Science.gov

Sample records for pah und ihre

  1. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  2. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  3. Biologie statt Philosophie? Evolutionäre Kulturerklärungen und ihre Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illies, Christian

    Vor über siebzig Jahren fand man in einer Höhle nahe Hohlenstein-Stadel, im heutigen Baden-Württemberg, eine Frau, die keiner bekannten Spezies und nicht einmal eindeutig den Hominiden zugeordnet werden konnte. Wegen ihres Aussehens wurde sie schon bald als "Löwenfrau“ bekannt (unterdessen wird sie als "Löwenmensch“ bezeichnet, da die in solchen Fragen Klarheit schaffenden Geschlechtsteile bei der Figur fehlen und in Zeiten von gender mainstreaming derartige Festlegungen gerne vermieden werden), denn sie hatte eine menschlich-aufrechte, unbehaarte Gestalt mit weiblichen Rundungen, aber zugleich eine Mähne, sowie Augen, Ohren und Schnauze eines Löwen. Eine sehr weitläufige Verwandte des Minotaurus, so schien es, und doch wesentlich älter als alle Bewohner des Olymps, denn vermutlich wurde die knapp 30 cm große Skulptur bereits in der Altsteinzeit vor etwa 32.000 Jahren aus Mammut-Elfenbein geschnitzt. Wir wissen nicht, ob sie kultischen Zwecken diente oder ein Kind mit ihr spielte, ob sie als Glücksbringer für die Jagd oder als Schamanin mit Löwenmaske verehrt und gefürchtet wurde. Aber die Löwenfrau legt nahe, dass der Mensch schon im Morgendämmern seiner Kultur über die eigene Nähe, aber auch Distanz zum Tier nachgedacht haben muss. Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Mit dem Begriff "animal rationale“, wie er unter Bezug auf Aristoteles geprägt wurde, findet sie schließlich ihre klassische, für das Abendland lange Zeit maßgebliche Antwort: Der Mensch als Tier, dessen spezifisches Merkmal die Vernunftbegabtheit ist, die ihn zugleich von allen anderen Tieren abgrenzt und über sie stellt. Aber wo genau verläuft die Grenze? Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Die aristotelische Definition beantwortet diese Fragen nach der Doppelnatur nicht, sondern erhebt das offene R

  4. Die Kometen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539 und ihre Bedeutung für die spätere Entwicklung der Kometenforschung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, W.

    Contents: 1. Historisches Umfeld und spätere Entwicklungen. 2. Kometen als Objekte quantitativer Beobachtung im geschlossenen Universum der Epoche. 3. Verlauf der Kometenerscheinungen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539. 4. Die Bedeutung der Kometen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539 für die Entwicklung der Astronomie bis Tycho Brahe und für die Kometentheorie späterer Jahrhunderte. 5. Neuere Literatur und Spezialprobleme.

  5. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  6. Right-Wing Extremism in Germany and the Consequences for the Armed Forces (Rechtsextreme orientierungen in deutschland und ihre folgen fuer die bundeswehr)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    religi~ iser Gruppen, von denen naturgemai3 nicht alle den Einsatz fremder Streitkrafte in ihrem Staatsgebiet begrtiffen. Ober die Untergrabung von...Miinster/Westfalen. St~Sss, Richard (1994): Forschungs- und Erklarungsansatze - emn Oberblick. In: Kowalski, Wolfgang ; Schr6der, Wolfgang (Hrsg

  7. Zwergsatelliten und Sternriesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, Dietrich; Kuschnig, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Leuchtkräftige Sterne sind schwierig: Fär Fotometrie mit großen Teleskopen sind sie zu hell, und ihre geringe Zahl macht konventionelle Lösungen unwirtschaftlich, besonders im Weltraum, wo die äußerste Präzision gegeben wäre. Mit einer Mini-Armada von Nanosatelliten haben Ingenieure und Astronomen aus Kanada, Österreich und Polen nun die Lösung gefunden - auch schon für viele wissenschaftliche Fragen.

  8. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  9. Die Wirkung als Naturkraft und die Herkunft von Zeit, Raum, Dimensionen, Naturkräften, und Gesetzen von Logik, Geometrie und Physik bei der Entstehung der Welt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    Das Wirkungs-Welt-Modell enthält eine einfache Beschreibung des Anfanges der Welt, wonach, ausgehend vom einfachsten Zustand der logisch notwendigen Bejahung ihrer Existenz innerhalb ihr selbst, alles sukzessiv bewirkt wird, und ihre logischen, geometrischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften Aspekte der Verkörperung und Fortwirkung primordialer Fakten darstellen, ohne externe Schöpfung auszuschließen. Die ersten Dimensionen und sie formal und subjektiv charakterisierenden Größen sind: Informationsmenge und Wirkung, mit abzählbarem Ereignis und Wirkungsquantum; Zeit und Energie, mit deren Planck-Einheiten; Geschwindigkeit oder Strecke und Impuls, mit Lichtgeschwindigkeit oder Planck-Länge; Krümmung oder zwei räumliche Richtungen, mit Gravitationskonstanten, und aus den ihnen entsprechenden primären Naturkräften setzen sich die uns geläufigen zusammen.

  10. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  11. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  12. Strahlen-und kinetische Waffen: Neue Waffentechniken und Rüstungskontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    Laserstrahlen, Mikrowellen oder elektromagnetische Beschleuniger lassen sich nicht nur für zivile, sondern für militärische Zwecke einsetzen. Die Aufgabe einer vorbeugenden Rüstungskontrolle wäre es, diese wie andere künftige Waffentechnologien auf ihren destabilisierenden Charakter hin zu untersuchen und ihre Stationierung zu beschränken oder zu verhindern.

  13. Studies in the biodegradation of 5 PAHs (phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene und benzo(a)pyrene) in the presence of rooted poplar cuttings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Achim; Ballach, Hans-Joachim; Wittig, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Cuttings of Populus nigra L. cv. Loenen were cultivated in sand treated with one of the following PAHs: phenanthrene (Phen), fluoranthene (Flt), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Chr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The PAHs were applied at varying levels of concentration to each test series. After 6 weeks the concentration and the distribution of the PAHs in the substrate of the various sets of tests were compared with the concentration in the substrate of the control. Additionally the substrate and the plant roots were tested for evidence of degradation products of PAHs. The results revealed that the levels of concentration of Phen and Pyr detected in the substrate surrounding the roots was in some cases significantly lower than in the corresponding section of substrate in the unplanted set (= control). This phenomenon did not occur for Flt and BaP and in the case of Chr only in those substrates, which had been treated with the highest levels of concentration. As the presence of lesser amounts of Phen and Pyr in the plant pots cannot only be attributed to their accumulation and metabolism in the roots, it is fair to assume that the chemical transformation of these three PAHs took place outside the roots. The set of tests treated with Phen revealed the presence of 2- or 3-hydroxy-Phen (main components), a hydroxy-methoxy-Phen, 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone and one unidentified compound in metabolite form. Altogether eleven metabolites of Pyr were identified in the root extracts, which can be divided into three groups: 1-Hydroxy-Pyr and derivatives, dihydroxy-Pyr and derivatives and ring fission products (4-Hydroxy-Pyr and a derivative of the 4-Phen-carbonic acid). However, the metabolite mass detected for Phen and Pyr represents only an insignificant percentage in comparison with the lesser amounts of PAHs observed in the planted set of tests. This indicates that the three PAHs were reduced to lower molecular compounds, which are methodically impossible to record, and subsequently

  14. Organe der Osmoregulation und Exkretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    Die meisten Schädeltiere sind in der Lage, die Wasser- und Ionenkonzentration ihres Innenmilieus zu regulieren, sind also im Hinblick auf ihren Ionenhaushalt weitgehend unabhängig von der Umgebung. Sie halten die Konzentration von Wasser und anorganischen Ionen in ihren Körperflüssigkeiten (interstitielle Flüssigkeit und Blut) innerhalb enger Grenzen konstant (Osmoregulierer). Schleim aale (Myxinoida) können zwar die Konzentration einzelner anorganischer Ionen regulieren, sind aber insgesamt der hohen Osmolarität des Meerwassers angepasst, also isoosmostisch zu diesem. Isoosmotisch oder leic ht hyperosmostisch zur Umgebung sind auch marine Neoselachier und Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), die dazu organische Osmolyte (Harnstoff und Trimethylaminoxid) im Blut akkumulieren (Osmokonformer). Bei anderen aquatischen Schädeltieren sind die Körperflüssigkeiten zur Umgebung hypoosmotisch (im Meerwasser) — sie halten Wasser zurück und scheiden anorganiche Ionen aus — oder hyperosmotisch (im Süßwasser), indem sie Wasser abgeben und anorganische Ionen aufnehmen.

  15. Die physikalischen Umweltwissenschaften und das Militär Zur Erforschung Grönlands im Kalten Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymann, Matthias

    Die modernen Umweltwissenschaften stehen heute im Mittelpunkt von Forschungsförderung und öffentlicher Aufmerksamkeit. Im Zuge des seit den 1970er Jahren erwachten Interesses am globalen Wandel der Umwelt und den damit verknüpften Problemen, ist ihre Bedeutung rasch gestiegen. Viele Wurzeln der modernen Umweltwissenschaften liegen jedoch im Kalten Krieg.

  16. Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in two closely related areas: observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at and the notion of abundant, gas phase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the dust composition of the diffuse and dense ISM is reasonably well constrained and the spectroscopic case for interstellar PAHs, shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is very strong.

  17. [Leben im Eismeer - Tauchuntersuchungen zur Biologie arktischer Meerespflanzen und Meerestiere

    PubMed

    Lippert; Karsten; Wiencke

    2000-01-01

    Die Maske wird nochmals auf Dichtigkeit überprüft, der Knoten der Sicherungsleine mit zwei halben Schlägen fixiert, dann rutscht die Taucherin von der Eiskante in das kalte Wasser. Eine halbe Stunde vergeht, bevor ihr Kopf wieder aus dem Eisloch auftaucht und sie ein großes Sammelnetz nach oben reicht, gefüllt mit verschiedenen Arten von Makroalgen. Obwohl noch große Flächen des Kongsfjordes im arktischen Spitzbergen zugefroren sind und das Festland von einer dicken Schneedecke bedeckt ist, hat unter Wasser in den Algenwäldern bereits der Sommer und damit die Saison der Meeresbiologen begonnen.

  18. Systemlieferant und OEM Hersteller für die Medizintechnik und Pharmabranche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Thomas; Reichenberger, Robert

    Unter einem Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) versteht man einen Hersteller fertiger Komponenten oder Produkte, der diese in seinen eigenen Produktionsfabriken produziert, sie aber anschließend nicht selbst in den Handel bringt. Die Anforderungen an einen OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche sind weitaus komplexer und umfangreicher als in anderen Branchen. Diese zusätzlichen Anforderungen haben schließlich auch ihre Berechtigung, da es letztendlich immer um die Gesundheit und das Leben von Menschen geht. Ein OEM muss neben der heute immer stärker geforderten Flexibilität, Schnelligkeit und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sämtliche für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche erforderlichen Qualitäts- und Prozesssicherheitskriterien erfüllen. Entsprechende Nachweise sind durch regelmäßige Kunden- und Überwachungsaudits zu erbringen. Das Arbeitsumfeld eines OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche bezieht sich somit nicht nur auf die Herstellung der Produkte für seine Kunden, sondern auch auf die Einhaltung sämtlicher Normen, Sicherheitskriterien, regulatorischen Voraussetzungen und Gesetze die zur Herstellung der Produkte notwendig sind.

