Science.gov

Sample records for pah metabolizing enzyme

  1. Hydroxylated PAHs in bile of deep-sea fish. Relationship with xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Escartin, E.; Porte, C.

    1999-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in deep-sea environments has been assessed by measuring bile PAH metabolites in deep-sea fish. Five species from the NW Mediterranean were selected for the study: Coryphaenoides guentheri, Lepidion lepidion, Mora moro, Bathypterois mediterraneus, and Alepocephalus rostratus. Bile crude samples were directly analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence at the excitation/emission wavelengths of benzo[a]pyrene. Differences among sampling sites were recorded, which suggests that coastal discharges of contaminants may reach these remote areas. Subsequently, a number of bile samples were hydrolyzed and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of individual PAHs. 1-Pyrenol and 2-phenylphenol were among the most abundant compounds detected. The results obtained confirm the long-range transport of PAHs to deep-sea environments, subsequent exposure of fish inhabiting those remote areas, and its ability to metabolize and excrete them through the bile. The data also describe hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferases) that appear to be as catalytically efficient as those in shallow water species.

  2. Drug-metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms and functions.

    PubMed

    Sheweita, S A

    2000-09-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes are called mixed-function oxidase or monooxygenase and containing many enzymes including cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and other components. The hepatic cytochrome P450s (Cyp) are a multigene family of enzymes that play a critical role in the metabolism of many drugs and xenobiotics with each cytochrome isozyme responding differently to exogenous chemicals in terms of its induction and inhibition. For example, Cyp 1A1 is particularly active towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), activating them into reactive intermediates those covalently bind to DNA, a key event in the initiation of carcinogenesis. Likewise, Cyp 1A2 activates a variety of bladder carcinogens, such as aromatic amines and amides. Also, some forms of cytochrome P450 isozymes such as Cyp 3A and 2E1 activate the naturally occurring carcinogens (e.g. aflatoxin B1) and N-nitrosamines respectively into highly mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. The carcinogenic potency of PAHs, and other carcinogens and the extent of binding of their ultimate metabolites to DNA and proteins are correlated with the induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes. Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase, aryl sulfatase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase inactivate chemical carcinogens into less toxic or inactive metabolites. Many drugs change the rate of activation or detoxification of carcinogens by changing the activities of phases I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes. The balance of detoxification and activation reactions depends on the chemical structure of the agents, and is subjected to many variables that are a function of this structure, or genetic background, sex, endocrine status, age, diet, and the presence of other chemicals. It is important to realize that the enzymes involved in carcinogen metabolism are also involved in the metabolism of a variety of substrates, and thus the introduction of specific xenobiotics may change

  3. Synthetic metabolism: metabolic engineering meets enzyme design.

    PubMed

    Erb, Tobias J; Jones, Patrik R; Bar-Even, Arren

    2017-04-01

    Metabolic engineering aims at modifying the endogenous metabolic network of an organism to harness it for a useful biotechnological task, for example, production of a value-added compound. Several levels of metabolic engineering can be defined and are the topic of this review. Basic 'copy, paste and fine-tuning' approaches are limited to the structure of naturally existing pathways. 'Mix and match' approaches freely recombine the repertoire of existing enzymes to create synthetic metabolic networks that are able to outcompete naturally evolved pathways or redirect flux toward non-natural products. The space of possible metabolic solution can be further increased through approaches including 'new enzyme reactions', which are engineered on the basis of known enzyme mechanisms. Finally, by considering completely 'novel enzyme chemistries' with de novo enzyme design, the limits of nature can be breached to derive the most advanced form of synthetic pathways. We discuss the challenges and promises associated with these different metabolic engineering approaches and illuminate how enzyme engineering is expected to take a prime role in synthetic metabolic engineering for biotechnology, chemical industry and agriculture of the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH Catechols and PAH o-Quinones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  5. Depth Profile of Bacterial Metabolism and PAH Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    organisms and the resultant changes in PAH metabolism by bacteria can complicate interpretation of sedimentation and biodegradation rates based on analytical...Metabolism and PAH Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments Washington, DC 20375-5320 MICHAEL T. MONTGOMERY CHRISTOPHER L...Metabolism and PAH Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N0001499WX20525 5b. GRANT NUMBER 61-7800

  6. Metabolic regulation via enzyme filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Gabriel N.; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Determining the mechanisms of enzymatic regulation is central to the study of cellular metabolism. Regulation of enzyme activity via polymerization-mediated strategies has been shown to be widespread, and plays a vital role in mediating cellular homeostasis. In this review, we begin with an overview of the filamentation of CTP synthase, which forms filamentous structures termed cytoophidia. We then highlight other important examples of the phenomenon. Moreover, we discuss recent data relating to the regulation of enzyme activity by compartmentalization into cytoophidia. Finally, we hypothesize potential roles for enzyme filament formation in the regulation of metabolism, development and disease. PMID:27098510

  7. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds.

  8. Roles of phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate, yielding diacylglycerol and inorganic phosphate. In eukaryotic cells, PAP activity has a central role in the synthesis of phospholipids and triacylglycerol through its product diacylglycerol, and it also generates and/or degrades lipid-signaling molecules that are related to phosphatidate. There are two types of PAP enzyme, Mg2+ dependent (PAP1) and Mg2+ independent (PAP2), but only genes encoding PAP2 enzymes had been identified until recently, when a gene (PAH1) encoding a PAP1 enzyme was found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This discovery has revealed a molecular function of the mammalian protein lipin, a deficiency of which causes lipodystrophy in mice. With molecular information now available for both types of PAP, the specific roles of these enzymes in lipid metabolism are being clarified. PMID:17079146

  9. Bacteria from Wheat and Cucurbit Plant Roots Metabolize PAHs and Aromatic Root Exudates: Implications for Rhizodegradation.

    PubMed

    Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F

    2017-03-20

    The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade PAHs have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds - morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid - appear to be linked to bacterial degradation of 3- and 4- ring PAHs in the rhizosphere.

  10. Phosphorylation of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase by Casein Kinase II Regulates Its Function in Lipid Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol (i.e. the production of diacylglycerol by dephosphorylation of phosphatidate). The enzyme playing a major role in lipid metabolism is subject to phosphorylation (e.g. by Pho85-Pho80, Cdc28-cyclin B, and protein kinases A and C) and dephosphorylation (e.g. by Nem1-Spo7) that regulate its cellular location, catalytic activity, and stability/degradation. In this work, we show that Pah1 is a substrate for casein kinase II (CKII); its phosphorylation was time- and dose-dependent and was dependent on the concentrations of Pah1 (Km = 0.23 μm) and ATP (Km = 5.5 μm). By mass spectrometry, truncation analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, phosphopeptide mapping, and phosphoamino acid analysis, we identified that >90% of its phosphorylation occurs on Thr-170, Ser-250, Ser-313, Ser-705, Ser-814, and Ser-818. The CKII-phosphorylated Pah1 was a substrate for the Nem1-Spo7 protein phosphatase and was degraded by the 20S proteasome. The prephosphorylation of Pah1 by protein kinase A or protein kinase C reduced its subsequent phosphorylation by CKII. The prephosphorylation of Pah1 by CKII reduced its subsequent phosphorylation by protein kinase A but not by protein kinase C. The expression of Pah1 with combined mutations of S705D and 7A, which mimic its phosphorylation by CKII and lack of phosphorylation by Pho85-Pho80, caused an increase in triacylglycerol content and lipid droplet number in cells expressing the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex. PMID:27044741

  11. Phosphorylation of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase by Casein Kinase II Regulates Its Function in Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2016-05-06

    Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol (i.e. the production of diacylglycerol by dephosphorylation of phosphatidate). The enzyme playing a major role in lipid metabolism is subject to phosphorylation (e.g. by Pho85-Pho80, Cdc28-cyclin B, and protein kinases A and C) and dephosphorylation (e.g. by Nem1-Spo7) that regulate its cellular location, catalytic activity, and stability/degradation. In this work, we show that Pah1 is a substrate for casein kinase II (CKII); its phosphorylation was time- and dose-dependent and was dependent on the concentrations of Pah1 (Km = 0.23 μm) and ATP (Km = 5.5 μm). By mass spectrometry, truncation analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, phosphopeptide mapping, and phosphoamino acid analysis, we identified that >90% of its phosphorylation occurs on Thr-170, Ser-250, Ser-313, Ser-705, Ser-814, and Ser-818. The CKII-phosphorylated Pah1 was a substrate for the Nem1-Spo7 protein phosphatase and was degraded by the 20S proteasome. The prephosphorylation of Pah1 by protein kinase A or protein kinase C reduced its subsequent phosphorylation by CKII. The prephosphorylation of Pah1 by CKII reduced its subsequent phosphorylation by protein kinase A but not by protein kinase C. The expression of Pah1 with combined mutations of S705D and 7A, which mimic its phosphorylation by CKII and lack of phosphorylation by Pho85-Pho80, caused an increase in triacylglycerol content and lipid droplet number in cells expressing the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Degradation tests with PAH-metabolizing soil bacteria for in situ bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Maue, G.; Dott, W.

    1995-12-31

    A rapid screening test for PAH degradation was used to evaluate the metabolizing potential of a bacterial community from a contaminated soil. The test was performed on a small scale within a few days using direct fluorometric quantitative analysis of selected PAHs. Therefore, a wide range of isolates and mixed cultures could be investigated under various substrate conditions with little time and material expenditure. Furthermore, the composition of the bacterial community after growth on different carbon sources was observed. The tests accompanied PAH degradation experiments in a bioreactor for the detection of suitable soil bacteria for in situ bioremediation. A mixed culture consisting of at least five different bacterial species was found in samples of the bioreactor. Different precultivation substrates (PAH) did not influence the stability of the bacterial community. Although only a few isolates metabolized single PAHs (acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene) as sole substrates, the mixed culture metabolized these PAHs within a few days regardless of the precultivation. The stability of the mixed culture indicates its resistance to substrate changes that may occur during in situ bioremediation processes. Enhanced degradation rates occurred following the growth on acenaphthene and phenanthrene.

  13. Enzyme clustering can induce metabolic channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellana, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Direct channeling of intermediates via a physical tunnel between enzyme active sites is an established mechanism to improve metabolic efficiency. In this talk, I will present a theoretical model that demonstrates that coclustering multiple enzymes into proximity can yield the full efficiency benefits of direct channeling. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with the spacing between coclusters in yeast and mammalian cells. The model also predicts that enzyme agglomerates can regulate steady-state flux division at metabolic branch points: we experimentally test this prediction for a fundamental branch point in Escherichia coli, and the results confirm that enzyme colocalization within an agglomerate can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation.

  14. Computational Functional Analysis of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, Carolina; Have, Arjen Ten; Prados, María B; Beligni, María V

    2017-01-01

    The computational analysis of enzymes that participate in lipid metabolism has both common and unique challenges when compared to the whole protein universe. Some of the hurdles that interfere with the functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes that are common to other pathways include the definition of proper starting datasets, the construction of reliable multiple sequence alignments, the definition of appropriate evolutionary models, and the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees with high statistical support, particularly for large datasets. Most enzymes that take part in lipid metabolism belong to complex superfamilies with many members that are not involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, some enzymes that do not have sequence similarity catalyze similar or even identical reactions. Some of the challenges that, albeit not unique, are more specific to lipid metabolism refer to the high compartmentalization of the routes, the catalysis in hydrophobic environments and, related to this, the function near or in biological membranes.In this work, we provide guidelines intended to assist in the proper functional annotation of lipid metabolic enzymes, based on previous experiences related to the phospholipase D superfamily and the annotation of the triglyceride synthesis pathway in algae. We describe a pipeline that starts with the definition of an initial set of sequences to be used in similarity-based searches and ends in the reconstruction of phylogenies. We also mention the main issues that have to be taken into consideration when using tools to analyze subcellular localization, hydrophobicity patterns, or presence of transmembrane domains in lipid metabolic enzymes.

  15. Fetal translocation and metabolism of PAH obtained from coal fly ash given intratracheally to pregnant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.K.; Chauhan, S.S.; Srivastava, P.K.; Kumar, V.; Misra, U.K.

    1986-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were extracted from coal fly ash collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a thermal power plant. The PAH extract was given intratracheally daily to pregnant rats (2 mg/100 g body weight) on d 18 and 19 of gestation. In addition of d 19 of gestation rats were also given (/sup 4/H)benzo(a)pyrene intratracheally. Rats were sacrificed on d 20 of gestation, and the distribution of (/sup 3/H)benzo(a)pyrene radioactivity and PAH of coal fly ash was studied in maternal lung, liver, and placenta, as well as in the liver and lung of the fetus. The radioactivity of intratracheally given benzo(a)pyrene was found in liver (68%), placenta (4%), fetal lung (1.9%), and fetal liver (1.4%) of maternal lung. Intratracheally administered PAH of coal fly ash were translocated to maternal liver and placenta, as well as to the liver and lung of the fetus. PAH of coal fly ash were also metabolized to several minor and major metabolites by maternal lung, liver, and placenta, as well as by the maternal fetal liver and lung. Some of the PAH metabolites in lung and liver were common; however, the major metabolite of liver, M-16, was different from the major metabolite M-16 of lung. The major PAH metabolite of placenta, M-15, and fetal liver, F-12, were common PAH metabolites. M-2 and M-6 of the placenta and F-5 and F-10 of the fetal lung were also common.

  16. Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in creosote contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, L.M.; Pfaender, F.K.

    1994-12-31

    Creosote contaminated sites are of environmental significance due to the high concentrations of toxic and/or mutagenic PAH usually found at these sites. Microbial degradation of PAH can be seen as a novel form of contaminant detoxification. This paper describes the microbial degradation of PAH in creosote contaminated soils using (9-{sup 14}C) phenanthrene as a model PAH. Microbial metabolism was assessed with a mass balance approach as well as identification of PAH metabolites by GC/MS/FTIR. The mass balance accounted for the amount portion of the added phenanthrene. To confirm the effectiveness of microbial degradation to decrease soil toxicity, the Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} assays were used to monitor toxicity of the creosote soils throughout the experiments. Mass balance results indicated that phenanthrene was readily mineralized in the contaminated soils, while metabolite production accounted for only a minor portion of the added phenanthrene. Toxicity of contaminated soils increased slightly early in the incubation and then decreased over longer time periods. Mutagenicity of soils, however, did not decrease appreciably over a 3-month time period. The identity of metabolic products found in the soils will be discussed.

  17. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  19. Effect of rhizosphere enzymes on phytoremediation in PAH-contaminated soil using five plant species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil.

  20. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  1. Contributions of human enzymes in carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F Peter

    2012-07-16

    Considerable support exists for the roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on the metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s--1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4--accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, interindividual variations, and risk assessment.

  2. Imaging enzymes at work: metabolic mapping by enzyme histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2010-06-01

    For the understanding of functions of proteins in biological and pathological processes, reporter molecules such as fluorescent proteins have become indispensable tools for visualizing the location of these proteins in intact animals, tissues, and cells. For enzymes, imaging their activity also provides information on their function or functions, which does not necessarily correlate with their location. Metabolic mapping enables imaging of activity of enzymes. The enzyme under study forms a reaction product that is fluorescent or colored by conversion of either a fluorogenic or chromogenic substrate or a fluorescent substrate with different spectral characteristics. Most chromogenic staining methods were developed in the latter half of the twentieth century but still find new applications in modern cell biology and pathology. Fluorescence methods have rapidly evolved during the last decade. This review critically evaluates the methods that are available at present for metabolic mapping in living animals, unfixed cryostat sections of tissues, and living cells, and refers to protocols of the methods of choice.

  3. Metabolic Enzyme Considerations in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit K.; Jain, Sweta; Rana, A.C

    2007-01-01

    The clinical application of new antineoplastic drugs has been limited because of low therapeutic index and lack of efficacy in humans. Thus, improvement in efficacy of old and new anticancer drugs has been attempted by manipulating their pharmacokinetic properties. Four inter-related factors, which determine the pharmacokinetic behavior of a drug include absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion. The drug-metabolizing enzymes have been classified in two major groups: phase I and phase II enzymes. Phase I enzymes comprise the oxidases, dehydrogenases, deaminases, hydrolases. Phase II enzymes include primarily UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), glutathionetransferases (GSTs), sulfotransferases (SULTs), N-acetyl transferases (NATs), methyltransferases and aminoacid transferases that conjugate products of phase I reactions and parent compounds with appropriate functional groups to generate more water soluble compounds which are more readily eliminated. The importance of these enzymes in the metabolism of specific drugs varies according to the chemical nature of the drug, Drug metabolism is modulated by factors that change among species and even among individuals in a population. Such factors can be environmental or genetic in origin, and influence how a drug is metabolized and to what extent. An awareness of these variables is invaluable when the safety and efficacy of new anticancer drugs are evaluated 1 PMID:22593646

  4. Nature's inordinate fondness for metabolic enzymes: why metabolic enzyme loci are so frequently targets of selection.

    PubMed

    Marden, James H

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic enzyme loci were some of the first genes accessible for molecular evolution and ecology research. New technologies now make the whole genome, transcriptome or proteome readily accessible, allowing unbiased scans for loci exhibiting significant differences in allele frequency or expression level and associated with phenotypes and/or responses to natural selection. With surprising frequency and in many cases in proportions greater than chance relative to other genes, glycolysis and TCA cycle enzyme loci appear among the genes with significant associations in these studies. Hence, there is an ongoing need to understand the basis for fitness effects of metabolic enzyme polymorphisms. Allele-specific effects on the binding affinity and catalytic rate of individual enzymes are well known, but often of uncertain significance because metabolic control theory and in vivo studies indicate that many individual metabolic enzymes do not affect pathway flux rate. I review research, so far little used in evolutionary biology, showing that metabolic enzyme substrates affect signalling pathways that regulate cell and organismal biology, and that these enzymes have moonlighting functions. To date there is little knowledge of how alleles in natural populations affect these phenotypes. I discuss an example in which alleles of a TCA enzyme locus associate with differences in a signalling pathway and development, organismal performance, and ecological dynamics. Ultimately, understanding how metabolic enzyme polymorphisms map to phenotypes and fitness remains a compelling and ongoing need for gaining robust knowledge of ecological and evolutionary processes.

  5. Biotransformation of cobicistat: metabolic pathways and enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengcheng; Shehu, Amina I.; Liu, Ke; Lu, Jie; Ma, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    Background Cobicistat (COBI) is a pharmacoenhancer for antiretroviral therapy. Objective The current study was designed to profile the metabolic pathways of COBI and to determine the enzymes that contribute to COBI metabolism. Method We screened COBI metabolites in mice and human liver microsomes. We also used cDNA-expressed human cytochromes P450 (CYPs) to explore the role of human enzymes in COBI metabolism. Results Twenty new and three known metabolites of COBI were identified in mouse urine and feces. These new metabolic pathways of COBI include glycine conjugation, N-acetyl cysteine conjugation, morpholine ring-opening, and thiazole ring-opening. Twelve of COBI metabolites were further confirmed in mouse and human liver microsomes, including nine new metabolites. Consistent with the previous report, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 were determined as the major enzymes that contribute to COBI metabolism. Conclusion This study provided a full map of COBI metabolism. These results can be used to manage CYP-mediated drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions that are associated with COBI-containing regimens in human. PMID:26935921

  6. Histopathology, enzyme activities, and PAH metabolites in English sole collected near coastal pulp mills

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, D.G.

    1995-12-31

    The bottom-feeding flatfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), is widely distributed along the B.C. Pacific coast and fulfills a majority of the requirements as a sentinel species for environmental effects monitoring programs. Studies involving the use of histopathological, biochemical, and chemical tools with English sole collected near the vicinity of B.C. pulp mills are currently being conducted. Analysis, to date, has revealed idiopathic liver lesions to be strongly dependent on location of capture with a prevalence of 30% preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions found in fish collected near pulp mills. All fish residing near pulp mills show hepatocellular hemosiderosis, an iron storage disorder. The mixed-function oxidizing enzyme, EROD, was found to be induced in fish collected near pulp mills. However, the levels of conjugating enzymes, GST and UDP-GT, were found to be unchanged when compared with reference fish. PAH metabolites, measured as FACs in bile, are also present in English sole collected from the mill sites and the conjugated derivatives are presently being identified by HPLC/ES-MS techniques, The relationships between these observations will be discussed.

  7. P450 enzymes of estrogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martucci, C P; Fishman, J

    1993-01-01

    Endogenous and exogenous estrogens undergo extensive oxidative metabolism by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes. Certain drugs and xenobiotics have been found to be potent inducers of estrogen hydroxylating enzymes with C-2 hydroxylase induction being greater than that of C-16 hydroxylase. Oxygenated estrogen metabolites have different biological activities, with C-2 metabolites having limited or no activity and C-4 and C-16 metabolites having similar potency to estradiol. Pathophysiological roles for some of the oxygenated estrogen metabolites have been proposed, e.g. 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone and 4-hydroxyestrone. These reactive estrogens are capable of damaging cellular proteins and DNA and may be carcinogenic in specific cells.

  8. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Peters, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. Clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result if the liver is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver.

  9. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Thomas D.; Edenberg, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer. PMID:23134050

  10. Associations between Smoking, Polymorphisms in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Metabolism and Conjugation Genes and PAH-DNA Adducts in Prostate Tumors Differ by Race

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Nora L.; Tang, Deliang; Rundle, Andrew; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Savera, Adnan T.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Monaghan, Kristin G.; Koprowski, Allison; Mitrache, Nicoleta; Yang, James J.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts may induce mutations that contribute to carcinogenesis. We evaluated potential associations between smoking and polymorphisms in PAH metabolism [CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Ala119Ser and Leu432Val, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) Tyr113His and His139Arg, CYP3A4 A(−392)G] and conjugation [glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 null deletion, GSTP1 Ile105Val] genes and PAH-DNA adduct levels (measured by immunohistochemistry) in tumor and nontumor prostate cells in 400 prostate cancer cases. Although no statistically significant associations were observed in the total sample, stratification by ethnicity revealed that Caucasian ever smokers compared with nonsmokers had higher adduct levels in tumor cells (mean staining intensity in absorbance units ± SE, 0.1748 ± 0.0052 versus 0.1507 ± 0.0070; P = 0.006), and Caucasians carrying two mEH 139Arg compared with two 139His alleles had lower adducts in tumor (0.1320 ± 0.0129 versus 0.1714 ± 0.0059; P = 0.006) and nontumor (0.1856 ± 0.0184 versus 0.2291 ± 0.0085; P = 0.03) cells. African Americans with two CYP1B1 432Val compared with two 432Ile alleles had lower adducts in tumor cells (0.1600 ± 0.0060 versus 0.1970 ± 0.0153; P = 0.03). After adjusting for smoking status, carrying the putative “high-risk” genotype combination, the faster metabolism of PAH-epoxides to PAH-diol-epoxides (CYP1B1 432Val/Val and mEH 139Arg/Arg) with lower PAH-diol-epoxide conjugation (GSTP1 105Ile/Ile), was associated with increased adducts only in Caucasian nontumor cells (0.2363 ± 0.0132 versus 0.1920 ± 0.0157; P = 0.05). We present evidence, for the first time in human prostate that the association between smoking and PAH-DNA adducts differs by race and is modified by common genetic variants. PMID:17548691

  11. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  13. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  15. Competitive inhibition of carcinogen-activating CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes by a standardized complex mixture of PAH extracted from coal tar

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, B.; Marston, C.P.; Luch, A.; Dashwood, W.M.; Brooks, E.; Pereira, C.; Doehmer, J.; Baird, W.M.

    2007-03-15

    A complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) extracted from coal tar, the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1597, was recently shown to decrease the levels of DNA binding of the 2 strong carcinogens benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and dibenzo(a,l)pyrene (DBP) in the human mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MCF-7. The present study was designed to further elucidate the biochemical mechanisms involved in this inhibition process. We examined the effects of SRM 1597 on the metabolic activation of BP and DBP toward DNA-binding derivatives in Chinese hamster cells expressing either human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1B1. The data obtained from biochemical experiments revealed that SRM 1597 competitively inhibited the activity of both human enzymes as analyzed by 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation assays. While the Michaelis-Menten constant (K-M) was {lt} 0.4 {mu}M in the absence of SRM 1597, this value increased up to 1.12 (CYP1A1) or 4.45 {mu}M (CYP1B1) in the presence of 0.1 {mu} g/ml SRM 1597. Hence the inhibitory effects of the complex mixture on human CYP1B1 were much stronger when compared to human CYP1A1 Taken together, the decreases in PAH-DNA adduct formation on co-treatment with SRM 1597 revealed inhibitory effects on the CYP enzymes that convert carcinogenic PAH into DNA-binding metabolites. The implications for the tumorigenicity of complex environmental PAR mixtures are discussed.

  16. Phosphorylation of lipid metabolic enzymes by yeast protein kinase C requires phosphatidylserine and diacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Dey, Prabuddha; Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-04-01

    Protein kinase C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, i.e., Pkc1, is an enzyme that plays an important role in signal transduction and the regulation of lipid metabolic enzymes. Pkc1 is structurally similar to its counterparts in higher eukaryotes, but its requirement of phosphatidylserine (PS) and diacylglycerol (DAG) for catalytic activity has been unclear. In this work, we examined the role of these lipids in Pkc1 activity with protein and peptide substrates. In agreement with previous findings, yeast Pkc1 did not require PS and DAG for its activity on the peptide substrates derived from lipid metabolic proteins such as Pah1 [phosphatidate (PA) phosphatase], Nem1 (PA phosphatase phosphatase), and Spo7 (protein phosphatase regulatory subunit). However, the lipids were required for Pkc1 activity on the protein substrates Pah1, Nem1, and Spo7. Compared with DAG, PS had a greater effect on Pkc1 activity, and its dose-dependent interaction with the protein kinase was shown by the liposome binding assay. The Pkc1-mediated degradation of Pah1 was attenuated in the cho1Δ mutant, which is deficient in PS synthase, supporting the notion that the phospholipid regulates Pkc1 activity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Metabolic Enzymes of Cocaine Metabolite Benzoylecgonine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Zheng, Xirong; Zhan, Max; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zheng, Fang

    2016-08-19

    Cocaine is one of the most addictive drugs without a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication. Enzyme therapy using an efficient cocaine-metabolizing enzyme is recognized as the most promising approach to cocaine overdose treatment. The actual enzyme, known as RBP-8000, under current clinical development for cocaine overdose treatment is our previously designed T172R/G173Q mutant of bacterial cocaine esterase (CocE). The T172R/G173Q mutant is effective in hydrolyzing cocaine but inactive against benzoylecgonine (a major, biologically active metabolite of cocaine). Unlike cocaine itself, benzoylecgonine has an unusually stable zwitterion structure resistant to further hydrolysis in the body and environment. In fact, benzoylecgonine can last in the body for a very long time (a few days) and, thus, is responsible for the long-term toxicity of cocaine and a commonly used marker for drug addiction diagnosis in pre-employment drug tests. Because CocE and its mutants are all active against cocaine and inactive against benzoylecgonine, one might simply assume that other enzymes that are active against cocaine are also inactive against benzoylecgonine. Here, through combined computational modeling and experimental studies, we demonstrate for the first time that human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is actually active against benzoylecgonine, and that a rationally designed BChE mutant can not only more efficiently accelerate cocaine hydrolysis but also significantly hydrolyze benzoylecgonine in vitro and in vivo. This sets the stage for advanced studies to design more efficient mutant enzymes valuable for the development of an ideal cocaine overdose enzyme therapy and for benzoylecgonine detoxification in the environment.

  18. PAH nomenclature guide. First edition

    SciTech Connect

    Loening, K.; Merritt, J.; Later, D.; Wright, W.

    1990-01-01

    Research relating to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a multidisciplinary activity carried out by scientists not familiar with the intricacies of chemical nomenclature. The PAH nomenclature Guide is designed to promote good communication in this field by giving instruction on how to name relevant compounds properly, by alerting the reader to the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), by noting the practices of Chemical Abstracts Service, and by identifying other names in use. This book concentrates on the PAH themselves, their nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur analogs, including functional derivatives, the metabolic products of PAH, and enzymes. For each topic references are provided to the original nomenclature recommendations to enable the reader to check out further details.

  19. Enzymes and Inhibitors in Neonicotinoid Insecticide Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A.; Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19 and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19 and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI and 4-hydroxy-thiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating the brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites. PMID:19391582

  20. Enzymes and inhibitors in neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A; Ford, Kevin A; Casida, John E

    2009-06-10

    Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19, and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19, and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than it does that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO, and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI, and 4-hydroxythiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid, and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites.

  1. Truffles contain endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes and anandamide.

    PubMed

    Pacioni, Giovanni; Rapino, Cinzia; Zarivi, Osvaldo; Falconi, Anastasia; Leonardi, Marco; Battista, Natalia; Colafarina, Sabrina; Sergi, Manuel; Bonfigli, Antonella; Miranda, Michele; Barsacchi, Daniela; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Truffles are the fruiting body of fungi, members of the Ascomycota phylum endowed with major gastronomic and commercial value. The development and maturation of their reproductive structure are dependent on melanin synthesis. Since anandamide, a prominent member of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), is responsible for melanin synthesis in normal human epidermal melanocytes, we thought that ECS might be present also in truffles. Here, we show the expression, at the transcriptional and translational levels, of most ECS components in the black truffle Tuber melanosporum Vittad. at maturation stage VI. Indeed, by means of molecular biology and immunochemical techniques, we found that truffles contain the major metabolic enzymes of the ECS, while they do not express the most relevant endocannabinoid-binding receptors. In addition, we measured anandamide content in truffles, at different maturation stages (from III to VI), through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, whereas the other relevant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol was below the detection limit. Overall, our unprecedented results suggest that anandamide and ECS metabolic enzymes have evolved earlier than endocannabinoid-binding receptors, and that anandamide might be an ancient attractant to truffle eaters, that are well-equipped with endocannabinoid-binding receptors.

  2. Phosphatidylserine decarboxylases, key enzymes of lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schuiki, Irmgard; Daum, Günther

    2009-02-01

    Phosphatidylserine decarboxylases (PSDs) (E.C. 4.1.1.65) are enzymes which catalyze the formation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer). This enzymatic activity has been identified in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PSDs occur as two types of proteins depending on their localization and the sequence of a conserved motif. Type I PSDs include enzymes of eukaryotic mitochondria and bacterial origin which contain the amino acid sequence LGST as a characteristic motif. Type II PSDs are found in the endomembrane system of eukaryotes and contain a typical GGST motif. These characteristic motifs are considered as autocatalytic cleavage sites where proenzymes are split into alpha- and beta-subunits. The S-residue set free by this cleavage serves as an attachment site of a pyruvoyl group which is required for the activity of the enzymes. Moreover, PSDs harbor characteristic binding sites for the substrate PtdSer. Substrate supply to eukaryotic PSDs requires lipid transport because PtdSer synthesis and decarboxylation are spatially separated. Targeting of PSDs to their proper locations requires additional intramolecular domains. Mitochondrially localized type I PSDs are directed to the inner mitochondrial membrane by N-terminal targeting sequences. Type II PSDs also contain sequences in their N-terminal extensions which might be required for subcellular targeting. Lack of PSDs causes various defects in different cell types. The physiological relevance of these findings and the central role of PSDs in lipid metabolism will be discussed in this review.

  3. The enzymes of human diphosphoinositol polyphosphate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mark P; Potter, Barry V L

    2014-01-01

    Diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphates have many roles to play, including roles in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, the response of cells to stress, the regulation of telomere length and DNA damage repair, and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85 system that monitors phosphate levels. This review focuses on the three classes of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds: inositol hexakisphosphate kinases, inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases and diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases. However, these enzymes have roles beyond being mere catalysts, and their interactions with other proteins have cellular consequences. Through their interactions, the three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases have roles in exocytosis, diabetes, the response to infection, and apoptosis. The two inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases influence the cellular response to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the migration of pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane. The five diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases interact with ribosomal proteins and transcription factors, as well as proteins involved in membrane trafficking, exocytosis, ubiquitination and the proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Possible directions for future research aiming to determine the roles of these enzymes are highlighted. PMID:24152294

  4. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  5. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs w

  6. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Peters, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight and it is feasible to conduct ground experiments using known radiation exposures. The health of the liver, especially the activity rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. While radiation is known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects liver metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. This study is an effort to identify liver metabolic enzymes whose expression is altered by spaceflight or by radiation exposures that mimic features of the spaceflight environment. METHODS: Using procedures approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, mice were exposed to either 137Cs (controls, 50 mGy, 6Gy, or 50 mGy + 6Gy separated by 24 hours) or 13 days of spaceflight on STS 135. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed at several time points (4 hours, 24 hours or 7 days) after their last radiation exposure, or within 6 hours of return to Earth for the STS 135 animals. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted, purified and quality-tested. Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used in RT-qPCR experiments to determine relative expression of a wide variety of genes involved in general metabolism and drug metabolism. RESULTS: Results of the ground radiation exposure experiments indicated 65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post

  7. Biomarkers of Microbial Metabolism for Monitoring in-situ Anaerobic PAH Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L.; Phelps, C.; Battistelli, J.

    2002-12-01

    Monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds found in petroleum and its products are subject to biodegradation in the absence of oxygen. These anaerobic pathways reveal novel mechanism of microbial transformation through a series of metabolites and intermediates which are unique to the anaerobic degradation process. The presence of these compounds in-situ, then conceptually can serve as indicators that anaerobic degradation is taking place. We have laboratory studies and field samples which support this concept for BTX and PAH compounds. Environments in which these anaerobic degradation processes have been observed include freshwater and estuarine sediments, groundwater from impacted aquifers at a former manufactured gas plant and gasoline station, and a creosote-contaminated aquifer. Analytical protocols were developed to detect nanomolar concentrations from soil slurries and groundwater samples and microcosm studies verified their formation from field samples and use as biomarkers of activity. Recent studies on the mechanisms of anaerobic naphthalene and methylnaphthalene metabolism have identified several unusual compounds that can serve as biomarkers for monitoring in situ PAH biodegradation. For naphthalene these include 2-naphthoic acid (2-NA), tetrahydro-2-naphthoic acid (TH-2-NA), hexahydro-2-naphthoic acid (HH-2-NA) and methylnaphthoic acid (MNA) generated by sulfate-reducing bacteria degrading naphthalene or methylnaphthalene. Groundwater samples were analyzed from wells distributed throughout an anaerobic, creosote-contaminated aquifer and also from a leaking underground storage site. Samples were extracted, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. The concentration of 2-NA at each monitoring well was quantified and correlated to the zones of naphthalene contamination. Taken together with measurements of the aquifer's physical characteristics, these biomarker data can be used to describe the extent of naphthalene biodegradation at these site.

  8. Biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their first metabolic products in in vivo exposed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Pampanin, Daniela M; Le Goff, Jeremie; Skogland, Karianne; Marcucci, Cristian R; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Lorentzen, Marianne; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Sydnes, Magne O

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment is a worldwide activity since some of these compounds are well-established carcinogens and mutagens. Contaminants in this class are in fact regarded as priority hazardous substances for environmental pollution (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was selected to assess in vivo effects of two PAH and their first metabolic products, namely, the corresponding trans-dihydrodiols, using biological markers. Fish were exposed for 1 wk to a single PAH (naphthalene or chrysene) and its synthetic metabolites ((1R,2R)-1,2-dihydronaphthalene-1,2-diol and (1R,2R)-1,2-dihydrochrysene-1,2-diol) by intraperitoneal injection in a continuous seawater flow system. After exposure, PAH metabolism including PAH metabolites in bile and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, oxidative stress glutathione S-transferases (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, and genotoxicity such as DNA adducts were evaluated, as well as general health conditions including condition index (CI), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and gonadosomatic index (GSI). PAH metabolite values were low and not significantly different when measured with the fixed-wavelength fluorescence screening method, while the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method showed an apparent dose response in fish exposed to naphthalene. DNA adduct levels ≥0.16 × 10(-8) relative adduct level (RAL) were detected. It should be noted that 0.16 × 10(-8) RAL is considered the maximal acceptable background level for this species. The other biomarkers activities of catalase, GST, and EROD did not display a particular compound- or dose-related response. The GSI values were significantly lower in some chrysene- and in both naphthalene- and naphthalene diol-exposed groups compared to control.

  9. Enzymes of fructose metabolism in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Fritz; Lamprecht, Walther; Kirsch, Joachim

    1968-01-01

    The enzyme activities involved in fructose metabolism were measured in samples of human liver. On the basis of U/g of wet-weight the following results were found: ketohexokinase, 1.23; aldolase (substrate, fructose-1-phosphate), 2.08; aldolase (substrate, fructose-1,6-diphosphate), 3.46; triokinase, 2.07; aldehyde dehydrogenase (substrate, D-glyceraldehyde), 1.04; D-glycerate kinase, 0.13; alcohol dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD]) substrate, D-glyceraldehyde), 3.1; alcohol dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADP]) (substrate, D-glyceraldehyde), 3.6; and glycerol kinase, 0.62. Sorbitol dehydrogenases (25.0 U/g), hexosediphosphatase (4.06 U/g), hexokinase (0.23 U/g), and glucokinase (0.08 U/g) were also measured. Comparing these results with those of the rat liver it becomes clear that the activities of alcohol dehydrogenases (NAD and NADP) in rat liver are higher than those in human liver, and that the values of ketohexokinase, sorbitol dehydrogenases, and hexosediphosphatase in human liver are lower than those values found in rat liver. Human liver contains only traces of glycerate kinase. The rate of fructose uptake from the blood, as described by other investigators, can be based on the activity of ketohexokinase reported in the present paper. In human liver, ketohexokinase is present in a four-fold activity of glucokinase and hexokinase. This result may explain the well-known fact that fructose is metabolized faster than glucose. PMID:4385849

  10. Tradeoff between enzyme and metabolite efficiency maintains metabolic homeostasis upon perturbations in enzyme capacity

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rudroff, Florian; Picotti, Paola; Zamboni, Nicola; Sauer, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between enzymes and metabolites, the two major constituents of metabolic networks? We propose three alternative relationships between enzyme capacity and metabolite concentration alterations based on a Michaelis–Menten kinetic; that is enzyme capacities, metabolite concentrations, or both could limit the metabolic reaction rates. These relationships imply different correlations between changes in enzyme capacity and metabolite concentration, which we tested by quantifying metabolite, transcript, and enzyme abundances upon local (single-enzyme modulation) and global (GCR2 transcription factor mutant) perturbations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results reveal an inverse relationship between fold-changes in substrate metabolites and their catalyzing enzymes. These data provide evidence for the hypothesis that reaction rates are jointly limited by enzyme capacity and metabolite concentration. Hence, alteration in one network constituent can be efficiently buffered by converse alterations in the other constituent, implying a passive mechanism to maintain metabolic homeostasis upon perturbations in enzyme capacity. PMID:20393576

  11. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section 862.3360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... drug metabolizing enzyme. This device is used as an aid in determining treatment choice...

  12. Analysis of serum PAH`s and PAH adducts by LC/MS

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, P.C.; Barr, J.R.; Maggio, V.L.

    1995-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of chemical carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene is the most extensively studied and best understood carcinogenic PAH It is believed that Benzo[a]pyrene is metabolized in vitro to the diol epoxide, Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide which then can react with various nucleophilic centers on DNA. The major alkylation product appears to be the reaction of the Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the N{sup 2} position of guanine sites on DNA. Methods that can measure exposure and biological response to carcinogens such as PAH`s are needed. Human Blood can be separated into plasma, lymphocytes, and red blood cells. The plasma should contain native PAH`s which may yield some useful information about recent exposure. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin and adducts of PAH`s. Hemoglobin has an average lifetime of 120 days so quantification of hemoglobin adducts should give an average of a persons exposure over four months. Also, the electrophilic metabolites that react with hemoglobin to form adducts are the same metabolites that form DNA adducts which can lead to mutations and cancer. Lymphocytes contain DNA and therefore DNA adducts. DNA adducts can be repaired by a series of enzymes so quantification of these adducts will only yield information about recent or non-repairable adducts. DNA adduct formation is believed to be the first important step in chemical carcinogenesis so quantification of these adducts should yield some information on exposure and a great deal of important data on biological response and risk from specific PAH`s.

  13. Evolution of enzymes in metabolism: a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rui; Chaleil, Raphael A G; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2002-07-19

    Several models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of enzymes in metabolic pathways. Initially, the retro-evolution model proposed that, as enzymes at the end of pathways depleted their substrates in the primordial soup, there was a pressure for earlier enzymes in pathways to be created, using the later ones as initial template, in order to replenish the pools of depleted metabolites. Later, the recruitment model proposed that initial templates from other pathways could be used as long as those enzymes were similar in chemistry or substrate specificity. These two models have dominated recent studies of enzyme evolution. These studies are constrained by either the small scale of the study or the artificial restrictions imposed by pathway definitions. Here, a network approach is used to study enzyme evolution in fully sequenced genomes, thus removing both constraints. We find that homologous pairs of enzymes are roughly twice as likely to have evolved from enzymes that are less than three steps away from each other in the reaction network than pairs of non-homologous enzymes. These results, together with the conservation of the type of chemical reaction catalyzed by evolutionarily related enzymes, suggest that functional blocks of similar chemistry have evolved within metabolic networks. One possible explanation for these observations is that this local evolution phenomenon is likely to cause less global physiological disruptions in metabolism than evolution of enzymes from other enzymes that are distant from them in the metabolic network.

  14. Ketone Body Metabolic Enzyme OXCT1 Regulates Prostate Cancer Chemoresistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    and cellular energy homeostasis . Analysis of patient data indicated that higher OXCT1 levels are associated with docetaxel chemotherapy resistance...knock down induced metabolic inefficiency upon docetaxel treatment Since OXCT1 is a metabolic enzyme involved in energy homeostasis , next, to...ketone body metabolism and cellular energy homeostasis . Analysis of our previous data from patient needle biopsy samples indicated that higher

  15. Pho85p-Pho80p Phosphorylation of Yeast Pah1p Phosphatidate Phosphatase Regulates Its Activity, Location, Abundance, and Function in Lipid Metabolism*♦

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Plote, Devin; Xu, Zhi; Carman, George M.

    2012-01-01

    The yeast Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol and plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of phospholipid synthesis genes, is a cytosolic enzyme that associates with the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane to catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol. Pah1p is phosphorylated on seven (Ser-110, Ser-114, Ser-168, Ser-602, Thr-723, Ser-744, and Ser-748) sites that are targets for proline-directed protein kinases. In this work, we showed that the seven sites are phosphorylated by Pho85p-Pho80p, a protein kinase-cyclin complex known to regulate a variety of cellular processes. The phosphorylation of recombinant Pah1p was time- and dose-dependent and dependent on the concentrations of ATP (3.7 μm) and Pah1p (0.25 μm). Phosphorylation reduced (6-fold) the catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) of Pah1p and reduced (3-fold) its interaction (Kd) with liposomes. Alanine mutations of the seven sites ablated the inhibitory effect that Pho85p-Pho80p had on Pah1p activity and on the interaction with liposomes. Analysis of pho85Δ mutant cells, phosphate-starved wild type cells, and cells expressing phosphorylation-deficient forms of Pah1p indicated that loss of Pho85p-Pho80p phosphorylation reduced Pah1p abundance. In contrast, lack of Nem1p-Spo7p, the phosphatase complex that dephosphorylates Pah1p at the nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane, stabilized Pah1p abundance. Although loss of phosphorylation caused a decrease in abundance, a greater amount of Pah1p was associated with membranes when compared with phosphorylated enzyme, and the loss of phosphorylation allowed bypass of the Nem1p-Spo7p requirement for Pah1p function in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. PMID:22334681

  16. Interplay of drug metabolizing enzymes with cellular transporters.

    PubMed

    Böhmdorfer, Michaela; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Riha, Juliane; Brenner, Stefan; Höferl, Martina; Jäger, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Many endogenous and xenobiotic substances and their metabolites are substrates for drug metabolizing enzymes and cellular transporters. These proteins may not only contribute to bioavailability of molecules but also to uptake into organs and, consequently, to overall elimination. The coordinated action of uptake transporters, metabolizing enzymes, and efflux pumps, therefore, is a precondition for detoxification and elimination of drugs. As the understanding of the underlying mechanisms is important to predict alterations in drug disposal, adverse drug reactions and, finally, drug-drug interactions, this review illustrates the interplay between selected uptake/efflux transporters and phase I/II metabolizing enzymes.

  17. Network analysis of metabolic enzyme evolution in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Light, Sara; Kraulis, Per

    2004-01-01

    Background The two most common models for the evolution of metabolism are the patchwork evolution model, where enzymes are thought to diverge from broad to narrow substrate specificity, and the retrograde evolution model, according to which enzymes evolve in response to substrate depletion. Analysis of the distribution of homologous enzyme pairs in the metabolic network can shed light on the respective importance of the two models. We here investigate the evolution of the metabolism in E. coli viewed as a single network using EcoCyc. Results Sequence comparison between all enzyme pairs was performed and the minimal path length (MPL) between all enzyme pairs was determined. We find a strong over-representation of homologous enzymes at MPL 1. We show that the functionally similar and functionally undetermined enzyme pairs are responsible for most of the over-representation of homologous enzyme pairs at MPL 1. Conclusions The retrograde evolution model predicts that homologous enzymes pairs are at short metabolic distances from each other. In general agreement with previous studies we find that homologous enzymes occur close to each other in the network more often than expected by chance, which lends some support to the retrograde evolution model. However, we show that the homologous enzyme pairs which may have evolved through retrograde evolution, namely the pairs that are functionally dissimilar, show a weaker over-representation at MPL 1 than the functionally similar enzyme pairs. Our study indicates that, while the retrograde evolution model may have played a small part, the patchwork evolution model is the predominant process of metabolic enzyme evolution. PMID:15113413

  18. Application of fluorescent antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for TCE and PAH degrading bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; Franck, M.; Brey, J.; Scott, D.; Lanclos, K.; Fliermans, C.

    1996-07-01

    Historically, methods used to identify methanotrophic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon-degrading (PAH) bacteria in environmental samples have been inadequate because isolation and identification procedures are time-consuming and often fail to separate specific bacteria from other environmental microorganisms. Methanotrophic bacteria have been isolated and characterized from TCE-contaminated soils (Bowman et al. 1993; Fliermans et al., 1988). Fliermans et al., (1988) and others demonstrated that cultures enriched with methane and propane could cometabolically degrade a wide variety of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons including ethylene; 1,2-cisdichloroethylene (c-DCE); 1,2-trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE); vinyl chloride (VC); toluene; phenol and cresol. Characterization of select microorganisms in the natural setting is important for the evaluation of bioremediation potential and its effectiveness. This realization has necessitated techniques that are selective, sensitive and easily applicable to soils, sediments, and groundwater (Fliermans, et al., 1994). Additionally these techniques can identify and quantify microbial types in situ in real time

  19. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  20. Metabolism and excretion rates of parent and hydroxy-PAHs in urine collected after consumption of traditionally smoked salmon for Native American volunteers.

    PubMed

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated the metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 h. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 h post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 h for retene to 3.3h for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 h for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 h for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 h post-consumption.

  1. Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z.; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

  2. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in coke oven workers relative to exposure, alcohol consumption, and metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Ichiba, M; Hara, K; Zhang, S; Hanaoka, T; Pan, G; Yamano, Y; Takahashi, K; Tomokuni, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the influence of personal lifestyle—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the association of 1-OHP concentrations with the genetic polymorphism of several metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs).
METHODS—The study population contained 162 coke oven workers and 58 controls employed at the largest iron and steel factory in China. Personal data were collected at the interview. 1-OHP in urine was measured with high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Genetic polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
RESULTS—A positive association between excretion of urinary 1-OHP and the levels of exposure to PAHs was confirmed. Those people who consumed ⩾50 g/day ethanol had significantly higher 1-OHP excretion than did other coke oven workers (p<0.01). No significant difference in urinary 1-OHP was found between smokers and non-smokers, in both controls and exposed subjects. The variant homozygotes at exon 7 of the CYP1A1 gene had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than other CYP1A1 genotypes among the exposed workers (p=0.03). There was less association between the concentrations of 1-OHP and the GSTM1, GSTP1, or GSTT1 polymorphism.
CONCLUSIONS—The present study confirmed that urinary 1-OHP is a good biomarker for exposure to PAHs. Alcohol consumption affected urinary 1-OHP excretion. The variant genotypes of the CYP1A1 gene may result in the enhancement of PAH metabolites. It is helpful to understand the role of individual susceptibility on metabolism of carcinogens. These findings suggest that the modulating effect of individual lifestyle factors or genetic nature should be considered in future studies on occupational exposure to PAHs and in evaluating the health risk

  3. Non-metabolic functions of glycolytic enzymes in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Li, S

    2017-05-11

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to meet the requirement for survival and rapid growth. One hallmark of cancer metabolism is elevated aerobic glycolysis and reduced oxidative phosphorylation. Emerging evidence showed that most glycolytic enzymes are deregulated in cancer cells and play important roles in tumorigenesis. Recent studies revealed that all essential glycolytic enzymes can be translocated into nucleus where they participate in tumor progression independent of their canonical metabolic roles. These noncanonical functions include anti-apoptosis, regulation of epigenetic modifications, modulation of transcription factors and co-factors, extracellular cytokine, protein kinase activity and mTORC1 signaling pathway, suggesting that these multifaceted glycolytic enzymes not only function in canonical metabolism but also directly link metabolism to epigenetic and transcription programs implicated in tumorigenesis. These findings underscore our understanding about how tumor cells adapt to nutrient and fuel availability in the environment and most importantly, provide insights into development of cancer therapy.

  4. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Identifying metabolic enzymes with multiple types of association evidence.

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, Peter; Chen, Lifeng; Freund, Yoav; Vitkup, Dennis; Church, George M

    2006-03-29

    Existing large-scale metabolic models of sequenced organisms commonly include enzymatic functions which can not be attributed to any gene in that organism. Existing computational strategies for identifying such missing genes rely primarily on sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes. We present a novel method for identifying genes encoding for a specific metabolic function based on a local structure of metabolic network and multiple types of functional association evidence, including clustering of genes on the chromosome, similarity of phylogenetic profiles, gene expression, protein fusion events and others. Using E. coli and S. cerevisiae metabolic networks, we illustrate predictive ability of each individual type of association evidence and show that significantly better predictions can be obtained based on the combination of all data. In this way our method is able to predict 60% of enzyme-encoding genes of E. coli metabolism within the top 10 (out of 3551) candidates for their enzymatic function, and as a top candidate within 43% of the cases. We illustrate that a combination of genome context and other functional association evidence is effective in predicting genes encoding metabolic enzymes. Our approach does not rely on direct sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes, and can be used in conjunction with traditional homology-based metabolic reconstruction methods. The method can also be used to target orphan metabolic activities.

