our galaxy clustering measurements of {H(0.35) rs(zd)/c,DA(0.35)/rs(zd)}={0.0434±0.0018,6.60±0.26} (with the correlation coefficient r = 0.0604) can be used to combine with cosmic microwave background and any other cosmological data sets to constrain dark energy. Our results represent the first measurements of H(z) and DA(z) (or H(z) rs(zd)/c and DA(0.35)/rs(zd)) from galaxy clustering data. Our work has significant implications for future surveys in establishing the feasibility of measuring both H(z) and DA(z) from galaxy clustering data.

  17. Luminous and High Stellar Mass Candidate Galaxies at z ≈ 8 Discovered in the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Davé, Romeel; Faber, S. M.; Papovich, Casey; Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Reddy, Naveen; Cooray, Asantha R.; Siana, Brian D.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ashby, Matthew; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Lucas, Ray A.; Dekel, Avishai; Pentericci, Laura; Conselice, Christopher J.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Lai, Kamson

    2012-12-01

    One key goal of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey is to track galaxy evolution back to z ≈ 8. Its two-tiered "wide and deep" strategy bridges significant gaps in existing near-infrared surveys. Here we report on z ≈ 8 galaxy candidates selected as F105W-band dropouts in one of its deep fields, which covers 50.1 arcmin2 to 4 ks depth in each of three near-infrared bands in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey southern field. Two of our candidates have J < 26.2 mag, and are >1 mag brighter than any previously known F105W-dropouts. We derive constraints on the bright end of the rest-frame ultraviolet luminosity function of galaxies at z ≈ 8, and show that the number density of such very bright objects is higher than expected from the previous Schechter luminosity function estimates at this redshift. Another two candidates are securely detected in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera images, which are the first such individual detections at z ≈ 8. Their derived stellar masses are on the order of a few × 109 M ⊙, from which we obtain the first measurement of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function at z ≈ 8. The high number density of very luminous and very massive galaxies at z ≈ 8, if real, could imply a large stellar-to-halo mass ratio and an efficient conversion of baryons to stars at such an early time.

  18. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS, IONIZED GAS, AND MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES OF COOL-CORE CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Mark Voit, G.; Hoffer, Aaron; De Messieres, Genevieve E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; McNamara, Brian R.; Nulsen, Paul E. J. E-mail: voit@pa.msu.edu

    2011-05-01

    We present measurements of 5-25 {mu}m emission features of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with strong optical emission lines in a sample of nine cool-core clusters of galaxies observed with the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. These systems provide a view of dusty molecular gas and star formation, surrounded by dense, X-ray-emitting intracluster gas. Past work has shown that BCGs in cool-core clusters may host powerful radio sources, luminous optical emission-line systems, and excess UV, while BCGs in other clusters never show this activity. In this sample, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), extremely luminous, rotationally excited molecular hydrogen line emission, forbidden line emission from ionized gas ([Ne II] and [Ne III]), and infrared continuum emission from warm dust and cool stars. We show here that these BCGs exhibit more luminous forbidden neon and H{sub 2} rotational line emission than star-forming galaxies with similar total infrared luminosities, as well as somewhat higher ratios of 70 {mu}m/24 {mu}m luminosities. Our analysis suggests that while star formation processes dominate the heating of the dust and PAHs, a heating process consistent with suprathermal electron heating from the hot gas, distinct from star formation, is heating the molecular gas and contributing to the heating of the ionized gas in the galaxies. The survival of PAHs and dust suggests that dusty gas is somehow shielded from significant interaction with the X-ray gas.

  19. CH+(1-0) Line Detection in a High-z Hyper-Luminous Galaxy SDP17b: the First Probe of a Massive Turbulent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgarone, E.; Zwaan, M.; Godard, B.; Bussmann, S.; Bergin, E.; Omont, A.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.; Andreani, P.

    2015-12-01

    We illustrate the power of CH+ spectroscopy at high spectral resolution with the first detection by ALMA of a CH+(J=1-0) line in an hyper-luminous galaxy, SDP17b at z=2.3. Unlike other molecular tracers, the unique chemical and spectroscopic properties of the CH+ cation make it a tracer of the turbulent energy trail, from its scale of injection to that of dissipation at which CH+ forms. In SDP17b, CH+ emission and absorption are detected. The emission line is broad and the absorption is seen against the dust continuum and the emission. The absorption probes a massive turbulent region of low density, while the emission may arise in a large number of irradiated shocks that could be located in the large turbulent region or in the star-forming disk.

  20. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3{pi} PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-07-20

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r{sub P1}- and i{sub P1}-band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M{sub V} {approx} -12) located at projected distances of 20. Degree-Sign 3 and 10. Degree-Sign 5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756{sup +44}{sub -28} kpc and 772{sup +61}{sub -56} kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 {+-} 7 kpc and 144{sup +6}{sub -4} kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r{sub h} = 4.2{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5} arcmin or 912{sup +124}{sub -93} pc for Lac I; r{sub h} = 6.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} arcmin or 1456 {+-} 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness ({mu}{sub 0} {approx} 26.0 mag arcsec{sup -2}), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3{pi} Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  1. The broad band X-ray spectrum of SN 1978k and two other luminous X-ray sources in the spiral galaxy NGC 1313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Robert; Okada, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro; Makishima, Kazuo; Colbert, Edward J. M.

    1994-06-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) PV phase observation of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 1313. ASCA cleanly resolves the three previously known luminous sources, one of which is the very luminous supernova, SN 1978k. The spectrum of SN 1978k is described by either a power law with a photon index gamma approximately 2.2 or a thermal model with temperature kT approximately 3.0 keV and abundances Z approximately 0.2 Z(sun). There is no evidence for strong line emission from it or from the other two sources. The spectrum of SN 1978k arises either in shocked gas in extreme departure from ionization equilibrium or from synchrotron processes associated with a newborn pulsar. A second source, near the galactic center, is well-fit by a power-law with a photon index of approximately 1.8. It is possibly an active nucleus-like source, but physically displaced from the optical nucleus of the galaxy. The spectrum of the third source, located 8 kpc south of the nucleus, along with the absence of an optical counterpart, suggests that it is a low mass X-ray binary; but its high X-ray luminosity clouds this interpretation. This observation demonstrates the ability of ASCA to perform effective broad band spectroscopic measurements of sources at a 2-10 keV flux level of 5 x 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1.

  2. The broad band X-ray spectrum of SN 1978k and two other luminous X-ray sources in the spiral galaxy NGC 1313

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert; Okada, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro; Makishima, Kazuo; Colbert, Edward J. M.

    1994-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) PV phase observation of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 1313. ASCA cleanly resolves the three previously known luminous sources, one of which is the very luminous supernova, SN 1978k. The spectrum of SN 1978k is described by either a power law with a photon index gamma approximately 2.2 or a thermal model with temperature kT approximately 3.0 keV and abundances Z approximately 0.2 Z(sun). There is no evidence for strong line emission from it or from the other two sources. The spectrum of SN 1978k arises either in shocked gas in extreme departure from ionization equilibrium or from synchrotron processes associated with a newborn pulsar. A second source, near the galactic center, is well-fit by a power-law with a photon index of approximately 1.8. It is possibly an active nucleus-like source, but physically displaced from the optical nucleus of the galaxy. The spectrum of the third source, located 8 kpc south of the nucleus, along with the absence of an optical counterpart, suggests that it is a low mass X-ray binary; but its high X-ray luminosity clouds this interpretation. This observation demonstrates the ability of ASCA to perform effective broad band spectroscopic measurements of sources at a 2-10 keV flux level of 5 x 10(exp -13) erg cm(exp -2) s(exp -1).

  3. The O VI Absorbers toward PG 0953+415: High-Metallicity, Cosmic-Web Gas Far from Luminous Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripp, Todd M.; Aracil, Bastien; Bowen, David V.; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2006-06-01

    The spectrum of the low-redshift QSO PG 0953+415 (zQSO=0.234) shows two strong, intervening O VI absorption systems. To study the nature of these absorbers, we have used the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph to conduct a deep spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey in the 5'×5' field centered on the QSO. This survey is fully complete for r'<19.7 and is 73% complete for r'<21.0. We find three galaxies at the redshift of the higher z O VI system (zabs=0.14232), including a galaxy at projected distance ρ=155 h-170 kpc. We find no galaxies in the Gemini field at the redshift of the lower z O VI absorber (zabs=0.06807), which indicates that the nearest galaxy is more than 195 h-170 kpc away or has L<0.04L*. Previous shallower surveys covering a larger field have shown that the zabs=0.06807 O VI absorber is affiliated with a group or filament of galaxies, but the nearest known galaxy has ρ=736 h-170 kpc. The zabs=0.06807 absorber is notable for several reasons. The absorption profiles reveal simple kinematics indicative of quiescent material. The H I line widths and good alignment of the H I and metal lines favor photoionization, and moreover, the column density ratios imply a high metallicity: [M/H]=-0.3+/-0.12. The zabs=0.14232 O VI system is more complex and less constrained but also indicates a relatively high metallicity. Using galaxy redshifts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show that both of the PG 0953+415 O VI absorbers are located in large-scale filaments of the cosmic web. Evidently, some regions of the web filaments are highly metal enriched. We discuss the origin of the high-metallicity gas and suggest that the enrichment might have occurred long ago (at high z). Based on observations with (1) the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 (2) the NASA-CNES-ESA Far Ultraviolet

  4. AN ULTRAVIOLET ULTRA-LUMINOUS LYMAN BREAK GALAXY AT Z = 2.78 IN NDWFS BOOeTES FIELD {sup ,} {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Fuyan; Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua; McGreer, Ian; Wang Ran; Dey, Arjun; Green, Richard F.; Maiolino, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2012-10-01

    We present one of the most ultraviolet (UV) luminous Lyman break galaxies (LBGs; J1432+3358) at z = 2.78, discovered in the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. The R-band magnitude of J1432+3358 is 22.29 AB, more than two magnitudes brighter than typical L* LBGs at this redshift. The deep z-band image reveals two components of J1432+3358 separated by 1.''0 with a flux ratio of 3:1. The high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame UV spectrum shows Ly{alpha} emission line and interstellar medium absorption lines. The absence of N V and C IV emission lines, and the non-detection in X-ray and radio wavelengths and mid-infrared (MIR) colors indicates weak or no active galactic nuclei (<10%) in this galaxy. The galaxy shows a broader line profile, with a FWHM of about 1000 km s{sup -1} and a larger outflow velocity ( Almost-Equal-To 500 km s{sup -1}) than those of typical z {approx} 3 LBGs. The physical properties are derived by fitting the spectral energy distribution (SED) with stellar synthesis models. The dust extinction, E(B - V) = 0.12, is similar to that in normal LBGs. The star formation rates (SFRs) derived from the SED fitting and the dust-corrected UV flux are consistent with each other, {approx}300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, and the stellar mass is (1.3 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. The SFR and stellar mass in J1432+3358 are about an order of magnitude higher than those in normal LBGs. The SED-fitting results support that J1432+3358 has a continuous star formation history, with a star formation episode of 6.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The morphology of J1432+3358 and its physical properties suggest that J1432+3358 is in an early phase of a 3:1 merger process. The unique properties and the low space number density ({approx}10{sup -7} Mpc{sup -3}) are consistent with the interpretation that such galaxies are either found in a short unobscured phase of the star formation or that a small fraction of intensive star-forming galaxies are

  5. THE DENSITY PROFILES OF MASSIVE, RELAXED GALAXY CLUSTERS. II. SEPARATING LUMINOUS AND DARK MATTER IN CLUSTER CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso; Sand, David J.

    2013-03-01

    We present stellar and dark matter (DM) density profiles for a sample of seven massive, relaxed galaxy clusters derived from strong and weak gravitational lensing and resolved stellar kinematic observations within the centrally located brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). In Paper I of the series, we demonstrated that the total density profile derived from these data, which span three decades in radius, is consistent with numerical DM-only simulations at radii {approx}> 5-10 kpc, despite the significant contribution of stellar material in the core. Here, we decompose the inner mass profiles of these clusters into stellar and dark components. Parameterizing the DM density profile as a power law {rho}{sub DM}{proportional_to}r {sup -{beta}} on small scales, we find a mean slope ({beta}) = 0.50 {+-} 0.10(random){sup +0.14} {sub -0.13}(systematic). Alternatively, cored Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles with (log r {sub core}/kpc) = 1.14 {+-} 0.13{sup +0.14} {sub -0.22} provide an equally good description. These density profiles are significantly shallower than canonical NFW models at radii {approx}< 30 kpc, comparable to the effective radii of the BCGs. The inner DM profile is correlated with the distribution of stars in the BCG, suggesting a connection between the inner halo and the assembly of stars in the central galaxy. The stellar mass-to-light ratio inferred from lensing and stellar dynamics is consistent with that inferred using stellar population synthesis models if a Salpeter initial mass function is adopted. We compare these results to theories describing the interaction between baryons and DM in cluster cores, including adiabatic contraction models and the possible effects of galaxy mergers and active galactic nucleus feedback, and evaluate possible signatures of alternative DM candidates.

  6. A Luminous X-Ray Flare from the Nucleus of the Dormant Bulgeless Spiral Galaxy NGC 247

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua; Ho, Luis C.; Kaaret, Philip; Tao, Lian; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Zhang, Shuo; Grisé, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    NGC 247 is a nearby late-type bulgeless spiral galaxy that contains an inactive nucleus. We report a serendipitous discovery of an X-ray flare from the galaxy center with a luminosity of up to 2× {10}39 erg s-1 in the 0.3-10 keV band with XMM-Newton. A Chandra observation confirms that the new X-ray source is spatially coincident with the galaxy nucleus. The XMM-Newton data revealed a hard power-law spectrum with a spectral break near 3-4 keV, no pulsations on timescales longer than 150 ms, and a flat power spectrum consistent with Poisson noise from 1 mHz to nearly 10 Hz. Follow-up observations with Swift detected a second flux peak followed by a luminosity drop by a factor of almost 20. The spectral and temporal behaviors of the nuclear source are consistent with the scenario that the flare was due to an outburst of a low-mass X-ray binary that contains a stellar-mass black hole emitting near its Eddington limit at the peak. However, it cannot be ruled out that the sudden brightening in the nucleus was due to accretion onto a possible low-mass nuclear black hole, fed by a tidally disrupted star or a gas cloud; the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image observations limit the peak luminosity of the flare to less than ˜ {10}43 erg s-1, suggesting that it is either a low-mass black hole or an inefficient tidal disruption event.

  7. Luminous and Dark Matter Profiles from Galaxies to Clusters: Bridging the Gap with Group-scale Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso

    2015-11-01

    Observations of strong gravitational lensing, stellar kinematics, and larger-scale tracers enable accurate measures of the distribution of dark matter (DM) and baryons in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs). While such techniques have been applied to galaxy-scale and cluster-scale lenses, the paucity of intermediate-mass systems with high-quality data has precluded a uniform analysis of mass-dependent trends. With the aim of bridging this gap, we present new observations and analyses of 10 group-scale lenses at < z> =0.36, characterized by Einstein radii {θ }{{Ein}}=2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5-5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1 and a mean halo mass of {M}200={10}14.0 {M}⊙ . We measure a mean concentration c200 = 5.0 ± 0.8 consistent with unmodified cold dark matter halos. By combining our data with other lens samples, we analyze the mass structure of ETGs in 1013 {M}⊙ -1015 {M}⊙ halos using homogeneous techniques. We show that the slope of the total density profile γtot within the effective radius depends on the stellar surface density, as demonstrated previously, but also on the halo mass. We analyze these trends using halo occupation models and resolved stellar kinematics with the goal of testing the universality of the DM profile. Whereas the central galaxies of clusters require a shallow inner DM density profile, group-scale lenses are consistent with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile or one that is slightly contracted. The largest uncertainties arise from the sample size and likely radial gradients in stellar populations. We conclude that the net effect of baryons on the DM distribution may not be universal, but more likely varies with halo mass due to underlying trends in star formation efficiency and assembly history.

  8. THE MOLECULAR GAS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. EXTREME PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE X{sub co} FACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Xilouris, E.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Yu E-mail: pvdwerf@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: kisaak@rssd.esa.int

    2012-05-20

    In this work, we conclude the analysis of our CO line survey of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L{sub IR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }) in the local universe (Paper I) by focusing on the influence of their average interstellar medium (ISM) properties on the total molecular gas mass estimates via the so-called X{sub co} = M(H{sub 2})/L{sub co,1-0} factor. One-phase radiative transfer models of the global CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) yield an X{sub co} distribution with (X{sub co}) {approx} (0.6 {+-} 0.2) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} over a significant range of average gas densities, temperatures, and dynamic states. The latter emerges as the most important parameter in determining X{sub co}, with unbound states yielding low values and self-gravitating states yielding the highest ones. Nevertheless, in many (U)LIRGs where available higher-J CO lines (J = 3-2, 4-3, and/or J = 6-5) or HCN line data from the literature allow a separate assessment of the gas mass at high densities ({>=}10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) rather than a simple one-phase analysis, we find that near-Galactic X{sub co} {approx} (3-6) M{sub Sun} (K km s{sup -1} pc{sup 2}){sup -1} values become possible. We further show that in the highly turbulent molecular gas in ULIRGs, a high-density component will be common and can be massive enough for its high X{sub co} to dominate the average value for the entire galaxy. Using solely low-J CO lines to constrain X{sub co} in such environments (as has been the practice up until now) may have thus resulted in systematic underestimates of molecular gas mass in ULIRGs, as such lines are dominated by a warm, diffuse, and unbound gas phase with low X{sub co} but very little mass. Only well-sampled high-J CO SLEDs (J = 3-2 and higher) and/or multi-J observations of heavy rotor molecules (e.g., HCN) can circumvent such a bias, and the latter type of observations may have actually provided early evidence of it in local ULIRGs. The only

  9. New Constraints on Dark Energy from the ObservedGrowth of the Most X-ray Luminous Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S.W.; Ebeling, H.; Rapetti, D.

    2007-10-15

    We present constraints on the mean matter density, {Omega}{sub m}, normalization of the density fluctuation power spectrum, {sigma}{sub 8}, and dark energy equation of state parameter, w, obtained from the X-ray luminosity function of the Massive Cluster Survey (MACS) in combination with the local BCS and REFLEX galaxy cluster samples. Our analysis incorporates the mass function predictions of Jenkins et al. (2001), a mass-luminosity relation calibrated using the data of Reiprich and Bohringer (2002), and standard priors on the Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, and mean baryon density, {Omega}{sub b} h{sup 2}. We find {Omega}{sub m}=0.27 {sup +0.06} {sub -0.05} and {sigma}{sub 8}=0.77 {sup +0.07} {sub -0.06} for a spatially flat, cosmological constant model, and {Omega}{sub m}=0.28 {sup +0.08} {sub -0.06}, {sigma}{sub 8}=0.75 {+-} 0.08 and w=-0.97 {sup +0.20} {sub -0.19} for a flat, constant-w model. Our findings constitute the first precise determination of the dark energy equation of state from measurements of the growth of cosmic structure in galaxy clusters. The consistency of our result with w=-1 lends strong additional support to the cosmological constant model. The constraints are insensitive to uncertainties at the 10-20 percent level in the mass function and in the redshift evolution o the mass-luminosity relation; the constraint on dark energy is additionally robust against our choice of priors and known X-ray observational biases affecting the mass-luminosity relation. Our results compare favorably with those from recent analyses of type Ia supernovae, cosmic microwave background anisotropies, the X-ray gas mass fraction of relaxed galaxy clusters and cosmic shear. A simplified combination of the luminosity function data with supernova, cosmic microwave background and cluster gas fraction data using importance sampling yields the improved constraints {Omega}{sub m}=0.263 {+-} 0.014, {sigma}{sub 8}=0.79 {+-} 0.02 and w=-1.00 +- 0.05.

  10. The Gravitational Shear-Intrinsic Ellipticity Correlation Functions of Luminous Red Galaxies in Observation and in the ΛCDM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Teppei; Jing, Y. P.

    2009-03-01

    We examine whether the gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI) correlation function of the luminous red galaxies (LRGs) can be modeled with the distribution function of a misalignment angle advocated recently by Okumura et al. For this purpose, we have accurately measured the GI correlation for the LRGs in the Data Release 6 (DR6) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which confirms the results of Hirata et al. who used the DR4 data. By comparing the GI correlation functions in the simulation and in the observation, we find that the GI correlation can be modeled in the current ΛCDM model if the misalignment follows a Gaussian distribution with a zero mean and a typical misalignment angle σθ = 34.9+1.9 -2.1 degrees. We also find a correlation between the axis ratios and intrinsic alignments of LRGs. This effect should be taken into account in theoretical modeling of the GI and intrinsic ellipticity-ellipticity correlations for weak lensing surveys.

  11. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. II. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DARK AND LUMINOUS MASS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ruff, Andrea J.; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Gavazzi, Raphael; Brault, Florence

    2011-02-01

    We present a joint gravitational lensing and stellar-dynamical analysis of 11 early-type galaxies (median deflector redshift z{sub d} = 0.5) from Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey (SL2S). Using newly measured redshifts and stellar velocity dispersions from Keck spectroscopy with lens models from Paper I, we derive the total mass-density slope inside the Einstein radius for each of the 11 lenses. The average total density slope is found to be ({gamma}') = 2.16{sup +0.09}{sub -0.09} ({rho}{sub tot}{proportional_to}r{sup -}{gamma}'), with an intrinsic scatter of 0.25{sup +0.10}{sub -0.07}. We also determine the dark matter fraction for each lens within half the effective radius, R{sub eff}/2, and find the average-projected dark matter mass fraction to be 0.42{sup +0.08}{sub -0.08} with a scatter of 0.20{sup +0.09}{sub -0.07} for a Salpeter initial mass function. By combining the SL2S results with those from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (median z{sub d} = 0.2) and the Lenses Structure and Dynamics Survey (median z{sub d} = 0.8), we investigate cosmic evolution of {gamma}' and find a mild trend {partial_derivative}({gamma}')/{partial_derivative}z{sub d} = -0.25{sup +0.10}{sub -0.12}. This suggests that the total density profile of massive galaxies has become slightly steeper over cosmic time. If this result is confirmed by larger samples, it would indicate that dissipative processes played some role in the growth of massive galaxies since z {approx} 1.

  12. Ultramassive (about 10 to the 11th solar mass) dark core in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan; Wilson, Andrew S.; Tully, R. Brent

    1991-01-01

    The first complete kinematic maps for the superluminous IR galaxy NGC 6240 are reported. The data reveal two dynamical disks that exhibit radically different rotation and are closely spaced in velocity and position. One disk is roughly aligned with the major axis of the near-IR continuum and exhibits flat rotation out to about 20 arsec in radius, centered on the doubled nucleus seen at optical, near-IR, and radio wavelengths. The rotation turns over at r(t1) roughly 7.2 arcsec with a peak-to-peak velocity amplitude of roughly 280/sin i1 km/s, where i1 is the disk inclination. The rotation curve of the second disk comprises an unresolved or marginally resolved central velocity gradient with a peak-to-peak amplitude of roughly 800/sin i2 km/s within r(t2) of 2.5 arcsec, and a faster than Keplerian dropoff outside r(t2). The peak rotation implies a compact mass M2 greater than 4.5 x 10 to the 10th solar mass/sin-squared i2 within a radius of 1.2 kpc.

  13. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 < LIR < 1012 L[special character omitted]) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; 1012 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]), which result from galaxy interactions and mergers and produce the bulk of their radiation as infrared (IR) emission, is not well understood. To this effort, I first spectroscopically examine U/LIRGs (1011 < LIR < 1013 L[special character omitted]) within the IRAS 2 Jansky Redshift Survey with 0.05 < z < 0.16. Using new spectrophotometric data, I classify the primary source of IR radiation as being a nuclear starburst or a type of AGN by using the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 < z < 0.16. I find evidence that the nuclear starburst forms first in U/LIRGs, and also find that U/LIRGs with relatively similar SFRs show

  14. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  15. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T

    2003-12-11

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (> 300 M{sub solar}). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super-Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and that their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  16. REGARDING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT BARYONIC ACOUSTIC FEATURE IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY AND BARYON OSCILLATION SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY LUMINOUS RED GALAXY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kazin, Eyal A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Scoccimarro, Roman; McBride, Cameron K.; Berlind, Andreas A.

    2010-08-20

    We analyze the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature in the two-point correlation function {xi} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey luminous red galaxy (LRG) sample (0.16 < z < 0.47). By defining a narrow line-of-sight region, r{sub p} < 5.5 h {sup -1} Mpc, where r{sub p} is the transverse separation component, we measure a strong excess of clustering at {approx}110 h {sup -1} Mpc, as previously reported in the literature. We also test these results in an alternative coordinate system, by defining the line of sight as {theta} < 3{sup 0}, where {theta} is the opening angle. This clustering excess appears much stronger than the feature in the better-measured monopole. A fiducial {Lambda}CDM nonlinear model in redshift space predicts a much weaker signature. We use realistic mock catalogs to model the expected signal and noise. We find that the line-of-sight measurements can be explained well by our mocks as well as by a featureless {xi} = 0. We conclude that there is no convincing evidence that the strong clustering measurement is the line-of-sight baryonic acoustic feature. We also evaluate how detectable such a signal would be in the upcoming Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) LRG volume. Mock LRG catalogs (z < 0.6) suggest that (1) the narrow line-of-sight cylinder and cone defined above probably will not reveal a detectable acoustic feature in BOSS; (2) a clustering measurement as high as that in the current sample can be ruled out (or confirmed) at a high confidence level using a BOSS-sized data set; (3) an analysis with wider angular cuts, which provide better signal-to-noise ratios, can nevertheless be used to compare line-of-sight and transverse distances, and thereby constrain the expansion rate H(z) and diameter distance D{sub A}(z).

  17. Ionized outflows in luminous type 2 AGNs at z < 0.6: no evidence for significant impact on the host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar-Martín, M.; Arribas, S.; Emonts, B.; Humphrey, A.; Tadhunter, C.; Bessiere, P.; Cabrera Lavers, A.; Ramos Almeida, C.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the presence of extended ionized outflows in 18 luminous type 2 AGNs (11 quasars and 7 high-luminosity Seyfert 2s) at 0.3 < z < 0.6 based on VLT-FORS2 spectroscopy. We infer typical lower limits on the radial sizes of the outflows Ro ≳ several × 100 pc and upper limits Ro ≲ 1-2 kpc. Our results are inconsistent with related studies which suggest that large scale (Ro ˜ several-15 kpc) are ubiquitous in QSO2. We study the possible causes of discrepancy and propose that seeing smearing is the cause of the large inferred sizes. The implications in our understanding of the feedback phenomenon are important since the mass Mo (through the density), mass injection skew3dot{M}_o and energy injection dot{E}_o rates of the outflows become highly uncertain. One conclusion seems unavoidable: Mo, skew3dot{M}_o and dot{E}_o are modest or low compared with previous estimations. We obtain typically Mo ≲ (0.4-22) × 106 M⊙ (median 1.1 × 106 M⊙) assuming n = 1000 cm-3. These are ˜102-104 times lower than values reported in the literature. Even under the most favourable assumptions, we obtain \\dot{M}_o ≲ 10 M⊙ yr-1 in general, 100-1000 times lower than claimed in related studies. Although the uncertainties are large, it is probable that these are lower than typical star-forming rates. In conclusion, no evidence is found supporting that typical outflows can affect the interstellar medium of the host galaxies across spatial scales ≳ 1-2 kpc.