  19. IDSR as a Platform for Implementing IHR in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kasolo, Francis; Yoti, Zabulon; Bakyaita, Nathan; Gaturuku, Peter; Katz, Rebecca; Fischer, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    Of the 46 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region (AFRO), 43 are implementing Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines to improve their abilities to detect, confirm, and respond to high-priority communicable and noncommunicable diseases. IDSR provides a framework for strengthening the surveillance, response, and laboratory core capacities required by the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. In turn, IHR obligations can serve as a driving force to sustain national commitments to IDSR strategies. The ability to report potential public health events of international concern according to IHR (2005) relies on early warning systems founded in national surveillance capacities. Public health events reported through IDSR to the WHO Emergency Management System in Africa illustrate the growing capacities in African countries to detect, assess, and report infectious and noninfectious threats to public health. The IHR (2005) provide an opportunity to continue strengthening national IDSR systems so they can characterize outbreaks and respond to public health events in the region. PMID:24041192

  20. Vergleichende Ultrastrukturuntersuchungen der Eu- und Paraspermien von 13 Protodrilus-Arten (Polychaeta, Annelida) und ihre taxonomische und phylogenetische Bedeutung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1989-06-01

    The morphology of the slender, filiform spermatozoa of 13 Protodrilus species of 22 different populations is investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. All species have two types of spermatoza: fertile euspermatozoa, and paraspermatozoa, which are probably infertile and may comprise up to 20% of the total number of mature gametes. This is the first record of sperm dimorphism in polychaetes. The general construction pattern of the euspermatozoa is very complex. It shows a longish tapering acrosomal vesicle with an internal acrosomal rod, a rod-like conical nucleus, and a midpiece with numerous very complex supporting elements and two thin mitochondrial derivatives. Further, it has a ‘peribasal body’ surrounding the basal body of the axoneme, an anulus region with an ‘anchoring apparatus’ and an anulus cuff. Posteriorly, the tail region proper contains in some species 2 to 9 supporting rods. In several species the euspermatozoon shows very distinct and species-specific alternations of this ‘general pattern’ relating to e.g. size of sperm elements, structure of acrosome and nucleus, presence or absence of axial rod, and number, shape and size of supporting elements in midpiece and tail. In a number of species some sections of the euspermatozoon overlap with each other more or less strongly. The paraspermatozoon has a comparatively simple construction pattern and possesses no supporting structures in midpiece and tail region. The midpiece is very short and, in some species, entirely surrounded by its two thin and elongate mitochondrial derivatives. An axial rod is often missing or reduced; different sperm sections never overlap each other. In contrast to the euspermatozoa, the paraspermatozoa of the different species have a very similar ultrastructure. Their possible function in spermatophore transfer and histolytical opening of the female epidermis is discussed. A comparison of the different forms of euspermatozoa in Protodrilus elucidates possible plesiomorphous and apomorphous sperm traits. Very likely, the hypothetical plesiomorphous type of spermatozoa in Protodrilus has a very similar morphology to that of the paraspermatozoa, which for this reason are considered to be a sort of persisting representatives of the ancient Protodrilus sperm type. In Protodrilus, the different traits of the euspermatozoa represent excellent taxonomic characters for distinguishing species (e.g. ‘sibling species’). They can also be used well for phylogenetics within the genus, whereas the relations of Protodrilus to other polychaete groups cannot be clarified solely on the basis of sperm characters, since in all groups the sperm structure is primarily an adaptation to a specific mode of reproduction. Generally, the value of sperm characters in phylogenetic considerations at higher taxonomic levels seems to be very limited due to the surprisingly wide range of different sperm structures within a single genus as is demonstrated in the present paper.

  1. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  2. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  3. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  4. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    The International Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an International Height Reference System (IHRS). According to this resolution, the IHRS coordinates are potential differences referring to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the IHRS realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; that is existing vertical coordinates should be referred to one and the same reference level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, that is the potential differences between the local and the global reference levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter estimation

  5. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  6. Die Makrofauna und ihre Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janke, Klaus

    1986-03-01

    The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.

  7. Die Sokratische Lehrstrategie und Ihre Relevanz FÜR Die Heutige Didaktik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakis, Ioannis

    1997-03-01

    Socrates (469-399 B.C.) formulated a unique method of teaching, of which the main characteristic is dialogue. We have no authentic record, but Plato has preserved the "Socratic conversations" in his dialogues. In the first part of this study, the Socratic strategy is examined through a comparative analysis of the early Platonic dialogues with the theories of critical rationalism and the cognitive theories based on motivation for achievement and learning. In the dialogues, Socrates invites his interlocutors to express their opinions, professing himself ignorant of the matter under discussion, but gradually challenges their certainties and moves from the particular and the egocentric to the general concept, using concrete examples. The second part of this study gives a detailed presentation of the elements of the Socratic strategy of teaching and learning: conversation, the exploitation of errors in teaching, aporia (confused doubt), critical reflection and intellectual honesty, and tolerance. These continue to be of relevance today and are timely in the context of shifting values and the need for a critical approach to knowledge.

  8. Die Kometen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539 und ihre Bedeutung fur die spatere Entwicklung der Kometenforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Wolfgang

    The apparition of P/Halley in 1531 is known mostly for Peter Apian's statement of the antisolar direction of cometary tails and for Edmond Halley's discovery of its periodicity following its 1682 return. However, the 1531 event and the four comets of subsequent years are also remarkable for the first attempts, by several observers, to record and investigate their apparent orbits in a quantitative way with an accuracy making modern treatment feasible. Thus, the decade in question may be regarded as the beginning of modern cometary research. Within a broader historical context, the book outlines the significance of this series of comets w.r.t. the change of theory and observational practice prior to Tycho Brahe. It also documents the secondary sources throughout the following centuries and later attempts at interpreting the material. The possibilities inherent in the re-evaluation of historical observations by modern methods in the light of collateral evidence become transparent by means of the results of some recent orbit determinations.