  6. Identifying metabolic enzymes with multiple types of association evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kharchenko, Peter; Chen, Lifeng; Freund, Yoav; Vitkup, Dennis; Church, George M

    2006-01-01

    Background Existing large-scale metabolic models of sequenced organisms commonly include enzymatic functions which can not be attributed to any gene in that organism. Existing computational strategies for identifying such missing genes rely primarily on sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes. Results We present a novel method for identifying genes encoding for a specific metabolic function based on a local structure of metabolic network and multiple types of functional association evidence, including clustering of genes on the chromosome, similarity of phylogenetic profiles, gene expression, protein fusion events and others. Using E. coli and S. cerevisiae metabolic networks, we illustrate predictive ability of each individual type of association evidence and show that significantly better predictions can be obtained based on the combination of all data. In this way our method is able to predict 60% of enzyme-encoding genes of E. coli metabolism within the top 10 (out of 3551) candidates for their enzymatic function, and as a top candidate within 43% of the cases. Conclusion We illustrate that a combination of genome context and other functional association evidence is effective in predicting genes encoding metabolic enzymes. Our approach does not rely on direct sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes, and can be used in conjunction with traditional homology-based metabolic reconstruction methods. The method can also be used to target orphan metabolic activities. PMID:16571130

  7. Undercover: gene control by metabolites and metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    van der Knaap, Jan A.; Verrijzer, C. Peter

    2016-01-01

    To make the appropriate developmental decisions or maintain homeostasis, cells and organisms must coordinate the expression of their genome and metabolic state. However, the molecular mechanisms that relay environmental cues such as nutrient availability to the appropriate gene expression response remain poorly understood. There is a growing awareness that central components of intermediary metabolism are cofactors or cosubstrates of chromatin-modifying enzymes. As such, their concentrations constitute a potential regulatory interface between the metabolic and chromatin states. In addition, there is increasing evidence for a direct involvement of classic metabolic enzymes in gene expression control. These dual-function proteins may provide a direct link between metabolic programing and the control of gene expression. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms connecting metabolism to gene expression and their implications for development and disease. PMID:27881599

  8. Polyhalogenated biphenyls and phenobarbital: evaluation as inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes in the sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus.

    PubMed

    James, M O; Little, P J

    1981-08-01

    Several doses of Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture), Firemaster FF1 (polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) and phenobarbital (PB) were administered to the marine fish sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus). The PCB and PBB mixtures caused induction of hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (7-EC) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (ERF) activities, but not benzphetamine N-demethylase (BND), epoxide hydrolase (EH) or glutathione S-transferase (GSH-T) activities. This induction pattern is typical of that caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in fish and mammals or by tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mammals. The extent of induction of AHH-activity and cytochrome P-450 content was higher when experiments were carried out in summer (water temperature 25 +/- 4 degrees C) than in winter (water temperature 11 +/- 3 degrees C). Firemaster FF1 (15 mg/kg) induced fish for at least 56 days in both summer and winter at which time the liver concentrations of PBB were in the ppm range. PCB concentrations in the ppm range have been found in fish from polluted lakes and seas, thus we may expect that environmental exposure to PCB is sufficient to induce hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities. The PCB isomer 3,3'4,4'5,5'-HCB, which induces the same spectrum of hepatic drug-metabolizing activities as TCDD and PAH in rats, had a broadly similar effect in the sheepshead. Another purified isomer, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HBB, which induces the same enzymes as PB in rats, had no effect on drug-metabolizing activities in sheepshead. PB was also without effect on sheepshead hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, although a typical narcotic effect was produced in PB-treated sheepshead. Our studies provide further evidence that drug-metabolizing activities in fish liver are readily induced by chemicals like TCDD or PAH, but we fail to

  9. Bedaquiline metabolism: enzymes and novel metabolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Liu, Shinlan; Dorko, Kenneth; Xie, Wen; Ma, Xiaochao

    2014-05-01

    Bedaquiline is a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Adverse cardiac and hepatic drug reactions to bedaquiline have been noted in clinical practice. The current study investigated bedaquiline metabolism in human hepatocytes using a metabolomic approach. Bedaquiline N-demethylation via CYP3A4 was confirmed as the major pathway in bedaquiline metabolism. In addition to CYP3A4, we found that both CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 contributed to bedaquiline N-demethylation. The Km values of CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 in bedaquiline N-demethylation were 13.1, 21.3, and 8.5 µM, respectively. We also identified a novel metabolic pathway of bedaquiline that produced an aldehyde intermediate. In summary, this study extended our knowledge of bedaquiline metabolism, which can be applied to predict and prevent drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions associated with bedaquiline.

  10. Inhibition of metabolism and DNA binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by plant phenols in epidermis of SENCAR mice

    SciTech Connect

    Das, M.; Bik, D.P.; Bickers, D.R.; Mukhtar, H.

    1986-03-05

    Naturally occurring plant phenols such as tannic acid (TA), quercetin (QT), myricetin (MY) and anthraflavic acid (AA) have been shown to inhibit the mutagenicity of several bay-region diolepoxides of PAHs. Since skin is a target for PAH carcinogenesis, they investigated the effect of these plant phenols on epidermal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity and the binding of PAHs to DNA in SENCAR mice. Each of the plant phenols tested was found to be an in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of epidermal AHH activity with I/sub 50/ values ranging from 4.4 x 10/sup -5/ - 12.4 x 10/sup -5/M in control and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) pretreated skin. On an equimolar basis TA was the most potent inhibitor with a Ki of 81 ..mu..M. Incubation of TA, QT, MY and AA with epidermal microsomes resulted in varying degrees of inhibition of enzyme mediated covalent binding of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) to calf thymus DNA. TA (25 ..mu..M) showed maximum inhibition (64%). A single topical application (12 ..mu..mol) of TA, QT, MY and AA resulted in significant decrease in the binding of BP, BP-7,8-diol and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to epidermal DNA. The formation of (+)-7..beta..,8..cap alpha..-dihydroxy-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-BP-deoxyguanine adduct in epidermis was significantly reduced (62-86%) following topical application of the plant phenols. Their results suggest that some of these plant phenols have substantial though variable potential to modify the risk of PAHs induced skin carcinogenicity.

  11. Characterizing Metabolic Inhibition Using Electrochemical Enzyme-DNA Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Dominic O.; Bajrami, Besnik; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of metabolic enzyme inhibition are necessary in drug development and toxicity investigations as potential tools to limit or prevent appearance of deleterious metabolites formed, for example by cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes. In this paper, we evaluate the use of enzyme/DNA toxicity biosensors as tools to investigate enzyme inhibition. We have examined DNA damage due to cyt P450cam metabolism of styrene using DNA/enzyme films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electro*des monitored via Ru(bpy)32+–mediated DNA oxidation. Styrene metabolism initiated by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated with and without the inhibitors, imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole (in micromolar range) to monitor DNA damage inhibition. The initial rates of DNA damage decreased with increased inhibitor concentrations. Linear and nonlinear fits of Michaelis-Menten inhibition models were used to determine apparent inhibition constants (KI*) for the inhibitors. Elucidation of the best fitting inhibition model was achieved by comparing correlation coefficients and the sum of the square of the errors (SSE) from each inhibition model. Results confirmed the utility of the enzyme/DNA biosensor for metabolic inhibition studies. A simple competitive inhibition model best approximated the data for imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole with KI* of 268.2, 142.3 and 204.2 µM, respectively. PMID:19099359

  12. Phase-II conjugation ability for PAH metabolism in amphibians: characteristics and inter-species differences.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2011-10-01

    The present study examines amphibian metabolic activity - particularly conjugation - by analysis of pyrene (a four ring, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector (FD), a mass spectrometry detector (MS) system and kinetic analysis of conjugation enzymes. Six amphibian species were exposed to pyrene (dissolved in water): African claw frog (Xenopus laevis); Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi); Montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris); Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa); Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster); and Clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus); plus one fish species, medaka (Oryzias latipes); and a fresh water snail (Clithon retropictus), and the resultant metabolites were collected. Identification of pyrene metabolites by HPLC and ion-trap MS system indicated that medaka mainly excreted pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG), while pyrene-1-sulfate (PYOS) was the main metabolite in all amphibian species. Pyrene metabolites in amphibians were different from those in invertebrate fresh water snails. Inter-species differences were also observed in pyrene metabolism among amphibians. Metabolite analysis showed that frogs relied more strongly on sulfate conjugation than did Japanese newts and clouded salamanders. Furthermore, urodelan amphibians, newts and salamanders, excreted glucose conjugates of pyrene that were not detected in the anuran amphibians. Kinetic analysis of conjugation by hepatic microsomes and cytosols indicated that differences in excreted metabolites reflected differences in enzymatic activities. Furthermore, pyrenediol (PYDOH) glucoside sulfate was detected in the Japanese newt sample. This novel metabolite has not been reported previously to this report, in which we have identified unique characteristics of amphibians in phase II pyrene metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Identification, Enzyme Assay, and Metabolic Profiling of Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo-Jung; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Jeon, Junhyun; Bae, Hanhong

    2017-06-28

    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize selected Trichoderma isolates by metabolic profiling and enzyme assay for evaluation of their potential as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens. Trichoderma isolates were obtained from the Rural Development Administration Genebank Information Center (Wanju, Republic of Korea). Eleven Trichoderma isolates were re-identified using ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. ITS sequence results showed new identification of Trichoderma isolates. In addition, metabolic profiling of the ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid cultures of five Trichoderma isolates that showed the best anti-Phytophthora activities was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolic profiling revealed that Trichoderma isolates shared common metabolites with well-known antifungal activities. Enzyme assays indicated strong cell walldegrading enzyme activities of Trichoderma isolates. Overall, our results indicated that the selected Trichoderma isolates have great potential for use as biocontrol agents against plant pathogens.

  14. Targeting protozoan parasite metabolism: glycolytic enzymes in the therapeutic crosshairs.

    PubMed

    Harris, M T; Mitchell, W G; Morris, J C

    2014-01-01

    Glycolysis is an important metabolic pathway for most organisms, including protozoan parasites. Many of these primitive eukaryotes have streamlined their metabolism, favoring glycolysis for generating ATP in the glucose-rich environments in which they reside. Therefore, the enzymes involved in hexose metabolism could prove to be attractive targets for therapeutic development. This hypothesis is supported by a number of chemical and genetic validation studies. Additionally, the peculiar biochemistry of many of the components, along with limited protein sequence identity emphasizes the likelihood of developing compounds that selectively inhibit the parasite enzymes. In this review, we examine the status of target validation at the genetic and/or chemical levels from the protozoan parasites. While the proteins from some species have been interrogated to the point that well-defined lead compounds have been identified with activities against both enzyme and parasite growth, progress in other systems has to date been limited.

  15. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in Italian populations.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Loredana; Canaparo, Roberto; Scordo, Maria Gabriella; Spina, Edoardo

    2015-06-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a major role in the biotransformation and subsequent elimination of most drugs and xenobiotics from the body. Both phase I and phase II enzymes are highly polymorphic. Inter-individual differences in genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes are important for understanding variability in drug response and for individualization of drug prescription. The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism varies widely with ethnicity, and marked differences in the distribution of allelic variants of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes have been documented in populations of different racial origin. This review aimed to summarize the available studies on genetic polymorphisms associated with drug metabolism conducted in Italian populations and to compare the frequency of the various metabolizer phenotypes and most common variant alleles (and resulting genotypes) with corresponding values from other populations. Notably, published data are not extensive, and most studies were performed on relatively low numbers of individuals. In general, the frequency of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes as well as in the investigated phase II enzymes in the Italian population was similar to values reported for other Caucasian populations. However, the prevalence of CYP2D6 gene duplication among Italians was found to be very high, confirming the higher frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers in the Mediterranean area compared to Northern Europe. It is worth noting that a geographic gradient in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 polymorphism distribution was also seen, the Italian population showing higher similarity to other Mediterranean populations than to North Europeans.

  16. Renal fructose-metabolizing enzymes: significance in hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kranhold, J F; Loh, D; Morris, R C

    1969-07-25

    In patients with hereditary fructose intolerance, which is characterized by deficient aldolase activity toward fructose-1-phosphate, fructose induces a renal tubular dysfunction that implicates only the proximal convoluted tubule. Because normal metabolism of fructose by way of fructose-1-phosphate requires fructokinase, aldolase "B," and triokinase, the exclusively cortical location of these enzymes indicates that the medulla is not involved in the metabolic abnormality presumably causal of the renal dysfunction.

  17. Enzyme Regulation& Catalysis in Carbon Fixation Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Miziorko, Henry M

    2004-12-14

    The overall long term goal of this program is the elucidation of molecular events in carbon assimilation. It has become axiomatic that control of flux through metabolic pathways is effectively imposed at irreversible reactions situated early in those pathways. The current focal point of this project is phosphoribulokinase (PRK), which catalyzes formation of the carbon dioxide acceptor, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. This reaction represents an early irreversible step unique to Calvin's reductive pentose phosphate pathway. Predictably, the PRK reaction represents an important control point in carbon fixation, regulated by a light dependent thiol/disulfide exchange in eukaryotes and by allosteric effectors in prokaryotes. Characterization of naturally occurring mutants as well as gene knockout experiments substantiate the importance of PRK to in vivo control of carbon assimilation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Thus, given the potential impact of enhancement or inhibition of PRK activity on energy (biomass/biofuel) production, elucidation of the molecular events that account for PRK activity is a significant scientific goal.

  18. Enzyme kinetics in drug metabolism: fundamentals and applications.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Swati; Argikar, Upendra A; Tweedie, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are protein catalysts that lower the energy barrier for a reaction and speed the rate of a chemical change. The kinetics of reactions catalyzed by enzymes, as well as several mechanisms underlying the kinetics, have been comprehensively studied and written in textbooks (1, 2). The importance of quantitative evaluation of enzymatic processes has been recognized in many fields of study, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmaceutical sciences to name a few. In pharmaceutical sciences, the applications of enzyme kinetics range from hit finding efforts for new chemical entities on a pharmacological target to concentration effect relationships to large-scale biosynthesis. The study of the science of drug metabolism has two principal concepts-rate and extent. While understanding disposition pathways and identification of metabolites provides an insight into the extent of metabolism, kinetics of depletion of substrates (endogenous or exogenous) and formation of metabolites deals with the rate of metabolism. The current textbook specifically focuses on kinetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes, detailing specific enzyme classes, and discusses kinetics as they apply to drug transporters. This textbook also outlines additional factors that contribute to the kinetics of reactions catalyzed by these proteins such as variability in isoforms (pharmacogenomics) and experimental factors including key concepts such as alterations of substrate concentrations due to binding. Applications of these approaches in predicting kinetic parameters and alternative approaches for enzymes (systems biology) and transporters are also discussed. The final section focuses on real-life examples (case studies) to try and exemplify the applications of enzyme kinetic principles. This chapter provides a brief overview outlining some key concepts within each of the sections and the chapters within this textbook.

  19. Enzymes and Metabolites in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Desiccation Tolerant Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingwei; Song, Xiaomin; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-12-15

    Resurrection plants can tolerate extreme water loss. Substantial sugar accumulation is a phenomenon in resurrection plants during dehydration. Sugars have been identified as one important factor contributing to desiccation tolerance. Phylogenetic diversity of resurrection plants reflects the diversity of sugar metabolism in response to dehydration. Sugars, which accumulate during dehydration, have been shown to protect macromolecules and membranes and to scavenge reactive oxygen species. This review focuses on the performance of enzymes participating in sugar metabolism during dehydration stress. The relation between sugar metabolism and other biochemical activities is discussed and open questions as well as potential experimental approaches are proposed.

  20. Enzymes and Metabolites in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Desiccation Tolerant Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingwei; Song, Xiaomin; Bartels, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Resurrection plants can tolerate extreme water loss. Substantial sugar accumulation is a phenomenon in resurrection plants during dehydration. Sugars have been identified as one important factor contributing to desiccation tolerance. Phylogenetic diversity of resurrection plants reflects the diversity of sugar metabolism in response to dehydration. Sugars, which accumulate during dehydration, have been shown to protect macromolecules and membranes and to scavenge reactive oxygen species. This review focuses on the performance of enzymes participating in sugar metabolism during dehydration stress. The relation between sugar metabolism and other biochemical activities is discussed and open questions as well as potential experimental approaches are proposed. PMID:28248249

  1. Induction of PAH degradation in a phenanthrene-degrading pseudomonad

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, W.T.; Chen, S.H.; Aitken, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    Recent evidence suggests that different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) substrates are metabolized by common enzymes in PAH-degrading bacteria, implying that inducers for low-molecular-weight PAH degradation may coinduce for the metabolism of higher-molecular-weight compounds. The authors have tested this hypothesis with a well-characterized PAH-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas saccharophila P-15. Growth of P-15 on salicylate, a metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, and a known inducer for naphthalene degradation, induced the metabolism of both substrates. Several potential inducers were then tested for their effects on metabolism of the four-ring compounds pyrene and fluoranthene, neither of which is a growth substrate for P-15, but both of which can be metabolized by this organism. Incubation of P-15 in the presence of phenanthrene or salicylate induced the metabolism of pyrene and fluoranthene in resting-cell assays. Catechol, another intermediate of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation, did not induce the metabolism of either compound and interfered with the inducing effect of salicylate. These results have implications for strategies designed to maintain PAH degradation in contaminated environments, particularly for compounds that are degraded slowly or are degraded only by nongrowth metabolism.

  2. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi.

  3. Engineering of Metabolic Pathways by Artificial Enzyme Channels

    PubMed Central

    Pröschel, Marlene; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Application of industrial enzymes for production of valuable chemical compounds has greatly benefited from recent developments in Systems and Synthetic Biology. Both, in vivo and in vitro systems have been established, allowing conversion of simple into complex compounds. Metabolic engineering in living cells needs to be balanced which is achieved by controlling gene expression levels, translation, scaffolding, compartmentation, and flux control. In vitro applications are often hampered by limited protein stability/half-life and insufficient rates of substrate conversion. To improve stability and catalytic activity, proteins are post-translationally modified and arranged in artificial metabolic channels. Within the review article, we will first discuss the supramolecular organization of enzymes in living systems and second summarize current and future approaches to design artificial metabolic channels by additive manufacturing for the efficient production of desired products. PMID:26557643

  4. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA Adduct Formation and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1 is a major enzyme involved in metabolizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to reactive intermediates. Given...that certain exposure to PAHs may be a breast cancer risk factor, we have set out to examine CYP1B1 gene expression in breast tissue. After...hired Research Coordinators and interviewers have been trained and recruitment of participants has begun. The method to measure CYP1B1 expression has

  5. Optimal control of metabolic networks with saturable enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Oyarzuun, D A

    2011-03-01

    This note addresses the optimal control of non-linear metabolic networks by means of time-dependent enzyme synthesis rates. The authors consider networks with general topologies described by a control-affine dynamical system coupled with a linear model for enzyme synthesis and degradation. The problem formulation accounts for transitions between two metabolic equilibria, which typically arise in metabolic adaptations to environmental changes, and the minimisation of a quadratic functional that weights the cost/benefit relation between the transcriptional effort required for enzyme synthesis and the transition to the new phenotype. Using a linear time-variant approximation of the non-linear dynamics, the problem is recast as a sequence of linear-quadratic problems, the solution of which involves a sequence of differential Lyapunov equations. The authors provide conditions for convergence to an approximate solution of the original problem, which are naturally satisfied by a wide class of models for saturable enzyme kinetics. As a case study the authors use the method to examine the robustness of an optimal just-in-time gene expression pattern with respect to heterogeneity in the biosynthetic costs of individual proteins.

  6. Deciphering the roles of Arabidopsis LPCAT and PAH in phosphatidylcholine homeostasis and pathway coordination for chloroplast lipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Kazachkov, Michael; Shen, Wenyun; Bai, Mei; Wu, Hong; Zou, Jitao

    2014-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a key intermediate in the metabolic network of glycerolipid biosynthesis. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAH) are two key enzymes of PC homeostasis. We report that LPCAT activity is markedly induced in the Arabidopsis pah mutant. The quadruple pah lpcat mutant, with dual defects in PAH and LPCAT, had a level of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) that was much higher than that in the lpcat mutants and a PC content that was higher than that in the pah mutant. Comparative molecular profile analysis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol revealed that both the pah and pah lpcat mutants had increased proportions of 34:6 from the prokaryotic pathway despite differing levels of LPCAT activity. We show that a decreased representation of the C16:0 C18:2 diacylglycerol moiety in PC was a shared feature of pah and pah lpcat, and that this change in PC metabolic profile correlated with the increased prokaryotic contribution to chloroplast lipid synthesis. We detected increased PC deacylation in the pah lpcat mutant that was attributable at least in part to the induced phospholipases. Increased LPC generation was also evident in the pah mutant, but the phospholipases were not induced, raising the possibility that PC deacylation is mediated by the reverse reaction of LPCAT. We discuss possible roles of LPCAT and PAH in PC turnover that impacts lipid pathway coordination for chloroplast lipid synthesis.

  7. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular foci—such as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesis—to high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionality—and dysfunctionality—of the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  8. Moonlighting transcriptional activation function of a fungal sulfur metabolism enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Levati, Elisabetta; Sartini, Sara; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Montanini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Moonlighting proteins, including metabolic enzymes acting as transcription factors (TF), are present in a variety of organisms but have not been described in higher fungi so far. In a previous genome-wide analysis of the TF repertoire of the plant-symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum, we identified various enzymes, including the sulfur-assimilation enzyme phosphoadenosine-phosphosulfate reductase (PAPS-red), as potential transcriptional activators. A functional analysis performed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, now demonstrates that a specific variant of this enzyme, PAPS-red A, localizes to the nucleus and is capable of transcriptional activation. TF moonlighting, which is not present in the other enzyme variant (PAPS-red B) encoded by the T. melanosporum genome, relies on a transplantable C-terminal polypeptide containing an alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic amino acid motif. A similar moonlighting activity was demonstrated for six additional proteins, suggesting that multitasking is a relatively frequent event. PAPS-red A is sulfur-state-responsive and highly expressed, especially in fruitbodies, and likely acts as a recruiter of transcription components involved in S-metabolism gene network activation. PAPS-red B, instead, is expressed at low levels and localizes to a highly methylated and silenced region of the genome, hinting at an evolutionary mechanism based on gene duplication, followed by epigenetic silencing of this non-moonlighting gene variant. PMID:27121330

  9. [Interaction between CYP450 enzymes and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine as well as enzyme activity assay].

    PubMed

    Lu, Tu-lin; Su, Lian-lin; Ji, De; Gu, Wei; Mao, Chun-qin

    2015-09-01

    Drugs are exogenous compounds for human bodies, and will be metabolized by many enzymes after administration. CYP450 enzyme, as a major metabolic enzyme, is an important phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. In human bodies, about 75% of drug metabolism is conducted by CYP450 enzymes, and CYP450 enzymes is the key factor for drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) -TCM, TCM-medicine and other drug combination. In order to make clear the interaction between metabolic enzymes and TCM metabolism, we generally chose the enzymatic activity as an evaluation index. That is to say, the enhancement or reduction of CYP450 enzyme activity was used to infer the inducing or inhibitory effect of active ingredients and extracts of traditional Chinese medicine on enzymes. At present, the common method for measuring metabolic enzyme activity is Cocktail probe drugs, and it is the key to select the suitable probe substrates. This is of great significance for study drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) process in organisms. The study focuses on the interaction between TCMs, active ingredients, herbal extracts, cocktail probe substrates as well as CYP450 enzymes, in order to guide future studies.

  10. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  11. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens.

  12. Activity of anandamide (AEA) metabolic enzymes in rat placental bed.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, B M; Battista, N; Correia-da-Silva, G; Rapino, C; Maccarrone, M; Teixeira, N A

    2014-11-01

    Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid mediators, with anandamide (AEA) being the first member identified. It is now widely accepted that AEA influences early pregnancy events and its levels, which primarily depend on its synthesis by an N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) and degradation by a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), must be tightly regulated. Previous studies demonstrated that AEA levels require in situ regulation of these respective metabolic enzymes, and thus, any disturbance in AEA levels may impact maternal remodeling processes occurring during placental development. In this study, the activities of the AEA-metabolic enzymes that result in the establishment of proper local AEA levels during rat gestation were examined. Here, we demonstrate that during placentation NAPE-PLD and FAAH activities change in a temporal manner. Our findings suggest that NAPE-PLD and FAAH create the appropriate AEA levels required for tissue remodeling in the placental bed, a process essential to pregnancy maintenance.

  13. Human Metabolic Enzymes Deficiency: A Genetic Mutation Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Swati; Singh, Ashok K.; Maity, Siddhartha; Sarkar, Srimanta

    2016-01-01

    One of the extreme challenges in biology is to ameliorate the understanding of the mechanisms which emphasize metabolic enzyme deficiency (MED) and how these pretend to have influence on human health. However, it has been manifested that MED could be either inherited as inborn error of metabolism (IEM) or acquired, which carries a high risk of interrupted biochemical reactions. Enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of toxic compounds that may disrupt normal organ functions and cause failure in producing crucial biological compounds and other intermediates. The MED related disorders cover widespread clinical presentations and can involve almost any organ system. To sum up the causal factors of almost all the MED-associated disorders, we decided to embark on a less traveled but nonetheless relevant direction, by focusing our attention on associated gene family products, regulation of their expression, genetic mutation, and mutation types. In addition, the review also outlines the clinical presentations as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27051561

  14. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  15. Enzyme Recruitment and Its Role in Metabolic Expansion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although more than 109 years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483367

  16. Enzyme recruitment and its role in metabolic expansion.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Cindy; Miller, Brian G

    2014-02-11

    Although more than 10(9) years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology.

  17. Clinically Relevant Genetic Variations in Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Navin; Dolan, M. Eileen

    2011-01-01

    In the field of pharmacogenetics, we currently have a few markers to guide physicians as to the best course of therapy for patients. For the most part, these genetic variants are within a drug metabolizing enzyme that has a large effect on the degree or rate at which a drug is converted to its metabolites. For many drugs, response and toxicity are multi-genic traits and understanding relationships between a patient's genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes and the efficacy and/or toxicity of a medication offers the potential to optimize therapies. This review will focus on variants in drug metabolizing enzymes with predictable and relatively large impacts on drug efficacy and/or toxicity; some of these drug/gene variant pairs have impacted drug labels by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The challenges in identifying genetic markers and implementing clinical changes based on known markers will be discussed. In addition, the impact of next generation sequencing in identifying rare variants will be addressed. PMID:21453273

  18. Enzyme kinetics of oxidative metabolism: cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are the most important enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of hydrophobic drugs and other foreign compounds (xenobiotics). The versatility of these enzymes results in some unusual kinetic properties, stemming from the simultaneous interaction of multiple substrates with the CYP active site. Often, the CYPs display kinetics that deviate from standard hyperbolic saturation or inhibition kinetics. Non-Michaelis-Menten or "atypical" saturation kinetics include sigmoidal, biphasic, and substrate inhibition kinetics (see Chapter 3 ). Interactions between substrates include competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, mixed inhibition, partial inhibition, activation, and activation followed by inhibition (see Chapter 4 ). Models and equations that can result in these kinetic profiles will be presented and discussed.

  19. Identification of sensitive enzymes in the photosynthetic carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Umeton, Renato; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Papini, Alessio; Costanza, Jole; Liò, Pietro; Nicosia, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and optimizing the CO(2) fixation process would allow human beings to address better current energy and biotechnology issues. We focused on modeling the C(3) photosynthetic Carbon metabolism pathway with the aim of identifying the minimal set of enzymes whose biotechnological alteration could allow a functional re-engineering of the pathway. To achieve this result we merged in a single powerful pipe-line Sensitivity Analysis (SA), Single- (SO) and Multi-Objective Optimization (MO), and Robustness Analysis (RA). By using our recently developed multipurpose optimization algorithms (PAO and PMO2) here we extend our work exploring a large combinatorial solution space and most importantly, here we present an important reduction of the problem search space. From the initial number of 23 enzymes we have identified 11 enzymes whose targeting in the C(3) photosynthetic Carbon metabolism would provide about 90% of the overall functional optimization. Both in terms of maximal CO(2) Uptake and minimal Nitrogen consumption, these 11 sensitive enzymes are confirmed to play a key role. Finally we present a RA to confirm our findings.

  20. Prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes: important regulators of cancer metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Su, Huizhong; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Kranc, Kamil R; Pollard, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes (PHDs) regulate the stability of HIF protein by post-translational hydroxylation of two conserved prolyl residues in its α subunit in an oxygen-dependent manner. Trans-4-prolyl hydroxylation of HIFα under normal oxygen (O2) availability enables its association with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor pVHL E3 ligase complex, leading to the degradation of HIFα via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Due to the obligatory requirement of molecular O2 as a co-substrate, the activity of PHDs is inhibited under hypoxic conditions, resulting in stabilized HIFα, which dimerizes with HIFβ and, together with transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300, activates the transcription of its target genes. As a key molecular regulator of adaptive response to hypoxia, HIF plays important roles in multiple cellular processes and its overexpression has been detected in various cancers. The HIF1α isoform in particular has a strong impact on cellular metabolism, most notably by promoting anaerobic, whilst inhibiting O2-dependent, metabolism of glucose. The PHD enzymes also seem to have HIF-independent functions and are subject to regulation by factors other than O2, such as by metabolic status, oxidative stress, and abnormal levels of endogenous metabolites (oncometabolites) that have been observed in some types of cancers. In this review, we aim to summarize current understandings of the function and regulation of PHDs in cancer with an emphasis on their roles in metabolism. PMID:27774472

  1. A core metabolic enzyme mediates resistance to phosphine gas.

    PubMed

    Schlipalius, David I; Valmas, Nicholas; Tuck, Andrew G; Jagadeesan, Rajeswaran; Ma, Li; Kaur, Ramandeep; Goldinger, Anita; Anderson, Cameron; Kuang, Jujiao; Zuryn, Steven; Mau, Yosep S; Cheng, Qiang; Collins, Patrick J; Nayak, Manoj K; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Hilliard, Massimo A; Ebert, Paul R

    2012-11-09

    Phosphine is a small redox-active gas that is used to protect global grain reserves, which are threatened by the emergence of phosphine resistance in pest insects. We find that polymorphisms responsible for genetic resistance cluster around the redox-active catalytic disulfide or the dimerization interface of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in insects (Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum) and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). DLD is a core metabolic enzyme representing a new class of resistance factor for a redox-active metabolic toxin. It participates in four key steps of core metabolism, and metabolite profiles indicate that phosphine exposure in mutant and wild-type animals affects these steps differently. Mutation of DLD in C. elegans increases arsenite sensitivity. This specific vulnerability may be exploited to control phosphine-resistant insects and safeguard food security.

  2. Enzymes To Die For: Exploiting Nucleotide Metabolizing Enzymes for Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ardiani, Andressa; Johnson, Adam J.; Ruan, Hongmei; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Serve, Kinta; Black, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy is an attractive strategy to selectively destroy cancer cells while minimizing unnecessary toxicity to normal cells. Since this idea was first introduced more than two decades ago, numerous studies have been conducted and significant developments have been made to further its application for mainstream cancer therapy. Major limitations of the suicide gene therapy strategy that have hindered its clinical application include inefficient directed delivery to cancer cells and the poor prodrug activation capacity of suicide enzymes. This review is focused on efforts that have been and are currently being pursued to improve the activity of individual suicide enzymes towards their respective prodrugs with particular attention to the application of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes in suicide cancer gene therapy. A number of protein engineering strategies have been employed and our discussion here will center on the use of mutagenesis approaches to create and evaluate nucleotide metabolizing enzymes with enhanced prodrug activation capacity and increased thermostability. Several of these studies have yielded clinically important enzyme variants that are relevant for cancer gene therapy applications because their utilization can serve to maximize cancer cell killing while minimizing the prodrug dose, thereby limiting undesirable side effects. PMID:22384805

  3. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes on cytokinesis-block micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Yufei Dai; Yong Niu; Zufei Pan; Xiaohua Li; Juan Cheng; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2004-10-15

    Exploring the associations between genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced chromosomal damage is of great significance for understanding PAH carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and N-acetyltransferase are PAH-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we genotyped for the polymorphisms of these genes and assessed their effects on cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes among 141 coke-oven workers and 66 non-coke-oven worker controls. The geometric means of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke-oven workers and the controls were 12.0 and 0.7 {mu}mol/mol creatinine, respectively. The CBMN frequency (number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes) was significantly higher in coke-oven workers (9.5 {+-} 6.6) than in the controls. Among the coke-oven workers, age was positively associated with CBMN frequency; the mEH His{sup 113} variant genotype exhibited significantly lower CBMN frequency than did the Tyr{sup 113}/Tyr{sup 113} genotype; the low mEH activity phenotype exhibited a lower CBMN frequency than did the high mEH activity phenotype; the GSTP1 Val{sup 105}/Val{sup 105} genotype exhibited a higher CBMN frequency than did the GSTP1 Ile{sup 105}/Ile{sup 105} or Ile{sup 105}/Val{sup 105} genotypes; the joint effect of high mEH activity phenotype and GSTM1 null genotype on CBMN frequencies was also found. Gene-environment interactions between occupational PAH exposure and polymorphisms of mEH and/or GSTM1 were also evident. These results indicate that the mEH, GSTP1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms may play a role in sensitivity or genetic susceptibility to the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure in the coke-oven workers.

  4. Silymarin prevents benzo(a)pyrene-induced toxicity in Wistar rats by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kiruthiga, P V; Karthikeyan, K; Archunan, G; Pandian, S Karutha; Devi, K Pandima

    2015-06-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), which is commonly used as an indicator species for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination, has a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. In the presence of the enzyme cytochrome-P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1), it undergoes metabolic activation to form reactive intermediates that are capable of inducing mutagenic, cytotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects in various species and tissues. Research within the last few years has shown that flavonoids exhibit chemopreventive effect against these toxins. In the present study, the protective effect of silymarin (a flavonoid) against B(a)P-induced toxicity was monitored in Wistar rats by evaluating the levels of hepatic phase I (CYP1A1), phase II enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase, epoxide hydroxylases, uridinediphosphate glucuronosyltransferases, quinone oxidoreductase 1, sulfotransferases), cellular antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase and total glutathione. The results reveal that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P-induced damages by inhibiting phase I detoxification enzyme CYP1A1 and modulating phase II conjugating enzymes, which were confirmed by histopathological analysis. Overall, the inhibition of CYP1A1 and the modulation of phase II enzymes may provide, in part, the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-09-02

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phase I metabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 µM, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 µM TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern.

  6. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  7. Alteration of drug metabolizing enzymes in sulphite oxidase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tutuncu, Begum; Kuçukatay, Vural; Arslan, Sevki; Sahin, Barbaros; Semiz, Asli; Sen, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of sulphite oxidase (SOX, E.C. 1.8.3.1) deficiency on xenobiotic metabolism. For this purpose, SOX deficiency was produced in rats by the administration of a low molybdenum diet with concurrent addition of 200 ppm tungsten to their drinking water. First, hepatic SOX activity in deficient groups was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. Then, aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase, aromatase, caffeine N-demethylase, cytochrome b5 reductase, erythromycin N-demethylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase and penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were determined to follow changes in the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in SOX-deficient rats. Our results clearly demonstrated that SOX deficiency significantly elevated A4H, caffeine N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase activities while decreasing ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aromatase activities. These alterations in drug metabolizing enzymes can contribute to the varying susceptibility and response of sulphite-sensitive individuals to different drugs and/or therapeutics used for treatments. PMID:22798713

  8. Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion.

  9. Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a review.

    PubMed

    Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P

    2009-09-30

    PAHs are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the PAHs have gathered significant environmental concern. Although PAH may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. PAH degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H(2)O, CO(2) (aerobic) or CH(4) (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade PAHs and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied PAH-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of PAH degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common PAH-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of PAHs are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of PAHs has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate

  10. Drug metabolizing enzyme systems in the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata).

    PubMed

    Bailey, T A; John, A; Mensah-Brown, E P; Garner, A; Samour, J; Raza, H

    1998-10-01

    This study compared catalytic and immunochemical properties of drug metabolizing phase I and II enzyme systems in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) liver and kidney and rat liver. P450 content in bustard liver (0.34 +/- 0.03 nmol mg-1 protein) was 50% lower than that of rat liver (0.70 +/- 0.02 nmol mg-1 protein). With the exception of aniline hydroxylase activity, monooxygenase activities using aminopyrine, ethoxyresorufin and ethoxycoumarin as substrates were all significantly lower than corresponding rat liver enzymes. As found in mammalian systems the P450 activities in the bird liver were higher than in the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis of microsomes using antibodies to rat hepatic P450 demonstrated that bustard liver and kidney express P4502C11 homologous protein; no appreciable cross-reactivity was observed in bustards using antibodies to P4502E1, 1A1 or 1A2 isoenzymes. Glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in bustard liver were comparable with those of rat liver. GST activity in the kidney was 65% lower than the liver. Western blotting of liver and kidney cytosol with human GST isoenzyme-specific antibodies revealed that the expression of alpha-class of antibodies exceeds mu in the bustard. In contrast, the pi-class of GST was not detected in the bustard liver. This data demonstrates that hepatic and renal microsomes from the bustard have multiple forms of phase I and phase II enzymes. The multiplicity and tissue specific expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bustards may play a significant role in determining the pharmacokinetics of drugs and susceptibility of the birds to various environmental pollutants and toxic insults.

  11. Enzymes of yeast polyphosphate metabolism: structure, enzymology and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Gerasimaitė, Rūta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is found in all living organisms. The known polyP functions in eukaryotes range from osmoregulation and virulence in parasitic protozoa to modulating blood coagulation, inflammation, bone mineralization and cellular signalling in mammals. However mechanisms of regulation and even the identity of involved proteins in many cases remain obscure. Most of the insights obtained so far stem from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide a short overview of the properties and functions of known yeast polyP metabolism enzymes and discuss future directions for polyP research.

  12. The RNA world and the origin of metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ralser, Markus

    2014-01-01

    An RNA world has been placed centre stage for explaining the origin of life. Indeed, RNA is the most plausible molecule able to form both a (self)-replicator and to inherit information, necessities for initiating genetics. However, in parallel with self-replication, the proto-organism had to obtain the ability to catalyse supply of its chemical constituents, including the ribonucleotide metabolites required to replicate RNA. Although the possibility of an RNA-catalysed metabolic network has been considered, it is to be questioned whether RNA molecules, at least on their own, possess the required catalytic capacities. An alternative scenario for the origin of metabolism involves chemical reactions that are based on environmental catalysts. Recently, we described a non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway-like reactions catalysed by metal ions [mainly Fe(II)] and phosphate, simple inorganic molecules abundantly found in Archaean sediments. While the RNA world can serve to explain the origin of genetics, the origin of the metabolic network might thus date back to constraints of environmental chemistry. Interestingly, considering a metal-catalysed origin of metabolism gives rise to an attractive hypothesis about how the first enzymes could have formed: simple RNA or (poly)peptide molecules could have bound the metal ions, and thus increased their solubility, concentration and accessibility. In a second step, this would have allowed substrate specificity to evolve. PMID:25109990

  13. The RNA world and the origin of metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ralser, Markus

    2014-08-01

    An RNA world has been placed centre stage for explaining the origin of life. Indeed, RNA is the most plausible molecule able to form both a (self)-replicator and to inherit information, necessities for initiating genetics. However, in parallel with self-replication, the proto-organism had to obtain the ability to catalyse supply of its chemical constituents, including the ribonucleotide metabolites required to replicate RNA. Although the possibility of an RNA-catalysed metabolic network has been considered, it is to be questioned whether RNA molecules, at least on their own, possess the required catalytic capacities. An alternative scenario for the origin of metabolism involves chemical reactions that are based on environmental catalysts. Recently, we described a non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway-like reactions catalysed by metal ions [mainly Fe(II)] and phosphate, simple inorganic molecules abundantly found in Archaean sediments. While the RNA world can serve to explain the origin of genetics, the origin of the metabolic network might thus date back to constraints of environmental chemistry. Interestingly, considering a metal-catalysed origin of metabolism gives rise to an attractive hypothesis about how the first enzymes could have formed: simple RNA or (poly)peptide molecules could have bound the metal ions, and thus increased their solubility, concentration and accessibility. In a second step, this would have allowed substrate specificity to evolve.

  14. The Estrogen Metabolite 16αOHE Exacerbates BMPR2-Associated PAH Through miR-29-Mediated Modulation of Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinping; Talati, Megha; Fessel, Joshua P.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Gladson, Santhi; French, Jaketa; Shay, Sheila; Trammel, Aaron; Phillips, John A.; Hamid, Rizwan; Cogan, Joy D.; Dawson, Elliott P.; Womble, Kristie E.; Hedges, Lora K.; Martinez, Elizabeth G.; Wheeler, Lisa A.; Loyd, James E.; Majka, Susan J.; West, James; Austin, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative disease of the pulmonary vasculature which preferentially affects females. Estrogens, such as the metabolite 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE), may contribute to PAH pathogenesis; and, alterations in cellular energy metabolism associate with PAH. We hypothesized that 16αOHE promotes heritable PAH (HPAH) via miR-29 family upregulation, and that antagonism of miR-29 would attenuate pulmonary hypertension in transgenic mouse models of Bmpr2 mutation. Methods and Results MicroRNA (miR) array profiling of human lung tissue found elevation of miRs associated with energy metabolism, including the miR-29 family, among HPAH patients. miR-29 expression was 2-fold higher in Bmpr2 mutant mice lungs at baseline compared to controls, and 4 to 8-fold higher in Bmpr2 mice exposed to 16αOHE 1.25 μg/hr for 4 weeks. Blot analyses of Bmpr2 mouse lung protein showed significant reductions in PPARγ and CD36 in those mice exposed to 16αOHE, as well as from protein derived from HPAH lungs compared to controls. Bmpr2 mice treated with anti-miR-29 (α-miR29) (20mg/kg injections for 6 weeks) had improvements in hemodynamic profile, histology, and markers of dysregulated energy metabolism compared to controls. PASMCs derived from Bmpr2 murine lungs demonstrated mitochondrial abnormalities, which improved with α-miR29 transfection in vitro; endothelial-like cells derived from HPAH patient iPS cell lines were similar, and improved with α-miR29 treatment. Conclusions 16αOHE promotes the development of HPAH via upregulation of miR-29, which alters molecular and functional indices of energy metabolism. Antagonism of miR-29 improves in vivo and in vitro features of HPAH, and reveals a possible novel therapeutic target. PMID:26487756

  15. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in US Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Duconge, Jorge; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    Although the Hispanic population is continuously growing in the United States, they are underrepresented in pharmacogenetic studies. This review addresses the need for compiling available pharmacogenetic data in US Hispanics, discussing the prevalence of clinically relevant polymorphisms in pharmacogenes encoding for drug-metabolizing enzymes. CYP3A5*3 (0.245–0.867) showed the largest frequency in a US Hispanic population. A higher prevalence of CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*4, and UGT2B7 IVS1+985 A>Gwas observed in US Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic populations. We found interethnic and intraethnic variability in frequencies of genetic polymorphisms for metabolizing enzymes, which highlights the need to define the ancestries of participants in pharmacogenetic studies. New approaches should be integrated in experimental designs to gain knowledge about the clinical relevance of the unique combination of genetic variants occurring in this admixed population. Ethnic subgroups in the US Hispanic population may harbor variants that might be part of multiple causative loci or in linkage-disequilibrium with functional variants. Pharmacogenetic studies in Hispanics should not be limited to ascertain commonly studied polymorphisms that were originally identified in their parental populations. The success of the Personalized Medicine paradigm will depend on recognizing genetic diversity between and within US Hispanics and the uniqueness of their genetic backgrounds. PMID:25431893

  16. Metabolism of a representative oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Meng; Zhang, Li; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blaha, Michael A; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-19

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH.

  17. Metabolism of a Representative Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food chain is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Phenanthrene is a representative PAH present in crude oil, and it undergoes biological transformation, photooxidation, and chemical oxidation to produce its signature oxygenated derivative, phenanthrene-9,10-quinone. We report the downstream metabolic fate of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone in HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC–UV–fluorescence detection and LC–MS/MS. O-mono-Glucuronosyl-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol was identified, as reported previously. A novel bis-conjugate, O-mono-methyl-O-mono-sulfonated-phenanthrene-9,10-catechol, was discovered for the first time, and evidence for both of its precursor mono conjugates was obtained. The identities of these four metabolites were unequivocally validated by comparison to authentic enzymatically synthesized standards. Evidence was also obtained for a minor metabolic pathway of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone involving bis-hydroxylation followed by O-mono-sulfonation. The identification of 9,10-catechol conjugates supports metabolic detoxification of phenanthrene-9,10-quinone through interception of redox cycling by UGT, COMT, and SULT isozymes and indicates the possible use of phenanthrene-9,10-catechol conjugates as biomarkers of human exposure to oxygenated PAH. PMID:24646012

  18. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    SciTech Connect

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Comparison of metabolism of sesamin and episesamin by drug-metabolizing enzymes in human liver.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kaori; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Wakayama, Shuto; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Kamakura, Masaki; Munetsuna, Eiji; Ohta, Miho; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2012-10-01

    Sesamin and episesamin are two epimeric lignans that are found in refined sesame oil. Commercially available sesamin supplements contain both sesamin and episesamin at an approximate 1:1 ratio. Our previous study clarified the sequential metabolism of sesamin by cytochrome P450 (P450) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase in human liver. In addition, we revealed that sesamin caused a mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) of CYP2C9, the P450 enzyme responsible for sesamin monocatecholization. In the present study, we compared the metabolism and the MBI of episesamin with those of sesamin. Episesamin was first metabolized to the two epimers of monocatechol, S- and R-monocatechols in human liver microsomes. The P450 enzymes responsible for S- and R-monocatechol formation were CYP2C9 and CYP1A2, respectively. The contribution of CYP2C9 was much larger than that of CYP1A2 in sesamin metabolism, whereas the contribution of CYP2C9 was almost equal to that of CYP1A2 in episesamin metabolism. Docking of episesamin to the active site of CYP1A2 explained the stereoselectivity in CYP1A2-dependent episesamin monocatecholization. Similar to sesamin, the episesamin S- and R-monocatechols were further metabolized to dicatechol, glucuronide, and methylate metabolites in human liver; however, the contribution of each reaction was significantly different between sesamin and episesamin. The liver microsomes from CYP2C19 ultra-rapid metabolizers showed a significant amount of episesamin dicatechol. In this study, we have revealed significantly different metabolism by P450, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and catechol-O-methyltransferase for sesamin and episesamin, resulting in different biological effects.

  20. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  1. Interplay of metabolizing enzymes and transporter of xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hwee Ying; Ho, Qin Shi; Wong, Kim Ping

    2016-01-01

    1. Xenobiotics are metabolized and eliminated through the coordinated interplay of their metabolizing enzymes and transporters. However, these two activities in vitro are measured separately, with the addition of ATP as a pre-requisite. 2. We propose a human renal cell-line model which integrates the sulfate and glutathione conjugation of xenobiotics with the efflux of their respective conjugates. Sulfation and glutathionylation represent two major Phase II detoxification of xenobiotics in man. The reactions are catalyzed, respectively, by phenolsulfotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase followed by extrusion of their respective conjugates. 3. Using Ko-143, a specific inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we identified this transporter to be responsible for the efflux of p-cresol sulfate, harmol sulfate and the glutathione conjugate of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. 4. The conjugation-cum-efflux was inhibited by oligomycin and uncouplers, which highlights the role of cellular mitochondria in providing ATP for the biosynthesis of their conjugating agents, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and reduced glutathione as well as for the transport function of BCRP. 5. The human 786-O renal cell-line provides a "3-in-1" system linking ATP biosynthesis to metabolism of xenobiotics and their ultimate transport and elimination by BCRP; this integrated system was not apparent in other human cell-lines examined.

  2. Placental biomarkers of PAH exposure and glutathione-S-transferase biotransformation enzymes in an obstetric population from Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dodd-Butera, Teresa; Quintana, Penelope J E; Ramirez-Zetina, Martha; Batista-Castro, Ana C; Sierra, Maria M; Shaputnic, Carolyn; Garcia-Castillo, Maura; Ingmanson, Sonja; Hull, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposures along the US-Mexico border have the potential to adversely affect the maternal-fetal environment. The purpose of this study was to assess placental biomarkers of environmental exposures in an obstetric population at the California-Baja California border in relation to detoxifying enzymes in the placenta and nutritional status. This study was conducted on consenting, full-term, obstetric patients (n=54), delivering in a hospital in Tijuana, Baja California (BC), Mexico. Placental polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in addition to placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and genotype, maternal serum folate, and maternal and umbilical cord blood lead and cadmium levels. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers to determine maternal occupation in a maquiladora, other exposures, and obstetric indicators. In univariate analysis, maternal serum folate levels were inversely correlated with total PAH-DNA adducts (rho=-0.375, p=0.007); adduct #1 (rho=-0.388, p=0.005); and adduct #3 (rho =-0.430, p=0.002). Maternal lead levels were significantly positively correlated with cord blood lead levels (rho=0.512, p<0.001). Cadmium levels were generally very low but significantly higher in mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (either at work or at home, n=10). In multivariate analysis, only maternal serum folate levels remained as a significant negative predictor of total DNA-PAH adducts levels in placenta. These findings affirm that placental tissue is a valuable and readily available source of human tissue for biomonitoring; and indicate that further study of the role of nutrition in detoxification and mitigation of environmental exposures in pregnant women is warranted.