  18. A STATE TRANSITION OF THE LUMINOUS X-RAY BINARY IN THE LOW-METALLICITY BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXY I Zw 18

    SciTech Connect

    Kaaret, Philip; Feng Hua

    2013-06-10

    We present a measurement of the X-ray spectrum of the luminous X-ray binary in I Zw 18, the blue compact dwarf galaxy with the lowest known metallicity. We find the highest flux yet observed, corresponding to an intrinsic luminosity near 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} establishing it as an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). The energy spectrum is dominated by disk emission with a weak or absent Compton component and there is no significant timing noise; both are indicative of the thermal state of stellar-mass black hole X-ray binaries and inconsistent with the Compton-dominated state typical of most ULX spectra. A previous measurement of the X-ray spectrum shows a harder spectrum that is well described by a power law. Thus, the binary appears to exhibit spectral states similar to those observed from stellar-mass black hole binaries. If the hard state occurs in the range of luminosities found for the hard state in stellar-mass black hole binaries, then the black hole mass must be at least 85 M{sub Sun }. Spectral fitting of the thermal state shows that disk luminosities for which thin disk models are expected to be valid are produced only for relatively high disk inclinations, {approx}> 60 Degree-Sign , and rapid black hole spins. We find a{sub *} > 0.98 and M > 154 M{sub Sun} for a disk inclination of 60 Degree-Sign . Higher inclinations produce higher masses and somewhat lower spins.

  19. Accretion Disk Spectra of the Ultra-luminous X-ray Sources in Nearby Spiral Galaxies and Galactic Superluminal Jet Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Ebisawa, Ken; Zycki, Piotr; Kubota, Aya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Watarai, Ken-ya

    2003-01-01

    Ultra-luminous Compact X-ray Sources (ULXs) in nearby spiral galaxies and Galactic superluminal jet sources share the common spectral characteristic that they have unusually high disk temperatures which cannot be explained in the framework of the standard optically thick accretion disk in the Schwarzschild metric. On the other hand, the standard accretion disk around the Kerr black hole might explain the observed high disk temperature, as the inner radius of the Kerr disk gets smaller and the disk temperature can be consequently higher. However, we point out that the observable Kerr disk spectra becomes significantly harder than Schwarzschild disk spectra only when the disk is highly inclined. This is because the emission from the innermost part of the accretion disk is Doppler-boosted for an edge-on Kerr disk, while hardly seen for a face-on disk. The Galactic superluminal jet sources are known to be highly inclined systems, thus their energy spectra may be explained with the standard Kerr disk with known black hole masses. For ULXs, on the other hand, the standard Kerr disk model seems implausible, since it is highly unlikely that their accretion disks are preferentially inclined, and, if edge-on Kerr disk model is applied, the black hole mass becomes unreasonably large (greater than or approximately equal to 300 Solar Mass). Instead, the slim disk (advection dominated optically thick disk) model is likely to explain the observed super- Eddington luminosities, hard energy spectra, and spectral variations of ULXs. We suggest that ULXs are accreting black holes with a few tens of solar mass, which is not unexpected from the standard stellar evolution scenario, and their X-ray emission is from the slim disk shining at super-Eddington luminosities.

  20. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z 2-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Falstad, N.; Baker, A. J.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dye, S.; Guélin, M.; Ivison, R.; Krips, M.; Lehnert, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Spaans, M.; Valiante, E.

    2016-11-01

    We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA), we have detected 14 new H2O emission lines. These include five 321-312ortho-H2O lines (Eup/k = 305 K) and nine J = 2 para-H2O lines, either 202-111(Eup/k = 101 K) or 211-202(Eup/k = 137 K). The apparent luminosities of the H2O emission lines are μLH2O 6-21 × 108 L⊙ (3 <μ< 15, where μ is the lens magnification factor), with velocity-integrated line fluxes ranging from 4-15 Jy km s-1. We have also observed CO emission lines using EMIR on the IRAM 30 m telescope in seven sources (most of those have not yet had their CO emission lines observed). The velocity widths for CO and H2O lines are found to be similar, generally within 1σ errors in the same source. With almost comparable integrated flux densities to those of the high-J CO line (ratios range from 0.4 to 1.1), H2O is found to be among the strongest molecular emitters in high-redshift Hy/ULIRGs. We also confirm our previously found correlation between luminosity of H2O (LH2O) and infrared (LIR) that LH2O LIR1.1-1.2, with ournew detections. This correlation could be explained by a dominant role of far-infrared pumping in the H2O excitation. Modelling reveals that the far-infrared radiation fields have warm dust temperature Twarm 45-75 K, H2O column density per unit velocity interval NH2O /ΔV ≳ 0.3 × 1015 cm-2 km-1 s and 100 μm continuum opacity τ100> 1 (optically thick), indicating that H2O is likely to trace highly obscured warm dense gas. However, further observations of J ≥ 4 H2O lines are needed to better constrain the continuum optical depth and other physical conditions of the molecular gas and dust. We have also detected H2O+ emission in three sources. A tight correlation

  1. IRS spectroscopy of a complete, unbiased sample of submm galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, Chris; Aguirre, James; Aravena, Manuel; Aussel, Herve; Bertoldi, Frank; Sanders, Dave; Schinnerer, Eva; Scoville, Nick; Sheth, Kartik

    2008-03-01

    We propose 51.5 hours of IRS spectroscopy of a complete, luminosity limited sample of 12 submm galaxies detected at high significance at 250 GHz (> 5sigma) in the Cosmos field. These observations will address two fundamental questions concerning the submm galaxies: (i) do starbursts dominate the energetics of these systems, and if so, how do the physical conditions compare to lower z, lower luminosity starbursts?, and (ii) is there a substantial (up to 30%) high redshift tail (z > 3.6) of hyper-luminous IR galaxies? Such a high redshift tail provides key leverage into models of massive galaxy formation in the early universe. A major legacy of Spitzer has been the demonstration that accurate redshifts for distant, luminous, dust-obscured star forming galaxies can be derived from the PAH features, in addition to the important physical diagnostics on dust heating and composition that come from such spectra. Observing the high S/N, unbiased Cosmos/MAMBO sample will complete this legacy, and test the theory that submm galaxies represent the formation of large elliptical galaxies in massive, dusty starbursts in dense environments at high redshift.

  2. Variability and Spectral Studies of Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy Fairall 9. Search for the Reflection Component is a Quasar: RXTE and ASCA Observation of a Nearby Radio-Quiet Quasar MR 2251-178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighly, Karen M.

    1999-01-01

    Monitoring observations with interval of 3 days using RXTE (X Ray Timing Explorer) of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9 were performed for one year. The purpose of the observations were to study the variability of Fairall 9 and compare the results with those from the radio-loud object 3C 390.3. The data has been received and analysis is underway, using the new background model. An observation of the quasar MR 2251-178 was made in order to determine whether or not it has a reflection component. Older background models gave an unacceptable subtraction and analysis is underway using the new background model. The observation of NGC 6300 showed that the X-ray spectrum from this Seyfert 2 galaxy appears to be dominated by Compton reflection.

  3. e-MERLIN and VLBI observations of the luminous infrared galaxy IC 883: a nuclear starburst and an AGN candidate revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Cañizales, C.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Argo, M. K.; Beswick, R. J.; Kankare, E.; Batejat, F.; Efstathiou, A.; Mattila, S.; Conway, J. E.; Garrington, S. T.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Ryder, S. D.; Väisänen, P.

    2012-07-01

    Context. The high star formation rates of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) make them ideal places for core-collapse supernova (CCSN) searches. Massive star formation can often be found in coexistence with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), contributing jointly to the energy source of LIRGs. At radio frequencies, where light is unaffected by dust extinction, it is possible to detect compact components within the innermost LIRG nuclear regions, such as SNe and SN remnants, as well as AGN buried deep in the LIRG nuclei. Aims: Our study of the LIRG IC 883 aims at: (i) investigating the parsec-scale radio structure of the (circum-)nuclear regions of IC 883; (ii) detecting at radio frequencies the two recently reported circumnuclear SNe 2010cu and 2011hi, which were discovered by near-IR (NIR) adaptive optics observations of IC 883; and (iii) further investigating the nature of SN 2011hi at NIR wavelengths. Methods: We used the electronic European very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) Network (e-EVN) at 5 GHz, and the electronic Multi-Element Remotely Linked Interferometer Network (e-MERLIN) at 6.9 GHz, to observe contemporaneously the LIRG IC 883 at high angular-resolution (from tens to hundreds of milliarcsec) and with high sensitivity (<70 μJy), complemented by archival VLBI data at 5 GHz and 8.4 GHz. We also used the Gemini North telescope to obtain late-time JHK photometry for SN 2011hi. Results: The circumnuclear regions traced by e-MERLIN at 6.9 GHz have an extension of ~ 1 kpc, at a position angle of 130°, and show a striking double-sided structure, which very likely corresponds to a warped rotating ring, in agreement with previous studies. Our e-EVN observations at 5 GHz and complementary archival VLBI data at 5 GHz and 8.4 GHz, reveal various milliarcsec compact components in the nucleus of IC 883. A single compact source, an AGN candidate, dominates the emission at both nuclear and circumnuclear scales, as imaged with the e-EVN and e-MERLIN, respectively

  4. Exploring the molecular chemistry and excitation in obscured luminous infrared galaxies. An ALMA mm-wave spectral scan of NGC 4418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Muller, S.; Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Harada, N.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Spaans, M.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Extragalactic observations allow the study of molecular chemistry and excitation under physical conditions which may differ greatly from those found in the Milky Way. The compact, obscured nuclei (CON) of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG) combine large molecular columns with intense infrared (IR), ultra-violet (UV), and X- radiation and represent ideal laboratories for the study of the chemistry of the interstellar medium (ISM) under extreme conditions. Aims: Our aim was to obtain for the first time a multi-band spectral scan of a LIRG, and to derive molecular abundances and excitation to be compared to other Galactic and extragalactic environments. Methods: We obtained an ALMA Cycle 0 spectral scan of the dusty LIRG NGC 4418, spanning a total of 70.7 GHz in bands 3, 6, and 7. We use a combined local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (NLTE) fit of the spectrum in order to identify the molecular species and to derive column densities and excitation temperatures. We derive molecular abundances and compare them with other Galactic and extragalactic sources by means of a principal component analysis. Results: We detect 317 emission lines from a total of 45 molecular species, including 15 isotopic substitutions and 6 vibrationally excited variants. Our LTE/NLTE fit find kinetic temperatures from 20 to 350 K, and densities between 105 and 107 cm-3. The spectrum is dominated by vibrationally excited HC3N, HCN, and HNC, with vibrational temperatures from 300 to 450 K. We find that the chemistry of NCG 4418 is characterized by high abundances of HC3N, SiO, H2S, and c-HCCCH but a low CH3OH abundance. A principal component analysis shows that NGC 4418 and Arp 220 share very similar molecular abundances and excitation, which clearly set them apart from other Galactic and extragalactic environments. Conclusions: Our spectral scan confirms that the chemical complexity in the nucleus of NGC 4418 is one of the highest ever observed outside our Galaxy. The similar

  5. Resolving the Large Scale Spectral Variability of the Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577: Evidence for a New Emission Component and Absorption by Cold Dense Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below -1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonised thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable soft excess then appears to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the core soft emission can be attributed to re- combination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. We note the wider implications of finding substantial cold dense matter overlying (or embedded in) the X-ray continuum source in a luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy.

  6. SPATIALLY RESOLVED [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m EMISSION IN NGC 5135: CLUES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGIN OF THE HARD X-RAYS IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Colina, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2012-04-20

    Spatially resolved near-IR and X-ray imaging of the central region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 5135 is presented. The kinematical signatures of strong outflows are detected in the [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m emission line in a compact region at 0.9 kpc from the nucleus. The derived mechanical energy release is consistent with a supernova rate of 0.05-0.1 yr{sup -1}. The apex of the outflowing gas spatially coincides with the strongest [Fe II] emission peak and with the dominant component of the extranuclear hard X-ray emission. All these features provide evidence for a plausible direct physical link between supernova-driven outflows and the hard X-ray emitting gas in an LIRG. This result is consistent with model predictions of starbursts concentrated in small volumes and with high thermalization efficiencies. A single high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) as the major source of the hard X-ray emission, although not favored, cannot be ruled out. Outside the active galactic nucleus, the hard X-ray emission in NGC 5135 appears to be dominated by the hot interstellar medium produced by supernova explosions in a compact star-forming region, and not by the emission due to HMXBs. If this scenario is common to (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies, the hard X-rays would only trace the most compact ({<=}100 pc) regions with high supernova and star formation densities, therefore a lower limit to their integrated star formation. The star formation rate derived in NGC 5135 based on its hard X-ray luminosity is a factor of two and four lower than the values obtained from the 24 {mu}m and soft X-ray luminosities, respectively.

  7. HerMES: The rest-frame UV emission and a lensing model for the z = 6.34 luminous dusty starburst galaxy HFLS3

    SciTech Connect

    Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, Jae; Casey, C. M.; Ma, Brian; Osage, W. A.; Wardlow, Julie L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Clements, D.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Ivison, R. J.; La Porte, N.; Lo Faro, B.; Magdis, G.; Oliver, S. J.; and others

    2014-07-20

    We discuss the rest-frame ultraviolet emission from the starbursting galaxy HFLS3 at a redshift of 6.34. The galaxy was discovered in Herschel/SPIRE data due to its red color in the submillimeter wavelengths from 250 to 500 μm. Keck/NIRC2 K{sub s}-band adaptive optics imaging data showed two potential near-IR counterparts near HFLS3. Previously, the northern galaxy was taken to be in the foreground at z = 2.1, while the southern galaxy was assumed to be HFLS3's near-IR counterpart. The recently acquired Hubble/WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data show conclusively that both optically bright galaxies are in the foreground at z < 6. A new lensing model based on the Hubble imaging data and the millimeter-wave continuum emission yields a magnification factor of 2.2 ± 0.3, with a 95% confidence upper limit on the magnification of 3.5. When corrected for lensing, the instantaneous star formation rate is 1320 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, with the 95% confidence lower limit around 830 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The dust and stellar masses of HFLS3 from the same spectral energy distribution (SED) models are at the level of 3 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉} and ∼5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}, respectively, with large systematic uncertainties on assumptions related to the SED model. With Hubble/WFC3 images, we also find diffuse near-IR emission about 0.5 arcsec (∼3 kpc) to the southwest of HFLS3 that remains undetected in the ACS imaging data. The emission has a photometric redshift consistent with either z ∼ 6 or a dusty galaxy template at z ∼ 2.

  8. SPIDER - VI. The central dark matter content of luminous early-type galaxies: Benchmark correlations with mass, structural parameters and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We analyse the central dark-matter (DM) content of ˜4500 massive (M★ ≳ 1010 M⊙), low-redshift (z < 0.1), early-type galaxies (ETGs), with high-quality ugrizY JHK photometry and optical spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). We estimate the 'central' fraction of DM within the K-band effective radius, Reff, using spherically symmetric isotropic galaxy models. We discuss the role of systematics in stellar mass estimates, dynamical modelling, and velocity dispersion anisotropy. The main results of the present work are the following: (1) DM fractions increase systematically with both structural parameters (i.e. Reff and Sérsic index, n) and mass proxies (central velocity dispersion, stellar and dynamical mass), as in previous studies, and decrease with central stellar density. (2) All correlations involving DM fractions are caused by two fundamental ones with galaxy effective radius and central velocity dispersion. These correlations are independent of each other, so that ETGs populate a central-DM plane (DMP), i.e. a correlation among fraction of total-to-stellar mass, effective radius, and velocity dispersion, whose scatter along the total-to-stellar mass axis amounts to ˜0.15 dex. (3) In general, under the assumption of an isothermal or a constant M/L profile for the total mass distribution, a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF) is favoured with respect to a bottom-heavier Salpeter IMF, as the latter produces negative (i.e. unphysical) DM fractions for more than 50 per cent of the galaxies in our sample. For a Chabrier IMF, the DM estimates agree with Λ cold dark matter toy-galaxy models based on contracted DM-halo density profiles. We also find agreement with predictions from hydrodynamical simulations. (4) The central DM content of ETGs does not depend significantly on the environment where galaxies reside, with group and field ETGs having similar DM trends.

  9. STAR FORMATION RATES FOR STARBURST GALAXIES FROM ULTRAVIOLET, INFRARED, AND RADIO LUMINOSITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, Lusine A.; Weedman, Daniel W. E-mail: dweedman@isc.astro.cornell.edu

    2009-08-20

    We present a comparison of star formation rates (SFR) determined from mid-infrared 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminosity [SFR(PAH)], from 1.4 GHz radio luminosity [SFR(radio)], and from far-ultraviolet luminosity [SFR(UV)] for a sample of 287 starburst galaxies with z < 0.5 having Spitzer IRS observations. The previously adopted relation log [SFR(PAH)] = log [{nu}L {sub {nu}}(7.7 {mu}m)] - 42.57 {+-} 0.2, for SFR in M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and {nu}L {sub {nu}}(7.7 {mu}m) the luminosity at the peak of the 7.7 {mu}m PAH feature in erg s{sup -1}, is found to agree with SFR(radio). Comparing with SFR(UV) determined independently from ultraviolet observations of the same sources with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer mission (not corrected for dust extinction), the median log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = 1.67, indicating that only 2% of the ultraviolet continuum typically escapes extinction by dust within a starburst. This ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) depends on infrared luminosity, with the form log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)] = (0.53 {+-} 0.05)log [{nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.7 {mu}m)] - 21.5 {+-} 0.18, indicating that more luminous starbursts are also dustier. Using our adopted relation between {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.7 {mu}m) and L {sub ir}, this becomes log [SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV)]= (0.53 {+-} 0.05)log L{sub ir} - 4.11 {+-} 0.18, for L{sub ir} in L{sub sun}. Only blue compact dwarf galaxies show comparable or greater SFR(UV) compared to SFR(PAH). We also find that the ratio SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) is similar to that in infrared-selected starbursts for a sample of Markarian starburst galaxies originally selected using optical classification, which implies that there is no significant selection effect in SFR(PAH)/SFR(UV) using starburst galaxies discovered by Spitzer. These results indicate that SFRs determined with ultraviolet luminosities require dust corrections by a factor of {approx}10 for typical local starbursts but this factor increases to >700 for the most luminous starbursts at z {approx} 2

  10. Chandra Observations of Diffuse Gas and Luminous X-Ray Sources around the X-Ray-bright Elliptical Galaxy NGC 1600

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2004-12-01

    We observed the X-ray-bright E3 galaxy NGC 1600 and nearby members of the NGC 1600 group with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S3 to study their X-ray properties. Unresolved emission dominates the observation; however, we resolved some of the emission into 71 sources, most of which are low-mass X-ray binaries associated with NGC 1600. Twenty-one of the sources have LX>2×1039 ergs s-1 (0.3-10.0 keV; assuming they are at the distance of NGC 1600), marking them as ultraluminous X-ray point source (ULX) candidates; we expect that only 11+/-2 are unrelated foreground/background sources. NGC 1600 may have the largest number of ULX candidates in an early-type galaxy to date; however, cosmic variance in the number of background active galactic nuclei cannot be ruled out. The spectrum and luminosity function (LF) of the resolved sources are more consistent with sources found in other early-type galaxies than with sources found in star-forming regions of galaxies. The source LF and the spectrum of the unresolved emission both indicate that there are a large number of unresolved point sources. We propose that these sources are associated with globular clusters (GCs) and that NGC 1600 has a large GC specific frequency. Observations of the GC population in NGC 1600 would be very useful for testing this prediction. Approximately 50%-75% of the unresolved flux comes from diffuse gaseous emission. The spectral fits, hardness ratios, and X-ray surface brightness profile all point to two gas components. We interpret the soft inner component (a<~25'', kT~0.85 keV) as the interstellar medium of NGC 1600 and the hotter outer component (a>~25'', kT~1.5 keV) as the intragroup medium of the NGC 1600 group. The X-ray image shows several interesting structures. First, there is a central region of excess emission that is roughly cospatial with Hα and dust filaments immediately west of the center of NGC 1600. There appear to be holes in the X-ray emission to the north and south of the

  11. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  12. The ROSAT-ESO flux limited X-ray galaxy cluster survey (REFLEX II). I. Newly identified X-ray luminous clusters at z ≥ 0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, G.; Böhringer, H.

    2012-02-01

    We report 19 intermediate redshift clusters newly detected in the ROSAT All-Sky survey that are spectroscopically confirmed. They form a part of 911 objects in the REFLEX II cluster catalogue with a limiting flux of 1.8 × 10-12 erg/s/cm2 in the 0.1-2.4 keV ROSAT band at redshift z ≥ 0.2. In addition we report three clusters from the REFLEX III supplementary catalogue, which contains objects below the REFLEX II flux limit but satisfies the redshift constraint above. These clusters are spectroscopically followed-up by our ESO NTT-EFOSC2 campaigns for the redshift measurement. We describe our observing and data reduction methods. We show how X-ray properties such as spectral hardness ratio and source extent can be used as important diagnostics in selecting galaxy cluster candidates. Physical properties of the clusters are subsequently calculated from the X-ray observations. This sample contains the high mass and intermediate-redshift galaxy clusters for astrophysical and cosmological applications. Based on the data obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Riechers, Dominik A.; Pope, Alexandra; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Carilli, Christopher L.; Walter, Fabian; Hodge, Jacqueline; Morrison, Glenn E.; Dickinson, Mark; Dannerbauer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    We report the detection of 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and rest-frame 4-7 μm continuum emission in the z = 4.055 submillimeter galaxy GN20, using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. This represents the first detection of PAH emission at z > 4. The strength of the PAH emission feature is consistent with a very high star formation rate of ∼1600 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We find that this intense starburst powers at least ∼1/3 of the faint underlying 6 μm continuum emission, with an additional, significant (and perhaps dominant) contribution due to a power-law-like hot dust source, which we interpret to likely be a faint, dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). The inferred 6 μm AGN continuum luminosity is consistent with a sensitive upper limit on the hard X-ray emission as measured by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory if the previously undetected AGN is Compton-thick. This is in agreement with the finding at optical/infrared wavelengths that the galaxy and its nucleus are heavily dust-obscured. Despite the strong power-law component enhancing the mid-infrared continuum emission, the intense starburst associated with the photon-dominated regions that give rise to the PAH emission appears to dominate the total energy output in the infrared. GN20 is one of the most luminous starburst galaxies known at any redshift, embedded in a rich protocluster of star-forming galaxies. This investigation provides an improved understanding of the energy sources that power such exceptional systems, which represent the extreme end of massive galaxy formation at early cosmic times.

  14. A TALE OF THREE GALAXIES: ANOMALOUS DUST PROPERTIES IN IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013–0739, AND SDSS J0808+3948

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yanxia; Hao, Lei; Li, Aigen

    2014-10-20

    On a galactic scale, the 9.7 μm silicate emission is usually only seen in type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). They usually also display a flat emission continuum at ∼5-8 μm and the absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. In contrast, starburst galaxies, luminous infrared (IR) galaxies, and ultraluminous IR galaxies exhibit a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, strong 9.7 μm and 18 μm silicate absorption features, and strong PAH emission bands. Here, we report the detection of anomalous dust properties by the Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph in three galaxies (IRAS F10398+1455, IRAS F21013-0739, and SDSS J0808+3948) which are characterized by the simultaneous detection of a red 5-8 μm emission continuum, the 9.7 and 18 μm silicate emission features, as well as strong PAH emission bands. These apparently contradictory dust IR emission properties are discussed in terms of iron-poor silicate composition, carbon dust deficit, small grain size, and low dust temperature in the young AGN phase of these three galaxies.

  15. NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE GOODS-NORTH FIELD: SEARCH FOR LUMINOUS GALAXY CANDIDATES AT z {approx}> 6.5 {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hathi, Nimish P.; Mobasher, Bahram; Capak, Peter; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2012-09-20

    We present near-infrared (NIR; J and K{sub s}) survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field. The publicly available imaging data were obtained using the MOIRCS instrument on the 8.2 m Subaru and the WIRCam instrument on the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). These observations fulfill a serious wavelength gap in the GOODS-N data, i.e., lack of deep NIR observations. We combine the Subaru/MOIRCS and CFHT/WIRCam archival data to generate deep J- and K{sub s}-band images, covering the full GOODS-N field ({approx}169 arcmin{sup 2}) to an AB magnitude limit of {approx}25 mag (3{sigma}). We applied z{sub 850}-band dropout color selection criteria, using the NIR data generated here. We have identified two possible Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates at z {approx}> 6.5 with J {approx}< 24.5. The first candidate is a likely LBG at z {approx_equal} 6.5 based on a weak spectral feature tentatively identified as Ly{alpha} line in the deep Keck/DEIMOS spectrum, while the second candidate is a possible LBG at z {approx_equal} 7 based on its photometric redshift. These z{sub 850}-dropout objects, if confirmed, are among the brightest such candidates found so far. At z {approx}> 6.5, their star formation rate is estimated as 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. If they continue to form stars at this rate, they assemble a stellar mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} after about 400 million years, becoming the progenitors of massive galaxies observed at z {approx_equal} 5. We study the implication of the z{sub 850}-band dropout candidates discovered here, in constraining the bright end of the luminosity function and understanding the nature of high-redshift galaxies.

  16. A Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars. III. A Search for Luminous Blue Variables and Other Hα Emission-Line Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip; McNeill, Reagin T.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Hodge, Paul W.; Blaha, Cynthia; Jacoby, George H.; Smith, R. C.; Strong, Shay B.

    2007-12-01

    We describe a search for Hα emission-line stars in M31, M33, and seven dwarfs in or near the Local Group (IC 10, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextans B, Sextans A, Pegasus, and the Phoenix dwarf) using interference filter imaging with the KPNO and CTIO 4 m telescopes and Mosaic cameras. The survey is aimed primarily at identifying new luminous blue variables (LBVs) from their spectroscopic similarity to known LBVs, avoiding the bias toward photometric variability, which may require centuries to manifest itself if LBVs go through long quiescent periods. Follow-up spectroscopy with WIYN confirms that our survey detected a wealth of stars whose spectra are similar to the known LBVs. We "classify" the spectra of known LBVs and compare these to the spectra of the new LBV candidates. We demonstrate spectacular spectral variability for several of the new LBV candidates, such as AM2, previously classified as a Wolf-Rayet star (WR), which now shows Fe I, Fe II, and Balmer emission lines but neither the N III λλ4634, 4642 nor the He II λ4686 emission it did in 1982. Profound spectral changes are also noted for other suspected and known LBVs. Several of the LBV candidates also show >0.5 mag changes in V over the past 10-20 years. The number of known or suspected LBVs is now 24 in M31, 37 in M33, 1 in NGC 6822, and 3 in IC 10. We estimate that the total number of LBVs in M31 and M33 may be several hundred, in contrast to the eight known historically through large-scale photometric variability. This has significant implications for the timescale of the LBV phase. We also identify a few new WRs and peculiar emission-line objects. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  17. Starburst or AGN dominance in submm-luminous candidate AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Alexander, Dave; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Chapman, Scott; Clements, Dave; Dunlop, James; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Farrah, Duncan; Hughes, David; Ivison, Rob; Kim, Sungeun; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Oliver, Sebastian; Page, Mat; Pope, Alexandra; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Scott, Douglas; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Vaccari, Mattia; van Kampen, Eelco

    2008-03-01

    It is widely believed that starbursts/ULIRGs and AGN activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging; and sub-mm selected galaxies (SMGs) seem to be simply high redshift ULIRGs, observed near the peak of activity. In this evolutionary picture every SMG would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. In order to probe this evolutionary sequence, a crucial sub-sample to focus on would be the 'missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst and AGN signatures and to determine if the starburst is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look in the mid-IR for their signatures, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We have selected a sample of SMGs which are good candidates for harboring powerful AGN on the basis of their IRAC colours (S8um/S4.5um>2). Once we confirm these SMGs are AGN-dominated, we can then perform an audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission. The proposed observations with IRS will probe the physics of how SMGs evolve from a cold-dust starburst-dominated ULIRG to an AGN/QSO by measuring the level of the mid-IR continuum, PAH luminosity, and Si absorption in these intermediate `transitory' AGN/SMGs.