  9. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe International Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an International Height Reference System (<span class="hlt">IHRS</span>). According to this resolution, the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span> coordinates are potential differences referring to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span> realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should be referred to one and the same reference level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the global reference levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book..313V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book..313V"><span>Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen <span class="hlt">und</span> ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voigt, Annette</p> <p></p> <p>Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen <span class="hlt">und</span> Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung <span class="hlt">und</span> Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27992139','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27992139"><span>B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik <span class="hlt">und</span> Therapie.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie <span class="hlt">und</span> der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark <span class="hlt">und</span> unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen <span class="hlt">und</span> systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) <span class="hlt">und</span> primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund <span class="hlt">ihres</span> unkomplizierten Verlaufs <span class="hlt">und</span> ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik <span class="hlt">und</span> die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische <span class="hlt">und</span> immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative <span class="hlt">und</span> radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab <span class="hlt">und</span> Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese <span class="hlt">und</span> Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3005581','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3005581"><span>Assessment of core capacities for the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) – Uganda, 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Uganda is currently implementing the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) within the context of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). The <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005) require countries to assess the ability of their national structures, capacities, and resources to meet the minimum requirements for surveillance and response. This report describes the results of the assessment undertaken in Uganda. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional assessment using the protocol developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The data collection tools were adapted locally and administered to a convenience sample of HR(2005) stakeholders, and frequency analyses were performed. Results Ugandan national laws relevant to the <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005) existed, but they did not adequately support the full implementation of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005). Correspondingly, there was a designated <span class="hlt">IHR</span> National Focal Point (NFP), but surveillance activities and operational communications were limited to the health sector. All the districts (13/13) had designated disease surveillance offices, most had IDSR technical guidelines (92%, or 12/13), and all (13/13) had case definitions for infectious and zoonotic diseases surveillance. Surveillance guidelines were available at 57% (35/61) of the health facilities, while case definitions were available at 66% (40/61) of the health facilities. The priority diseases list, surveillance guidelines, case definitions and reporting tools were based on the IDSR strategy and hence lacked information on the <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005). The rapid response teams at national and district levels lacked food safety, chemical and radio-nuclear experts. Similarly, there were no guidelines on the outbreak response to food, chemical and radio-nuclear hazards. Comprehensive preparedness plans incorporating <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005) were lacking at national and district levels. A national laboratory policy existed and the strategic plan was being drafted. However, there were critical gaps hampering the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..426C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..426C"><span>Modellgestützte Fehlererkennung <span class="hlt">und</span> Diagnose für Common-Rail-Einspritzsysteme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clever, Sebastian</p> <p></p> <p>Moderne Pkw-Dieselmotoren sind mit verschiedensten komplexen mechatronischen Komponenten ausgestattet. So kommen neben Abgasrückführsystemen zur Minderung der Stickoxidemissionen <span class="hlt">und</span> Turboladern zur Steigerung der Leistungsdichte insbesondere elektronisch gesteuerte Mehrfach-Einspritzsysteme zum Einsatz. Deshalb erhöht sich die Bedeutung einer umfassenden Fehlererkennung <span class="hlt">und</span> Diagnose, zusätzlich zu den bekannten OBD- <span class="hlt">und</span> EOBD-Vorgaben, im Rahmen steigender Anforderungen an die Zuverlässigkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> Verfügbarkeit. Um diese Anforderungen zu erfüllen, bieten sich modellbasierte Verfahren an. <span class="hlt">Ihr</span> Stand in verschiedenen Gebieten wird zum Beispiel in [1-6] beschrieben. Mit dem Einsatz modellgestützter Fehlererkennungsverfahren bei Verbrennungsmotoren beschäftigen sich beispielsweise [7-18].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA171482','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA171482"><span>Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>above expressways has been sampled and found to contain as much as several hundred ng/m3 of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Fly ash from incinerators may contain as much as 1000 ng...Occupational Health Concerns of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the Flying Community: In the flying community those who work directly with jet engines and their waste products are...movement may be slowed by the addition of sorptive materials If necessary (charcoal, zeolite ). 3. Proximity to Groundwater: This factor decides the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000121129&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000121129&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: (1) objectives, (2) approach and techniques adopted, (3) adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), and (4) results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15112803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15112803"><span>Bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: effects of soot carbon and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorsen, Waverly A; Cope, W Gregory; Shea, Damian</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The bioavailability of 38 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) compounds was determined through calculation of biota-sediment-accumulation factors (BSAF). BSAF values were calculated from individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in freshwater mussel, marine clam, and sediment obtained from field and laboratory bioaccumulation studies. Sediment that was amended with different types of soot carbon (SC) was used in some of the bioaccumulation experiments. BSAF values for petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were greater than those for pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (e.g., 1.57 +/- 0.53 vs 0.25 +/- 0.23, respectively), indicating that petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are more bioavailable than pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (p < 0.05). This trend was consistent among marine and freshwater sites. Increased SC content of sediment resulted in a linear decrease in the bioavailability of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (r2 = 0.85). The effect of increasing SC content on petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was negligible. SC was considered as an additional sorptive phase when calculating BSAF values, and using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-SC partition coefficients from the literature, we obtained unreasonably large BSAF values for all petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and some pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. This led us to conclude that a quantitative model to assess bioavailability through a combination of organic carbon and soot carbon sorption is not applicable among field sites with a wide range of soot carbon fractions and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources, at least given our current knowledge of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-SC partitioning. Our data offer evidence that many factors including analysis of a full suite of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> analytes, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hydrophobicity, sediment organic carbon content, sediment soot carbon content, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source are importantto adequately assess <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability in the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010inho.book..419D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010inho.book..419D"><span>IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Aufbau eines mandantenfähigen Groupware-Services <span class="hlt">und</span> seine Integration in Identity Management <span class="hlt">und</span> E-Mail Infrastruktur der Technischen Universität München</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diehn, Max</p> <p></p> <p>Die E-Mail-Infrastruktur an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) ist historisch bedingt sehr heterogen <span class="hlt">und</span> komplex. Viele Einrichtungen müssen wertvolle Arbeitskraft auf die Administration eigener Mailserver verwenden. Auf der anderen Seite wird bei einigen Einrichtungen der Ruf nach Groupware-Funktionalitäten wie z.B. gemeinsame Kalender immer lauter. Das Teilprojekt E-Mail stellt einen zentralen Mail- <span class="hlt">und</span> Groupware-Service bereit, der den Einrichtungen ermöglichen soll, den Betrieb eigener Server <span class="hlt">und</span> zugehöriger Systeme (etwa lokaler Benutzerverwaltungen) für diesen Zweck aufzugeben <span class="hlt">und</span> diese Dienste an das Teilprojekt E-Mail zu migrieren, ohne <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Verwaltungshoheit oder <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Maildomains aufgeben zu müssen. Dieser Service versteht sich als eine Ergänzung zur bestehenden Grundversorgung der TUM mit den Maildiensten des myTUM-Mailers, ist mandantenfähig aufgebaut <span class="hlt">und</span> kann daher künftig neben der TUM auch weiteren Organisationen im Münchner Wissenschaftsnetz zur Verfügung gestellt werden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000582','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000582"><span>Toxicokinetics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Hexagenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stehly, Guy R.; Landrum, Peter F.; Henry, Mary G.; Klemm, C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The clearance of oxygen from water is inversely and linearly related to the weight of the mayfly nymphs, but oxygen clearances were always much less than the uptake clearances of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> uptake clearance compared to oxygen clearance implies a greater surface area or efficiency for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> accumulation from water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010bukm.book...39K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010bukm.book...39K"><span>Branchen <span class="hlt">und</span> Unternehmensbereiche</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kramer, Regine</p> <p></p> <p>Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern <span class="hlt">und</span> Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen <span class="hlt">und</span> Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> neben den klassischen Branchen <span class="hlt">und</span> Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917104S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917104S"><span>Towards a first realization of the International Height Reference System (<span class="hlt">IHRS</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanchez, Laura; Ihde, Johannes; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Marti, Urs; Agren, Jonas; Sideris, Michael; Novak, Pavel</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The IAG Resolution No. 1 released during the IUGG 2015 General Assembly outlines five conventions for the definition of the International Height Reference System (<span class="hlt">IHRS</span>). The definition is given in terms of potential parameters: the vertical coordinates are geopotential numbers referring to an equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realized by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. The spatial reference of the position P for the potential W(P) = W(X) is given by coordinates X of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). This Resolution also states that parameters, observations, and data shall be related to the mean tidal system/mean crust. At present, the main challenge is the realization of the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span>; i.e., the establishment of the International Height Reference Frame (IHRF). It is expected that the IHRF follows the same structure as the ITRF: a global network with regional and national densifications, whose geopotential numbers referring to the global <span class="hlt">IHRS</span> are known. According to the GGOS objectives, the target accuracy of these global geopotential numbers is 1 x 10-2 m2s-2. In practice, the precise realization of the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span> is limited by different aspects; for instance, no unified standards or methods for the determination of the potential values W(P); application of different conventions for the gravity field modelling and the estimation of the position vectors X; inhomogeneous distribution of the geodetic infrastructure; restricted accessibility to terrestrial gravity data to increase the GGM resolution; insufficient modelling of geodynamic phenomena, etc. This may restrict the expected accuracy of 1 x 10-2 m2s-2 to some orders lower (from 10 x 10-2 m2s-2 to 100 x 10-2 m2s-2). This contribution discusses the required steps to outline a sustainable realization of the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..587O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..587O"><span>Fische <span class="hlt">und</span> Fischerzeugnisse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oehlenschläger, Jörg</p> <p></p> <p>Fische <span class="hlt">und</span> Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Weichtiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Weichtiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Erzeugnisse daraus" <span class="hlt">und</span> Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- <span class="hlt">und</span>/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Weichtiererzeugnisse <span class="hlt">und</span> tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book..151H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book..151H"><span>Mikrodaten <span class="hlt">und</span> statistische Auswertungsmethoden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hujer, Reinhard</p> <p></p> <p>Mit der zunehmenden Verfügbarkeit immer größerer Querschnitts- <span class="hlt">und</span> Längschnittsdatensätze für Personen, Haushalte <span class="hlt">und</span> Betriebe sowie deren Verknüpfungen hat sich die mikroökonometrische Forschung in den vergangenen Jahren rasant weiterentwickelt. Dies gilt sowohl aus methodischer als auch aus empirischer, anwendungsorientierter Sicht. Mikrodaten <span class="hlt">und</span> mikroökonometrische Ansätze dienen dazu, aktuelle, politikrelevante Fragen aufzugreifen, sie zu analysieren <span class="hlt">und</span> fundierte politische Empfehlungen zu geben, beispielsweise im Rahmen der Arbeitsmarkt- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sozialpolitik, der Finanzanalyse <span class="hlt">und</span> der Marketingforschung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) <span class="hlt">und</span> deren Mitglieder haben sich in den Ausschüssen <span class="hlt">und</span> in Hauptversammlungen kontinuierlich mit den Weiterentwicklungen der mikroökonometrischen Methodik <span class="hlt">und</span> den empirischen Anwendungen befasst. Zahlreiche Publikationen von Mitgliedern der DStatG haben entscheidend zum kritischen Diskurs <span class="hlt">und</span> zum wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt in diesem Bereich beigetragen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010spzo.book....3R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010spzo.book....3R"><span>Der Körper der Craniota <span class="hlt">und</span> die Differenzierung seiner Grundgestalt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieger, Reinhard; Maier, Wolfgang; Goldschmid, Alfred; Westheide, Wilfried</p> <p></p> <p>Die rezenten Wirbeltiere — die wir nun auf Grund <span class="hlt">ihres</span> wichtigsten Schlüsselmerkmals generell Cranioten oder Schädeltiere nennen sollten (s. a. S. 5) — umfassen nah ezu 50.000 Arten. Nach allgemeinen Schätzungen sind dies etwa 1% der Tiere dieses Taxons, die jemals existierten. Bis heute wurden mehrere zehntausend fossiler Arten nachgewiesen, <span class="hlt">und</span> ständig kommen neue Fossilfunde hinzu. Die ältesten eindeutig als Craniota anzusprechenden Fossilfunde haben ein Alter von etwa 545 Mio. Jahren (S. 187). Paläontologie <span class="hlt">und</span> Paläobiologie rekonstruierten eingehend Aussehen <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensweise vieler dieser ausgestorbenen Arten. Viele Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen zwischen den rezenten Wirbeltiertaxa werden nur unter Berücksichtigung dieser Fossilformen verständlich.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013pss5.book..499T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013pss5.book..499T"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tielens, A. G. G. M.</p> <p></p> <p>Interstellar dust and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) molecules are important components of the Interstellar Medium of galaxies where, among other things, they regulate the opacity, influence the heating and cooling of neutral atomic and molecular gas, and provide active surfaces for chemistry. Through this interaction with gas, photons, and energetic ions, dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules influence key processes in the evolution of the interstellar medium and in turn are modified in their physical and chemical properties. This complex feedback drives the evolution of galaxies and its observational characteristics. In this chapter, our understanding of interstellar dust and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules is described. Besides observations and their analysis, this chapter describes the physical processes involved, the life cycle of interstellar dust, and some aspects of the role of interstellar dust and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the evolution of the interstellar medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630446"><span>A new approach of Integrated Health Responses (<span class="hlt">IHR(s</span>)) modeling for ecological risk/health assessments of an urban stream.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ja-Hyun; Yeom, Dong-Hyuk; An, Kwang-Guk</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecological health of an urban stream using Integrated Health Responses (<span class="hlt">IHRs</span>). Water chemistry analysis, habitat health, and ecotoxicity tests were conducted in the stream along with analyses of molecular/biochemical, physiological biomarkers, and population-level responses in indicator species. Chemical stresses, measured as nutrient levels, ionic content and organic matter concentrations were significantly greater (p<0.01) at the downstream than the reference site (RF). The habitat health was largely impacted in the downstream reaches and had a negative relation with the land-use pattern of % urban area. Comet assay, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and vitellogenin (VTG) were evaluated for low-level biomarker responses on DNA/physiological conditions of target species. The multi-metric fish model (Mm-F) was used to test the community-level response in relation to chemical and physical habitat stresses. The impaired responses of separate biomarker and bioindicator at the downstream sites occurred at all organizations from molecular/biochemical level to community level. Using all biomarkers/bioindicators, the star-plot model of <span class="hlt">IHRs</span> was developed and then the integrative health/risk assessments were conducted in the urban stream. The reduced values of <span class="hlt">IHRs</span> occurred in the downstream sites and the impacts were attributed to effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and industrial complex. Ecological health impairments, thus, were evident in the urban reach, and reflected the long-term community responses as well as short-term responses of molecular biomarkers. The degradation of the urban stream was mainly due to a combined effect of chemical pollution and physical habitat modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book...91J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book...91J"><span>Schönheit <span class="hlt">und</span> andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Junker, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier <span class="hlt">und</span> die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei <span class="hlt">und</span> Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper <span class="hlt">und</span> Filmkunst, Musik <span class="hlt">und</span> Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch <span class="hlt">ihre</span> geistigen Fähigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft <span class="hlt">und</span> Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009husp.book..699W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009husp.book..699W"><span>Information <span class="hlt">und</span> Kommunikation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens</p> <p></p> <p>Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten <span class="hlt">und</span> Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg <span class="hlt">und</span> bezeichnet den "bewussten <span class="hlt">und</span> systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen <span class="hlt">und</span> den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien <span class="hlt">und</span> Methoden umfasst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006iga..book.....