  3. From 20th century metabolic wall charts to 21st century systems biology: database of mammalian metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Callan C; Grady, Cameron R; Pisitkun, Trairak; Parulekar, Jaya; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    The organization of the mammalian genome into gene subsets corresponding to specific functional classes has provided key tools for systems biology research. Here, we have created a web-accessible resource called the Mammalian Metabolic Enzyme Database (https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/MetabolicEnzymeDatabase.html) keyed to the biochemical reactions represented on iconic metabolic pathway wall charts created in the previous century. Overall, we have mapped 1,647 genes to these pathways, representing ~7 percent of the protein-coding genome. To illustrate the use of the database, we apply it to the area of kidney physiology. In so doing, we have created an additional database (Database of Metabolic Enzymes in Kidney Tubule Segments: https://hpcwebapps.cit.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/MetabolicEnzymes/), mapping mRNA abundance measurements (mined from RNA-Seq studies) for all metabolic enzymes to each of 14 renal tubule segments. We carry out bioinformatics analysis of the enzyme expression pattern among renal tubule segments and mine various data sources to identify vasopressin-regulated metabolic enzymes in the renal collecting duct. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Evaluation of glutathione S-transferase activity as a biomarker of PAH pollution in mudskipper, Boleophthalmus dussumieri, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Sinaei, Mahmood; Rahmanpour, Shirin

    2013-03-01

    As an attempt to study on the biomarkers types to assess the specification of the pollutants and health status of marine ecosystems, sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) were collected from the Persian Gulf. The liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mudskipper was higher as compared with that in blood which could be illustrated by high metabolic rate in this organ, its key role in the metabolism of PAHs detoxification and specificity of enzymes composition. The results suggest that the liver GST activity in B. dussumieri was PAH inducible and could be extended as a biomarker of PAH pollution.

  5. Cortisol-Metabolizing Enzymes in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Zeev; Kaidar, Gabi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Dumin, Elena; Knopf, Carlos; Hochberg, Ze’ev

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), using a fully quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS) method. DESIGN We investigated the glucocorticoid degradation pathways that include 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1, 5α-reductase (5α-R) and 5β-reductase (5β-R), 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20α- and 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD and 20β-HSD, respectively) in young nonobese women with PCOS, using a fully quantitative GCMS method. SETTING This study was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Israel. PATIENTS This study group consisted of 13 young women, aged 20.1 ± 2.8 years (mean ± SD), with the body mass index (BMI) of 22.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2, diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. The control group consisted of 14 healthy young women matched for weight, height, and BMI. INTERVENTIONS Urine samples were analyzed using GCMS. We measured urinary steroid metabolites that represent the products and substrates of the study enzymes and calculated the product/substrate ratios to represent enzyme activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The calculation of enzymatic activity, based on glucocorticoid degradation metabolites, was done by GCMS in PCOS vs. controls. RESULTS All glucocorticoid degradation metabolites were higher in the PCOS group than in controls. Of the adrenal enzymes, the activities of 21-hydroxylase and 17α-hydroxylase were reduced, whereas the activity of 17,20-lyase was enhanced in PCOS. Of the degradation enzymes, the activity of 11β-HSD type 1 was reduced in women with PCOS only when calculated from cortoles and cortolones ratios. The activities of 5α-R/5β-R were increased only when calculating the 11-hydroxy metabolites of androgens. The activity of 20α-HSD was elevated in the patients with PCOS and its relation with the substrate levels was lost. CONCLUSIONS We confirm PCOS

  6. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism1

    PubMed Central

    Moghe, Gaurav D.; Last, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  7. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Last, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks.

  8. Carbohydrate Content and Enzyme Metabolism in Developing Canola Siliques.

    PubMed Central

    King, S. P.; Lunn, J. E.; Furbank, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Little biochemical information is available on carbohydrate metabolism in developing canola (Brassica napus L.) silique (pod) wall and seed tissues. This research examines the carbohydrate contents and sucrose (Suc) metabolic enzyme activities in different aged silique wall and seed tissues during oil filling. The silique wall partitioned photosynthate into Suc over starch and predominantly accumulated hexose. The silique wall hexose content and soluble acid invertase activity rapidly fell as embryos progressed from the early- to late-cotyledon developmental stages. A similar trend was not evident for alkaline invertase, Suc synthase (SuSy), and Suc-phosphate synthase. Silique wall SuSy activities were much higher than source leaves at all times and may serve to supply the substrate for secondary cell wall thickening. In young seeds starch was the predominant accumulated carbohydrate over the sampled developmental range. Seed hexose levels dropped as embryos developed from the early- to midcotyledon stage. Hexose and starch were localized to the testa or liquid endosperm, whereas Suc was evenly distributed among seed components. With the switch to oil accumulation, seed SuSy activity increased by 3.6-fold and soluble acid invertase activity decreased by 76%. These data provide valuable baseline knowledge for the genetic manipulation of canola seed carbon partitioning. PMID:12223695

  9. Engineering specialized metabolic pathways--is there a room for enzyme improvements?

    PubMed

    Bar-Even, Arren; Salah Tawfik, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Recent advances in enzyme engineering enable dramatic improvements in catalytic efficiency and/or selectivity, as well as de novo engineering of enzymes to catalyze reactions where natural enzymes are not available. Can these capabilities be utilized to transform biosynthesis pathways? Metabolic engineering is traditionally based on combining existing enzymes to give new, or modified, pathways, within a new context and/or organism. How efficient, however, are the individual enzyme components? Is there room to improve pathway performance by enzyme engineering? We discuss the differences between enzymes in central versus specialized, or secondary metabolism and highlight unique features of specialized metabolism enzymes participating in the synthesis of natural products. We argue that, for the purpose of metabolic engineering, the catalytic efficiency and selectivity of many enzymes can be improved with the aim of achieving higher rates, yields and product purities. We also note the relative abundance of spontaneous reactions in specialized metabolism, and the potential advantage of engineering enzymes that will catalyze these steps. Specialized metabolism therefore offers new opportunities to integrate enzyme and pathway engineering, thereby achieving higher metabolic efficiencies, enhanced production rates and improved product purities.

  10. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level relative to vehicle exhaust exposure mediated by metabolic enzyme polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chang, Chen-Chen

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are common air pollutants generated from incomplete combustion. The inhalation of exhaust fumes in urban areas has been suggested to be an additional contributing factor. This study investigated the influence of urban traffic exposure, personal lifestyle factors and metabolic enzyme polymorphisms on the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) level, approximating exposure to PAH. With consents, 95 male taxi drivers exposed to vehicle exhaust in traffic and 75 male office employees received health interviews and provided urine samples. The results showed taxi drivers had higher urinary 1-OHP than the office employees (mean +/- standard deviation were 0.17 +/- 0.10 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.07 mol/mol creatinine, p<0.001). The average urinary 1-OHP level increased from 0.07 micromol/mol creatinine for non-smoking office employees to 0.17 micromol/mol creatinine for those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily. The values for taxi drivers with similar smoking statuses were 0.12 and 0.25 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively. Among non-smokers, taxi drivers still had higher 1-OHP level than office employees (0.12 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.03 micromol/mol creatinine). The subjects with the m1/m2 or m2/m2 genotype of CYP1A1 MspI or GSTM1 deficiency had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP levels than those with other CYP1A1 MspI and GSTM1 genotypes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that taxi drivers (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-13.6), smokers (OR=5.5, 95% CI=1.6-18.4) and subjects with the m1/m2 or m2/m2 genotype of CYP1A1 MspI (OR=9.7, 95% CI=2.7-35.0) had elevated urinary 1-OHP (greater than the overall median value, 0.11 micromol/mol creatinine). The results of this study suggest smoking contributes to the elevated urinary 1-OHP levels in taxi drivers in addition to taxi driving, and the excess level contributed from traffic exhaust and smoke was regulated by the CYP1A1 MspI genotype. Traffic exhaust

  11. Effect of Fe(2)O(3) on the capacity of benzo(a)pyrene to induce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-metabolizing enzymes in the respiratory tract of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Guillaume; Gosset, Pierre; Zerimech, Farid; Grave-Descampiaux, Béatrice; Shirali, Pirouz

    2004-04-21

    In this work, the question that needs to be answered was whether concurrent exposure to iron oxides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could affect the induction of PAH-metabolizing enzymes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally instilled with hematite (Fe(2)O(3); 3mg), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P; 3mg), or B(a)P (3mg)-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles (3mg). Forty-eight hours later, we investigated mRNA expressions of cytochrome p4501a1 (cyp1a1), microsomal epoxide hydrolase (meh), and glutathione-S-transferase-ya and -yc (gst-ya and gst-yc, respectively), protein concentrations of CYP1A1, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in lungs. Exposure to B(a)P alone or coated-onto Fe(2)O(3) particles induced cyp1a1 gene transcription (P < 0.01) and increased both the CYP1A1 protein levels (P < 0.01) and the EROD activities (P < 0.001). However, in this work, we focused our attention on the potential of Fe(2)O(3) in B(a)P/Fe(2)O(3) mixtures to affect the capacity of B(a)P to induce PAH-metabolizing enzymes. Exposure to B(a)P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles increased meh mRNA expressions (1.15-fold, P < 0.05), CYP1A1 protein concentrations (1.85-fold, P < 0.05), and EROD activities (1.95-fold, P < 0.01), versus exposure to B(a)P alone. Hence, animal short-term exposure to B(a)P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles favored dramatically the induction of PAH-bioactivating enzymes to the detriment of PAH-inactivating enzymes in lungs. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that the Fe(2)O(3)-induced increase of the metabolic activation of B(a)P might rely on several properties of Fe(2)O(3), including its capacity to enhance the rate of CYP1A1 hemoprotein elaboration. The influence of Fe(2)O(3) in B(a)P/Fe(2)O(3) mixtures on the ability of B(a)P to induce PAH-metabolizing enzymes will also be one of the fundamental ways that Fe(2)O(3) can affect B(a)P carcinogenicity in lungs.

  12. A computational analysis of protein interactions in metabolic networks reveals novel enzyme pairs potentially involved in metabolic channeling.

    PubMed

    Huthmacher, Carola; Gille, Christoph; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2008-06-07

    Protein-protein interactions are operative at almost every level of cell structure and function as, for example, formation of sub-cellular organelles, packaging of chromatin, muscle contraction, signal transduction, and regulation of gene expression. Public databases of reported protein-protein interactions comprise hundreds of thousands interactions, and this number is steadily growing. Elucidating the implications of protein-protein interactions for the regulation of the underlying cellular or extra-cellular reaction network remains a great challenge for computational biochemistry. In this work, we have undertaken a systematic and comprehensive computational analysis of reported enzyme-enzyme interactions in the metabolic networks of the model organisms Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We grouped all enzyme pairs according to the topological distance that the catalyzed reactions have in the metabolic network and performed a statistical analysis of reported enzyme-enzyme interactions within these groups. We found a higher frequency of reported enzyme-enzyme interactions within the group of enzymes catalyzing reactions that are adjacent in the network, i.e. sharing at least one metabolite. As some of these interacting enzymes have already been implicated in metabolic channeling our analysis may provide a useful screening for candidates of this phenomenon. To check for a possible regulatory role of interactions between enzymes catalyzing non-neighboring reactions, we determined potentially regulatory enzymes using connectivity in the network and absolute change of Gibbs free energy. Indeed a higher portion of reported interactions pertain to such potentially regulatory enzymes.

  13. The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in regulation of enzymes involved in metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a model of rat liver progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Vondrácek, Jan; Krcmár, Pavel; Procházková, Jirina; Trilecová, Lenka; Gavelová, Martina; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora; Buncek, Martin; Radilová, Hana; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2009-07-15

    In contrast to hepatocytes, there is only limited information about the expression and activities of enzymes participating in metabolic activation of environmental mutagens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in liver progenitor cells. In rat liver "stem-like" WB-F344 cell line, sharing many characteristics with rat liver progenitor cells, PAHs are efficiently activated to their ultimate genotoxic metabolites forming DNA adducts. The present study aimed to characterize expression/activities of enzymes of two major pathways involved in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP): cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 1 enzymes and cytosolic aldo-keto reductases (AKRs). We report here that, apart from induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and the corresponding enzymatic activity, both BaP and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced rat 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C9) expression and activity. In contrast, the aldehyde reductase AKR1A1 was not induced by either treatment. Thus, both CYP1 and AKR metabolic pathways were inducible in the model of liver progenitor cells. BaP and TCDD were efficient inducers of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression and activity in WB-F344 cells, a principal enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense. Both compounds also induced expression of transcription factor NRF2, involved in control of enzymes protecting cells from oxidative stress. However, although BaP induced a significant formation of reactive oxygen species, it did not induce expression of heme oxygenase-1, suggesting that induction of oxidative stress by BaP was limited. Using shRNA against the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), we found that similar to CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, the AKR1C9 induction was AhR-dependent. Moreover, constitutive AKR1C9 levels in AhR-deficient rat BP8 hepatoma cells were significantly lower than in their AhR-positive 5L variant, thus supporting possible role of AhR in regulation of AKR1C9 expression. Taken together, both

  14. Key Metabolic Enzymes Underlying Astrocytic Upregulation of GABAergic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kaczor, Przemysław T.; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2017-01-01

    GABAergic plasticity is recognized as a key mechanism of shaping the activity of the neuronal networks. However, its description is challenging because of numerous neuron-specific mechanisms. In particular, while essential role of glial cells in the excitatory plasticity is well established, their involvement in GABAergic plasticity only starts to emerge. To address this problem, we used two models: neuronal cell culture (NC) and astrocyte-neuronal co-culture (ANCC), where we chemically induced long-term potentiation at inhibitory synapses (iLTP). iLTP could be induced both in NC and ANCC but in ANCC its extent was larger. Importantly, this functional iLTP manifestation was accompanied by an increase in gephyrin puncta size. Furthermore, blocking astrocyte Krebs cycle with fluoroacetate (FA) in ANCC prevented enhancement of both mIPSC amplitude and gephyrin puncta size but this effect was not observed in NC, indicating a key role in neuron-astrocyte cross-talk. Blockade of monocarboxylate transport with α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CIN) abolished iLTP both in NC and ANCC and in the latter model prevented also enlargement of gephyrin puncta. Similarly, blockade of glycogen phosphorylase with BAYU6751 prevented enlargement of gephyrin puncta upon iLTP induction. Finally, block of glutamine synthetase with methionine sulfoxide (MSO) nearly abolished mIPSC increase in both NMDA stimulated cell groups but did not prevent enlargement of gephyrin puncta. In conclusion, we provide further evidence that GABAergic plasticity is strongly regulated by astrocytes and the underlying mechanisms involve key metabolic enzymes. Considering the strategic role of GABAergic interneurons, the plasticity described here indicates possible mechanism whereby metabolism regulates the network activity. PMID:28559800

  15. Silymarin protects PBMC against B(a)P induced toxicity by replenishing redox status and modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes-An in vitro study

    SciTech Connect

    Kiruthiga, P.V.; Pandian, S. Karutha; Devi, K. Pandima

    2010-09-01

    PAHs are a ubiquitous class of environmental contaminants that have a large number of hazardous consequences on human health. An important prototype of PAHs, B(a)P, is notable for being the first chemical carcinogen to be discovered and the one classified by EPA as a probable human carcinogen. It undergoes metabolic activation to QD, which generate ROS by redox cycling system in the body and oxidatively damage the macromolecules. Hence, a variety of antioxidants have been tested as possible protectors against B(a)P toxicity. Silymarin is one such compound, which has high human acceptance, used clinically and consumed as dietary supplement around the world for its strong anti-oxidant efficacy. Silymarin was employed as an alternative approach for treating B(a)P induced damage and oxidative stress in PBMC, with an emphasis to provide the molecular basis for the effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced toxicity. PBMC cells exposed to either benzopyrene (1 {mu}M) or silymarin (2.4 mg/ml) or both was monitored for toxicity by assessing LPO, PO, redox status (GSH/GSSG ratio), glutathione metabolizing enzymes GR and GPx and antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD. This study also investigated the protective effect of silymarin against B(a)P induced biochemical alteration at the molecular level by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our findings were quite striking that silymarin possesses substantial protective effect against B(a)P induced oxidative stress and biochemical changes by restoring redox status, modulating glutathione metabolizing enzymes, hindering the formation of protein oxidation products, inhibiting LPO and further reducing ROS mediated damages by changing the level of antioxidant enzymes. The results suggest that silymarin exhibits multiple protections and it should be considered as a potential protective agent for environmental contaminant induced immunotoxicity.

  16. [Effect of T-activin on enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics].

    PubMed

    Arion, V Ia; Khromenkov, Iu I; Tagirova, A K; Karaulov, A V; Breusov, Iu N

    1987-01-01

    Effect of T-activin on some xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and several immunity parametres in secondary immune deficiency (subacute and chronic benzene intoxication) were investigated. T-activin was shown to regulate the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme system. The compound decreased the enzymatic activity in subacute benzene intoxication, approaching their values up to the control level. In chronic benzene intoxications, which were accompanied by decrease in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes activity, except of glutathione-S-transferase, T-activin stimulated these enzymes. At the same time, T-activin increased some immunological parameters in these models. Thymus-tropic peptides appear to be the bioregulators of some in vivo systems.

  17. Effects of microsomal enzyme induction on paracetamol metabolism in man.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, L F; Critchley, J A; Balali-Mood, M; Pentland, B

    1981-01-01

    1 The metabolism of paracetamol after a single oral dose of 20 mg/kg was compared in fifteen patients with microsomal enzyme induction taking anticonvulsants or rifampicin and twelve healthy volunteers. 2 Induction was confirmed by measurement of the plasma antipyrine half-life (mean 6.4 h in the patients compared with 12.8 h in the volunteers). 3 The glucuronide conjugation of paracetamol was enhanced in the induced patients as shown by lower plasma paracetamol concentrations, a shorter paracetamol half-life, higher paracetamol glucuronide concentrations and an increased ratio of the area under the plasma concentration time curves of the glucuronide to the unchanged drug. There were no significant differences in sulphate conjugation. 4 There was a corresponding change in the pattern of urinary metabolite excretion. The induced patients excreted significantly less unchanged drug and sulphate conjugate and more glucuronide conjugate than the healthy volunteers. 5 The urinary excretion of the mercapturic acid and cysteine conjugated of paracetamol was the same in both groups. 6 Conversion of paracetamol to its potentially hepatotoxic metabolite does not seem to be increased in patients induced with anticonvulsants or rifampicin. There would seem to be no contraindication to the use of these drugs in combination. PMID:7306429

  18. Genome-Wide Prediction of Metabolic Enzymes, Pathways, and Gene Clusters in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peifen; Kim, Taehyong; Banf, Michael; Chavali, Arvind K.; Nilo-Poyanco, Ricardo; Bernard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant metabolism underpins many traits of ecological and agronomic importance. Plants produce numerous compounds to cope with their environments but the biosynthetic pathways for most of these compounds have not yet been elucidated. To engineer and improve metabolic traits, we need comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the organization and regulation of plant metabolism at the genome scale. Here, we present a computational pipeline to identify metabolic enzymes, pathways, and gene clusters from a sequenced genome. Using this pipeline, we generated metabolic pathway databases for 22 species and identified metabolic gene clusters from 18 species. This unified resource can be used to conduct a wide array of comparative studies of plant metabolism. Using the resource, we discovered a widespread occurrence of metabolic gene clusters in plants: 11,969 clusters from 18 species. The prevalence of metabolic gene clusters offers an intriguing possibility of an untapped source for uncovering new metabolite biosynthesis pathways. For example, more than 1,700 clusters contain enzymes that could generate a specialized metabolite scaffold (signature enzymes) and enzymes that modify the scaffold (tailoring enzymes). In four species with sufficient gene expression data, we identified 43 highly coexpressed clusters that contain signature and tailoring enzymes, of which eight were characterized previously to be functional pathways. Finally, we identified patterns of genome organization that implicate local gene duplication and, to a lesser extent, single gene transposition as having played roles in the evolution of plant metabolic gene clusters. PMID:28228535

  19. [Analysis of the effect of enzymes on microbial community metabolic profiles during composting using biolog method].

    PubMed

    Feng, Chong-ling; Zeng, Guang-ming; Huang, Dan-lian; Hu, Shuang; Su, Feng-feng; Zhao, Mei-hua; Lai, Cui

    2009-10-15

    The effects of enzymes on organic material degradation and microbial communities metabolic profiles during composting process were studied using Biolog method, and together with cluster analysis and PCA. The results showed that, adding the enzyme solution in the composting could increase the degradation rate of organic material by 4.90%. The microbial community metabolic results of cluster analysis showed that when the enzyme solution was added into the compost, the carbon metabolic capability of intermediate metabolite was improved. The results of PCA indicated that when the enzyme solution was added, microbial communities enhanced the metabolic capability of miscellaneous, polymers, amino acids and amides carbon substrates, which results in the efficient degradation of organic substance. In addition, cluster analysis of each composting phase showed that the effects of the enzymes solution on microbial community metabolism were mainly observed on 6 d and 30 d, which promoted the composting process.

  20. PAH metabolites, GST and EROD in European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as possible indicators for eel habitat quality in German rivers.

    PubMed

    Kammann, Ulrike; Brinkmann, Markus; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Stoffels, Sandra; Hollert, Henner; Hanel, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    The stock of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) continues to decline and has reached a new minimum in 2011. Poor health status of the spawners due to organic contaminants is one of the possible causes for this dramatic situation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous contaminants, which are rapidly metabolized in vertebrates. EROD (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and GST (glutathione-S-transferase) are two enzymes involved in PAH detoxification in fish. In this study, PAH metabolites as well as EROD and GST activity in a large, comprising dataset of more than 260 migratory and pre-migratory eels from five large German river basin districts were used to describe PAH exposure and its metabolism as possible indicators for the habitat quality for eels. Eel from the river Elbe appear to be moderately contaminated with PAH. Highest mean values of PAH metabolites were analysed in fish from the river Rhine. However, the results suggest that contaminants such as PAH are metabolized in the fish and may have contributed to EROD activity in eels caught from the Elbe estuary to 600 km upstream. Since the eel's onset of cessation of feeding is closely linked to maturation and migration, we propose bile pigments as new indicators contributing to identify the proportion of migratory eel, which is crucial information for eel management plans. We showed that PAH metabolites normalized to bile pigments as well as EROD could be used to describe the habitat quality and might be suitable parameters in search for suitable stocking habitats.

  1. Freeze-thaw effects on metabolic enzymes in wood frog organs.

    PubMed

    Cowan, K J; Storey, K B

    2001-08-01

    To determine whether episodes of natural freezing and thawing altered the metabolic makeup of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) organs, the maximal activities of 28 enzymes of intermediary metabolism were assessed in six organs (brain, heart, kidney, liver, skeletal muscle, gut) of control (5 degrees C acclimated), frozen (24 h at -3 degrees C), and thawed (24 h back at 5 degrees C) frogs. The enzymes assessed represented pathways including glycolysis, gluconeo-genesis, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, the TCA cycle, and adenylate metabolism. Organ-specific responses seen included (a) the number of enzymes affected by freeze-thaw (1 in gut ranging to 17 in heart), (b) the magnitude and direction of response (most often enzyme activities decreased during freezing and rebounded with thawing but, liver showed freeze-specific increases in several enzymes), and (c) the response to freezing versus thawing (enzyme activities in gut and kidney changed during freezing, whereas most enzymes in skeletal muscle responded to thawing). Overall, the data show that freeze-thaw implements selected changes to the maximal activities of various enzymes of intermediary metabolism and that these may aid organ-specific responses that alter fuel use during freeze-thaw, support cryoprotectant metabolism, and aid organ endurance of freeze-induced ischemia.

  2. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes on cytokinesis-block micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Shuguang; Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Pan, Zufei; Li, Xiaohua; Cheng, Juan; He, Fengsheng; Zheng, Yuxin

    2004-10-01

    Exploring the associations between genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced chromosomal damage is of great significance for understanding PAH carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and N-acetyltransferase are PAH-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we genotyped for the polymorphisms of these genes and assessed their effects on cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes among 141 coke-oven workers and 66 non-coke-oven worker controls. The geometric means of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke-oven workers and the controls were 12.0 and 0.7 micromol/mol creatinine, respectively (P < 0.01). The CBMN frequency (number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes) was significantly higher in coke-oven workers (9.5 +/- 6.6 per thousand) than in the controls (4.0 +/- 3.6 per thousand; P < 0.01). Among the coke-oven workers, age was positively associated with CBMN frequency; the mEH His113 variant genotype exhibited significantly lower CBMN frequency (8.5 +/- 6.5 per thousand) than did the Tyr113/Tyr113 genotype (11.3 +/- 6.4 per thousand; P < 0.01); the low mEH activity phenotype exhibited a lower CBMN frequency (8.6 +/- 6.8 per thousand) than did the high mEH activity phenotype (13.2 +/- 6.7 per thousand; P = 0.01); the GSTP1 Val105/Val105 genotype exhibited a higher CBMN frequency (15.0 +/- 5.8 per thousand) than did the GSTP1 Ile105/Ile105 or Ile105/Val105 genotypes (9.3 +/- 6.5 per thousand; P < 0.01); the joint effect of high mEH activity phenotype and GSTM1 null genotype on CBMN frequencies was also found. Gene-environment interactions between occupational PAH exposure and polymorphisms of mEH and/or GSTM1 were also evident. These results indicate that the mEH, GSTP1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms may play a role in sensitivity or genetic susceptibility to the genotoxic

  3. A QUANTITATIVE MODEL FOR XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYME (XME) INDUCTION REGULATED BY THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR (PXR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor, PXR, is an integral part of the regulation of hepatic metabolism. It has been shown to regulate specific CYPs (phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes) as well as certain phase II drug metabolism activities, including UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT), sulfotran...

  4. A QUANTITATIVE MODEL FOR XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYME (XME) INDUCTION REGULATED BY THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR (PXR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor, PXR, is an integral part of the regulation of hepatic metabolism. It has been shown to regulate specific CYPs (phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes) as well as certain phase II drug metabolism activities, including UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT), sulfotran...

  5. Tracing the Repertoire of Promiscuous Enzymes along the Metabolic Pathways in Archaeal Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic pathways that carry out the biochemical transformations sustaining life depend on the efficiency of their associated enzymes. In recent years, it has become clear that promiscuous enzymes have played an important role in the function and evolution of metabolism. In this work we analyze the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes in 89 non-redundant genomes of the Archaea cellular domain. Promiscuous enzymes are defined as those proteins with two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers, according the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. From this analysis, it was found that the fraction of promiscuous enzymes is lower in Archaea than in Bacteria. A greater diversity of superfamily domains is associated with promiscuous enzymes compared to specialized enzymes, both in Archaea and Bacteria, and there is an enrichment of substrate promiscuity rather than catalytic promiscuity in the archaeal enzymes. Finally, the presence of promiscuous enzymes in the metabolic pathways was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the domain level and in the phyla that make up the Archaea. These analyses increase our understanding of promiscuous enzymes and provide additional clues to the evolution of metabolism in Archaea. PMID:28703743

  6. Tracing the Repertoire of Promiscuous Enzymes along the Metabolic Pathways in Archaeal Organisms.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Rodríguez-Escamilla, Zuemy; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2017-07-13

    The metabolic pathways that carry out the biochemical transformations sustaining life depend on the efficiency of their associated enzymes. In recent years, it has become clear that promiscuous enzymes have played an important role in the function and evolution of metabolism. In this work we analyze the repertoire of promiscuous enzymes in 89 non-redundant genomes of the Archaea cellular domain. Promiscuous enzymes are defined as those proteins with two or more different Enzyme Commission (E.C.) numbers, according the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. From this analysis, it was found that the fraction of promiscuous enzymes is lower in Archaea than in Bacteria. A greater diversity of superfamily domains is associated with promiscuous enzymes compared to specialized enzymes, both in Archaea and Bacteria, and there is an enrichment of substrate promiscuity rather than catalytic promiscuity in the archaeal enzymes. Finally, the presence of promiscuous enzymes in the metabolic pathways was found to be heterogeneously distributed at the domain level and in the phyla that make up the Archaea. These analyses increase our understanding of promiscuous enzymes and provide additional clues to the evolution of metabolism in Archaea.

  7. Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene–diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. Abbreviations: AA African American; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; CNV copy number variant; EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HCA heterocyclic amine; HCFA Health Care Financing Administration; LAC Los Angeles county; MAF minor allele frequency; NHW non-Hispanic White; OR odds ratio; PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PCA prostate cancer; PTGS2 prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; RDD

  8. Simultaneous prediction of enzyme orthologs from chemical transformation patterns for de novo metabolic pathway reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, Yasuo; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro; Kotera, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Metabolic pathways are an important class of molecular networks consisting of compounds, enzymes and their interactions. The understanding of global metabolic pathways is extremely important for various applications in ecology and pharmacology. However, large parts of metabolic pathways remain unknown, and most organism-specific pathways contain many missing enzymes. Results: In this study we propose a novel method to predict the enzyme orthologs that catalyze the putative reactions to facilitate the de novo reconstruction of metabolic pathways from metabolome-scale compound sets. The algorithm detects the chemical transformation patterns of substrate–product pairs using chemical graph alignments, and constructs a set of enzyme-specific classifiers to simultaneously predict all the enzyme orthologs that could catalyze the putative reactions of the substrate–product pairs in the joint learning framework. The originality of the method lies in its ability to make predictions for thousands of enzyme orthologs simultaneously, as well as its extraction of enzyme-specific chemical transformation patterns of substrate–product pairs. We demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method by applying it to some ten thousands of metabolic compounds, and analyze the extracted chemical transformation patterns that provide insights into the characteristics and specificities of enzymes. The proposed method will open the door to both primary (central) and secondary metabolism in genomics research, increasing research productivity to tackle a wide variety of environmental and public health matters. Availability and Implementation: Contact: maskot@bio.titech.ac.jp PMID:27307627

  9. Establishing a herbicide-metabolizing enzyme library in Beckmannia syzigachne to identify genes associated with metabolic resistance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lang; Gao, Haitao; Xia, Wenwen; Zhang, Teng; Dong, Liyao

    2016-03-01

    Non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is an increasing concern for weed control. Metabolic herbicide resistance is an important mechanism for NTSR. However, little is known about metabolic resistance at the genetic level. In this study, we have identified three fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne Steud.) populations, in which the molecular basis for NTSR remains unclear. To reveal the mechanisms of metabolic resistance, the genes likely to be involved in herbicide metabolism (e.g. for cytochrome P450s, esterases, hydrolases, oxidases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, glycosyltransferases, and transporter proteins) were isolated using transcriptome sequencing, in combination with RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Consequently, we established a herbicide-metabolizing enzyme library containing at least 332 genes, and each of these genes was cloned and the sequence and the expression level compared between the fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible populations. Fifteen metabolic enzyme genes were found to be possibly involved in fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance. In addition, we found five metabolizing enzyme genes that have a different gene sequence in plants of susceptible versus resistant B. syzigachne populations. These genes may be major candidates for herbicide metabolic resistance. This established metabolic enzyme library represents an important step forward towards a better understanding of herbicide metabolism and metabolic resistance in this and possibly other closely related weed species. This new information may help to understand weed metabolic resistance and to develop novel strategies of weed management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  11. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids

  12. Temperature Features of Enzymes Affecting Crassulacean acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, P. C.

    1967-01-01

    Enzymes involved in malic acid production via a pathway with 2 carboxylation reactions and in malic acid conversion via total oxidation have been demonstrated in mitochondria of Bryophyllum tubiflorum Harv. Activation of the mitochondria by Tween 40 was necessary to reveal part of the enzyme activities. The temperature behavior of the enzymes has been investigated, revealing optimal activity of acid-producing enzymes at 35°. Even at 53° the optimum for acid-converting enzymes was not yet reached. From the simultaneous action of acid-producing and acid-converting enzyme systems the overall result at different temperatures was established. Up to 15° the net result was a malic acid production. Moderate temperatures brought about a decrease in this accumulation, which was partly accompanied by a shift to isocitrate production, while at higher temperatures total oxidation of the acids exceeded the production. PMID:16656606

  13. Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in two closely related areas: observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at and the notion of abundant, gas phase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the dust composition of the diffuse and dense ISM is reasonably well constrained and the spectroscopic case for interstellar PAHs, shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is very strong.

  14. Determination of key enzymes for threonine synthesis through in vitro metabolic pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfei; Meng, Qinglong; Ma, Hongwu; Liu, Yongfei; Cao, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaoran; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zhang, Dawei; Jiang, Wenxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-06-13

    The overexpression of key enzymes in a metabolic pathway is a frequently used genetic engineering strategy for strain improvement. Metabolic control analysis has been proposed to quantitatively determine key enzymes. However, the lack of quality data often makes it difficult to correctly identify key enzymes through control analysis. Here, we proposed a method combining in vitro metabolic pathway analysis and proteomics measurement to find the key enzymes in threonine synthesis pathway. All enzymes in the threonine synthesis pathway were purified for the reconstruction and perturbation of the in vitro pathway. Label-free proteomics technology combined with APEX (absolute protein expression measurements) data analysis method were employed to determine the absolute enzyme concentrations in the crude enzyme extract obtained from a threonine production strain during the fastest threonine production period. The flux control coefficient of each enzyme in the pathway was then calculated by measuring the flux changes after titration of the corresponding enzyme. The isoenzyme LysC catalyzing the first step in the pathway has the largest flux control coefficient, and thus its concentration change has the biggest impact on pathway flux. To verify that the key enzyme identified through in vitro pathway analysis is also the key enzyme in vivo, we overexpressed LysC in the original threonine production strain. Fermentation results showed that the threonine concentration was increased 30% and the yield was increased 20%. In vitro metabolic pathways simulating in vivo cells can be built based on precise measurement of enzyme concentrations through proteomics technology and used for the determination of key enzymes through metabolic control analysis. This provides a new way to find gene overexpression targets for industrial strain improvement.

  15. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  16. Expression and Regulation of Drug Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Drozdzik, M; Oswald, S

    2016-01-01

    Orally administered drugs must pass through the intestinal wall and then through the liver before reaching systemic circulation. During this process drugs are subjected to different processes that may determine the therapeutic value. The intestinal barrier with active drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters in enterocytes plays an important role in the determination of drug bioavailability. Accumulating information demonstrates variable distribution of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters along the human gastrointestinal tract (GI), that creates specific barrier characteristics in different segments of the GI. In this review, expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the healthy and diseased human GI as well as their regulatory aspects: genetic, miRNA, DNA methylation are outlined. The knowledge of unique interplay between drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in specific segments of the GI tract allows more precise definition of drug release sites within the GI in order to assure more complete bioavailability and prediction of drug interactions.

  17. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe ...

  18. Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pavelka, S

    2014-01-01

    We newly elaborated and adapted several radiometric enzyme assays for the determination of activities of the key enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis (thyroid peroxidase, TPO) and metabolic transformations (conjugating enzymes and iodothyronine deiodinases, IDs) of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland and in peripheral tissues, especially in white adipose tissue (WAT). We also elaborated novel, reliable radiometric methods for extremely sensitive determination of enzyme activities of IDs of types 1, 2 and 3 in microsomal fractions of different rat and human tissues, as well as in homogenates of cultured mammalian cells. The use of optimized TLC separation of radioactive products from the unconsumed substrates and film-less autoradiography of radiochromatograms, taking advantage of storage phosphor screens, enabled us to determine IDs enzyme activities as low as 10(-18) katals. In studies of the interaction of fluoxetine (Fluox) with the metabolism of THs, we applied adapted radiometric enzyme assays for iodothyronine sulfotransferases (ST) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). Fluox is the most frequently used representative of a new group of non-tricyclic antidepressant drugs--selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. We used the elaborated assays for quantification the effects of Fluox and for the assessment of the degree of potential induction of rat liver ST and/or UDP-GT enzyme activities by Fluox alone or in combination with T(3). Furthermore, we studied possible changes in IDs activities in murine adipose tissue under the conditions that promoted either tissue hypertrophy (obesogenic treatment) or involution (caloric restriction), and in response to leptin, using our newly developed radiometric enzyme assays for IDs. Our results suggest that deiodinase D1 has a functional role in WAT, with D1 possibly being involved in the control of adipose tissue metabolism and/or accumulation of the tissue. Significant positive correlation between

  19. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression in aging humans.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

  20. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression in aging humans.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver’s ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

  1. Ocular non-P450 oxidative, reductive, hydrolytic, and conjugative drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Argikar, Upendra A; Dumouchel, Jennifer L; Dunne, Christine E; Bushee, Andrea J

    2017-08-01

    Metabolism in the eye for any species, laboratory animals or human, is gaining rapid interest as pharmaceutical scientists aim to treat a wide range of so-called incurable ocular diseases. Over a period of decades, reports of metabolic activity toward various drugs and biochemical markers have emerged in select ocular tissues of animals and humans. Ocular cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and transporters have been recently reviewed. However, there is a dearth of collated information on non-P450 drug metabolizing enzymes in eyes of various preclinical species and humans in health and disease. In an effort to complement ocular P450s and transporters, which have been well reviewed in the literature, this review is aimed at presenting collective information on non-P450 oxidative, hydrolytic, and conjugative ocular drug metabolizing enzymes. Herein, we also present a list of xenobiotics or drugs that have been reported to be metabolized in the eye.

  2. Metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.

    1989-01-01

    During the past decade, knowledge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the aquatic environment has advanced substantially to encompass studies of bioavailability, metabolism, subsequent toxic effects, and their ecological consequences. In this book, recent advances in the areas of PAH biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation, microbial degradation, enzymes of activation and detoxication, metabolism of PAH, and laboratory and field studies on carcinogenic/toxic effects, are presented. Additionally, important similarities and differences in metabolism of PAH by aquatic and terrestrial organisms are discussed. These chapters also illustrate that although considerable progress has been made in certain areas of PAH metabolism in the aquatic environment, the field is relatively unexplored and many exciting possibilities exist for future investigations. Separate abstracts are included for 9 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Proteolytic regulation of metabolic enzymes by E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes: lessons from yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kamura, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms use diverse mechanisms to control metabolic rates in response to changes in the internal and/or external environment. Fine metabolic control is a highly responsive, energy-saving process that is mediated by allosteric inhibition/activation and/or reversible modification of preexisting metabolic enzymes. In contrast, coarse metabolic control is a relatively long-term and expensive process that involves modulating the level of metabolic enzymes. Coarse metabolic control can be achieved through the degradation of metabolic enzymes by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in which substrates are specifically ubiquitinated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Here, we review select multi-protein E3 ligase complexes that directly regulate metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The first part of the review focuses on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ligase complexes. In addition to their primary roles in the ER-associated degradation pathway that eliminates misfolded proteins, recent quantitative proteomic analyses identified native substrates of Hrd1 and Doa10 in the sterol synthesis pathway. The second part focuses on the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex, an abundant prototypical multi-protein E3 ligase complex. While the best-known roles of the SCF complex are in the regulation of the cell cycle and transcription, accumulating evidence indicates that the SCF complex also modulates carbon metabolism pathways. The increasing number of metabolic enzymes whose stability is directly regulated by the UPS underscores the importance of the proteolytic regulation of metabolic processes for the acclimation of cells to environmental changes.

  4. Experiment K-6-21. Effect of microgravity on 1) metabolic enzymes of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neutransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in motor and somatosensory cerebral cortex. Part 1: Metabolic enzymes of individual muscle fibers; part 2: metabolic enzymes of hippocampus and spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O.; Mcdougal, D., Jr.; Nemeth, Patti M.; Maggie, M.-Y. Chi; Pusateri, M.; Carter, J.; Manchester, J.; Norris, Beverly; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme patterns composed by the individual fibers within the flight muscles. In spite of the limitation in numbers of muscles examined, it is apparent that: (1) that the size of individual fibers (i.e., their dry weight) was reduced about a third, (2) that this loss in dry mass was accompanied by changes in the eight enzymes studied, and (3) that these changes were different for the two muscles, and different for the two enzyme groups. In the soleus muscle the absolute amounts of the three enzymes of oxidative metabolism decreased about in proportion to the dry weight loss, so that their concentration in the atrophic fibers was almost unchanged. In contrast, there was little loss among the four enzymes of glycogenolysis - glycolysis so that their concentrations were substantially increased in the atrophic fibers. In the TA muscle, these seven enzymes were affected in just the opposite direction. There appeared to be no absolute loss among the oxidative enzymes, whereas the glycogenolytic enzymes were reduced by nearly half, so that the concentrations of the first metabolic group were increased within the atrophic fibers and the concentrations of the second group were only marginally decreased. The behavior of hexokinase was exceptional in that it did not decrease in absolute terms in either type of muscle and probably increased as much as 50 percent in soleus. Thus, their was a large increase in concentration of this enzyme in the atrophied fibers of both muscles. Another clear-cut finding was the large increase in the range of activities of the glycolytic enzymes among individual fibers of TA muscles. This was due to the emergence of TA fibers with activities for enzymes of this group extending down to levels as low as

  5. Predicting metabolic pathways of small molecules and enzymes based on interaction information of chemicals and proteins.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Fei; Chen, Lei; Cai, Yu-Dong; Feng, Kai-Yan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic pathway analysis, one of the most important fields in biochemistry, is pivotal to understanding the maintenance and modulation of the functions of an organism. Good comprehension of metabolic pathways is critical to understanding the mechanisms of some fundamental biological processes. Given a small molecule or an enzyme, how may one identify the metabolic pathways in which it may participate? Answering such a question is a first important step in understanding a metabolic pathway system. By utilizing the information provided by chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions, and protein-protein interactions, a novel method was proposed by which to allocate small molecules and enzymes to 11 major classes of metabolic pathways. A benchmark dataset consisting of 3,348 small molecules and 654 enzymes of yeast was constructed to test the method. It was observed that the first order prediction accuracy evaluated by the jackknife test was 79.56% in identifying the small molecules and enzymes in a benchmark dataset. Our method may become a useful vehicle in predicting the metabolic pathways of small molecules and enzymes, providing a basis for some further analysis of the pathway systems.

  6. Spatial localization of the first and last enzymes effectively connects active metabolic pathways in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pablo; Cecchi, Guillermo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-12-14

    Although much is understood about the enzymatic cascades that underlie cellular biosynthesis, comparatively little is known about the rules that determine their cellular organization. We performed a detailed analysis of the localization of E.coli GFP-tagged enzymes for cells growing exponentially. We found that out of 857 globular enzymes, at least 219 have a discrete punctuate localization in the cytoplasm and catalyze the first or the last reaction in 60% of biosynthetic pathways. A graph-theoretic analysis of E.coli's metabolic network shows that localized enzymes, in contrast to non-localized ones, form a tree-like hierarchical structure, have a higher within-group connectivity, and are traversed by a higher number of feed-forward and feedback loops than their non-localized counterparts. A Gene Ontology analysis of these enzymes reveals an enrichment of terms related to essential metabolic functions in growing cells. Given that these findings suggest a distinct metabolic role for localization, we studied the dynamics of cellular localization of the cell wall synthesizing enzymes in B. subtilis and found that enzymes localize during exponential growth but not during stationary growth. We conclude that active biochemical pathways inside the cytoplasm are organized spatially following a rule where their first or their last enzymes localize to effectively connect the different active pathways and thus could reflect the activity state of the cell's metabolic network.

  7. Role of cytochrome P-450 and related enzymes in the pulmonary metabolism of xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Philpot, R M; Smith, B R

    1984-01-01

    The lung metabolizes a wide variety of xenobiotics and, in the process, forms products that may be more or less toxic than the parent compound. The consequence of metabolism, activation or detoxication, is a function of the nature of the substrate and of the characteristics and concentrations of the enzymes involved. As a result, the biotransformation of xenobiotics can lead to their excretion or to the formation of reactive products that produce deleterious effects by binding covalently to tissue macromolecules. Among the enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics, those associated with the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system are probably the most important. The route by which a given substrate is metabolized in a tissue or cell is, to a great extent, determined by the types and concentrations of cytochrome P-450 isozymes present. We are just beginning to understand the distribution of these enzymes in lung and to appreciate the species and cellular differences that exist. PMID:6376107

  8. Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, A

    1999-01-01

    The variation in individual responses to exogenous agents is exceptionally wide. It is because of this large diversity of responsiveness that risk factors to environmentally induced diseases have been difficult to pinpoint, particularly at low exposure levels. Opportunities now exist for studies of host factors in cancer or other diseases in which an environmental component can be presumed. Many of the studies have shown an elevated disease proneness for individuals carrying the potential at-risk alleles of metabolic genes, but a number of controversial results have also been reported. This article is an overview of the data published to date on metabolic genotypes related to individual susceptibility to cancer. PMID:10229705

  9. Computational Prediction of Metabolism: Sites, Products, SAR, P450 Enzyme Dynamics, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics remains a central challenge for the discovery and development of drugs, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and agrochemicals. Metabolic transformations are frequently related to the incidence of toxic effects that may result from the emergence of reactive species, the systemic accumulation of metabolites, or by induction of metabolic pathways. Experimental investigation of the metabolism of small organic molecules is particularly resource demanding; hence, computational methods are of considerable interest to complement experimental approaches. This review provides a broad overview of structure- and ligand-based computational methods for the prediction of xenobiotic metabolism. Current computational approaches to address xenobiotic metabolism are discussed from three major perspectives: (i) prediction of sites of metabolism (SOMs), (ii) elucidation of potential metabolites and their chemical structures, and (iii) prediction of direct and indirect effects of xenobiotics on metabolizing enzymes, where the focus is on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes, the cardinal xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes. For each of these domains, a variety of approaches and their applications are systematically reviewed, including expert systems, data mining approaches, quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs), and machine learning-based methods, pharmacophore-based algorithms, shape-focused techniques, molecular interaction fields (MIFs), reactivity-focused techniques, protein–ligand docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and combinations of methods. Predictive metabolism is a developing area, and there is still enormous potential for improvement. However, it is clear that the combination of rapidly increasing amounts of available ligand- and structure-related experimental data (in particular, quantitative data) with novel and diverse simulation and modeling approaches is accelerating the development of effective tools for

  10. Neonicotinoid metabolism: compounds, substituents, pathways, enzymes, organisms, and relevance.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2011-04-13

    Neonicotinoids are one of the three principal insecticide chemotypes. The seven major commercial neonicotinoids are readily biodegraded by metabolic attack at their N-heterocyclylmethyl moiety, heterocyclic or acyclic spacer, and N-nitroimine, nitromethylene, or N-cyanoimine tip. Phase I metabolism is largely dependent on microsomal CYP450 isozymes with situ selectivity in hydroxylation, desaturation, dealkylation, sulfoxidation, and nitro reduction. Cytosolic aldehyde oxidase is a nitroreductase for some neonicotinoids. Phase II metabolism involves methylation, acetylation, and formation of glucuronide, glucoside, amino acid, and sulfate- and glutathione-derived conjugates. Some neonicotinoids act as proinsecticides with metabolism to more potent nicotinic agonists. Pest resistance is more commonly due to synergist-reversible CYP450 detoxification than to nAChR mutants or variants. Metabolites in some cases contribute to mammalian hepatotoxicity and carcinogenesis and in others to enhanced plant vigor and stress shields. These relationships explain much of neonicotinoid comparative toxicology and provide the basis for continued and improved safety and effectiveness of this chemotype.

  11. Interaction of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methamphetamine during metabolism by in vitro human metabolic enzymes and in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2012-07-01

    Illicit amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) tablets commonly contain one or more active ingredients, which have hallucinogenic and/or stimulant effects. Because components such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine (MA) in ATS tablets have similar chemical structures, they could be metabolized by common metabolic enzymes. To investigate potential metabolic interactions of ATS tablet components, we studied the in vitro metabolism of MDMA and MA using human metabolic enzymes. MDMA and MA were mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and mutually inhibited the production of their main metabolites. In vivo experiments were also performed using intravenous administration of MDMA, MA, or their mixture to rats. The plasma concentrations of MDMA and MA after co-administration were higher than those after administration of MDMA or MA alone. The results in this study imply that multiple components in ATS tablets can interact to mutually inhibit their metabolism and potentially enhance the toxicity of each component.

  12. Metabolic cold adaptation in fishes occurs at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme.

    PubMed

    White, Craig R; Alton, Lesley A; Frappell, Peter B

    2012-05-07

    Metabolic cold adaptation (MCA), the hypothesis that species from cold climates have relatively higher metabolic rates than those from warm climates, was first proposed nearly 100 years ago and remains one of the most controversial hypotheses in physiological ecology. In the present study, we test the MCA hypothesis in fishes at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme. In support of the MCA hypothesis, we find that when normalized to a common temperature, species with ranges that extend to high latitude (cooler climates) have high aerobic enzyme (citrate synthase) activity, high rates of mitochondrial respiration and high standard metabolic rates. Metabolic compensation for the global temperature gradient is not complete however, so when measured at their habitat temperature species from high latitude have lower absolute rates of metabolism than species from low latitudes. Evolutionary adaptation and thermal plasticity are therefore insufficient to completely overcome the acute thermodynamic effects of temperature, at least in fishes.

  13. Cell organelles from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants : II. Compartmentation of enzymes of the crassulacean acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schnarrenberger, C; Groß, D; Burkhard, C; Herbert, M

    1980-02-01

    The intracellular distribution of enzymes involved in the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) has been studied in Bryophyllum calycinum Salisb. and Crassula lycopodioides Lam. After separation of cell organelles by isopycnic centrifugation, enzymes of the Crassulacean acid metabolism were found in the following cell fractions: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in the chloroplasts; NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria and in the supernatant; NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the chloroplasts; NADP-dependent malic enzyme in the supernatant and to a minor extent in the chloroplasts; NAD-dependent malic enzyme in the supernatant and to some degree in the mitochondria; and pyruvate; orthophosphate dikinase in the chloroplasts. The activity of the NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase was due to three isoenzymes separated by (NH4)2SO4 gradient solubilization. These isoenzymes represented 17, 78, and 5% of the activity recovered, respectively, in the order of elution. The isoenzyme eluting first was associated with the mitochondria and the second isoenzyme was of cytosolic origin, while the intracellular location of the third isoenzyme was probably the peroxisome. Based on these findings, the metabolic path of Crassulacean acid metabolism within cells of CAM plants is discussed.