  18. Duodenal luminal nutrient sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Akiba, Yasutada; Kaji, Izumi; Kaunitz, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal mucosa is exposed to numerous chemical substances and microorganisms, including macronutrients, micronutrients, bacteria, endogenous ions, and proteins. The regulation of mucosal protection, digestion, absorption and motility is signaled in part by luminal solutes. Therefore, luminal chemosensing is an important mechanism enabling the mucosa to monitor luminal conditions, such as pH, ion concentrations, nutrient quantity, and microflora. The duodenal mucosa shares luminal nutrient receptors with lingual taste receptors in order to detect the five basic tastes, in addition to essential nutrients, and unwanted chemicals. The recent ‘de-orphanization’ of nutrient sensing G protein-coupled receptors provides an essential component of the mechanism by which the mucosa senses luminal nutrients. In this review, we will update the mechanisms of and underlying physiological and pathological roles in luminal nutrient sensing, with a main focus on the duodenal mucosa. PMID:25113991

  19. Multi-wavelength seds of Herschel-selected galaxies in the cosmos field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nicholas; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Hung, Chao-Ling; Scoville, N. Z.; Capak, Peter; Bock, J.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Aussel, Hervé; Ilbert, Olivier; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Roseboom, Isaac; Oliver, S. J.; Salvato, Mara; Aravena, M.; Berta, S.; Riguccini, L.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    We combine Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver maps of the full 2 deg{sup 2} Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field with existing multi-wavelength data to obtain template and model-independent optical-to-far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 4218 Herschel-selected sources with log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 9.4-13.6 and z = 0.02-3.54. Median SEDs are created by binning the optical to far-infrared (FIR) bands available in COSMOS as a function of infrared luminosity. Herschel probes rest-frame wavelengths where the bulk of the infrared radiation is emitted, allowing us to more accurately determine fundamental dust properties of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies. We find that the SED peak wavelength (λ{sub peak}) decreases and the dust mass (M {sub dust}) increases with increasing total infrared luminosity (L {sub IR}). In the lowest infrared luminosity galaxies (log(L {sub IR}/L {sub ☉}) = 10.0-11.5), we see evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features (λ ∼ 7-9 μm), while in the highest infrared luminosity galaxies (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}) we see an increasing contribution of hot dust and/or power-law emission, consistent with the presence of heating from an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We study the relationship between stellar mass and star formation rate of our sample of infrared luminous galaxies and find no evidence that Herschel-selected galaxies follow the SFR/M {sub *} 'main sequence' as previously determined from studies of optically selected, star-forming galaxies. Finally, we compare the mid-infrared to FIR properties of our infrared luminous galaxies using the previously defined diagnostic, IR8 ≡ L {sub IR}/L {sub 8}, and find that galaxies with L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.3} L {sub ☉} tend to systematically lie above (× 3-5) the IR8 'infrared main sequence', suggesting either suppressed PAH emission or an increasing contribution from

  20. The role of submillimetre galaxies in galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Erin Alexandra

    2007-08-01

    estimate of the redshift, s(D z /(1 + z )) = 0.07. The median redshift of the secure submm counterparts is 2.0. Using X-ray and mid-IR imaging data, only 5% of the secure counterparts show strong evidence for an active galactic nucleus (AGN) dominating the IR luminosity. This thesis also presents deep Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy of 13 of these SMGs in order to determine the contribution from AGN and starburst emission to the IR luminosity. I find strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in all of the targets, while only 2/13 SMGs have a significant mid-IR rising power-law component which would indicate an AGN. In the high signal-to- noise ratio composite spectrum of the SMGs I find that the AGN component contributes at most 30% of the mid-IR luminosity, implying that the total LIR in SMGs is dominated by star formation and not AGN emission. I also find that the SMGs lie on the relation between the luminosity of the main PAH features and L IR established for local starburst galaxies, confirming that the PAH luminosity can be used as a proxy for the star formation rate. Interestingly, local ULIRGs, which are often thought to be the low redshift analogues of SMGs, lie off these relations, as they appear deficient in PAH luminosity for a given L IR . In terms of an evolutionary scenario for IR luminous galaxies, SMGs are consistent with being an earlier phase in the massive merger (compared with other local or high redshift ULIRGs) in which the AGN has not yet become strong enough to heat the dust and dilute the PAH emission. I further investigate the overlap between high redshift infrared and submm populations using a statistical stacking analysis to measure the contribution of near- and mid-IR galaxy populations to the 850 mm submm background. For the first time, it is found that the 850 mm background can be completely resolved into individual galaxies and the bulk of these galaxies lie at z [Special characters omitted.] 3. Additionally I present a

  1. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy.

    A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process.

    This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  2. Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M

  3. JET-POWERED MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION FROM RADIO GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, Patrick; Guillard, Pierre; Boulanger, Francois; Nesvadba, Nicole; Evans, Daniel A.; Antonucci, Robert; Appleton, P. N.; Leipski, Christian

    2010-12-01

    H{sub 2} pure-rotational emission lines are detected from warm (100-1500 K) molecular gas in 17/55 (31% of) radio galaxies at redshift z < 0.22 observed with the Spitzer IR Spectrograph. The summed H{sub 2} 0-0 S(0)-S(3) line luminosities are L(H{sub 2}) = 7 x 10{sup 38}-2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, yielding warm H{sub 2} masses up to 2 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}. These radio galaxies, of both FR radio morphological types, help to firmly establish the new class of radio-selected molecular hydrogen emission galaxies (radio MOHEGs). MOHEGs have extremely large H{sub 2} to 7.7 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratios: L(H{sub 2})/L(PAH7.7) = 0.04-4, up to a factor 300 greater than the median value for normal star-forming galaxies. In spite of large H{sub 2} masses, MOHEGs appear to be inefficient at forming stars, perhaps because the molecular gas is kinematically unsettled and turbulent. Low-luminosity mid-IR continuum emission together with low-ionization emission line spectra indicates low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in all but three radio MOHEGs. The AGN X-ray emission measured with Chandra is not luminous enough to power the H{sub 2} emission from MOHEGs. Nearly all radio MOHEGs belong to clusters or close pairs, including four cool-core clusters (Perseus, Hydra, A2052, and A2199). We suggest that the H{sub 2} in radio MOHEGs is delivered in galaxy collisions or cooling flows, then heated by radio-jet feedback in the form of kinetic energy dissipation by shocks or cosmic rays.

  4. The nature and evolution of infrared galaxies in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahmandi, Alireza

    In chapter 1, I present a spectroscopic and photometric study of 105 Spitzer-MIPS 24 micron detected galaxies in the fields of candidate clusters from the SpARCS survey. I spectroscopically both confirm nine clusters of galaxies at 0.07 < z < 0.49 and investigate the nature of the cluster members and field galaxies to compare their optical and infrared star formation activities. Spectroscopic classifications reveal different populations of galaxies in clusters and in the field. Most 24 micron sources are star forming galaxies which are mostly dusty starbursts. I conclude that specific star formation rates of star forming galaxies in clusters are not dependent upon clustercentric radius, but, rather, dependent upon stellar mass. In chapter 2, I present the results of an infrared study of 250 galaxy clusters at 0.2 < z < 1 from the SpARCS survey. My sample spans a cluster mass range 14 < log M_sun < 15 with an average about 2x10. 14 M_sun overthe redshift. Assuming a star forming galaxy template, I statistically count the number of infrared luminous galaxies in clusters above a fixed inferred infrared luminosity of 6x10. 11 L_sun per unit cluster mass and find it increaseswith redshift. Fitting a simple power law, I measure an evolution of (1 + z ). (5.2+/-0.5) within R_200 and (1 + z ). (9.6+/-1.6) within R =2Mpc from the cluster center over the redshift range of this sample. By accounting for the evolution of infrared galaxies in the field, I show that this observed evolution in clusters is due to new infalling field galaxies. Also, I estimate the total star formation rate per unit cluster mass (SigmaSFR/M_cluster) and find a similar evolution of (1+z). (5.6+/-0.5) within R_(200) and(1+z). (8.6+/-1.5) within R = 2Mpc from the cluster center. The surfacedensity of the infrared luminous galaxies seems to decrease as the distance from cluster center increases. Finally, I show that the accretion rate of infalling infrared galaxies from the field into clusters increases

  5. PAH FIR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioda, Andrew; Ricca, A.; Tucker, J.; Bauschlicher, C., Jr.; Allamandola, L.

    2009-01-01

    The mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 µm. These features, formerly referred to as the Unidentified Infrared (UIR) Bands, are now generally thought to originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and closely related species. In addition to dominating the 3-20 µm region of the spectrum, they carry some 20-40% of the total IR luminosity from most of these objects. PAHs dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, PAHs have bands spanning the Far-IR (20 to 1000 mm) and these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small PAHs trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting PAHs responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical PAH ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain PAH FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview of the FIR spectroscopy of PAHs.

  6. Galaxies as gravitational lenses.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, D

    1967-12-01

    The probability that a galaxy gathers light from another remote galaxy, and deflects and focuses it toward an observer on Earth, is calculated according to various cosmologic models. I pose the question of whether an object called a quasar is a single, intrinsically luminous entity or the result of accidental alignment, along the line of sight, of two normal galaxies, the more distant of which has its light amplified by the gravitational-lens effect of the nearer galaxy. If galaxies are distributed at random in the universe, the former alternative is true. But, if we assume that most galaxies exist in pairs, we can find about 30 galaxies occurring exactly one behind the other in such a way as to enable amplification of the order of 50. This model explains also the variations in intensity in quasars, but fails to explain others of their observed properties. PMID:17734305

  7. Properties of unusually luminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tony Shih Arng

    This thesis is a theoretical study of the progenitors, event rates, and observational properties of unusually luminous supernova (SN), and aims to identify promising directions for future observations. In Chapter 2, we present model light curves and spectra of pair-instability supernovae (PISNe) over a range of progenitor masses and envelope structures for Pop III stars. We calculate the rates and detectability of PISNe, core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and Type Ia SNe at the Epoch of Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which can be used to determine the contribution of Pop III versus Pop II stars toward ionizing the universe. Although CCSNe are the least intrinsically luminous supernovae, Chapter 5 shows that a JWST survey targeting known galaxy clusters with Einstein radii > 35" should discover gravitationally lensed CCSNe at redshifts exceeding z = 7--8. In Chapter 3, we explain the Pop II/I progenitors of observed PISNe in the local universe can be created via mergers in runaway collisions in young, dense star clusters, despite copious mass loss via line-driven winds. The PISN rate from this mechanism is consistent with the observed volumetric rate, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could discover ~102 such PISNe per year. In Chapter 4, we identify 10 star clusters which may host PISN progenitors with masses up to 600 solar masses formed via runaway collisions. We estimate the probabilities of these very massive stars being in eclipsing binaries to be ≳ 30%, and find that their transits can be detected even under the contamination of the background cluster light, due to mean transit depths of ~10 6 solar luminosities. In Chapter 6, we show that there could be X-ray analogues of optically super-luminous SNe that are powered by the conversion of the kinetic energy of SN ejecta into radiation upon its collision with a dense but optically-thin circumstellar shell. We find shell configurations that can convert a large fraction of the SN

  8. Prevalence of galaxy-galaxy interactions in AGN hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Greene, Jenny; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2004-11-01

    Studies in optical starlight have failed to reach a consensus on the importance of either galaxy interactions, bars, or nuclear spirals in triggering luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here, we present the first systematic imaging study of Seyfert (disk) galaxies in the 21-cm line of neutral atomic hydrogen (HI) gas. HI is the most sensitive and enduring tracer of galaxy interactions, and can reveal tidal features not otherwise visible in optical starlight. Our sample comprises all twenty-eight galaxies in the Véron-Cetty & Véron (1998) catalog with nuclear magnitudes -19 ≥ MB > -23 (including Seyfert, LINER, and HII galaxies) at 0.015 ≤ z ≤ 0.017 in the northern hemisphere, and a matched control sample of twenty-seven inactive galaxies at z≈0.008. We have detected nearly all the galaxies observed, and find a much higher incidence of tidal interactions -- usually not seen in optical starlight -- among the Seyfert galaxies by comparison with the matched control sample. Those Seyferts with uncertain or no clear tidal features show disturbed HI morphologies and/or kinematics, as well as HI companion galaxies, more frequently than the control sample. Our study suggests that the undisturbed optical appearence of active galaxies may be deceptive, and imply that galaxy-galaxy interactions trigger a significant fraction luminous AGNs at low redshifts. The majority of the Seyfert galaxies in our sample appear to be at a relatively early stage of an encounter rather than late in a merger.

  9. Luminous variables in the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.; Matsumoto, S.; Carter, B. S.; Sekiguchi, K.

    1999-03-01

    We report observations of variability amongst the stars of the `Quintuplet' cluster located about 30 pc in projection from the centre of the Galaxy. Two of the five cocoon star members, which may be protostars or peculiar Wolf-Rayet stars, are seen to vary slowly with moderate amplitude (0.4-0.5 mag). The bright star within the `Pistol' H ii region, suspected of being a luminous blue variable (LBV), has in fact been found to show variability, confirming its tentative classification. A second nearby presumed LBV also varies. One of the apparent Quintuplet members is likely to be a Mira variable along the same line of sight.

  10. Computational astrophysics: Monstrous galaxies unmasked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davé, Romeel

    2015-09-01

    The enigma of how the most luminous galaxies arise is closer to being solved. New simulations show that these are long-lived massive galaxies powered by prodigious gas infall and the recycling of supernova-driven outflows. See Letter p.496

  11. Laboratory Spectroscopy of PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, T.; Féraud, G.; Bréchignac, Ph.; Bieske, E. J.; Schmidt, T. W.

    2014-02-01

    Spectroscopic investigations of PAHs have been conducted for many years, commencing with solid and solution studies and more recently including gas phase characterisation of a broad range of different species. Through the development of new, efficient methods of production and more sensitive spectroscopic techniques, fresh data are becoming available for not only neutral species, but also for radicals, ions and clusters.

  12. Toxicokinetics of PAHs in Hexagenia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehly, Guy R.; Landrum, Peter F.; Henry, Mary G.; Klemm, C.

    1990-01-01

    The clearance of oxygen from water is inversely and linearly related to the weight of the mayfly nymphs, but oxygen clearances were always much less than the uptake clearances of the PAHs. The high PAH uptake clearance compared to oxygen clearance implies a greater surface area or efficiency for PAH accumulation from water.

  13. Whirlpool Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Scientists are seeing unprecedented detail of the spiral arms and dust clouds in the nearby Whirlpool galaxy, thanks to a new Hubble Space Telescope image, available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc/wfpc.html. The image uses data collected January 15 and 24, 1995, and July 21, 1999, by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by JPL. Using the image, a research group led by Dr. Nick Scoville of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, clearly defined the structure of the galaxy's cold dust clouds and hot hydrogen, and they linked star clusters within the galaxy to their parent dust clouds.

    The Whirlpool galaxy is one of the most photogenic galaxies. This celestial beauty is easily seen and photographed with smaller telescopes and studied extensively from large ground- and space-based observatories. The new composite image shows visible starlight and light from the emission of glowing hydrogen, which is associated with the most luminous young stars in the spiral arms.

    The galaxy is having a close encounter with a nearby companion galaxy, NGC 5195, just off the upper edge of the image. The companion's gravitational pull is triggering star formation in the main galaxy, lit up by numerous clusters of young and energetic stars in brilliant detail. Luminous clusters are highlighted in red by their associated emission from glowing hydrogen gas.

    This image was composed by the Hubble Heritage Team from Hubble archive data and was superimposed onto data taken by Dr. Travis Rector of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory at the .9-meter (35-inch) telescope at the National Science Foundation's Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Scoville's team includes M. Polletta of the University of Geneva, Switzerland; S. Ewald and S. Stolovy of Caltech; and R. Thompson and M. Rieke of the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space

  14. THE TOTAL LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY OF LUMINOUS BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E N

    1925-09-18

    Methods are described for measuring the light emitted by an emulsion of luminous bacteria of given thickness, and calculating the light emitted by a single bacterium, measuring 1.1 x 2.2 micra, provided there is no absorption of light in the emulsion. At the same time, the oxygen consumed by a single bacterium was measured by recording the time for the bacteria to use up .9 of the oxygen dissolved in sea water from air (20 per cent oxygen). The luminescence intensity does not diminish until the oxygen concentration falls below 2 per cent, when the luminescence diminishes rapidly. Above 2 per cent oxygen (when the oxygen dissolving in sea water from pure oxygen at 760 mm. Hg pressure = 100 per cent) the bacteria use equal amounts of oxygen in equal times, while below 2 per cent oxygen it seems very likely that rate of oxygen absorption is proportional to oxygen concentration. By measuring the time for a tube of luminous bacteria of known concentration saturated with air (20 per cent oxygen) to begin to darken (2 per cent oxygen) we can calculate the oxygen absorbed by one bacterium per second. The bacteria per cc. are counted on a blood counting slide or by a centrifugal method, after measuring the volume of a single bacterium (1.695 x 10(-12) cc.). Both methods gave results in good agreement with each other. The maximum value for the light from a single bacterium was 24 x 10(-14) lumens or 1.9 x 10(-14) candles. The maximum value for lumen-seconds per mg. of oxygen absorbed was 14. The average value for lumen-seconds per mg. O(2) was 9.25. The maximum values were selected in calculating the efficiency of light production, since some of the bacteria counted may not be producing light, although they may still be using oxygen. The "diet" of the bacteria was 60 per cent glycerol and 40 per cent peptone. To oxidize this mixture each mg. of oxygen would yield 3.38 gm. calories or 14.1 watts per second. 1 lumen per watt is therefore produced by a normal bacterium which

  15. AKARI IRC 2.5-5 μm spectroscopy of infrared galaxies over a wide luminosity range

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Shirahata, Mai; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki

    2014-10-20

    We present the result of a systematic infrared 2.5-5 μm spectroscopic study of 22 nearby infrared galaxies over a wide infrared luminosity range (10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} < L {sub IR} < 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}) obtained from the AKARI Infrared Camera (IRC). The unique band of the AKARI IRC spectroscopy enables us to access both the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission feature from star-forming activity and the continuum of torus-dust emission heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Applying our AGN diagnostics to the AKARI spectra, we discover 14 buried AGNs. The large fraction of buried AGNs suggests that AGN activity behind the dust is almost ubiquitous in ultra-/luminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs). We also find that both the fraction and energy contribution of buried AGNs increase with infrared luminosity from 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}, including normal infrared galaxies with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉}. The energy contribution from AGNs in the total infrared luminosity is only ∼7% in LIRGs and ∼20% in ULIRGs, suggesting that the majority of the infrared luminosity originates from starburst activity. Using the PAH emission, we investigate the luminosity relation between star formation and AGNs. We find that these infrared galaxies exhibit higher star formation rates than optically selected Seyfert galaxies with the same AGN luminosities, implying that infrared galaxies could be an early evolutionary phase of AGN.

  16. Galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  17. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  18. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies. PMID:11541329

  19. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies.

  20. Galaxies et trous noirs supermassifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin-Zahn, Suzy

    2016-08-01

    A few percents of galaxies are classified as « active ». An active galaxy is a galaxy whose nucleus emits more energy than the whole galaxy in the form of electromagnetic radiation, relativistic particles, or mechanical energy. It is activated by a supermassive black hole fueled by matter falling on it, whose characteristics (Eddington luminosity, spin) are recalled. The class includes quasars and Seyfert galaxies. All massive "non active" galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, but there is not enough matter in its environment so as the nucleus becomes luminous. Different items are considered in the paper : how supermassive black holes are fueled, the accretion disc, the jets and the winds, the unified model of active galaxies, how are determined the masses of supermassive black holes, and what is the relation between the evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes.

  1. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944

  2. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P3 (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944

  3. The Most Luminous Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhbold, Tuguldur; Woosley, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations have revealed a stunning diversity of extremely luminous supernovae, seemingly increasing in radiant energy without bound. We consider simple approximate limits for what existing models can provide for the peak luminosity and total radiated energy for non-relativistic, isotropic stellar explosions. The brightest possible supernova is a Type I explosion powered by a sub-millisecond magnetar with field strength B ∼ few × {10}13 G. In extreme cases, such models might reach a peak luminosity of 2× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 and radiate a total energy of up to 4× {10}52 {erg}. Other less luminous models are also explored, including prompt hyper-energetic explosions in red supergiants, pulsational-pair instability supernovae, pair-instability supernovae, and colliding shells. Approximate analytic expressions and limits are given for each case. Excluding magnetars, the peak luminosity is near 3× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 for the brightest models and the corresponding limit on total radiated energy is 3× {10}51 {erg}. Barring new physics, supernovae with a light output over 3× {10}51 erg must be rotationally powered, either during the explosion itself or after, the most obvious candidate being a rapidly rotating magnetar. A magnetar-based model for the recent transient event, ASASSN-15lh is presented that strains, but does not exceed the limits of what the model can provide.

  4. LUMINOUS SATELLITES VERSUS DARK SUBHALOS: CLUSTERING IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Brandon; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2013-08-01

    The observed population of the Milky Way satellite galaxies offers a unique testing ground for galaxy formation theory on small scales. Our novel approach was to investigate the clustering of the known Milky Way satellite galaxies and to quantify the amount of substructure within their distribution using a two-point correlation function statistic in each of three spaces: configuration space, line-of-sight velocity space, and four-dimensional (4D) phase space. These results were compared to those for three sets of subhalos in the Via Lactea II cold dark matter (CDM) simulation defined to represent the luminous dwarfs. We found no evidence at a significance level above 2{sigma} of substructure within the distribution of the Milky Way satellite galaxies in any of the three spaces. The 'luminous' subhalo sets are more strongly clustered than are the Milky Way satellites in all three spaces and over a broader range of scales in 4D phase space. Each of the 'luminous' subhalo sets are clustered as a result of substructure within their line-of-sight velocity space distributions at greater than 3{sigma} significance, whereas the Milky Way satellite galaxies are randomly distributed in line-of-sight velocity space. While our comparison is with only one CDM simulation, the inconsistencies between the Milky Way satellite galaxies and the Via Lactea II subhalo sets for all clustering methods suggest a potential new 'small-scale' tension between CDM theory and the observed Milky Way satellites. Future work will obtain a more robust comparison between the observed Milky Way satellites and CDM theory by studying additional simulations.

  5. Explaining the [C II]157.7 μm Deficit in Luminous Infrared Galaxies—First Results from a Herschel/PACS Study of the GOALS Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Stierwalt, S.; Murphy, E. J.; Haan, S.; Inami, H.; Malhotra, S.; Meijerink, R.; Stacey, G.; Petric, A. O.; Evans, A. S.; Veilleux, S.; van der Werf, P. P.; Lord, S.; Lu, N.; Howell, J. H.; Appleton, P.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Surace, J. A.; Xu, C. K.; Schulz, B.; Sanders, D. B.; Bridge, C.; Chan, B. H. P.; Frayer, D. T.; Iwasawa, K.; Melbourne, J.; Sturm, E.

    2013-09-01

    We present the first results of a survey of the [C II]157.7 μm emission line in 241 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) comprising the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample, obtained with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The [C II] luminosities, L [C II], of the LIRGs in GOALS range from ~107 to 2 × 109 L ⊙. We find that LIRGs show a tight correlation of [C II]/FIR with far-IR (FIR) flux density ratios, with a strong negative trend spanning from ~10-2 to 10-4, as the average temperature of dust increases. We find correlations between the [C II]/FIR ratio and the strength of the 9.7 μm silicate absorption feature as well as with the luminosity surface density of the mid-IR emitting region (ΣMIR), suggesting that warmer, more compact starbursts have substantially smaller [C II]/FIR ratios. Pure star-forming LIRGs have a mean [C II]/FIR ~ 4 × 10-3, while galaxies with low polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) equivalent widths (EWs), indicative of the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), span the full range in [C II]/FIR. However, we show that even when only pure star-forming galaxies are considered, the [C II]/FIR ratio still drops by an order of magnitude, from 10-2 to 10-3, with ΣMIR and ΣIR, implying that the [C II]157.7 μm luminosity is not a good indicator of the star formation rate (SFR) for most local LIRGs, for it does not scale linearly with the warm dust emission most likely associated to the youngest stars. Moreover, even in LIRGs in which we detect an AGN in the mid-IR, the majority (2/3) of galaxies show [C II]/FIR >= 10-3 typical of high 6.2 μm PAH EW sources, suggesting that most AGNs do not contribute significantly to the FIR emission. We provide an empirical relation between the [C II]/FIR and the specific SFR for star-forming LIRGs. Finally, we present predictions for the starburst size based on the observed [C II] and FIR luminosities which should be useful for comparing with results from

  6. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    PubMed

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine.

  7. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Jha, S. W.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Thompson, T. A.; Morrell, N.; Thompson, I. B.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Bufano, F.; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Kiyota, S.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Olivares E., F.; Pignata, G.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G. V.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 1045 ergs s-1, which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 1052 ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine.

  8. Astronomy. ASASSN-15lh: A highly super-luminous supernova.

    PubMed

    Dong, Subo; Shappee, B J; Prieto, J L; Jha, S W; Stanek, K Z; Holoien, T W-S; Kochanek, C S; Thompson, T A; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Basu, U; Beacom, J F; Bersier, D; Brimacombe, J; Brown, J S; Bufano, F; Chen, Ping; Conseil, E; Danilet, A B; Falco, E; Grupe, D; Kiyota, S; Masi, G; Nicholls, B; Olivares E, F; Pignata, G; Pojmanski, G; Simonian, G V; Szczygiel, D M; Woźniak, P R

    2016-01-15

    We report the discovery of ASASSN-15lh (SN 2015L), which we interpret as the most luminous supernova yet found. At redshift z = 0.2326, ASASSN-15lh reached an absolute magnitude of Mu ,AB = -23.5 ± 0.1 and bolometric luminosity Lbol = (2.2 ± 0.2) × 10(45) ergs s(-1), which is more than twice as luminous as any previously known supernova. It has several major features characteristic of the hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I), whose energy sources and progenitors are currently poorly understood. In contrast to most previously known SLSNe-I that reside in star-forming dwarf galaxies, ASASSN-15lh appears to be hosted by a luminous galaxy (MK ≈ -25.5) with little star formation. In the 4 months since first detection, ASASSN-15lh radiated (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(52) ergs, challenging the magnetar model for its engine. PMID:26816375

  9. Lidar Luminance Quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard; DeMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses challenges in lidar imaging, particularly with the detection scheme and the shapes of the detected signals. Ideally, the echoed pulse widths should be extremely narrow to resolve fine detail at high event rates. However, narrow pulses require wideband detection circuitry with increased power dissipation to minimize thermal noise. Filtering is also required to shape each received signal into a form suitable for processing by a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) followed by a time-to-digital converter (TDC). As the intervals between the echoes decrease, the finite bandwidth of the shaping circuits blends the pulses into an analog signal (luminance) with multiple modes, reducing the ability of the CFD to discriminate individual events

  10. Dissipative processes in galaxy formation.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, J

    1993-01-01

    A galaxy commences its life in a diffuse gas cloud that evolves into a predominantly stellar aggregation. Considerable dissipation of gravitational binding energy occurs during this transition. I review here the dissipative processes that determine the critical scales of luminous galaxies and the generation of their morphology. The universal scaling relations for spirals and ellipticals are shown to be sensitive to the history of star formation. Semiphenomenological expressions are given for star-formation rates in protogalaxies and in starbursts. Implications are described for elliptical galaxy formation and for the evolution of disk galaxies. PMID:11607396

  11. Comparisons of the galaxy age, stellar velocity dispersion and K-band luminosity distributions between grouped galaxies and isolated ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Deng, Xin-Fa

    2016-02-01

    In two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 (SDSS DR10), we compare the age, stellar velocity dispersion and K-band luminosity distributions of grouped galaxies with those of isolated galaxies, to explore the environmental dependence of these properties of galaxies. It is found that grouped galaxies have preferentially larger stellar velocity dispersions and are preferentially older than isolated galaxies. We also note apparent difference of K-band luminosity distribution at both extremes of density in the luminous volume-limited Main galaxy sample: grouped galaxies are preferentially more luminous than isolated galaxies, while this difference in the faint volume-limited Main galaxy sample is very small.