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006iga..book.....G"><span>Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen <span class="hlt">und</span> Anwendung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genske, Dieter D.</p> <p></p> <p>Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre <span class="hlt">und</span> Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor <span class="hlt">und</span> diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen <span class="hlt">und</span> entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen <span class="hlt">und</span> Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen <span class="hlt">und</span> ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997491','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997491"><span>Biodegradation of Mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P3 (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517944"><span>Biodegradation of Mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040644&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040644&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Infrared emission from interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040644&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040644&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Infrared emission from interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..381R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..381R"><span>Interaktive Visualisierung von Abständen <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen für die Interventionsplanung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rössling, Ivo; Cyrus, Christian; Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Preim, Bernhard; Boehm, Andreas</p> <p></p> <p>Im Rahmen der Interventionsplanung muss der Chirurg therapierelevante Entscheidungen auf Basis räumlicher Relationen anatomischer Strukturen treffen. Interaktive 3D-Visualisierungen unterstützen diesen Prozess qualitativ. Quantitative Fragestellungen (Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc.) erfordern die Integration einer Bemaßung, deren Nutzen wesentlich von einer geeigneten Darstellung abhängt. In dieser Arbeit haben wir allgemeine Kriterien für die Eignung von Visualisierungen von Bemaßungen in interaktiven 3D-Szenen erarbeitet. Daran orientierend haben wir verschiedene Varianten der Darstellung von Abständen <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen betrachtet <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihr</span> Erscheinungsbild hierzu zweckmäßig parametrisiert. Die Ausprägungen dieser Darstellungsparameter wurden in einer Studie auf <span class="hlt">ihre</span> visuellen Wirkung hin an Chirurgen evaluiert. Es zeigte sich, dass die befragten Mediziner höchsten Wert auf Kohärenz <span class="hlt">und</span> klare Zuordnung der Bemaßung setzten <span class="hlt">und</span> überraschenderweise dafür sogar Abstriche in der direkten Lesbarkeit in Kauf nahmen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4450733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4450733"><span>Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005): Chinese lessons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The <span class="hlt">IHR</span> aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> in China. PMID:26029897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28654739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28654739"><span>Poliomyelitis eradication – the review of notifications from the years 2010-2016 sent to National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Radziszewski, Franciszek; Janiec, Janusz; Henszel, Łukasz; Izdebski, Radosław; Polański, Piotr</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Polio eradication programme was launched after World Health Assembly in 1988. Despite considerable decrease in reported cases it still constitutes a significant public health threat. All WHO member state is bound to appoint National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point, which operates based on International Health Regulations (2005), which were enacted during the World Health Assembly in 2005. In Poland National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point (<span class="hlt">IHR</span> NFP in Poland) operates since 2007, and is located in the Department of Epidemiology, in National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Its aim is to acquire, assess and to transfer information on events which may constitute an international threat for the public health. <span class="hlt">IHR</span> NFP in Poland has an access to WHO’s Event Information Site (EIS) as well as Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) with reading-only credentials. Both platforms are of limited access (1). Among recipients of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> NFP notifications and information are experts from many fields such as epidemiology, virology, bacteriology and others- related to specific type of notification, as well as specific and appointed members of state’s administration and authorities in the field of public health. In this paper a review of notifications on the subject of poliomyelitis, sent to <span class="hlt">IHR</span> NFP in Poland in the years 2010-2016 is presented, as well as references to poliomyelitis epidemiological situation were made based on the date from Global Polio Eradication Initiative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26029897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26029897"><span>Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005): Chinese lessons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang</p> <p>2015-04-17</p> <p>As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The <span class="hlt">IHR</span> aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> in China. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030000511&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030000511&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The cosmic deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) ratio is of key importance from a cosmological and stellar evolution perspective since deuterium originates from big-bang nucleosynthesis and is destroyed by stellar thermonuclear reactions. Further, from the interstellar perspective, the galactic distribution of deuterium and the D/H ratio among various molecular species also traces interstellar chemical evolution. Over the past few decades, radio observations have enabled the study of a handful of small, deuterated interstellar species. However, the number of deuterated species detected and environments probed are limited, raising issues of selection effects that hamper generalization and applications to other environments. Infrared spectroscopy of the interstellar medium offers a distinct advantage in this regard as the extent of deuteration of entire chemical families, rather than one species, can be probed. These observations require spaceborne telescopes because the molecular vibrations involving D which produce the strongest IR bands fall in spectral regions which are obscured by terrestrial CO2 absorption. Here we report the tentative detection of the C-D stretching vibration from deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Orion nebula. Since the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission features are widespread and probe many different types of cosmic environments, follow up observations of deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will provide fundamental, far reaching new insight and perspective into galactic and extragalactic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IREdu..43...73V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IREdu..43...73V"><span>Learning by doing - Piagets Konstruktivistische Lerntheorie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> Konsequenzen FÜR Die PÄDAGOGISCHE Praxis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vollmers, Burkhard</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Piaget's theory of genetic recognition has a number of pedagogical implications. With the swing from structuralism to constructivism, Piaget created one of the first constructivist learning theories around the middle of this century. After this has been briefly presented, its relationship to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice and other forms of constructivism is examined critically. Although Piaget's theory does not embrace all forms of human learning, it does contain some significant pointers for pedagogical practice. An appropriate practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by encouraging spontaneous activity and the interests of the pupils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994A%26A...288L..37E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994A%26A...288L..37E"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in XX Ophiuchi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, E.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>Infrared spectra of the ζ Aur/VV Cep system XX Oph are presented. Contrary to a suggestion of Evans et al. (1993) the 10 μm spectrum shows no silicate emission but instead shows evidence of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. The infrared emission and the extinction in the blue are consistent with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules containing ~30-50 carbon atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549526"><span>Removing <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> with cells on fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clyde, R.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>There are over 1,500 sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gas plants. White rot fungi degrade <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in soil, but the problem is to supply oxygen needed for growth of the fungus. When old cardboard boxes are buried with the fungus, oxygen is entrapped in the corrugations. A method for growing the fungus quickly is also described. Pseudomonade also degrade <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and several strains of this bacterium have been grown on fibers. The fibers have high area, and when Celite is entrapped in the fibers, more area is provided.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011mave.book...59W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011mave.book...59W"><span>Der Organismus der Mathematik - mikro-, makro- <span class="hlt">und</span> mesoskopisch betrachtet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Winkler, Reinhard</p> <p></p> <p>Meist enden ähnliche Gespräche über Mathematik etwa an diesem Punkt, ohne dass der Nichtmathematiker von der Sinnhaftigkeit mathematischer Forschung, ja mathematischer Tätigkeit generell überzeugt werden konnte. Ich glaube nicht, dass dem Laien Blindheit für die Großartigkeit unserer Wissenschaft vorzuwerfen ist, wenn hier keine befriedigendere Kommunikation zustande kommt. Ich sehe als Ursache eher ein stark verkürztes Bild von der Mathematik, welches auch Fachleute oft zeichnen, weil ihnen eine angemessenere Darstellung <span class="hlt">ihres</span> Faches zu viel Mühe macht - <span class="hlt">und</span> das obwohl Mathematik nur betreiben kann, wer geistige Mühen sonst keineswegs scheut. Ich will versuchen, den Ursachen dieses eigentümlichen Phänomens auf den Grund zu gehen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27526277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27526277"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation in soils on vegetative uptake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using successive extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-Kai</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) speciation in soils and the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation in soils and the accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables have rarely been reported. In this study, the organic solvent extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that bind to endogenetic soil humus, soil properties, and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in B. chinensis were comprehensively studied. Mobile fulvic acid (FA) and crude humin preferred adsorbing 3-ring and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> whereas stable humic acid (HA) preferred adsorbing 5-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation in soils was in the order of organic solvent extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (59.08%)>humin-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (26.20%)>FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (10.03%)>HA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (4.68%). The relative amounts of FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> versus HA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were linked to soil type. FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and humin mineral-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had a positive correlation with fine particles and were preferentially accumulated in B. chinensis. Other speciation was preferentially retained in soils and adsorbed onto the surface of and within coarse particles. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables were ideally forecasted using solvent extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and soil properties (silt, moisture, and pH). The FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were more soluble in water and can be easily taken up by plants together with water and nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4676564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4676564"><span>Strengthening public health laboratory capacity in Thailand for International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peruski, Anne Harwood; Birmingham, Maureen; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Chungsamanukool, Ladawan; Chungsamanukool, Preecha; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Saengklai, Ladapan; Supawat, Krongkaew; Thattiyaphong, Aree; Wongsommart, Duangdao; Wootta, Wattanapong; Nikiema, Abdoulaye; Pierson, Antoine; Peruski, Leonard F; Liu, Xin; Rayfield, Mark A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Thailand conducted a national laboratory assessment of core capacities related to the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005), and thereby established a baseline to measure future progress. The assessment was limited to public laboratories found within the Thai Bureau of Quality and Safety of Food, National Institute of Health and regional medical science centres. Methods The World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory assessment tool was adapted to Thailand through a participatory approach. This adapted version employed a specific scoring matrix and comprised 16 modules with a quantitative output. Two teams jointly performed the on-site assessments in December 2010 over a two-week period, in 17 public health laboratories in Thailand. The assessment focused on the capacity to identify and accurately detect pathogens mentioned in Annex 2 of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005) in a timely manner, as well as other public health priority pathogens for Thailand. Results Performance of quality management, budget and finance, data management and communications was considered strong (>90%); premises quality, specimen collection, biosafety, public health functions, supplies management and equipment availability were judged as very good (>70% but ≤90%); while microbiological capacity, staffing, training and supervision, and information technology needed improvement (>60% but ≤70%). Conclusions This assessment is a major step in Thailand towards development of an optimized and standardized national laboratory network for the detection and reporting of infectious disease that would be compliant with <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005). The participatory strategy employed to adapt an international tool to the Thai context can also serve as a model for use by other countries in the Region. The participatory approach probably ensured better quality and ownership of the results, while providing critical information to help decision-makers determine where best to invest finite resources. PMID:26693144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210604','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210604"><span>Analysis of serum <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adducts by LC/MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McClure, P.C.; Barr, J.R.; Maggio, V.L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of chemical carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene is the most extensively studied and best understood carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> It is believed that Benzo[a]pyrene is metabolized in vitro to the diol epoxide, Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide which then can react with various nucleophilic centers on DNA. The major alkylation product appears to be the reaction of the Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the N{sup 2} position of guanine sites on DNA. Methods that can measure exposure and biological response to carcinogens such as <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> are needed. Human Blood can be separated into plasma, lymphocytes, and red blood cells. The plasma should contain native <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> which may yield some useful information about recent exposure. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin and adducts of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>. Hemoglobin has an average lifetime of 120 days so quantification of hemoglobin adducts should give an average of a persons exposure over four months. Also, the electrophilic metabolites that react with hemoglobin to form adducts are the same metabolites that form DNA adducts which can lead to mutations and cancer. Lymphocytes contain DNA and therefore DNA adducts. DNA adducts can be repaired by a series of enzymes so quantification of these adducts will only yield information about recent or non-repairable adducts. DNA adduct formation is believed to be the first important step in chemical carcinogenesis so quantification of these adducts should yield some information on exposure and a great deal of important data on biological response and risk from specific <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015thme.book.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015thme.book.....B"><span>Eine Beziehung seit 650 Jahren: Universität Wien <span class="hlt">und</span> Kloster Melk - Katalog zur Sonderausstellung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruckmüller, Ernst; Niederkorn-Bruck, Meta; Beck, Paul G.; Deibl, Jakob; Deibl, Johannes; Denk, Ulrike; Ellegast, Burkard; Floßmann, Gerhard; Glaßner, Gottfried; Kalteis, Bernadette; Kowarik, Wilfried; Rotheneder, Martin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>University of Vienna was founded in 1365 and celebrates its 650 anniversary in 2015. Due to the university's anniversary, the Benedictine abbey of Melk, Austria presents an exhibition, depicting six and half centuries of university history and collaboration between the university as well as the abbey in all disciplines present at medieval universities. The publication describes the historic frame work as well as case-by-case descriptions of displayed manuscripts, prints and artifacts. Die Universität Wien wurde 1365 gegründet <span class="hlt">und</span> feiert 2015 <span class="hlt">ihr</span> 650jähriges Bestehen. Aus Anlass dieses Jubiläums präsentiert das Benediktiner Stift Melk eine Ausstellung, in der sechseinhalb Jahrhunderte Universistaetsgeschichte aufgearbeitet werden, sowie die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Universität <span class="hlt">und</span> Abtei auf allen Themenbereichen, die an mittelalterlichen Universitäten angeboten wurden. Die Publikation bietet eine historische Zusammenfassung sowie eine Detailbeschreibung der ausgestellten Handschriften, Drucke sowie Gegenstände.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5698282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5698282"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> nomenclature guide. First edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Loening, K.; Merritt, J.; Later, D.; Wright, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Research relating to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is a multidisciplinary activity carried out by scientists not familiar with the intricacies of chemical nomenclature. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> nomenclature Guide is designed to promote good communication in this field by giving instruction on how to name relevant compounds properly, by alerting the reader to the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), by noting the practices of Chemical Abstracts Service, and by identifying other names in use. This book concentrates on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> themselves, their nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur analogs, including functional derivatives, the metabolic products of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and enzymes. For each topic references are provided to the original nomenclature recommendations to enable the reader to check out further details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010082938&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010082938&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21812916S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21812916S"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Translucent Interstellar Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) present in translucent interstellar clouds. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. This comparison provides - for the first time - accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (<span class="hlt">PAH</span> features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. // Reference: F. Salama et al. (2011) ApJ. 728 (1), 154 // Acknowledgements: F.S. acknowledges the support of the NASA's Space Mission Directorate APRA Program. J.K. acknowledges the financial support of the Polish State (grant N203 012 32/1550). The authors are deeply grateful to the ESO archive as well as to the ESO staff members for their active support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20521561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20521561"><span>[<span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in asphalt workers].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..527C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..527C"><span>Milch, Milchprodukte, Analoge <span class="hlt">und</span> Speiseeis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coors, Ursula</p> <p></p> <p>Die Produktpalette Milch <span class="hlt">und</span> Erzeugnisse aus Milch beinhaltet Konsummilch, die aus Milch oder Bestandteilen der Milch hergestellten Milcherzeugnisse wie Sauermilch-, Joghurt-, Kefir-, Buttermilch-, Sahne-, Kondensmilch-, Trockenmilch- <span class="hlt">und</span> Molkenerzeugnisse, Milchmisch- <span class="hlt">und</span> Molkenmischprodukte (Produkte mit beigegebenen Lebensmitteln), Milchzucker, Milcheiweißerzeugnisse, Milchfette <span class="hlt">und</span> Käse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book...57G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book...57G"><span>Neuausrichtung <span class="hlt">und</span> Konsolidierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grohmann, Heinz</p> <p></p> <p>Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische <span class="hlt">und</span> die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, <span class="hlt">und</span> die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung <span class="hlt">und</span> Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II <span class="hlt">und</span> III des Bandes berichtet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996tuf..book.....D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996tuf..book.....D"><span>Tensoren <span class="hlt">und</span> Felder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirschmid, Hans J.</p> <p></p> <p>Das Lehrbuch soll Studierende mit Grundkenntnissen der Differential- <span class="hlt">und</span> Integralrechnung in die klassische Feldtheorie mit modernen mathematischen Methoden einführen. Dementsprechend ist die Tensoranalysis das mathematische Thema, das Prinzip der Relativität das physikalische. Aus didaktischen Erwägungen gliedert sich der Text in zwei Teile. Um den Leser mit den Objekten vertraut zu machen, wird zunächst der affine <span class="hlt">und</span> euklidische Raum zugrundegelegt, um verallgemeinernd zur Geometrie auf Mannigfaltigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Riemannschen Räumen überleiten zu können. Im Anschluß an die mathematische Theorie wird in die spezielle <span class="hlt">und</span> allgemeine Relativitätstheorie eingeführt, wobei die Geometrie der Raum-Zeit, die Grundgesetze der Elektrodynamik <span class="hlt">und</span> der Gravitation sowie Folgerungen zur Sprache kommen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869373"><span>Rosazea-Management: Update über allgemeine Maßnahmen <span class="hlt">und</span> topische Therapieoptionen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaller, M; Schöfer, H; Homey, B; Hofmann, M; Gieler, U; Lehmann, P; Luger, T A; Ruzicka, T; Steinhoff, M</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Obwohl bislang für die Rosazea keine kurative Therapie besteht, können verschiedene Optionen zur Behandlung der Symptome <span class="hlt">und</span> zur Vorbeugung von Exazerbationen empfohlen werden. Neben Selbsthilfemaßnahme wie der Vermeidung von Triggerfaktoren <span class="hlt">und</span> einer geeigneten Hautpflege sollte das Rosazea-Management bei Patienten mit erythematöser <span class="hlt">und</span> leichter bis schwerer papulopustulöser Rosazea die Anwendung topischer Präparate als First-Line-Therapie umfassen. Da Überlappungen der charakteristischen Rosazea-Symptome im klinischen Alltag die Regel sind, sollte die medikamentöse Therapie auf die individuellen Symptome zugeschnitten werden; auch eine Kombinationstherapie kann erforderlich sein. Zu den für die Behandlung der Hauptsymptome der Rosazea zugelassenen Wirkstoffen gehören Brimonidin gegen das Erythem sowie Ivermectin, Metronidazol oder Azelainsäure gegen entzündliche Läsionen. <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> Wirksamkeit wurde in zahlreichen validen, gut kontrollierten Studien belegt. Darüber hinaus existieren verschiedene nicht zugelassene topische Behandlungsmöglichkeiten, deren Wirksamkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> Sicherheit noch in größeren, kontrollierten Studien zu untersuchen ist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28378480','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28378480"><span>Sexualverhalten, STIs <span class="hlt">und</span> HIV-Übertragungsrisiken bei HIV-positiven MSM - Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Esser, Stefan; Krotzek, Judith; Dirks, Henrike; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schadendorf, Dirk</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Steigende Inzidenzen von HIV-Infektionen <span class="hlt">und</span> STIs (sexually transmitted infections) bei MSM (men having sex with men) seit 2001 in Deutschland erfordern neue Ansätze in der ärztlichen Präventionsarbeit. Diese Studie befasst sich mit geeigneten Parametern für gezielte ärztliche Angebote an HIV-positive MSM mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV <span class="hlt">und</span> STIs. In einem zweijährigen Beobachtungszeitraum wurden 233 HIV-positive MSM in der HIV-Ambulanz des Universitätsklinikums Essen zu ihrem Sexualverhalten, Suchtmittelkonsum <span class="hlt">und</span> psychischem Befinden im vorhergehenden Jahr systematisch befragt. Die dokumentierten Labordaten <span class="hlt">und</span> klinische Verläufe wurden von der Erstdiagnose der HIV-Infektion bis zum Januar 2014 ausgewertet. Drogengebrauch, Promiskuität, jüngeres Lebensalter <span class="hlt">und</span> bekannte STIs in der Vorgeschichte waren bei HIV-positiven MSM mit häufigerem ungeschützten Geschlechtsverkehr <span class="hlt">und</span> einer höheren STI-Inzidenz assoziiert. Zusätzliche HIV-spezifische Parameter für ein erhöhtes HIV-Transmissionsrisiko waren neben einer nachweisbaren HIViruslast unbehandelte HIV-Infektionen, Therapieadhärenzprobleme, Wechsel der antiretroviralen Therapie in den letzten zwölf Monaten, bekannte HIV-Multiresistenz <span class="hlt">und</span> ein höherer CD4-Zell-Nadir. Obwohl die HIViruslast in der Routineversorgung quartalsweise bestimmt <span class="hlt">und</span> anschließend vom Arzt mitgeteilt wird, schätzten nur 60 % der HIV-positiven MSM <span class="hlt">ihr</span> HIV-Transmissionsrisiko korrekt ein. Aus Routineuntersuchungen ergeben sich bei HIV-positiven MSM Profile, die auf ein Sexualverhalten mit hohem Risiko für die Übertragung von HIV <span class="hlt">und</span> STIs hinweisen <span class="hlt">und</span> Ansätze für die ärztliche Präventionsarbeit bieten. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40364A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40364A"><span>IR Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Dense Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, Louis; Bernstein, Max; Mattioda, Andrew; Sandford, Scott</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are likely to be a component of the ice mantles that form on dust grains in dense molecular clouds. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> frozen in grain mantles will produce IR absorption bands, not IR emission features. A couple of very weak absorption features in ground based spectra of a few objects embedded in dense clouds may be due to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Additionally spaceborne observations in the 5 to 8 ?m region, the region in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectroscopy is rich, reveal unidentified new bands and significant variation from object to object. It has not been possible to properly evaluate the contribution of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands to these IR observations because the laboratory absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> condensed in realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ice analogs is lacking. This experimental data is necessary to interpret observations because, in ice mantles, the interaction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with the surrounding molecules effects <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR band positions, widths, profiles, and intrinsic strengths. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are readily ionized in pure H2O ice, further altering the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectrum. This laboratory proposal aims to remedy the situation by studying the IR spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> frozen in laboratory ice analogs that realistically reflect the composition of the interstellar ices observed in dense clouds. The purpose is to provide laboratory spectra which can be used to interpret IR observations. We will measure the spectra of these mixed molecular ices containing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> before and after ionization and determine the intrinsic band strengths of neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in these ice analogs. This will enable a quantitative assessment of the role that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can play in determining the 5-8 ?m spectrum of dense clouds and will directly address the following two fundamental questions associated with dense cloud spectroscopy and chemistry: 1- Can <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> be detected in dense clouds? 2- Are <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions components of interstellar ice?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sia..book..339B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sia..book..339B"><span>Messung <span class="hlt">und</span> Analyse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>Für die Beurteilung von Akustik <span class="hlt">und</span> Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes <span class="hlt">und</span> Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..136a2052K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..136a2052K"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Soil: Influence of Initial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Talib, S. A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Most studies on biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) evaluate the effect of initial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration in liquid medium. There are limited studies on evaluation in solid medium such as contaminated soil. This study investigated the potential of the bacteria, Corynebacterium urealyticum isolated from municipal sludge in degrading phenanthrene contaminated soil in different phenanthrene concentration. Batch experiments were conducted over 20 days in reactors containing artificially contaminated phenanthrene soil at different concentration inoculated with a bacterial culture. This study established the optimum condition for phenanthrene degradation by the bacteria under nonindigenous condition at 500 mg/kg of initial phenanthrene concentration. High initial concentration required longer duration for biodegradation process compared to low initial concentration. The bacteria can survive for three days for all initial phenanthrene concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210362"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in sediment-slurry processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, J.B.; Beckles, D.; Chandra, S.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The focus of this research was to examine biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in lab scale slurry reactors. The studies summarized in this paper focused on the rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments, oxygen demand of anaerobic sediments, and the rate and extent of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation achieved. Mass balances were used in all cases. The studies identified several factors which may influence the design or operation of bioreactors used for sediment remediation. Mixing had the greatest effect on the rate and extent of contaminant release; solids loading and aeration had little or no effect in mixed reactors. In unmixed reactors, aerated systems showed faster rates of contaminant release than unaerated systems, indicating that the aeration process itself provides some degree of mixing. The maximum extent of mineralization appeared to be reached within five days in mixed systems; significantly lower mineralization was seen in reactors with insufficient mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..633V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..633V"><span>Getreide, Brot <span class="hlt">und</span> Feine Backwaren</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit</p> <p></p> <p>Getreide <span class="hlt">und</span> Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot <span class="hlt">und</span> Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet <span class="hlt">und</span> veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz <span class="hlt">und</span> der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO <span class="hlt">und</span> dem LFGB geregelt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10502602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10502602"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from the industrial boilers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> stack sampling system. Twenty one individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, respectively. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The emission factors (EFs) of total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008dain.book..123B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008dain.book..123B"><span>Datenintegration <span class="hlt">und</span> Deduplizierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim</p> <p></p> <p>In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art <span class="hlt">und</span> Weise ermöglicht, <span class="hlt">und</span> zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen <span class="hlt">und</span> genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt <span class="hlt">und</span> einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren <span class="hlt">und</span> nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bein.book..321R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bein.book..321R"><span>Instandhaltung <span class="hlt">und</span> Normung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela</p> <p></p> <p>Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen <span class="hlt">und</span> Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat <span class="hlt">und</span> Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen <span class="hlt">und</span> sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung <span class="hlt">und</span> Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen <span class="hlt">und</span> weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN <span class="hlt">und</span> VDE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...807...99A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...807...99A"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission at the Bright Locations of PDRs: the grand<span class="hlt">PAH</span> Hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, H.; Boersma, C.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. We used the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations. Our results show that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in the 5-15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations of neutral small to medium-sized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (˜50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grand<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as a unique mixture of the most stable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grand<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> refer to the robust <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population that results from the intense processing of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population, the abundance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> starts decreasing as we move toward the star.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522199"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grand<span class="hlt">PAH</span> HYPOTHESIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J. E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. We used the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations. Our results show that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations of neutral small to medium-sized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grand<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as a unique mixture of the most stable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grand<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> refer to the robust <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population that results from the intense processing of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population, the abundance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> starts decreasing as we move toward the star.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912214"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> phytoremediation: rhizodegradation or rhizoattenuation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouvrard, S; Leglize, P; Morel, J L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Dealing with soil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POP) is an increasing concern amplified by both regulatory constraints and the dramatic impact of human activities on the soil resource. The most used management options are treatments which totally eradicate the toxic compounds targeted. When possible, environmental-friendly processes should be used, and recent years have seen the emergence of green technologies using biological energies involving microorganisms (bioremediation) and plants (phytoremediation). Research has focused on phytoremediation and many have presented this technology as the process ideally combining efficiency, low cost and environmental acceptance. However, the applicability of phytoremediation on soils contaminated by bio-recalcitrant organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>), has not yet proved as successful as expected. We propose here a review and discussion of the overall question of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> status in soil and their potential for treatment. The limits and applicability of bioremediation technologies are discussed, and the specific beneficial effect of plants is objectively evaluated with a special interest to processes which lead to rhizoattenuation. Given the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> high affinity to soil organic matter, availability is the main limitation to phytoremediation. In this context, bioavailability quantification remains an issue as well as the characterization of the recalcitrant fraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book..137W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book..137W"><span>Statistik in Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilrich, Peter-Theodor</p> <p></p> <p>Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) <span class="hlt">und</span> der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen <span class="hlt">und</span> ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne <span class="hlt">und</span> Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book.1387B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book.1387B"><span>Steuerungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Automatisierungstechnik an Werkzeugmaschinen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahmann, Werner</p> <p></p> <p>Eine leistungsfähige <span class="hlt">und</span> funktionssichere Steuerungstechnik ist die Voraussetzung für die Automatisierung der Werkzeugmaschinen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Produktionsprozesse (Definition nach DIN IEC 60050-351 siehe Teil Steuerungstechnik).