  14. 2D SMARTCyp reactivity-based site of metabolism prediction for major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifeng; Liu, Jin; Tawa, Greg; Wallqvist, Anders

    2012-06-25

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in the human liver. Knowledge of which parts of a drug molecule are subject to metabolic reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is crucial for rational drug design to mitigate ADME/toxicity issues. SMARTCyp, a recently developed 2D ligand structure-based method, is able to predict site-specific metabolic reactivity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates with an accuracy that rivals the best and more computationally demanding 3D structure-based methods. In this article, the SMARTCyp approach was extended to predict the metabolic hotspots for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 substrates. This was accomplished by taking into account the impact of a key substrate-receptor recognition feature of each enzyme as a correction term to the SMARTCyp reactivity. The corrected reactivity was then used to rank order the likely sites of CYP-mediated metabolic reactions. For 60 CYP1A2 substrates, the observed major sites of CYP1A2 catalyzed metabolic reactions were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 67%, 80%, and 83% of the cases, respectively. The results were similar to those obtained by MetaSite and the reactivity + docking approach. For 70 CYP2C9 substrates, the observed sites of CYP2C9 metabolism were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 66%, 86%, and 87% of the cases, respectively. These results were better than the corresponding results of StarDrop version 5.0, which were 61%, 73%, and 77%, respectively. For 36 compounds metabolized by CYP2C19, the observed sites of metabolism were found to be among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 sites in 78%, 89%, and 94% of the cases, respectively. The computational procedure was implemented as an extension to the program SMARTCyp 2.0. With the extension, the program can now predict the site of metabolism for all five major drug-metabolizing enzymes with an accuracy similar to or better than that achieved by the best 3D structure

  15. NADP-malic enzyme from plants: a ubiquitous enzyme involved in different metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Drincovich, M F; Casati, P; Andreo, C S

    2001-02-09

    NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) is a widely distributed enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate. Photosynthetic NADP-MEs are found in C4 bundle sheath chloroplasts and in the cytosol of CAM plants, while non-photosynthetic NADP-MEs are either plastidic or cytosolic in various plants. We propose a classification of plant NADP-MEs based on their physiological function and localization and we describe recent advances in the characterization of each isoform. Based on the alignment of amino acid sequences of plant NADP-MEs, we identify putative binding sites for the substrates and analyze the phylogenetic origin of each isoform, revealing several features of the molecular evolution of this ubiquitous enzyme.

  16. CO2 Metabolism in Corn Roots. II. Intracellular Distribution of Enzymes 1

    PubMed Central

    Danner, Jean; Ting, Irwin P.

    1967-01-01

    Three enzymes assumed to mediate CO2 metabolism in corn root tips, P-enolpyruvate carboxylase, malic dehydrogenase, and the malic enzyme, were extracted to determine their relative specific activities and their partitioning between soluble and particulate fractions. The data indicated that the intracellular location of these 3 enzymes is nonparticulate and thus these enzymatic reactions of CO2 metabolism are apparently nonparticulate. The soluble malic dehydrogenase fraction differed from the particulate fraction in several kinetic properties, viz., response to the thionicotinamide analog of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, oxaloacetate substrate inhibition at pH 8.3, and Km's for nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide and l-malate. It was concluded that the soluble-malic dehydrogenase differed from the particulate forms in both structure and function. The soluble malic dehydrogenase is apparently involved in CO2 metabolism. PMID:16656561

  17. Relevance of induction of human drug-metabolizing enzymes: pharmacological and toxicological implications

    PubMed Central

    PARK, B. K.; KITTERINGHAM, N. R.; PIRMOHAMED, M.; TUCKER, G. T.

    1996-01-01

    1Human drug-metabolizing systems can be induced, or activated, by a large number of exogenous agents including drugs, alcohol, components in the diet and cigarette smoke, as well as by endogenous factors. 2Such perturbation of enzyme activity undoubtedly contributes to both intra- and inter-individual variation both with respect to the rate and route of metabolism for a particular drug. Induction may, in theory, either attenuate the pharmacological response or exacerbate the toxicity of a particular drug, or both. 3The clinical impact of enzyme induction will depend upon the number of different enzyme isoforms affected and the magnitude of the inductive response within an individual, and also on the therapeutic indices of the affected substrates. 4The toxicological implications will be determined either by any change in the route of metabolism, or by a disturbance of the balance between activation and detoxication processes, which may be isozyme selective. PMID:8799511

  18. EnzDP: improved enzyme annotation for metabolic network reconstruction based on domain composition profiles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam-Ninh; Srihari, Sriganesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Chong, Ket-Fah

    2015-10-01

    Determining the entire complement of enzymes and their enzymatic functions is a fundamental step for reconstructing the metabolic network of cells. High quality enzyme annotation helps in enhancing metabolic networks reconstructed from the genome, especially by reducing gaps and increasing the enzyme coverage. Currently, structure-based and network-based approaches can only cover a limited number of enzyme families, and the accuracy of homology-based approaches can be further improved. Bottom-up homology-based approach improves the coverage by rebuilding Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles for all known enzymes. However, its clustering procedure relies firmly on BLAST similarity score, ignoring protein domains/patterns, and is sensitive to changes in cut-off thresholds. Here, we use functional domain architecture to score the association between domain families and enzyme families (Domain-Enzyme Association Scoring, DEAS). The DEAS score is used to calculate the similarity between proteins, which is then used in clustering procedure, instead of using sequence similarity score. We improve the enzyme annotation protocol using a stringent classification procedure, and by choosing optimal threshold settings and checking for active sites. Our analysis shows that our stringent protocol EnzDP can cover up to 90% of enzyme families available in Swiss-Prot. It achieves a high accuracy of 94.5% based on five-fold cross-validation. EnzDP outperforms existing methods across several testing scenarios. Thus, EnzDP serves as a reliable automated tool for enzyme annotation and metabolic network reconstruction. Available at: www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~nguyennn/EnzDP .

  19. Assembly and multiple gene expression of thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli for in vitro metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Ninh, Pham Huynh; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In vitro reconstitution of an artificial metabolic pathway is an emerging approach for the biocatalytic production of industrial chemicals. However, several enzymes have to be separately prepared (and purified) for the construction of an in vitro metabolic pathway, thereby limiting the practical applicability of this approach. In this study, genes encoding the nine thermophilic enzymes involved in a non-ATP-forming chimeric glycolytic pathway were assembled in an artificial operon and co-expressed in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Gene expression levels of the thermophilic enzymes were controlled by their sequential order in the artificial operon. The specific activities of the recombinant enzymes in the cell-free extract of the multiple-gene-expression E. coli were 5.0-1,370 times higher than those in an enzyme cocktail prepared from a mixture of single-gene-expression strains, in each of which a single one of the nine thermophilic enzymes was overproduced. Heat treatment of a crude extract of the multiple-gene-expression cells led to the denaturation of indigenous proteins and one-step preparation of an in vitro synthetic pathway comprising only a limited number of thermotolerant enzymes. Coupling this in vitro pathway with other thermophilic enzymes including the H2 O-forming NADH oxidase or the malate/lactate dehydrogenase facilitated one-pot conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate, respectively.

  20. The influence of genetic polymorphisms on population variability in six xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Gary; Smolenski, Susan; Neafsey, Patricia; Hattis, Dale; Walker, Katy; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Johns, Douglas O; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2009-01-01

    This review provides variability statistics for polymorphic enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Six enzymes were evaluated: cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP2E1, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), paraoxonase (PON1), glutathione transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1), and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2). The polymorphisms were characterized with respect to (1) number and type of variants, (2) effects of polymorphisms on enzyme function, and (3) frequency of genotypes within specified human populations. This information was incorporated into Monte Carlo simulations to predict the population distribution and describe interindividual variability in enzyme activity. The results were assessed in terms of (1) role of these enzymes in toxicant activation and clearance, (2) molecular epidemiology evidence of health risk, and (3) comparing enzyme variability to that commonly assumed for pharmacokinetics. Overall, the Monte Carlo simulations indicated a large degree of interindividual variability in enzyme function, in some cases characterized by multimodal distributions. This study illustrates that polymorphic metabolizing systems are potentially important sources of pharmacokinetic variability, but there are a number of other factors including blood flow to liver and compensating pathways for clearance that affect how a specific polymorphism will alter internal dose and toxicity. This is best evaluated with the aid of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The population distribution of enzyme activity presented in this series of articles serves as inputs to such PBPK modeling analyses.

  1. New glycyl radical enzymes catalysing key metabolic steps in anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Selmer, Thorsten; Pierik, Antonio J; Heider, Johann

    2005-10-01

    During the last decade, an increasing number of new enzymes containing glycyl radicals in their active sites have been identified and biochemically characterised. These include benzylsuccinate synthase (Bss), 4-hydroxyphenylacetate decarboxylase (Hpd) and the coenzyme B12-independent glycerol dehydratase (Gdh). These are involved in metabolic pathways as different as anaerobic toluene metabolism, fermentative production of p-cresol and glycerol fermentation. Some features of these newly discovered enzymes are described and compared with those of the previously known glycyl radical enzymes pyruvate formate-lyase (Pfl) and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase (Nrd). Among the new enzymes, Bss and Hpd share the presence of small subunits, the function of which in the catalytic mechanisms is still enigmatic, and both enzymes contain metal centres in addition to the glycyl radical prosthetic group. The activating enzymes of the novel systems also deviate from the standard type, containing at least one additional Fe-S cluster. Finally, the available whole-genome sequences of an increasing number of strictly or facultative anaerobic bacteria revealed the presence of many more hitherto unknown glycyl radical enzyme (GRE) systems. Recent studies suggest that the particular types of these enzymes represent the ends of different evolutionary lines, which emerged early in evolution and diversified to yield remarkably versatile biocatalysts for chemical reactions that are otherwise difficult to perform in anoxic environments.

  2. The Role of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in Anthelmintic Deactivation and Resistance in Helminths.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Petra; Vokřál, Ivan; Lamka, Jiří; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-06-01

    Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) modulate the biological activity and behavior of many drugs, including anthelmintics. The effects of anthelmintics can often be abolished by XMEs when the drugs are metabolized to an inefficient compound. XMEs therefore play a significant role in anthelmintic efficacy. Moreover, differences in XMEs between helminths are reflected by differences in anthelmintic metabolism between target species. Taking advantage of the newly sequenced genomes of many helminth species, progress in this field has been remarkable. The present review collects up to date information regarding the most important XMEs (phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes; efflux transporters) in helminths. The participation of these XMEs in anthelmintic metabolism and their possible roles in drug resistance are evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro identification of metabolic pathways and cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of etoperidone.

    PubMed

    Yan, Z; Caldwell, G W; Wu, W N; McKown, L A; Rafferty, B; Jones, W; Masucci, J A

    2002-11-01

    1. In vitro studies have been carried out to investigate the metabolic pathways and identify the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in etoperidone (Et) metabolism. 2. Ten in vitro metabolites were profiled, quantified and tentatively identified after incubation with human hepatic S9 fractions. Et was metabolized via three metabolic pathways: (A) alkyl hydroxylation to form OH-ethyl-Et (M1); (B) phenyl hydroxylation to form OH-phenyl-Et (M2); and (C) N-dealkylation to form 1-m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP, M8) and triazole propyl aldehyde (M6). Six additional metabolites were formed by further metabolism of M1, M2, M6 and M8. 3. Kinetic studies revealed that all metabolic pathways were monophasic, and the pathway leading to the formation of OH-ethyl-Et was the most efficient at eliminating the drug. On incubation with microsomes expressing individual recombinant CYPs, formation rates of M1-3 and M8 were 10-100-fold greater for CYP3A4 than that for other CYP forms. The formation of these metabolites was markedly inhibited by the CYP3A4-specific inhibitor ketoconazole, whereas other CYP-specific inhibitors did not show significant effects. In addition, the production of M1-3 and M8 was strongly correlated with CYP3A4-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activities in 13 different human liver microsome samples. 4. Dealkylation of the major metabolite M1 to form mCPP (M8) was also investigated using microsomes containing recombinant CYP enzymes. The rate of conversion of M1 to mCPP by CYP3A4 was 503.0 +/- 3.1 pmole nmole(-1) min(-1). Metabolism of M1 to M8 by other CYP enzymes was insignificant. In addition, this metabolism in human liver microsomes was extensively inhibited by the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole, but not by other CYP-specific inhibitors. In addition, conversion of M1 to M8 was highly correlated with CYP3A4-mediated testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity. 5. The results strongly suggest that CYP3A4 is the predominant enzyme-metabolizing Et

  4. Dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation downregulates arachidonate but upregulates docosahexaenoate metabolizing enzymes in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rao, Jagadeesh S; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Igarashi, Miki

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation increases expression of arachidonic acid (AA 20:4n-6)-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in rat brain, while decreasing expression of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3)-selective calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA. Assuming that these enzyme changes represented brain homeostatic responses to deprivation, we hypothesized that dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation would produce changes in the opposite directions. Methods Brain expression of PUFA-metabolizing enzymes and their transcription factors was quantified in male rats fed an n-6 PUFA adequate or deficient diet for 15 weeks post-weaning. Results The deficient compared with adequate diet increased brain mRNA, protein and activity of iPLA2 VIA and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX), but decreased cPLA2 IVA and COX-2 expression. The brain protein level of the iPLA2 transcription factor SREBP-1 was elevated, while protein levels were decreased for AP-2α and NF-κB p65, cPLA2 and COX-2 transcription factors, respectively. Conclusions With dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation, rat brain PUFA metabolizing enzymes and some of their transcription factors change in a way that would homeostatically dampen reductions in brain n-6 PUFA concentrations and metabolism, while n-3 PUFA metabolizing enzyme expression is increased. The changes correspond to reported in vitro enzyme selectivities for AA compared with DHA. (198 words) PMID:21070866

  5. Biotransformation of anthelmintics and the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Bártíková, Hana; Bečanová, Aneta; Jirásko, Robert; Vokřál, Ivan; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Skálová, Lenka; Kubíček, Vladimír; Lamka, Jiří; Trejtnar, František; Szotáková, Barbora

    2015-04-01

    The sheep tapeworm Moniezia expansa is very common parasite, which affects ruminants such as sheep, goats as well as other species. The benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), flubendazole (FLU) and mebendazole (MBZ) are often used to treat the infection. The drug-metabolizing enzymes of helminths may alter the potency of anthelmintic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (ABZ, MBZ and FLU) in M. expansa. Activities of biotransformation enzymes were determined in subcellular fractions. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified using high performance liquid chromatography/ultra-violet/VIS/fluorescence or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reduction of MBZ, FLU and oxidation of ABZ were proved as well as activities of various metabolizing enzymes. Despite the fact that the conjugation enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and UDP-glucosyl transferase were active in vitro, no conjugated metabolites of anthelmintics were identified either ex vivo or in vitro. The obtained results indicate that sheep tapeworm is able to deactivate the administered anthelmintics, and thus protects itself against their action.

  6. Introduction to hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme induction in drug safety evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Botts, Suzanne; Ennulat, Daniela; Francke-Carroll, Sabine; Graham, Mark; Maronpot, Robert R; Mohutsky, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The following three articles represent the output of a combined effort initiated by the Scientific Regulatory Policy Committee of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology to provide a unified review of current scientific practices and relevant literature and provide suggestions regarding the recognition, interpretation, and risk assessment of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme (DME) induction studies. The core objective was to provide a review that the scientific community including pathologists, regulatory scientists, toxicologists, investigative scientists, and others would find valuable for managing, designing, and interpreting toxicity studies supporting regulatory filings. Three working groups composed of scientists from industry, academia, and regulatory agencies were convened to review the available literature on important aspects of the interpretation and risk assessment of hepatic microsomal DME enzyme induction in three publications. The three reviews are as follows: "Effects of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Induction on Clinical Pathology Parameters in Animals and Man," Toxicol Pathol "Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Induction: Microscopic and Ultrastructural Appearance," Toxicol Pathol "Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Induction and Implications for Preclinical and Clinical Risk Assessment," Toxicol Pathol The purpose of this introduction is not to summarize the articles but rather to frame the series and to provide a common mechanistic introduction.

  7. The interplay between genotype, metabolic state and cofactor treatment governs phenylalanine hydroxylase function and drug response.

    PubMed

    Staudigl, Michael; Gersting, Søren W; Danecka, Marta K; Messing, Dunja D; Woidy, Mathias; Pinkas, Daniel; Kemter, Kristina F; Blau, Nenad; Muntau, Ania C

    2011-07-01

    The discovery of a pharmacological treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) raised new questions about function and dysfunction of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), the enzyme deficient in this disease. To investigate the interdependence of the genotype, the metabolic state (phenylalanine substrate) and treatment (BH(4) cofactor) in the context of enzyme function in vitro and in vivo, we (i) used a fluorescence-based method for fast enzyme kinetic analyses at an expanded range of phenylalanine and BH(4) concentrations, (ii) depicted PAH function as activity landscapes, (iii) retraced the analyses in eukaryotic cells, and (iv) translated this into the human system by analyzing the outcome of oral BH(4) loading tests. PAH activity landscapes uncovered the optimal working range of recombinant wild-type PAH and provided new insights into PAH kinetics. They demonstrated how mutations might alter enzyme function in the space of varying substrate and cofactor concentrations. Experiments in eukaryotic cells revealed that the availability of the active PAH enzyme depends on the phenylalanine-to-BH(4) ratio. Finally, evaluation of data from BH(4) loading tests indicated that the patient's genotype influences the impact of the metabolic state on drug response. The results allowed for visualization and a better understanding of PAH function in the physiological and pathological state as well as in the therapeutic context of cofactor treatment. Moreover, our data underscore the need for more personalized procedures to safely identify and treat patients with BH(4)-responsive PAH deficiency.

  8. Increments and duplication events of enzymes and transcription factors influence metabolic and regulatory diversity in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected.

  9. Increments and Duplication Events of Enzymes and Transcription Factors Influence Metabolic and Regulatory Diversity in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Núñez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected. PMID:23922780

  10. A systems biology framework for modeling metabolic enzyme inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xin; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-01-01

    Background Because metabolism is fundamental in sustaining microbial life, drugs that target pathogen-specific metabolic enzymes and pathways can be very effective. In particular, the metabolic challenges faced by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, residing in the infected host provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Results We developed a mathematical framework to simulate the effects on the growth of a pathogen when enzymes in its metabolic pathways are inhibited. Combining detailed models of enzyme kinetics, a complete metabolic network description as modeled by flux balance analysis, and a dynamic cell population growth model, we quantitatively modeled and predicted the dose-response of the 3-nitropropionate inhibitor on the growth of M. tuberculosis in a medium whose carbon source was restricted to fatty acids, and that of the 5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl) adenosine inhibitor in a medium with low-iron concentration. Conclusion The predicted results quantitatively reproduced the experimentally measured dose-response curves, ranging over three orders of magnitude in inhibitor concentration. Thus, by allowing for detailed specifications of the underlying enzymatic kinetics, metabolic reactions/constraints, and growth media, our model captured the essential chemical and biological factors that determine the effects of drug inhibition on in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis cells. PMID:19754970

  11. FAst MEtabolizer (FAME): A rapid and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism in multiple species by endogenous enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kirchmair, Johannes; Williamson, Mark J; Afzal, Avid M; Tyzack, Jonathan D; Choy, Alison P K; Howlett, Andrew; Rydberg, Patrik; Glen, Robert C

    2013-11-25

    FAst MEtabolizer (FAME) is a fast and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism (SoMs). It is based on a collection of random forest models trained on diverse chemical data sets of more than 20 000 molecules annotated with their experimentally determined SoMs. Using a comprehensive set of available data, FAME aims to assess metabolic processes from a holistic point of view. It is not limited to a specific enzyme family or species. Besides a global model, dedicated models are available for human, rat, and dog metabolism; specific prediction of phase I and II metabolism is also supported. FAME is able to identify at least one known SoM among the top-1, top-2, and top-3 highest ranked atom positions in up to 71%, 81%, and 87% of all cases tested, respectively. These prediction rates are comparable to or better than SoM predictors focused on specific enzyme families (such as cytochrome P450s), despite the fact that FAME uses only seven chemical descriptors. FAME covers a very broad chemical space, which together with its inter- and extrapolation power makes it applicable to a wide range of chemicals. Predictions take less than 2.5 s per molecule in batch mode on an Ultrabook. Results are visualized using Jmol, with the most likely SoMs highlighted.

  12. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets – “Sand out and Gold Stays”

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y.; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T.; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: 1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune and other tissues; 2) Our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and 3) Histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and Treg polarization/differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of “sand out and gold stays,” where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity. PMID:26746407

  13. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets--"Sand Out and Gold Stays".

    PubMed

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: (1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune, and other tissues; (2) our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, and histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and (3) histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization/ differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of "Sand out and Gold stays," where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity.

  14. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Edith E; Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Feichtinger, René G; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-20

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 ρ(0) cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in ρ(0) cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  15. Case study 3. Application of basic enzyme kinetics to metabolism studies: real-life examples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; McCabe, Michelle; Podila, Lalitha; Tracy, Timothy S; Tweedie, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    An appreciation of the principles of enzyme kinetics can be applied in a number of drug metabolism applications. The concept for this chapter arose from a simple discussion on selecting appropriate time points to most efficiently assess metabolite profiles in a human Phase 1a clinical study (Subheading 4). By considering enzyme kinetics, a logical approach to the issue was derived. The dialog was an important learning opportunity for the participants in the discussion, and we have endeavored to capture this experience with other questions related to determination of K m and V max parameters, a consideration of the value of hepatocytes versus liver microsomes and enzyme inhibition parameters.

  16. Enzymes involved in crotonate metabolism in Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Wofford, N.Q.

    1992-12-31

    Cell-free extracts of Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grown with crotonate in pure culture or in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei contained crotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase activity. This activity was not detected in cell-free extracts from the butyrate-grown coculture which suggests that the long lag times observed before S. wolfei grew with crotonate were initially due to the inability to activate crotonate. Cell-free extracts of S. wolfei grown in pure culture contained high specific activities of hydrogenase and very low levels of formate dehydrogenase. The low levels suggest a biosynthetic rather than a catabolic role for the latter enzyme when S. wolfei is grown in pure culture. CO dehydrogenase activity was not detected. S. wolfei can form butyrate using a CoA transferase activity, but not by a phosphotransbutyrylase or enoate reductase activity. A c-type cytochrome was detected in S. wolfei grown in pure culture or in coculture indicating the presence of an electron transport system. This is a characteristic which separates S. wolfei from other known crotonate-using bacteria.

  17. Subcellular Distribution of Enzymes of Glycolate Metabolism in the Alga Cyanidium caldarium1

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Wolfgang; Beevers, Harry

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of enzymes capable of catalyzing the reactions from phosphoglycolate to glycerate in the bluegreen colored eucaryotic alga Cyanidium caldarium has been studied. After separating the organelles from a crude homogenate on a linear flotation gradient, the enzymes glycolate oxidase and glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase along with catalase were present in the peroxisomal fraction (density: 1.23 grams per cubic centimeter). Serine hydroxymethyltransferase was found in the mitochondrial fraction (density: 1.18 grams per cubic centimeter). In contrast to the observations in green leaves of higher plants, the enzymes for the conversion of serine to glycerate (serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase) were found only in the soluble fraction of the gradient. The partial characterization of enzymes from Cyanidium participating in glycolate metabolism revealed only slight differences from the corresponding enzymes from higher plants. The phylogenetic implications of the observed similarities between the enigmatic alga Cyanidium and higher plants are discussed. PMID:16666880

  18. Skeletal muscle proteomic signature and metabolic impairment in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malenfant, Simon; Potus, François; Fournier, Frédéric; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Pflieger, Aude; Bourassa, Sylvie; Tremblay, Ève; Nehmé, Benjamin; Droit, Arnaud; Bonnet, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve

    2015-05-01

    Exercise limitation comes from a close interaction between cardiovascular and skeletal muscle impairments. To better understand the implication of possible peripheral oxidative metabolism dysfunction, we studied the proteomic signature of skeletal muscle in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Eight idiopathic PAH patients and eight matched healthy sedentary subjects were evaluated for exercise capacity, skeletal muscle proteomic profile, metabolism, and mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle proteins were extracted, and fractioned peptides were tagged using an iTRAQ protocol. Proteomic analyses have documented a total of 9 downregulated proteins in PAH skeletal muscles and 10 upregulated proteins compared to healthy subjects. Most of the downregulated proteins were related to mitochondrial structure and function. Focusing on skeletal muscle metabolism and mitochondrial health, PAH patients presented a decreased expression of oxidative enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogenase, p < 0.01) and an increased expression of glycolytic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase activity, p < 0.05). These findings were supported by abnormal mitochondrial morphology on electronic microscopy, lower citrate synthase activity (p < 0.01) and lower expression of the transcription factor A of the mitochondria (p < 0.05), confirming a more glycolytic metabolism in PAH skeletal muscles. We provide evidences that impaired mitochondrial and metabolic functions found in the lungs and the right ventricle are also present in skeletal muscles of patients. • Proteomic and metabolic analysis show abnormal oxidative metabolism in PAH skeletal muscle. • EM of PAH patients reveals abnormal mitochondrial structure and distribution. • Abnormal mitochondrial health and function contribute to exercise impairments of PAH. • PAH may be considered a vascular affliction of heart and lungs with major impact on peripheral muscles.

  19. Enzymes of energy metabolism in hatchlings of amazonian freshwater turtles (Testudines, Podocnemididae).

    PubMed

    Duncan, W P; Marcon, J L

    2009-05-01

    The metabolic profiles of selected tissues were analyzed in hatchlings of the Amazonian freshwater turtles Podocnemis expansa, P. unifilis and P. sextuberculata. Metabolic design in these species was judged based on the key enzymes of energy metabolism, with special emphasis on carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid and ketone body metabolism. All species showed a high glycolytic potential in all sampled tissues. Based on low levels of hexokinase, glycogen may be an important fuel for these species. The high lactate dehydrogenase activity in the liver may play a significant role in carbohydrate catabolism, possibly during diving. Oxidative metabolism in P. sextuberculata appears to be designed for the use of lipids, amino acids and ketone bodies. The maximal activities of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, glutamine dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and succinyl-CoA keto transferase display high aerobic potential, especially in muscle and liver tissues of this species. Although amino acids and ketone bodies may be important fuels for oxidative metabolism, carbohydrates and lipids are the major fuels used by P. expansa and P. unifilis. Our results are consistent with the food habits and lifestyle of Amazonian freshwater turtles. The metabolic design, based on enzyme activities, suggests that hatchlings of P. unifilis and P. expansa are predominately herbivorous, whereas P. sextuberculata rely on a mixed diet of animal matter and vegetation.

  20. Elasticity analysis and design for large metabolic responses produced by changes in enzyme activities.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Acerenza, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis has been extensively used to describe how the sensitivity properties of the component enzymes in a metabolic pathway (represented by the elasticity coefficients) determine the way in which metabolic variables respond (described by the control coefficients). Similarly, metabolic control design addresses the inverse problem of obtaining the sensitivity properties of the component enzymes that are required for the system to show a pre-established pattern of responses. These formalisms, including what is called elasticity analysis and design, were developed for small, strictly speaking infinitesimal, changes. Here we extend them to large metabolic responses. The new approach can be applied to simple two-step pathways or to any arbitrary metabolic system divided into two groups linked by one intermediate. General expressions that relate control and elasticity coefficients for large changes are derived. Concentration and flux connectivity relationships are obtained. The relationships for large changes indicate that the pattern of responses is not necessarily the same as the one obtained with the traditional infinitesimal approach, in some cases the patterns being qualitatively different. The general analysis is used to study the control of ketogenesis in rat liver mitochondria, starting from data available in the literature. The control profile of the pathway subject to large changes shows both quantitative and qualitative differences from the one obtained from an analysis that is performed with infinitesimal coefficients. This exemplifies the type of errors that may be introduced when drawing conclusions about large metabolic responses from results obtained with an infinitesimal treatment. PMID:12084013

  1. Hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in two species of benthic fish showing different prevalences of contaminant-associated liver neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, T.K.; Singh, S.V.; Awasthi, Y.C.; Varanasi, U. )

    1992-04-01

    English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) are closely related benthic fish which show substantial differences in prevalences of contaminant-associated hepatic neoplasms and putatively preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration when captured from estuaries containing a variety of organic chemical contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Because PAH are strongly implicated as causative agents in the etiology of these lesions, several of the hepatic enzymes involved in activation and detoxication of PAH were studied in these two species. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), epoxide hydrolase (EH), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in animals sampled from both contaminated and reference areas. English sole, the species showing higher prevalences of contaminant-associated hepatic lesions, had higher (1- to 2-fold) hepatic activities of AHH and lower activities of EH (0.8-fold) and GST (1.8-fold) than those of starry flounder, regardless of site of capture. These results are largely consistent with increased activation and decreased detoxication of PAH by English sole in comparison to starry flounder. Both laboratory and field data suggested that the observed species differences in enzyme activities were constitutive and not related to differential exposure to contaminants. There were also substantial differences between these species with respect to expression of GST isoenzymes, in that starry flounder expressed two highly anionic GST isoenzymes which did not correspond to any GST isoenzymes expressed in English sole liver; a previous study in an elasmobranch fish showed that an anionic GST was most active toward PAH oxides.

  2. Thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes: from enzymology to metabolic regulation, drug design and disease models.

    PubMed

    Bunik, Victoria I; Tylicki, Adam; Lukashev, Nikolay V

    2013-12-01

    Bringing a knowledge of enzymology into research in vivo and in situ is of great importance in understanding systems biology and metabolic regulation. The central metabolic significance of thiamin (vitamin B1 ) and its diphosphorylated derivative (thiamin diphosphate; ThDP), and the fundamental differences in the ThDP-dependent enzymes of metabolic networks in mammals versus plants, fungi and bacteria, or in health versus disease, suggest that these enzymes are promising targets for biotechnological and medical applications. Here, the in vivo action of known regulators of ThDP-dependent enzymes, such as synthetic structural analogs of the enzyme substrates and thiamin, is analyzed in light of the enzymological data accumulated during half a century of research. Mimicking the enzyme-specific catalytic intermediates, the phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids selectively inhibit particular ThDP-dependent enzymes. Because of their selectivity, use of these compounds in cellular and animal models of ThDP-dependent enzyme malfunctions improves the validity of the model and its predictive power when compared with the nonselective and enzymatically less characterized oxythiamin and pyrithiamin. In vitro studies of the interaction of thiamin analogs and their biological derivatives with potential in vivo targets are necessary to identify and attenuate the analog selectivity. For both the substrate and thiamin synthetic analogs, in vitro reactivities with potential targets are highly relevant in vivo. However, effective concentrations in vivo are often higher than in vitro studies would suggest. The significance of specific inihibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes for the development of herbicides, antibiotics, anticancer and neuroprotective strategies is discussed.

  3. Coordinated Changes in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Aging Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to gain better insight on aging and susceptibility, we characterized the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) from the livers of rats to evaluate the change in capacity to respond to xenobiotics across the adult lifespan. Gene expression profiles for XMEs...

  4. Coordinated Changes in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Aging Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to gain better insight on aging and susceptibility, we characterized the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) from the livers of rats to evaluate the change in capacity to respond to xenobiotics across the adult lifespan. Gene expression profiles for XMEs...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ENZYME EXPRESSION DURING AGING USING COMPREHENSIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging leads to changes in the expression of enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism and fate of xenobiotics in liver, kidney and intestine. Most notable are the changes in a number of CYP and xenobiotic transporter genes regulated by the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR an...

  6. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput s...

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ENZYME EXPRESSION DURING AGING USING COMPREHENSIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging leads to changes in the expression of enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism and fate of xenobiotics in liver, kidney and intestine. Most notable are the changes in a number of CYP and xenobiotic transporter genes regulated by the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR an...

  8. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  9. Activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta and liver in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabian, Eric; Wang, Xinyi; Engel, Franziska; Li, Hequn; Landsiedel, Robert; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2016-06-01

    In order to assess whether the placental metabolism of xenobiotic compounds should be taken into consideration for physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling, the activities of seven phase I and phase II enzymes have been quantified in the 18-day placenta of untreated Wistar rats. To determine their relative contribution, these activities were compared to those of untreated adult male rat liver, using commonly accepted assays. The enzymes comprised cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), esterase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). In contrast to liver, no activities were measurable for 7-ethylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP1A), 7-pentylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP2B), 7-benzylresorufin-O-dealkylase (CYP2B, 2C and 3 A), UGT1, UGT2 and GST in placenta, indicating that the placental activity of these enzymes was well below their hepatic activity. Low activities in placenta were determined for FMO (4%), and esterase (8%), whereas the activity of placental ADH and ALDH accounted for 35% and 40% of the hepatic activities, respectively. In support of the negligible placental CYP activity, testosterone and six model azole fungicides, which were readily metabolized by rat hepatic microsomes, failed to exhibit any metabolic turnover with rat placental microsomes. Hence, with the possible exception of ADH and ALDH, the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta are too low to warrant consideration in PBTK modelling.

  10. Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 (FDB2) gene of Fusarium verticillioides was the first NAT cloned and character...

  11. Developmental roles of tyrosine metabolism enzymes in the blood-sucking insect Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Sterkel, Marcos; Oliveira, Pedro L

    2017-05-17

    The phenylalanine/tyrosine degradation pathway is frequently described as a catabolic pathway that funnels aromatic amino acids into citric acid cycle intermediates. Previously, we demonstrated that the accumulation of tyrosine generated during the hydrolysis of blood meal proteins in Rhodnius prolixus is potentially toxic, a harmful outcome that is prevented by the action of the first two enzymes in the tyrosine degradation pathway. In this work, we further evaluated the relevance of all other enzymes involved in phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism in the physiology of this insect. The knockdown of most of these enzymes produced a wide spectrum of distinct phenotypes associated with reproduction, development and nymph survival, demonstrating a highly pleiotropic role of tyrosine metabolism. The phenotypes obtained for two of these enzymes, homogentisate dioxygenase and fumarylacetoacetase, have never before been described in any arthropod. To our knowledge, this report is the first comprehensive gene-silencing analysis of an amino acid metabolism pathway in insects. Amino acid metabolism is exceptionally important in haematophagous arthropods due to their particular feeding behaviour. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  13. Astrocyte-neuron crosstalk regulates the expression and subcellular localization of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mamczur, Piotr; Borsuk, Borys; Paszko, Jadwiga; Sas, Zuzanna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Gizak, Agnieszka; Rakus, Dariusz

    2015-02-01

    Astrocytes releasing glucose- and/or glycogen-derived lactate and glutamine play a crucial role in shaping neuronal function and plasticity. Little is known, however, how metabolic functions of astrocytes, e.g., their ability to degrade glucosyl units, are affected by the presence of neurons. To address this issue we carried out experiments which demonstrated that co-culturing of rat hippocampal astrocytes with neurons significantly elevates the level of mRNA and protein for crucial enzymes of glycolysis (phosphofructokinase, aldolase, and pyruvate kinase), glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase), and glutamine synthetase in astrocytes. Simultaneously, the decrease of the capability of neurons to metabolize glucose and glutamine is observed. We provide evidence that neurons alter the expression of astrocytic enzymes by secretion of as yet unknown molecule(s) into the extracellular fluid. Moreover, our data demonstrate that almost all studied enzymes may localize in astrocytic nuclei and this localization is affected by the co-culturing with neurons which also reduces proliferative activity of astrocytes. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that the astrocyte-neuron crosstalk substantially affects the expression of basal metabolic enzymes in the both types of cells and influences their subcellular localization in astrocytes.

  14. Comparative investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the first NAT cloned and characterized from fun...

  15. Targeted proteome analysis of single-gene deletion strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking enzymes in the central carbon metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Syohei; Nishino, Shunsuke; Tomita, Atsumi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Central carbon metabolism is controlled by modulating the protein abundance profiles of enzymes that maintain the essential systems in living organisms. In this study, metabolic adaptation mechanisms in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated by direct determination of enzyme abundance levels in 30 wild type and mutant strains. We performed a targeted proteome analysis using S. cerevisiae strains that lack genes encoding the enzymes responsible for central carbon metabolism. Our analysis revealed that at least 30% of the observed variations in enzyme abundance levels could be explained by global regulatory mechanisms. A enzyme-enzyme co-abundance analysis revealed that the abundances of enzyme proteins involved in the trehalose metabolism and glycolysis changed in a coordinated manner under the control of the transcription factors for global regulation. The remaining variations were derived from local mechanisms such as a mutant-specific increase in the abundances of remote enzymes. The proteome data also suggested that, although the functional compensation of the deficient enzyme was attained by using more resources for protein biosynthesis, available resources for the biosynthesis of the enzymes responsible for central metabolism were not abundant in S. cerevisiae cells. These results showed that global and local regulation of enzyme abundance levels shape central carbon metabolism in S. cerevisiae by using a limited resource for protein biosynthesis. PMID:28241048

  16. The importance of sourcing enzymes from non-conventional fungi for metabolic engineering and biomass breakdown.

    PubMed

    Seppälä, Susanna; Wilken, St Elmo; Knop, Doriv; Solomon, Kevin V; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2017-09-21

    A wealth of fungal enzymes has been identified from nature, which continue to drive strain engineering and bioprocessing for a range of industries. However, while a number of clades have been investigated, the vast majority of the fungal kingdom remains unexplored for industrial applications. Here, we discuss selected classes of fungal enzymes that are currently in biotechnological use, and explore more basal, non-conventional fungi and their underexploited biomass-degrading mechanisms as promising agents in the transition towards a bio-based society. Of special interest are anaerobic fungi like the Neocallimastigomycota, which were recently found to harbor the largest diversity of biomass-degrading enzymes among the fungal kingdom. Enzymes sourced from these basal fungi have been used to metabolically engineer substrate utilization in yeast, and may offer new paths to lignin breakdown and tunneled biocatalysis. We also contrast classic enzymology approaches with emerging 'omics'-based tools to decipher function within novel fungal isolates and identify new promising enzymes. Recent developments in genome editing are expected to accelerate discovery and metabolic engineering within these systems, yet are still limited by a lack of high-resolution genomes, gene regulatory regions, and even appropriate culture conditions. Finally, we present new opportunities to harness the biomass-degrading potential of undercharacterized fungi via heterologous expression and engineered microbial consortia. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The combined effects of reactant kinetics and enzyme stability explain the temperature dependence of metabolic rates.

    PubMed

    DeLong, J P; Gibert, J P; Luhring, T M; Bachman, G; Reed, B; Neyer, A; Montooth, K L

    2017-06-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the response of metabolic rate to temperature is essential for understanding thermal ecology and metabolic adaptation. Although the Arrhenius equation has been used to describe the effects of temperature on reaction rates and metabolic traits, it does not adequately describe two aspects of the thermal performance curve (TPC) for metabolic rate-that metabolic rate is a unimodal function of temperature often with maximal values in the biologically relevant temperature range and that activation energies are temperature dependent. We show that the temperature dependence of metabolic rate in ectotherms is well described by an enzyme-assisted Arrhenius (EAAR) model that accounts for the temperature-dependent contribution of enzymes to decreasing the activation energy required for reactions to occur. The model is mechanistically derived using the thermodynamic rules that govern protein stability. We contrast our model with other unimodal functions that also can be used to describe the temperature dependence of metabolic rate to show how the EAAR model provides an important advance over previous work. We fit the EAAR model to metabolic rate data for a variety of taxa to demonstrate the model's utility in describing metabolic rate TPCs while revealing significant differences in thermodynamic properties across species and acclimation temperatures. Our model advances our ability to understand the metabolic and ecological consequences of increases in the mean and variance of temperature associated with global climate change. In addition, the model suggests avenues by which organisms can acclimate and adapt to changing thermal environments. Furthermore, the parameters in the EAAR model generate links between organismal level performance and underlying molecular processes that can be tested for in future work.

  18. Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme, Transporter and Nuclear Receptor Genetically Modified Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Determining the in vivo significance of a specific enzyme, transporter or xenobiotic receptor in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics may be hampered by gene multiplicity and complexity, levels of expression and interaction between various components involved. The development of knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mouse models opens the door to the improved understanding of gene function in a whole body system. There is also growing interest in the development of humanized mice to overcome species difference in drug metabolism and disposition. This review, therefore, aims to summarize and discuss some successful examples of drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear receptor genetically modified mouse models. These genetically modified mouse models have proven as invaluable models for understanding in vivo function of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and xenobiotic receptors in drug metabolism and transport, as well as predicting potential drug-drug interaction and toxicity in humans. Nevertheless, concerns remain about interpretation of data obtained from such genetically modified mouse models in which the expression of related genes is altered significantly. PMID:20854191

  19. Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

  20. Colon cancer chemopreventive efficacy of silibinin through perturbation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Nagarajan; Viswanathan, Periyaswamy; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2012-01-15

    Our findings reported so far demonstrate that silibinin modulates gut microbial enzymes, colonic oxidative stress and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, to exert its antiproliferative effect against 1,2 di-methylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis. Since xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes play a crucial role in carcinogen activation and metabolism, we aimed to explore the effect of silibinin on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes during DMH induced colon carcinogenesis. Male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 rats received 50mg/kg body weight of silibinin p.o. every day. Groups 3-6 rats were given DMH at a dose of (20mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) once a week for 15 weeks to induce colonic tumors. In addition to DMH, group 4 (initiation), group 5 (post-initiation) and group 6 (entire period) rats received silibinin (50mg/kg body weight, p.o., everyday) at different time points during the experimental period of 32 weeks. Rats exposed to DMH alone showed increased activities of phase I enzymes (cytochrome b5, cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochromeP450, cytochromeP450 reductase, cytochromP4502E1) and decreased activities of phase II enzymes (Uridine diphospho glucuronyl transferase, Glutathione-S-transferase and DT-Diaphorase) in the liver and colonic mucosa as compared to control rats. Silibinin supplementation modulates the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes favoring carcinogen detoxification. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status showed that silibinin supplementation counteracts DMH induced hepatic and circulatory oxidative stress. Tumor burden in experimental animals was assessed both macroscopically and microscopically in the colon tissues. Our findings emphasize the potential chemopreventive action of silibinin against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis.

  1. Effects of microsomal enzyme inducers on thyroid follicular cell proliferation and thyroid hormone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, C D; Hood, A M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of microsomal enzyme inducers on thyroid hormone homeostasis and the thyroid gland are of concern. We have investigated the effects of microsomal enzyme inducers on thyroid follicular cell proliferation and thyroid hormone metabolism in rats. We have shown that small increases in serum TSH can result in large increases in thyroid follicular cell proliferation. Furthermore, only those microsomal enzyme inducers that increase serum TSH--that is, phenobarbital (PB) and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-increase thyroid follicular cell proliferation, whereas those microsomal enzyme inducers that do not increase serum TSH--that is, 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) and Aroclor 1254 (PCB)-do not increase thyroid follicular cell proliferation. Deiodination does not appear to be the reason why serum T3 concentrations are maintained in microsomal enzyme inducer-treated rats. We have also shown that those microsomal enzyme inducers that increase serum TSH increase T3 UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity, whereas those microsomal enzyme inducers that do not increase serum TSH do not increase T3 UGT activity. This finding suggests that induction of T3 glucuronidation, rather than T4 glucuronidation, mediates increases in serum TSH of microsomal enzyme inducer treated rats.

  2. Homologues of xenobiotic metabolizing N-acetyltransferases in plant-associated fungi: Novel functions for an old enzyme family

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-pathogenic fungi and their hosts engage in chemical warfare, attacking each other with toxic products of secondary metabolism and defending themselves via an arsenal of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. One such enzyme is homologous to arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and has been identified...

  3. Resveratrol Modulates Drug and Carcinogen Metabolizing Enzymes in a Healthy Volunteer Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, H-H. Sherry; Garland, Linda; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R.; Chew, Wade M.; Miller, Jessica A.; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A.; Alberts, David

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of resveratrol on drug and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and Phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, and 3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-π level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess Phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 gm of resveratrol once daily for 4 wks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C9, and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-π level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacological doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions. PMID:20716633

  4. Comparative metagenomic analysis of PAH degradation in soil by a mixed microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Zafra, German; Taylor, Todd D; Absalón, Angel E; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2016-11-15

    In this study, we used a taxonomic and functional metagenomic approach to analyze some of the effects (e.g. displacement, permanence, disappearance) produced between native microbiota and a previously constructed Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading microbial consortium during the bioremediation process of a soil polluted with PAHs. Bioaugmentation with a fungal-bacterial consortium and biostimulation of native microbiota using corn stover as texturizer produced appreciable changes in the microbial diversity of polluted soils, shifting native microbial communities in favor of degrading specific populations. Functional metagenomics showed changes in gene abundance suggesting a bias towards aromatic hydrocarbon and intermediary degradation pathways, which greatly favored PAH mineralization. In contrast, pathways favoring the formation of toxic intermediates such as cytochrome P450-mediated reactions were found to be significantly reduced in bioaugmented soils. PAH biodegradation in soil using the microbial consortium was faster and reached higher degradation values (84% after 30 d) as a result of an increased co-metabolic degradation when compared with other mixed microbial consortia. The main differences between inoculated and non-inoculated soils were observed in aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases, laccase, protocatechuate, salicylate and benzoate-degrading enzyme genes. Based on our results, we propose that several concurrent metabolic pathways are taking place in soils during PAH degradation.

  5. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  6. Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis.

  7. Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6β-hydroxylation and Δ6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of Δ6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  8. Expression in human prostate of drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes: association with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, J. A.; Martínez, C.; Olivera, M.; Gallardo, L.; Ladero, J. M.; Rosado, C.; Prados, J.; Rodriguez-Molina, J.; Resel, L.; Benítez, J.

    1998-01-01

    The role of two common polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and carcinogens was studied in relation to prostate cancer. The gene encoding one of these enzymes (NAT2) is located in an area where frequent allelic loss occurs in prostate cancer. Mutations at the genes CYP2D6 and NAT2 were analysed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction mapping in DNA from 94 subjects with prostate cancer and 160 male healthy control subjects. Eleven prostate specimens were analysed for genotype and enzymatic activities NAT2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A by using the enzyme-specific substrates sulphamethazine and dextromethorphan. Enzyme activities with substrate specificities corresponding to NAT2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A are present in human prostate tissue, with mean +/-s.d. activities of 4.8+/-4.4 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 156+/-91 and 112+/-72 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein respectively. The Km values for the prostate CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzyme activities corresponded to that of liver CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities, and the CYP2D6 enzyme activity is related to the CYP2D6 genotype. The N-acetyltransferase, in contrast, had a higher Km than NAT2 and was independent of the NAT2 genotype. The CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes, and an N-acetyltransferase activity that is independent of the regulation of the NAT2 gene, are expressed in human prostate tissue. The presence of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in human prostate with a high interindividual variability may be involved in the regulation of local levels of carcinogens and mutagens and may underlie interindividual differences in cancer susceptibility. Images Figure 1 PMID:9823980

  9. Prediction of Metabolic Clearance for Low-Turnover Compounds Using Plated Hepatocytes with Enzyme Activity Correction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bennett; Eisenhandler, Roy; Kuo, Yuhsin; Rearden, Paul; Li, Ying; Manley, Peter J; Smith, Sheri; Menzel, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    Prediction of metabolic clearance has been a challenge for compounds exhibiting minimal turnover in typical in vitro stability experiments. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the utilization of plated human hepatocytes to predict intrinsic clearance of low-turnover compounds. The disappearance of test compounds was determined for up to 48 h while enzyme activities in plated hepatocytes were monitored concurrently in a complimentary experiment. Consistent with literature reports, marked time-dependent loss of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities was observed during the 48-h incubation period. To account for the loss of enzyme activities, a term "fraction of activity remaining" was calculated based on area-under-the-curve derived from the average rate of activity loss (k avg), and then applied as a correction factor for intrinsic clearance determination. Twelve compounds were selected in this study to cover phase I and phase II biotransformation pathways, with in vivo intrinsic clearance values, representing metabolic clearance only, ranging from 0.66 to 47 ml/min/kg. Determination of in vitro intrinsic clearance using three individual preparations of hepatocytes revealed a reasonably good agreement (generally within threefold) between the predicted and the observed metabolic clearance for all 12 compounds tested. The current results indicated that plated hepatocytes can be utilized to provide clearance predictions for compounds with low-turnover in humans when corrected for the loss in enzyme activities.

  10. Filament formation by metabolic enzymes is a specific adaptation to an advanced state of cellular starvation

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Ivana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Munder, Matthias C; Kulasegaran, Gayathrie; Malinovska, Liliana; Kroschwald, Sonja; Richter, Doris; Fahmy, Karim; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2014-01-01

    One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to enzymatic inactivation. Filament formation by Gln1 is a highly cooperative process, strongly dependent on macromolecular crowding, and involves back-to-back stacking of cylindrical homo-decamers into filaments that associate laterally to form higher order fibrils. Other metabolic enzymes also assemble into filaments at low pH. Hence, we propose that filament formation is a general mechanism to inactivate and store key metabolic enzymes during a state of advanced cellular starvation. These findings have broad implications for understanding the interplay between nutritional stress, the metabolism and the physical organization of a cell. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02409.001 PMID:24771766

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A Y; Andrew, Peter W; Neves, Ana Rute; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression.

  12. Rhodanese Functions as Sulfur Supplier for Key Enzymes in Sulfur Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aussignargues, Clément; Giuliani, Marie-Cécile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ilbert, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus. PMID:22496367

  13. Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Drug Metabolism: Beyond a Role as a 
Detoxifying Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the last two steps of purine catabolism in the highest uricotelic primates. XOR is an enzyme with dehydrogenase activity that, in mammals, may be converted into oxidase activity under a variety of pathophysiologic conditions. XOR activity is highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels and may generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which trigger different consequences, ranging from cytotoxicity to inflammation. The low specificity for substrates allows XOR to metabolize a number of endogenous metabolites and a variety of exogenous compounds, including drugs. The present review focuses on the role of XOR as a drug-metabolizing enzyme, specifically for drugs with anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunosuppressive or vasodilator activities, as well as drugs acting on metabolism or inducing XOR expression. XOR has an activating role that is essential to the pharmacological action of quinone drugs, cyadox, antiviral nucleoside analogues, allopurinol, nitrate and nitrite. XOR activity has a degradation function toward thiopurine nucleotides, pyrazinoic acid, methylxanthines and tolbutamide, whose half-life may be prolonged by the use of XOR inhibitors. In conclusion, to avoid potential drug interaction risks, such as a toxic excess of drug bioavailability or a loss of drug efficacy, caution is suggested in the use of XOR inhibitors, as in the case of hyperuricemic patients affected by gout or tumor lysis syndrome, when it is necessary to simultaneously administer therapeutic substances that are activated or degraded by the drug-metabolizing activity of XOR. PMID:27458036

  14. The Effects of Pharmaceutical Excipients on Gastrointestinal Tract Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters-an Update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenpeng; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Wu, Man; Zhang, Zhenqing; Zhang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating evidence from the last decade has shown that many pharmaceutical excipients are not pharmacologically inert but instead have effects on metabolic enzymes and/or drug transporters. Hence, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) may be altered due to the modulation of their metabolism and transport by excipients. The impact of excipients is a potential concern for Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS)-based biowaivers, particularly as the BCS-based biowaivers have been extended to class 3 drugs in certain dosage forms. The presence of different excipients or varying amounts of excipients between formulations may result in bio-inequivalence. The excipient impact may lead to significant variations in clinical outcomes as well. The aim of this paper is to review the recent findings of excipient effects on gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, focusing on their interactions with the metabolic enzymes and transporters in the GI tract. A wide range of commonly used excipients such as binders, diluents, fillers, solvents, and surfactants are discussed here. We summarized the reported effects of those excipients on GI tract phase I and phase II enzymes, uptake and efflux transporters, and relevant clinical significance. This information can enhance our understanding of excipient influence on drug absorption and is useful in designing pharmacokinetic studies and evaluating the resultant data.