  12. Measuring the Cold Dust Content of Broad and Narrow-Line Optically Luminous QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petric, Andreea

    2015-08-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the overwhelming majority of spheroidal glaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that, wiht some important caveats, the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the sheroid and the bulge luminosities. An impressive body of research has been dedicated to understanding the mechanisms responsible for such a fundamental perhaps causal relation.An important component pertinent to those investigations is an accurate census of the basic properties of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in AGN hosts. The motivation for this is that the cold molecular gas is the basic fuel for star-formation and black hole growth.We present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z ≤ 0.5) QSOs chosen from the optically luminous broad-line PG QSOs sample and in a complementary sample of 85 narrow-line QSOs chosen to match the redshift and optical luminosity distribution of the broad-line targets.The FIR data are combined with near-infrared and mid-infrared measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess aggregate dust properties. We estimate dust temperatures that range between ~20 and 70 K with a median temperature of 45 K respectively, and dust masses between 9 × 10 4M⊙ and 5 × 10 8M⊙ with a median mass of 3 × 10 7M⊙. We investigate the relation between star-formation rates (SFRs) estimated from the IR luminosities and SFRs determined from measurements of the 11.3 micron PAH. We also compare indicators of AGN strength such as the [OIII] 5007 Angstroms and 5100 Angstroms luminosities

  13. "Galaxy," Defined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willman, B.; Strader, J.

    2012-09-01

    A growing number of low luminosity and low surface brightness astronomical objects challenge traditional notions of both galaxies and star clusters. To address this challenge, we propose a definition of galaxy that does not depend on a cold dark matter model of the universe: a galaxy is a gravitationally bound collection of stars whose properties cannot be explained by a combination of baryons and Newton's laws of gravity. After exploring several possible observational diagnostics of this definition, we critically examine the classification of ultra-faint dwarfs, globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs, and tidal dwarfs. While kinematic studies provide an effective diagnostic of the definition in many regimes, they can be less useful for compact or very faint systems. To explore the utility of using the [Fe/H] spread as a complementary diagnostic, we use published spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of 16 Milky Way dwarfs and 24 globular clusters to uniformly calculate their [Fe/H] spreads and associated uncertainties. Our principal results are (1) no known, old star cluster less luminous than MV = -10 has a significant (gsim0.1 dex) spread in its iron abundance; (2) known ultra-faint dwarf galaxies can be unambiguously classified with a combination of kinematic and [Fe/H] observations; (3) the observed [Fe/H] spreads in massive (gsim 106 M ⊙) globular clusters do not necessarily imply that they are the stripped nuclei of dwarfs, nor a need for dark matter; and (4) if ultra-compact dwarf galaxies reside in dark matter halos akin to those of ultra-faint dwarfs of the same half-light radii, then they will show no clear dynamical signature of dark matter. We suggest several measurements that may assist the future classification of massive globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs, and ultra-faint galaxies. Our galaxy definition is designed to be independent of the details of current observations and models, while our proposed diagnostics can be refined or replaced as

  14. Evidence for Merging or Disruption of Red Galaxies from the Evolution of Their Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Martin; White, Martin; Zheng, Zheng; Brown, Michael J. I.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2006-11-29

    The formation and evolution of massive red galaxies form a crucial test of theories of galaxy formation based on hierarchical assembly. In this Letter we use observations of the clustering of luminous red galaxies from the Boötes field and N-body simulations to argue that about of the most luminous satellite galaxies appear to undergo merging or disruption within massive halos between and 0.5.

  15. The Luminous Convolution Model-The light side of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Sophia; Oblath, Noah; Formaggio, Joe; Goedecke, George; Chester, David; Ott, Richard; Ashley, Aaron; Rodriguez, Adrianna

    2014-03-01

    We present a heuristic model for predicting the rotation curves of spiral galaxies. The Luminous Convolution Model (LCM) utilizes Lorentz-type transformations of very small changes in the photon's frequencies from curved space-times to construct a dynamic mass model of galaxies. These frequency changes are derived using the exact solution to the exterior Kerr wave equation, as opposed to a linearized treatment. The LCM Lorentz-type transformations map between the emitter and the receiver rotating galactic frames, and then to the associated flat frames in each galaxy where the photons are emitted and received. This treatment necessarily rests upon estimates of the luminous matter in both the emitter and the receiver galaxies. The LCM is tested on a sample of 22 randomly chosen galaxies, represented in 33 different data sets. LCM fits are compared to the Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) Dark Matter Model and to the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) model when possible. The high degree of sensitivity of the LCM to the initial assumption of a luminous mass to light ratios (M/L), of the given galaxy, is demonstrated. We demonstrate that the LCM is successful across a wide range of spiral galaxies for predicting the observed rotation curves. Through the generous support of the MIT Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Fellowship program.

  16. Analysis of serum PAH`s and PAH adducts by LC/MS

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, P.C.; Barr, J.R.; Maggio, V.L.

    1995-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of chemical carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene is the most extensively studied and best understood carcinogenic PAH It is believed that Benzo[a]pyrene is metabolized in vitro to the diol epoxide, Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide which then can react with various nucleophilic centers on DNA. The major alkylation product appears to be the reaction of the Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the N{sup 2} position of guanine sites on DNA. Methods that can measure exposure and biological response to carcinogens such as PAH`s are needed. Human Blood can be separated into plasma, lymphocytes, and red blood cells. The plasma should contain native PAH`s which may yield some useful information about recent exposure. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin and adducts of PAH`s. Hemoglobin has an average lifetime of 120 days so quantification of hemoglobin adducts should give an average of a persons exposure over four months. Also, the electrophilic metabolites that react with hemoglobin to form adducts are the same metabolites that form DNA adducts which can lead to mutations and cancer. Lymphocytes contain DNA and therefore DNA adducts. DNA adducts can be repaired by a series of enzymes so quantification of these adducts will only yield information about recent or non-repairable adducts. DNA adduct formation is believed to be the first important step in chemical carcinogenesis so quantification of these adducts should yield some information on exposure and a great deal of important data on biological response and risk from specific PAH`s.

  17. Superluminous Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, Patrick M.; Lanz, Lauranne; Nader, Cyril; Helou, George

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of spiral galaxies that are as optically luminous as elliptical brightest cluster galaxies, with r-band monochromatic luminosity Lr = 8-14L* (4.3-7.5 × 1044 erg s-1). These super spiral galaxies are also giant and massive, with diameter D = 57-134 kpc and stellar mass Mstars = 0.3-3.4 × 1011M⊙. We find 53 super spirals out of a complete sample of 1616 SDSS galaxies with redshift z < 0.3 and Lr > 8L*. The closest example is found at z = 0.089. We use existing photometry to estimate their stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs). The SDSS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer colors are consistent with normal star-forming spirals on the blue sequence. However, the extreme masses and rapid SFRs of 5-65 M⊙ yr-1 place super spirals in a sparsely populated region of parameter space, above the star-forming main sequence of disk galaxies. Super spirals occupy a diverse range of environments, from isolation to cluster centers. We find four super spiral galaxy systems that are late-stage major mergers—a possible clue to their formation. We suggest that super spirals are a remnant population of unquenched, massive disk galaxies. They may eventually become massive lenticular galaxies after they are cut off from their gas supply and their disks fade.

  18. Dynamics of adaptation at high luminances: adaptation is faster after luminance decrements than after luminance increments.

    PubMed

    Poot, L; Snippe, H P; van Hateren, J H

    1997-09-01

    As is well known, dark adaptation in the human visual system is much slower than is recovery from darkness. We show that at high photopic luminances the situation is exactly opposite. First, we study detection thresholds for a small light flash, at various delays from decrement and increment steps in background luminance. Light adaptation is nearly complete within 100 ms after luminance decrements but takes much longer after luminance increments. Second, we compare sensitivity after equally visible pulses or steps in the adaptation luminance and find that detectability is initially the same but recovers much faster for pulses than for increment steps. This suggests that, whereas any residual threshold elevation after a step shows the incomplete luminance adaptation, the initial threshold elevation is caused by the temporal contrast of the background steps and pulses. This hypothesis is further substantiated in a third experiment, whereby we show that manipulating the contrast of a transition between luminances affects only the initial part of the threshold curve, and not later stages.

  19. Peculiar galaxies and radio sources.

    PubMed

    Arp, H

    1966-03-11

    Pairs of radio sources which are separated by from 2 degrees to 6 degrees on the sky have been investigated. In a number of cases peculiar galaxies have been found approximately midway along a line joining the two radio sources. The central peculiar galaxies belong mainly to a certain class in the recently compiled Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. Among the radio sources so far associated with the peculiar galaxies are at least five known quasars. These quasars are indicated to be not at cosmological distances (that is, red shifts not caused by expansion of the universe) because the central peculiar galaxies are only at distances of 10 to 100 megaparsecs. The absolute magnitudes of these quasars are indicated to be in the range of brightness of normal galaxies and downward. Some of the radio sources which have been found to be associated with peculiar galaxies are galaxies themselves. It is therefore implied that ejection of material took place within or near the parent peculiar galaxies with speeds between 10(2) and 10(4) kilometers per second. After traveling for times of the order of 10(7) to 10(9) years, the luminous matter (galaxies) and radio sources (plasma) have reached their observed separations from the central peculiar galaxy. The large red shifts measured for the quasars would seem to be either (i) gravitational, (ii) collapse velocities of clouds of material falling toward the center of these compact galaxies, or (iii) some as yet unknown cause.

  20. PAHs in Translucent Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.

    2011-05-01

    We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in translucent interstellar clouds. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase PAHs have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. This comparison provides - for the first time - accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific PAH molecules along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral PAHs must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (PAH features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral PAHs exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral PAHs in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of PAHs in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. // Reference: F. Salama et al. (2011) ApJ. 728 (1), 154 // Acknowledgements: F.S. acknowledges the support of the NASA's Space Mission Directorate APRA Program. J.K. acknowledges the financial support of the Polish State (grant N203 012 32/1550). The authors are deeply grateful to the ESO archive as well as to the ESO staff members for their active support.

  1. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    to the most massive galaxies belonging to clusters. "Most surprising is that in three of the four groups, the brightest galaxy also has a bright companion galaxy. These galaxy pairs are merging systems," says Tran. The brightest galaxy in each group can be ordered in a time sequence that shows how luminous galaxies continue to grow by merging until recently, that is, in the last 5 billion years. It appears that due to the most recent episode of this 'galactic cannibalism', the brightest galaxies became at least 50% more massive. This discovery provides unique and powerful validation of hierarchical formation as manifested in both galaxy and cluster assembly. "The stars in these galaxies are already old and so we must conclude that the recent merging did not produce a new generation of stars," concludes Tran. "Most of the stars in these galaxies were born at least 7 billion years ago." The team is composed of Kim-Vy H. Tran (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Switzerland), John Moustakas (New York University, USA), Anthony H. Gonzalez and Stefan J. Kautsch (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA), and Lei Bai and Dennis Zaritsky (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, USA). The results presented here are published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters: "The Late Stellar Assembly Of Massive Cluster Galaxies Via Major Merging", by Tran et al.

  2. Ultra Luminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, N. A.; Godet, O.

    2015-12-01

    Ultra Luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are X-ray bright objects that are not coincident with the central nucleus of the host galaxy and which have luminosities that exceed the Eddington limit for a stellar mass black hole, typically L > 3 × 10^{39} erg s^{-1} for a black hole of 20 M_⊙. The nature of these objects is still unclear. However, it is possible that these sources do not form a single class of objects. Many ULXs may house stellar mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates, even if the physical mechanism for such high accretion rates is still not understood. Some ULXs may contain intermediate mass black holes (˜1 × 10^{2} - ˜1 × 10^{5} M_⊙). These elusive black holes are thought to be the building blocks of the more massive supermassive black holes, observed at the centre of many galaxies. Other ULXs may not be accreting black holes at all. Recent evidence for the different types of ULXs is presented in this paper.

  3. Luminance requirements for lighted signage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Narendran, Nadarajah; Bullough, John D.

    2006-08-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is presently targeted to displace traditional light sources in backlighted signage. The literature shows that brightness and contrast are perhaps the two most important elements of a sign that determine its attention-getting capabilities and its legibility. Presently, there are no luminance standards for signage, and the practice of developing brighter signs to compete with signs in adjacent businesses is becoming more commonplace. Sign luminances in such cases may far exceed what people usually need for identifying and reading a sign. Furthermore, the practice of higher sign luminance than needed has many negative consequences, including higher energy use and light pollution. To move toward development of a recommendation for lighted signage, several laboratory human factors evaluations were conducted. A scale model of a storefront was used to present human subjects with a typical red channel-letter sign at luminances ranging from 8 cd/m2 to 1512 cd/m2 under four background luminances typical of nighttime outdoor and daytime inside-mall conditions (1, 100, 300, 1000 cd/m2), from three scaled viewing distances (30, 60, 340 ft), and either in isolation or adjacent to two similar signs. Subjects rated the brightness, acceptability, and ease of reading of the test sign for each combination of sign and background luminances and scaled viewing distances.

  4. Measurement of breast lesion display luminance and overall image display luminance relative to optimum luminance for contrast perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawashdeh, Mohammad; Lee, Warwick; Brennan, Patrick; Reed, Warren; McEntee, Mark; Bourne, Roger

    2011-03-01

    Introduction: To minimize fatigue due to eye adaptation and maximize contrast perception, it has been suggested that lesion luminance be matched to overall image luminance to perceive the greatest number of grey level differences. This work examines whether lesion display luminance matches the overall image and breast tissue display luminance and whether these factors are positioned within the optimum luminance for maximal contrast sensitivity. Methods: A set of 42 mammograms, collected from 21 patients and containing 15 malignant and 6 benign lesions, was used to assess overall image luminance. Each image displayed on the monitor was divided into 16 equal regions. The luminance at the midpoint of each region was measured using a calibrated photometer and the overall image luminance was calculated. Average breast tissue display luminance was calculated from the subset of regions containing of only breast tissue. Lesion display luminance was compared with both overall image display luminance and average breast tissue display luminance. Results: Statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) were noted between overall image display luminance (4.3+/-0.7 cd/m2) and lesion display luminance (15.0+/-6.8 cd/m2); and between average breast tissue display luminance (6.8+/-1.3 cd/m2) and lesion display luminance (p<0.002). Conclusions: Lesion luminance was significantly higher than the overall image and breast tissue luminance. Luminance of lesions and general breast tissue fell below the optimum luminance range for contrast perception. Breast lesion detection sensitivity and specificity may be enhanced by use of brighter monitor displays.

  5. Luminous Binary Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); DiStefano, Roseanne

    2005-01-01

    One of the key accomplishments of the two preceding years was our development of an algorithm to select SSSs in external galaxies which have been observed by Chandra or XMM-Newton. By applying this algorithm to data from a number of galaxies, we discovered an extension of the class of SSSs to sources that are somewhat harder (100 - 300 eV, instead of tens of eV), but which are nevertheless much softer than canonical X-ray sources. We call these new sources quasisoft sources (QSSs). During this past year, we have built on and extended this work. We have (1) continued to identify SSSs and QSSs in external galaxies, (2) worked on models for the sources and find that black hole models seem promising for a subset of them, and (3) have studied individual systems, especially M101-ULX1. This special system has been observed as an SSS in its high &ate, with a luminosity in excess of 10(exp 41) erg/s. It has also been observed as a QSS when it is less luminous, and as a hard source in its low state. It is one of the best candidates to be an accreting intermediate-mass black hole. We have several papers in preparation. Below we list papers which are complete, including only new work and papers whose status has changed (e.g., been accepted for publication) since our last report. In addition, our work on QSSs has received some publicity. It was the subject of a Chandra press release and was picked up by several media outlets.

  6. Luminosities of Barred and Unbarred S0 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Sidney

    2012-07-01

    Lenticular galaxies with MB < -21.5 are almost exclusively unbarred, whereas both barred and unbarred objects occur at fainter luminosity levels. This effect is observed both for objects classified in blue light, and for those that were classified in the infrared. This result suggests that the most luminous (massive) S0 galaxies find it difficult to form bars. As a result, the mean luminosity of unbarred lenticular galaxies in both B and IR light is observed to be ~0.4 mag brighter than that of barred lenticulars. A small contribution to the observed luminosity difference that is found between SA0 and SB0 galaxies may also be due to the fact that there is an asymmetry between the effects of small classification errors on SA0 and SB0 galaxies. An elliptical (E) galaxy might be misclassified as a lenticular (S0) or an S0 as an E. However, an E will never be misclassified as an SB0, nor will an SB0 ever be called an E. This asymmetry is important because E galaxies are typically twice as luminous as S0 galaxies. The present results suggest that the evolution of luminous lenticular galaxies may be closely linked to that of elliptical galaxies, whereas fainter lenticulars might be more closely associated with ram-pressure stripped spiral galaxies. Finally, it is pointed out that fine details of the galaxy formation process might account for some of the differences between the classifications of the same galaxy by individual competent morphologists.

  7. Studying AGN Feedback with Galactic Outflows in Luminous Obscured Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Feedback from Active galactic nuclei (AGN) has been proposed as an important quenching mechanism to suppress star formation in massive galaxies. We investigate the most direct form of AGN feedback - galactic outflows - in the most luminous obscured AGN (L>10^45 erg/s) from the SDSS sample in the nearby universe (z<0.2). Using ALMA and Magellan observations to target molecular and ionized outflows, we find that luminous AGN can impact the dynamics and phase of the galactic medium, and confirm the complex multi-phase and multi-scaled nature of the feedback phenomenon. In particular, we found that most of these luminous AGN hosts ionized outflows. The outflow size, velocity, and energetics correlate with the AGN luminosity, and can be very extended (r > 10 kpc) and fast (v > 1000 km/s) for the most luminous ones. I end with presenting a new technique to find extended ionized outflows using broadband imaging surveys, and to characterize their occurrence rate, morphology, size distribution, and their dependence on the AGN luminosity. This technique will open a new window for feedback studies in the era of large-scale optical imaging surveys, e.g., HSC and then LSST.

  8. On the Social Traits of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Weis, Kerstin; Davidson, Kris; Gordon, Michael S.

    2016-07-01

    In a recent paper, Smith & Tombleson state that the luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds are isolated; they are not spatially associated with young O-type stars. They propose a novel explanation that would overturn the standard view of LBVs. In this paper we test their hypothesis for the LBVs in M31 and M33, as well as the LMC and SMC. We show that in M31 and M33 the LBVs are associated with luminous young stars and supergiants that are appropriate to their luminosities and positions on the H-R diagram. Moreover, in the Smith and Tombleson scenario most of the LBVs should be runaway stars, but the stars’ velocities are consistent with their positions in the respective galaxies. In the Magellanic Clouds, those authors’ sample was a mixed population. We reassess their analysis, removing seven stars that have no clear relation to LBVs. When we separate the more massive classical and the less luminous LBVs, the classical LBVs have a distribution similar to the late O-type stars, while the less luminous LBVs have a distribution like the red supergiants. None of the confirmed LBVs have high velocities or are candidate runaway stars. These results support the accepted description of LBVs as evolved massive stars that have shed a lot of mass and are now close to their Eddington limit.

  9. Evolutionary Effects on Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) Detections in the CFHTLS-Deep Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, S.

    2009-09-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are the most massive and most luminous galaxies in the universe. These galaxies dominate galaxy clusters and lie at the top of the potential well of clusters. Investigating these galaxies can improve our understandings on galaxy cluster evolution. In this work, evolutionary effects on BCG detections are emphasized. For detecting BCGs, CFHTLS (Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey) galaxy clusters, detected by Olsen et al. (2007) were used. To make a proper BCG detection, modeled galaxy colors should be evolved according to redshift. In this work, it is shown how unevolved galaxy colors can effect BCG detection.

  10. The galaxy ancestor problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  11. Large-scale structure and the intrinsic alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; Mandelbaum, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Coherent alignments of galaxy shapes, often called``intrinsic alignments'' (IA), are the most significant source of astrophysical uncertainty in weak lensing measurements. We develop the tidal alignment model of IA and demonstrate its success in describing observational data. We also describe a technique to separate IA from galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements. Applying this technique to luminous red galaxy lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we constrain potential IA contamination from associated sources to be below a few percent.

  12. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  13. Spectropolarimetry of hot, luminous stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina E.

    1994-01-01

    I review polarimetric observations of presumably single, hot luminous stars. The stellar types discussed are OB stars. B(e) supergiants, Luminous Blue Variables (LBV), Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, and type II supernovae (SN). It is shown that variable, intrinsic polarization is a common phenomenon in that part of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram which these stars occupy. However, much observational work remains to be done before we can answer the most basic, statistical questions about the polarimetric properties of different groups of hot, luminous stars. Insight into the diagnostic power of polarization observations has been gained, but cannot be exploited without detailed models. Thus, while polarimetric observations do tell us that the mass-loss processes of all types of massive stars are time-dependent and anisotropic, the significance that this might have for the accuracy of their stellar parameters and evolutionary paths remains elusive.

  14. The dark side of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Smail, Ian

    2002-12-15

    I discuss the discovery of a population of extremely luminous, but very dusty and very distant, galaxies in the submillimetre (submm) waveband. Almost all the light emitted by the stars in these galaxies is absorbed by interstellar dust (which is produced by the same stars) and re-radiated in the far-infrared. This leaves little to be detected at optical wavelengths and results in most of these galaxies being effectively invisible in even the deepest optical images obtainable with the Hubble space telescope. Yet this population contributes most of the light emitted by galaxies at wavelengths of lambda > or approximately equal 100 microm over the lifetime of the Universe. Together with other observations, this suggests that perhaps up to half of all the stars seen in galaxies today were formed in very dusty regions in the early Universe. Hence, studying the galaxies detected in the submm wavebands is critical for developing and testing models of galaxy formation and evolution. Individually, these luminous submm galaxies are forming stars a thousand times faster than our Galaxy is at the present-day, sufficiently fast to form all the stars in the most luminous galaxy in the local Universe within a short period, up to ca. 0.1-1 Gyr. Detailed study of a handful of examples of this population confirm these estimates and unequivocally identify the bulk of this submm-selected population with dusty, star-burst galaxies in the very distant Universe. The extreme faintness of this population in the optical and near-infrared wavebands, resulting from their obscuration by dust, means that our understanding of the detailed nature of these galaxies is only slowly growing. I give a brief summary of the properties of these highly obscured systems and describe the wide range of facilities currently being developed that will greatly aid in their study.

  15. The dark side of galaxy formation.

    PubMed

    Smail, Ian

    2002-12-15

    I discuss the discovery of a population of extremely luminous, but very dusty and very distant, galaxies in the submillimetre (submm) waveband. Almost all the light emitted by the stars in these galaxies is absorbed by interstellar dust (which is produced by the same stars) and re-radiated in the far-infrared. This leaves little to be detected at optical wavelengths and results in most of these galaxies being effectively invisible in even the deepest optical images obtainable with the Hubble space telescope. Yet this population contributes most of the light emitted by galaxies at wavelengths of lambda > or approximately equal 100 microm over the lifetime of the Universe. Together with other observations, this suggests that perhaps up to half of all the stars seen in galaxies today were formed in very dusty regions in the early Universe. Hence, studying the galaxies detected in the submm wavebands is critical for developing and testing models of galaxy formation and evolution. Individually, these luminous submm galaxies are forming stars a thousand times faster than our Galaxy is at the present-day, sufficiently fast to form all the stars in the most luminous galaxy in the local Universe within a short period, up to ca. 0.1-1 Gyr. Detailed study of a handful of examples of this population confirm these estimates and unequivocally identify the bulk of this submm-selected population with dusty, star-burst galaxies in the very distant Universe. The extreme faintness of this population in the optical and near-infrared wavebands, resulting from their obscuration by dust, means that our understanding of the detailed nature of these galaxies is only slowly growing. I give a brief summary of the properties of these highly obscured systems and describe the wide range of facilities currently being developed that will greatly aid in their study. PMID:12626261

  16. Millimeter Detection of Spitzer-selected High Redshift Hyperluminus Starburst Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Omont, A.; del Carmen Polletta, M.; Zylka, R.; Shupe, D.; Smith, H. E., Jr.; Berta, S.; Bavouzet, N.; Lagache, G.; Farrah, D.; Bertoldi, F.; Cox, P.; de Breuck, C.; Dole, H.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H.; Clements, D.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Franceschini, A.; Frayer, D.; Surace, J.; Siana, B.

    2006-12-01

    We have used the Mambo instrument on the IRAM 30m telescope to observe at 1.2mm 63 Spitzer-selected z>1 hyperluminous infrared galaxy candidates (HLIRGs) with starburst-dominated mid-infrared (MIR) spectral energy distributions from the SWIRE Legacy survey. The primary selection criteria are a peak in the IRAC 5.8μm band due to the rest frame near-infrared spectrum of evolved stars, a bright detection at 24μm, and very faint optical counterparts. The detection rate with Mambo is very high at 45%, and both the detection rate and the average 1.2mm/24μm flux ratio are much higher than found for previous Spitzer MIR-selected samples, due to the fact that earlier samples favored systems with AGN-dominated MIR emission. Our sample, on the other hand, shows systematically lower 1.2mm/24μm ratios than a sample of Spitzer-detected submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) in a similar redshift range. Thus Spitzer MIR selection complements submillimeter selection of high redshift starburst-dominated HLIRGs, finding a population with substantially different SED shapes. The large MIR/submillimeter flux ratios probably indicate exceptionally luminous 7.7μm PAH emission, based on Spitzer IRS spectra for a subset of these objects (Weedman et al. 2007).

  17. IC5063: A merger with a hidden luminous active nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colina, L.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    IC5063 is a nearby galaxy classified as an SO and containing a system of dust lanes parallel to its major optical axis (Danziger, Goss and Wellington, 1981; Bergeron, Durret and Boksenberg, 1983). Extended emission line regions with high excitation properties have been detected over distances of up to 19 kpc from the nucleus. This galaxy has been classified as Seyfert 2 on the basis of its emission line spectrum. These characteristics make IC5063 one of the best candidates for a merger remnant and an excellent candidate for a hidden luminous active nucleus. Based on new broad and narrow band images and long-slit spectroscopy obtained at the ESO 3.6 m telescope, the authors present some preliminary results supporting this hypothesis.

  18. Measuring star formation rates in blue galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1987-01-01

    The problems associated with measurements of star formation rates in galaxies are briefly reviewed, and specific models are presented for determinations of current star formation rates from H alpha and Far Infrared (FIR) luminosities. The models are applied to a sample of optically blue irregular galaxies, and the results are discussed in terms of star forming histories. It appears likely that typical irregular galaxies are forming stars at nearly constant rates, although a few examples of systems with enhanced star forming activity are found among HII regions and luminous irregular galaxies.

  19. Radio Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information on radio galaxies. Topic areas addressed include: what produces the radio emission; radio telescopes; locating radio galaxies; how distances to radio galaxies are found; physics of radio galaxies; computer simulations of radio galaxies; and the evolution of radio galaxies with cosmic time. (JN)

  20. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  1. 78 FR 66785 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... consecutive weeks of ] a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant... applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and... for Nuclear Power Plants:'' 1. On September 19, 2008, Luminant submitted an application for COLs...