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3008425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3008425"><span>Carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in waterpipe charcoal products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061246&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061246&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>The hydrogen coverage of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This new feature shows that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In particular, it seems that very condensed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture as expected from stability arguments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012347','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012347"><span>The hydrogen coverage of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This new feature shows that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In particular, it seems that very condensed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture as expected from stability arguments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017heut.book..397L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017heut.book..397L"><span>Korrespondenzfragen zwischen Energiesystem <span class="hlt">und</span> Telekommunikation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lehmann, Heiko</p> <p></p> <p>Telekommunikationsnetze <span class="hlt">und</span> Stromnetze weisen viele Gemeinsamkeiten auf - sowohl hinsichtlich allgemeiner topologischer <span class="hlt">und</span> hierarchischer Eigenschaften, als auch betreffs der konkreten Technoökonomie unter Regulierungsbedingungen. Das folgende Kapitel analysiert diese Eigenschaften <span class="hlt">und</span> gibt Antworten auf die Frage, wie die wechselseitige Verkopplung beider, jeweils systemabdeckender Infrastrukturen zu einem Treiber der Energiewende in entwickelten Volkswirtschaften werden kann.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2357H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2357H"><span>Patentierung <span class="hlt">und</span> Patentlage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herrmann, Uwe</p> <p></p> <p>Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- <span class="hlt">und</span> Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums <span class="hlt">und</span> sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten <span class="hlt">und</span> geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen <span class="hlt">und</span> den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente <span class="hlt">und</span> Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986AnP...498..295L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986AnP...498..295L"><span>Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden <span class="hlt">und</span> Entdecken</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Linnemann, Gerhard</p> <p></p> <p>Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten <span class="hlt">und</span> nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft <span class="hlt">und</span> nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse <span class="hlt">und</span> Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer <span class="hlt">und</span> erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen <span class="hlt">und</span> Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242301','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242301"><span>Toxicity evaluation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures using Microtox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thompkins, J.; Guthrie, E.; Pfaender, F.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are produced from both natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, are prevalent at many hazardous waste sites, and pose a potential risk to both ecological and human health. To date, few researchers have assessed the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) mixtures. The toxicity of chrysene, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and naphthalene were evaluated using Microtox, and acute toxicity assay that uses bioluminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, to measure toxicity. In this study, the toxicities of 2, 3, and 4 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were determined for individual compounds. Synergistic or additive effects of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures was assessed by comparing the toxicity of mixtures with that of pure compounds. Each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> or mixture was evaluated at their respective water solubility concentrations, For individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tested, the toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is inversely related to water solubility. Mixtures of two and three <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with disparate water solubilities resulted in synergistic interactions. Antagonistic interactions, a decrease in toxicity, were observed for mixtures of similar water solubilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/572355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/572355"><span>Bacterial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and potential effects of surfactants on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aitken, M.D.; Grimberg, S.J.; Nagel, J.; Nagel, R.D.; Stringfellow, W.T.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>The purposes of this project were to evaluate whether indigenous microorganisms from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-contaminated soils produce surfactants (biosurfactants) as a means of enhancing the bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>; to improve the understanding of the general physiology of a diverse group of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria; and to study in general how surfactants influence the biodegradation of hydrophobic chemicals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2341M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2341M"><span>Venture Kapital <span class="hlt">und</span> Life Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian</p> <p></p> <p>Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik <span class="hlt">und</span> die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten <span class="hlt">und</span> Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung <span class="hlt">und</span> Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens <span class="hlt">und</span> die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln <span class="hlt">und</span> letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden <span class="hlt">und</span> erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer <span class="hlt">und</span> potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen <span class="hlt">und</span> Engagement die Umsetzung <span class="hlt">und</span> der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book..545D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book..545D"><span>Wärme <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dehli, Martin; Wittig, Heinz</p> <p></p> <p>Kapitel 27 Wärme <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeit befasst sich zunächst mit dem Systembegriff. Darauf werden die innere Energie U, die Wärme Q <span class="hlt">und</span> mit der Volumenänderungsarbeit W v , der technischen Arbeit (Druckänderungsarbeit) W t <span class="hlt">und</span> der irreversiblen Dissipationsarbeit W d verschiedene Formen der Arbeit W behandelt; auch wird die Enthalpie H eingeführt. Weiter wird das Prinzip von der Erhaltung der Energie - der erste Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik - vorgestellt. Auf Kreisprozesse <span class="hlt">und</span> den thermischen Wirkungsgrad η th wird eingegangen. Weiter werden der zweite Hauptsatz der Thermodynamik <span class="hlt">und</span> - damit zusammenhängend - reversible <span class="hlt">und</span> irreversible Abläufe erörtert; hiernach wird - als Zustandsgröße zur Erfassung des Ausmaßes der Irreversibilität eines Prozesses - die Entropie S behandelt. Schließlich wird kurz auf die Exergie <span class="hlt">und</span> die Anergie - als zwei Bestandteilen der Energie - eingegangen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732184"><span>Occupational <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003610&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003610&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Airborne and laboratory studies of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A brief history of the observations which have led to the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s) are the carriers of the widespread interstellar emission features near 3050, 1615, '1300' and 890 cm(exp -1) (3.29, 6.2, '7.7', and 11.2 mu m) is presented. The central role of airborne spectroscopy is stressed. The principal reason for the assignment to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s was the resemblance of the interstellar emission spectrum to the laboratory absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-like materials. Since precious little information was available on the properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in the forms that are thought to exist under interstellar conditions -isolated and ionized in the emission zones, with the smallest <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s being dehydrogenated- there was a need for a spectral data base on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s taken in these states. Here, the relevant infrared spectroscopic properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s will be reviewed. These laboratory spectra show that relative band intensities are severely altered and that band frequencies shift. It is shown that these new data alleviate several of the spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003610&hterms=criticism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcriticism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003610&hterms=criticism&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcriticism"><span>Airborne and laboratory studies of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A brief history of the observations which have led to the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s) are the carriers of the widespread interstellar emission features near 3050, 1615, '1300' and 890 cm(exp -1) (3.29, 6.2, '7.7', and 11.2 mu m) is presented. The central role of airborne spectroscopy is stressed. The principal reason for the assignment to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s was the resemblance of the interstellar emission spectrum to the laboratory absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-like materials. Since precious little information was available on the properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in the forms that are thought to exist under interstellar conditions -isolated and ionized in the emission zones, with the smallest <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s being dehydrogenated- there was a need for a spectral data base on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s taken in these states. Here, the relevant infrared spectroscopic properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s will be reviewed. These laboratory spectra show that relative band intensities are severely altered and that band frequencies shift. It is shown that these new data alleviate several of the spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the hypothesis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H41A1008V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H41A1008V"><span>Pavement Sealcoat, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and the Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62225&keyword=low+AND+trophic+AND+levels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84602763&CFTOKEN=88228772','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62225&keyword=low+AND+trophic+AND+levels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84602763&CFTOKEN=88228772"><span><span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Lake Michigan Aquatic Ecosystem. Fernandez, JD*, Burkhard, LP, Cook, PM, Nichols, JW, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, Duluth MN. In this study, we are investigating the accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Lake Michigan food web. Focusing on EPA's 16 "Priority Po...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/437364','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/437364"><span>Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>) from calcite and quartz sediments to seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutton, P.L.; Van Vleet, E.S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>) are ubiquitous hydrophobic organic pollutants in the marine environment. Many of the PAM`s are classified as possible carcinogens or mutagens, therefore they are of considerable concern to human and environmental health. The highest concentrations are found in coastal regions due to anthropogenic activities including oil spills, tanker operations, incomplete fossil fuel combustion and runoff. The sources and distribution of PAM`s in sediments are fairly well known, while the fate and transport of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in the marine environment are less known. Desorption is an important factor influencing the fate and transport of hydrophobic molecules at the seawater/sediment interface. The desorption of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> from contaminated marine sediments to the water column/pore water affects the availability of the pollutant to biota. The sorption of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> is determined in part by the organic carbon content of the sediments. The presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water column may also influence sorption of hydrophobic molecules. DOC may play an important role in the fate and transport of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in coastal regions where DOC concentrations are highest. This study presents the results of the desorption of nine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sediments to seawater. Factors observed included carbon content of sediments, sediment mineralogy, fulvic acid addition to seawater and dissolved organic carbon in seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005621','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005621"><span>Infrared fluorescence from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cherchneff, Isabelle; Barker, John R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Several celestial objects, including UV rich regions of planetary and reflection nebulae, stars, H II regions, and extragalactic sources, are characterized by the unidentified infrared emission bands (UIR bands). A few years ago, it was proposed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are responsible for most of the UIR bands. This hypothesis is based on a spectrum analysis of the observed features. Comparisons of observed IR spectra with lab absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> support the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis. An example spectrum is represented, where the Orion Bar 3.3 micron spectrum is compared with the absorption frequencies of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Chrysene, Pyrene, and Coronene. The laser excited 3.3 micron emission spectrum is presented from a gas phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (azulen). The infrared fluorescence theory (IRF) is briefly explained, followed by a description of the experimental apparatus, a report of the results, and discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlgm.book..229W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlgm.book..229W"><span>Arbeitsgestaltung <span class="hlt">und</span> Mitarbeiterqualifizierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin</p> <p></p> <p>Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene <span class="hlt">und</span> potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010tcmi.book..135H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010tcmi.book..135H"><span>Tipps <span class="hlt">und</span> Tricks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk</p> <p></p> <p>Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar <span class="hlt">und</span> sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255657','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255657"><span>Multimedia Model for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and Nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Lake Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates. PMID:25373871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25373871"><span>Multimedia model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Lake Michigan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Batterman, Stuart A</p> <p>2014-12-02</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pmmt.book..461B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pmmt.book..461B"><span>Wirkstoffe, Medikamente <span class="hlt">und</span> Mathematische Bildverarbeitung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis</p> <p></p> <p>Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig <span class="hlt">und</span> teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- <span class="hlt">und</span> Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen <span class="hlt">und</span> anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..83..193S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..83..193S"><span>Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds, the oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022423','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022423"><span>Urban sprawl leaves its <span class="hlt">PAH</span> signature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Furlong, E.T.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by previous coring studies that reported decreasing concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> after reaching highs in the 1950s. Concurrent with the increase in concentrations is a change in the assemblage of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that indicates the increasing trends are driven by combustion sources. The increase in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations tracks closely with increases in automobile use, even in watersheds that have not undergone substantial changes in urban land-use levels since the 1970s.The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18828394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18828394"><span>[Influences of pine needles physiological properties on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> accumulation].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Ping; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Wen; Tian, Fu-Lin; Ge, Lin-Ke</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The lipid contents, specific surface areas and stomata density of two kinds of pine (Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii) needles were determined simultaneously with the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The influences of the physiological properties of two species on the accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in pine needles were investigated. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in Cedrus deodar needles are higher than that in Pinus thunbergii needles, and the average total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in two species are (1 101 +/- 692) ng/g and (518 +/- 339) ng/g, respectively. The capabilities of accumulating <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for two species are different. The lipid content is the principal factor influencing the levels of pine needle <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii needles, 3-ring (> 56%) and 4-ring (> 31%) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> make up large proportions of sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The accumulation capabilities of pine needles for 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are greater than 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and the concentrations of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are about two times of those of 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. There are no significant correlations between the levels of 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and lipid contents for two species. For two species, the correlations between lipid contents and specific surface areas are different, which results in the contrary correlations between the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and specific surface areas for Cedrus deodar and Pinus thunbergii. Specific surface areas and stomata density affect the levels of 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in pine needles significantly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bumg.book..183K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bumg.book..183K"><span>Zusammenfassung <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausblick</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knopp, Lothar; Wiegleb, Gerhard</p> <p></p> <p>Mit dem vorliegenden Buch wird als Ergebnis eines durch die Deutsche BundesstiftungUmwelt (DBU) geförderten Forschungsprojektes an der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus eine erste Standardisierung der Vorgehensweise zur Erfassung, Risikoabschätzung <span class="hlt">und</span> Bewertung eines Biodiversitätsschadens nach dem Umweltschadensgesetz (USchadG) vorgelegt. Damit kann eine erste Bewertung potentieller Schadenssituationen vorgenommen werden. Die Nutzung der hier erarbeiteten Vorgehensweise bietet sich daher für all diejenigen an, die mit der Frage einer möglichen Haftung für Biodiversitätsschäden nach dem USchadG konfrontiert sind, seien es die Unteren <span class="hlt">und</span> Oberen Naturschutzbehörden der Länder, die Schadensversicherer, die potentiell Haftenden oder die Naturschutzverbände.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452055"><span>Amphibian responses to photoinduced toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hatch, A.C.; Burton, G.A. Jr.