  15. Rhodanese functions as sulfur supplier for key enzymes in sulfur energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Aussignargues, Clément; Giuliani, Marie-Cécile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ilbert, Marianne

    2012-06-08

    How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus.

  16. Increased oxygen radical-dependent inactivation of metabolic enzymes by liver microsomes after chronic ethanol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Dicker, E.; Cederbaum, A.I. )

    1988-10-01

    Enzymatic and nonenzymatic mixed-function oxidase systems have been shown to generate an oxidant that catalyzes the inactivation of glutamine synthetase and other metabolic enzymes. Recent studies have shown that microsomes isolated from rats chronically fed ethanol generate reactive oxygen intermediates at elevated rates compared with controls. Microsomes from rats fed ethanol were found to be more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes added to the incubation system. The enzymes studied were alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase. The inactivation process by both types of microsomal preparations was sensitive to catalase and glutathione plus glutathione peroxidase, but was not affected by superoxide dismutase or hydroxyl radical scavengers. Iron was required for the inactivation of added enzymes; microsomes from the rats fed ethanol remained more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes in the absence or presence of several ferric complexes. The inactivation of enzymes was enhanced by the addition of menadione or paraquat to the microsomes, and rates of inactivation were higher with the microsomes from the ethanol-fed rats. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and increased inactivation of enzymes by microsomes may contribute toward the hepatotoxic effects associated with ethanol consumption.

  17. Liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome: a large-scale case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ma, Xiangyu; Jiang, Zhi; Zhang, Kejun; Zhang, Mengxuan; Li, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaolan; Xiong, Hongyan

    2015-09-29

    Previous studies suggested that elevated liver enzymes could be used as potential novel biomarkers of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical outcomes, although the results were inconsistent and the conclusions were underpowered. A case-control study with 6,268 MetS subjects and 6,330 frequency-matched healthy controls was conducted to systematically evaluated levels of four liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP), both in overall populations and in subjects with normal liver enzymes, with MetS risk using both quartiles and continuous unit of liver enzymes. We found significant associations were detected for all above analyses. Compared with quartile 1 (Q1), other quartiles have significant higher MetS risk, with ORs ranging from 1.15 to 18.15. The highest effected was detected for GGT, for which the OR value for the highest versus lowest quartile was 18.15 (95% CI: 15.7-20.9). Mutual adjustment proved the independence of the relations for all four liver enzymes. Sensitivity analyses didn't materially changed the trend. To the best of our knowledge, this study should be the largest, which aimed at evaluating the association between liver enzymes measures and MetS risk. The results can better support that liver enzyme levels could be used as clinical predictors of MetS.

  18. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  19. Stereochemical course, isotope effects, and enzyme inhibitor studies of glaucine metabolism in fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The microbial transformation of the aporphine alkaloid glaucine by the fungi Fusarium solani (ATCC 12823) and Aspergillus flavipes (ATCC 1030) proceeds with complete substrate stereoselectivity. The fungus F. solani metabolizes only S-(+)-glaucine (1) to dehydroglaucine (3), and A. flavipes metabolizes only R-(-)-glaucine (2) to dehydroglaucine. This facile microbiological reaction is useful in the destructive resolution of racemic mixtures of glaucine, and may provide a model for producing pure enantiomers (either R or S) of other aporphines from racemic mixtures. In order to extend the reaction to other aporphines and related alkaloids, the overall stereochemical course and enzyme(s) involved in the reaction, and the substrate requirements of the enzyme were investigated. The overall stereochemical course of the transformation was examined using C-7 methyl-blocked analogs of glaucine, cis- and trans-7-methylglaucine, as substrates for the fungi. Isolation and examination of residual substrates from semi-preparative scale incubations by MS, PMR, PMR with a chiral shift reagent, OR and ORD indicated that the transformation was enantioselective in the case of A. flavipes. However, only a 10% enrichment of 6aR,7R-cis-7-methylglaucine was observed in F. solani cultures. The oxidation of glaucine can be envisioned as proceeding through one of several mechanisms, each involving a different enzyme system. Deuterium isotope, induction and enzyme inhibitor experiments helped to distinguish between the three mechanisms.

  20. PLP-dependent enzymes as entry and exit gates of sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, Florence; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids are membrane constituents as well as signaling molecules involved in many essential cellular processes. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), both PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate)-dependent enzymes, function as entry and exit gates of the sphingolipid metabolism. SPT catalyzes the condensation of serine and a fatty acid into 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine, whereas SPL degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) into phosphoethanolamine and a long-chain aldehyde. The recently solved X-ray structures of prokaryotic homologs of SPT and SPL combined with functional studies provide insight into the structure–function relationship of the two enzymes. Despite carrying out different reactions, the two enzymes reveal striking similarities in the overall fold, topology, and residues crucial for activity. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial SPT and SPL lack a transmembrane helix, making them targets of choice for biochemical characterization because the use of detergents can be avoided. Both human enzymes are linked to severe diseases or disorders and might therefore serve as targets for the development of therapeutics aiming at the modulation of their activity. This review gives an overview of the sphingolipid metabolism and of the available biochemical studies of prokaryotic SPT and SPL, and discusses the major similarities and differences to the corresponding eukaryotic enzymes. PMID:21710479

  1. Localization of enzymes relating to C4 organic acid metabolisms in the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Kikutani, Sae; Mahardika, Anggara; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2014-09-01

    In the genome of the marine diatom-Thalassiosira pseudonana, there are several putative genes encoding enzymes potentially constitute a classical C4 type biochemical CO2-concentrating mechanism. Two genes encode a carboxylation enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)1 and PEPC2; and another two encode decarboxylation enzymes, NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). These genes were tagged by the enhanced-green fluorescence protein, egfp, ligated in the transformation vector, and transformed into the cells of T. pseudonana for localization of GFP fusion products. The PEPC1:GFP fusion was localized at the matrix of the periplastidal compartment, while the PEPC2:GFP fusion was localized at the mitochondria. The NAD-ME:GFP fusion was localized in the cytosol and the PEPCK:GFP fusion at the mitochondria. The transcripts level of NAD-ME was extremely low, and PEPCK transcript was significantly induced under the dark, suggesting that PEPCK is involved in the dark metabolism such as respiration and amino acid metabolism in the mitochondria. Treatments of low-CO2grown T. pseudonana cells with inhibitors for PEPCK and PEPC efficiently dissipated the maximum rate of photosynthesis while these treatments did not affect high-affinity photosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that classical C4 enzymes play little role in the CCM in T. pseudonana.

  2. The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about their reaction mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Waldrop, Grover L; Holden, Hazel M; Maurice, Martin St

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is the major cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin-dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature and are involved in a myriad of metabolic processes including fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The cofactor, itself, is composed of a ureido ring, a tetrahydrothiophene ring, and a valeric acid side chain. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO2 carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes is critically important for translational research in light of the fact that some of these enzymes serve as targets for anti-obesity agents, antibiotics, and herbicides. Prior to 1990, however, there was a dearth of information regarding the molecular architectures of biotin-dependent enzymes. In recent years there has been an explosion in the number of three-dimensional structures reported for these proteins. Here we review our current understanding of the structures and functions of biotin-dependent enzymes. In addition, we provide a critical analysis of what these structures have and have not revealed about biotin-dependent catalysis. PMID:22969052

  3. Quantification of phase I / II metabolizing enzyme gene expression and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adduct levels in human prostate

    PubMed Central

    John, Kaarthik; Ragavan, Narasimhan; Pratt, M. Margaret; Singh, Paras B.; Al-Buheissi, Salah; Matanhelia, Shyam S.; Phillips, David H.; Poirier, Miriam C.; Martin, Francis L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Studies of migrant populations suggest that dietary and/or environmental factors play a crucial role in the aetiology of prostatic adenocarcinoma (CaP). The human prostate consists of the peripheral zone (PZ), transition zone (TZ) and central zone (CZ); CaP occurs most often in the PZ. METHODS To investigate the notion that an underlying differential expression of phase I/II genes, and/or the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts might explain the elevated PZ susceptibility, we examined prostate tissues (matched tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ) from men undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy for CaP (n=26) or cystoprostatectomy (n=1). Quantitative gene expression analysis was employed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and CYP1A2, as well as N-acetyltransferase 1 and 2 (NAT1 and NAT2) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). RESULTS CYP1B1, NAT1 and COMT were expressed in all tissue sets; levels of CYP1B1 and NAT1 were consistently higher in the PZ compared to TZ. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of CYP1B1 (nuclear-associated and primarily in basal epithelial cells) and NAT1. Tissue sections from 23 of these aforementioned 27 matched tissue sets were analyzed for PAH-DNA adduct levels using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7, t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE). PAH-DNA adduct levels were highest in glandular epithelial cells, but a comparison of PZ and TZ showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION Although expression of activating and/or detoxifying enzymes may be higher in the PZ, PAH-DNA adduct levels appear to be similar in both zones. Therefore, factors other than PAH-DNA adducts may be responsible for promotion of tumour formation in the human prostate. PMID:19143007

  4. Effects of resveratrol on drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, implications for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Ariane R; Chow, H-H Sherry; Martinez, Jessica A

    2017-02-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grape skins and peanuts that has demonstrated many health benefits including protection against aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, neurological decline, and cancer. The anticancer properties of resveratrol have been attributed to a variety of mechanisms, including its general inhibition of phase I metabolism and induction of phase II metabolism. The effects of resveratrol on these enzymes, however, are still unclear, as in vitro evidence often contrasts with animal studies and clinical trials. Reasons for these variances could include the low bioavailability of resveratrol and the effects of resveratrol metabolites. Due to resveratrol's interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, individuals concurrently taking pharmacological doses of resveratrol with other supplements or medications could potentially experience nutrient-drug interactions. This review summarizes the known effects of resveratrol and its main metabolites on drug metabolism in order to help characterize which populations might benefit from resveratrol for the prevention of cancer, as well as those that may need to avoid supplementation due to potential drug interactions.

  5. Metabolism of aflatoxins: key enzymes and interindividual as well as interspecies differences.

    PubMed

    Dohnal, Vlastimil; Wu, Qinghua; Kuča, Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Aflatoxins are potent hepatocarcinogen in animal models and suspected carcinogen in humans. The most important aflatoxin in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In this review, we mainly summarized the key metabolizing enzymes of AFB1 in animals and humans. Moreover, the interindividual and the interspecies differences in AFB1 metabolism are highly concerned. In human liver, CYP3A4 plays an important role in biotransforming AFB1 to the toxic product AFB1-8,9-epoxide. In human lung, CYP2A13 has a significant activity in metabolizing AFB1 to AFB1-8,9-epoxide and AFM1-8,9-epoxide. The epoxide of AFB1-8,9-epoxide could conjugate with glutathione to reduce the toxicity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In poultry species, CYP2A6, CYP3A37, CYP1A5, and CYP1A1 are responsible for bioactivation of AFB1. There are interindividual variations in the rate of activation of aflatoxins in various species, and there are also differences between children and adults. The age and living regions are important factors affecting resistance of species to AFB1. The rate of AFB1-8,9-epoxide formation and its conjugation with glutathione are key parameters in interspecies and interindividual differences in sensitivity to the toxic effect of AFB1. This review provides an important information for key metabolizing enzymes and the global metabolism of aflatoxins in different species.

  6. Pleiotropic and Epistatic Behavior of a Ring-Hydroxylating Oxygenase System in the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolic Network from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Kim, Dae-Wi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Hyun-lee; Ahn, Youngbeom; Sutherland, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize biphenyl, the LMW PAHs naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene, and the HMW PAHs pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with the highest enzymatic activity directed toward three-ring PAHs. Structure analysis and PAH substrate docking simulations of the Pdo substrate-binding pocket rationalized the experimentally observed metabolic versatility on a molecular scale. Using information obtained in this study and from previous work, we constructed an RHO-centric functional map, allowing pleiotropic and epistatic enzymatic explanation of PAH metabolism. Taking the findings together, the Pdo system is an RHO system with the pleiotropic responsibility of LMW PAH-centric hydroxylation, and its epistatic functional contribution is also crucial for the metabolic quality and quantity of the PAH-MN. PMID:25070740

  7. Pleiotropic and epistatic behavior of a ring-hydroxylating oxygenase system in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic network from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Kim, Dae-Wi; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Hyun-lee; Ahn, Youngbeom; Sutherland, John B; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2014-10-01

    Despite the considerable knowledge of bacterial high-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism, the key enzyme(s) and its pleiotropic and epistatic behavior(s) responsible for low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs in HMW PAH-metabolic networks remain poorly understood. In this study, a phenotype-based strategy, coupled with a spray plate method, selected a Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 mutant (6G11) that degrades HMW PAHs but not LMW PAHs. Sequence analysis determined that the mutant was defective in pdoA2, encoding an aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO). A series of metabolic comparisons using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that the mutant had a lower rate of degradation of fluorene, anthracene, and pyrene. Unlike the wild type, the mutant did not produce a color change in culture media containing fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. An Escherichia coli expression experiment confirmed the ability of the Pdo system to oxidize biphenyl, the LMW PAHs naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluorene, and the HMW PAHs pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with the highest enzymatic activity directed toward three-ring PAHs. Structure analysis and PAH substrate docking simulations of the Pdo substrate-binding pocket rationalized the experimentally observed metabolic versatility on a molecular scale. Using information obtained in this study and from previous work, we constructed an RHO-centric functional map, allowing pleiotropic and epistatic enzymatic explanation of PAH metabolism. Taking the findings together, the Pdo system is an RHO system with the pleiotropic responsibility of LMW PAH-centric hydroxylation, and its epistatic functional contribution is also crucial for the metabolic quality and quantity of the PAH-MN.

  8. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in human skin and SkinEthic reconstructed human skin models.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Arbey, Eric; Daronnat, Edwige; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Skin metabolism is becoming a major consideration in the development of new cosmetic ingredients, skin being the first organ exposed to them. In order to replace limited samples of Excised human skin (EHS), in vitro engineered human skins have been developed. 3D models are daily used to develop and evaluate new cosmetic ingredients and have to be characterized and compared with EHS in terms of metabolic capabilities. This work presents the determination of apparent catalytic parameters (apparent Vmax, Km and the ratio Vmax/Km) in 3D models compared with EHS for cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase isoforms involved in drug metabolism, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyl transferases, uridinyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases. Results show that all these enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics are expressed and functional in the EHS and 3D models. Also, the Vmax/Km ratios (estimating the intrinsic metabolic clearances) show that the metabolic abilities are the most often comparable between the skin models and EHS. These results indicate that the 3D models can substitute themselves for EHS to select cosmetic ingredients on the basis of their metabolism, efficacy or/and safety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multimedia Model for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates. PMID:25373871

  10. Multimedia model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart A

    2014-12-02

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of PAH contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of PAHs (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 PAHs and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive PAH and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured PAH concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier PAHs (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter PAHs (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived PAH emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of PAHs and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates.

  11. Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene in T-47D human breast cancer cells: Roles of PAH interactions and PAH metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Spink, David C. Wu, Susan J.; Spink, Barbara C.; Hussain, Mirza M.; Vakharia, Dilip D.; Pentecost, Brian T.; Kaminsky, Laurence S.

    2008-02-01

    The interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cytochromes P450 (CYP) are complex; PAHs are enzyme inducers, substrates, and inhibitors. In T-47D breast cancer cells, exposure to 0.1 to 1 {mu}M benzo(k)fluoranthene (BKF) induced CYP1A1/1B1-catalyzed 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) metabolism, whereas BKF levels greater than 1 {mu}M inhibited E{sub 2} metabolism. Time course studies showed that induction of CYP1-catalyzed E{sub 2} metabolism persisted after the disappearance of BKF or co-exposed benzo(a)pyrene, suggesting that BKF metabolites retaining Ah receptor agonist activity were responsible for prolonged CYP1 induction. BKF metabolites were shown, through the use of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase reporter assays to induce CYP1A1/1B1 in T-47D cells. Metabolites formed by oxidation at the C-2/C-3 region of BKF had potencies for CYP1 induction exceeding those of BKF, whereas C-8/C-9 oxidative metabolites were somewhat less potent than BKF. The activities of expressed human CYP1A1 and 1B1 with BKF as substrate were investigated by use of HPLC with fluorescence detection, and by GC/MS. The results showed that both enzymes efficiently catalyzed the formation of 3-, 8-, and 9-OHBKF from BKF. These studies indicate that the inductive effects of PAH metabolites as potent CYP1 inducers are likely to be additional important factors in PAH-CYP interactions that affect metabolism and bioactivation of other PAHs, ultimately modulating PAH toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  12. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  13. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  14. Ornithine Aminotransferase, an Important Glutamate-Metabolizing Enzyme at the Crossroads of Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ginguay, Antonin; Cynober, Luc; Curis, Emmanuel; Nicolis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Ornithine δ-aminotransferase (OAT, E.C. 2.6.1.13) catalyzes the transfer of the δ-amino group from ornithine (Orn) to α-ketoglutarate (aKG), yielding glutamate-5-semialdehyde and glutamate (Glu), and vice versa. In mammals, OAT is a mitochondrial enzyme, mainly located in the liver, intestine, brain, and kidney. In general, OAT serves to form glutamate from ornithine, with the notable exception of the intestine, where citrulline (Cit) or arginine (Arg) are end products. Its main function is to control the production of signaling molecules and mediators, such as Glu itself, Cit, GABA, and aliphatic polyamines. It is also involved in proline (Pro) synthesis. Deficiency in OAT causes gyrate atrophy, a rare but serious inherited disease, a further measure of the importance of this enzyme. PMID:28272331

  15. Allosteric ACTion: the varied ACT domains regulating enzymes of amino-acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lang, Eric J M; Cross, Penelope J; Mittelstädt, Gerd; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity plays important metabolic roles. Here we review the allostery of enzymes of amino-acid metabolism conferred by a discrete domain known as the ACT domain. This domain of 60-70 residues has a βαββαβ topology leading to a four-stranded β4β1β3β2 antiparallel sheet with two antiparallel helices on one face. Extensive sequence variation requires a combined sequence/structure/function analysis for identification of the ACT domain. Common features include highly varied modes of self-association of ACT domains, ligand binding at domain interfaces, and transmittal of allosteric signals through conformational changes and/or the manipulation of quaternary equilibria. A recent example illustrates the relatively facile adoption of this versatile module of allostery by gene fusion.

  16. Impact of expression of EMP enzymes on glucose metabolism in Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rachel Ruizhen; Agrawal, Manoj; Mao, Zichao

    2013-06-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is the only known microorganism that utilizes the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway anaerobically. In this work, we investigated whether the overexpression of a phosphofructokinase (PFK), the only missing Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway enzyme, could establish the pathway in this organism. Introduction of a pyrophosphate-dependent PFK, along with co-expression of homologous fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and triosephosphate isomerase, did not result in an EMP flux to any appreciable level. However, the metabolism of glucose was impacted significantly. Eight percent of glucose was metabolized to form a new metabolite, dihydroxyacetone. Reducing flux through the ED pathway by as much as 40 % through antisense of a key enzyme, ED aldolase, did not result in a fully functional EMP pathway, suggesting that the ED pathway, especially the lower arm, downstream from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, is very rigid, possibly due to redox balance.

  17. [Controlling arachidonic acid metabolic network: from single- to multi-target inhibitors of key enzymes].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Zheng; Shang, Er-chang; Yang, Kun; Wei, Deng-guo; Zhou, Lu; Jiang, Xiao-lu; He, Chong; Lai, Lu-hua

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common medical conditions seen in disorders of human immune system. There is a great demand for anti-inflammatory drugs. There are major inflammatory mediators in arachidonic acid metabolic network. Several enzymes in this network have been used as key targets for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. However, specific single-target inhibitors can not sufficiently control the network balance and may cause side effects at the same time. Most inflammation induced diseases come from the complicated coupling of inflammatory cascades involving multiple targets. In order to treat these complicated diseases, drugs that can intervene multi-targets at the same time attracted much attention. The goal of this review is mainly focused on the key enzymes in arachidonic acid metabolic network, such as phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and eukotriene A4 hydrolase. Advance in single target and multi-targe inhibitors is summarized.

  18. Unusual roles of host metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins in plant virus replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Wen; Hu, Chung-Chi; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-12-01

    Viruses have developed the ability to improvise their own replication machineries with host proteins, adapt to different environments, and overcome difficulties encountered during various stages of their infection cycles. The modular nature of protein functional motifs allows for the novel use of ordinary host factors. Recent studies have revealed that positive-sense RNA [(+)RNA] viruses may adapt regular metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins of host plants by exploiting unusual functions to accommodate their need for replication, mainly for recruitment and subcellular localization of RNA templates or components of replicase complexes and for controlling switches in different stages of replication. This review compares the newly discovered roles of selected metabolic enzymes and housekeeping proteins in plant (+)RNA virus replication with their original cellular functions and the different consequences when utilized by different viruses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactions and enzymes in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Testa, Bernard; Pedretti, Alessandro; Vistoli, Giulio

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we offer an overview of the compared quantitative importance of biotransformation reactions in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, based on a meta-analysis of current research interests. Also, we assess the relative significance the enzyme (super)families or categories catalysing these reactions. We put the facts unveiled by the analysis into a drug discovery context and draw some implications. The results confirm the primary role of cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidations and UDP-glucuronosyl-catalysed glucuronidations, but they also document the marked significance of several other reactions. Thus, there is a need for several drug discovery scientists to better grasp the variety of drug metabolism reactions and enzymes and their consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation of Metabolically Active Staphylococcus aureus Protoplasts by Use of the Aeromonas hydrophila Lytic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Coles, N. W.; Gross, R.

    1973-01-01

    Stable, metabolically active protoplasts of Staphylococcus aureus have been prepared by the use of a staphylolytic enzyme produced by Aeromonas hydrophila. Respiratory and glycolytic rates and synthesis of nucleic acids, protein, and lipid in these protoplasts, stabilized variously in 1.1 M sucrose, 0.37 M sodium succinate, or 0.37 M sodium sulfate, have been shown to be comparable with the same parameters in intact cells under the same conditions. Images PMID:4728270

  1. Dietary lipid-induced changes in enzymes of hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    de Catalfo, Graciela E Hurtado; de Alaniz, María J T; Marra, Carlos A

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effect of different dietary oils on the main hepatic enzymes involved in metabolism and their impact on oxidative stress status. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed for 60 d on the same basal diet plus different lipid sources from commercial oils: soybean (S), olive (O), coconut (C), and grape seed (G). After sacrifice, the liver lipid fatty acid composition, enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant defense system, and the activity of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism were determined. The concentration of Ca(2+) in plasma and liver homogenates was also measured. The diets produced significant changes in the total and polar lipid fatty acid compositions and alterations in key enzyme activities involved in lipid metabolism. The S and G groups showed significantly increased oxidative stress biomarkers. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant defense system were increased in the O and C groups. The highest levels of nitrite plus nitrate were observed in the S and G groups compared with the O and C groups in plasma and in liver homogenates. These were directly correlated with the Ca(2+) concentration. The most beneficial effects were obtained with olive oil. However, it is necessary to study in more detail appropriate mixtures of olive and soybean oils to provide an adequate balance between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids. Different dietary oils modify the lipid composition of the plasma and liver, local and systemic antioxidant statuses, and the activity of the key enzymes of lipid metabolism. The interrelation between Ca(2+) and nitrite plus nitrate could be the causal factor underlying the observed changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dynamic expression of retinoic acid synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes in the developing mouse inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Romand, Raymond; Kondo, Takako; Fraulob, Valérie; Petkovich, Martin; Dollé, Pascal; Hashino, Eri

    2008-01-01

    Retinoic acid signaling plays essential roles in morphogenesis and neural development through transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes. It is believed that the balance between the activities of synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes determines the amount of active retinoic acid to which a developing tissue is exposed. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal expression patterns of four synthesizing enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2, 3 and 4 (Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3 and Raldh4) and two metabolizing enzymes (Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1) in the embryonic and postnatal mouse inner ear using quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blot data revealed that the expression of CYP26s was much higher than that of Raldhs at early embryonic ages, but that Cyp26 expression was down-regulated during embryonic development. Conversely, the expression levels of Raldh2 and -3 increased during development and were significantly higher than the Cyp26 levels at postnatal day 20. At this age, Raldh3 was expressed predominantly in the cochlea, while Raldh2 was present in the vestibular end organ. At early embryonic stages as observed by in situ hybridization, the synthesizing enzymes were expressed only in the dorsoventral epithelium of the otocyst, while the metabolizing enzymes were present mainly in mesenchymal cells surrounding the otic epithelium. At later stages, Raldh2, Raldh3 and Cyp26B1 were confined to the stria vascularis, spiral ganglion and supporting cells in the cochlear and vestibular epithelia, respectively. The downregulation of Cyp26s and the upregulation of Raldhs after birth during inner ear maturation suggests tissue changes in the sensitivity to retinoic acid concentrations. PMID:16615129

  3. Importance of influx and efflux systems and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in intratumoral disposition of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Rochat, B

    2009-08-01

    In this review, intratumoral drug disposition will be integrated into the wide range of resistance mechanisms to anticancer agents with particular emphasis on targeted protein kinase inhibitors. Six rules will be established: 1. There is a high variability of extracellular/intracellular drug level ratios; 2. There are three main systems involved in intratumoral drug disposition that are composed of SLC, ABC and XME enzymes; 3. There is a synergistic interplay between these three systems; 4. In cancer subclones, there is a strong genomic instability that leads to a highly variable expression of SLC, ABC or XME enzymes; 5. Tumor-expressed metabolizing enzymes play a role in tumor-specific ADME and cell survival and 6. These three systems are involved in the appearance of resistance (transient event) or in the resistance itself. In addition, this article will investigate whether the overexpression of some ABC and XME systems in cancer cells is just a random consequence of DNA/chromosomal instability, hypo- or hypermethylation and microRNA deregulation, or a more organized modification induced by transposable elements. Experiments will also have to establish if these tumor-expressed enzymes participate in cell metabolism or in tumor-specific ADME or if they are only markers of clonal evolution and genomic deregulation. Eventually, the review will underline that the fate of anticancer agents in cancer cells should be more thoroughly investigated from drug discovery to clinical studies. Indeed, inhibition of tumor expressed metabolizing enzymes could strongly increase drug disposition, specifically in the target cells resulting in more efficient therapies.

  4. Depletion of reduction potential and key energy generation metabolic enzymes underlies tellurite toxicity in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Gupta, Alka; Joseph, Daisy; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress resistant Deinococcus radiodurans surprisingly exhibited moderate sensitivity to tellurite induced oxidative stress (LD50 = 40 μM tellurite, 40 min exposure). The organism reduced 70% of 40 μM potassium tellurite within 5 h. Tellurite exposure significantly modulated cellular redox status. The level of ROS and protein carbonyl contents increased while the cellular reduction potential substantially decreased following tellurite exposure. Cellular thiols levels initially increased (within 30 min) of tellurite exposure but decreased at later time points. At proteome level, tellurite resistance proteins (TerB and TerD), tellurite reducing enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogense subunits E1 and E3), ROS detoxification enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase), and protein folding chaperones (DnaK, EF-Ts, and PPIase) displayed increased abundance in tellurite-stressed cells. However, remarkably decreased levels of key metabolic enzymes (aconitase, transketolase, 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, and beta) involved in carbon and energy metabolism were observed upon tellurite stress. The results demonstrate that depletion of reduction potential in intensive tellurite reduction with impaired energy metabolism lead to tellurite toxicity in D. radiodurans. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The effect of enzyme inhibition on the metabolism and activation of tacrine by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Spaldin, V; Madden, S; Pool, W F; Woolf, T F; Park, B K

    1994-01-01

    1. Tacrine (1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-aminoacridine-hydrochloride: THA) underwent metabolism in vitro by a panel (n = 12) of human liver microsomes genotyped for CYP2D6, in the presence of NADPH, to both protein-reactive and stable metabolites. 2. There was considerable variation in the extent of THA metabolism amongst human livers. Protein-reactive metabolite formation showed a 10-fold variation (0.6 +/- 0.1%-5.2 +/- 0.8% of incubated radioactivity mg-1 protein) whilst stable metabolites showed a 3-fold variation (24.3 +/- 1.7%-78.6 +/- 2.6% of incubated radioactivity). 3. Using cytochrome P450 isoform specific inhibitors CYP1A2 was identified as the major enzyme involved in all routes of THA metabolism. 4. There was a high correlation between aromatic and alicyclic hydroxylation (r = 0.92, P < 0.0001) consistent with these biotransformations being catalysed by the same enzymes. 5. Enoxacin (ENOX), cimetidine (CIM) and chloroquine (CQ) inhibited THA metabolism by a preferential decrease in the bioactivation to protein-reactive, and hence potentially toxic, species. The inhibitory potency of ENOX and CIM was increased significantly upon pre-incubation with microsomes and NADPH. 6. Covalent binding correlated with 7-OH-THA formation before (r = 0.792, P < 0.0001) and after (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001) inhibition by CIM, consistent with a two-step mechanism in the formation of protein-reactive metabolite(s) via a 7-OH intermediate. 7. The use of enzyme inhibitors may provide a useful tool for examining the relationship between the metabolism and toxicity of THA in vivo. PMID:7946932

  6. Oxidative bioelectrocatalysis: From natural metabolic pathways to synthetic metabolons and minimal enzyme cascades.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-05-01

    Anodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells are more complex than cathodic bioelectrodes for biofuel cells, because laccase and bilirubin oxidase can individually catalyze four electron reduction of oxygen to water, whereas most anodic enzymes only do a single two electron oxidation of a complex fuel (i.e. glucose oxidase oxidizing glucose to gluconolactone while generating 2 electrons of the total 24 electrons), so enzyme cascades are typically needed for complete oxidation of the fuel. This review article will discuss the lessons learned from natural metabolic pathways about multi-step oxidation and how those lessons have been applied to minimal or artificial enzyme cascades. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  7. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism in gliomas.

    PubMed

    De Armas, Rafael; Durand, Karine; Guillaudeau, Angélique; Weinbreck, Nicolas; Robert, Sandrine; Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Acosta, Gisela; Pebet, Matias; Chaunavel, Alain; Marin, Benoît; Labrousse, François; Denizot, Yves

    2010-07-01

    Gliomas are tumors of the central nervous system derived from glial cells. They show cellular heterogeneity and lack specific diagnostic markers. Although a possible role for the eicosanoid cascade has been suggested in glioma tumorigenesis, the relationship between enzymes and receptors implicated in arachidonic acid metabolism, with histological tumor type has not yet been determined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure and compare transcript levels of enzymes and receptors implicated in both lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways between oligodendrogliomas, astrocytomas, glioblastomas and mixed oligoastrocytomas. Arachidonic acid metabolism-related enzymes and receptor transcripts (i) were underexpressed in classical oligodendrogliomas compared to astrocytomas and/or glioblastomas, (ii) differed between astrocytomas and glioblastomas and (iii) had an intermediate expression in mixed oligoastrocytomas. mRNA levels of enzymes and receptors implicated both in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways differed significantly in gliomas according to the histological type. Copyright 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzyme activities of D-glucose metabolism in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C S; Shi, J L; Beehler, B W; Beck, B

    1992-12-01

    The activities of key enzymes that are members of D-glucose metabolic pathways in Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoing respirative, respirofermentative, and fermentative metabolisms are monitored. The steady-state activities of glycolytic enzymes, except phosphofructokinase, decrease with a reduced efficiency in D-glucose utilization by yeast continuous culture. On the other hand, the enzymic activities of pentose monophosphate pathway reach the maximum when the cell mass production of the cultures is optimum. Enzymes of tricarboxylate cycle exhibit the maximum activities at approximately the washout rate. The steady-state activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex increases rapidly when D-glucose is efficiently utilized. By comparison, the activity of pyruvate decarboxylase begins to increase only when ethanol production occurs. Depletion of dissolved oxygen suppresses the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex but facilitates that of pyruvate decarboxylase. Acetate greatly enhances the acetyl CoA synthetase activity. Similarly, ethanol stimulates alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Evidence for the existence of alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in the fission yeast is presented.

  9. Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamoshida, Shingo; Shiogama, Kazuya; Shimomura, Ryoichi; Inada, Ken-Ichi; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Matuoka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Kotaro; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2005-11-01

    Fluoropyrimidines [5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and its prodrugs] have been widely used in the treatment of solid cancers. The anticancer effects primarily depend on intratumoral levels of enzymes metabolizing the drugs, such as dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), and thymidylate synthase (TS). In order to know the tumor types susceptible to respective fluoropyrimidines, we investigated the expression of DPD, OPRT, TP and TS in various types of cancer with the immunoperoxidase method. These four enzymes existed in all of the cancer types studied, such as pulmonary, gastric, colorectal, hepatic, cholecystic, pancreatic, renal, urocystic, and mammary cancers. Respective types of cancers presented characteristic immunohistochemical features as follows: pulmonary adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-high; pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, TS- and TP-high; intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma, TP-high; diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma, DPD-low and TS-high; colorectal adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-low, hepatocellular carcinoma, DPD-high, and TS- and OPRT-low; cholecystic adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TS-high; renal cell carcinoma, DPD-low, and OPRT- and TP-high; urocystic transitional cell carcinoma, DPD-high and OPRT-low; and mammary ductal carcinoma, OPRT-low, and TS- and TP-high. The enzyme expression pattern in cancer tissue was generally similar to that of their normal counterparts. However, TP immunoreactivity in adenocarcinomas of the lung, stomach and gallbladder, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was stronger, and DPD immunoreactivity in adenocarcinoma of the breast was weaker, when compared with normal epithelial cells. Non-epithelial cells were also positive for these enzymes. These results indicated that the key enzymes influencing the effects of fluoropyrimidines differ from cancer to cancer. Fluoropyrimidine treatment may be selected, based on the simultaneous immunohistochemical

  10. Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes in Transport Tissues and Adjacent Sink Structures in Developing Citrus Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Cadance A.; Tomlinson, Patricia T.; Koch, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import

  11. Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in transport tissues and adjacent sink structures in developing citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Lowell, C A; Tomlinson, P T; Koch, K E

    1989-08-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import

  12. Modulation of Ethanol-Metabolizing Enzymes by Developmental Lead Exposure: Effects in Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Virgolini, Miriam B.; Mattalloni, Mara S.; Albrecht, Paula A.; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Cancela, Liliana M.

    2017-01-01

    This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb) on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH). To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD) accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT) seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties. CAT overactivation was reported to increase EtOH consumption, while CAT blockade reduced it, and both scenarios were modified by Pb exposure, probably as the result of elevated brain and blood CAT activity. Likewise, the motivational effects of EtOH were enhanced when brain ACD metabolism was prevented by ALDH2 inhibition, even in the Pb animals that evidenced reduced brain ALDH2 activity after chronic EtOH intake. Overall, these results suggest that brain EtOH metabolizing enzymes are modulated by Pb exposure with resultant central ACD accumulation and a prevalence of the reinforcing effects of the metabolite in brain against the aversive peripheral ACD accumulation. They also support the idea that early exposure to an environmental contaminant, even at low doses, predisposes at a later age to differential reactivity to challenging events, increasing, in this case, vulnerability to acquiring addictive behaviors, including excessive EtOH intake. PMID:28588461

  13. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: focus on drug metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used for thousands of years, and now are gaining continued popularity worldwide as a complementary or alternative treatment for a variety of diseases, rehabilitation and health care. Since herbal medicines contain more than one pharmacologically active ingredient and are commonly used with many prescribed drugs, there are potential herb-drug interactions. A variety of reported herb-drug interactions are of pharmacokinetic origin, arising from the effects of herbal medicines on metabolic enzymes and/or transporters. Such an alteration in metabolism or transport can result in changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (e.g., induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes, and modulation of uptake and efflux transporters), leading to changed pharmacokinetics of the concomitantly prescribed drugs. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions have more clinical significance as pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) or the elimination half-life (t1/2) of the concomitant drug alter. This review summarizes the mechanism underlying herb-drug interactions and the approaches to identify the interactions, and discusses pharmacokinetic interactions of eight widely used herbal medicines (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, garlic, black cohosh, Echinacea, milk thistle, kava, and St. John's wort) with conventional drugs, using various in vitro, animal in vivo, and clinical studies. The increasing understanding of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions will make health care professionals and patients pay more attention to the potential interactions.

  14. Mouse Genetics Suggests Cell-Context Dependency for Myc-Regulated Metabolic Enzymes during Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Lisa M.; Kreutzer, Christiane; Pretsch, Walter; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Nilsson, Jonas A.

    2012-01-01

    c-Myc (hereafter called Myc) belongs to a family of transcription factors that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Myc initiates the transcription of a large cast of genes involved in cell growth by stimulating metabolism and protein synthesis. Some of these, like those involved in glycolysis, may be part of the Warburg effect, which is defined as increased glucose uptake and lactate production in the presence of adequate oxygen supply. In this study, we have taken a mouse-genetics approach to challenge the role of select Myc-regulated metabolic enzymes in tumorigenesis in vivo. By breeding λ-Myc transgenic mice, Apc Min mice, and p53 knockout mice with mouse models carrying inactivating alleles of Lactate dehydrogenase A (Ldha), 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (Shmt1), we obtained offspring that were monitored for tumor development. Very surprisingly, we found that these genes are dispensable for tumorigenesis in these genetic settings. However, experiments in fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells expressing oncogenic Ras show that these cells are sensitive to Ldha knockdown. Our genetic models reveal cell context dependency and a remarkable ability of tumor cells to adapt to alterations in critical metabolic pathways. Thus, to achieve clinical success, it will be of importance to correctly stratify patients and to find synthetic lethal combinations of inhibitors targeting metabolic enzymes. PMID:22438825

  15. Metabolic stability: main enzymes involved and best tools to assess it.

    PubMed

    Laine, Romuald

    2008-11-01

    The introduction of in vitro tools to predict clearance in the early discovery process has led to new ways of working. Combined with metabolite identification, such tools have allowed design of compounds with low clearance. Encouraged by the success of such an approach and by the better knowledge of the enzyme involved in the metabolism, in vitro teams have begun to develop a plethora of assays to assess the metabolic clearance, understand the route of metabolism, and predict the human clearance. Although the diversity of assays may have allowed a more thorough approach to addressing specific issues, in the time of budget constrictions, limited access to resources and materials in vitro teams have now to decide what are the 'must have' and 'nice to have' assays to enable them to help as efficiently as possible projects at the discovery stage. Reducing the number of assays and focusing on the most relevant ones is an option to consider. Knowledge of the main enzymes involved in the drug metabolism should help to select the most relevant in vitro tools. Although the systems presented here have their merits, the author proposes that hepatocytes should be considered as the in vitro tool of choice.

  16. Gene expression analysis of a critical enzyme in intermediary metabolism in oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, K.

    2016-02-01

    A key regulatory component in the Krebs cycle pathway is the mitochondrial aconitase enzyme which has been posited to balance energy needs and oxidative growth total storage via citrate utilization. The presence of a cytosolic aconitase (cAcon) activity which serves as a competitor for citrate substrate has been recognized for years. cAcon is a dual function protein with mutually exclusive roles as a post transcriptional regulator of animal cell iron metabolism or as the cytosolic isoform of the iron sulfur enzyme aconitase. We are interested in establishing the role of this orthologue in Perkinsus marnius metabolism through demonstrating its function as aconitase, by looking at gene expression under certain environmental conditions. P. marinus is a close evolutionary relative of the dinoflagellates and is the causative agent of Dermo disease, which has significantly impacted oyster populations along the eastern seaboard. An understanding of intermediary metabolism will yield important insights into how c-aconitase may be involved in stress response systems such as oxidative tension and metabolite deficiency, which could be used to help aquaculturists alleviate the severe impact of "dermo" on the on the oyster population. This study will present data regarding our preliminary analysis of the gene aconitase and its role in intermediary metabolism.

  17. DMET™ (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters): a pharmacogenomic platform for precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Arbitrio, Mariamena; Martino, Maria Teresa Di; Scionti, Francesca; Agapito, Giuseppe; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, high-throughput technologies have allowed the investigation of genetic variations underlying the inter-individual variability in drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. Several studies have recently moved from a candidate gene-based pharmacogenetic approach to genome-wide pharmacogenomic analyses to identify biomarkers for selection of patient-tailored therapies. In this aim, the identification of genetic variants affecting the individual drug metabolism is relevant for the definition of more active and less toxic treatments. This review focuses on the potentiality, reliability and limitations of the DMET™ (Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters) Plus as pharmacogenomic drug metabolism multi-gene panel platform for selecting biomarkers in the final aim to optimize drugs use and characterize the individual genetic background. PMID:27304055

  18. Metabolomic strategies for the identification of new enzyme functions and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Gareth A; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro S

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in accurate mass spectrometry and data analysis have revolutionized metabolomics experimentation. Activity-based and global metabolomic profiling methods allow simultaneous and rapid screening of hundreds of metabolites from a variety of chemical classes, making them useful tools for the discovery of novel enzymatic activities and metabolic pathways. By using the metabolome of the relevant organism or close species, these methods capitalize on biological relevance, avoiding the assignment of artificial and non-physiological functions. This review discusses state-of-the-art metabolomic approaches and highlights recent examples of their use for enzyme annotation, discovery of new metabolic pathways, and gene assignment of orphan metabolic activities across diverse biological sources. PMID:24829223

  19. Differences in activities of the enzymes of nucleotide metabolism and its implications for cardiac xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, A H Y; Khalpey, Z; Lavitrano, M; McGregor, C G A; Kalsi, K K; Yacoub, M H; Smolenski, R T

    2006-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is one be possible solution for a severe shortage of human organs available for transplantation. However, only a few studies addressed metabolic compatibility of transplanted animal organs. Our aim was to compare activities of adenosine metabolizing enzymes in the heart of different species that are relevant to clinical or experimental xenotransplantation. We noted fundamental differences: ecto-5' nucleotidease (E5' N) activity was 4-fold lower in pig and baboon hearts compared to the human hearts while mouse activity was compatible with human and rat activity was three times higher than human. There also were significant differences in AMP-deaminase (AMPD), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activities. We conclude that differences in nucleotide metabolism may contribute to organ dysfunction after xenotransplantation.

  20. Exploration of binding site pattern in arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes, Cyclooxygenases and Lipoxygenases.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kakularam Kumar; Vidya Rajan, Veena Kumari; Gupta, Ashish; Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Reddanna, Pallu

    2015-04-16

    Cyclooxygenase (COXs) and Lipoxygenase (LOXs) pathways are the two major enzymatic pathways in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. The term eicosanoid is used to describe biologically active lipid mediators including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and other oxygenated derivatives, which are produced primarily from AA. Eicosanoids generated in a tissue specific manner play a key role in inflammation and cancer. As AA is the substrate common to variety of COXs and LOXs, inhibition of one pathway results in diversion of the substrate to other pathways, which often is responsible for undesirable side effects. Hence there is need for development of not only isozyme specific inhibitors but also dual/multi enzyme inhibitors. Understanding the interactions of AA and characterizing its binding sites in these enzymes therefore is crucial for developing enzyme specific and multi enzyme inhibitors for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and/or overcoming side effects. AA binding sites in COXs and LOXs are identified and compared by the development of receptor based pharmacophore using MultiBind. Physico chemical properties were compared to understand the details of the binding sites in all the enzymes and to elucidate important amino acids that can be targeted for drug design. The alignment of AA binding sites in the seven enzymes COX-1, COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, 15-LOX and plant soybean LOX-1 and LOX-3 indicated a common pattern of five common interacting groups. In the same way, comparison of AA binding sites was done pair wise and by multiple alignment in various combinations. It has been identified that aliphatic and aromatic interactions are the most common in all the enzymes. In addition interactions unique to each one of these enzymes were identified. The complete analysis of AA binding sites in the seven enzymes was performed; 120 combinations for the seven enzymes were studied in detail. All the seven enzymes are structurally quite different, yet they share AA as the

  1. Interaction between glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and L-leucine catabolic enzymes: intersecting metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Susan M; Islam, Mohammad Mainul; Zaganas, Ioannis

    2011-09-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) catabolism follows sequential reactions and their metabolites intersect with other metabolic pathways. The initial enzymes in BCAA metabolism, the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which deaminates the BCAAs to branched-chain α-keto acids (BCKAs); and the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC), which oxidatively decarboxylates the BCKAs, are organized in a supramolecular complex termed metabolon. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1) is found in the metabolon in rat tissues. Bovine GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP)-form of human BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-BCATm in vitro. This protein interaction facilitates reamination of the α-ketoglutarate (αKG) product of the GDH1 oxidative deamination reaction. Human GDH1 appears to act like bovine GDH1 but human GDH2 does not show the same enhancement of BCKDC enzyme activities. Another metabolic enzyme is also found in the metabolon is pyruvate carboxylase (PC). Kinetic results suggest that PC binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC but does not effect BCAA catabolism. The protein interaction of BCATm and GDH1 promotes regeneration of PLP-BCATm which then binds to BCKDC resulting in channeling of the BCKA products from BCATm first half reaction to E1 and promoting BCAA oxidation and net nitrogen transfer from BCAAs. The cycling of nitrogen through glutamate via the actions of BCATm and GDH1 releases free ammonia. Formation of ammonia may be important for astrocyte glutamine synthesis in the central nervous system. In peripheral tissue association of BCATm and GDH1 would promote BCAA oxidation at physiologically relevant BCAA concentrations.

  2. Trypanosoma evansi contains two auxiliary enzymes of glycolytic metabolism: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Luz Amira; Concepción, Juan Luis; Quintero-Troconis, Ender; Quiñones, Wilfredo; Michels, Paul A M; Acosta, Héctor

    2016-06-01

    Trypanosoma evansi is a monomorphic protist that can infect horses and other animal species of economic importance for man. Like the bloodstream form of the closely related species Trypanosoma brucei, T. evansi depends exclusively on glycolysis for its free-energy generation. In T. evansi as in other kinetoplastid organisms, the enzymes of the major part of the glycolytic pathway are present within organelles called glycosomes, which are authentic but specialized peroxisomes. Since T. evansi does not undergo stage-dependent differentiations, it occurs only as bloodstream forms, it has been assumed that the metabolic pattern of this parasite is identical to that of the bloodstream form of T. brucei. However, we report here the presence of two additional enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and PPi-dependent pyruvate phosphate dikinase in T. evansi glycosomes. Their colocalization with glycolytic enzymes within the glycosomes of this parasite has not been reported before. Both enzymes can make use of PEP for contributing to the production of ATP within the organelles. The activity of these enzymes in T. evansi glycosomes drastically changes the model assumed for the oxidation of glucose by this parasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CO2-fixing enzymes and phosphoenolpyruvate metabolism in the fish parasite Hysterothylacium aduncum (Ascaridoidea, Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Malagón, David; Benítez, Rocio; Valero, Adela; Adroher, Francisco Javier

    2009-07-23

    CO2 stimulates the development of many of the intestinal helminths that are able to fix CO2 by means of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), such as Hysterothylacium aduncum. We determined the activity of CO2-fixing enzymes such as PEPCK and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), although no significant activity was detected for pyruvate carboxylase or carboxylating-malic enzyme. The former act on phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to yield oxalacetate. In the helminths studied, PEP has a vital role in glucidic metabolism. Consequently, we determined the activity of other enzymes involved in the crossroad of PEP, such as pyruvate kinase (PK), lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase. All enzymes detected showed significant variations in activity during the in vitro development of the parasite from the third larval stage to mature adult. Fixing of CO2 by PEPCK decreased during development (from 228 to 115 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein), while that by PEPC increased (from 19 to 46 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein). This enzyme, which is rare in animals, could play a part in detecting levels of free phosphate, releasing it from PEP when required for processes such as glycogenolysis, glycolysis and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. PK, which showed increasing activity during development up to immature adult (from 56 to 82 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein), could act in combination with PEPC to obtain energy in the cytosol (in the form of ATP) and in the mitochondria (possible destination of the pyruvate formed), compensating for the decrease in activity of PEPCK.

  4. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Edith E.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Zimmermann, Franz A.; Feichtinger, Rene G.; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  5. Gestational Age-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression of Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Diana L.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; MacDonald, James W.; Tsai, Jesse M.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hebert, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray analysis. We specifically examined the expression of genes important for xenobiotic, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism and disposition, namely, cytochrome P450s (Cyp), UDP-glucuronosyltranserases (Ugt), sulfotransferases (Sult), and ATP-binding cassette (Abc), solute carrier (Slc), and solute carrier organic anion (Slco) transporters. Few Ugt and Sult genes were affected by pregnancy. Cyp17a1 expression in the maternal liver increased 3- to 10-fold during pregnancy, which was the largest observed change in the maternal tissues. Cyp1a2, most Cyp2 isoforms, Cyp3a11, and Cyp3a13 expression in the liver decreased on gestation days (gd) 15 and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls (gd 0). In contrast, Cyp2d40, Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41a, Cyp3a41b, and Cyp3a44 in the liver were induced throughout pregnancy. In the placenta, Cyp expression on gd 10 and 15 was upregulated compared with gd 19. Notable changes were also observed in Abc and Slc transporters. Abcc3 expression in the liver and Abcb1a, Abcc4, and Slco4c1 expression in the kidney were downregulated on gd 15 and 19. In the placenta, Slc22a3 (Oct3) expression on gd 10 was 90% lower than that on gd 15 and 19. This study demonstrates important gestational age-dependent expression of metabolic enzyme and transporter genes, which may have mechanistic relevance to drug disposition in human pregnancy. PMID:23175668

  6. Gestational age-dependent changes in gene expression of metabolic enzymes and transporters in pregnant mice.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Diana L; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Macdonald, James W; Tsai, Jesse M; Farin, Frederico M; Hebert, Mary F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Mao, Qingcheng

    2013-02-01

    Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray analysis. We specifically examined the expression of genes important for xenobiotic, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism and disposition, namely, cytochrome P450s (Cyp), UDP-glucuronosyltranserases (Ugt), sulfotransferases (Sult), and ATP-binding cassette (Abc), solute carrier (Slc), and solute carrier organic anion (Slco) transporters. Few Ugt and Sult genes were affected by pregnancy. Cyp17a1 expression in the maternal liver increased 3- to 10-fold during pregnancy, which was the largest observed change in the maternal tissues. Cyp1a2, most Cyp2 isoforms, Cyp3a11, and Cyp3a13 expression in the liver decreased on gestation days (gd) 15 and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls (gd 0). In contrast, Cyp2d40, Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41a, Cyp3a41b, and Cyp3a44 in the liver were induced throughout pregnancy. In the placenta, Cyp expression on gd 10 and 15 was upregulated compared with gd 19. Notable changes were also observed in Abc and Slc transporters. Abcc3 expression in the liver and Abcb1a, Abcc4, and Slco4c1 expression in the kidney were downregulated on gd 15 and 19. In the placenta, Slc22a3 (Oct3) expression on gd 10 was 90% lower than that on gd 15 and 19. This study demonstrates important gestational age-dependent expression of metabolic enzyme and transporter genes, which may have mechanistic relevance to drug disposition in human pregnancy.