  2. Biodegradation of PAHs in Soil: Influence of Initial PAHs Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Talib, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    Most studies on biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) evaluate the effect of initial PAHs concentration in liquid medium. There are limited studies on evaluation in solid medium such as contaminated soil. This study investigated the potential of the bacteria, Corynebacterium urealyticum isolated from municipal sludge in degrading phenanthrene contaminated soil in different phenanthrene concentration. Batch experiments were conducted over 20 days in reactors containing artificially contaminated phenanthrene soil at different concentration inoculated with a bacterial culture. This study established the optimum condition for phenanthrene degradation by the bacteria under nonindigenous condition at 500 mg/kg of initial phenanthrene concentration. High initial concentration required longer duration for biodegradation process compared to low initial concentration. The bacteria can survive for three days for all initial phenanthrene concentrations.

  3. PAH emission variations within the resolved starbursts of NGC 253 and NGC 1808

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi-Garman, L. E.; Sturm, E.; Lehnert, M.; Lutz, D.; Davies, R. I.; Moorwood, A. F. M.

    2005-03-01

    In order to better characterise the usefulness of PAH emission as a tracer of star formation, we have undertaken a programme of 3 μm narrowband imaging of a sample of nearby template galaxies covering a wide range of metallicity, star formation activity, and nuclear activity. In the present paper we present first results of this programme: high spatial resolution images of PAH feature emission and the adjacent continuum emission from the central regions of the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 253 and NGC 1808, taken with ISAAC at the VLT-UT1. Globally, the feature emission is seen to peak on the central starburst regions of both sources. On smaller scales, however, we see no general spatial correlation or anti-correlation between the PAH feature emission and the location of sites of recent star formation, suggesting that the degree to which PAH feature emission traces starburst activity is more complicated than previously hypothesized based on results from data with lower spatial resolution. We do find spatial correlations, though, when we consider the feature-to-continuum ratio, which is low at the positions of known super star clusters in NGC 1808 as well as at the position of the IR peak in NGC 253. We take this to imply a decrease in the efficiency of PAH emission induced by the star formation, caused either by mechanical energy input into the ISM, photoionisation of the PAH molecules, or photodissociation of the PAH molecules. All three hypotheses are discussed. In addition, for the first time we present observations of PAH feature emission in the superwind of a starbursting system (NGC 253), providing strong support that winds are heavily mass-loaded and entrain substantial amounts of ambient ISM. We have also found a plausible connection between observed NaD absorption, H2, and PAHs above the plane of NGC 253. This observation has important implications for enriching galaxy halos and possibly the intergalactic medium with small dust grains. Based on

  4. The role of galaxy interaction in the SFR-M {sub *} relation: characterizing morphological properties of Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Sanders, D. B.; Casey, C. M.; Lee, N.; Barnes, J. E.; Koss, M.; Larson, K. L.; Lockhart, K.; Man, A. W. S.; Mann, A. W.; Capak, P.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Scoville, N.; Symeonidis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Galaxy interactions/mergers have been shown to dominate the population of IR-luminous galaxies (L {sub IR} ≳ 10{sup 11.6} L {sub ☉}) in the local universe (z ≲ 0.25). Recent studies based on the relation between galaxies' star formation rates and stellar mass (the SFR-M {sub *} relation or the {sup g}alaxy main sequence{sup )} have suggested that galaxy interaction/mergers may only become significant when galaxies fall well above the galaxy main sequence. Since the typical SFR at a given M {sub *} increases with redshift, the existence of the galaxy main sequence implies that massive, IR-luminous galaxies at high z may not necessarily be driven by galaxy interactions. We examine the role of galaxy interactions in the SFR-M {sub *} relation by carrying out a morphological analysis of 2084 Herschel-selected galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.5 in the COSMOS field. Using a detailed visual classification scheme, we show that the fraction of 'disk galaxies' decreases and the fraction of 'irregular' galaxies increases systematically with increasing L {sub IR} out to z ≲ 1.5 and z ≲ 1.0, respectively. At L {sub IR} >10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}, ≳ 50% of the objects show evident features of strongly interacting/merger systems, where this percentage is similar to the studies of local IR-luminous galaxies. The fraction of interacting/merger systems also systematically increases with the deviation from the SFR-M {sub *} relation, supporting the view that galaxies falling above the main sequence are more dominated by mergers than the main-sequence galaxies. Meanwhile, we find that ≳ 18% of massive IR-luminous 'main-sequence galaxies' are classified as interacting systems, where this population may not evolve through the evolutionary track predicted by a simple gas exhaustion model.

  5. PAH emission from the industrial boilers.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y

    1999-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. PAH samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a PAH stack sampling system. Twenty one individual PAHs were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-PAH concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of PAH-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-PAH mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, respectively. The PAHs in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight PAHs. The emission factors (EFs) of total-PAHs were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant PAH occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual PAHs in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-PAHs or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.

  6. Starburst or AGN Dominance in Submillimetre-Luminous Candidate AGN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppin, Kristen; Pope, Alexandra; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; Alexander, David M.; Dunlop, James

    2010-06-01

    It is widely believed that ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity are triggered by galaxy interactions and merging, with the peak of activity occurring at z~2, where submillimetre galaxies are thousands of times more numerous than local ULIRGs. In this evolutionary picture, submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) would host an AGN, which would eventually grow a black hole (BH) strong enough to blow off all of the gas and dust leaving an optically luminous QSO. To probe this evolutionary sequence we have focussed on the `missing link' sources, which demonstrate both strong starburst (SB) and AGN signatures, in order to determine if the SB is the main power source even in SMGs when we have evidence that an AGN is present from their IRAC colours. The best way to determine if a dominant AGN is present is to look for their signatures in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer IRS, since often even deep X-ray observations miss identifying the presence of AGN in heavily dust-obscured SMGs. We present the results of our audit of the energy balance between star-formation and AGN within this special sub-population of SMGs-where the BH has grown appreciably to begin heating the dust emission.

  7. Contrast adaptation to luminance and brightness modulations.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takehiro; Nakayama, Kazuki; Kawashima, Yuki; Yamauchi, Yasuki

    2016-03-01

    Perceptual brightness and color contrast decrease after seeing a light temporally modulating along a certain direction in a color space, a phenomenon known as contrast adaptation. We investigated whether contrast adaptation along the luminance direction arises from modulation of luminance signals or apparent brightness signals. The stimulus consisted of two circles on a gray background presented on a CRT monitor. In the adaptation phase, the luminance and chromaticity of one circle were temporally modulated, while the other circle was kept at a constant luminance and color metameric with an equal-energy white. We employed two types of temporal modulations, namely, in luminance and brightness. Chromaticity was sinusoidally modulated along the L-M axis, leading to dissociation between luminance and brightness (the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect). In addition, luminance modulation was minimized in the brightness modulation, while brightness modulation was minimized in the luminance modulation. In the test phase, an asymmetric matching method was used to measure the magnitude of contrast adaptation for both modulations. Our results showed that, although contrast adaptation along the luminance direction occurred for both modulations, contrast adaptation for luminance modulation was significantly stronger than that for the brightness modulation regardless of the temporal frequency of the adaptation modulation. These results suggest that luminance modulation is more influential in contrast adaptation than brightness modulation.

  8. A pseudo-spectrum analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikage, Chiaki; Oguri, Masamune

    2016-10-01

    We present the application of the pseudo-spectrum method to galaxy-galaxy lensing. We derive explicit expressions for the pseudo-spectrum analysis of the galaxy-shear cross-spectrum, which is the Fourier space counterpart of the stacked galaxy-galaxy lensing profile. The pseudo-spectrum method corrects observational issues such as the survey geometry, masks of bright stars and their spikes, and inhomogeneous noise, which distort the spectrum and also mix the E-mode and the B-mode signals. Using ray-tracing simulations in N-body simulations including realistic masks, we confirm that the pseudo-spectrum method successfully recovers the input galaxy-shear cross-spectrum. We also show that the galaxy-shear cross-spectrum has an excess covariance relative to the Gaussian covariance at small scales (k ≳ 1h Mpc-1) where the shot noise is dominated in the Gaussian approximation. We find that the excess is consistent with the expectation from the halo sample variance (HSV), which originates from the matter fluctuations at scales larger than the survey area. We apply the pseudo-spectrum method to the observational data of Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing survey shear catalogue and three different spectroscopic samples of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Luminous Red Galaxy, and Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey CMASS and LOWZ galaxies. The galaxy-shear cross-spectra are significantly detected at the level of 7-10σ using the analytic covariance with the HSV contribution included. We also confirm that the observed spectra are consistent with the halo model predictions with the halo occupation distribution parameters estimated from previous work. This work demonstrates the viability of galaxy-galaxy lensing analysis in the Fourier space.

  9. First Results from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolstencroft, R. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Levine, D. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the first result from the ISO-IRAS Faint Galaxy Survey (IIFGS), a program designed to obtain ISO observations of the most distant and luminous galaxies in the IRAS Faint Source Survey by filling short gaps in the ISO observing schedule with pairs of 12um ISOCAM AND 90um ISOPHOT observation.

  10. PAH EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grandPAH HYPOTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J. E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov

    2015-07-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in PAH band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar PAH emission. We used the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived PAH populations. Our results show that PAH emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar PAH populations of neutral small to medium-sized PAHs (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual PAHs lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the PAH abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, PAH populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grandPAHs as a unique mixture of the most stable PAHs emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grandPAHs refer to the robust PAH population that results from the intense processing of PAHs at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the PAH population, the abundance of PAHs starts decreasing as we move toward the star.

  11. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš

    2015-08-01

    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  12. Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): projected galaxy clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrow, D. J.; Cole, Shaun; Norberg, Peder; Metcalfe, N.; Baldry, I.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brown, Michael J. I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Lacey, Cedric G.; Liske, J.; Loveday, Jon; Palamara, David P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Sridhar, Srivatsan

    2015-12-01

    We measure the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies in the 180 deg2 equatorial regions of the GAMA II survey, for four different redshift slices between z = 0.0 and 0.5. To do this, we further develop the Cole method of producing suitable random catalogues for the calculation of correlation functions. We find that more r-band luminous, more massive and redder galaxies are more clustered. We also find that red galaxies have stronger clustering on scales less than ˜3 h-1 Mpc. We compare to two different versions of the GALFORM galaxy formation model, Lacey et al. (in preparation) and Gonzalez-Perez et al., and find that the models reproduce the trend of stronger clustering for more massive galaxies. However, the models underpredict the clustering of blue galaxies, can incorrectly predict the correlation function on small scales and underpredict the clustering in our sample of galaxies with {˜ } 3 Lr^*. We suggest possible avenues to explore to improve these clustering predictions. The measurements presented in this paper can be used to test other galaxy formation models, and we make the measurements available online to facilitate this.

  13. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments.

  14. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments.

  15. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-11-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559

  16. Carcinogenic PAH in waterpipe charcoal products.

    PubMed

    Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-11-01

    Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of PAH, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by PAH residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the PAH inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured PAH residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that PAH residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total PAH emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring PAH compounds. Total PAH content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest PAH residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content.

  17. LENTICULAR GALAXIES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Bergh, Sidney

    2009-09-10

    It is widely believed that lenticular (S0) galaxies were initially spirals from which the gas has been removed by interactions with hot cluster gas, or by ram pressure stripping of cool gas from spirals that are orbiting within rich clusters of galaxies. However, problems with this interpretation are that (1) some lenticulars, such as NGC 3115, are isolated field galaxies rather than cluster members. (2) The distribution of flattening values of S0 galaxies in clusters, in groups, and in the field are statistically indistinguishable. This is surprising because one might have expected most of the progenitors of field S0 galaxies to have been flattened late-type galaxies, whereas lenticulars in clusters are thought to have mostly been derived from bulge-dominated early-type galaxies. (3) It should be hardest for ram pressure to strip massive luminous galaxies with deep potential wells. However, no statistically significant differences are seen between the luminosity distributions of early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies in clusters, groups, and in the field. (4) Finally both ram pressure stripping and evaporation by hot intracluster gas would be most efficient in rich clusters. However, the small number of available data in the Shapley-Ames sample appears to show no statistically significant differences between the relative frequencies of dust-poor S0{sub 1} and dust-rich S0{sub 3} galaxies in clusters, groups, and in the field. It is tentatively concluded that ram pressure stripping and heating by intracluster gas, may not be the only evolutionary channels that lead to the formation of lenticular galaxies. It is speculated that gas starvation, or gas ejection by active nuclei, may have played a major role in the formation of a significant fraction of all S0 galaxies.

  18. Galaxies in extreme environments: Isolated galaxies versus compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbala, Adriana

    2009-06-01

    This Dissertation comprises two distinct studies of galaxies in dramatically different environments: extreme isolation versus compact groups. We emphasize empirically how "nature" (i.e. internal, secular processes) plays the dominant role in defining the evolution of isolated galaxies and how "nurture" dictates the fate of galaxies in very crowded environments. Two chapters report on a detailed photometric study of a well-defined sample of N ~100 isolated Sb-Sc spiral galaxies. Data source is Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using i-band images we perform three kinds of measures: (a) bulge/disk/bar decomposition, (b) CAS parametrization (Concentration, Asymmetry, Clumpiness), and (c) Fourier decomposition/analysis of spiral arms and bar properties including dynamical measures of the torque. Having quantified a large set of properties we look for: (i) the interplay between different components of the same galaxy, (ii) trends along the morphological sequence Sb-Sbc-Sc, and (iii) statistical differences between our "isolated" sample and samples of galaxies of similar morphology constructed without regard for isolation. We find that the majority of isolated late-type disk galaxies host pseudobulges rather than classical bulges. The pseudobulges probably form through internal secular processes and bars may play an important role. A clear separation is noted between Sb and Sbc/Sc in various measures, i.e. the former are redder, brighter, have larger disks and bars, more luminous bulges, are more concentrated, more symmetric and dumpier than the latter. Isolated galaxies host larger bars than galaxies in samples defined without isolation constraints. Longer bars are not necessarily stronger, but show a higher contrast in Fourier analysis. Another chapter is a multiwavelength study of Seyfert's Sextet, the highest density galaxy aggregate in the local Universe. Four of its five galaxies are interpreted as remnant bulges of accreted spirals and are now embedded in a luminous halo

  19. The morphological evolution of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, R G; van Den Bergh, S

    2001-08-17

    Many galaxies have taken on their familiar appearance relatively recently. In the distant Universe, galaxy morphology deviates significantly (and systematically) from that of nearby galaxies at redshifts (z) as low as 0.3. This corresponds to a time approximately 3.5 x 10(9) years in the past, which is only approximately 25% of the present age of the Universe. Beyond z = 0.5 (5 x 10(9) years in the past), spiral arms are less well developed and more chaotic, and barred spiral galaxies may become rarer. At z = 1, around 30% of the galaxy population is sufficiently peculiar that classification on Hubble's traditional "tuning fork" system is meaningless. On the other hand, some characteristics of galaxies have not changed much over time. The space density of luminous disk galaxies has not changed significantly since z = 1, indicating that although the general appearance of these galaxies has continuously changed over time, their overall numbers have been conserved. PMID:11509719

  20. Sources, fate, and toxic hazards of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at PAH-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; White, Paul A; Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; Lambert, Iain B; Oberg, Lars; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we show that oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are important cocontaminants that should be taken into account during risk assessment and remediation of sites with high levels of PAHs. The presented data, which have been collected both from our own research and the published literature, demonstrate that oxy-PAHs are abundant but neglected contaminants at these sites. The oxy-PAHs show relatively high persistency and because they are formed through transformation of PAHs, their concentrations in the environment may even increase as the sites are remediated by methods that promote PAH degradation. Furthermore, we show that oxy-PAHs are toxic to both humans and the environment, although the toxicity seems to be manifested through other effects than those known to be important for polycyclic aromatic compounds in general, that is, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, we present data that support the hypothesis that oxy-PAHs are more mobile in the environment than PAHs, due to their polarity, and thus have a higher tendency to spread from contaminated sites via surface water and groundwater. We believe that oxy-PAHs should be included in monitoring programs at PAH-contaminated sites, even if a number of other toxicologically relevant compounds that may also be present, such as nitro-PAHs and azaarenes, are not monitored. This is because oxy-PAH levels are difficult to predict from the PAH levels, because their environmental behavior differs substantially from that of PAHs, and oxy-PAHs may be formed as PAHs are degraded.

  1. Galactic surveys: Small galaxies are growing smaller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillipps, Steve

    2004-12-01

    Galaxies are not always giant collections of billions of stars. Since the 1930s, when Harlow Shapley discovered the first dwarf spheroidal galaxies, technology has allowed the detection of ever fainter galaxies in our immediate neighbourhood. Our galaxy is now known to have a whole retinue of very small satellite galaxies, the lowest luminosity examples of which can hardly outshine one massive star. Some galaxies appear to be getting physically smaller. Evidence for this is found in the streams of stars detected around our galaxy and elsewhere and in galaxies that appear to have had their outer regions truncated. Recent surveys of galaxy clusters have revealed another new class of object, the ultra-compact dwarfs. Though no less luminous than other dwarf galaxies, their physical sizes, of order 20 pc, are far below anything previously seen. They are reminiscent of the nuclei of dE,N type galaxies and may well be descended from them via some destructive processes within galaxy clusters.

  2. Variation in PAH patterns in road runoff.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Rupak; Furumai, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Fumiyuki; Beecham, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Twelve particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the first flush regime of road runoff during nine events in Winterthur in Switzerland. The total PAH contents ranged from 17 to 62 μg/g. The PAH patterns measured at different time intervals during the first flush periods were very similar within each event irrespective of variation in suspended solids (SS) concentration within the first flush regime. However, the PAH patterns were different from event to event. This indicates that the environment plays an important role in PAH accumulation in SS. A toxicity identification evaluation approach using a toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) was applied to compare toxicities in the different events. The TEFs were found to be between 8 and 33 μg TEQ g(-1) (TEQ: toxic equivalent concentration). In some cases, two events having similar total PAH contents showed two fold toxicity differences. PMID:23787306

  3. The Morphology of Low Surface Brightness Disk Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGaugh, S.; Schombert, J.; Bothun, G.

    1994-01-01

    Images of a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies are presented. These galaxies are generally late types; however, they are not dwarfs, being intrinsically large and luminous. The morphology of LSB galaxies is discussed in terms of the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, the stages of which are found to be nonlinear in the sense that smaller physical differences separate mid to early type spirals than late types.

  4. The different lives of galaxies at different environment density levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamm, Antti; Liivamägi, Lauri Juhan; Tempel, Elmo

    2016-10-01

    We take a closer look at the dependence of the galactic colour histogram on the environment density using a volume-limited sample of SDSS galaxies. We find that the strongest changes with environment are taking place with spiral galaxies. In dense environment, discs become considerably redder, apparently due to the shortage of gas, and less concentrated. Contrary to expectation, the mean Sérsic index of luminous elliptical galaxies decreases in denser environments.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of PAH mixtures using Microtox

    SciTech Connect

    Thompkins, J.; Guthrie, E.; Pfaender, F.

    1995-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced from both natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. PAHs are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, are prevalent at many hazardous waste sites, and pose a potential risk to both ecological and human health. To date, few researchers have assessed the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. The toxicity of chrysene, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and naphthalene were evaluated using Microtox, and acute toxicity assay that uses bioluminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, to measure toxicity. In this study, the toxicities of 2, 3, and 4 ring PAHs were determined for individual compounds. Synergistic or additive effects of PAH mixtures was assessed by comparing the toxicity of mixtures with that of pure compounds. Each PAH or mixture was evaluated at their respective water solubility concentrations, For individual PAHs tested, the toxicity of PAHs is inversely related to water solubility. Mixtures of two and three PAHs with disparate water solubilities resulted in synergistic interactions. Antagonistic interactions, a decrease in toxicity, were observed for mixtures of similar water solubilities.

  6. Fog processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Khadapkar, K.; Ehrenhauser, F. S.; Hutchings, J. W.; Wornat, M. J.; Valsaraj, K. T.; Herckes, P.

    2010-07-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of organic species of concern for environmental and human health. The present work will present initial finding of a comprehensive study on the fate of PAHs in multiphase fog/cloud systems and across consecutive fog/smog cycles. Field observations were conducted in Fresno, CA in Winter 2010. Simultaneous measurements of gas phase, aerosol and fog PAH allowed to gain insights on the partitioning of PAH in a multiphase fog system. Partitioning results as well as temporal evolution of PAH concentrations across different phases will be discussed. Select known degradation products (oxy-PAH) from the processing of PAHs were also analyzed in the fog systems, although frequently their concentrations were close to or below detection limits, even in the polluted urban study setting. The field observations are complemented by laboratory investigations on the reactivity of PAH in fog systems, both heterogeneously and in the aqueous phase. Heterogeneously a novel reactor design is being tested to simulate fog systems and allow for repeat fog/smog cycles. A separate series of measurements investigated the processing of PAH in the aqueous phase in a solar simulator set-up.

  7. The heating of mid-infrared dust in the nearby galaxy M33: A testbed for tracing galaxy evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Calapa, Marie D.; Calzetti, Daniela; Draine, Bruce T. E-mail: calzetti@astro.umass.edu; and others

    2014-04-01

    Infrared emission is an invaluable tool for quantifying star formation in galaxies. Because the 8 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission has been found to correlate with other well-known star formation tracers, it has widely been used as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. There are, however, studies that challenge the accuracy and reliability of the 8 μm emission as a SFR tracer. Our study, part of the Herschel (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES) open time key program, aims at addressing this issue by analyzing the infrared emission from the nearby spiral galaxy M33 at the high spatial scale of ∼75 pc. Combining data from the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope, we find that the 8 μm emission is better correlated with the 250 μm emission, which traces cold interstellar gas, than with the 24 μm emission. Furthermore, the L(8)/L(250) ratio is more tightly correlated with the 3.6 μm emission, a tracer of evolved stellar populations and stellar mass, than with a combination of Hα and 24 μm emission, a tracer of SFR. The L(8)/L(24) ratio is highly depressed in 24 μm luminous regions, which correlate with known H II regions. We also compare our results with the dust emission models by Draine and Li. We confirm that the depression of 8 μm PAH emission near star-forming regions is higher than what is predicted by models; this is possibly an effect of increased stellar radiation from young stars destroying the dust grains responsible for the 8 μm emission as already suggested by other authors. We find that the majority of the 8 μm emission is fully consistent with heating by the diffuse interstellar medium, similar to what recently determined for the dust emission in M31 by Draine et al. We also find that the fraction of 8 μm emission associated with the diffuse

  8. Molecules as tracers of galaxy evolution: an EMIR survey. I. Presentation of the data and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costagliola, F.; Aalto, S.; Rodriguez, M. I.; Muller, S.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Martín, S.; Peréz-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Lindberg, J. E.; Batejat, F.; Jütte, E.; van der Werf, P.; Lahuis, F.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: We investigate the molecular gas properties of a sample of 23 galaxies in order to find and test chemical signatures of galaxy evolution and to compare them to IR evolutionary tracers. Methods: Observation at 3 mm wavelengths were obtained with the EMIR broadband receiver, mounted on the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. We compare the emission of the main molecular species with existing models of chemical evolution by means of line intensity ratios diagrams and principal component analysis. Results: We detect molecular emission in 19 galaxies in two 8 GHz-wide bands centred at 88 and 112 GHz. The main detected molecules are CO, 13CO, HCN, HNC, HCO+, CN, and C2H. We also detect HC3N J = 10-9 in the galaxies IRAS 17208, IC 860, NGC 4418, NGC 7771, and NGC 1068. The only HC3N detections are in objects with HCO+/HCN < 1. Galaxies with the highest HC3N/HCN ratios have warm IRAS colours (60/100 μm > 0.8). The brightest HC3N emission is found in IC 860, where we also detect the molecule in its vibrationally excited state. We find low HNC/HCN line ratios (<0.5), that cannot be explained by existing PDR or XDR chemical models. The intensities of HCO+ and HNC appear anti-correlated. No correlation is found between the HNC/HCN line ratio and dust temperature. All HNC-bright objects are either luminous IR galaxies (LIRG) or Seyferts. Galaxies with bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) emission show low HNC/HCO+ ratios. The CO/13CO ratio is positively correlated with the dust temperature and is generally higher than in our galaxy. The emission of CN and C18O is correlated. Conclusions: Bright HC3N emission in HCO+-faint objects may imply that these are not dominated by X-ray chemistry. Thus the HCN/HCO+ line ratio is not, by itself, a reliable tracer of XDRs. Bright HC3N and faint HCO+ could be signatures of embedded star-formation, instead of AGN activity. Mechanical heating caused by supernova explosions may be responsible for the low HNC/HCN and high

  9. IDENTIFYING LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN DEEP SURVEYS: REVISED IRAC SELECTION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Donley, J. L.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Brusa, M.; Salvato, M.; Capak, P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Civano, F.; Ilbert, O.; Impey, C. D.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Miyaji, T.; Sanders, D. B.; Trump, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Spitzer/IRAC selection is a powerful tool for identifying luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For deep IRAC data, however, the AGN selection wedges currently in use are heavily contaminated by star-forming galaxies, especially at high redshift. Using the large samples of luminous AGNs and high-redshift star-forming galaxies in COSMOS, we redefine the AGN selection criteria for use in deep IRAC surveys. The new IRAC criteria are designed to be both highly complete and reliable, and incorporate the best aspects of the current AGN selection wedges and of infrared power-law selection while excluding high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected via the BzK, distant red galaxy, Lyman-break galaxy, and submillimeter galaxy criteria. At QSO luminosities of log L{sub 2-10keV}(erg s{sup -1}) {>=}44, the new IRAC criteria recover 75% of the hard X-ray and IRAC-detected XMM-COSMOS sample, yet only 38% of the IRAC AGN candidates have X-ray counterparts, a fraction that rises to 52% in regions with Chandra exposures of 50-160 ks. X-ray stacking of the individually X-ray non-detected AGN candidates leads to a hard X-ray signal indicative of heavily obscured to mildly Compton-thick obscuration (log N{sub H} (cm{sup -2}) = 23.5 {+-} 0.4). While IRAC selection recovers a substantial fraction of luminous unobscured and obscured AGNs, it is incomplete to low-luminosity and host-dominated AGNs.

  10. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  11. Local Group dwarf galaxies: nature and nurture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, Till; Scannapieco, Cecilia; White, Simon

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in a high-resolution, hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of a Milky Way sized halo and its environment. Our simulation includes gas cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, metal enrichment and ultraviolet heating. In total, 90 satellites and more than 400 isolated dwarf galaxies are formed in the simulation, allowing a systematic study of the internal and environmental processes that determine their evolution. We find that 95 per cent of satellite galaxies are gas free at z= 0, and identify three mechanisms for gas loss: supernova feedback, tidal stripping and photoevaporation due to re-ionization. Gas-rich satellite galaxies are only found with total masses above ˜5 × 109 M⊙. In contrast, for isolated dwarf galaxies, a total mass of ˜109 M⊙ constitutes a sharp transition; less massive galaxies are predominantly gas free at z= 0, more massive, isolated dwarf galaxies are often able to retain their gas. In general, we find that the total mass of a dwarf galaxy is the main factor which determines its star formation, metal enrichment and its gas content, but that stripping may explain the observed difference in gas content between field dwarf galaxies and satellites with total masses close to 109 M⊙. We also find that a morphological transformation via tidal stripping of infalling, luminous dwarf galaxies whose dark matter is less concentrated than their stars cannot explain the high total mass-to-light ratios of the faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  12. Pavement Sealcoat, PAHs, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several PAHs are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-PAH concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the PAHs to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in PAHs in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated PAH concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of PAHs from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of PAHs to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.