  7. Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Summit; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Domain architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes constitute the centerpieces of a metabolic network. These types of information are formulated as a two-layered network consisting of domains, proteins, and reactions—a domain–protein–reaction (DPR) network. We propose an algorithm to reconstruct the evolutionary history of DPR networks across multiple species and categorize the mechanisms of metabolic systems evolution in terms of network changes. The reconstructed history reveals distinct patterns of evolutionary mechanisms between prokaryotic and eukaryotic networks. Although the evolutionary mechanisms in early ancestors of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are quite similar, more novel and duplicated domain compositions with identical catalytic functions arise along the eukaryotic lineage. In contrast, prokaryotic enzymes become more versatile by catalyzing multiple reactions with similar chemical operations. Moreover, different metabolic pathways are enriched with distinct network evolution mechanisms. For instance, although the pathways of steroid biosynthesis, protein kinases, and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis all constitute prominent features of animal-specific physiology, their evolution of domain architectures and catalytic functions follows distinct patterns. Steroid biosynthesis is enriched with reaction creations but retains a relatively conserved repertoire of domain compositions and proteins. Protein kinases retain conserved reactions but possess many novel domains and proteins. In contrast, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis has high rates of reaction/protein creations and domain recruitments. Finally, we elicit and validate two general principles underlying the evolution of DPR networks: 1) duplicated enzyme proteins possess similar catalytic functions and 2) the majority of novel domains arise to catalyze novel reactions. These results shed new lights on the evolution of metabolic systems. PMID:22936075

  8. Human microsomal carbonyl reducing enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics: well-known and promising members of the SDR superfamily.

    PubMed

    Skarydová, Lucie; Wsól, Vladimír

    2012-05-01

    The best known, most widely studied enzyme system in phase I biotransformation is cytochrome P450 (CYP), which participates in the metabolism of roughly 9 of 10 drugs in use today. The main biotransformation isoforms of CYP are associated with the membrane of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). Other enzymes that are also active in phase I biotransformation are carbonyl reducing enzymes. Much is known about the role of cytosolic forms of carbonyl reducing enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotics, but their microsomal forms have been mostly poorly studied. The only well-known microsomal carbonyl reducing enzyme taking part in the biotransformation of xenobiotics is 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Physiological roles of microsomal carbonyl reducing enzymes are better known than their participation in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This review is a summary of the fragmentary information known about the roles of the microsomal forms. Besides 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, it has been reported, so far, that retinol dehydrogenase 12 participates only in the detoxification of unsaturated aldehydes formed upon oxidative stress. Another promising group of microsomal biotransformation carbonyl reducing enzymes are some members of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. Generally, it is clear that this area is, overall, quite unexplored, but carbonyl reducing enzymes located in the ER have proven very interesting. The study of these enzymes could shed new light on the metabolism of several clinically used drugs or they could become an important target in connection with some diseases.

  9. Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of PAHs and oxygenated PAHs in developing zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Marc R.; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M.; Gonnerman, Gregory D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both PAHs and oxy-PAHs are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent PAHs, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-PAHs which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent PAHs and oxy-PAHs exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 62 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between PAH and oxy-PAH exposures on vertebrate development. PMID:26001975

  10. Identification of enzymes responsible for extracellular alginate depolymerization and alginate metabolism in Vibrio algivorus.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hidetaka; Tokura, Yuriko; Mori, Yukiko; Mori, Kenichi; Asakura, Yoko; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Hiroo; Chinen, Akito

    2017-02-01

    Alginate is a marine non-food-competing polysaccharide that has potential applications in biorefinery. Owing to its large size (molecular weight >300,000 Da), alginate cannot pass through the bacterial cell membrane. Therefore, bacteria that utilize alginate are presumed to have an enzyme that degrades extracellular alginate. Recently, Vibrio algivorus sp. SA2(T) was identified as a novel alginate-decomposing and alginate-utilizing species. However, little is known about the mechanism of alginate degradation and metabolism in this species. To address this issue, we screened the V. algivorus genomic DNA library for genes encoding polysaccharide-decomposing enzymes using a novel double-layer plate screening method and identified alyB as a candidate. Most identified alginate-decomposing enzymes (i.e., alginate lyases) must be concentrated and purified before extracellular alginate depolymerization. AlyB of V. algivorus heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli depolymerized extracellular alginate without requiring concentration or purification. We found seven homologues in the V. algivorus genome (alyB, alyD, oalA, oalB, oalC, dehR, and toaA) that are thought to encode enzymes responsible for alginate transport and metabolism. Introducing these genes into E. coli enabled the cells to assimilate soluble alginate depolymerized by V. algivorus AlyB as the sole carbon source. The alginate was bioconverted into L-lysine (43.3 mg/l) in E. coli strain AJIK01. These findings demonstrate a simple and novel screening method for identifying polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in bacteria and provide a simple alginate biocatalyst and fermentation system with potential applications in industrial biorefinery.

  11. Disruption of redox homeostasis and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes changes by administration of vitamin E to rats.

    PubMed

    Vivarelli, Fabio; Canistro, Donatella; Franchi, Paola; Sapone, Andrea; Vornoli, Andrea; Della Croce, Clara; Longo, Vincenzo; Lucarini, Marco; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-15

    A large meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials has seriously questioned chemoprevention based on vitamins including vitamin E (VE), and an increased risk for cancer among long-term users was actually seen. However, the mechanism underlying these findings still remain unknown. To clarify the mechanism, in an in vivo model we studied the putative disruption of redox homeostasis and the perturbation of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes determined by VE. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated ip with either 100 or 200mg/kg b.w. daily for 7 or 14 consecutive days. Controls received vehicle only. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) content, CYP-reductase, CYP-linked monooxygenases, as well as phase-II and the antioxidant enzymes catalase and quinone reductase were investigated in both liver and kidney. Free radical species in tissue subcellular preparations were measured by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy coupled to a radical probe technique. No substantial changes of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism enzymes were determined by VE. Conversely, a powerful booster effect of various renal phase-I carcinogen bioactivating enzymes at both dosages and observational times was recorded. While no relevant changes of post-oxidative phase-II reactions were found in the liver, a significant inactivating effect was caused by VE in renal tissues. Antioxidant enzymes were found mainly downregulated by the treatment. In the kidney, a marked free radical over-generation linked to CYP induction was observed. This study proved that VE acts as a co-carcinogen and pro-oxidant agent. Such epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to explain the harmful outcomes observed in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subcellular localization of glycolytic enzymes and characterization of intermediary metabolism of Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Rondón-Mercado, Rocío; Acosta, Héctor; Cáceres, Ana J; Quiñones, Wilfredo; Concepción, Juan Luis

    2017-09-01

    Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protist that infects wild and domestic mammals as well as humans in Central and South America. Although this parasite is not pathogenic for human, it is being studied because it shares with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, biological characteristics, geographic distribution, vectors and vertebrate hosts. Several metabolic studies have been performed with T. cruzi epimastigotes, however little is known about the metabolism of T. rangeli. In this work we present the subcellular distribution of the T. rangeli enzymes responsible for the conversion of glucose to pyruvate, as determined by epifluorescense immunomicroscopy and subcellular fractionation involving either selective membrane permeabilization with digitonin or differential and isopycnic centrifugation. We found that in T. rangeli epimastigotes the first six enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, involved in the conversion of glucose to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate are located within glycosomes, while the last four steps occur in the cytosol. In contrast with T. cruzi, where three isoenzymes (one cytosolic and two glycosomal) of phosphoglycerate kinase are expressed simultaneously, only one enzyme with this activity is detected in T. rangeli epimastigotes, in the cytosol. Consistent with this latter result, we found enzymes involved in auxiliary pathways to glycolysis needed to maintain adenine nucleotide and redox balances within glycosomes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, malate dehydrogenase, fumarate reductase, pyruvate phosphate dikinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Glucokinase, galactokinase and the first enzyme of the pentose-phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were also located inside glycosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that T. rangeli epimastigotes growing in LIT medium only consume glucose and do not excrete ammonium; moreover, they are unable to survive in partially-depleted glucose medium. The

  13. The Impact of Non-Enzymatic Reactions and Enzyme Promiscuity on Cellular Metabolism during (Oxidative) Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, Gabriel; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2015-09-10

    Cellular metabolism assembles in a structurally highly conserved, but functionally dynamic system, known as the metabolic network. This network involves highly active, enzyme-catalyzed metabolic pathways that provide the building blocks for cell growth. In parallel, however, chemical reactivity of metabolites and unspecific enzyme function give rise to a number of side products that are not part of canonical metabolic pathways. It is increasingly acknowledged that these molecules are important for the evolution of metabolism, affect metabolic efficiency, and that they play a potential role in human disease-age-related disorders and cancer in particular. In this review we discuss the impact of oxidative and other cellular stressors on the formation of metabolic side products, which originate as a consequence of: (i) chemical reactivity or modification of regular metabolites; (ii) through modifications in substrate specificity of damaged enzymes; and (iii) through altered metabolic flux that protects cells in stress conditions. In particular, oxidative and heat stress conditions are causative of metabolite and enzymatic damage and thus promote the non-canonical metabolic activity of the cells through an increased repertoire of side products. On the basis of selected examples, we discuss the consequences of non-canonical metabolic reactivity on evolution, function and repair of the metabolic network.

  14. The Impact of Non-Enzymatic Reactions and Enzyme Promiscuity on Cellular Metabolism during (Oxidative) Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, Gabriel; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism assembles in a structurally highly conserved, but functionally dynamic system, known as the metabolic network. This network involves highly active, enzyme-catalyzed metabolic pathways that provide the building blocks for cell growth. In parallel, however, chemical reactivity of metabolites and unspecific enzyme function give rise to a number of side products that are not part of canonical metabolic pathways. It is increasingly acknowledged that these molecules are important for the evolution of metabolism, affect metabolic efficiency, and that they play a potential role in human disease—age-related disorders and cancer in particular. In this review we discuss the impact of oxidative and other cellular stressors on the formation of metabolic side products, which originate as a consequence of: (i) chemical reactivity or modification of regular metabolites; (ii) through modifications in substrate specificity of damaged enzymes; and (iii) through altered metabolic flux that protects cells in stress conditions. In particular, oxidative and heat stress conditions are causative of metabolite and enzymatic damage and thus promote the non-canonical metabolic activity of the cells through an increased repertoire of side products. On the basis of selected examples, we discuss the consequences of non-canonical metabolic reactivity on evolution, function and repair of the metabolic network. PMID:26378592

  15. Disturbances to neurotransmitter levels and their metabolic enzyme activity in a freshwater planarian exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Li, Mei-Hui; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Chung, Szu-Yao; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Using specific neurobehaviors as endpoints, previous studies suggested that planarian neurotransmission systems could be targets of Cd neurotoxicity. However, direct evidence for disturbed neurotransmission systems by Cd in treated planarians is still lacking. In planarians, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play critical roles in neuromuscular function, but little is known about their metabolic degradation. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to determine the appearances of DA, 5-HT, and their metabolic products in the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, characterize the activity of enzymes involved in their metabolism, and investigate the effects of Cd on planarian 5-HTergic and DAergic neurotransmission systems. Only DA, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were found in planarian tissues. Further enzymatic study revealed the activity of planarian monoamine oxidase (MAO) but not catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). These findings suggest that planarian MAO catalyzes the metabolism of 5-HT into 5-HIAA. However, DA metabolites from the MAO-involved metabolic pathway were not found, which might be due to a lack of COMT activity. Finally, in Cd-treated planarians, tissue levels of 5-HT and DA were decreased and MAO activity altered, suggesting that planarian neurotransmission systems are disturbed following Cd treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impaired energy metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Baraibar, Martín A.; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Prip-Buus, Carina; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Friguet, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells. Inactivation of the proteasome appeared to be a likely contributor to the accumulation of such damaged proteins. Metabolic and functional analyses revealed an impaired glucose metabolism in senescent cells. A metabolic shift leading to increased mobilization of non-carbohydrate substrates such as branched chain amino acids or long chain fatty acids was observed. Increased levels of acyl-carnitines indicated an increased turnover of storage and membrane lipids for energy production. Taken together, these results support a link between oxidative protein modifications and the altered cellular metabolism associated with the senescent phenotype of human myoblasts. PMID:27922824

  17. Carbohydrate metabolism in Archaea: current insights into unusual enzymes and pathways and their regulation.

    PubMed

    Bräsen, Christopher; Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina

    2014-03-01

    The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many "classical" pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of "new," unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented.

  18. Impaired energy metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Baraibar, Martín A; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Prip-Buus, Carina; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Friguet, Bertrand

    2016-12-04

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Adult muscle stem cell (or satellite cell) replication and differentiation is compromised with age contributing to sarcopenia. However, the molecular events related to satellite cell dysfunction during aging are not completely understood. In the present study we have addressed the potential impact of oxidatively modified proteins on the altered metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a modified proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during the replicative senescence of satellite cells. Inactivation of the proteasome appeared to be a likely contributor to the accumulation of such damaged proteins. Metabolic and functional analyses revealed an impaired glucose metabolism in senescent cells. A metabolic shift leading to increased mobilization of non-carbohydrate substrates such as branched chain amino acids or long chain fatty acids was observed. Increased levels of acyl-carnitines indicated an increased turnover of storage and membrane lipids for energy production. Taken together, these results support a link between oxidative protein modifications and the altered cellular metabolism associated with the senescent phenotype of human myoblasts.

  19. Pharmacogenetic profile of xenobiotic enzyme metabolism in survivors of the Spanish toxic oil syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ladona, M G; Izquierdo-Martinez, M; Posada de la Paz, M P; de la Torre, R; Ampurdanés, C; Segura, J; Sanz, E J

    2001-01-01

    In 1981, the Spanish toxic oil syndrome (TOS) affected more than 20,000 people, and over 300 deaths were registered. Assessment of genetic polymorphisms on xenobiotic metabolism would indicate the potential metabolic capacity of the victims at the time of the disaster. Thus, impaired metabolic pathways may have contributed to the clearance of the toxicant(s) leading to a low detoxification or accumulation of toxic metabolites contributing to the disease. We conducted a matched case-control study using 72 cases (54 females, 18 males) registered in the Official Census of Affected Patients maintained by the Spanish government. Controls were nonaffected siblings (n =72) living in the same household in 1981 and nonaffected nonrelatives (n = 70) living in the neighborhood at that time, with no ties to TOS. Genotype analyses were performed to assess the metabolic capacity of phase I [cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP2D6] and phase II [arylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2), GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase M1) and GSTT1] enzyme polymorphisms. The degree of association of the five metabolic pathways was estimated by calculating their odds ratios (ORs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. In the final model, cases compared with siblings (72 pairs) showed no differences either in CYP2D6 or CYP1A1 polymorphisms, or in conjugation enzyme polymorphisms, whereas cases compared with the unrelated controls (70 pairs) showed an increase in NAT2 defective alleles [OR = 6.96, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-33.20] adjusted by age and sex. Glutathione transferase genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) showed no association with cases compared with their siblings or unrelated controls. These findings suggest a possible role of impaired acetylation mediating susceptibility in TOS. PMID:11335185

  20. Changes in the activity of connective tissue matrix enzymes in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowska, Jolanta; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Barud, Wojciech; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech

    2011-08-01

    Early atherosclerotic changes in the endothelium associated with metabolic syndrome are generated with the participation of inflammatory cells, cytokines and enzymes of the extracellular matrix. The study is aimed at a comparison between the activity of inflammatory agents, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the enzymes of the connective tissue matrix in the blood of healthy female patients as well as those suffering from the metabolic syndrome. The examination included 35 women with metabolic syndrome (MS). The control group (C) comprised 35 healthy women. Lipidogram, C-reactive protein level (CRP), fasting glucose level (FGL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TNF-α levels in blood were determined. As compared with the control group, the level of inflammatory factors and the activity of extracellular matrix enzymes in the metabolic syndrome were statistically higher (p < 0.05) and concerned the following parameters: TNF-α (pg/ml): MS 6.59 ±3.18, C 4.78 ±2.91; CRP (mg/dl): MS 2.18 ±2.04, C 1,26 ±1.35; TIMP-1 (ng/ml): MS 265.5 ±2.9, C 205.4 ±72.6; MMP-9 (ng/ml): MS 198.2 ±138.6, C 138.6 ±116.1. Statistically significant correlations were also found between TIMP-1 and the following factors: BMI (R = 0.400, p < 0.001), waist/hip ratio (WHR) (R = 0.278, p < 0.05), waistline (R = 0.417, p < 0.001), FGL (R = 0.290, p < 0.05), HDL cholesterol (R = -0.253, p < 0.05) and triglycerides (R = 0.269, p < 0.05).There were positive correlations of MMP-9 with FGL (R = 0.446, p < 0.001) and waistline (R = 0.260, p < 0.05); MMP-8 with FGL (R = 0.308, p < 0.05); and CRP with BMI (R = 0.370, p < 0.01), WHR (R = 0.325, p < 0.01) and waistline (R = 0.368, p < 0.01). Metabolic syndrome is connected with higher activity of cytokines (TNF-α), inflammatory markers (CRP) and matrix enzymes (MMP-9, MMP-8, TIMP-1).

  1. Changes in the activity of connective tissue matrix enzymes in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowska, Jolanta; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Barud, Wojciech; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Early atherosclerotic changes in the endothelium associated with metabolic syndrome are generated with the participation of inflammatory cells, cytokines and enzymes of the extracellular matrix. The study is aimed at a comparison between the activity of inflammatory agents, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and the enzymes of the connective tissue matrix in the blood of healthy female patients as well as those suffering from the metabolic syndrome. Material and methods The examination included 35 women with metabolic syndrome (MS). The control group (C) comprised 35 healthy women. Lipidogram, C-reactive protein level (CRP), fasting glucose level (FGL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TNF-α levels in blood were determined. Results As compared with the control group, the level of inflammatory factors and the activity of extracellular matrix enzymes in the metabolic syndrome were statistically higher (p < 0.05) and concerned the following parameters: TNF-α (pg/ml): MS 6.59 ±3.18, C 4.78 ±2.91; CRP (mg/dl): MS 2.18 ±2.04, C 1,26 ±1.35; TIMP-1 (ng/ml): MS 265.5 ±2.9, C 205.4 ±72.6; MMP-9 (ng/ml): MS 198.2 ±138.6, C 138.6 ±116.1. Statistically significant correlations were also found between TIMP-1 and the following factors: BMI (R = 0.400, p < 0.001), waist/hip ratio (WHR) (R = 0.278, p < 0.05), waistline (R = 0.417, p < 0.001), FGL (R = 0.290, p < 0.05), HDL cholesterol (R = –0.253, p < 0.05) and triglycerides (R = 0.269, p < 0.05).There were positive correlations of MMP-9 with FGL (R = 0.446, p < 0.001) and waistline (R = 0.260, p < 0.05); MMP-8 with FGL (R = 0.308, p < 0.05); and CRP with BMI (R = 0.370, p < 0.01), WHR (R = 0.325, p < 0.01) and waistline (R = 0.368, p < 0.01). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome is connected with higher activity of cytokines (TNF-α), inflammatory markers (CRP) and matrix enzymes (MMP-9, MMP-8, TIMP-1). PMID:22291799

  2. Cysteine biosynthetic enzymes are the pieces of a metabolic energy pump.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiang; Tang, Qing-Xiu; Varlamova, Olga; Roche, Camille; Lee, Reaching; Leyh, Thomas S

    2002-07-02

    Understanding the mechanisms of free energy transfer in metabolism is fundamental to understanding how the chemical forces that sustain the molecular organization of the cell are distributed. Recent studies of molecular motors (1-3) and ATP-driven proton transport (4-6) describe how chemical potential is transferred at the molecular level. These systems catalyze energy transfer through structural change and appear to be dedicated exclusively to their coupling tasks (7, 8). Here we report the discovery of a new class of energy-transfer system. It is a biosynthetic pump composed of cysteine biosynthesis enzymes, ATP sulfurylase and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, each with its own catalytic function and from whose interactions emerge new function: the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis is kinetically and energetically linked to the chemistry catalyzed by ATP sulfurylase, the first enzyme in the cysteine biosynthetic pathway, in such a way that each molecule of ATP hydrolyzed, each stroke of the pump, produces 1 equivalent of that enzyme's product. These findings integrate cysteine metabolism and broaden our understanding of the ways in which higher order allostery is used to effect free energy transfer.

  3. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  4. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  5. Bladder cancer risk from the perspective of genetic polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Olga; Toncheva, Draga; Grigorov, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a socially significant healthcare problem. A diverse array of aromatic and heterocyclic amines, derived from the chemical and transport industry, diet, and cigarette smoke are considered carcinogens for the bladder. To exert their carcinogenic effect and to initiate the carcinogenic response, the arylamines require a metabolic activation by the host enzymes to chemically reactive compounds. The aim of this article was to review the latest and basic research developments on the role of the polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes N-acetyltransferase (NAT), Glutathione S-transferases (GST), and Soluble sulfotransferases (SULT), with emphasis on the susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer. A PubMed search was conducted to identify original and review articles containing information about these polymophic variants in different populations and according to their prevalence in bladder cancer patients. We noticed that some genotypes were found to be predisposing and some protective for bladder cancer development. The NAT2 slow genotype, together with GSTM1 null genotype facilitated the development of bladder cancer in almost all ethnic groups. The 213His allele of the SULT1A1 gene which is associated with lower enzyme activity and decreased mutagen activation was reported to protect from bladder cancer in almost all studies.

  6. Oxidation of PAH trans-Dihydrodiols by Human Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Amy M.; Harvey, Ronald G.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2009-01-01

    AKR1B10 has been identified as a potential biomarker for human non-small cell lung carcinoma and as a tobacco exposure and response gene. AKR1B10 functions as an efficient retinal reductase in vitro, and may regulate retinoic acid homeostasis. However, the possibility that this enzyme is able to activate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) trans-dihydrodiols to form reactive and redox-active o-quinones has not been investigated to date. AKR1B10 was found to oxidize a wide range of PAH trans-dihydrodiol substrates in vitro to yield PAH o-quinones. Reactions of AKR1B10 proceeded with improper stereochemistry, since it was specific for the minor (+)-benzo[a]pyrene-7S,8S-dihydrodiol diastereomer formed in vivo. However, AKR1B10 displayed reasonable activity in the oxidation of both the (−)-R,R and (+)-S,S stereoisomers of benzo[g]chrysene-11,12-dihydrodiol and oxidized the potentially relevant, albeit minor, (+)-benz[a]anthracene-3S,4S-dihydrodiol metabolite. We find that AKR1B10 is therefore likely to play a contributing role in the activation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols in human lung. AKR1B10 retinal reductase activity was confirmed in vitro and found to be 5- to 150-fold greater than the oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols examined. AKR1B10 was highly expressed at the mRNA and protein levels in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and robust retinal reductase activity was measured in lysates of these cells. The much greater catalytic efficiency of retinal reduction compared to PAH trans-dihydrodiol metabolism suggests AKR1B10 may play a greater role in lung carcinogenesis through dysregulation of retinoic acid homeostasis than through oxidation of PAH trans-dihydrodiols. PMID:18788756

  7. Ascorbic Acid Enhances the Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roots of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality. PMID:23185628

  8. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  9. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela K; Cardoso, Mariane R; Jeremias, Isabela C; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Freitas, Karolina V; Antonini, Rafaela; Scaini, Giselli; Rezin, Gislaine T; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-09-01

    Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  10. Metabolism and enzyme activities of hagfish from shallow and deep water of the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Drazen, Jeffrey C; Yeh, John; Friedman, Jason; Condon, Nicole

    2011-06-01

    Although hagfishes are ecologically important members of benthic communities there has been little data available on their metabolism. The oxygen consumption, enzyme activities, and muscle proximate composition of shallow living Eptatretus stoutii and deeper living E. deani were measured to investigate hagfish metabolism. Very low rates of oxygen consumption and both aerobic and anaerobic enzyme activities in the body musculature confirmed the low metabolism of hagfishes. However, significant variation in oxygen consumption existed. E. stoutii had significantly lower rates compared to those of the deeper living E. deani and two other shallow living species for which literature data was used. Both species could regulate their oxygen consumption to very low oxygen concentrations. Epatretus deani, which lives in an oxygen minimum zone, had a significantly lower critical oxygen tension (0.83 kPa) compared to E. stoutii (1.47 kPa). The deeper E. deani had greater lipid stores than E. stoutii which may reflect its deeper habitat and more sporadic food supply. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  12. Seasonal changes in thermal environment and metabolic enzyme activity in the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Williard, Amanda Southwood; Harden, Leigh Anne

    2011-04-01

    Diamondback terrapins experience broad fluctuations in temperature on both a daily and seasonal basis in their estuarine environment. We measured metabolic enzyme activity in terrapin muscle tissue to assess thermal dependence and the role of temperature in seasonal metabolic downregulation in this species. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) was assayed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for tissue collected during summer and winter. The Q(10) for enzyme activity varied between 1.31 and 2.11 within the temperature range at which terrapins were active (20-40 °C). The Q(10) for LDH, CS, and CCO varied between 1.39 and 1.76 and between 10 and 20 °C, but PK exhibited heightened thermal sensitivity within this lower temperature range, with a Q(10) of 2.90 for summer-collected tissue and 5.55 for winter-collected tissue. There was no significant effect of season on activity of LDH or PK, but activity of CS and CCO was significantly lower in winter-collected tissue compared with summer-collected tissue. Results indicate that temperature effects contribute to seasonal metabolic downregulation and dormancy in terrapins, but other environmental factors (i.e. oxygen availability), as well as seasonal shifts in blood biochemistry and circulating hormones may also play an important role.

  13. Structural Phylogenomics Reveals Gradual Evolutionary Replacement of Abiotic Chemistries by Protein Enzymes in Purine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The origin of metabolism has been linked to abiotic chemistries that existed in our planet at the beginning of life. While plausible chemical pathways have been proposed, including the synthesis of nucleobases, ribose and ribonucleotides, the cooption of these reactions by modern enzymes remains shrouded in mystery. Here we study the emergence of purine metabolism. The ages of protein domains derived from a census of fold family structure in hundreds of genomes were mapped onto enzymes in metabolic diagrams. We find that the origin of the nucleotide interconversion pathway benefited most parsimoniously from the prebiotic formation of adenine nucleosides. In turn, pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis, catabolism and salvage originated ∼300 million years later by concerted enzymatic recruitments and gradual replacement of abiotic chemistries. Remarkably, this process led to the emergence of the fully enzymatic biosynthetic pathway ∼3 billion years ago, concurrently with the appearance of a functional ribosome. The simultaneous appearance of purine biosynthesis and the ribosome probably fulfilled the expanding matter-energy and processing needs of genomic information. PMID:23516625

  14. Metabolism of (+)-terpinen-4-ol by cytochrome P450 enzymes in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Haigou, Risa; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    We examined the in vitro metabolism of (+)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes and recombinant enzymes. The biotransformation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (+)-Terpinen-4-ol was found to be oxidized to (+)-(1R,2S,4S)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol, (+)-(1S,2R,4S)-1,2-epoxy-p-menthan-4-ol, and (4S)-p-menth-1-en-4,8-diol by human liver microsomal P450 enzymes. The identities of (+)-terpinen-4-ol metabolites were determined through the relative abundance of mass fragments and retention times on GC-MS. Of 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 were found to catalyze the oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol. Based on several lines of evidence, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 were determined to be major enzymes involved in the oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol by human liver microsomes. First, of the 11 recombinant human P450 enzymes tested, CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol. Second, oxidation of (+)-terpinen-4-ol was inhibited by (+)-menthofuran and ketoconazole, inhibitors known to be specific for these enzymes. Finally, there was a good correlation between CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 activities and (+)-terpinen-4-ol oxidation activities in the 10 human liver microsomes.

  15. Identification of a metabolizing enzyme in human kidney by proteomic correlation profiling.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-Ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named "proteomic correlation profiling" in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active

  16. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  17. In Vivo Exposure of Kaempferol Is Driven by Phase II Metabolic Enzymes and Efflux Transporters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liang; Zhu, Lijun; Zhao, Min; Shi, Jian; Li, Yuhuan; Yu, Jia; Jiang, Huangyu; Wu, Jinjun; Tong, Yunli; Liu, Yuting; Hu, Ming; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2016-09-01

    Kaempferol is a well-known flavonoid; however, it lacks extensive pharmacokinetic studies. Phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters play an important role in the disposition of flavonoids. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters determine the in vivo exposure of kaempferol. Pharmacokinetic analysis in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed that kaempferol was mostly biotransformed to conjugates, namely, kaempferol-3-glucuronide (K-3-G), kaempferol-7-glucuronide (K-7-G), and kaempferol-7-sulfate, in plasma. K-3-G represented the major metabolite. Compared with that in wild-type mice, pharmacokinetics in knockout FVB mice demonstrated that the absence of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the conjugates. The lack of MRP1 resulted in a much lower AUC of the conjugates. Intestinal perfusion in rats revealed that the glucuronide conjugates were mainly excreted in the small intestine, but 7-sulfate was mainly excreted in the colon. In Caco-2 monolayers, K-7-G efflux toward the apical (AP) side was significantly higher than K-3-G efflux. In contrast, K-3-G efflux toward the basolateral (BL) side was significantly higher than K-7-G efflux. The BL-to-AP efflux was significantly reduced in the presence of the MRP2 inhibitor LTC4. The AP-to-BL efflux was significantly decreased in the presence of the BL-side MRPs inhibitor MK571. The BCRP inhibitor Ko143 decreased the glucuronide conjugate efflux. Therefore, kaempferol is mainly exposed as K-3-G in vivo, which is driven by phase II metabolic enzymes and efflux transporters (i.e., BCRP and MRPs).

  18. Comparisons of different muscle metabolic enzymes and muscle fiber types in Jinhua and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Shan, T; Wu, T; Zhu, L N; Ren, Y; An, S; Wang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Western and indigenous Chinese pig breeds show obvious differences in muscle growth and meat quality, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the breed-specific mechanisms controlling meat quality and postmortem muscle metabolism. The specific purpose was to investigate the variations in meat quality, muscle fiber type, and enzyme activity between local Jinhua and exotic Landrace pigs at the same age (180 d of age), as well as the same BW of 64 kg, respectively. We compared differentially expressed muscle fiber types such as types I and IIa (oxidative), type IIb (glycolytic), as well as type IIx (intermediate) fibers in LM and soleus muscles of Jinhua and Landrace pigs using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Furthermore, the metabolic enzyme activities of lactate dehydrogenase, as well as succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, were used as markers of glycolytic and oxidative capacities, respectively. Results showed that Jinhua pigs exhibited greater intramuscular fat content and less drip loss compared with the Landrace (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the mRNA abundance of oxidative and intermediate fibers was increased in Jinhua pigs, whereas the glycolytic fibers were more highly expressed in the Landrace (P < 0.01). In addition, Jinhua pigs possessed greater oxidative capacity than that of the Landrace (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the increased expression of the oxidative and intermediate fibers and greater activities of oxidative enzymes in Jinhua pigs were related to meat quality as indicated by a greater intramuscular fat and reduced drip loss. Based on these results, we conclude that muscle fiber composition and postmortem muscle metabolism can explain, in part, the variation of meat quality in Jinhua and Landrace pigs. These results may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in growth performance

  19. Stem sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum - activity and expression of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Hilal Ahmad; Paranjpe, Sharayu; Bhargava, Sujata

    2012-04-15

    Sugar metabolism was studied in sweet sorghum (SSV74) that is known to store sugars in the mature internodes and which is reported to give grain yields twice that of a grain sorghum variety (SPV1616). Comparison of sugar accumulation in these two varieties was carried out at three stages of growth and in the upper and lower internodes. In spite of large differences in the level of sugar accumulation, osmolarity of the sap did not vary as significantly in the two varieties. Significant contribution of variety, stage and internode position was seen for the variation observed in sugar content. Though the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes namely sucrose synthase (in the synthesis and cleavage directions), sucrose phosphate synthase and invertase (cytoplasmic and vacuolar) also varied in a stage- and internode-specific manner in the two varieties, these enzymes did not contribute significantly to the variation observed in sugar content. Transcriptional expression of one sucrose synthase (SUC1), two sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS2 and SPS3) and a vacuolar invertase (INV3) gene were lower in sweet sorghum as compared to grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum also showed lower expression of two sucrose transporters (SUT1 and SUT4), which correlated to higher sugar accumulation in this variety. Differential expression of the sugar metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters in sweet and grain sorghum suggest a role for signaling molecules and transcription factors in regulating sugar accumulation observed in the mature internodes of sweet sorghum, which needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of cyamemazine.

    PubMed

    Arbus, Christophe; Benyamina, Amine; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Baylé, Franck; Bromet, Norbert; Massiere, Frédéric; Garay, Ricardo P; Hameg, Ahcène

    2007-12-01

    Recombinant human liver microsomal enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1) were used to determine the metabolic fate of the antipsychotic anxiolytic agent cyamemazine. An LC/MS-MS tandem methodology was developed specifically for identifying the presence of cyamemazine and its metabolites in reaction media. All P450 enzymes investigated, with the exception of CYP2A6 and CYP2E1, degraded cyamemazine, albeit to a different extent, with CYP1A2, CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 being the most efficient (>80%). However, in microsomes prepared from native human hepatocytes, only relatively specific competitors (inhibitors and/or substrates) of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 reduced notably the degradation cyamemazine. The main routes of cyamemazine biotransformation are N-mono-demethylation (CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and CYP2C8) and mono-oxidation (either S-oxidized or hydroxylated derivatives which could not be discriminated because characterized by the same mass value) by CYP1A2 and CYP2C9. Secondary metabolic routes yields N,N-di-demethylated and N-demethylated mono-oxidized products. Thus, under in vitro conditions, cyamemazine is extensively degraded by at least four distinct P450 enzymes, into two primary hydrophilic metabolites. These results suggest that cyamemazine detoxification process is unlikely to be significantly impaired by co-administration of therapeutic agents that are substrates of the CYP metabolic system.

  1. Cytochrome P450 enzymes from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Stephen G. . E-mail: stephen.bell@chem.ox.ac.uk; Hoskins, Nicola; Xu Feng; Caprotti, Domenico; Rao Zihe; Wong, L.-L. . E-mail: luet.wong@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2006-03-31

    Four (CYP195A2, CYP199A2, CYP203A1, and CYP153A5) of the seven P450 enzymes, and palustrisredoxin A, a ferredoxin associated with CYP199A2, from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been expressed and purified. A range of substituted benzenes, phenols, benzaldehydes, and benzoic acids was shown to bind to the four P450 enzymes. Monooxygenase activity of CYP199A2 was reconstituted with palustrisredoxin A and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida. We found that 4-ethylbenzoate and 4-methoxybenzoate were oxidized to single products, and 4-methoxybenzoate was demethylated to form 4-hydroxybenzoate. Crystals of substrate-free CYP199A2 which diffracted to {approx}2.0 A have been obtained.

  2. Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

  3. Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

  4. In vivo cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzyme characterization using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2003-07-01

    The development of a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate in vivo phenotyping methodology for characterizing drug-metabolizing phenotypes with reference to the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes would be very beneficial. In terms of application, in the wake of the human genome project, considerable interest is focused on the development of new drugs whose uses will be tailored to specific genetic polymorphisms, and on the individualization of dosing regimens that are also tailored to meet individual patient needs depending upon genotype. In this investigation, chemical probes for CYP450 enzymes were characterized and identified with Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, gold-based metal colloid clusters were utilized to generate surface enhanced Raman spectra for each of the chemical probes. Results will be presented demonstrating the ability of SERS to identify minute quantities of these probes on the order needed for in vivo application.

  5. Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Punesh; Joshi, U. N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

  6. A metabolic node in action: chorismate-utilizing enzymes in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Dosselaere, F; Vanderleyden, J

    2001-01-01

    The shikimate pathway has been described as a metabolic tree with many branches that led to the synthesis of an extensive range of products. This pathway is present only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. While there is only little difference in the sequence of the chemical reactions of the pathway, significant differences exist in terms of organization and regulation. In the main trunk of the shikimate pathway, D-erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate are converted via shikimate to chorismate. Chorismate is the common precursor for the biosynthesis of the aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, but also for other products as diverse as folate cofactors, benzoid and naphthoid coenzymes, phenazines, and siderophores. Five chorismate-utilizing enzymes have been characterized in microorganisms: chorismate mutase, anthranilate synthase, aminodeoxychorismate synthase, isochorismate synthase, and chorismate pyruvate-lyase. In this review these enzymes are discussed in terms of the corresponding gene structures and regulation, nucleotide and protein sequences, protein structures, and reaction mechanisms. The main emphasis is on transcriptional and posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, in view of how a microbial cell exploits its chorismate pool in diverse anabolic pathways. Comparison of the chorismate-utilizing enzymes has shown that some of them share sequence similarity, suggesting divergent evolution and commonality in reaction mechanisms. However, other chorismate-utilizing enzymes are examples of convergent evolution toward similar reaction capabilities.

  7. Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xing-Hua; Shi, Wei-Zhou; Cheng, Yun-Xiang; Yang, Xiu-Fen

    2014-06-01

    To study the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) on the antioxidant enzymes and drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Following treatment of rats with BYHWD at 6.42, 12.83, or 25.66 g·kg(-1) per day for 15 days, microsomes and cytosols isolated from the liver tissues were prepared by differential centrifugation according to standard procedures. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes and cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CYP3A, CYP2E1, UGT, and GST of the rat livers were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The activities of ALT, AST, antioxidant enzymes, and the Hepatosomatic Index in serum were not significantly affected. In cytosols, the activity of CAT was significantly increased at the dosage of 12.83 g·kg(-1), and all the other antioxidant activities and MDA levels were not affected by this treatment. BYHWD had no effect on cytochrome b5, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CYP3A, and UGT. At the highest dose (25.66 g·kg(-1)), the activity of CYP2E1 was significantly inhibited, and the activities of GST and the level of GSH were increased. BYHWD is safe for the liver, and has the functions of detoxification and antioxidant. Patients should be cautioned about the herb-drug interaction of BYHWD and CYP2E1 substrates. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequent alteration of the protein synthesis of enzymes for glucose metabolism in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takayuki; Inoue, Ken-ichi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Norisuke; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Kubota, Keiichi

    2014-09-01

    Cancer cells show enhanced glycolysis and inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen (aerobic glycolysis). Glycolysis is much less efficient for energy production than oxidative phosphorylation, and the reason why cancer cells selectively use glycolysis remains unclear. Biospecimens were collected from 45 hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Protein samples were prepared through subcellular localization or whole-cell lysis. Protein synthesis was measured by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. mRNA transcription was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Statistical correlation among immunoblotting data and clinicolaboratory factors were analyzed using SPSS. Enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation (SDHA and SDHB) were frequently decreased (56 and 48 % of patients, respectively) in hepatocellular carcinomas. The lowered amount of the SDH protein complex was rarely accompanied by stabilization of HIF1α and subsequent activation of the hypoxia response. On the other hand, protein synthesis of G6PD and TKT, enzymes critical for pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), was increased (in 45 and 55 % of patients, respectively), while that of ALDOA, an enzyme for mainstream glycolysis, was eliminated (in 55 % of patients). Alteration of protein synthesis was correlated with gene expression for G6PD and TKT, but not for TKTL1, ALDOA, SDHA or SDHB. Augmented transcription and synthesis of PPP enzymes were accompanied by nuclear accumulation of NRF2. Hepatocellular carcinomas divert glucose metabolism to the anabolic shunt by activating transcription factor NRF2.

  9. Testing Biochemistry Revisited: How In Vivo Metabolism Can Be Understood from In Vitro Enzyme Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    van Eunen, Karen; Kiewiet, José A. L.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation. Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i) including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii) measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i) implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii) implementation of Vmax values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii) redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions. Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation), or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry. PMID:22570597

  10. Air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced gene expression of volatile organic compound and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-metabolizing enzymes in an in vitro coculture lung model.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Imane; Saint-Georges, Françoise; Billet, Sylvain; Verdin, Anthony; Mulliez, Philippe; Shirali, Pirouz; Garçon, Guillaume

    2009-02-01

    The overarching goals were: (i) to develop an in vitro coculture model, including two relevant lung target cells: human alveolar macrophage (AM) isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and immortalized cells originated from the normal lung tissue of a human embryo (L132 cell line), as a future strategy for near-realistic exposures to air pollution particulate matter (PM), and (ii) to study the gene expression of volatile organic compound (VOC) and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-metabolizing enzymes in this in vitro coculture model. Human AM and/or L132 cells in mono- and coculture were exposed for 24, 48 and 72h to Dunkerque City's PM2.5 at its lethal concentrations at 10% and 50% (i.e. AM: LC10=14.93 microgPM/mL and LC50=74.63 microgPM/mL; L132: LC10=18.84 microgPM/mL and LC50=75.36 microgPM/mL), and the gene expression (i.e. Cytochrome P450 1A1, CYP1A1; CYP2E1; CYP2F1; microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase; NADPH Quinone Oxydo-Reductase-1, NQO1; and Glutathione S-Transferase pi-1 and mu-3, GST-pi1 and GST-mu3) was studied. In human AM in mono- and coculture, and in L132 cells in monoculture, VOC and/or PAH-coated onto PM induced the gene expression of CYP1A1, CYP2E1, NQO1, GST-pi1, and/or GST-mu3. However, there were quiet different outcomes based on the use of L132 cells in mono- vs. coculture: the pattern of VOC and/or PAH-metabolizing enzymes induced by PM in L132 cells in monoculture remained almost unaffected when in coculture with AM. Taken together, these results reinforced the key role of PM-exposed target human AM in the defenses of the human lung from external injuries, notably through their higher capacity to retain PM, and indicated that carbonaceous cores of PM, as physical vector of the penetration and retention of coated-VOC and/or PAH into cells, enabled them to exert a longer toxicity. The use of such a near realistic exposure system could also be a very useful and powerful tool to identify the mechanisms by which air pollution PM induced

  11. Systems biology approaches to enzyme kinetics: analyzing network models of drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Finn, Nnenna A; Kemp, Melissa L

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular drug metabolism involves transport, bioactivation, conjugation, and other biochemical steps. The dynamics of these steps are each dependent on a number of other cellular factors that can ultimately lead to unexpected behavior. In this review, we discuss the confounding processes and coupled reactions within bioactivation networks that require a systems-level perspective in order to fully understand the time-varying behavior. When converting known in vitro characteristics of drug-enzyme interactions into descriptions of cellular systems, features such as substrate availability, cell-to-cell variability, and intracellular redox state deserve special focus. An example of doxorubicin bioactivation is used for discussing points of consideration when constructing and analyzing network models of drug metabolism.

  12. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    We have examined, in the livers of rats carried aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite, the activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition to the enzyme studies, the levels of glycogen and of the individual fatty acids in hepatic lipids were determined. Livers from flight and ground control rats at recovery (R0) and 25 days after recovery (R25) were used for these analyses. For all parameters measured, the most meaningful comparisons are those made between flight stationary (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) animals at R0. When these two groups of flight rats were compared at R0, statistically significant decreases in the activity levels of glycogen phosphorylase, α-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in the palmitoyl CoA desaturase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened by the fact that all enzyme activities showing alterations at R0 returned to normal 25 days postflight. When liver glycogen and total fatty acids of the two sets of flight animals were determined, significant differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed. The weightless group (FS) at R0 contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did the centrifuged controls (FC) and a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate was noted. These metabolic alterations, both in enzyme levels and in hepatic constituents, appear to be characteristic of the weightless condition. Our data seem to justify the conclusion that centrifugation during flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  13. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  14. Enzymes of creatine biosynthesis, arginine and methionine metabolism in normal and malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Bera, Soumen; Wallimann, Theo; Ray, Subhankar; Ray, Manju

    2008-12-01

    The creatine/creatine kinase system decreases drastically in sarcoma. In the present study, an investigation of catalytic activities, western blot and mRNA expression unambiguously demonstrates the prominent expression of the creatine-synthesizing enzymes l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in sarcoma, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, whereas both enzymes were virtually undetectable in normal muscle. Compared to that of normal animals, these enzymes remained unaffected in the kidney or liver of sarcoma-bearing mice. High activity and expression of mitochondrial arginase II in sarcoma indicated increased ornithine formation. Slightly or moderately higher levels of ornithine, guanidinoacetate and creatinine were observed in sarcoma compared to muscle. Despite the intrinsically low level of creatine in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells, these cells could significantly take up and release creatine, suggesting a functional creatine transport, as verified by measuring mRNA levels of creatine transporter. Transcript levels of arginase II, ornithine-decarboxylase, S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and methionine-synthase were significantly upregulated in sarcoma and in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and Sarcoma 180 cells. Overall, the enzymes related to creatine and arginine/methionine metabolism were found to be significantly upregulated in malignant cells. However, the low levels of creatine kinase in the same malignant cells do not appear to be sufficient for the building up of an effective creatine/phosphocreatine pool. Instead of supporting creatine biosynthesis, l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase and N-guanidinoacetate methyltransferase appear to be geared to support cancer cell metabolism in the direction of polyamine and methionine synthesis because both these compounds are in high demand in proliferating cancer cells.

  15. A robust and efficient method for estimating enzyme complex abundance and metabolic flux from expression data

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Brandon E.; Smallbone, Kieran; Myers, Christopher R.; Xi, Hongwei; Locasale, Jason W.; Gu, Zhenglong

    2015-01-01

    A major theme in constraint-based modeling is unifying experimental data, such as biochemical information about the reactions that can occur in a system or the composition and localization of enzyme complexes, with high-throughput data including expression data, metabolomics, or DNA sequencing. The desired result is to increase predictive capability and improve our understanding of metabolism. The approach typically employed when only gene (or protein) intensities are available is the creation of tissue-specific models, which reduces the available reactions in an organism model, and does not provide an objective function for the estimation of fluxes. We develop a method, flux assignment with LAD (least absolute deviation) convex objectives and normalization (FALCON), that employs metabolic network reconstructions along with expression data to estimate fluxes. In order to use such a method, accurate measures of enzyme complex abundance are needed, so we first present an algorithm that addresses quantification of complex abundance. Our extensions to prior techniques include the capability to work with large models and significantly improved run-time performance even for smaller models, an improved analysis of enzyme complex formation, the ability to handle large enzyme complex rules that may incorporate multiple isoforms, and either maintained or significantly improved correlation with experimentally measured fluxes. FALCON has been implemented in MATLAB and ATS, and can be downloaded from: https://github.com/bbarker/FALCON. ATS is not required to compile the software, as intermediate C source code is available. FALCON requires use of the COBRA Toolbox, also implemented in MATLAB. PMID:26381164

  16. Enzymes of pyrimidine metabolism in the musculus complexus of the chick during development.

    PubMed

    Wegelin, I; Pane, G

    1991-01-01

    The pattern of cytidylate and uridylate phosphatase, uridine phosphorylase, cytidine and cytosine deaminase activities has been studied in M. complexus during chick development. The comparison of these enzyme activities with thigh muscles ones has shown that quantitative and temporal changes occur, in parallel with the unusual pre-natal and early post-natal development of M. complexus. The results suggest that during the first period of incubation, UMP might follow the anabolic pathway UMP-UTP, which leads to cytidine nucleotides, while approaching the hatching, the catabolic pathway should prevail. In addition, immediately after hatching, pyrimidine metabolism is especially supported by cytidine nucleotides.

  17. Characterization of benidipine and its enantiomers' metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yune-Jung; Kim, Kwon-Bok; Kim, Hyunmi; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Ho-Sook; Cha, In-June; Kim, Eun-Young; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2007-09-01

    Benidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that has been used clinically as an antihypertensive and antianginal agent. It is used clinically as a racemate, containing the (-)-alpha and (+)-alpha isomers of benidipine. This study was performed to elucidate the metabolism of benidipine and its enantiomers in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and to characterize the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of benidipine. Human liver microsomal incubation of benidipine in the presence of NADPH resulted in the formation of two metabolites, N-desbenzylbenidipine and dehydrobenidipine. The intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) of the formation of N-desbenzylbenidipine and dehydrobenidipine metabolites from (-)-alpha isomer was similar to those from the (+)-alpha isomer (1.9 +/- 0.1 versus 2.3 +/- 2.3 microl/min/pmol P450 and 0.5 +/- 0.2 versus 0.6 +/- 0.6 microl/min/pmol P450, respectively). Correlation analysis between the known P450 enzyme activities and the rate of the formation of benidipine metabolites in the 15 HLMs showed that benidipine metabolism is correlated with CYP3A activity. The P450 isoform-selective inhibition study in liver microsomes and the incubation study of cDNA-expressed enzymes also showed that theN-debenzylation and dehydrogenation of benidipine are mainly mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The total CL(int) values of CYP3A4-mediated metabolite formation from (-)-alpha isomer were similar to those from (+)-alpha isomer (17.7 versus 14.4 microl/min/pmol P450, respectively). The total CL(int) values of CYP3A5-mediated metabolite formation from (-)-alpha isomer were also similar to those from (+)-alpha isomer (8.3 versus 11.0 microl/min/pmol P450, respectively). These findings suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoforms are major enzymes contributing to the disposition of benidipine, but stereoselective disposition of benidipine in vivo may be influenced not by stereoselective metabolism but by other factors.