  13. Ring Around a Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Space Telescope Science Institute astronomers are giving the public chances to decide where to aim NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Guided by 8,000 Internet voters, Hubble has already been used to take a close-up, multi-color picture of the most popular object from a list of candidates, the extraordinary 'polar-ring' galaxy NGC 4650A. Located about 130 million light-years away, NGC 4650A is one of only 100 known polar-ring galaxies. Their unusual disk-ring structure is not yet understood fully. One possibility is that polar rings are the remnants of colossal collisions between two galaxies sometime in the distant past, probably at least 1 billion years ago. What is left of one galaxy has become the rotating inner disk of old red stars in the center. Meanwhile, another smaller galaxy which ventured too close was probably severely damaged or destroyed. The bright bluish clumps, which are especially prominent in the outer parts of the ring, are regions containing luminous young stars, examples of stellar rebirth from the remnants of an ancient galactic disaster. The polar ring appears to be highly distorted. No regular spiral pattern stands out in the main part of the ring, and the presence of young stars below the main ring on one side and above on the other shows that the ring is warped and does not lie in one plane. Determining the typical ages of the stars in the polar ring is an initial goal of our Polar Ring Science Team that can provide a clue to the evolution of this unusual galaxy. The HST exposures were acquired by the Hubble Heritage Team, consisting of Keith Noll, Howard Bond, Carol Christian, Jayanne English, Lisa Frattare, Forrest Hamilton, Anne Kinney and Zolt Levay, and guest collaborators Jay Gallagher (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Lynn Matthews (National Radio Astronomy Observatory-Charlottesville), and Linda Sparke (University of Wisconsin-Madison).

  14. Empirical measurements of massive galaxy and active galaxy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cool, Richard Jacob

    Using new wide-area galaxy redshift surveys, we explore the evolution of the most massive galaxies and the most luminous quasars in the universe over much of cosmic history. Quasars and massive red galaxies both are extremes; the most luminous high redshift quasars likely play a key role in shaping their nearby environment and the universe as a whole. The most massive galaxies represent the end points of galaxy evolution and contain a fossil record of the galaxy evolution process. Using the AGES redshift survey completed with the MMT and the Hectospec multi- object spectrograph as well as new z -band observations of the NOAO Deep Wide- Field Survey Bootes field, we report the discovery of three new quasars at z > 5. We explore new mid-infrared selection in light of these three new quasars and place constraints on the slope of the high-redshift quasar luminosity function. At lower redshift (0.1< z <0.4) we measure the scatter in red galaxy colors around the optical red-sequence using imaging and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With our sample of nearly 20,000 massive early-type galaxies ( L [Special characters omitted.] 2.2 L *), we find that the scatter around the color-magnitude relation is quite small in colors studied. Each of three model star formation histories can reproduce the scatter we measure, none of the models produce color distributions matching those observed. We measure the evolution of the LRG luminosity function in the redshift range 0.1< z <0.9. We find that the LRG population has evolved little beyond the passive fading of its stellar populations since z ~ 0.9. The most massive (L > 3 L *) red galaxies have grown by less than 50% (at 99% confidence) since z = 0.9 in stark contrast to the factor of 2 to 4 growth observed in the L * red galaxy population over the same epoch. Finally, we introduce the PRIsm MUlti-object Survey (PRIMUS), a new redshift survey aimed at collecting ~300,000 galaxy spectra over 10 deg 2 to z ~ 1. We

  15. Dusty Massive Stars: the Origin of the Luminous Optical Transient in M85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, J. L.; Kistler, M. D.; Stanek, K. Z.; Thompson, T. A.; Kochanek, C. S.; Beacom, J. F.

    2008-07-01

    We report analysis of pre-discovery archival Spitzer data of the luminous transient in the Virgo galaxy M85 (Kulkarni et al. 2007, Nature, 447, 458; Pastorello et al. 2007, Nature, 449, 1) obtained on UT Dec. 28.72, 2005 (PI: Andreas Zezas), 8.8 days before the optical discovery of the transient reported by the KAIT supernova search (Jan 6.6, 2006).

  16. Spectroscopic Observations of Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzelli, C. J.; Pastoriza, M. G.

    2000-07-01

    In this paper we describe the spectroscopic and infrared properties of a sample of 25 merging galaxy pairs, selected from the catalog of Arp & Madore, and we compare them with those observed in a similar sample of interacting galaxies (Donzelli & Pastoriza). It is noted that mergers as well as interacting systems comprise a wide range of spectral types, going from those corresponding to well-evolved stellar populations (older than 200 Myr) to those that show clear signatures of H II regions with stellar populations younger than 8 Myr. However, merger galaxies show on average more excited spectra than interacting pairs, which could be attributed to lower gas metallicity. From the emission lines we also found that merging systems show on average higher (about a factor of 2) star formation rates than interacting galaxies. Classical diagnostic diagrams show that only three of 50 of the galaxies (6%) present some form of nuclear activity: two Seyfert galaxies and one LINER. However, through a detailed analysis of the pure emission-line spectra, we conclude that this fraction may raise up to 23% of the mergers if we consider that some galaxies host a low-luminosity active nucleus surrounded by strong star-forming regions. This latter assumption is also supported by the infrared colors of the galaxies. Regarding to the total infrared luminosities, the merging galaxies show on average an IR luminosity, log(Lir)=10.7, lower than that of interacting systems, log(Lir)=10.9. We find that only three mergers of the sample (12%) can be classified as luminous infrared galaxies, while this fraction increases to 24% in the interacting sample. Based on observations made at CASLEO. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  17. A NEW TEST OF THE STATISTICAL NATURE OF THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2010-06-01

    A novel statistic is proposed to examine the hypothesis that all cluster galaxies are drawn from the same luminosity distribution (LD). In such a 'statistical model' of galaxy LD, the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are simply the statistical extreme of the galaxy population. Using a large sample of nearby clusters, we show that BCGs in high luminosity clusters (e.g., L {sub tot} {approx}> 4 x 10{sup 11} h {sup -2} {sub 70} L {sub sun}) are unlikely (probability {<=}3 x 10{sup -4}) to be drawn from the LD defined by all red cluster galaxies more luminous than M{sub r} = -20. On the other hand, BCGs in less luminous clusters are consistent with being the statistical extreme. Applying our method to the second brightest galaxies, we show that they are consistent with being the statistical extreme, which implies that the BCGs are also distinct from non-BCG luminous, red, cluster galaxies. We point out some issues with the interpretation of the classical tests proposed by Tremaine and Richstone (TR) that are designed to examine the statistical nature of BCGs, investigate the robustness of both our statistical test and those of TR against difficulties in photometry of galaxies of large angular size, and discuss the implication of our findings on surveys that use the luminous red galaxies to measure the baryon acoustic oscillation features in the galaxy power spectrum.

  18. CS (5-4) survey towards nearby infrared bright galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Yong

    2011-09-01

    With the observations of the CS (5-4) line towards a sample of 24 infrared bright galaxies using Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT), we detected CS (5-4) emission in 14 galaxies, including 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs)/luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) and two nearby normal galaxies. As a good dense gas tracer, which has been well used for studying star formation in the Milky Way, CS (5-4) can trace the active star-forming gas in galaxies. The correlation between CS (5-4) luminosity, which is estimated with detected CS (5-4) line emission, and the infrared luminosity in these 14 galaxies, is fitted with a correlation coefficient of 0.939 and a slope close to unity. This correlation confirms that dense gas, which is closely linked to star formation, is very important for understanding star formation in galaxies.

  19. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  20. 78 FR 68100 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant... ML082680250. The application is also available at http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-reactors/col.html . NRC's... filed applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  1. 78 FR 69710 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company, LLC. (Luminant... ML082680250. The application is also available at http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/new-reactors/col.html . NRC's... filed applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,...

  2. Radio Galaxy Zoo: host galaxies and radio morphologies derived from visual inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, J. K.; Wong, O. I.; Willett, K. W.; Norris, R. P.; Rudnick, L.; Shabala, S. S.; Simmons, B. D.; Snyder, C.; Garon, A.; Seymour, N.; Middelberg, E.; Andernach, H.; Lintott, C. J.; Jacob, K.; Kapińska, A. D.; Mao, M. Y.; Masters, K. L.; Jarvis, M. J.; Schawinski, K.; Paget, E.; Simpson, R.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Bamford, S.; Burchell, T.; Chow, K. E.; Cotter, G.; Fortson, L.; Heywood, I.; Jones, T. W.; Kaviraj, S.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Maksym, W. P.; Polsterer, K.; Borden, K.; Hollow, R. P.; Whyte, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from the first 12 months of operation of Radio Galaxy Zoo, which upon completion will enable visual inspection of over 170 000 radio sources to determine the host galaxy of the radio emission and the radio morphology. Radio Galaxy Zoo uses 1.4 GHz radio images from both the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters (FIRST) and the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey (ATLAS) in combination with mid-infrared images at 3.4 μm from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and at 3.6 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present the early analysis of the WISE mid-infrared colours of the host galaxies. For images in which there is >75 per cent consensus among the Radio Galaxy Zoo cross-identifications, the project participants are as effective as the science experts at identifying the host galaxies. The majority of the identified host galaxies reside in the mid-infrared colour space dominated by elliptical galaxies, quasi-stellar objects and luminous infrared radio galaxies. We also find a distinct population of Radio Galaxy Zoo host galaxies residing in a redder mid-infrared colour space consisting of star-forming galaxies and/or dust-enhanced non-star-forming galaxies consistent with a scenario of merger-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN) formation. The completion of the full Radio Galaxy Zoo project will measure the relative populations of these hosts as a function of radio morphology and power while providing an avenue for the identification of rare and extreme radio structures. Currently, we are investigating candidates for radio galaxies with extreme morphologies, such as giant radio galaxies, late-type host galaxies with extended radio emission and hybrid morphology radio sources.

  3. Luminous efficiency functions at higher intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Lawrence Kent

    Two psychophysical measurement techniques, flicker photometry and successive heterochromatic brightness matching, were used to measure changes in luminance efficiency functions with increasing levels of light adaptation. Both measurement techniques were performed using the same optical system and the same seven healthy adults as subjects. Measurements were taken at four reference stimulus intensities, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 foot-lamberts. Luminous efficiency was found to depend on both the technique and the reference stimulus intensity with which the measurements were taken. For heterochromatic brightness matching, luminous efficiency increased for longer wavelengths as reference intensity increased. Peak luminous efficiency shifted from approximately 540nm to greater than 600nm with increasing intensity for all seven subjects. Peak luminous efficiency was constant for flicker photometry across all intensities but the function narrowed slightly at 100 foot-lamberts.

  4. Luminous and variable stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous blue variables, candidate LBVs, Fe II emission line stars, and other supergiants

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Weis, Kerstin; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta E-mail: kweis@astro.rub.de

    2014-07-20

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33.

  5. Galaxy evolution from deep multi-wavelength infrared surveys: a prelude to Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franceschini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Vaccari, M.; Berta, S.; Marchetti, L.; Mainetti, G.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Studies of the generation and assembly of stellar populations in galaxies largely benefit from far-IR observations, considering that the IR flux is a close prior to the rate of star formation (the bulk of which happens in dust-obscured environments). At the same time, major episodes of nuclear AGN accretion are also dust-obscured and visible in the IR. Aims: At the end of the Spitzer cryogenic mission and the onset of the Herschel era, we review our current knowledge of galaxy evolution at IR wavelengths, and model it to achieve as far as a complete view of the evolution of cosmic sources. We also develop new tools for the analysis of background fluctuations to constrain source counts in regimes of high confusion, as it happens for the Herschel sub-mm surveys. Methods: We analysed a wide variety of new data on galaxy evolution and high-redshift source populations from Spitzer cosmological surveys, and confront them with complementary data from mm ground-based observations and constraints from the far-IR diffuse radiation, as well as preliminary results from Herschel surveys. Results: These data confirm earlier indications about a very rapid increase in galaxy volume emissivity with redshift up to z ≃ 1 [ ρ(z) ∝ (1+z)4] , the fastest evolution rate observed for galaxies at any wavelengths. The observed Spitzer counts require a combination of fast evolution for the dominant population and a bumpy spectrum with substantial PAH emission at z ~ 1 to 2. Number counts at long wavelengths (70 through 1100 μm) confirm these results. All the present data require that the fast observed evolution from z = 0 to 1 flattens around redshift 1 and then keeps approximately constant up to z ≃ 2.5 at least. Our estimated redshift-dependent bolometric comoving energy density keeps lower at z ⪆ 1.5 than some previously published results based on either large extinction corrections, or large spectral extrapolations. Conclusions: The present-day IR/sub-mm data provide

  6. Galaxy alignment on large and small scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, X.; Lin, W. P.; Dong, X.; Wang, Y. O.; Dutton, A.; Macciò, A.

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies are not randomly distributed across the universe but showing different kinds of alignment on different scales. On small scales satellite galaxies have a tendency to distribute along the major axis of the central galaxy, with dependence on galaxy properties that both red satellites and centrals have stronger alignment than their blue counterparts. On large scales, it is found that the major axes of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs) have correlation up to 30Mpc/h. Using hydro-dynamical simulation with star formation, we investigate the origin of galaxy alignment on different scales. It is found that most red satellite galaxies stay in the inner region of dark matter halo inside which the shape of central galaxy is well aligned with the dark matter distribution. Red centrals have stronger alignment than blue ones as they live in massive haloes and the central galaxy-halo alignment increases with halo mass. On large scales, the alignment of LRGs is also from the galaxy-halo shape correlation, but with some extent of mis-alignment. The massive haloes have stronger alignment than haloes in filament which connect massive haloes. This is contrary to the naive expectation that cosmic filament is the cause of halo alignment.

  7. Multimedia model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates.

  8. Multimedia Model for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates. PMID:25373871

  9. SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY NUMBER COUNTS AND MAGNIFICATION BY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Marcos; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Devlin, Mark; Aguirre, James

    2010-07-01

    We present an analytical model that reproduces measured galaxy number counts from surveys in the wavelength range of 500 {mu}m-2 mm. The model involves a single high-redshift galaxy population with a Schechter luminosity function that has been gravitationally lensed by galaxy clusters in the mass range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} M{sub sun}. This simple model reproduces both the low-flux and the high-flux end of the number counts reported by the BLAST, SCUBA, AzTEC, and South Pole Telescope (SPT) surveys. In particular, our model accounts for the most luminous galaxies detected by SPT as the result of high magnifications by galaxy clusters (magnification factors of 10-30). This interpretation implies that submillimeter (submm) and millimeter surveys of this population may prove to be a useful addition to ongoing cluster detection surveys. The model also implies that the bulk of submm galaxies detected at wavelengths larger than 500 {mu}m lie at redshifts greater than 2.

  10. The distribution of dark and luminous matter inferred from extended rotation curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottema, Roelof; Pestaña, José Luis G.

    2015-04-01

    A better understanding of the formation of mass structures in the Universe can be obtained by determining the amount and distribution of dark and luminous matter in spiral galaxies. To investigate such matters a sample of 12 galaxies, most with accurate distances, has been composed of which the luminosities are distributed regularly over a range spanning two and a half orders of magnitude. Of the observed high quality and extended rotation curves of these galaxies decompositions have been made, for four different schemes, each with two free parameters. For a `maximum disc fit' the rotation curves can be well matched, yet a large range of mass-to-light (M/L) ratios for the individual galaxies is required. For the alternative gravitational theory of MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics) the rotation curves can be explained if the fundamental parameter associated with MOND is allowed as a free parameter. Fixing that parameter leads to a disagreement between the predicted and observed rotation curves for a few galaxies. When cosmologically motivated NFW dark matter haloes are assumed, the rotation curves for the least massive galaxies can, by no means, be reproduced; cores are definitively preferred over cusps. Finally, decompositions have been made for a pseudo-isothermal halo combined with a universal M/L ratio. For the latter, the light of each galactic disc and bulge has been corrected for extinction and has been scaled by the effect of stellar population. This scheme can successfully explain the observed rotations and leads to submaximum disc mass contributions. Properties of the resulting dark matter haloes are described and a ratio between dark and baryonic mass of ˜9 for the least, and of ˜5, for the most luminous galaxies has been determined, at the outermost measured rotation.

  11. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  12. Urban sprawl leaves its PAH signature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Furlong, E.T.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in PAHs, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of PAHs in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. PAH contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by previous coring studies that reported decreasing concentrations of PAHs after reaching highs in the 1950s. Concurrent with the increase in concentrations is a change in the assemblage of PAHs that indicates the increasing trends are driven by combustion sources. The increase in PAH concentrations tracks closely with increases in automobile use, even in watersheds that have not undergone substantial changes in urban land-use levels since the 1970s.The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in PAHs, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of PAHs in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. PAH contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by

  13. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2008-05-16

    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  14. Optical coherence tomography investigations of ceramic lumineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luana O.; Graça, Natalia D. R. L.; Melo, Luciana S. A.; Silva, Claudio H. V.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-02-01

    Lumineers are veneer laminates used as an alternative for aesthetic dental solutions of the highest quality, but the only current means of its performance assessment is visual inspection. The objective of this study was to use the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) technique working in spectral domain to analyze in vivo in a single patient, 14 lumineers 180 days after cementation. It was possible to observe images in various kinds of changes in the cementing line and the laminate. It was concluded that the OCT is an effective and promising method to clinical evaluation of the cementing line in lumineers.

  15. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    More than 700 luminous stars in the infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) Skyflux plates were examined for the presence of dust heated by a nearby star. This dust may be distinguished from the ubiquitous cool cirrus by its higher temperature and thus enhanced 60 micron emission. More than 120 dust clouds were found around only 106 of the stars with a volume filling factor of 0.006 and an intercloud separation of 46 pc. A region of dust smoothly distributed through the volume of space heated by the star could not be found and hence an upper limit of 0.05 cm(exp -3) is placed on the equivalent gas density in the intercloud regions. The clouds have an average density of 0.22 cm(exp -3) and a radius of 1.9 pc, albeit with wide variations in their properties. Two different scale heights of 140 and 540 pc were found. This was interpreted as evidence for different distributions of dust in and out of the galactic disk.

  16. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  17. Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2003-12-01

    Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.

  18. EXTENDED HOT HALOS AROUND ISOLATED GALAXIES OBSERVED IN THE ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael E.; Bregman, Joel N.; Dai, Xinyu E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu

    2013-01-10

    We place general constraints on the luminosity and mass of hot X-ray-emitting gas residing in extended 'hot halos' around nearby massive galaxies. We examine stacked images of 2165 galaxies from the 2MASS Isolated Galaxy Catalog as well as subsets of this sample based on galaxy morphology and K-band luminosity. We detect X-ray emission at high confidence (ranging up to nearly 10{sigma}) for each subsample of galaxies. The average L{sub X} within 50 kpc is 1.0 {+-} 0.1 (statistical) {+-}0.2 (systematic) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}, although the early-type galaxies are more than twice as luminous as the late-type galaxies. Using a spatial analysis, we also find evidence for extended emission around five out of seven subsamples (the full sample, the luminous galaxies, early-type galaxies, luminous late-type galaxies, and luminous early-type galaxies) at 92.7%, 99.3%, 89.3%, 98.7%, and 92.1% confidence, respectively. Several additional lines of evidence also support this conclusion and suggest that about 1/2 of the total emission is extended, and about 1/3 of the extended emission comes from hot gas. For the sample of luminous galaxies, which has the strongest evidence for extended emission, the average hot gas mass is 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M {sub Sun} within 50 kpc and the implied accretion rate is 0.4 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  19. PAH in the laboratory and interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The theory that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a constituent of the interstellar medium, and a source of the IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns is being studied using PAH containing acid insoluble residue of the Orgueil CI meteorite and coal tar. FTIR spectra of Orgueil PAH material that has undergone thermal treatment, and a solvent insoluble fraction of coal tar that has been exposed to hydrogen plasma are presented. The UV excided luminescence spectrum of a solvent soluble coal tar film is also shown. Comparison of the lab measurements with observations appears to support the interstellar PAH theory, and shows the process of dehydrogenation expected to take place in the interstellar medium.

  20. Amphibian responses to photoinduced toxicity of PAHs

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A.C.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Amphibians are essential components of many ecosystems, yet little information exists on their sensitivity to environmental stressors. Recent evidence shows amphibian diversity is declining. Others have suggested this decline is a result of increasing ultraviolet (UV) light levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread pollutants in the aquatic environment and their toxicity is increased in the presence of UV light. Embryos of two frogs (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis) were exposed to a PAH, fluoranthene, to evaluate amphibian responses to this common contaminant in the presence of sunlight. Hatching rate and development were measured in field and laboratory exposures at multiple concentrations and varying UV intensities. Hatching rate was relatively unaffected, while newly hatched larvae were sensitive to low (ug/L) concentrations. Response was related to both PAH concentration and UV intensity. Results suggest that PAH contamination in the aquatic environment may contribute to declines in amphibian populations.

  1. SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE PAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....

  2. Landfarming in a PAH-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Picado, A; Nogueira, A; Baeta-Hall, L; Mendonça, E; de Fátima Rodrigues, M; do Céu Sàágua, M; Martins, A; Anselmo, A M

    2001-01-01

    The present work describes a coke oven soil treatability study by land-farming, conducted on-site in a field scale facility covering 100 m2. The soil contamination was mainly due to high concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to 1,140 mg/Kg dry weight (sigma EPA). Along the treatment process the soil was characterised at the chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological levels. After 3 months a reduction of 63% in total PAHs concentration was observed, being detected a more pronounced reduction for PAHs with 2, 3 and 4 rings (79%). Concomitantly, a change in the composition of the microbial population was observed with a significant increase in the PAHs degrading and total heterotrophic colonies. Concerning the ecotoxicity and genotoxicity data no effect was detected in the treated soil samples eluates.

  3. Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Elie, Marc R; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M; Gonnerman, Gregory D; Stevens, Jan F; Tanguay, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both PAHs and oxy-PAHs are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent PAHs, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-PAHs which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent PAHs and oxy-PAHs exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 63 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between PAH and oxy-PAH exposures on vertebrate development. PMID:26001975

  4. Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in developing zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Marc R.; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M.; Gonnerman, Gregory D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both PAHs and oxy-PAHs are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent PAHs, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-PAHs which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent PAHs and oxy-PAHs exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 62 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between PAH and oxy-PAH exposures on vertebrate development. PMID:26001975

  5. Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Elie, Marc R; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M; Gonnerman, Gregory D; Stevens, Jan F; Tanguay, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both PAHs and oxy-PAHs are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent PAHs, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-PAHs which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent PAHs and oxy-PAHs exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 63 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between PAH and oxy-PAH exposures on vertebrate development.

  6. Distributions and concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H B; Luo, Y M; Wong, M H; Zhao, Q G; Zhang, G L

    2006-05-01

    Surface soil (0-10 cm) samples from 53 sampling sites including rural and urban areas of Hong Kong were collected and analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations were in the range of 7.0-410 microg kg(-1) (dry wt), with higher concentrations in urban soils than that in rural soils. The three predominant PAHs were Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Pyrene in rural soils, while Fluoranthene, Naphthalene and Benzo(b + k)fluoranthene dominated the PAHs of urban soils. The values of PAHs isomer indicated that biomass burning might be the major origin of PAHs in rural soils, but vehicular emission around the heavy traffic roads might contribute to the soil PAHs in urban areas. A cluster analysis was performed and grouped the detectable PAHs under 4 clusters, which could be indicative of the PAHs with different origins and PAHs affected by soil organic carbon contents respectively. PMID:16242223

  7. Planning and Measuring Luminance Contrast in Staircases.

    PubMed

    Houck, Leif D; Gundersen, Kristoffer; Strengen, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian legislation has requirements concerning luminance contrast for different elements in staircases. This paper investigates how architects work to meet the requirements, how to measure the actual built luminance contrasts and finally 21 staircases are measured using two different methods. The results show that some architects do not reflect on luminance contrasts at all, some use their "experience" and some try to measure the reflectance value of different materials during planning. The investigations also reveal that there is not any official predefined way to control luminance contrast, and this investigation shows that different approaches will give different results. To perform the measuring of the built staircases, it has been necessary to develop a defined measuring method. The results of the measuring generally shows that only a few of the staircases studied fully meet the legislation requirements. PMID:27534331

  8. Jets and Outflows in Radio Galaxies: Implications for AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, Eleonora; Grandi, Paola; Costantini, Elisa; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    One of the main debated astrophysical problems is the role of the AGN feedback in galaxy formation. It is known that massive black holes have a profound effect on the formation and evolution of galaxies, but how black holes and galaxies communicate is still an unsolved problem. For Radio Galaxies, feedback studies have mainly focused on jet/cavity systems in the most massive and X-ray luminous galaxy clusters. The recent high-resolution detection of warm absorbers in some Broad Line Radio Galaxies allow us to investigate the interplay between the nuclear engine and the surrounding medium from a different perspective. We report on the detection of warm absorbers in two Broad Line Radio Galaxies, 3C 382 and 3C 390.3, and discuss the physical and energetic properties of the absorbing gas. Finally, we attempt a comparison between radio-loud and radio-quiet outflows.

  9. The Galaxy in Context: Structural, Kinematic, and Integrated Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2016-09-01

    Our Galaxy, the Milky Way, is a benchmark for understanding disk galaxies. It is the only galaxy whose formation history can be studied using the full distribution of stars from faint dwarfs to supergiants. The oldest components provide us with unique insight into how galaxies form and evolve over billions of years. The Galaxy is a luminous (L⋆) barred spiral with a central box/peanut bulge, a dominant disk, and a diffuse stellar halo. Based on global properties, it falls in the sparsely populated “green valley” region of the galaxy color-magnitude diagram. Here we review the key integrated, structural and kinematic parameters of the Galaxy, and point to uncertainties as well as directions for future progress. Galactic studies will continue to play a fundamental role far into the future because there are measurements that can only be made in the near field and much of contemporary astrophysics depends on such observations.

  10. PAH Spectroscopy: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery in the 1970's, astronomers, astrophysicists and astrochemists have been intrigued by the nearly ubiquitous unidentified infrared emission (UIR) bands. In the 1980's, investigators determined the most probably source of these emissions was a family of molecules known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or simply PAHs. In order to better understand these interstellar IR features and utilize them as chemical probes of the cosmos, laboratory spectroscopists have spent the last three decades investigating the spectroscopy of PAHs under astrophysically relevant conditions. This presentation will discuss the similarities and differences in the spectroscopic properties of PAHs as one goes from the Far to Mid to Near infrared wavelength regions and probe the changes observed in PAH spectra as they go from neutral to ionized molecules suspended in an inert gas matrix, to PAHs in a water ice matrix and as a thin film. In selected instances, the experimental results will be compared to theoretical values. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on the future directions of PAH spectroscopy.

  11. ISO observations of the interacting galaxy Markarian 297. with the powerful supernova remnant 1982aa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, L.; O'Halloran, B.; McBreen, B.; Delaney, M.; Burgdorf, M.; Leech, K.; Barr, P.; Clavel, J.; Coia, D.; Hanlon, L.; Gallais, P.; Laureijs, R.; Smith, N.

    2005-12-01

    Markarian (Mkn) 297 is a complex system comprised of two interacting galaxies that has been modelled with a variety of scenarios. Observations of this system were made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) using the ISOCAM, ISOPHOT and LWS instruments. ISOCAM maps at 6.7 μm, 7.7 μm, 12 μm and 14.3 μm are presented which, together with PHT-S spectrometry of the central interacting region, probe the dust obscured star formation and the properties of the organic dust. The ISOCAM observations reveal that the strongest emission in the four bands is at a location completely unremarkable at visible and near-IR (e.g. 2MASS) wavelengths, and does not coincide with the nuclear region of either colliding galaxy. This striking characteristic has also been observed in the overlap region of the colliding galaxies in the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039), the intragroup region of Stephan's Quintet, and in IC 694 in the interacting system Arp 299, and again underlines the importance of infrared observations in understanding star formation in colliding/merging systems. At 15 μm, the hidden source in Mkn 297 is, respectively, 14.6 and 3.8 times more luminous than the hidden sources in the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) and Stephan's Quintet. Numerical simulations of the Mkn 297 system indicate that a co-planar radial penetration between two disk galaxies yielded the observed wing formation in the system about 1.5 × 108 years after the collision. A complex emission pattern with knots and ridges of emission was detected with ISOCAM. The 7.7 μm map predominantly shows the galaxy in emission from the 7.7 μm feature attributed to PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons). The 14.3/7.7 μm ratio is greater than unity over most of the galaxy, implying widespread strong star formation. Strong emission features were detected in the ISOPHOT spectrum, while [O I], [O III] and [C II] emission lines were seen with LWS. Using data from the three instruments, luminosities and masses for two dust

  12. Eta Carinae and Other Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are believed to be evolved, extremely massive stars close to the Eddington Limit and hence prone to bouts of large-scale, unstable mass loss. I discuss current understanding of the evolutionary state of these objects, the role duplicity may play and known physical characteristics of these stars using the X-ray luminous LBVs Eta Carinae and HD 5980 as test cases.

  13. Compact quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    From several searches of the area common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, we have selected 22 luminous galaxies between z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.9 that have colors and sizes similar to those of the compact quiescent galaxies at z > 2. By exploring structural parameters and stellar populations, we found that most of these galaxies actually formed most of their stars at z < 2 and are generally less compact than those found at z > 2. Several of these young objects are disk-like or possibly prolate. This lines up with several previous studies that found that massive quiescent galaxies at high redshifts often have disk-like morphologies. If these galaxies were to be confirmed to be disk-like, their formation mechanism must be able to account for both compactness and disks. On the other hand, if these galaxies were to be confirmed to be prolate, the fact that prolate galaxies do not exist in the local universe would indicate that galaxy formation mechanisms have evolved over cosmic time. We also found five galaxies forming over 80% of their stellar masses at z > 2. Three of these galaxies appear to have been modified to have spheroid-like morphologies, in agreement with the scenario of 'inside-out' buildup of massive galaxies. The remaining galaxies, SDSS J014355.21+133451.4 and SDSS J115836.93+021535.1, have truly old stellar populations and disk-like morphologies. These two objects would be good candidates for nearly unmodified compact quiescent galaxies from high redshifts that are worth future study.

  14. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses.

    PubMed

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-07-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats' ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  15. Simultaneous chromatic and luminance human electroretinogram responses

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Neil R A; Murray, Ian J; Panorgias, Athanasios; McKeefry, Declan J; Lee, Barry B; Kremers, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The parallel processing of information forms an important organisational principle of the primate visual system. Here we describe experiments which use a novel chromatic–achromatic temporal compound stimulus to simultaneously identify colour and luminance specific signals in the human electroretinogram (ERG). Luminance and chromatic components are separated in the stimulus; the luminance modulation has twice the temporal frequency of the chromatic modulation. ERGs were recorded from four trichromatic and two dichromatic subjects (1 deuteranope and 1 protanope). At isoluminance, the fundamental (first harmonic) response was elicited by the chromatic component in the stimulus. The trichromatic ERGs possessed low-pass temporal tuning characteristics, reflecting the activity of parvocellular post-receptoral mechanisms. There was very little first harmonic response in the dichromats’ ERGs. The second harmonic response was elicited by the luminance modulation in the compound stimulus and showed, in all subjects, band-pass temporal tuning characteristic of magnocellular activity. Thus it is possible to concurrently elicit ERG responses from the human retina which reflect processing in both chromatic and luminance pathways. As well as providing a clear demonstration of the parallel nature of chromatic and luminance processing in the human retina, the differences that exist between ERGs from trichromatic and dichromatic subjects point to the existence of interactions between afferent post-receptoral pathways that are in operation from the earliest stages of visual processing. PMID:22586211

  16. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ≈ 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  17. Contamination of early-type galaxy alignments to galaxy lensing-CMB lensing cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa; Dunkley, Joanna; Miller, Lance; Allison, Rupert

    2015-10-01

    Galaxy shapes are subject to distortions due to the tidal field of the Universe. The cross-correlation of galaxy lensing with the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) cannot easily be separated from the cross-correlation of galaxy intrinsic shapes with CMB lensing. Previous work suggested that the intrinsic alignment contamination can be 15 per cent of this cross-spectrum for the CFHT Stripe 82 (CS82) and Atacama Cosmology Telescope surveys. Here we re-examine these estimates using up-to-date observational constraints of intrinsic alignments at a redshift more similar to that of CS82 galaxies. We find an ≈10 per cent contamination of the cross-spectrum from red galaxies, with ≈3 per cent uncertainty due to uncertainties in the redshift distribution of source galaxies and the modelling of the spectral energy distribution. Blue galaxies are consistent with being unaligned, but could contaminate the cross-spectrum by an additional 9.5 per cent within current 95 per cent confidence levels. While our fiducial estimate of alignment contamination is similar to previous work, our work suggests that the relevance of alignments for CMB lensing-galaxy lensing cross-correlation remains largely unconstrained. Little information is currently available about alignments at z > 1.2. We consider the upper limiting case where all z > 1.2 galaxies are aligned with the same strength as low-redshift luminous red galaxies, finding as much as ≈60 per cent contamination.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope Images of Nearby Luminous Quasars. 2; Results for Eight Quasars and Tests of the Detection Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1995-01-01

    Observations with the Wide-Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented for eight intrinsically luminous quasars with redshifts between 0.16 and 0.29. These observations, when combined with a similar HST study of the quasar PKS 2349-014, show that luminous nearby quasars exist in a variety of environments. Seven companion galaxies brighter than M(V) = 16.5 (H(sub 0) = 100 km s(sup -1) Mpc(sup -1), Omega(sub 0) = 1.0) lie within a projected distance of 25 kpc of the quasars; three of the companions are located closer than 3'' (6 kpc projected distance) from the quasars, well within the volume that would be enclosed by a typical L* host galaxy. The observed association of quasars and companion galaxies is statistically significant and may he an important element in the luminous-quasar phenomenon. Apparent host galaxies are detected for three of the quasars: PG 1116+215, 3C 273, and PG 1444+407; the hosts have an average absolute magnitude of about 0.6 mag brighter than L*. The agreement between the previously published major-axis directions in ground-based images and in the present HST images of 3C 273 and PG 1444+407 constitutes important evidence supporting the reality of these candidate host galaxies. Upper limits are placed on the visual-band brightnesses of representative galactic hosts for all the quasars. These limits are established by placing galaxy images obtained with HST underneath the quasars and measuring at what faintness level the known galaxies are detected. On average, the HST spirals would have been detected if they were as faint as 1 mag below L*, and the early-type galaxies could have been detected down to a brightness level of about L*, where L* is the Schechter characteristic luminosity of field galaxies. Smooth, featureless galaxy models (exponential disks or de Vaucouleurs profiles) are fitted to the residual light after a best-fitting point source is subtracted from the quasar images. The results show that smooth spiral

  19. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.

  20. Polarization Imaging of Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert

    1991-07-01

    Spectropolarimetry of the narrow line radio galaxy 3C234 was used to show in 1982 that there is a hidden broad line region occulted by an opaque torus oriented perpendicular to the radio structure axis. Given the luminosity of the reflected light, it follows that 3C234 would be called a quasar if its orientation with respect to the line of sight were different. Since then similar results were found for five Seyfert 2's. If many NLRG's are occulted quasars in the sky plane, several statistical anomalies in the beam model for superluminal motion are understandable. However, further optical spectropolarimetry has been disappointing in this regard, at least partially because of severe dilution of reflected light by starlight, sometimes polarized, from the host galaxies. We can solve this problem by observing in the UV. Furthermore, recent observations of two NLRGs have revealed OFF- NUCLEAR dust clouds reflecting and strongly "bluening" nuclear light in two NLRG's. Such dust clouds, abundant in the merger debris surrounding many luminous radio galaxies, should show up spectacularly in UV polarization images, providing information on the beam pattern and time history of nuclear emission. We request FOC polarization images of a sample of radio galaxies. We will also get for free and with high efficiency total flux images, suitable for studying the nuclei and the anomalous young stellar populations seen in merging radio galaxies from the ground.

  1. Polarization Imaging of Radio Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, Robert

    1996-07-01

    Spectropolarimetry of the narrow line radio galaxy 3C234 was used to show in 1982 that there is a hidden broad line region occulted by an opaque torus oriented perpendicular to the radio structure axis. Given the luminosity of the reflected light, it follows that 3C234 would be called a quasar if its orientation with respect to the line of sight were different. Since then similar results were found for five Seyfert 2's. If many NLRG's are occulted quasars in the sky plane, several statistical anomalies in the beam model for superluminal motion are understandable. However, further optical spectropolarimetry has been disappointing in this regard, at least partially because of severe dilution of reflected light by starlight, sometimes polarized, from the host galaxies. We can solve this problem by observing in the UV. Furthermore, recent observations of two NLRGs have revealed OFF- NUCLEAR dust clouds reflecting and strongly "bluening" nuclear light in two NLRG's. Such dust clouds, abundant in the merger debris surrounding many luminous radio galaxies, should show up spectacularly in UV polarization images, providing information on the beam pattern and time history of nuclear emission. We request FOC polarization images of a sample of radio galaxies. We will also get for free and with high efficiency total flux images, suitable for studying the nuclei and the anomalous young stellar populations seen in merging radio galaxies from the ground.

  2. Investigating the Enigmatic Ultraviolet 2175 A Extinction Feature and Correlation with Infrared Aromatic/PAH emission in M101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Karl

    2011-10-01

    The 2175 Angstrom ultraviolet dust extinction feature has been known for more than 45 years, but the source of the extinction has yet to be positively identified. One of the leading contenders in dust grain models is small aromatic/PAHs grains. Through IR observations of HII regions in the spiral galaxy M101, PAHs have measured emission strengths that dramatically weaken at large radii and ionizations. The parameter space of these HII regions in terms of metallicity, ionization, and PAH emission strengths is the largest of any known galaxy. To explore the connection between the 2175 A extinction feature and IR aromatic/PAH emission strengths, we propose to observe the six regions in M101 {5 HII and the nucleus} using near-UV and far-UV gratings {G230L/G140L} with the MAMA detectors on STIS. The STIS instrument provides the opportunity to obtain high S/N UV spectra integrated over the same large spatial scales of the previous IR observations { 78 square arcsec} in minimal time {2 orbits per region}. From the measured spectra, we will employ stellar evolutionary synthesis and radiative transfer models to extract the intrinsic strength of the 2175 A extinction feature. The 2175 A features strengths will be compared with the published emission strengths of five different aromatic/PAH features in all six regions. If the 2175 A feature is associated with aromatic/PAHs grains, we will see a strong correlation. The lack of a strong correlation will imply the need for significant modification of leading dust models.

  3. Cosmological parameter constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering with the SDSS DR7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Slosar, Anže; Baldauf, Tobias; Seljak, Uroš; Hirata, Christopher M.; Nakajima, Reiko; Reyes, Reinabelle; Smith, Robert E.

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the cross-correlation coefficient between galaxies and dark matter is very close to unity on scales outside a few virial radii of galaxy haloes, independent of the details of how galaxies populate dark matter haloes. This finding makes it possible to determine the dark matter clustering from measurements of galaxy-galaxy weak lensing and galaxy clustering. We present new cosmological parameter constraints based on large-scale measurements of spectroscopic galaxy samples from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 7. We generalize the approach of Baldauf et al. to remove small-scale information (below 2 and 4 h-1 Mpc for lensing and clustering measurements, respectively), where the cross-correlation coefficient differs from unity. We derive constraints for three galaxy samples covering 7131 deg2, containing 69 150, 62 150 and 35 088 galaxies with mean redshifts of 0.11, 0.28 and 0.40. We clearly detect scale-dependent galaxy bias for the more luminous galaxy samples, at a level consistent with theoretical expectations. When we vary both σ8 and Ωm (and marginalize over non-linear galaxy bias) in a flat Λ cold dark matter model, the best-constrained quantity is σ8(Ωm/0.25)0.57 = 0.80 ± 0.05 (1σ, stat. + sys.), where statistical and systematic errors (photometric redshift and shear calibration) have comparable contributions, and we have fixed ns = 0.96 and h = 0.7. These strong constraints on the matter clustering suggest that this method is competitive with cosmic shear in current data, while having very complementary and in some ways less serious systematics. We therefore expect that this method will play a prominent role in future weak lensing surveys. When we combine these data with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year (WMAP7) cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, constraints on σ8, Ωm, H0, wde and ∑mν become 30-80 per cent tighter than with CMB data alone, since our data break several parameter

  4. Massive stars in the galaxies of the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    2013-07-01

    The star-forming galaxies of the Local Group act as our laboratories for testing massive star evolutionary models. In this review, I briefly summarize what we believe we know about massive star evolution, and the connection between OB stars, Luminous Blue Variables, yellow supergiants, red supergiants, and Wolf-Rayet stars. The difficulties and recent successes in identifying these various types of massive stars in the neighboring galaxies of the Local Group will be discussed.

  5. A MASSIVE PROGENITOR OF THE LUMINOUS TYPE IIn SUPERNOVA 2010jl

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nathan; Li Weidong; Miller, Adam A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Cooper, Michael C.; Matheson, Thomas; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.

    2011-05-10

    The bright, nearby, recently discovered supernova (SN) 2010jl is a luminous Type IIn SN. Here, we report archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of its host galaxy UGC 5189A taken roughly 10 yr prior to explosion, as well as early-time optical spectra of the SN. The HST images reveal a luminous, blue point source at the position of the SN, with an absolute magnitude of -12.0 in the F300W filter. If it is not just a chance alignment, the source at the SN position could be (1) a massive young (<6 Myr) star cluster in which the SN resided, (2) a quiescent, luminous blue star with an apparent temperature around 14,000 K, (3) a star caught during a bright outburst akin to those of luminous blue variables, or (4) a combination of option (1) and option (2) or (3). Although we cannot confidently choose between these possibilities with the present data, any of them imply that the progenitor of SN 2010jl had an initial mass above 30 M{sub sun}. This reinforces mounting evidence that many SNe IIn result from very massive stars, that massive stars can produce visible SNe without collapsing quietly to black holes, and that massive stars can sometimes retain their H envelopes until shortly before explosion. Standard stellar evolution models fail to account for these observed properties.

  6. A search for PAHs in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cami, J.; Tan, X.; Biennier, L.; Salama, F.

    2005-05-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for the spectral signatures in the visible range of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in astronomical observations representing various astrophysical environments, probing a total column of line of sight material corresponding to Av ˜50. Laboratory measurements of PAHs in simulated astrophysical conditions are now available (see contribution of Salama et al.) which provide for the first time the exact wavelengths for the spectral features of these molecules, as well as detailed information on the intrinsic line profiles and oscillator strengths. These measurements therefore allow a direct comparison to astronomical observations and an estimate of -- or upper limit to -- the abundance of individual PAHs in space. As the column densities for individual PAHs in interstellar or circumstellar lines of sight are expected to be very low, such a comparison and analysis requires astronomical observations at very high signal to noise. We present such a data set here for lines of sight representing diffuse clouds and circumstellar environments of carbon stars, and their comparison with gas phase spectra of a representative set of free, cold PAHs. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis (APRA) Program of the Science Mission Directorate. This research was performed while J.C., X.T. and L.B. held a National Research Council Research Associateship Award at NASA-Ames Research Center.

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of PAH mixtures from kaolin.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, M T; Gómez, J; Pazos, M; Sanromán, M A

    2010-07-15

    Because of increased industrialisation and new manufacturing processes, elevated amounts of organic pollutants are released into the environment. Hydrophobic organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are toxic and persistent contaminants that are not treatable by natural attenuation. In this work, electroremediation is proposed for cleaning soil contaminated by organic compounds. Model samples of kaolin clay polluted with a mixture of PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzanthracene) were treated. Electroremediation of kaolin contaminated with a mixture of these three PAHs was carried out using a solution of 1% Tween 80 and 0.1 M Na(2)SO(4) as the processing fluid. Under these conditions, low removal was obtained. However, by using the same processing fluid and controlling the pH at 7 in the anode chamber, high electro-osmotic flow was detected. After the treatment, removal of around 40% of the PAHs was achieved. The created environment inside the soil during the electrokinetic treatment greatly influenced the process. The results of this work reveal the high potential for the application of the electroremediation process on soil polluted with different PAHs.

  8. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A

    2002-08-01

    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  9. Duration expansion at low luminance levels.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Aurelio; Ayhan, Inci; Johnston, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Duration distortions have been shown to occur at the time of saccades and following high temporal frequency or contrast adaptation. Under all these conditions, changes in the temporal tuning of M neurons also occur, suggesting that there might be a link between the two phenomena. In order to explore this relationship further, we measured the apparent duration of visual stimuli in the dark, where the temporal impulse response has been reported to lengthen. We first measured a progressive shift and reduction of the occurrence of an apparent motion reversal as we decreased the luminance level, indicating a lengthening of the temporal impulse response. We then measured perceived duration at these luminance levels (0.75, 3, and 50 cd/m(2)) after matching for apparent contrast and temporal frequency. While perceived temporal frequency did not substantially differ across luminance levels, duration appeared expanded at the lowest luminance level relative to the highest by approximately 60 ms. Thus, we have shown that reduced luminance is associated with both a lengthening of the temporal impulse response and a duration expansion, linking the two and providing further evidence for a relationship between changes in the neuronal tuning in the early stages of the visual system and time perception.

  10. Dynamic coding of temporal luminance variation.

    PubMed

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2012-06-01

    The range of variation in environmental stimuli is much larger than the visual system can represent. It is therefore sensible for the system to adjust its responses to the momentary input statistics of the environment, such as when our pupils contract to limit the light entering the eye. Previous evidence indicates that the visual system increasingly centers responses on the mean of the visual input and scales responses to its variation during adaptation. To what degree does adaptation to a stimulus varying in luminance over time result in such adjustment of responses? The first two experiments were designed to test whether sensitivity to changes in the amplitude and the mean of a 9.6° central patch varying sinusoidally in luminance at 0.6 Hz would increase or decrease with adaptation. This was also tested for a dynamic peripheral stimulus (random patches rotating on the screen) to test to what extent the effects uncovered in the first two experiments reflect retinotopic mechanisms. Sensitivity to changes in mean and amplitude of the temporal luminance variation increased sharply the longer the adaptation to the variation, both for the large patch and the peripheral patches. Adaptation to luminance variation leads to increased sensitivity to temporal luminance variation for both central and peripheral presentation, the latter result ruling retinotopic mechanisms out as sole explanations for the adaptation effects.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF OTHER GALAXY PROPERTIES FOR THE SAME STAR FORMATION ACTIVITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Xinfa; Bei Yang; He Jizhou; Tang Xiaoxun

    2010-01-01

    Using two volume-limited Main galaxy samples of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 above and below the value of M*, we have investigated the environmental dependence of other galaxy properties for the same star formation activities. Only in the luminous passive class, a strong environmental dependence of the g - r color is observed, but the environmental dependence of other properties in this class is very weak. In other classes, we can conclude that the local density dependence of luminosity, g - r color, concentration index ci, and morphologies for star-forming galaxies and passive ones is much weaker than that obtained in the volume-limited Main galaxy samples. This suggests that star formation activity is a galaxy property very predictive of the local environment. In addition, we also note that passive galaxies are more luminous, redder, highly concentrated, and preferentially 'early type'.

  12. The dynamical fingerprint of core scouring in massive elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Saglia, R. P.; Bender, R.; Erwin, P.; Fabricius, M.

    2014-02-10

    The most massive elliptical galaxies have low-density centers or cores that differ dramatically from the high-density centers of less massive ellipticals and bulges of disk galaxies. These cores have been interpreted as the result of mergers of supermassive black hole binaries, which depopulate galaxy centers by gravitationally slingshotting central stars toward large radii. Such binaries naturally form in mergers of luminous galaxies. Here, we analyze the population of central stellar orbits in 11 massive elliptical galaxies that we observed with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Our dynamical analysis is orbit-based and includes the effects of a central black hole, the mass distribution of the stars, and a dark matter halo. We show that the use of integral field kinematics and the inclusion of dark matter is important to conclude on the distribution of stellar orbits in galaxy centers. Six of our galaxies are core galaxies. In these six galaxies, but not in the galaxies without cores, we detect a coherent lack of stars on radial orbits in the core region and a uniform excess of radial orbits outside of it: when scaled by the core radius r{sub b} , the radial profiles of the classical anisotropy parameter β(r) are nearly identical in core galaxies. Moreover, they quantitatively match the predictions of black hole binary simulations, providing the first convincing dynamical evidence for core scouring in the most massive elliptical galaxies.

  13. SEGUE 2: THE LEAST MASSIVE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Cohen, Judith G.; Geha, Marla

    2013-06-10

    Segue 2, discovered by Belokurov et al., is a galaxy with a luminosity of only 900 L{sub Sun }. We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of 25 members of Segue 2-a threefold increase in spectroscopic sample size. The velocity dispersion is too small to be measured with our data. The upper limit with 90% (95%) confidence is {sigma}{sub v} < 2.2 (2.6) km s{sup -1}, the most stringent limit for any galaxy. The corresponding limit on the mass within the three-dimensional half-light radius (46 pc) is M{sub 1/2} < 1.5 (2.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. Segue 2 is the least massive galaxy known. We identify Segue 2 as a galaxy rather than a star cluster based on the wide dispersion in [Fe/H] (from -2.85 to -1.33) among the member stars. The stars' [{alpha}/Fe] ratios decline with increasing [Fe/H], indicating that Segue 2 retained Type Ia supernova ejecta despite its presently small mass and that star formation lasted for at least 100 Myr. The mean metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = -2.22 {+-} 0.13 (about the same as the Ursa Minor galaxy, 330 times more luminous than Segue 2), is higher than expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation defined by more luminous dwarf galaxy satellites of the Milky Way. Segue 2 may be the barest remnant of a tidally stripped, Ursa Minor-sized galaxy. If so, it is the best example of an ultra-faint dwarf galaxy that came to be ultra-faint through tidal stripping. Alternatively, Segue 2 could have been born in a very low mass dark matter subhalo (v{sub max} < 10 km s{sup -1}), below the atomic hydrogen cooling limit.

  14. Infrared images of merging galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, G. S.; James, P. A.; Joseph, R. D.; Mclean, I. S.; Doyon, R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared imaging of interacting galaxies is especially interesting because their optical appearance is often so chaotic due to extinction by dust and emission from star formation regions, that it is impossible to locate the nuclei or determine the true stellar distribution. However, at near-infrared wavelengths extinction is considerably reduced, and most of the flux from galaxies originates from red giant stars that comprise the dominant stellar component by mass. Thus near infrared images offer the opportunity to study directly components of galactic structure which are otherwise inaccessible. Such images may ultimately provide the framework in which to understand the activity taking place in many of the mergers with high Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) luminosities. Infrared images have been useful in identifying double structures in the nuclei of interacting galaxies which have not even been hinted at by optical observations. A striking example of this is given by the K images of Arp 220. Graham et al. (1990) have used high resolution imaging to show that it has a double nucleus coincident with the radio sources in the middle of the dust lane. The results suggest that caution should be applied in the identification of optical bright spots as multiple nuclei in the absence of other evidence. They also illustrate the advantages of using infrared imaging to study the underlying structure in merging galaxies. The authors have begun a program to take near infrared images of galaxies which are believed to be mergers of disk galaxies because they have tidal tails and filaments. In many of these the merger is thought to have induced exceptionally luminous infrared emission (cf. Joseph and Wright 1985, Sanders et al. 1988). Although the optical images of the galaxies show spectacular dust lanes and filaments, the K images all have a very smooth distribution of light with an apparently single nucleus.

  15. Submillimetre observations of WISE-selected high-redshift, luminous AGN and their surrounding overdense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2016-08-01

    We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850 μm submillimetre (submm) observations of 10 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs), detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky IR survey and 30 that have also been detected by the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. When comparing the number of submm galaxies detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5 arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 3-5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments that could be forming in pre-viralized clusters of galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850 μm observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets have total IR luminosities ≥1013 L⊙, with known redshifts of 20 targets between z ˜ 0.44-4.6.

  16. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-04

    The scientific belief that the universe evolves in time is one of the legacies of the theory of the Big Bang. The concept that the universe has an history started to attract the interest of cosmologists soon after the first formulation of the theory: already Gamow (1948; 1949) investigated how and when galaxies could have been formed in the context of the expanding Universe. However, the specific topic of the formation (and of the fate) of the first objects dates to two decades later, when no objects with metallicities as low as those predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis (Z {approx}< 10{sup -10} {approx} 10{sup -8}Z{sub {circle_dot}}) were found. Such concerns were addressed in two seminal papers by Peebles & Dicke (1968; hereafter PD68) and by Doroshkevich, Zel'Dovich & Novikov (1967; hereafter DZN67), introducing the idea that some objects could have formed before the stars we presently observe. (1) Both PD68 and DZN67 suggest a mass of {approx} 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} for the first generation of bound systems, based on the considerations on the cosmological Jeans length (Gamow 1948; Peebles 1965) and the possible shape of the power spectrum. (2) They point out the role of thermal instabilities in the formation of the proto-galactic bound object, and of the cooling of the gas inside it; in particular, PD68 introduces H{sub 2} cooling and chemistry in the calculations about the contraction of the gas. (3) Even if they do not specifically address the occurrence of fragmentation, these papers make two very different assumptions: PD68 assumes that the gas will fragment into ''normal'' stars to form globular clusters, while DZN67 assumes that fragmentation does not occur, and that a single ''super-star'' forms. (4) Finally, some feedback effects as considered (e.g. Peebles & Dicke considered the effects of supernovae). Today most of the research focuses on the issues when fragmentation may occur, what objects are formed and how they influence subsequent

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives (alkyl-PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs, nitrated-PAHs and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-PAHs, 15 oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-PAHs (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29PAHs, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived PAHs and retene, etc.), indicated that PAHs, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.

  18. H_2 Formation Mediated By PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauzat, Francoise

    Although molecular hydrogen is the most abundant species in space, no satisfactory explanation for its formation in the interstellar medium has yet been proposed. It is usually assumed that H_2 is formed by recombination of H atoms adsorbed on grains which migrate from one site to another and react to form H_2. The energy released in the reaction is dissipated in the grain and used in the desorbtion process. However such a mechanism is not satisfying because the environment where H_2 is supposed to be formed is warm enough to easily desorb the H atoms, preventing them from reacting with each other. We present here the results of quantum mechanical calculations aimed at testing an alternative process in which an incident H atom is first chemisorbed on the grain before reacting with a peripheral chemically bonded H. To test such alternative, where the release of the H_2 molecule formed is insured by the exothermicity of the reaction, we had in the past, conducted preliminary studies at a semi-empirical level of theory. These investigations showed that an ionised compact PAH, as small as Pyrene, does fulfil the thermodynamical conditions to form H_2 through the reaction: PAH^+ + H -> dPAH^+ + H_2 where dPAH^+ stands for dehydrogenated positively charged PAH. Since regeneration of the original cation by addition of atomic hydrogen to the dehydrogenated positive ion is thermodynamically allowed, the process can be cycled. The feasability of such a process has been reconsidered using ab-initio methods of quantum chemistry for a better description of the full reaction path. The present study illustrates another possible role of PAHs. It suggests that positively charged species may be an important partner in the catalytic formation of molecular hydrogen.