  18. The transferome of metabolic genes explored: analysis of the horizontal transfer of enzyme encoding genes in unicellular eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, John W; McConkey, Glenn A; Westhead, David R

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic networks are responsible for many essential cellular processes, and exhibit a high level of evolutionary conservation from bacteria to eukaryotes. If genes encoding metabolic enzymes are horizontally transferred and are advantageous, they are likely to become fixed. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key role in prokaryotic evolution and its importance in eukaryotes is increasingly evident. High levels of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) accompanied the establishment of plastids and mitochondria, and more recent events have allowed further acquisition of bacterial genes. Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes. The phylogenetic trees of 2,257 metabolic enzymes were used to make E/HGT assertions in ten groups of unicellular eukaryotes, revealing the sources and metabolic processes of the transferred genes. Analyses revealed a preference for enzymes encoded by genes gained through horizontal and endosymbiotic transfers to be connected in the metabolic network. Enrichment in particular functional classes was particularly revealing: alongside plastid related processes and carbohydrate metabolism, this highlighted a number of pathways in eukaryotic parasites that are rich in enzymes encoded by transferred genes, and potentially key to pathogenicity. The plant parasites Phytophthora were discovered to have a potential pathway for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of E/HGT origin not seen before in eukaryotes outside the Plantae. The number of enzymes encoded by genes gained through E/HGT has been established, providing insight into functional gain during the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. In eukaryotic parasites, genes encoding enzymes that have been gained through horizontal transfer may be attractive drug targets if they are part of processes not present in the host, or are significantly diverged from equivalent host enzymes.

  19. Dynamic changes in bacterial community structure and in naphthalene dioxygenase expression in vermicompost-amended PAH-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, Patrizia; Moreno, Beatriz; Annoni, Emanuele; García-Rodríguez, Sonia; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Benitez, Emilio

    2009-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the potential for using vermicompost from olive-mill waste as an organic amendment for enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils. The focus was to analyse the genetic potential and the naphthalene dioxygenase (NDO) expression of the bacterial communities involved in the degradation of naphthalene, as chemical model for the degradation of PAH. The structure of the metabolically active bacterial population was evidenced in the RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles. The relative expression of NDO was determined with real-time PCR in both the soil and the vermicompost cDNA. Naphthalene changed the structure of the metabolically active bacterial community in the vermicompost when this was artificially contaminated. When used as amendment, naphthalene-free vermicompost modified the bacterial population in the PAH-contaminated soil, evidenced in the DGGE gels after 1 month of incubation. In the amended soil, the vermicompost enhanced the NDO enzyme expression with a concomitant biodegradation of naphthalene. The effect of the vermicompost was to induce the expression of biodegradation indicator genes in the autochthonous bacterial community and/or incorporate new bacterial species capable of degrading PAH. The results indicated that vermicompost from olive-mill wastes could be considered a suitable technology to be used in PAH bioremediation.

  20. The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

  1. HuR is a post-transcriptional regulator of core metabolic enzymes in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Richard A; Pineda, Danielle M; Chand, Saswati N; Romeo, Carmella; Londin, Eric R; Karoly, Edward D; Cozzitorto, Joseph A; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Yeo, Charles J; Brody, Jonathan R; Winter, Jordan M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell metabolism differs from normal cells, yet the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these differences are incompletely understood, particularly in response to acute changes in the tumor microenvironment. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, acts under acute stress to regulate core signaling pathways in cancer through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA targets. We demonstrate that HuR regulates the metabolic phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells and is critical for survival under acute glucose deprivation. Using three pancreatic cancer cell line models, HuR-proficient cells demonstrated superior survival under glucose deprivation when compared with isogenic cells with siRNA-silencing of HuR expression (HuR-deficient cells). We found that HuR-proficient cells utilized less glucose, but produced greater lactate, as compared with HuR-deficient cells. Acute glucose deprivation was found to act as a potent stimulus for HuR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where HuR stabilizes its mRNA targets. We performed a gene expression array on ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitated mRNAs bound to HuR and identified 11 novel HuR target transcripts that encode enzymes central to glucose metabolism. Three (GPI, PRPS2 and IDH1) were selected for validation studies, and confirmed as bona fide HuR targets. These findings establish HuR as a critical regulator of pancreatic cancer cell metabolism and survival under acute glucose deprivation. Further explorations into HuR’s role in cancer cell metabolism should uncover novel therapeutic targets that are critical for cancer cell survival in a metabolically compromised tumor microenvironment. PMID:23807417

  2. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  3. Inflammation, hepatic enzymes and resistance training in individuals with metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Levinger, I; Goodman, C; Peake, J; Garnham, A; Hare, D L; Jerums, G; Selig, S

    2009-03-01

    Increases in inflammatory markers, hepatic enzymes and physical inactivity are associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined whether inflammatory markers and hepatic enzymes are correlated with traditional risk factors for MetS and studied the effects of resistance training (RT) on these emerging risk factors in individuals with a high number of metabolic risk factors (HiMF, 2.9 +/- 0.8) and those with a low number of metabolic risk factors (LoMF, 0.5 +/- 0.5). Twenty-eight men and 27 women aged 50.8 +/- 6.5 years (mean +/- sd) participated in the study. Participants were randomized to four groups, HiMF training (HiMFT), HiMF control (HiMFC), LoMF training (LoMFT) and LoMF control (LoMFC). Before and after 10 weeks of RT [3 days/week, seven exercises, three sets with intensity gradually increased from 40-50% of one repetition maximum (1RM) to 75-85% of 1RM], blood samples were obtained for the measurement of pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). At baseline, HiMF had higher interleukin-6 (33.9%), CRP (57.1%), GGT (45.2%) and ALT (40.6%) levels, compared with LoMF (all P < 0.05). CRP, GGT and ALT correlated with the number of risk factors (r = 0.48, 0.51 and 0.57, respectively, all P < 0.01) and with other anthropometric and clinical measures (r range from 0.26 to 0.60, P < 0.05). RT did not significantly alter inflammatory markers or hepatic enzymes (all P > 0.05). HiMF was associated with increased inflammatory markers and hepatic enzyme concentrations. RT did not reduce inflammatory markers and hepatic enzymes in individuals with HiMF.

  4. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  5. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  6. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by local and systemic liver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Xie, Yang; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Drug metabolism and disposition are critical in maintaining the chemical and functional homeostasis of xenobiotics/drugs and endobiotics. The liver plays an essential role in drug metabolism and disposition due to its abundant expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. There is growing evidence to suggest that many hepatic and systemic diseases can affect drug metabolism and disposition by regulating the expression and/or activity of DMEs and transporters in the liver. Areas covered This review focuses on the recent progress on the regulation of DMEs by local and systemic liver injuries. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and sepsis are used as examples of local and systemic injury, respectively. The reciprocal effect of the expression and activity of DMEs on animals' sensitivity to local and systemic liver injuries is also discussed. Expert opinion Local and systemic liver injuries have a major effect on the expression and activity of DMEs in the liver. Understanding the disease effect on DMEs is clinically important due to the concern of disease-drug interactions. Future studies are necessary to understand the mechanism by which liver injury regulates DMEs. Human studies are also urgently needed in order to determine whether the results in animals can be replicated in human patients. PMID:26751558

  7. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by local and systemic liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan; Hu, Bingfang; Xie, Yang; Billiar, Timothy R; Sperry, Jason L; Huang, Min; Xie, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Drug metabolism and disposition are critical in maintaining the chemical and functional homeostasis of xenobiotics/drugs and endobiotics. The liver plays an essential role in drug metabolism and disposition due to its abundant expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters. There is growing evidence to suggest that many hepatic and systemic diseases can affect drug metabolism and disposition by regulating the expression and/or activity of DMEs and transporters in the liver. This review focuses on the recent progress on the regulation of DMEs by local and systemic liver injuries. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and sepsis are used as examples of local and systemic injury, respectively. The reciprocal effect of the expression and activity of DMEs on animals' sensitivity to local and systemic liver injuries is also discussed. Local and systemic liver injuries have a major effect on the expression and activity of DMEs in the liver. Understanding the disease effect on DMEs is clinically important due to the concern of disease-drug interactions. Future studies are necessary to understand the mechanism by which liver injury regulates DMEs. Human studies are also urgently needed in order to determine whether the results in animals can be replicated in human patients.

  8. Enzyme activities and gene expression of starch metabolism provide insights into grape berry development

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xudong; Zhang, Chaobo; Wu, Weimin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2017-01-01

    Grapes are categorized as a non-climacteric type of fruit which its ripening is not associated to important rises in respiration and ethylene synthesis. The starch metabolism shares a certain role in the carbohydrate metabolic pathways during grape berry development, and is regarded as an important transient pool in the pathway of sugar accumulation. However, the comprehensive role of starch and its contribution to the quality and flavor of grape berry have not been explored thoroughly. In this study, the expression levels of genes enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentrations related to starch metabolism, were analyzed to understand the molecular mechanism of starch accumulation during grape berry development. The results indicated that starch granules in grape berry were located at the chloroplast in the sub-epidermal tissues, acting as the temporary reserves of photosynthetic products to meet the needs for berry development, and relatively high starch contents could be detected at véraison stage. Moreover, both ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.27) and sucrose phosphate synthase (EC 2.3.1.14) involved in starch synthesis displayed elevated gene expression and enzymes activities in the sub-epidermal tissue, while α- and β-amylases involved in its degradation were highly transcribed and active in the central flesh, explaining the absence of starch in this last tissue. Change in the gene expression and activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, β-amylase and sucrose phosphate synthase revealed that they were regulated by the circadian rhythms in the fruitlets compared with those in the leaves. Both the morphological, enzymological and transcriptional data in this study provide advanced understandings on the function of starch during berry development and ripening that are so important for berry quality. This study will further facilitate our understanding of the sugar metabolism in grape berry as well as in other plant species. PMID:28529757

  9. Multi-biomarker approach in the scallop Chlamys farreri to assess PAHs pollution in Qingdao coastal areas of China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Mengyu; Jin, Qian; Ji, Rongwang

    2017-09-21

    A multi-biomarker approach was conducted in the scallop Chlamys farreri from three sites, denoted here as S1, S2, and S3, in Qingdao coastal areas of China in March, June, September and December 2014 to assess pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to select appropriate biomarkers. A suite of biological responses of the gills and digestive glands of the scallops was assayed, including: (i) phase I detoxification enzymes of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD) and phase II detoxification enzymes of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and sulfotransferase (SULT); (ii) antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); (iii) oxidative damage parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO) expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonylation (PC) and DNA damage (F value); and (iv) the metabolism-related genes of EH, DD, GST, SULT and SOD. Simultaneously, the concentrations of total PAHs along with 16 types of PAHs previously identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and environmental parameters, including temperature and salinity together with pH, were measured. Using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was revealed that S2 was the most PAH-contaminated site, while S1 was identified as the least PAH-polluted site, which was consistent with the results utilizing the Biomarker Response Index (BRI); in other words, the biological health status of S2 was worse than S1 and S3. Moreover, the most suitable biomarkers to assess PAH pollution in Qingdao coastal areas proved to be DD mRNA expression and the F value in both the gills and digestive glands for the total PAHs, DD activity and PC contents or PC and MDA contents in the gills or digestive glands for 5 + 6 rings PAHs and DD mRNA expression in both the gills and digestive glands for 2 + 3 rings and 4 rings PAHs. Moreover, this study highlighted the possible use of the

  10. Detoxication of structurally diverse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) o-quinones by human recombinant catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) via O-methylation of PAH catechols.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Huang, Meng; Harvey, Ronald G; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2011-07-22

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are environmental and tobacco carcinogens. Metabolic activation of intermediate PAH trans-dihydrodiols by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) leads to the formation of electrophilic and redox-active o-quinones. We investigated whether O-methylation by human recombinant soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) is a feasible detoxication step for a panel of structurally diverse PAH-catechols produced during the redox-cycling process. Classes of PAH non-K-region o-quinones (bay region, methylated bay region, and fjord region o-quinones) produced by AKRs were employed in the studies. PAH o-quinones were reduced to the corresponding catechols by dithiothreitol under anaerobic conditions and then further O-methylated by human S-COMT in the presence of S-[³H]adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl group donor. The formation of the O-methylated catechols was detected by HPLC-UV coupled with in-line radiometric detection, and unlabeled products were also characterized by LC-MS/MS. Human S-COMT was able to catalyze O-methylation of all of the PAH-catechols and generated two isomeric metabolites in different proportions. LC-MS/MS showed that each isomer was a mono-O-methylated metabolite. ¹H NMR was used to assign the predominant positional isomer of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol as the O-8-monomethylated catechol. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) varied among different classes of PAH-catechols by 500-fold. The ability of S-COMT to produce two isomeric products from PAH-catechols was rationalized using the crystal structure of the enzyme. We provide evidence that O-8-monomethylated benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-catechol is formed in three different human lung cell lines. It is concluded that human S-COMT may play a critical role in the detoxication of PAH o-quinones generated by AKRs.

  11. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  12. Reaction phenotyping: advances in the experimental strategies used to characterize the contribution of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Michael A; Youdim, Kuresh

    2015-01-01

    During the process of drug discovery, the pharmaceutical industry is faced with numerous challenges. One challenge is the successful prediction of the major routes of human clearance of new medications. For compounds cleared by metabolism, accurate predictions help provide an early risk assessment of their potential to exhibit significant interpatient differences in pharmacokinetics via routes of metabolism catalyzed by functionally polymorphic enzymes and/or clinically significant metabolic drug-drug interactions. This review details the most recent and emerging in vitro strategies used by drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic scientists to better determine rates and routes of metabolic clearance and how to translate these parameters to estimate the amount these routes contribute to overall clearance, commonly referred to as fraction metabolized. The enzymes covered in this review include cytochrome P450s together with other enzymatic pathways whose involvement in metabolic clearance has become increasingly important as efforts to mitigate cytochrome P450 clearance are successful. Advances in the prediction of the fraction metabolized include newly developed methods to differentiate CYP3A4 from the polymorphic enzyme CYP3A5, scaling tools for UDP-glucuronosyltranferase, and estimation of fraction metabolized for substrates of aldehyde oxidase.

  13. Subcellular targeting of metabolic enzymes to titin in heart muscle may be mediated by DRAL/FHL-2.

    PubMed

    Lange, Stephan; Auerbach, Daniel; McLoughlin, Patricia; Perriard, Evelyne; Schäfer, Beat W; Perriard, Jean-Claude; Ehler, Elisabeth

    2002-12-15

    During sarcomere contraction skeletal and cardiac muscle cells consume large amounts of energy. To satisfy this demand, metabolic enzymes are associated with distinct regions of the sarcomeres in the I-band and in the M-band, where they help to maintain high local concentrations of ATP. To date, the mechanism by which metabolic enzymes are coupled to the sarcomere has not been elucidated. Here, we show that the four and a half LIM-only protein DRAL/FHL-2 mediates targeting of the metabolic enzymes creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and phosphofructokinase by interaction with the elastic filament protein titin in cardiomyocytes. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, colocalisation experiments, co-immunoprecipitation and protein pull-down assays, we show that DRAL/FHL-2 is bound to two distinct sites on titin. One binding site is situated in the N2B region, a cardiac-specific insertion in the I-band part of titin, and the other is located in the is2 region of M-band titin. We also show that DRAL/FHL-2 binds to the metabolic enzymes creatine kinase, adenylate kinase and phosphofructokinase and might target these enzymes to the N2B and is2 regions in titin. We propose that DRAL/FHL-2 acts as a specific adaptor protein to couple metabolic enzymes to sites of high energy consumption in the cardiac sarcomere.

  14. Comparative analysis on the key enzymes of the glycerol cycle metabolic pathway in Dunaliella salina under osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) ecotoxicology in marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil

    2006-01-08

    Low levels of oil and hence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are naturally present in the marine environment, although levels have increased significantly following human extraction and use of oil and gas. Other major anthropogenic sources of PAHs include smelters, the use of fossil fuels in general, and various methods of waste disposal, especially incineration. There are two major sources for PAHs to marine ecosystems in Norway: the inshore smelter industry, and offshore oil and gas production activities. A distinction is generally made between petrogenic (oil-derived) and pyrogenic (combustion-derived) PAHs. Although petrogenic PAHs appear to be bioavailable to a large extent, pyrogenic PAHs are often associated with soot particles and less available for uptake into organisms. There is extensive evidence linking sediment-associated PAHs to induction of phase-I enzymes, development of DNA adducts, and eventually neoplastic lesions in fish. Most studies have focused on high-molecular-weight, carcinogenic PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene. It is less clear how two- and three-ring PAHs affect fish, and there is even experimental evidence to indicate that these chemicals may inhibit some components of the phase I system rather than produce induction. There is a need for increased research efforts to clarify biological effects of two- and three-ring PAHs, PAH mixtures, and adaptation processes in marine ecosystems.

  16. Bottom-up Metabolic Reconstruction of Arabidopsis and Its Application to Determining the Metabolic Costs of Enzyme Production[W

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Anne; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale modeling of plant metabolism provides the possibility to compare and contrast different cellular and environmental scenarios with the ultimate aim of identifying the components underlying the respective plant behavior. The existing models of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are top-down assembled, whereby the starting point is the annotated genome, in particular, the metabolic genes. Hence, dead-end metabolites and blocked reactions can arise that are subsequently addressed by using gap-filling algorithms in combination with species-unspecific genes. Here, we present a bottom-up-assembled, large-scale model that relies solely on Arabidopsis-specific annotations and results in the inclusion of only manually curated reactions. While the existing models are largely condition unspecific by employing a single biomass reaction, we provide three biomass compositions that pertain to realistic and frequently examined scenarios: carbon-limiting, nitrogen-limiting, and optimal growth conditions. The comparative analysis indicates that the proposed Arabidopsis core model exhibits comparable efficiency in carbon utilization and flexibility to the existing network alternatives. Moreover, the model is utilized to quantify the energy demand of amino acid and enzyme de novo synthesis in photoautotrophic growth conditions. Illustrated by the case of the most abundant protein in the world, Rubisco, we determine its synthesis cost in terms of ATP requirements. This, in turn, allows us to explore the tradeoff between protein synthesis and growth in Arabidopsis. Altogether, the model provides a solid basis for completely species-specific integration of high-throughput data, such as gene expression levels, and for condition-specific investigations of in silico metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:24808102

  17. Effect of coexposure to asbestos and kerosene soot on pulmonary drug-metabolizing enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Arif, J M; Khan, S G; Mahmood, N; Aslam, M; Rahman, Q

    1994-01-01

    This article reports the effect of coexposure to Indian chrysotile asbestos (5 mg/rat) and kerosene soot (5 mg/rat) on the pulmonary phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes 1, 4, 8, 16, 30, 90, and 150 days after a single intratracheal inoculation. Exposure to soot resulted in a significant induction of the pulmonary microsomal cytochrome P450 and the activity of dependent monooxygenase, benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) hydroxylase, and epoxide hydrase at all time intervals. On the other hand, the cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was induced at days 1, 4, 8, 16, and 30 after exposure, followed by inhibition in the enzyme activity. In contrast, chrysotile exposure depleted cytochrome P450, B[a]P hydroxylase, epoxide hydrase, and GST at initial stages, while all these parameters except GST were induced at later stages. However, coexposure to chrysotile and soot led to a significant inhibition in the cytochrome P450 levels, activities of B[a]P hydroxylase, epoxide hydrase, and GST at initial stages of exposure. At advanced stages, however, an additional increase in cytochrome P450, B[a]P hydroxylase, and epoxide hydrase but a decrease in GST was observed. These results clearly show that the intratracheal coexposure to high levels of asbestos and kerosene soot alters the metabolic activity of the lung, which is turn may retain toxins in the system for a longer period, resulting in adverse pathological disorders. PMID:7882926

  18. Labeling and enzyme studies of the central carbon metabolism in Metallosphaera sedula.

    PubMed

    Estelmann, Sebastian; Hügler, Michael; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Werner, Katharina; Berg, Ivan A; Ramos-Vera, W Hugo; Say, Rafael F; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Gad'on, Nasser; Fuchs, Georg

    2011-03-01

    Metallosphaera sedula (Sulfolobales, Crenarchaeota) uses the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle for autotrophic carbon fixation. In this pathway, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and succinyl-CoA are the only intermediates that can be considered common to the central carbon metabolism. We addressed the question of which intermediate of the cycle most biosynthetic routes branch off. We labeled autotrophically growing cells by using 4-hydroxy[1-¹⁴C]butyrate and [1,4-¹³C₁]succinate, respectively, as precursors for biosynthesis. The labeling patterns of protein-derived amino acids verified the operation of the proposed carbon fixation cycle, in which 4-hydroxybutyrate is converted to two molecules of acetyl-CoA. The results also showed that major biosynthetic flux does not occur via acetyl-CoA, except for the formation of building blocks that are directly derived from acetyl-CoA. Notably, acetyl-CoA is not assimilated via reductive carboxylation to pyruvate. Rather, our data suggest that the majority of anabolic precursors are derived from succinyl-CoA, which is removed from the cycle via oxidation to malate and oxaloacetate. These C₄intermediates yield pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Enzyme activities that are required for forming intermediates from succinyl-CoA were detected, including enzymes catalyzing gluconeogenesis from PEP. This study completes the picture of the central carbon metabolism in autotrophic Sulfolobales by connecting the autotrophic carbon fixation cycle to the formation of central carbon precursor metabolites.

  19. In vitro metabolism of fenofibric acid by carbonyl reducing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Malátková, Petra; Kanavi, Matthildi; Nobilis, Milan; Wsól, Vladimír

    2016-10-25

    Fenofibric acid is a hypolipidemic drug that is used as an active ingredient per se or is administered in the form of fenofibrate that releases fenofibric acid after absorption. The metabolism of fenofibric acid is mediated primarily by glucuronidation. However, the other part of fenofibric acid is excreted as reduced fenofibric acid. Enzymes responsible for the formation of reduced fenofibric acid as well as their subcellular localization have remained unknown until now. We have found that the predominant site of fenofibric acid reduction is the human liver cytosol, whereas liver microsomes reduced fenofibric acid to a lower extent and exhibited a lower affinity for this drug (Km > 1000 μM). Of nine carbonyl-reducing enzymes (CREs) tested, CBR1 exhibited the greatest activity for fenofibric acid reduction (CLint = 85.975 μl/mg protein/min). CBR1 predominantly formed (-)-enantiomers of reduced fenofibric acid similar to liver cytosol and in accordance with the in vivo data. AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1B1 were also identified as reductases of fenofibric acid but are expected to play only a minor role in fenofibric acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Update on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Antiepileptic Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saruwatari, Junji; Ishitsu, Takateru; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on AED therapy still remains controversial. The defective alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and/or CYP2C19 could affect not only the pharmacokinetics, but also the pharmacodynamics of phenytoin therapy. CYP2C19 deficient genotypes were associated with the higher serum concentration of an active metabolite of clobazam, N-desmethylclobazam, and with the higher clinical efficacy of clobazam therapy than the other CYP2C19 genotypes. The defective alleles of CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 were also found to have clinically significant effects on the inter-individual variabilities in the population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, valproic acid and zonisamide. EPHX1 polymorphisms may be associated with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and the risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Similarly, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 genotype may affect the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine. Gluthatione S-transferase null genotypes are implicated in an increased risk of hepatotoxicity caused by carbamazepine and valproic acid. This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed. PMID:27713373

  1. The challenges of dealing with promiscuous drug-metabolizing enzymes, receptors and transporters.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiang; Lu, Anthony Y H

    2008-06-01

    Unlike classical enzymes, drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), such as the liver microsomal cytochrome P450, UDP-glucuronyltransferase, epoxide hydrolase, and flavin-containing monooxygenase, all exhibit broad substrate specificities, low turnover rates, atypical kinetics, and other unusual properties. Receptors (the pregnane X receptor, NR1I2; the constitutive androstane receptor, NR1I3; and the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor) responsible for the induction of DMEs and transporters (P-glycoprotein) responsible for drug transport also have broad substrate specificities. These promiscuous proteins are all intimately involved in drug disposition. Promiscuous proteins, by definition, are known for diversity, but not specificity, in their interaction with drugs. In this review, we analyzed recent advances on the three dimensional structures and kinetic properties of DMD proteins from crystallography, mutational, and kinetic studies to gain insights into the structural and biochemical basis for the promiscuous ligand-protein interactions of the proteins. Large substrate-binding cavities (SBCs), binding of more than one substrate/effector and binding of substrates in alternative orientations and locations within the SBCs, rotation of a substrate at the active site, and substantial substrate-induced conformational changes of the SBCs are common features of the promiscuous DMEs, receptors, and transporters, and therefore, are important parameters to be considered in dealing with drug metabolism issues and safety evaluation of drugs and environmental chemicals.

  2. Evolution of a new chlorophyll metabolic pathway driven by the dynamic changes in enzyme promiscuous activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2014-03-01

    Organisms generate an enormous number of metabolites; however, the mechanisms by which a new metabolic pathway is acquired are unknown. To elucidate the importance of promiscuous enzyme activity for pathway evolution, the catalytic and substrate specificities of Chl biosynthetic enzymes were examined. In green plants, Chl a and Chl b are interconverted by the Chl cycle: Chl a is hydroxylated to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a followed by the conversion to Chl b, and both reactions are catalyzed by chlorophyllide a oxygenase. Chl b is reduced to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by Chl b reductase and then converted to Chl a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase (HCAR). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that HCAR evolved from cyanobacterial 3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide reductase (DVR), which is responsible for the reduction of an 8-vinyl group in the Chl biosynthetic pathway. In addition to vinyl reductase activity, cyanobacterial DVR also has Chl b reductase and HCAR activities; consequently, three of the four reactions of the Chl cycle already existed in cyanobacteria, the progenitor of the chloroplast. During the evolution of cyanobacterial DVR to HCAR, the HCAR activity, a promiscuous reaction of cyanobacterial DVR, became the primary reaction. Moreover, the primary reaction (vinyl reductase activity) and some disadvantageous reactions were lost, but the neutral promiscuous reaction (NADH dehydrogenase) was retained in both DVR and HCAR. We also show that a portion of the Chl c biosynthetic pathway already existed in cyanobacteria. We discuss the importance of dynamic changes in promiscuous activity and of the latent pathways for metabolic evolution.

  3. Induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 and drug-metabolizing enzymes by climbazole.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuna; Suzuki, Michiya; Ohshiro, Naomi; Sunagawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Tadanori; Oguro, Takiko; Tokuyama, Shogo; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Yoshida, Takemi

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of climbazole on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) and drug-metabolizing enzymes, four different P450 isoforms (CYP2B1, 3A2, 2E1, and 2C12) were examined in female Long-Evans rats. Treatment of rats with climbazole resulted in the induction of P450 content. Climbazole both induced and inhibited aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, but not erythromycin N-demethylase activity. Uridine 5'-phosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione S-transferase activities were also increased with climbazole treatment. Immunoblot analyses revealed that climbazole induces CYP2B1 and CYP3A2 at the lower dose examined, but it failed to increase CYP2B1 at the higher dose. Northern blot analysis revealed that climbazole markedly increases P450 2B1 mRNA. These results indicate that climbazole induces and inhibits P450-dependent drug-metabolizing enzymes in vivo and may have the dose-differential effect on CYP2B1 in rat liver.

  4. NAD Malic Enzyme and the Control of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Potato Tubers1

    PubMed Central

    Jenner, Helen L.; Winning, Brenda M.; Millar, A. Harvey; Tomlinson, Kim L.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Hill, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants were transformed with a cDNA encoding the 59-kD subunit of the potato tuber NAD-dependent malic enzyme (NADME) in the antisense orientation. Measurements of the maximum catalytic activity of NADME in tubers revealed a range of reductions in the activity of this enzyme down to 40% of wild-type activity. There were no detrimental effects on plant growth or tuber yield. Biochemical analyses of developing tubers indicated that a reduction in NADME activity had no detectable effects on flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. However, there was an effect on glycolytic metabolism with significant increases in the concentration of 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate. These results suggest that alterations in the levels of intermediates toward the end of the glycolytic pathway may allow respiratory flux to continue at wild-type rates despite the reduction in NADME. There was also a statistically significant negative correlation between NADME activity and tuber starch content, with tubers containing reduced NADME having an increased starch content. The effect on plastid metabolism may result from the observed glycolytic perturbations. PMID:11457964

  5. Targeted cellular metabolism for cancer chemotherapy with recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Savaraj, Niramol; Feun, Lynn G.

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that a subset of human cancers, notably, melanoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are auxotrophic for arginine (Arg), because they do not express argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of arginine from citrulline. These ASS-negative cancer cells require Arg from extracellular sources for survival. When they are exposed to recombinant Arg-degrading enzymes, e.g. arginine deiminase (ADI) or arginase, they die because of Arg starvation; whereas normal cells which express ASS are able to survive. A pegylated ADI (ADI-PEG20) has been developed for clinical trials for advanced melanoma and HCC; and favorable results have been obtained. ADI-PEG20 treatment induces autophagy in auxotrophic cancer cells leading to cell death. Clinical studies in melanoma patients show that re-expression of ASS is associated with ADI-PEG20 resistance. ADI-PEG20 treatment down-regulates the expression of HIF-1α but up-regulates c-Myc in culture melanoma cells. Induction of ASS by ADI-PEG20 involves positive regulators c-Myc and Sp4 and negative regulator HIF1α. Since both HIF-1α and c-Myc play important roles in cancer cell energy metabolism, together these results suggest that targeted cancer cell metabolism through modulation of HIF-1α and c-Myc expression may improve the efficacy of ADI-PEG20 in treating Arg auxotrophic tumors. PMID:21152246

  6. Flux control and excess capacity in the enzymes of glycolysis and their relationship to flight metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Eanes, Walter F; Merritt, Thomas J S; Flowers, Jonathan M; Kumagai, Seiji; Sezgin, Efe; Zhu, Chen-Tseh

    2006-12-19

    An important question in evolutionary and physiological genetics is how the control of flux-base phenotypes is distributed across the enzymes in a pathway. This control is often related to enzyme-specific levels of activity that are reported to be in excess of that required for demand. In glycolysis, metabolic control is frequently considered vested in classical regulatory enzymes, each strongly displaced from equilibrium. Yet the contribution of individual steps to control is unclear. To assess enzyme-specific control in the glycolytic pathway, we used P-element excision-derived mutagenesis in Drosophila melanogaster to generate full and partial knockouts of seven metabolic genes and to measure tethered flight performance. For most enzymes, we find that reduction to half of the normal activity has no measurable impact on wing beat frequency. The enzymes catalyzing near-equilibrium reactions, phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphoglucomutase, and triosephosphate isomerase fail to show any decline in flight performance even when activity levels are reduced to 17% or less. At reduced activities, the classic regulatory enzymes, hexokinase and glycogen phosphorylase, show significant drops in flight performance and are nearer to saturation. Our results show that flight performance is canalized or robust to the activity variation found in natural populations. Furthermore, enzymes catalyzing near-equilibrium reactions show strong genetic dominance down to low levels of activity. This implies considerable excess enzyme capacity for these enzymes.

  7. Diesel Exhaust Influences Carcinogenic PAH-Induced Genotoxicity and Gene Expression in Human Breast Epithelial Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Courter, Lauren A.; Pereira, Cliff; Baird, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ns (PAHs) benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) are widespread environmental pollutants, however their toxicological effects within a mixture is not established. We investigated the influence of diesel exhaust (DE) on B[a]P and DB[a,l]P-induced PAH-DNA adduct formation, metabolic activation, gene expression and 8-oxo-dG adduct levels in human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) in culture. Following 24 and 48 h, cells co-exposed to DE plus B[a]P exhibited a significant decrease in PAH-DNA adduct levels, compared with B[a]P alone, as determined by 33P-postlabeling combined with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity, as measured by the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay and CYP1B1 expression, significantly increased with co-exposure of DE plus DB[a,l]P, compared with DB[a,l]P alone. Aldo keto-reductase (AKR)1C1, AKR1C2,and AKR1C3 expression also significantly increased in cells exposed to DE plus PAH, compared with PAH exposure alone. Cell populations exhibiting 8-oxo-dG adducts significantly increased in response to exposure to B[a]P or DE plus B[a]P for 24 h, compared with vehicle control, as quantified by flow cytometry. These results suggest that complex mixtures may modify the carcinogenic potency of PAH by shifting the metabolic activation pathway from the production of PAH diol-epoxides to AKR pathway-derived metabolites. PMID:17612574

  8. Modulating effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract on glucose metabolizing enzymes in aflatoxin B1-induced experimental hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, B; Sujatha, V; Sachdanandam, P

    1997-09-01

    The herbal remedy extended by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against Aflatoxin B1 mediated hepatocellular carcinoma was established by studies on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. Since some definite correlation exists between tumour progression and the activities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes, assessment of alterations in their activity can be used as successful markers of diagnosis and prognosis. The present work compares the activities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes in hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats with drug-treated animals. An overall increase in glycolytic enzymes namely hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, and aldolase with a subsequent reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase was observed in plasma and liver homogenates of hepatocellular carcinoma bearing rats. The administration of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract caused a significant decrease in the activity of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in gluconeogenic enzymes' activities to near normal values in drug-treated animals. Copyright 1997 The Italian Pharmacological Society.

  9. Gallic acid and gallic acid derivatives: effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ow, Yin-Yin; Stupans, Ieva

    2003-06-01

    Gallic acid and its structurally related compounds are found widely distributed in fruits and plants. Gallic acid, and its catechin derivatives are also present as one of the main phenolic components of both black and green tea. Esters of gallic acid have a diverse range of industrial uses, as antioxidants in food, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, gallic acid is employed as a source material for inks, paints and colour developers. Studies utilising these compounds have found them to possess many potential therapeutic properties including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. In this review, studies of the effects of gallic acid, its esters, and gallic acid catechin derivatives on Phase I and Phase II enzymes are examined. Many published reports of the effects of the in vitro effects of gallic acid and its derivatives on drug metabolising enzymes concern effects directly on substrate (generally drug or mutagen) metabolism or indirectly through observed effects in Ames tests. In the case of the Ames test an antimutagenic effect may be observed through inhibition of CYP activation of indirectly acting mutagens and/or by scavenging of metabolically generated mutagenic electrophiles. There has been considerable interest in the in vivo effects of the gallate esters because of their incorporation into foodstuffs as antioxidants and in the catechin gallates with their potential role as chemoprotective agents. Principally an induction of Phase II enzymes has been observed however more recent studies using HepG2 cells and primary cultures of human hepatocytes provide evidence for the overall complexity of actions of individual components versus complex mixtures, such as those in food. Further systematic studies of mechanisms of induction and inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes by this group of compounds are warranted in the light of their distribution and consequent ingestion, current uses and suggested therapeutic potential. However, it

  10. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Archaea: Current Insights into Unusual Enzymes and Pathways and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many “classical” pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of “new,” unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

  11. Impaired metabolism of senescent muscle satellite cells is associated with oxidative modifications of glycolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Baraibar, Martin; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Bulteau, Anne-Laure; Prip-Buus, Carina; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Friguet, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    Accumulation of damaged macromolecules, including irreversibly oxidized proteins, is a hallmark of cellular and organismal ageing. Failure of protein homesotasis is a major contributor to the age-related accumulation of damaged proteins. In skeletal muscle, tissue maintenance and regeneration is assured by resident adult stem cells known as satellite cells. During senescence their replication and differentiation is compromised contributing to sarcopenia. In this study we have addressed the impact of oxidatively modified proteins in the impaired metabolism of senescent human satellite cells. By using a targeted proteomics analysis we have found that proteins involved in protein quality control and glycolytic enzymes are the main targets of oxidation (carbonylation) and modification with advanced glycation/lipid peroxidation end products during replicative senescence of satellite cells. Inactivation of the proteasome in aged cells appeared as a key contributor to the accumulation of such damaged proteins. Untargeted metabolomic profiling and functional analyses indicated glucose metabolism impairment in senescent cells, although mitochondrial respiration remained unaffected. A metabolic shift leading to increased mobilization of non-carbohydrate substrates as branched chain amino acids or long chain fatty acids was observed in senescent cells. In addition, phospho-and glycerolipids metabolism was altered. Increased levels of acyl-carnitines indicated augmented turnover of storage and membrane lipids for energy production. Such changes reflect alterations in membrane composition and dysregulation of sphingolipids signaling during senescence. This study establishes a new concept connecting oxidative protein modifications with the altered cellular metabolism associated with the senescent phenotype. In addition, these findings highlight the molecular mechanisms implicated in satellite cells dysfunction during ageing, paving the road for future therapeutic interventions

  12. Muscle Transcriptional Profile Based on Muscle Fiber, Mitochondrial Respiratory Activity, and Metabolic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Du, Yang; Trakooljul, Nares; Brand, Bodo; Muráni, Eduard; Krischek, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly metabolically active tissue that both stores and consumes energy. Important biological pathways that affect energy metabolism and metabolic fiber type in muscle cells may be identified through transcriptomic profiling of the muscle, especially ante mortem. Here, gene expression was investigated in malignant hyperthermia syndrome (MHS)-negative Duroc and Pietrian (PiNN) pigs significantly differing for the muscle fiber types slow-twitch-oxidative fiber (STO) and fast-twitch-oxidative fiber (FTO) as well as mitochondrial activity (succinate-dependent state 3 respiration rate). Longissimus muscle samples were obtained 24 h before slaughter and profiled using cDNA microarrays. Differential gene expression between Duroc and PiNN muscle samples were associated with protein ubiquitination, stem cell pluripotency, amyloid processing, and 3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis and degradation pathways. In addition, weighted gene co-expression network analysis within both breeds identified several co-expression modules that were associated with the proportion of different fiber types, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and ATP metabolism. In particular, Duroc results revealed strong correlations between mitochondrion-associated co-expression modules and STO (r = 0.78), fast-twitch glycolytic fiber (r = -0.98), complex I (r=0.72) and COX activity (r = 0.86). Other pathways in the protein-kinase-activity enriched module were positively correlated with STO (r=0.93), while negatively correlated with FTO (r = -0.72). In contrast to PiNN, co-expression modules enriched in macromolecule catabolic process, actin cytoskeleton, and transcription activator activity were associated with fiber types, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and metabolic enzyme activities. Our results highlight the importance of mitochondria for the oxidative capacity of porcine muscle and for breed-dependent molecular pathways in muscle cell fibers. PMID:26681915

  13. Do differences in the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes between Lake Whitefish ecotypes match predictions from transcriptomic studies?

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Anne C; Laporte, Martin; Guderley, Helga; Bernatchez, Louis

    2017-08-07

    Transcriptomic studies are facilitating the search for the molecular bases of adaptation in natural populations, but the impact of these differences in mRNA content on animal physiology are often unknown. One way to determine if molecular changes have the potential to influence animal physiology and performance is to test for correlated changes at higher levels of biological organization, including enzyme activity. Here, we measure the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes to test if previously documented genetic and transcriptomic variation between 'dwarf' and 'normal' Lake Whitefish ecotypes are associated with corresponding changes in enzyme activity (measured as maximal rate, Vmax) in liver and skeletal muscle. We use laboratory-reared fish from the same populations as prior transcriptomic studies and find that white muscle mRNA content is a good predictor of glycolytic and glycogen metabolism enzyme activity, and dwarf whitefish have evolved higher activities than normal whitefish. However, the differences in hepatic mRNA content found between ecotypes in prior studies are not associated with comparable changes in enzyme activity. For example, dwarf whitefish have lower enzyme activities, but higher transcript abundances for two glycolytic enzymes compared to normal whitefish. Overall, we find that transcriptomic studies successfully highlight evolutionary variation in enzyme activities, but not always in the direction predicted, indicating that a variety of tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms contributed to the evolution of energy metabolism in Lake Whitefish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. De novo biosynthesis of secondary metabolism enzymes in homogeneous cultures of Penicillium urticae.

    PubMed Central

    Grootwassink, J W; Gaucher, G M

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of patulin biosynthesis in submerged batch cultures of Penicillium urticae NRRL 2159A was investigated at the enzyme level. In contrast to earlier studies, this study achieved a clear temporal separation of growing cells devoid of secondary metabolism-specific enzymes from nongrowing cells, which rapidly produce these enzymes. A spore inoculum, silicone-treated flasks, and two new media which supported a rapid, pellet-free, filamentous type of growth were used. In yeast extract-glucose-buffer medium, a marked drop in the specific growth rate (approximately equal to 0.26 h-1) coincided with the appearance of the first pathway-specific enzyme, 6-methylsalicylic acid synthetase, at about 19 h after inoculation. About 3 h later, when replicatory growth had ceased entirely, the sparsely branched mycelia (length, approximately equal to 550 microns) began the rapid synthesis of a later pathway enzyme, m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. A similar sequence of events occurred in a defined nitrate-glucose-buffer medium; 12 other strains or isolates of P. urticae, as well as some patulin-producing aspergilli, behaved in a similar manner. The age at which a culture produced m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase was increased by increasing the nutrient nitrogen content of the medium or by decreasing the size of the spore inoculum. In each instance the appearance of enzyme was determined by the nutritional status of the culture and not by its age. A similar appearance of patulin pathway enzymes occurred when a growing culture was resuspended in a nitrogen-free 4% glucose solution with or without 0.1 M phosphate (pH 6.5). The appearance of both the synthetase and the dehydrogenase was arrested by the addition of cycloheximide (0.4 to 5 micrograms/ml) or actinomycin D (20 to 80 micrograms/ml). This requirement for de novo protein and ribonucleic acid syntheses was confirmed by the incorporation of labeled leucine into the dehydrogenase, and the possibility that

  15. Acute Liver Injury Induces Nucleocytoplasmic Redistribution of Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, María; Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) α1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MATα1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MATα1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MATα1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MATα1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of

  16. Cytochrome P450 Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Roma Population Samples: Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Renata; Hadzsiev, Kinga; Melegh, Bela

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are highly polymorphic and show inter-individual differences in variability in drug response, which varies widely also with ethnicity. This study aims to summarize the available data on genetic polymorphisms associated with cytochrome enzymes conducted on Roma populations. Our goal was to compare the frequency of the variant alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes with corresponding rates from other populations. We carried out a systematic review including the papers published on the pharmacogenetically relevant variants of cytochrome P450 genes related to Roma population. The study was performed using several articles, websites and databases, including PubMed, Ensembl, dbSNP, HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project. This review attempts to summarize and discuss our current knowledge about the frequency distribution of the ever investigated 20 allelic variants of 9 cytochrome genes (CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, CYP4F2) in Roma DNA samples and compare them with other populations. Differences between Roma and Hungarian samples are reported for 7 variant genotypes. CYP2C9 *2/*3 and CYP2C19 *2/*2 genotypes showed more than 3-fold differences. Additional differences are displayed for allele frequency of 7 variants (rs762551, rs3745274, rs1058930, rs1065852, rs3892097, rs1057910 and rs4244285) in Roma population samples. The interethnic variability in clinically relevant genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes, which may explain distinct drug response, highlights the need to allow for the ancestry of participants in pharmacogenetic studies.

  17. Identification of enzymes responsible for nitrazepam metabolism and toxicity in human.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Keigo; Fukami, Tatsuki; Gotoh, Saki; Nakajima, Miki

    2017-09-15

    Nitrazepam (NZP) is a hypnotic agent that rarely causes liver injuries in humans and teratogenicity in rodents. In humans, NZP is primarily metabolized to 7-aminonitrazepam (ANZP) by reduction and subsequently to 7-acetylamino nitrazepam (AANZP) by acetylation. ANZP can be regenerated from AANZP by hydrolysis in rodents, but it is still unclear whether this reaction occurs in humans. In rodents, AANZP may be associated with teratogenicity, while in humans, it is known that drug-induced liver injuries may be caused by NZP reactive metabolite(s). In this study, we attempted to identify the enzymes responsible for NZP metabolism to obtain a basic understanding of this process and the associated metabolite toxicities. We found that the NZP reductase activity in human liver cytosol (HLC) was higher than that in human liver microsomes (HLM). We purified the responsible enzyme(s) from HLC and found that the NZP reductase was aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1). The role of AOX1 was confirmed by an observed increase in the NZP reductase activity upon addition of N(1)-methylnicotinamide, an electron donor of AOX1, as well as inhibition of this activity in HLC in the presence of AOX1 inhibitors. ANZP was acetylated to form AANZP by N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 2. An experiment using recombinant esterases in an inhibition study using HLM revealed that AANZP is hydrolyzed by arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC) in the human liver. N-Hydroxylamino NZP, which is suspected to be a reactive metabolite, was detected as a conjugate with N-acetyl-l-cysteine through NZP reduction and ANZP hydroxylation reactions. In the latter reaction, the conjugate was readily formed by recombinant CYP3A4 among the various P450 isoforms tested. In sum, we found that AOX1, NAT2, AADAC, and CYP3A4 are the determinants for the pharmacokinetics of NZP and that they confer interindividual variability in sensitivity to NZP side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. PMID:25395831

  19. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5-50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes modify the association between Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Nguyen, Deanna D; Sauk, Jenny; Yajnik, Vijay; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is a well established environmental risk factor for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The exact mechanism of its effect remains unexplained. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes may influence susceptibility to the effect of smoking and shed light on its mechanism of action. Methods We utilized a prospective cohort of patients with CD, UC, and healthy controls. Smoking status was defined as current, former, or never smoking. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms in CYP2A6, glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTP1 and GSTM1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO), and Heme Oxygenase 1 using a Sequenom platform. Multivariate logistic regression models with CD or UC as the outcome, stratified by genotype were developed and interaction p-values calculated. Results Our study included 634 patients with CD, 401 with UC, and 337 healthy controls. Ever smokers had an increased risk of CD (OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.35 – 6.39) compared to non-smokers among patients with AG/AA genotypes at CYP2A6. However, ever smoking was not associated with CD among patients with the AA genotype (pinteraction 0.001). Former smoking was associated with an increased risk for UC only in the presence of GG/AG genotypes for GSTP1, but not in those with the AA genotype (Pinteraction 0.012). Polymorphisms at the NQO and HMOX loci did not demonstrate a statistically significant interaction with smoking and risk of CD or UC. Conclusion Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes may influence the association between smoking and CD and UC. Further studies of gene-environment interaction in IBD are warranted. PMID:24651583

  1. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes modifying the association between smoking and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Nguyen, Deanna D; Sauk, Jenny; Yajnik, Vijay; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2014-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is a well-established environmental risk factor for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The exact mechanism of its effect remains unexplained. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes may influence susceptibility to the effect of smoking and shed light on its mechanism of action. We used a prospective cohort of patients with CD, UC, and healthy controls. Smoking status was defined as current, former, or never smoking. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms in CYP2A6, glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTP1 and GSTM1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO), and heme oxygenase 1 using a Sequenom platform. Multivariate logistic regression models with CD or UC as the outcome, stratified by genotype, were developed and interaction P-values calculated. Our study included 634 patients with CD, 401 with UC, and 337 healthy controls. Ever smokers had an increased risk of CD (odds ratio = 3.88, 95% confidence interval = 2.35-6.39) compared with nonsmokers among patients with AG/AA genotypes at CYP2A6. However, ever smoking was not associated with CD among patients with the AA genotype (Pinteraction = 0.001). Former smoking was associated with an increased risk for UC only in the presence of GG/AG genotypes for GSTP1 but not in those with the AA genotype (Pinteraction = 0.012). Polymorphisms at the NQO and HMOX loci did not demonstrate a statistically significant interaction with smoking and risk of CD or UC. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes may influence the association between smoking and CD and UC. Further studies of gene-environment interaction in inflammatory bowel disease are warranted.

  2. Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways by using structure and genome context.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W; Wood, B McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B; Hillerich, Brandan S; Seidel, Ronald D; Babbitt, Patricia C; Almo, Steven C; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gerlt, John A; Cronan, John E; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2013-10-31

    Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging: overprediction and database annotation errors are the principal concerns. We and others are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery with 'metabolite docking' to experimentally derived or homology-based three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by 'genome neighbourhoods' (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by 'predicting' the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in Escherichia coli. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins and enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. Here we report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and also the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt concentrations was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guided functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways.

  3. Overview of chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta: Identification, domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Jiang, Haobo; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature. The biosynthesis and degradation of chitin in insects are complex and dynamically regulated to cope with insect growth and development. Chitin metabolism in insects is known to involve numerous enzymes, including chitin synthases (synthesis of chitin), chitin deacetylases (modification of chitin by deacetylation) and chitinases (degradation of chitin by hydrolysis). In this study, we conducted a genome-wide search and analysis of genes encoding these chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta. Our analysis confirmed that only two chitin synthases are present in M. sexta as in most other arthropods. Eleven chitin deacetylases (encoded by nine genes) were identified, with at least one representative in each of the five phylogenetic groups that have been described for chitin deacetylases to date. Eleven genes encoding for family 18 chitinases (GH18) were found in the M. sexta genome. Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs in the catalytic sequences and phylogenetic relationships, two of the M. sexta chitinases did not cluster with any of the current eight phylogenetic groups of chitinases: two new groups were created (groups IX and X) and their characteristics are described. The result of the analysis of the Lepidoptera-specific chitinase-h (group h) is consistent with its proposed bacterial origin. By analyzing chitinases from fourteen species that belong to seven different phylogenetic groups, we reveal that the chitinase genes appear to have evolved sequentially in the arthropod lineage to achieve the current high level of diversity observed in M. sexta. Based on the sequence conservation of the catalytic domains and on their developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression, we propose putative functions for each group in each category of enzymes.

  4. Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K

    2012-09-01

    Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

  5. Structure and function of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Florence; Riezman, Howard; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G

    2010-08-11

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism, catalyzes the irreversible degradation of sphingoid base phosphates. Its main substrate sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts both extracellularly, by binding G protein-coupled receptors of the lysophospholipid receptor family, and inside the cell, as a second messenger. There, S1P takes part in regulating various cellular processes and its levels are tightly regulated. SPL is a pivotal enzyme regulating S1P intracellular concentrations and a promising drug target for the design of immunosuppressants. We structurally and functionally characterized yeast SPL (Dpl1p) and its first prokaryotic homolog, from Symbiobacterium thermophilum. The Dpl1p structure served as a basis for a very reliable model of Homo sapiens SPL. The above results, together with in vitro and in vivo studies of SPL mutants, reveal which residues are involved in activity and substrate binding and pave the way to studies aimed at controlling the activity of this pivotal enzyme.