  19. Spectroscopy and Interferometry of the Winds of Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Noel D.

    2012-04-01

    Massive stars are rare, but emit most of the light we observe in the Universe and create many of the heavy elements in the Universe. In this dissertation, I explore the winds of the massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. New observational approaches and long time-series are utilized in order to examine the basic observable properties of the stars and the mass lost during their lifetimes. The mass lost through a hot star's wind impacts its long-term evolution. In order to study the winds and the long-term changes of the stars, hot stars with some of the strongest winds (the luminous blue variables or LBVs) were studied in detail with optical spectroscopy and photometry. A 25-year survey on the prototype P Cygni is presented, where the long-term changes are documented for many parameters that have not been examined before. In addition, we present a detailed study of the H-band emitting region through interferometric imaging with the CHARA Array and the MIRC beam combiner as well as spectrophotometry. A detailed study of the Hα line variability of the LBV η Carinae near its recent periastron is presented. The LBV candidate HDE 326823 is found to be a binary system with variability driven by the close binary companion and Roche lobe overflow. Finally, I present a three-year study of many LBVs in the Milky Way Galaxy and Magellanic Clouds for a statistically significant survey of the long-term variability properties of these rare stars as a population. These results show that all the sample stars exhibit similar types of variability, although with different amplitudes. Future studies of LBV winds are outlined, as well as a short discussion of Georgia State University's Hard Labor Creek Observatory for these types of studies.

  20. Mesopic luminance assessed with minimum motion photometry.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Sabine; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2011-08-25

    We measured the relative contribution of rods and cones to luminance across a range of photopic, mesopic, and scotopic adaptation levels and at various retinal eccentricities. We isolated the luminance channel by setting motion-based luminance nulls (minimum motion photometry) using annular stimuli. Luminance nulls between differently colored stimuli require equality in a weighted sum of rod and cone excitations. The relative cone weight increases smoothly from the scotopic range, where rods dominate, to photopic levels, where rod influence becomes negligible. The change from rod to cone vision does not occur uniformly over the visual field. The more peripheral the stimulus location, the higher is the light level required for cones to participate strongly. The relative cone contribution can be described by a sigmoid function of intensity, with two parameters that each depend on the eccentricity and spatial frequency of the stimulus. One parameter determines the "meso-mesopic" luminance--the center of the mesopic range, at which rod and cone contributions are balanced. This increases with eccentricity, reflecting an increase in the meso-mesopic luminance from 0.04 scotopic cd/m(2) at 2° eccentricity to 0.44 scotopic cd/m(2) at 18°. The second parameter represents the slope of the log-log threshold-versus-intensity curve (TVI curve) for rod vision. This parameter inversely scales the width of the mesopic range and increases only slightly with eccentricity (from 0.73 at 2° to 0.78 for vision at 18° off-axis).

  1. Dynamical decomposition of galaxies across the Hubble sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; van de Ven, G.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Meidt, S. E.; Martig, M.; Yildirim, A.

    2016-06-01

    Ongoing and upcoming integral-field spectroscopic surveys will provide stellar kinematic maps of thousands of nearby galaxies across the Hubble sequence. For the first time, we have been able to construct Schwarzschild dynamical models that fit in detail elliptical through spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey in a homogeneous way. This orbit superposition method allows us to uncover the luminous and dark matter in galaxies without (astro)physically unjustified assumptions on shape and velocity anisotropy made in common dynamical approaches. Moreover, the inferred intrinsic orbital structure enables us to dynamically decompose galaxies into different components such as bulges, thin and thick disks. Subsequently, we can for each component robustly derive its mass distribution as well as internal rotation, velocity dispersion and higher-order dynamics. In this way, we obtain a detailed physical insight into nearby galaxies from statistically well-defined samples, which in turn provides a true benchmark for galaxy formation models in a cosmological context.

  2. Galaxy properties and the cosmic web in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We seek to understand the relationship between galaxy properties and their local environment, which calls for a proper formulation of the notion of environment. We analyse the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations within the framework of the cosmic web as formulated by Hoffman et al., focusing on properties of simulated dark matter haloes and luminous galaxies with respect to voids, sheets, filaments, and knots - the four elements of the cosmic web. We find that the mass functions of haloes depend on environment, which drives other environmental dependence of galaxy formation. The web shapes the halo mass function, and through the strong dependence of the galaxy properties on the mass of their host haloes, it also shapes the galaxy-(web) environment dependence.

  3. A New Star Formation Rate Calibration from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features and Application to High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, Heath V.; Papovich, Casey; Rieke, George H.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Moustakas, John

    2016-02-01

    We calibrate the integrated luminosity from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features at 6.2, 7.7, and 11.3 μm in galaxies as a measure of the star formation rate (SFR). These features are strong (containing as much as 5%-10% of the total infrared luminosity) and suffer minimal extinction. Our calibration uses Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) measurements of 105 galaxies at 0 < z < 0.4, infrared (IR) luminosities of 109-1012 {L}⊙ , combined with other well-calibrated SFR indicators. The PAH luminosity correlates linearly with the SFR as measured by the extinction-corrected Hα luminosity over the range of luminosities in our calibration sample. The scatter is 0.14 dex, comparable to that between SFRs derived from the Paα and extinction-corrected Hα emission lines, implying that the PAH features may be as accurate an SFR indicator as hydrogen recombination lines. The PAH SFR relation depends on gas-phase metallicity, for which we supply an empirical correction for galaxies with 0.2 < Z ≲ 0.7 {Z}⊙ . We present a case study in advance of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which will be capable of measuring SFRs from PAHs in distant galaxies at the peak of the SFR density in the universe (z ˜ 2) with SFRs as low as ˜10 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1. We use Spitzer/IRS observations of the PAH features and Paα emission plus Hα measurements in lensed star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 3 to demonstrate the ability of the PAHs to derive accurate SFRs. We also demonstrate that because the PAH features dominate the mid-IR fluxes, broadband mid-IR photometric measurements from JWST will both trace the SFR and provide a way to exclude galaxies dominated by an active galactic nucleus.

  4. Tracking Steady Light Sources Amid Luminous Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissh, Frank; Fowski, Walter; Miklus, Kenneth; Abreu, Rene; Bolin, Kenneth; Flynn, David

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Event Rejection for Acquisition and Tracking (TERAT) algorithm governs operation of image-data-acquisition and -processing system. TERAT processes digitized image data to acquire (that is, identify) candidate steady source of light, validate candidate source, and track validated source, all in presence of real or apparent luminous transients represented in image data. Source of light tracked could be star or distant luminous beacon. Transients caused by impacts of ionizing radiation on imaging array of photodetectors or by unsteady light sources not meant to be tracked. TERAT functions with limited data-processing resources. TERAT algorithm currently operational on NASA's TOPEX mission.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Armus, Lee; Hogg, David W.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Werner, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    With a redshift of 2.3, the IRAS source FSC 10214+4724 is apparently one of the most luminous objects known in the universe. We present an image of FSC 10214+4724 at 0.8 pm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 Planetary Camera. The source appears as an unresolved (less then 0.06) arc 0.7 long, with significant substructure along its length. The center of curvature of the arc is located near an elliptical galaxy 1.18 to the north. An unresolved component 100 times fainter than the arc is clearly detected on the opposite side of this galaxy. The most straightforward interpretation is that FSC 10214+4724 is gravitationally lensed by the foreground elliptical galaxy, with the faint component a counter-image of the IRAS source. The brightness of the arc in the HST image is then magnified by approx. 100, and the intrinsic source diameter is approx. 0.0l (80 pc) at 0.25 microns rest wavelength. The bolometric luminosity is probably amplified by a smaller factor (approx. 30) as a result of the larger extent expected for the source in the far-infrared. A detailed lensing model is presented that reproduces the observed morphology and relative flux of the arc and counterimage and correctly predicts the position angle of the lensing galaxy. The model also predicts reasonable values for the velocity dispersion, mass, and mass-to-light ratio of the lensing galaxy for a wide range of galaxy redshifts. A redshift for the lensing galaxy of -0.9 is consistent with the measured surface brightness profile from the image, as well as with the galaxy's spectral energy distribution. The background lensed source has an intrinsic luminosity approx. 2 x 10(exp 13) L(solar mass) and remains a highly luminous quasar with an extremely large ratio of infrared to optical/ultraviolet luminosity.

  6. ASSESSING RISKS FROM PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY OF PAHS TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most ubiquitous classes of environmental contaminants. Although most PAHs are toxic only at concentrations large enough to cause narcosis, the toxicity of some can be greatly enhanced through mechanisms that involve molecul...

  7. Effect of sorption and substrate pattern on PAH degradability

    SciTech Connect

    Ressler, B.P.; Kaempf, C.; Winter, J.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of sorption and the substrate pattern on the degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during bioremediation of PAH-contaminated silt in a slurry reactor was investigated. Biological degradation of high-molecular-weight PAH compounds sorbed to silt and clay particles was enhanced in the presence of low-molecular-weight PAHs. In soil suspensions containing silt contaminated with PAH compounds of different molecular weights, PAHs containing four aromatic rings were degraded more readily in the presence of naphthalene. Bioavailability of PAHs was correlated to the water solubility of different compounds; a significant limitation of bacterial growth and activity due to sorption of PAHs to the fine particles could not be observed.

  8. Orientations of Bright Galaxies within their Dark Matter Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.

    2013-07-01

    Few constraints exist on the ways in which large, bright galaxies are embedded within their dark matter halos. Understanding the relationships between visible galaxies and their invisible dark matter halos is, however, important for many applications, including measurements of halo shapes from weak lensing and intrinsic alignments of galaxies. A key component of the galaxy-halo relationship is the degree to which mass and light are aligned and, hence, whether the observed major axes of bright galaxies are aligned with the major axes of their dark matter halos. Here I will show that the locations of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) can be used to constrain the orientations of the primary galaxies within their dark matter halos. In particular, the dependence of satellite galaxy location on the colors and stellar masses of the primaries can only be reproduced if elliptical and disk primaries are embedded within their halos in different ways: the principal axes of the luminous ellipticals are well-aligned with the principal axes of their dark matter halos, while the luminous disks are oriented such that the angular momentum of the disk is well-aligned with the net angular momentum of the dark matter halo. The latter induces a significant misalignment of mass and light in disk primaries. This has implications for the use of galaxy-galaxy lensing to measure halo shapes. If the dark matter halos are non-spherical, then the resulting anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing signal is likely to be detected only around elliptical lenses, not disk lenses. I will show that a preliminary analysis of the anisotropic galaxy-galaxy lensing signal in the SDSS supports this hypothesis. This analysis differs from previous galaxy-galaxy lensing studies in the SDSS in that the lenses are sufficiently isolated that they, themselves, will not have been lensed by any other objects along the line of sight. This insures that the observed major axes of the lens galaxies are

  9. Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universe.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, V C

    1993-01-01

    Dynamical evidence accumulated over the past 20 years has convinced astronomers that luminous matter in a spiral galaxy constitutes no more than 10% of the mass of a galaxy. An additional 90% is inferred by its gravitational effect on luminous material. Here I review recent observations concerning the distribution of luminous and nonluminous matter in the Milky Way, in galaxies, and in galaxy clusters. Observations of neutral hydrogen disks, some extending in radius several times the optical disk, confirm that a massive dark halo is a major component of virtually every spiral. A recent surprise has been the discovery that stellar and gas motions in ellipticals are enormously complex. To date, only for a few spheroidal galaxies do the velocities extend far enough to probe the outer mass distribution. But the diverse kinematics of inner cores, peripheral to deducing the overall mass distribution, offer additional evidence that ellipticals have acquired gas-rich systems after initial formation. Dynamical results are consistent with a low-density universe, in which the required dark matter could be baryonic. On smallest scales of galaxies [10 kiloparsec (kpc); Ho = 50 km.sec-1.megaparsec-1] the luminous matter constitutes only 1% of the closure density. On scales greater than binary galaxies (i.e., >/=100 kpc) all systems indicate a density approximately 10% of the closure density, a density consistent with the low baryon density in the universe. If large-scale motions in the universe require a higher mass density, these motions would constitute the first dynamical evidence for nonbaryonic matter in a universe of higher density. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:11607393

  10. Galaxy dynamics and the mass density of the universe.

    PubMed

    Rubin, V C

    1993-06-01

    Dynamical evidence accumulated over the past 20 years has convinced astronomers that luminous matter in a spiral galaxy constitutes no more than 10% of the mass of a galaxy. An additional 90% is inferred by its gravitational effect on luminous material. Here I review recent observations concerning the distribution of luminous and nonluminous matter in the Milky Way, in galaxies, and in galaxy clusters. Observations of neutral hydrogen disks, some extending in radius several times the optical disk, confirm that a massive dark halo is a major component of virtually every spiral. A recent surprise has been the discovery that stellar and gas motions in ellipticals are enormously complex. To date, only for a few spheroidal galaxies do the velocities extend far enough to probe the outer mass distribution. But the diverse kinematics of inner cores, peripheral to deducing the overall mass distribution, offer additional evidence that ellipticals have acquired gas-rich systems after initial formation. Dynamical results are consistent with a low-density universe, in which the required dark matter could be baryonic. On smallest scales of galaxies [10 kiloparsec (kpc); Ho = 50 km.sec-1.megaparsec-1] the luminous matter constitutes only 1% of the closure density. On scales greater than binary galaxies (i.e., >/=100 kpc) all systems indicate a density approximately 10% of the closure density, a density consistent with the low baryon density in the universe. If large-scale motions in the universe require a higher mass density, these motions would constitute the first dynamical evidence for nonbaryonic matter in a universe of higher density.

  11. Star-formation rates, molecular clouds, and the origin of the far-infrared luminosity of isolated and interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, P. M.; Sage, L. J.

    1988-01-01

    The CO luminosities of 93 galaxies have been determined and are compared with their IRAS FIR luminosities. Strongly interacting/merging galaxies have L(FIR)/L(CO) substantially higher than that of isolated galaxies or galactic giant molecular clouds (GMCs). Galaxies with tidal tails/bridges are the most extreme type with L(FIR)/L(CO) nine times as high as isolated galaxies. Interactions between close pairs of galaxies do not have much effect on the molecular content and global star-formation rate. If the high ratio L(FIR)/L(CO) in strongly interacting galaxies is due to star formation then the efficiency of this process is higher than that of any galactic GMC. Isolated galaxies, distant pairs, and close pairs have an FIR/CO luminosity ratio which is within a factor of two of galactic GMCs with H II regions. The CO luminosities of FIR-luminous galaxies are among the highest observed for any spiral galaxies.

  12. PAH EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposures to 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 9 children, ages 2-5 yr, were measured over 48 hr at day care and at home. Sampled media included indoor and outdoor air, floor dust, outdoor play area soil, hand surface, and solid and liquid food. Urine samples ...

  13. Comparing Stellar Populations of Galaxies across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali; Jansen, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    We propose to investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations within a statistically significant set of galaxies, representing the full range of luminosity and morphological type. By obtaining new, near-infrared images of these galaxies to complement existing optical and near-UV data, we can self-consistently probe the older stellar populations, dust extinction, and metallicity, and ultimately determine ages of and age variations within the stellar components of these galaxies. This information can then be used to compare stellar populations between luminous and faint galaxies of the same Hubble type, and between similar luminosity galaxies of different types. Galaxy candidates for this study were drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (Jansen 2000), which provides U, B, and R optical images and both nuclear and globally integrated spectra. Near- infrared J, H, and K_s surface photometry can break the age-dust- metallicity degeneracy in galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but existing 2MASS image data is not sufficiently deep for this purpose. We therefore request observing time on the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope to secure J, H, and K_s images reaching out to the optical radius for 12 NFGS galaxies observable from Cerro Tololo in 2014A. Specific results expected from this sample are the distributions of age, dust, and metallicity across galaxies of differing type and luminosity. These distributions will allow us to address systematic trends in assembly history that can confront simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation.

  14. Comparing Stellar Populations of Galaxies across the Hubble Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Parkash, Vaishali; Jansen, Rolf

    2014-08-01

    We propose to investigate the spatial distributions of stellar populations within a statistically significant set of galaxies, representing the full range of luminosity and morphological type. By obtaining new, near-infrared images of these galaxies to complement existing optical and near-UV data, we can self-consistently probe the older stellar populations, dust extinction, and metallicity, and ultimately determine ages of and age variations within the stellar components of these galaxies. This information can then be used to compare stellar populations between luminous and faint galaxies of the same Hubble type, and between similar luminosity galaxies of different types. Galaxy candidates for this study were drawn from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey (Jansen 2000), which provides U, B, and R optical images and both nuclear and globally integrated spectra. Near- infrared J, H, and K_s surface photometry can break the age-dust- metallicity degeneracy in galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs), but existing 2MASS image data is not sufficiently deep for this purpose. We therefore request observing time on the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) on the CTIO 4-m Blanco telescope to secure J, H, and K_s images reaching out to the optical radius for 19 NFGS galaxies observable from Cerro Tololo in 2014B. Specific results expected from this sample are the distributions of age, dust, and metallicity across galaxies of differing type and luminosity. These distributions will allow us to address systematic trends in assembly history that can confront simulations of hierarchical galaxy formation.

  15. 78 FR 70964 - Luminant Generation Company, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... for four consecutive weeks of a combined license (COL) application from Luminant Generation Company.../reactors/new-reactors/col.html . NRC's PDR: You may examine and purchase copies of public documents at the... INFORMATION: The following party has filed applications for COLs with the NRC, pursuant to Section 103 of...

  16. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of selected PAH`s in sediments near a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.R.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) along a gradient from a petroleum refinery`s wastewater diffuser. These data were used to calculate the potential risk to aquatic organisms using probabilistic modeling and Monte Carlo sampling procedures. Sediment chemistry data were used in conjunction with estimates of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors and Non-Polar Narcosis Theory to predict potential risk to bivalves. Bivalves were the receptors of choice because of their lack of a well-developed enzymatic system for metabolizing PAHs. Thus, they represent a species of higher inherent risk of adverse impact. PAHs considered in this paper span a broad range of octanol-water partition coefficients. Results indicate negligible risk of narcotic effects from PAHs existing near the refinery wastewater discharge.

  17. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blends application on modern passenger cars. Part 3: impact on PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH emissions.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Fontaras, Georgios; Ampatzoglou, Dimitrios; Kousoulidou, Marina; Stournas, Stamoulis; Samaras, Zissis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2010-05-01

    This study explores the impact of five different types of methyl esters on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), nitrated-PAH and oxygenated PAH emissions. The measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer, according to the European regulation. Each of the five different biodiesels was blended with EN590 diesel at a proportion of 10-90% v/v (10% biodiesel concentration). The vehicle was a Euro 3 compliant common-rail diesel passenger car. Emission measurements were performed over the NEDC and compared with those of the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. The experimental results showed that the addition of biodiesel led to some important increases in low molecular-weight PAHs (phenanthrene and anthracene) and to both increases and reductions in large PAHs which are characterised by their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Nitro-PAHs were found to reduce with biodiesel whereas oxy-PAH emissions presented important increases with the biodiesel blends. The impact of biodiesel source material was particularly clear on the formation of PAH compounds. It was found that most PAH emissions decreased as the average load and speed of the driving cycle increased. Cold-start conditions negatively influenced the formation of most PAH compounds. A similar trend was observed with particulate alkane emissions.

  18. Observing Nearby Galaxies with CCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armus, Lee; Stacey, G. J.; Wilson, C.; Bolatto, A. D.; Rangwala, N.; Nikola, T.; Kauffmann, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Glenn, J.; CCAT Team

    2013-01-01

    CCAT, with its 25m primary, advanced detectors and fast mapping speed will be extremely adept at deep, large-scale surveys for distant, dusty galaxies in the early Universe, and the most deeply buried star-forming complexes in the Milky Way. However, since it will also be sensitive to low surface brightness emission from diffuse dust, and the key far-infrared and mm cooling lines of the ISM, CCAT will also be a superb telescope for studying nearby galaxies in exquisite detail. For the nearest systems (e.g. M83), CCAT will be able to produce diffraction-limited maps in the mid-J CO rotational lines, and the [CI] and [NII] fine-structure lines on physical scales approaching those of individual molecular clouds. For samples of luminous starburst galaxies out to 0.3-0.5, CCAT will offer unprecedented sensitivity and spatial resolution in the high-J CO lines which are critical for pinpointing X-ray dissociation regions heated by AGN. Here, we will outline the strong scientific case for using CCAT to map the cold dust, the molecular gas and the ionized and atomic interstellar medium in local galaxies.

  19. The gas content in starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirabel, I. F.; Sanders, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    The results from two large and homogeneous surveys, one in H I, the other in CO, are used for a statistical review of the gaseous properties of bright infrared galaxies. A constant ratio between the thermal FIR radiation and nonthermal radio emission is a universal property of star formation in spiral galaxies. The current rate of star formation in starburst galaxies is found to be 3-20 times larger than in the Milky Way. Galaxies with the higher FIR luminosities and warmer dust, have the larger mass fractions of molecular to atomic interstellar gas, and in some instances, striking deficiencies of neutral hydrogen are found. A statistical blueshift of the optical systemic velocities relative to the radio systemic velocities, may be due to an outward motion of the optical line-emitting gas. From the high rates of star formation, and from the short times required for the depletion of the interstellar gas, it is concluded that the most luminous infrared galaxies represent a brief but important phase in the evolution of some galaxies, when two galaxies merge changing substantially their overall properties.

  20. On the clustering of faint red galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haojie; Zheng, Zheng; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Ju; Zehavi, Idit

    2016-08-01

    Faint red galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey show a puzzling clustering pattern in previous measurements. In the two-point correlation function (2PCF), they appear to be strongly clustered on small scales, indicating a tendency to reside in massive haloes as satellite galaxies. However, their weak clustering on large scales suggests that they are more likely to be found in low-mass haloes. The interpretation of the clustering pattern suffers from the large sample variance in the 2PCF measurements, given the small volume of the volume-limited sample of such faint galaxies. We present improved clustering measurements of faint galaxies by making a full use of a flux-limited sample to obtain volume-limited measurements with an increased effective volume. In the improved 2PCF measurements, the fractional uncertainties on large scales drop by more than 40 per cent, and the strong contrast between small-scale and large-scale clustering amplitudes seen in previous work is no longer prominent. From halo occupation distribution modelling of the measurements, we find that a considerable fraction of faint red galaxies to be satellites in massive haloes, a scenario supported by the strong covariance of small-scale 2PCF measurements and the relative spatial distribution of faint red galaxies and luminous galaxies. However, the satellite fraction is found to be degenerate with the slope of the distribution profile of satellites in inner haloes. We compare the modelling results with semi-analytic model predictions and discuss the implications.

  1. Early assembly of the most massive galaxies.

    PubMed

    Collins, Chris A; Stott, John P; Hilton, Matt; Kay, Scott T; Stanford, S Adam; Davidson, Michael; Hosmer, Mark; Hoyle, Ben; Liddle, Andrew; Lloyd-Davies, Ed; Mann, Robert G; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J; Nichol, Robert C; Romer, A Kathy; Sahlén, Martin; Viana, Pedro T P; West, Michael J

    2009-04-01

    The current consensus is that galaxies begin as small density fluctuations in the early Universe and grow by in situ star formation and hierarchical merging. Stars begin to form relatively quickly in sub-galactic-sized building blocks called haloes which are subsequently assembled into galaxies. However, exactly when this assembly takes place is a matter of some debate. Here we report that the stellar masses of brightest cluster galaxies, which are the most luminous objects emitting stellar light, some 9 billion years ago are not significantly different from their stellar masses today. Brightest cluster galaxies are almost fully assembled 4-5 billion years after the Big Bang, having grown to more than 90 per cent of their final stellar mass by this time. Our data conflict with the most recent galaxy formation models based on the largest simulations of dark-matter halo development. These models predict protracted formation of brightest cluster galaxies over a Hubble time, with only 22 per cent of the stellar mass assembled at the epoch probed by our sample. Our findings suggest a new picture in which brightest cluster galaxies experience an early period of rapid growth rather than prolonged hierarchical assembly.

  2. Photometric Properties of Galaxies in Poor Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M.; Prabhu, T.

    We study several statistical properties of galaxies in four poor clusters of galaxies using optical photometry. We select these poor clusters as luminous, extended X-ray sources identified with poor galaxy systems in the EMSS catalogue of clusters of galaxies. The clusters are at moderate redshifts (0.08galaxy populations are clearly evolved, as traced by the tightness of their color--magnitude relations and accordance of the latter with those of the Virgo Cluster. The fraction of blue galaxies is similar to those of low-redshift richness 0 clusters and higher than those of richer clusters at similar redshifts. The luminosity functions (LFs) of the individual clusters are not significantly different from each other. Using these, we construct composite LFs in B, V , and R bands (to MV=-18). The faint-end of these LFs are flat, like the V-band LF of other (e.g., MKW/AWM) poor clusters, but steeper than the field LF in the R-band. In terms of the statistical properties of their member galaxies, poor clusters appear to be lower-mass extensions of their rich counterparts.

  3. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. II. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, Fe II Emission Line Stars, and Other Supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Weis, Kerstin; Davidson, Kris; Bomans, D. J.; Burggraf, Birgitta

    2014-07-01

    An increasing number of non-terminal eruptions are being found in the numerous surveys for optical transients. Very little is known about these giant eruptions, their progenitors and their evolutionary state. A greatly improved census of the likely progenitor class, including the most luminous evolved stars, the luminous blue variables (LBVs), and the warm and cool hypergiants is now needed for a complete picture of the final pre-supernova stages of very massive stars. We have begun a survey of the evolved and unstable luminous star populations in several nearby resolved galaxies. In this second paper on M31 and M33, we review the spectral characteristics, spectral energy distributions, circumstellar ejecta, and evidence for mass loss for 82 luminous and variable stars. We show that many of these stars have warm circumstellar dust including several of the Fe II emission line stars, but conclude that the confirmed LBVs in M31 and M33 do not. The confirmed LBVs have relatively low wind speeds even in their hot, quiescent or visual minimum state compared to the B-type supergiants and Of/WN stars which they spectroscopically resemble. The nature of the Fe II emission line stars and their relation to the LBV state remains uncertain, but some have properties in common with the warm hypergiants and the sgB[e] stars. Several individual stars are discussed in detail. We identify three possible candidate LBVs and three additional post-red supergiant candidates. We suggest that M33-013406.63 (UIT301,B416) is not an LBV/S Dor variable, but is a very luminous late O-type supergiant and one of the most luminous stars or pair of stars in M33. Based on observations with the Multiple Mirror Telescope, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona and on observations obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University

  4. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from illuminance using a host of assumptions about the environment, or derived directly from the distribution of luminance. Luminance is the quantity of light traveling through a point in a certain direction, and it is this quantity that the eye actually sees''. However, the difficulty of calculating luminance for common tasks has made it an unpopular metric. Despite its importance to lighting design, luminance is rarely used because there is a lack of the necessary computational tools.In this paper, we will demonstrate a computer calculation of luminance that has significant advantages for lighting design. As well as providing an immediate evaluation of visual quality for task performance, less quantifiable factors such as aesthetics can be studied in synthetic images produced by the program.

  5. Luminance in computer-aided lighting design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.J.; Rubinstein, F.M.; Grynberg, A.

    1987-08-01

    Traditionally, the lighting engineering community has emphasized illuminance, the amount of light reaching a surface, as the primary design goal. The Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) provides tables of illuminances for different types of tasks which lighting engineers consult in designing lighting systems. Illuminance has proven to be a popular metric because it corresponds closely to the amount of energy needed to light a building as well as the initial cost of the lighting system. Perhaps more importantly, illuminance is easy to calculate, especially in simple unobstructed spaces with direct lighting. However,illuminance is not well correlated with visual performance, which is the real reason for installing a lighting system in the first place. Visual performance is a psychophysiological quantity that has been tied to physical quantities such as contrast, size and adaptation level by subject experiments. These physical quantities can be approximated from ill