  6. Altered expression of fatty acid–metabolizing enzymes in aromatase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Nemoto, Yoshihisa; Toda, Katsumi; Ono, Masafumi; Fujikawa-Adachi, Kiyomi; Saibara, Toshiji; Onishi, Saburo; Enzan, Hideaki; Okada, Teruhiko; Shizuta, Yutaka

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a frequent complication in nonobese patients with breast cancer treated with tamoxifen, a potent antagonist of estrogen. In addition, hepatic steatosis became evident spontaneously in the aromatase-deficient (ArKO) mouse, which lacks intrinsic estrogen production. These clinical and laboratory observations suggest that estrogen helps to maintain constitutive lipid metabolism. To clarify this hypothesis, we characterized the expression and activity in ArKO mouse liver of enzymes involved in peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. Northern analysis showed reduced expression of mRNAs for very long fatty acyl-CoA synthetase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, enzymes required in fatty acid β-oxidation. In vitro assays of fatty acid β-oxidation activity using very long (C24:0), long (C16:0), or medium (C12:0) chain fatty acids as the substrates confirmed that the corresponding activities are also diminished. Impaired gene expression and enzyme activities of fatty acid β-oxidation were restored to the wild-type levels, and hepatic steatosis was substantially diminished in animals treated with 17β-estradiol. Wild-type and ArKO mice showed no difference in the binding activities of the hepatic nuclear extracts to a peroxisome proliferator response element. These findings demonstrate the pivotal role of estrogen in supporting constitutive hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid β-oxidation and in maintaining hepatic lipid homeostasis. PMID:10862797

  7. Specificity of non-Michaelis-Menten enzymes: necessary information for analyzing metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Cárdenas, María Luz

    2010-12-16

    The specificity of an enzyme obeying the Michaelis−Menten equation is normally measured by comparing the kcat/Km for different substrates, but this is inappropriate for enzymes with a Hill coefficient h different from 1. The obvious alternative of generalizing Km in the expression as K0.5, the substrate concentration for half-saturation, is better, but it is not entirely satisfactory either, and here we show that kcat/K0.5(h) gives satisfactory results for analyzing the kinetic behavior of metabolic pathways. The importance of using kcat/K0.5(h) increases with the value of h, but even when h is small, it makes an appreciable difference, as illustrated for the mammalian hexokinases. Reinterpretation of data for the specificity of these enzymes in terms of the proposed definition indicates that hexokinase D, often believed highly specific for glucose, and accordingly called “glucokinase”, actually has the lowest preference for glucose over fructose of the four isoenzymes found in mammals.

  8. Reactive Intermediates Produced from Metabolism of the Vanilloid Ring of Capsaicinoids by P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Christopher A.; Henion, Fred; Bugni, Tim S.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Stockmann, Chris; Pramanik, Kartick C.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Yost, Garold S.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized electrophilic and radical products derived from metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 and peroxidase enzymes. Multiple glutathione and β-mercaptoethanol conjugates (a.k.a., adducts), derived from trapping of quinone methide and quinone intermediates of capsaicin, its analogue nonivamide, and O-demethylated and aromatic hydroxylated metabolites thereof, were produced by human liver microsomes and individual recombinant human P450 enzymes. Conjugates derived from concomitant dehydrogenation of the alkyl terminus of capsaicin, were also characterized. Modifications to the 4-OH substituent of the vanilloid ring of capsaicinoids largely prevented the formation of electrophilic intermediates, consistent with the proposed structures and mechanisms of formation for the various conjugates. 5,5’-Dicapsaicin, presumably arising from bi-molecular coupling of free radical intermediates, was also characterized. Finally, the analysis of hepatic glutathione conjugates and urinary N-acetylcysteine conjugates from mice dosed with capsaicin confirmed the formation of glutathione conjugates of O-demethylated, quinone methide, and 5-OH-capsaicin in vivo. These data demonstrated that capsaicin and structurally similar analogues are converted to reactive intermediates by certain P450 enzymes, which may partially explain conflicting reports related to the cytotoxic, pro-carcinogenic, and chemoprotective effects of capsaicinoids in different cells and/or organ systems. PMID:23088752

  9. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  10. Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum

    PubMed Central

    Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. α-tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- (α-tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development. PMID:23984094

  11. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.

    PubMed

    Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of creatine kinase M chain, fructose bisphosphate aldolase C-A, β-enolase, and pyruvate kinase at 3 h postmortem. Zymography indicated an earlier (P < 0.05) activation of μ-calpain in ES muscles. Free lysosomal cathepsin B and L activity increased faster (P < 0.05) in ES muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at an early postmortem time. Electrical stimulation also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P < 0.05) the depletion of ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen, as well as a pH decline and the more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization, resulting in lesser (P < 0.05) shear force values than the control over the testing time. A possible relationship was suggested between a change in the phosphorylation of energy metabolic enzymes and the postmortem tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of μ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle.

  12. Comprehensive Structural Characterization of the Bacterial Homospermidine Synthase-an Essential Enzyme of the Polyamine Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Krossa, Sebastian; Faust, Annette; Ober, Dietrich; Scheidig, Axel J

    2016-01-18

    The highly conserved bacterial homospermidine synthase (HSS) is a key enzyme of the polyamine metabolism of many proteobacteria including pathogenic strains such as Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; The unique usage of NAD(H) as a prosthetic group is a common feature of bacterial HSS, eukaryotic HSS and deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). The structure of the bacterial enzyme does not possess a lysine residue in the active center and thus does not form an enzyme-substrate Schiff base intermediate as observed for the DHS. In contrast to the DHS the active site is not formed by the interface of two subunits but resides within one subunit of the bacterial HSS. Crystal structures of Blastochloris viridis HSS (BvHSS) reveal two distinct substrate binding sites, one of which is highly specific for putrescine. BvHSS features a side pocket in the direct vicinity of the active site formed by conserved amino acids and a potential substrate discrimination, guiding, and sensing mechanism. The proposed reaction steps for the catalysis of BvHSS emphasize cation-π interaction through a conserved Trp residue as a key stabilizer of high energetic transition states.

  13. [Gene mining of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic enzymes in soybean].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongmei; Hao, Wenyuan; Gao, Shuqin; Ma, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yuhong; Meng, Fanfan; Fan, Xuhong; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yueqiang; Wang, Shuming

    2014-09-01

    The genes of sulfur-containing amino acid synthetases in soybean are essential for the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids. Gene mining of these enzymes is the basis for the molecular assistant breeding of high sulfur-containing amino acids in soybean. In this study, using software BioMercator2.1, 113 genes of sulfur-containing amino acid enzymes and 33 QTLs controlling the sulfur-containing amino acids content were mapped onto Consensus Map 4.0, which was integrated by genetic and physical maps of soybean. Sixteen candidate genes associated to the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids were screened based on the synteny between gene loci and QTLs, and the effect values of QTLs. Through a bioinformatic analysis of the copy number, SNP information, and expression profile of candidate genes, 12 related enzyme genes were identified and mapped on 8 linkage groups, such as D1a, M, A2, K, and G. The genes corresponding to QTL regions can explain 6%?38.5% genetic variation of sulfur-containing amino acids, and among them, the indirect effect values of 9 genes were more than 10%. These 12 genes were involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and were highly expressed in the cotyledons and flowers, showing an abundance of SNPs. These genes can be used as candidate genes for the development of functional markers, and it will lay a foundation for molecular design breeding in soybean.

  14. Comprehensive Structural Characterization of the Bacterial Homospermidine Synthase–an Essential Enzyme of the Polyamine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krossa, Sebastian; Faust, Annette; Ober, Dietrich; Scheidig, Axel J.

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved bacterial homospermidine synthase (HSS) is a key enzyme of the polyamine metabolism of many proteobacteria including pathogenic strains such as Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; The unique usage of NAD(H) as a prosthetic group is a common feature of bacterial HSS, eukaryotic HSS and deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). The structure of the bacterial enzyme does not possess a lysine residue in the active center and thus does not form an enzyme-substrate Schiff base intermediate as observed for the DHS. In contrast to the DHS the active site is not formed by the interface of two subunits but resides within one subunit of the bacterial HSS. Crystal structures of Blastochloris viridis HSS (BvHSS) reveal two distinct substrate binding sites, one of which is highly specific for putrescine. BvHSS features a side pocket in the direct vicinity of the active site formed by conserved amino acids and a potential substrate discrimination, guiding, and sensing mechanism. The proposed reaction steps for the catalysis of BvHSS emphasize cation-π interaction through a conserved Trp residue as a key stabilizer of high energetic transition states. PMID:26776105

  15. Correlating Structure and Function of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes: Progress and Ongoing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric F.; Connick, J. Patrick; Reed, James R.; Backes, Wayne L.; Desai, Manoj C.; Xu, Lianhong; Estrada, D. Fernando; Laurence, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPH–cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches. PMID:24130370

  16. Effect of oxytocin on serum biochemistry, liver enzymes, and metabolic hormones in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n = 40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T₄ concentration was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health.

  17. Discovery of a sesamin-metabolizing microorganism and a new enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Takuto; Fujiki, Etsuko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-08-09

    Sesamin is one of the major lignans found in sesame oil. Although some microbial metabolites of sesamin have been identified, sesamin-metabolic pathways remain uncharacterized at both the enzyme and gene levels. Here, we isolated microorganisms growing on sesamin as a sole-carbon source. One microorganism showing significant sesamin-degrading activity was identified as Sinomonas sp. no. 22. A sesamin-metabolizing enzyme named SesA was purified from this strain and characterized. SesA catalyzed methylene group transfer from sesamin or sesamin monocatechol to tetrahydrofolate (THF) with ring cleavage, yielding sesamin mono- or di-catechol and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The kinetic parameters of SesA were determined to be as follows: Km for sesamin = 0.032 ± 0.005 mM, Vmax = 9.3 ± 0.4 (μmol⋅min(-1)⋅mg(-1)), and kcat = 7.9 ± 0.3 s(-1) Next, we investigated the substrate specificity. SesA also showed enzymatic activity toward (+)-episesamin, (-)-asarinin, sesaminol, (+)-sesamolin, and piperine. Growth studies with strain no. 22, and Western blot analysis revealed that SesA formation is inducible by sesamin. The deduced amino acid sequence of sesA exhibited weak overall sequence similarity to that of the protein family of glycine cleavage T-proteins (GcvTs), which catalyze glycine degradation in most bacteria, archaea, and all eukaryotes. Only SesA catalyzes C1 transfer to THF with ring cleavage reaction among GcvT family proteins. Moreover, SesA homolog genes are found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings provide new insights into microbial sesamin metabolism and the function of GcvT family proteins.

  18. Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Germ-Free Mice by Conventionalization and Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the effect of intestinal microbiota modifiers, such as probiotics and conventionalization with exogenous bacteria, on host hepatic drug metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of these modifiers on the expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes of the host liver. VSL3 is a probiotic that contains eight live strains of bacteria. Five groups of mice were used: 1) conventional mice (CV), 2) conventional mice treated with VSL3 in drinking water, 3) germ-free (GF) mice, 4) GF mice treated with VSL3, and 5) GF mice exposed to the conventional environment for 2 months. All mice were 3 months old at tissue collection. GF conditions markedly downregulated the cytochrome P450 (P450) 3a gene cluster, but upregulated the Cyp4a cluster, whereas conventionalization normalized their expression to conventional levels [reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot]. Changes in the Cyp3a and 4a gene expression correlated with alterations in the pregnane X receptor and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α–DNA binding, respectively (chromatin immunoprecipitation–qPCR). VSL3 increased each bacterial component in the large intestinal content of the CV mice, and increased these bacteria even more in GF mice, likely due to less competition for growth in the GF environment. VSL3 given to conventional mice increased the mRNAs of Cyp4v3, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, and carboxyesterase 2a, but decreased the mRNAs of multiple phase II glutathione-S-transferases. VSL3 given to germ-free mice decreased the mRNAs of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1a9 and 2a3. In conclusion, conventionalization and VSL3 alter the expression of many drug-metabolizing enzyme s in the liver, suggesting the importance of considering “bacteria-drug” interactions for various adverse drug reactions in patients. PMID:26586378

  19. Discovery of a sesamin-metabolizing microorganism and a new enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Kumano, Takuto; Fujiki, Etsuko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-01

    Sesamin is one of the major lignans found in sesame oil. Although some microbial metabolites of sesamin have been identified, sesamin-metabolic pathways remain uncharacterized at both the enzyme and gene levels. Here, we isolated microorganisms growing on sesamin as a sole-carbon source. One microorganism showing significant sesamin-degrading activity was identified as Sinomonas sp. no. 22. A sesamin-metabolizing enzyme named SesA was purified from this strain and characterized. SesA catalyzed methylene group transfer from sesamin or sesamin monocatechol to tetrahydrofolate (THF) with ring cleavage, yielding sesamin mono- or di-catechol and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. The kinetic parameters of SesA were determined to be as follows: Km for sesamin = 0.032 ± 0.005 mM, Vmax = 9.3 ± 0.4 (μmol⋅min−1⋅mg−1), and kcat = 7.9 ± 0.3 s−1. Next, we investigated the substrate specificity. SesA also showed enzymatic activity toward (+)-episesamin, (−)-asarinin, sesaminol, (+)-sesamolin, and piperine. Growth studies with strain no. 22, and Western blot analysis revealed that SesA formation is inducible by sesamin. The deduced amino acid sequence of sesA exhibited weak overall sequence similarity to that of the protein family of glycine cleavage T-proteins (GcvTs), which catalyze glycine degradation in most bacteria, archaea, and all eukaryotes. Only SesA catalyzes C1 transfer to THF with ring cleavage reaction among GcvT family proteins. Moreover, SesA homolog genes are found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our findings provide new insights into microbial sesamin metabolism and the function of GcvT family proteins. PMID:27444012

  20. Human DHRS7, promising enzyme in metabolism of steroids and retinoids?

    PubMed

    Štambergová, Hana; Zemanová, Lucie; Lundová, Tereza; Malčeková, Beata; Skarka, Adam; Šafr, Miroslav; Wsól, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism of steroids and retinoids has been studied in detail for a long time, as these compounds are involved in a broad spectrum of physiological processes. Many enzymes participating in the conversion of such compounds are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Despite great effort, there still remain a number of poorly characterized SDR proteins. According to various bioinformatics predictions, many of these proteins may play a role in the metabolism of steroids and retinoids. Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7) is one such protein. In a previous study, we determined DHRS7 to be an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum facing the lumen which has shown at least in vitro NADPH-dependent reducing activity toward several eobiotics and xenobiotics bearing a carbonyl moiety. In the present paper pure DHRS7 was used for a more detailed study of both substrate screening and an analysis of kinetics parameters of the physiologically important substrates androstene-3,17-dione, cortisone and all-trans-retinal. Expression patterns of DHRS7 at the mRNA as well as protein level were determined in a panel of various human tissue samples, a procedure that has enabled the first estimation of the possible biological function of this enzyme. DHRS7 is expressed in tissues such as prostate, adrenal glands, liver or intestine, where its activity could be well exploited. Preliminary indications show that DHRS7 exhibits dual substrate specificity recognizing not only steroids but also retinoids as potential substrates and could be important in the metabolism of these signalling molecules.

  1. Correlation of Homocysteine Metabolic Enzymes Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Material/Methods Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHFR, as well as the A2756G polymorphism in MS) and MCI by using the SNaPshot method. We then determined the homocysteine level in patients. Results In Xinjiang Uygur subjects, the A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and the A2756G polymorphisms in the MS gene in the MCI group were different from those in the control group. However, the C677T and G1968A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in MCI patients were not different from those in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, in addition to the well-known risk factors, such as low education level, high cholesterol level, high level of low-density lipoprotein, and high homocysteine levels, the A>G mutation in the MS gene at the rs1805087 locus was another independent risk factor for MCI in the Uyghur MCI population. The risk of MCI in G allele carriers was 2.265 times higher than that in matched control individuals (95% CI: 1.205~4.256, P<0.05). Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of HCY metabolizing enzymes is correlated to the occurrence of MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. The A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene could be an independent risk factor for MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. PMID:25625218

  2. Correlating structure and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes: progress and ongoing challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric F; Connick, J Patrick; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L; Desai, Manoj C; Xu, Lianhong; Estrada, D Fernando; Laurence, Jennifer S; Scott, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches.

  3. Dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine regulation of hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression: Impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, P; Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-04-30

    The brain astrocyte glycogen reservoir is a vital energy reserve and, in the cerebral cortex, subject among other factors to noradrenergic control. The ovarian steroid estradiol potently stimulates nerve cell aerobic respiration, but its role in glial glycogen metabolism during energy homeostasis or mismatched substrate supply/demand is unclear. This study examined the premise that estradiol regulates hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression during normo- and hypoglycemia in vivo through dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine (CA)-dependent mechanisms. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH), arcuate hypothalamic (ARH), and paraventricular hypothalamic (PVH) nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of estradiol (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats after insulin or vehicle injection, and pooled within each site. Stimulation [VMH, LHA] or suppression [PVH, ARH] of basal glycogen synthase (GS) protein expression by E was reversed in the former three sites by caudal fourth ventricular pretreatment with the CA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). E diminished glycogen phosphorylase (GP) protein profiles by CA-dependent [VMH, PVH] or -independent mechanisms [LHA]. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) increased GS expression in the PVH in OVX+E, but reduced this protein in the PVH, ARH, and LHA in OVX+O. Moreover, IIH augmented GP expression in the VMH, LHA, and ARH in OVX+E and in the ARH in OVX+O, responses that normalized by 6-OHDA. Results demonstrate site-specific effects of E on astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme expression in the female rat hypothalamus, and identify locations where dorsomedial hindbrain CA input is required for such action. Evidence that E correspondingly increases and reduces basal GS and GP in the VMH and LHA, but augments the latter protein during IIH suggests that E regulates

  4. Sink filling, inulin metabolizing enzymes and carbohydrate status in field grown chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    van Arkel, Jeroen; Vergauwen, Rudy; Sévenier, Robert; Hakkert, Johanna C; van Laere, André; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Koops, Andries J; van der Meer, Ingrid M

    2012-10-15

    Inulin is a fructose-based polymer that is isolated from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) taproots. The degree of polymerization (DP) determines its application and hence the value of the crop. The DP is highly dependent on the field conditions and harvest time. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the objective to understand the regulation of inulin metabolism and the process that determines the chain length and inulin yield throughout the whole growing season. Metabolic aspects of inulin production and degradation in chicory were monitored in the field and under controlled conditions. The following characteristics were determined in taproots: concentrations of glucose, fructose and sucrose, the inulin mean polymer length (mDP), yield, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in inulin metabolism. Inulin synthesis, catalyzed by sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.99) (1-SST) and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.100) (1-FFT), started at the onset of taproot development. Inulin yield as a function of time followed a sigmoid curve reaching a maximum in November. Inulin reached a maximum mDP of about 15 in September, than gradually decreased. Based on the changes observed in the pattern of inulin accumulation, we defined three different phases in the growing season and analyzed product formation, enzyme activity and gene expression in these defined periods. The results were validated by performing experiments under controlled conditions in climate rooms. Our results show that the decrease in 1-SST that starts in June is not regulated by day length and temperature. From mid-September onwards, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) decreased gradually although inulin yield still increased. The decrease in mDP combined with increased yield results from fructan exohydrolase activity, induced by low temperature, and the back transfer activity of 1-FFT. Overall, this study provides background information on how to improve

  5. Lead (Pb)-inhibited radicle emergence in Brassica campestris involves alterations in starch-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Kaur, Gurpreet; Batish, Daizy R; Kohli, Ravinder K

    2011-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal released into the natural environment and known to cause oxidative damage and alter antioxidant mechanism in plants. However, not much is known about the interference of Pb with the biochemical processes and carbohydrate metabolism during seed germination. We, therefore, investigated the effect of Pb (50-500 μM) upon biochemical alterations in germinating seeds (at 24-h stage) of Brassica campestris L. Pb treatment significantly enhanced protein and carbohydrate contents that increased by ~43% and 200%, respectively, at 500-μM Pb over control. In contrast, the activities of starch/carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes--α-amylases, β-amylases, acid invertases, and acid phosphatases--decreased by ~54%, 60%, 74%, and 52%, respectively, over control. Activities of peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases, involved in stress acclimation, however, increased by ~1.2- to 3.9-folds and 0.4- to 1.4-folds upon 50-500-μM Pb treatment. Pb enhanced oxidizing ability by 10 to 16.7 times over control suggesting interference with emerging root's oxidizing capacity. The study concludes that Pb exposure inhibits radicle emergence from B. campestris by interfering with the biochemical processes linked to protein and starch metabolism.

  6. The Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Biosynthetic Enzyme Has Distinct Catalytic and Metabolic Roles

    PubMed Central

    Frej, Anna D.; Clark, Jonathan; Le Roy, Caroline I.; Lilla, Sergio; Thomason, Peter A.; Otto, Grant P.; Churchill, Grant; Insall, Robert H.; Claus, Sandrine P.; Hawkins, Phillip; Stephens, Len

    2016-01-01

    Inositol levels, maintained by the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase (Ino1), are altered in a range of disorders, including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. To date, most inositol studies have focused on the molecular and cellular effects of inositol depletion without considering Ino1 levels. Here we employ a simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, to demonstrate distinct effects of loss of Ino1 and inositol depletion. We show that loss of Ino1 results in an inositol auxotrophy that can be rescued only partially by exogenous inositol. Removal of inositol supplementation from the ino1− mutant resulted in a rapid 56% reduction in inositol levels, triggering the induction of autophagy, reduced cytokinesis, and substrate adhesion. Inositol depletion also caused a dramatic generalized decrease in phosphoinositide levels that was rescued by inositol supplementation. However, loss of Ino1 triggered broad metabolic changes consistent with the induction of a catabolic state that was not rescued by inositol supplementation. These data suggest a metabolic role for Ino1 that is independent of inositol biosynthesis. To characterize this role, an Ino1 binding partner containing SEL1L1 domains (Q54IX5) and having homology to mammalian macromolecular complex adaptor proteins was identified. Our findings therefore identify a new role for Ino1, independent of inositol biosynthesis, with broad effects on cell metabolism. PMID:26951199

  7. Garlic Oil Attenuated Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Modulating the Metabolic Activation and Detoxification Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase Ⅰ enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase Ⅱ enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes. PMID:23494807

  8. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Lye, Lon-Fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H(4)B requirement. L. major PAH resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-type domain organization, and conservation of key catalytic residues including those implicated in pteridine binding. A pah(-) null mutant and an episomal complemented overexpressing derivative (pah-/+PAH) were readily obtained, and metabolic labeling studies established that PAH was required to hydroxylate Phe to Tyr. Neither WT nor overexpressing lines were able to hydroxylate radiolabeled tyrosine or tryptophan, nor to synthesize catecholamines. WT but not pah(-) parasites showed reactivity with an antibody to melanin when grown with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the reactive product is unlikely to be melanin sensu strictu. WT was auxotrophic for Phe, Trp and Tyr, suggesting that PAH activity was insufficient to meet normal Tyr requirements. However, pah(-) showed an increased sensitivity to Tyr deprivation, while the pah(-)/+PAH overexpressor showed increased survival and could be adapted to grow well without added Tyr. pah(-) showed no alterations in H(4)B-dependent differentiation, as established by in vitro metacyclogenesis, or survival in mouse or macrophage infections. Thus Leishmania PAH may mitigate but not alleviate Tyr auxotrophy, but plays no essential role in the steps of the parasite infectious cycle. These findings suggest PAH is unlikely to explain the Leishmania requirement for biopterin.

  9. Metabolic adaptation via regulated enzyme degradation in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ting, S Y; Ishola, O A; Ahmed, M A; Tabana, Y M; Dahham, S; Agha, M T; Musa, S F; Muhammed, R; Than, L T L; Sandai, D

    2017-03-01

    The virulence of Candida albicans is dependent upon fitness attributes as well as virulence factors. These attributes include robust stress responses and metabolic flexibility. The assimilation of carbon sources is important for growth and essential for the establishment of infections by C. albicans. Previous studies showed that the C. albicans ICL1 genes, which encode the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitratelyase are required for growth on non-fermentable carbon sources such as lactate and oleic acid and were repressed by 2% glucose. In contrast to S. cerevsiae, the enzyme CaIcl1 was not destabilised by glucose, resulting with its metabolite remaining at high levels. Further glucose addition has caused CaIcl1 to lose its signal and mechanisms that trigger destabilization in response to glucose. Another purpose of this study was to test the stability of the Icl1 enzyme in response to the dietary sugars, fructose, and galactose. In the present study, the ICL1 mRNAs expression was quantified using Quantitative Real Time PCR, whereby the stability of protein was measured and quantified using Western blot and phosphoimager, and the replacing and cloning of ICL1 ORF by gene recombination and ubiquitin binding was conducted via co-immuno-precipitation. Following an analogous experimental approach, the analysis was repeated using S. cerevisiaeas a control. Both galactose and fructose were found to trigger the degradation of the ICL1 transcript in C. albicans. The Icl1 enzyme was stable following galactose addition but was degraded in response to fructose. C. albicans Icl1 (CaIcl1) was also subjected to fructose-accelerated degradation when expressed in S. cerevisiae, indicating that, although it lacks a ubiquitination site, CaIcl1 is sensitive to fructose-accelerated protein degradation. The addition of an ubiquitination site to CaIcl1 resulted in this enzyme becoming sensitive to galactose-accelerated degradation and increases its rate of degradation in the

  10. Applying theories of microbial metabolism for induction of targeted enzyme activity in a methanogenic microbial community at a metabolic steady state.

    PubMed

    Speda, Jutta; Johansson, Mikaela A; Jonsson, Bengt-Harald; Karlsson, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Novel enzymes that are stable in diverse conditions are intensively sought because they offer major potential advantages in industrial biotechnology, and microorganisms in extreme environments are key sources of such enzymes. However, most potentially valuable enzymes are currently inaccessible due to the pure culturing problem of microorganisms. Novel metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques that circumvent the need for pure cultures have theoretically provided possibilities to identify all genes and all proteins in microbial communities, but these techniques have not been widely used to directly identify specific enzymes because they generate vast amounts of extraneous data.In a first step towards developing a metaproteomic approach to pinpoint targeted extracellular hydrolytic enzymes of choice in microbial communities, we have generated and analyzed the necessary conditions for such an approach by the use of a methanogenic microbial community maintained on a chemically defined medium. The results show that a metabolic steady state of the microbial community could be reached, at which the expression of the targeted hydrolytic enzymes were suppressed, and that upon enzyme induction a distinct increase in the targeted enzyme expression was obtained. Furthermore, no cross talk in expression was detected between the two focal types of enzyme activities under their respective inductive conditions. Thus, the described approach should be useful to generate ideal samples, collected before and after selective induction, in controlled microbial communities to clearly discriminate between constituently expressed proteins and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes that are specifically induced, thereby reducing the analysis to only those proteins that are distinctively up-regulated.

  11. Structure and Function of Human Xylulokinase, an Enzyme with Important Roles in Carbohydrate Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Richard D.; Bulloch, Esther M. M.; Dickson, James M. J.; Loomes, Kerry M.; Baker, Edward N.

    2013-01-01

    d-Xylulokinase (XK; EC 2.7.1.17) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of d-xylulose (Xu) to produce xylulose 5-phosphate (Xu5P). In mammals, XK is the last enzyme in the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, active in the liver and kidneys, and is linked through its product Xu5P to the pentose-phosphate pathway. XK may play an important role in metabolic disease, given that Xu5P is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and lipogenesis. We have expressed the product of a putative human XK gene and identified it as the authentic human d-xylulokinase (hXK). NMR studies with a variety of sugars showed that hXK acts only on d-xylulose, and a coupled photometric assay established its key kinetic parameters as Km(Xu) = 24 ± 3 μm and kcat = 35 ± 5 s−1. Crystal structures were determined for hXK, on its own and in complexes with Xu, ADP, and a fluorinated inhibitor. These reveal that hXK has a two-domain fold characteristic of the sugar kinase/hsp70/actin superfamily, with glycerol kinase as its closest relative. Xu binds to domain-I and ADP to domain-II, but in this open form of hXK they are 10 Å apart, implying that a large scale conformational change is required for catalysis. Xu binds in its linear keto-form, sandwiched between a Trp side chain and polar side chains that provide exquisite hydrogen bonding recognition. The hXK structure provides a basis for the design of specific inhibitors with which to probe its roles in sugar metabolism and metabolic disease. PMID:23179721

  12. PGK1, a glucose metabolism enzyme, may play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Yan, Xinfeng; Li, Xia; Zheng, Yabing; Li, Shufeng; Chang, Xiaotian

    2016-10-01

    Some studies have indicated that glucose metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed to find the novel genes affecting glucose metabolism in RA. Synovial tissues of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were analyzed with Rat Glucose Metabolism RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array to screen those genes with special expressions in glucose metabolism. Real-time PCR, western blotting, and ELISA were used to confirm the result in synovial tissues and blood of human RA. Culture synovial fibroblast cells (RASF) was treated with siRNA to suppress expressions of the target genes. CCK-8 cell proliferation assay and two-compartment transwell system were performed to examine cell proliferation and cell migration of the treated RASF. Both PCR array and real-time PCR detected the up-regulation of ENO1, HK2, and PGK1 and the down-regulation of PCK1 and PDK4 in synovial tissues of CIA rats. Real-time PCR and western blotting detected the increased expression of ENO1 and PGK1 in RA synovial tissues. ELISA detected a high level of PGK1 in the blood of RA patients. Decreased cell proliferation and cell migration capabilities were significantly detected in RASF following treatment of anti-PGK1 siRNA. IL-1β and IFN-γ rather than TNF-α and IL-1α levels were significantly declined in supernatants of the treated RASF. PGK1, a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate into 2-phosphoglycerate, has increased expression in synovial tissues and blood of RA, which may be involved in pro-inflammation and synovial hyperplasia of the disease.

  13. Quercetin-metabolizing CYP6AS enzymes of the pollinator Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Johnson, Reed M; Zangerl, Arthur R; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-12-01

    Although the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome contains far fewer cytochrome P450 genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism than other insect genomes sequenced to date, the CYP6AS subfamily, apparently unique to hymenopterans, has undergone an expansion relative to the genome of the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis). The relative dominance of this family in the honey bee genome is suggestive of a role in processing phytochemicals encountered by honey bees in their relatively unusual diet of honey (comprising concentrated processed nectar of many plant species) and bee bread (a mixture of honey and pollen from many plant species). In this study, quercetin was initially suggested as a shared substrate for CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, and CYP6AS4, by its presence in honey, extracts of which induce transcription of these three genes, and by in silico substrate predictions based on a molecular model of CYP6AS3. Biochemical assays with heterologously expressed CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 enzymes subsequently confirmed their activity toward this substrate. CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 metabolize quercetin at rates of 0.5+/-0.1, 0.5+/-0.1, 0.2+/-0.1, and 0.2+/-0.1 pmol quercetin/ pmol P450/min, respectively. Substrate dockings and sequence alignments revealed that the positively charged amino acids His107 and Lys217 and the carbonyl group of the backbone between Leu302 and Ala303 are essential for quercetin orientation in the CYP6AS3 catalytic site and its efficient metabolism. Multiple replacements in the catalytic site of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 and repositioning of the quercetin molecule likely account for the lower metabolic activities of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 compared to CYP6AS1 and CYP6AS3.

  14. Δ9 desaturase from Trypanosoma cruzi: Key enzyme in the parasite metabolism. Cloning and overexpression.

    PubMed

    Woelke, Mariela R; Paulucci, Natalia S; Selva, Armentano; Garban, Hermes; de Lema, Mirta García

    2017-01-01

    Desaturases, key enzymes in the metabolism of fatty acids, regulate the physical and biochemical properties of membranes. They adjust the composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in response to changes in the environmental. We demonstrated the existence of Δ9 desaturase activity in epimastigotes of the Trypanosoma cruzi Tulahuen strain. In the present study, showed that this enzyme has an approximate molecular mass of 50kDa and a pI value of approximately 9. In order to characterize the Δ9 desaturase of Trypanosoma cruzi, (TcΔ9DES) we have cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene consists of 1300bp and encodes a peptide of 433 amino acids with a molecular weight of 50kDa. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed three clusters of histidine and two hydrophobic regions, characteristic of membrane-bound desaturases. Gene expression studies showed that TcΔ9DES was overexpressed as an active protein. Fatty acid analysis showed that the expressed protein was confirmed to be functional with Δ9 desaturase activity. This enzyme changed the fatty acid profile of TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli, decreasing the levels of palmitic (16:0) and stearic (18:0) acids and enhancing palmitoleic (16:1Δ9) and monounsaturated 18 carbons fatty acids. When [1-14C]palmitic or [1-14C]stearic acid was used as substrate, TcΔ9DES-expressing E. coli exhibited high desaturase activity associated with increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, suggesting that the TcΔ9DES enzyme was actively expressed in E. coli. To check the commitment of TcΔ9DES against sterol biosynthesis inhibitors we tested the activity under ketoconazole effect. Native TcΔ9DES, showed a significant activity inhibition. Since TcΔ9DES has shown active participation under different environmental factors, among them, ketoconazole, we consider that it plays a critical role in the metabolism of the parasite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack P.; Naik, Punith P.; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M.; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M.; Muddiman, David C.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

  16. Life-history evolution and the microevolution of intermediary metabolism: activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in life-history morphs of a wing-dimorphic cricket.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2003-03-01

    Although a considerable amount of information is available on the ecology, genetics, and physiology of life-history traits, much more limited data are available on the biochemical and genetic correlates of life-history variation within species. Specific activities of five enzymes of lipid biosynthesis and two enzymes of amino acid catabolism were compared among lines selected for flight-capable (LW[f]) versus flightless (SW) morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus. These morphs, which exist in natural populations, differ genetically in ovarian growth (100-400% higher in SW) and aspects of flight capability including the size of wings and flight muscles, and the concentration of triglyceride flight fuel (40% greater in LW[f]). Consistently higher activity of each enzyme in LW(f) versus SW-selected lines, and strong co-segregation between morph and enzyme activity, demonstrated genetically based co-variance between wing morph and enzyme activity. Developmental profiles of enzyme activities strongly paralleled profiles of triglyceride accumulation during adulthood and previous measures of in vivo lipid biosynthesis. These data strongly imply that genetically based elevation in activities of lipogenic enzymes, and enzymes controlling the conversion of amino acids into lipids, is an important cause underlying the elevated accumulation of triglyceride in the LW(f) morph, a key biochemical component of the trade-off between elevated early fecundity and flight capability. Global changes in lipid and amino-acid metabolism appear to have resulted from microevolutionary alteration of regulators of metabolism. Finally, strong genotype x environment (diet) interactions were observed for most enzyme activities. Future progress in understanding the functional causes of life-history evolution requires a more detailed synthesis of the fields of life-history evolution and metabolic biochemistry. Wing polymorphism is a powerful experimental model in such integrative studies.

  17. Biomarkers of PAH exposure in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.; Robinson, R.; Solomon, K.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and some may cause reproductive toxicity in fish. The purpose of this study is to develop biomarkers of PAH effects on fathead minnows (P. promelas). Mesocosms will be treated with the wood preservative creosote (composition is ca. 80% as PAHs). The authors anticipate that metabolism of PAHs by fish will generate free radicals that damage DNA and cause liver tumors. Rainbow trout (RBT) (0. mykiss) and fathead minnows (FHM) will be exposed to a range of waterborne creosote concentrations below the LC,, values (5.66 mg/L for RBT and 5.97 mg/L for FHM). Fish liver, muscle, intestine, and bile will be removed to measure (1) PAH biotransformation (EROD activity and concentration of PAH metabolites in bile), (2) oxidative stress (retinoic acid, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels), and (3) genotoxicity (micronucleus induction, DNA strand breaks, and DNA adducts). Biomarkers will be considered suitable for application when results are repeatable, show exposure dependency, and respond at sublethal concentrations typical of contaminated ecosystems.

  18. Modeling the role of covalent enzyme modification in Escherichia coli nitrogen metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Philip B.; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2010-03-01

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts ammonium into the amino acid glutamine. GS is principally active when the cell is experiencing nitrogen limitation, and its activity is regulated by a bicyclic covalent modification cascade. The advantages of this bicyclic-cascade architecture are poorly understood. We analyze a simple model of the GS cascade in comparison to other regulatory schemes and conclude that the bicyclic cascade is suboptimal for maintaining metabolic homeostasis of the free glutamine pool. Instead, we argue that the lag inherent in the covalent modification of GS slows the response to an ammonium shock and thereby allows GS to transiently detoxify the cell, while maintaining homeostasis over longer times.

  19. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural basis of heroin and cocaine metabolism by a promiscuous human drug-processing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bencharit, Sompop; Morton, Christopher L; Xue, Yu; Potter, Philip M; Redinbo, Matthew R

    2003-05-01

    We present the first crystal structures of a human protein bound to analogs of cocaine and heroin. Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a broad-spectrum bioscavenger that catalyzes the hydrolysis of heroin and cocaine, and the detoxification of organophosphate chemical weapons, such as sarin, soman and tabun. Crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complex with the cocaine analog homatropine and the heroin analog naloxone provide explicit details about narcotic metabolism in humans. The hCE1 active site contains both specific and promiscuous compartments, which enable the enzyme to act on structurally distinct chemicals. A selective surface ligand-binding site regulates the trimer-hexamer equilibrium of hCE1 and allows each hCE1 monomer to bind two narcotic molecules simultaneously. The bioscavenger properties of hCE1 can likely be used to treat both narcotic overdose and chemical weapon exposure.

  1. [The effect of glucoprotein component of musk on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes].

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Bai, J; Cheng, G; Zhu, X

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the effects of musk-1, a glucoprotein component isolated from the water extract of musk, on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes, which include phospholipase A2(PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and cyclooxygenase (COX), in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes, an in vitro incubation system with rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes or homogenate supernatant of the same cells was used. In comparison with control, musk-1 at final concentrations of 1-100 micrograms/ml can increase AA release from PMNL by 6.0%-21.6%, decrease LTB4 biosynthesis in homogenate supernatant of the cells by 9%-81%, but increase 6-keto-PGF1 alpha production by 18.2%-85.4%.

  2. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Shirai, Tomokazu; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Y

    2015-01-01

    Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching five times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique.

  3. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Osanai, Takashi; Shirai, Tomokazu; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Y.

    2015-01-01

    Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching five times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique. PMID:26500619

  4. Fungal colonization and enzyme-mediated metabolism of waste coal by Neosartorya fischeri strain ECCN 84.

    PubMed

    Sekhohola, Lerato Mary; Isaacs, Michelle Louise; Cowan, Ashton Keith

    2014-01-01

    Colonization and oxidative metabolism of South African low-rank discard coal by the fungal strain ECCN 84 previously isolated from a coal environment and identified as Neosartorya fischeri was investigated. Results show that waste coal supported fungal growth. Colonization of waste coal particles by N. fischeri ECCN 84 was associated with the formation of compact spherical pellets or sclerotia-like structures. Dissection of the pellets from liquid cultures revealed a nucleus of "engulfed" coal which when analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a time-dependent decline in weight percentage of elemental carbon and an increase in elemental oxygen. Proliferation of peroxisomes in hyphae attached to coal particles and increased extracellular laccase activity occurred after addition of waste coal to cultures of N. fischeri ECCN 84. These results support a role for oxidative enzyme action in the biodegradation of coal and suggest that extracellular laccase is a key component in this process.

  5. Gene Expression Variability in Human Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Price, Elvin T.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Li, Yan; Huang, Ying; Guo, Li-Wu; Guo, Yongli; Kaput, Jim; Shi, Leming; Ning, Baitang

    2013-01-01

    Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications. PMID:23637747

  6. Bioventing PAH contamination at the Reilly Tar Site

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater PAH removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate PAH biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total PAH was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to PAH metabolism, strong correlations were found between the PAH concentration and biodegradation rates.

  7. Evaluation of the possible role of five enzymes in the metabolism of IBA in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Rup, P J; Sohal, S K; Kaur, G; Pal, S

    2004-04-01

    The enzymatic activity of five enzymes viz. Glutathione S-transferases, Esterases, NADH dehydrogenase, NADH oxidase and Glutathione reductase were assessed under the influence of Indole butyric acid (IBA) (400 ppm) in the nymphs (48-52h old) of mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi fed on radish plants treated for 13, 25 and 37h. The activity of Glutathione S-transferases, Esterases and NADH dehydrogenase increased compared to that found in the control of the same age group of nymphs and it was concluded that these enzymes might be involved in the metabolism of IBA. The other two enzymes, NADH oxidase and Glutathione reductase showed no significant increase in their activity compared to that in the control of the same age group. It was hypothesized that the latter enzymes do not play any significant role in the metabolism of IBA.

  8. YCF1-Mediated Cadmium Resistance in Yeast Is Dependent on Copper Metabolism and Antioxidant Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wenzhong; Smith, Nathan; Wu, Xiaobin; Kim, Heejeong; Seravalli, Javier; Khalimonchuk, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Results: Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1p) is necessary for cadmium resistance that is mediated by Ycf1p, a vacuolar cadmium sequestration transporter. This is attributed to Ccs1p's role in the maturation of Sod1p rather than its direct interaction with Ycf1p for cadmium transfer. Functional defect in Ycf1p associated with the absence of Sod1p as well as another antioxidant enzyme Glr1p is rescued by anaerobic growth or substitutions of specific cysteine residues of Ycf1p to alanine or serine. This further supports oxidative inactivation of Ycf1p in the absence of Ccs1p, Sod1p, or Glr1p. Innovation: These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal metabolism, interaction among metal ions, and the roles for antioxidant systems in metal detoxification. Conclusion: Copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes maintain the function of Ycf1p for cadmium defense. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1475–1489. PMID:24444374

  9. FireMaster BP-6: fractionation, metabolic and enzyme induction studies.

    PubMed

    Safe, S; Kohli, J; Crawford, A

    1978-04-01

    FireMaster BP-6 is a commercial polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) preparation containing a complex mixture of isomers with the major component being identified as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Column chromatographic techniques have been developed in which the crude FireMaster is separated into three fractions, F1, F2, and F3, in increasing order of polarity. F1 consists of highly purified 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (94%) whereas F2-F3 contain less of this isomer and correspondingly more of the other bromobiphenyl components. Previously we have shown that crude FireMaster BP-6 is metabolized in mammals to give hydroxylated degradation products and the metabolism of F1, not unexpectedly, gives comparable results. It is well known that PBBs are effective inducers of diverse microsomal enzymes including including the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) system. The effects of FireMaster BP-6 and F1-F3 as AHH inducers have been investigated by using the following approach: the substrates used to monitor AHH activity are model halogenated aromatic compounds; the levels of metabolites and metabolite conjugates formed have been quantitated for control and induced enzymes; the levels of macromolecular adducts have also been quantitated for the inducers. This approach thus not only measures the rate of increase of detoxification products (metabolites and metabolite conjugates) but also monitors the macromolecule adduct formation which represents a toxification route. The effects of the PBBs as AHH inducers will be discussed in terms of the above approach.

  10. Gene expression profiling and pathway network analysis of hepatic metabolic enzymes targeted by baicalein.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si; Chen, Jihua; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Hou, De-Xing

    2012-03-06

    Baicalein is a flavone originally isolated from the roots of traditional Chinese medicinal herb, Scutellaria baicalensis, which has been proved as a promising chemopreventive compound for many chronic human diseases. The present study aimed to clarify the molecular mechanism targeted by baicalein. Gene expression profiling of HepG2 cells treated with baicalein was carried out, using the Affymetrix 42K oligonucleotide microarray in the present study. Microarray data analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), further study performed by real time PCR, reporter gene assay, and Western blot. Among total 42K gene probes, baicalein treatment up-regulated the signals of 440 gene probes (1.04% of total gene probes) and down-regulated signals of 254 gene probes (0.6% of total gene probes) by ≥2-fold. These genes were categorized into 35 groups and hit for biological processes, molecular functions, and signaling pathways. The network and pathway analyses of these data further revealed that an Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2)-mediated ARE (antioxidant response element) pathway is involved in baicalein-induced gene expression of hepatic metabolic enzymes. The representative enzymes involved in Nrf2/ARE pathway were further confirmed at mRNA level by real time PCR and at protein level by Western blot analysis. Moreover, the ARE-reporter gene assay demonstrated that baicalein stimulated Nrf2-mediated ARE transactivation. Our results provide a comprehensive data for understanding the hepatic metabolism, bioactive role and the molecular mechanisms of baicalein. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. YCF1-mediated cadmium resistance in yeast is dependent on copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenzhong; Smith, Nathan; Wu, Xiaobin; Kim, Heejeong; Seravalli, Javier; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Lee, Jaekwon

    2014-10-01

    Acquisition and detoxification of metal ions are vital biological processes. Given the requirement of metallochaperones in cellular copper distribution and metallation of cuproproteins, this study investigates whether the metallochaperones also deliver metal ions for transporters functioning in metal detoxification. Resistance to excess cadmium and copper of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is conferred by PCA1 and CaCRP1 metal efflux P-type ATPases, respectively, does not rely on known metallochaperones, Atx1p, Ccs1p, and Cox17p. Copper deficiency induced by the expression of CaCRP1 encoding a copper exporter occurs in the absence of Atx1p. Intriguingly, CCS1 encoding the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1p) is necessary for cadmium resistance that is mediated by Ycf1p, a vacuolar cadmium sequestration transporter. This is attributed to Ccs1p's role in the maturation of Sod1p rather than its direct interaction with Ycf1p for cadmium transfer. Functional defect in Ycf1p associated with the absence of Sod1p as well as another antioxidant enzyme Glr1p is rescued by anaerobic growth or substitutions of specific cysteine residues of Ycf1p to alanine or serine. This further supports oxidative inactivation of Ycf1p in the absence of Ccs1p, Sod1p, or Glr1p. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of metal metabolism, interaction among metal ions, and the roles for antioxidant systems in metal detoxification. Copper metabolism and antioxidant enzymes maintain the function of Ycf1p for cadmium defense.

  12. Functional polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and their impact on the therapy of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Festa-Vasconcellos, Juliana Simões; Goulart-Citrangulo, Sheyla Maria Torres; Leite, Marcelo Sobral

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the top cancer among women, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although the mortality tends to decrease due to early detection and treatment, there is great variability in the rates of clinical response and survival, which makes breast cancer one of the most appealing targets for pharmacogenomic studies. The recognition that functional CYP2D6 polymorphisms affect tamoxifen pharmacokinetics has motivated the attempts of using CYP2D6 genotyping for predicting breast cancer outcomes. In addition to tamoxifen, the chemotherapy of breast cancer includes combinations of cytotoxic drugs, which are substrates for various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Because of these drugs' narrow therapeutic window, it has been postulated that impaired biotransformation could lead to increased toxicity. In the present review, we performed a systematic search of all published data exploring associations between polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and clinical outcomes of breast cancer. We retrieved 43 original articles involving either tamoxifen or other chemotherapeutic protocols, and compiled all information regarding response or toxicity. The data indicate that, although CYP2D6 polymorphisms can indeed modify tamoxifen pharmacokinetics, CYP2D6 genotyping alone is not enough for predicting breast cancer outcomes. The studies involving other chemotherapeutic protocols explored a great diversity of pharmacogenetic targets, but the number of studies for each functional polymorphism is still very limited, with usually no confirmation of positive associations. In conclusion, the application of pharmacogenetics to predict breast cancer outcomes and to select one individual's chemotherapeutic protocol is still far from clinical routine. Although some very interesting results have been produced, no clear practical recommendations are recognized yet.

  13. [Involvement of microRNA in the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes].

    PubMed

    Shizu, Ryota; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs of about 20 nucleotides in length and participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Accumulating evidence indicates that miRNA binds to 3'-UTR of its target mRNAs and thereby destabilizes the transcripts or suppresses the translation. It is expected that miRNAs could have diverse functions and therefore play a role in the gene expression caused by the drug treatment, which have yet to be determined. Demonstration of the participation of specific miRNA in the drug-mediated gene expression would make it a biomarker for the toxicological assessment and help an understanding of molecular machinery of the drug-drug interaction. Under these backgrounds, we investigated the change of miRNAs in the liver of mice treated with phenobarbital, a typical inducer for drug-metabolizing enzymes, and demonstrate the participation of miRNAs in the phenobarbital-regulated gene expression. We investigated the relationship between phenobarbital-mediated changes in miRNA and mRNA by using Agilent miRNA microarray and DNA microarray, followed by real time RT-PCR. From these experiments, it was suggested that the phenobarbital-induced changes in cyp2c29 and mrp3 are regulated by miR-30a and miR-29b, respectively. In addition, we obtained evidence that indicates a phenobarbital-mediated decrease in miR-122, a highly abundant liver-specific miRNA, leads to the activation of the transcription factor CAR and thereby induces drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  14. Developing strategies for PAH and TCE bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, W.R.; Nelson, M.; Kinsella, J. ); Compeau, G. )

    1991-10-01

    Bioremediation is the controlled use of microbes, commonly bacteria and fungi, to reclaim soil and water contaminated with substances that are deleterious to human health and the environment. The organisms used often naturally inhabit the polluted matrix; however, they may inhabit a different environment and be used as seed organisms because of their ability to degrade a specific class of substances. It is because of the wide diversity of microbial metabolic potential that bioremediation is possible. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. They are present in fossil fuels and are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. PAHs exhibit low volatility and low aqueous solubility. As the molecular weight of these compounds increases, there is an exponential decrease in solubility and volatility. PAHs tend to adsorb onto soils and sediments because of their hydrophobic character, which is an intrinsic function of molecular size. The microbial degradation of individual PAHs by pure cultures and mixed populations occurs under a wide range of soil types and environmental conditions. Generally, the factors having the greatest influence on PAH biodegradation rates are soil moisture content, pH, inorganic nutrients present, PAH loading rates, initial PAH concentrations, and the presence of an acclimated microbial population. Feasibility studies are essential for developing a bioremediation strategy and are performed in a phased testing program that is designed to accomplish a number of objectives. These objectives include establishing an indigenous microbial population that will degrade specific contaminants, defining the rate-limiting factors for enhanced