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Amphibians are essential components of many ecosystems, yet little information exists on their sensitivity to environmental stressors. Recent evidence shows amphibian diversity is declining. Others have suggested this decline is a result of increasing ultraviolet (UV) light levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are widespread pollutants in the aquatic environment and their toxicity is increased in the presence of UV light. Embryos of two frogs (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis) were exposed to a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, fluoranthene, to evaluate amphibian responses to this common contaminant in the presence of sunlight. Hatching rate and development were measured in field and laboratory exposures at multiple concentrations and varying UV intensities. Hatching rate was relatively unaffected, while newly hatched larvae were sensitive to low (ug/L) concentrations. Response was related to both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and UV intensity. Results suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in the aquatic environment may contribute to declines in amphibian populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60633&keyword=Nicotine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60633&keyword=Nicotine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE <span class="hlt">PAH</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60633&keyword=nicotine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89983692&CFTOKEN=25182887','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60633&keyword=nicotine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89983692&CFTOKEN=25182887"><span>SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE <span class="hlt">PAH</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005623','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005623"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the laboratory and interstellar space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The theory that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are a constituent of the interstellar medium, and a source of the IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns is being studied using <span class="hlt">PAH</span> containing acid insoluble residue of the Orgueil CI meteorite and coal tar. FTIR spectra of Orgueil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> material that has undergone thermal treatment, and a solvent insoluble fraction of coal tar that has been exposed to hydrogen plasma are presented. The UV excided luminescence spectrum of a solvent soluble coal tar film is also shown. Comparison of the lab measurements with observations appears to support the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> theory, and shows the process of dehydrogenation expected to take place in the interstellar medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=101420','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=101420"><span>Isolation of Adherent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-Degrading Bacteria Using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Sorbing Carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bastiaens, Leen; Springael, Dirk; Wattiau, Pierre; Harms, Hauke; deWachter, Rupert; Verachtert, Hubert; Diels, Ludo</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-utilizing bacteria from <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Both techniques were successful, but selected from the same source different bacterial strains able to grow on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as the sole source of carbon and energy. The liquid enrichment mainly selected for Sphingomonas spp., whereas the membrane method exclusively led to the selection of Mycobacterium spp. Furthermore, in separate membrane enrichment set-ups with different membrane types, three repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-related Mycobacterium strains were recovered. The new Mycobacterium isolates were strongly hydrophobic and displayed the capacity to adhere strongly to different surfaces. One strain, Mycobacterium sp. LB501T, displayed an unusual combination of high adhesion efficiency and an extremely high negative charge. This strain may represent a new bacterial species as suggested by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These results indicate that the provision of hydrophobic sorbents containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the enrichment procedure discriminated in favor of certain bacterial characteristics. The new isolation method is appropriate to select for adherent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, which might be useful to biodegrade sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils and sludge. PMID:10788347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492807','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492807"><span>Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in developing zebrafish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elie, Marc R.; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M.; Gonnerman, Gregory D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Tanguay, Robert L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 62 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures on vertebrate development. PMID:26001975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10788347','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10788347"><span>Isolation of adherent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-degrading bacteria using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sorbing carriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bastiaens, L; Springael, D; Wattiau, P; Harms, H; deWachter, R; Verachtert, H; Diels, L</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-utilizing bacteria from <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Both techniques were successful, but selected from the same source different bacterial strains able to grow on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as the sole source of carbon and energy. The liquid enrichment mainly selected for Sphingomonas spp., whereas the membrane method exclusively led to the selection of Mycobacterium spp. Furthermore, in separate membrane enrichment set-ups with different membrane types, three repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-related Mycobacterium strains were recovered. The new Mycobacterium isolates were strongly hydrophobic and displayed the capacity to adhere strongly to different surfaces. One strain, Mycobacterium sp. LB501T, displayed an unusual combination of high adhesion efficiency and an extremely high negative charge. This strain may represent a new bacterial species as suggested by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These results indicate that the provision of hydrophobic sorbents containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the enrichment procedure discriminated in favor of certain bacterial characteristics. The new isolation method is appropriate to select for adherent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, which might be useful to biodegrade sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils and sludge.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20075757','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20075757"><span>Isolation of adherent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-degrading bacteria using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sorbing carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bastiaens, L.; Springael, D.; Wattiau, P.; Harms, H.; DeWachter, R.; Verachtert, H.; Diels, L.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-utilizing bacteria from <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Both techniques were successful, but selected from the same source different bacterial strains able to grow on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as the sole source of carbon and energy. The liquid enrichment mainly selected for Sphingomonas spp., whereas the membrane method exclusively led to the selection of Mycobacterium spp. Furthermore, in separate membrane enrichment set-ups with different membrane types, three repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-related Mycobacterium strains were recovered. The new Mycobactereium isolates were strongly hydrophobic and displayed the capacity to adhere strongly to different surfaces. One strain, Mycobacterium sp. LB501T, displayed an unusual combination of high adhesion efficiency and an extremely high negative charge. This strain may represent a new bacterial species as suggested by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These results indicate that the provision of hydrophobic sorbents containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the enrichment procedure discriminated in favor of certain bacterial characteristics. The new isolation method is appropriate to select for adherent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, which might be useful to biodegrade sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils and sludge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940734"><span>Microbial diversity and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catabolic genes tracking spatial heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bengtsson, Göran; Törneman, Niklas; De Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed the within-site spatial heterogeneity of microbial community diversity, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) catabolic genotypes, and physiochemical soil properties at a creosote contaminated site. Genetic diversity and community structure were evaluated from an analysis of denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified sequences of 16S rRNA gene. The potential <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation capability was determined from PCR amplification of a suit of aromatic dioxygenase genes. Microbial diversity, evenness, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> genotypes were patchily distributed, and hot and cold spots of their distribution coincided with hot and cold spots of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distribution. The analyses revealed a positive covariation between microbial diversity, biomass, evenness, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration, implying that the creosote contamination at this site promotes diversity and abundance. Three patchily distributed <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading genotypes, NAH, phnA, and pdo1, were identified, and their abundances were positively correlated with the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and the fraction of soil organic carbon. The covariation of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration with the number and spatial distribution of catabolic genotypes suggests that a field site capacity to degrade <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may vary with the extent of contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010084624&hterms=infrared+absorption+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Babsorption%2Bspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010084624&hterms=infrared+absorption+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Babsorption%2Bspectroscopy"><span>Molecular Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A long-term laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these carbon molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The laboratory results will be discussed as well as the implications for astronomy and for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. We will also present the new generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010084624&hterms=molecular+chemical+reactions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmolecular%2Bchemical%2Breactions','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010084624&hterms=molecular+chemical+reactions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmolecular%2Bchemical%2Breactions"><span>Molecular Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A long-term laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these carbon molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The laboratory results will be discussed as well as the implications for astronomy and for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. We will also present the new generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5218193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5218193"><span>Developing strategies for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and TCE bioremediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahaffey, W.R.; Nelson, M.; Kinsella, J. ); Compeau, G. )</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Bioremediation is the controlled use of microbes, commonly bacteria and fungi, to reclaim soil and water contaminated with substances that are deleterious to human health and the environment. The organisms used often naturally inhabit the polluted matrix; however, they may inhabit a different environment and be used as seed organisms because of their ability to degrade a specific class of substances. It is because of the wide diversity of microbial metabolic potential that bioremediation is possible. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are organic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. They are present in fossil fuels and are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibit low volatility and low aqueous solubility. As the molecular weight of these compounds increases, there is an exponential decrease in solubility and volatility. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tend to adsorb onto soils and sediments because of their hydrophobic character, which is an intrinsic function of molecular size. The microbial degradation of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by pure cultures and mixed populations occurs under a wide range of soil types and environmental conditions. Generally, the factors having the greatest influence on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation rates are soil moisture content, pH, inorganic nutrients present, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loading rates, initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, and the presence of an acclimated microbial population. Feasibility studies are essential for developing a bioremediation strategy and are performed in a phased testing program that is designed to accomplish a number of objectives. These objectives include establishing an indigenous microbial population that will degrade specific contaminants, defining the rate-limiting factors for enhanced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation and the optimal treatment in terms of rates and cleanup levels attainable, and developing design parameters for field operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010087124&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010087124&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Laboratory Studies of Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970007848&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970007848&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in the Orion Bar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bregman, Jesse; Sloan, G. C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s) in the Orion Bar region is investigated using a combination of narrow-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. The goal was to study how the strength of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands vary with spatial position in this edge-on photo-dissociation region. The specific focus here is how these variations constrain the carrier of the 3.4 micron band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ascl.soft10009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ascl.soft10009S"><span>PAHFIT: Properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, J. D.; Draine, Bruce</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>PAHFIT is an IDL tool for decomposing Spitzer IRS spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission sources, with a special emphasis on the careful recovery of ambiguous silicate absorption, and weak, blended dust emission features. PAHFIT is primarily designed for use with full 5-35 micron Spitzer low-resolution IRS spectra. PAHFIT is a flexible tool for fitting spectra, and you can add or disable features, compute combined flux bands, change fitting limits, etc., without changing the code. PAHFIT uses a simple, physically-motivated model, consisting of starlight, thermal dust continuum in a small number of fixed temperature bins, resolved dust features and feature blends, prominent emission lines (which themselves can be blended with dust features), as well as simple fully-mixed or screen dust extinction, dominated by the silicate absorption bands at 9.7 and 18 microns. Most model components are held fixed or are tightly constrained. PAHFIT uses Drude profiles to recover the full strength of dust emission features and blends, including the significant power in the wings of the broad emission profiles. This means the resulting feature strengths are larger (by factors of 2-4) than are recovered by methods which estimate the underlying continuum using line segments or spline curves fit through fiducial wavelength anchors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013262"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Spectroscopy: Past, Present and Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattioda, Andrew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since their discovery in the 1970's, astronomers, astrophysicists and astrochemists have been intrigued by the nearly ubiquitous unidentified infrared emission (UIR) bands. In the 1980's, investigators determined the most probably source of these emissions was a family of molecules known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or simply <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In order to better understand these interstellar IR features and utilize them as chemical probes of the cosmos, laboratory spectroscopists have spent the last three decades investigating the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under astrophysically relevant conditions. This presentation will discuss the similarities and differences in the spectroscopic properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as one goes from the Far to Mid to Near infrared wavelength regions and probe the changes observed in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra as they go from neutral to ionized molecules suspended in an inert gas matrix, to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a water ice matrix and as a thin film. In selected instances, the experimental results will be compared to theoretical values. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on the future directions of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244887"><span>Biomarkers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, J.; Robinson, R.; Solomon, K.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S.; Day, K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and some may cause reproductive toxicity in fish. The purpose of this study is to develop biomarkers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> effects on fathead minnows (P. promelas). Mesocosms will be treated with the wood preservative creosote (composition is ca. 80% as <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The authors anticipate that metabolism of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by fish will generate free radicals that damage DNA and cause liver tumors. Rainbow trout (RBT) (0. mykiss) and fathead minnows (FHM) will be exposed to a range of waterborne creosote concentrations below the LC,, values (5.66 mg/L for RBT and 5.97 mg/L for FHM). Fish liver, muscle, intestine, and bile will be removed to measure (1) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biotransformation (EROD activity and concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in bile), (2) oxidative stress (retinoic acid, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels), and (3) genotoxicity (micronucleus induction, DNA strand breaks, and DNA adducts). Biomarkers will be considered suitable for application when results are repeatable, show exposure dependency, and respond at sublethal concentrations typical of contaminated ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=piaget+AND+learning+AND+theory&pg=3&id=EJ584364','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=piaget+AND+learning+AND+theory&pg=3&id=EJ584364"><span>Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vollmers, Burkhard</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+american+AND+english+AND+pronunciation&pg=3&id=EJ179367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+american+AND+english+AND+pronunciation&pg=3&id=EJ179367"><span>Die Besonderheiten der Aussprache des amerikanischen Englisch <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Vermittlung in Lehrwerken (Peculiarities of American English Pronunciation and their Treatment in Teaching Texts)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dahlmann-Resing, Guenther</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Divides American (Midwestern) sounds into 10 categories, and describes their pronunciation on the basis of Daniel Jones'"English Pronuncing Dictionary." Also describes American peculiarities of intonation, rhythm and nasalization. A list of words differing in pronunciation from British is added. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZAGeo..41...80E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ZAGeo..41...80E"><span>Shopping-Center in deutschen Mittelstädten <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihr</span> Einfluss auf die Zentralitätsentwicklung. Eine Untersuchung unter der Verwendung von Einzelhandelskennzahlen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eckhardt, Yannick</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Shopping-centers have been subject to intense analysis from various angles. Due to by the growing number of shopping-centers located in medium-sized cities, a change of money flows within the municipal boundaries is expected. On a multi-level basis this article shows key retail figures of medium-sized cities with shopping-centers in comparison to ones without. The final result reveals that the retail turnover of medium-sized cities with a shopping-center reaches a significantly higher level than cities without a shopping-center. Furthermore, the evaluation of data shows a rise of the retail centrality in medium sized towns as a consequence of the opening of a shopping-center. This means the construction of shopping-centers doesn't only cause a shift of money flows within the city boundaries but also leads to an additional influx of money from outside the municipalities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burkhard&pg=3&id=EJ584364','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burkhard&pg=3&id=EJ584364"><span>Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vollmers, Burkhard</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5644953','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5644953"><span>Pyropheophorbide <span class="hlt">und</span> a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll <span class="hlt">und</span> a degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}, pheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} and pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} was observed. HydroxyChl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}, chlorophyllide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}, pheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} and pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.1215A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.1215A"><span>Bildanalyse in Medizin <span class="hlt">und</span> Biologie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Athelogou, Maria; Schönmeyer, Ralf; Schmidt, Günther; Schäpe, Arno; Baatz, Martin; Binnig, Gerd</p> <p></p> <p>Heutzutage sind bildgebende Verfahren aus medizinischen Untersuchungen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Diverse Methoden - basierend auf dem Einsatz von Ultraschallwellen, Röntgenstrahlung, Magnetfeldern oder Lichtstrahlen - werden dabei spezifisch eingesetzt <span class="hlt">und</span> liefern umfangreiches Datenmaterial über den Körper <span class="hlt">und</span> sein Inneres. Anhand von Mikroskopieaufnahmen aus Biopsien können darüber hinaus Daten über die morphologische Eigenschaften von Körpergeweben gewonnen werden. Aus der Analyse all dieser unterschiedlichen Arten von Informationen <span class="hlt">und</span> unter Konsultation weiterer klinischer Untersuchungen aus diversen medizinischen Disziplinen kann unter Berücksichtigung von Anamnesedaten ein "Gesamtbild“ des Gesundheitszustands eines Patienten erstellt werden. Durch die Flut der erzeugten Bilddaten kommt der Bildverarbeitung im Allgemeinen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Bildanalyse im Besonderen eine immer wichtigere Rolle zu. Gerade im Bereich der Diagnoseunterstützung, der Therapieplanung <span class="hlt">und</span> der bildgeführten Chirurgie bilden sie Schlüsseltechnologien, die den Forschritt nicht nur auf diesen Gebieten maßgeblich vorantreiben.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2254560B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2254560B"><span>Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large <span class="hlt">PAH</span> family, i.e. Deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, they might be accommodated in large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25971454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25971454"><span>[Exercise scenario of a highly contagious, life-threatening disease in intercontinental aviation : a case report in the context of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stich, Heribert; Guggemos, W; Mühlhaus, A; Wicklein, B; Dietl, J; Hoffmann, A; Leiwering, J; Frangoulidis, D; Zange, S; Königstein, B; Ippisch, S</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) 2005 were conformed to German law on July 20, 2007 and described in detail by the Implementing Act (<span class="hlt">IHR</span> DG). According to these legal bases, "designated airports" must maintain special capacities for protection against health threats, and are also responsible for performing regular <span class="hlt">IHR</span> exercises. Representation of the optimization of established operational concepts of various professions to manage infectious biological threats without obstruction of international travel, and mediation of experience to <span class="hlt">IHR</span> professionals. An exercise based on the case scenario of a travel-related febrile illness was performed at Munich International Airport on November 11, 2013. Preparations took 6 months and the exercise itself lasted nearly 12 h. The follow-up lasted an additional 9 months. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the exercise was completed. From an Individual Medicine and Public Health perspective, modular work structures and risk communication functioned adequately. The medical examination of passengers was also well managed. Areas requiring further optimization included arrival/departure times of external actors, transport of the index patient to hospital and protective measures for individual participants. Overall, a defined biological threat scenario representing a double infection with two highly pathogenic germs was handled satisfactorily without affecting international air travel. Modular supply components are an effective and forward-looking means in protection against threats occurring at airports. Key success factors include sufficient staff mobility, immediate self-protection of actors involved, effective risk communication and a strong overall coordination and monitoring of the situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020074"><span>Design, development, and field testing of Infrared Heterodyne Radiometer (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) for remote profiling of tropospheric and stratospheric species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lange, R.; Savage, M.; Peyton, B.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The performance of a dual-channel infrared heterodyne radiometer, designed to remotely monitor the concentration and vertical distribution of selected atmospheric species, is described. Ground based solar viewing measurement using the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> were performed at selected laser transitions for ammonia (NH3 and ozone O3). Flight tests were conducted aboard the Galileo II, NASA Ames CV-990, on the Latitude Survey Mission. Ozone was the selected atmospheric species for the airborne flight measurements because of the scientific interest in this atmospheric species, the availability of in situ monitors, the coordinated ozone measurements, and the availability of ground truth data. The IHS was operated in the solar viewing mode to determine ozone distributions in the stratosphere and in the nadir viewing mode to determine the ozone distribution in the troposphere. Airborne atmospheric propagation measurements also were carried out at selected CO2 laser transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25113181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25113181"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination on soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687352','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/687352"><span>Quantitative characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in burn residue and soot samples and differentiation of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> -- The 1994 Mobile burn study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.; Shu, Y.Y.; Sigouin, L.; Landriault, M.; Lambert, P.; Turpin, R.; Campagna, P.; Mullin, J.</p> <p>1999-09-15</p> <p>Several mesoscale burns were conducted in 1994 in Mobile Bay, AL, to study various aspects of diesel fuel burning in situ. The target <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the diesel, residue, and soot samples collected during each burn were quantitatively characterized by GC/MS. A simple model based on mass balance of individual petroleum <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pre- and postburn was proposed to estimate the destruction efficiencies of the total petroleum <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This study demonstrates the following: (1) Distributions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the original diesel and soot were very different. (2) The average destruction efficiencies for the total target diesel <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> including five alkylated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> series and other EPA priority unsubstituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were greater than 99%. (3) Using the model, 27.3 kg of the diesel <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were destroyed for each 1,000 kg of diesel burned. These were mostly two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their alkylated homologues. (4) Combustion also generated trace amounts of high molecular weight five- and six-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as well as the four-ring benz[a]anthracene. But the total mass of these pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was found to be extremely low: only 0.016, 0.032, and 0.048 kg of the five- and six-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were generated by combustion in the three different scenarios for each 1,000 kg of diesel burned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15547964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15547964"><span>Performance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission from bituminous coal combustion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Jian-Hua; You, Xiao-Fang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Yin, Xue-Feng; Cen, Ke-Fa</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (16 high priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formation. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formation (especially the multi-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during coal combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.183..322R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.183..322R"><span>Composition and size distribution of airborne particulate <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in two Chinese megacities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Yanqin; Zhou, Bianhong; Tao, Jun; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Can; Wang, Jiayuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Lu; Han, Yanni; Liu, Lang; Cao, Cong; Wang, Gehui</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Concentrations and compositions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) in four size ranges of ambient particles (< 1.1, 1.1-3.3, 3.3-9.0 and > 9.0 μm) collected in Xi'an and Guangzhou, two megacities of China, during the winter and summer of 2013 were measured and compared with those in 2003. The TSP-equivalent concentrations of Σ14<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Xi'an and Guangzhou are 57 ± 20 and 18 ± 23 ng m- 3 in winter, 5-10 times higher than those in summer. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in both cities are dominated by 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. In contrast, they are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter, probably due to enhanced gas-to-particle phase partitioning of the semi-volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. TSP-equivalent Σ7OPAHs during winter are 54 ± 15 and 23 ± 32 ng m- 3 in Xi'an and Guangzhou and dominated by 5-ring OPAHs. Size distribution results showed that the fine modes (< 3.3 μm) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs in both cities are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter and 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. Relative abundances of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs increased along with an increase in particle sizes, accounting for from about 1% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> or OPAHs in the smallest particles (< 1.1 μm) to > 90% of the total in the largest particles (> 9.0 μm). The toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> assessment indicated that atmospheric particles in Xi'an and Guangzhou during winter are much more toxic than those during summer and fine particles are more toxic than coarse particles. Compared to those in 2003, fine particulate <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs in both cities during winter decreased by 50-90%, most likely due to the replacement of coal by natural gas in the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015apra.prop...25R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015apra.prop...25R"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Infrared Spectroscopy in the JWST Era</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ricca, Alesandra</p> <p></p> <p>The extraordinary infrared instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will transform the field of cosmic spectroscopy. We propose to supply the astronomical community with theoretical and experimental spectra of a wide range of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters and to use our IR absorption spectra to calculate emission spectra that will be crucial in interpreting the new observational data. The Infrared Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescopes have shown that the midIR emission spectrum of the interstellar medium is dominated by strong bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 microns superimposed upon broad underlying plateaus generally attributed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters and very small grains. Despite the limited spectral and spatial resolution of these data, detailed analysis has revealed that each band is, in fact, a blend of multiple emission features. Subtle variations in the band blending can be detected even for spectra measured at different positions within a single astronomical source. These variations can be seen to arise from multiple <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related carriers that are each responding differently to the local physical conditions. The James Webb Space Telescope has near-IR and mid-IR instruments, NIRSpec and MIRI, with an extremely high spectral resolution, spatial resolution, and sensitivity that will revolutionize infrared astronomy. These instruments will provide spatial maps on a subarcsecond scale with an unprecedented level of spectral detail, allowing detailed study of the interrelationship of the individual components within each emission band. This will provide a critical insight into the molecular characteristics of the emitting species and their (photo)chemical evolution in space. Exploitation of these astronomical spectra requires fundamental data on potential emitting species that fully account for all astrophysically relevant materials. Over the last two decades, spectra of neutral and charged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008haau.book..491A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008haau.book..491A"><span>Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung <span class="hlt">und</span> Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm</p> <p></p> <p>Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne <span class="hlt">und</span> Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184202&hterms=individual+PAHs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindividual%2BPAHs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184202&hterms=individual+PAHs&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dindividual%2BPAHs"><span>A Search for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Astrophysical Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, F.; Cami, J.; Tan, X.; Biennier, L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We present the results of a dedicated search for the spectral signatures in the visible range of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in astronomical observations representing various astrophysical environments, probing a total column of line of sight material corresponding to Av=50. Laboratory measurements of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in simulated astrophysical conditions are now available (see contribution of Salama et al.) which provide for the first time the exact wavelengths for the spectral features of these molecules, as well as detailed information on the intrinsic line profiles and oscillator strengths. These measurements therefore allow a direct comparison to astronomical observations and an estimate of, or upper limit to, the abundance of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in space. As the column densities for individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in interstellar or circumstellar lines of sight are expected to be very low, such a comparison and analysis requires astronomical observations at very high signal to noise. We present such a data set here for lines of sight representing diffuse clouds and circumstellar environments of carbon stars, and their comparison with gas phase spectra of a representative set of free, cold <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASInC...3..127M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASInC...3..127M"><span>Infrared emission modeling for vinyl <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maurya, Anju; Rastogi, Shantanu</p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules are source of the infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, 12.7 and 16.4 microns that are ubiquitously observed in diverse astrophysical objects. There are variations in the profile of these emission features between sources ranging from star forming regions to late type stars and also extra galactic sources. The profile variations point towards the presence of a variety of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in different population in different objects. In order to simulate the emission spectra from different sources the vibrational spectra of a wide variety of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules have been studied. The modeled emission spectra gives good match for some bands but simultaneous fit for all features is not obtained. In particular the 6.2 micron feature, assigned to C-C stretch mode, is not fitted well. We therefore also study <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with vinyl side groups. Quantum chemical calculations using DFT/B3LYP in conjugation with optimum basis are performed to obtain the IR spectra of vinyl <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Modeling of emission is done assuming excitation by a UV photon and cascade emission through vibrational levels that are obtained theoretically. It is expected that due to the presence of C = C in vinyl group the aromatic C-C might shift closer to 6.2 micron. A closer match with the observed spectra will provide a better insight about the physical conditions and molecular evolution in the object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184202&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184202&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>A Search for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Astrophysical Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, F.; Cami, J.; Tan, X.; Biennier, L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We present the results of a dedicated search for the spectral signatures in the visible range of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in astronomical observations representing various astrophysical environments, probing a total column of line of sight material corresponding to Av=50. Laboratory measurements of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in simulated astrophysical conditions are now available (see contribution of Salama et al.) which provide for the first time the exact wavelengths for the spectral features of these molecules, as well as detailed information on the intrinsic line profiles and oscillator strengths. These measurements therefore allow a direct comparison to astronomical observations and an estimate of, or upper limit to, the abundance of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in space. As the column densities for individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in interstellar or circumstellar lines of sight are expected to be very low, such a comparison and analysis requires astronomical observations at very high signal to noise. We present such a data set here for lines of sight representing diffuse clouds and circumstellar environments of carbon stars, and their comparison with gas phase spectra of a representative set of free, cold <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA429057','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA429057"><span>Der Forschungsflughafen <span class="hlt">und</span> das Institut fuer Luft- <span class="hlt">und</span> Raumfahrtsysteme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>Forschungsflughafen Aerodata Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- <span class="hlt">und</span> Raumfahrt DLR VW Air Services TU Braunschweig Luftfahrt-Bundesamt LBA Deutscher Aeroclub... Aerodata - Weltmarktführer für Flight Inspection Systeme Flight Inspection - Flugvermessung</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14712D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14712D"><span>Airborne Measurements of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s across Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davison, B.; Jaward, F.; Jones, K.; Lee, R.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric measurements of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were taken aboard the DRL Falcon 20 during May 2001. A sampling system was designed to work aboard this aircraft platform. Particulate <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were collected on a glass fiber filter (GFF) with their gaseous component concentrated on a polyurethane foam sheets located behind the filter. Typically sampling volumes of between 20-50m^3 were collected which equated to a collection time of about 30minutes. In this way the distance travelled was kept within an acceptable level, about 60 nautical miles. The average concentrations of the data set for phenanthrene was 450 pg m-3 while values for many of the heavier <span class="hlt">PAH</span> marker compounds used in the UK such as benzo(a)pyrene, diben(ah)anthracene were below the detection limits on all flights. The results will be discussed with consideration of location, altitude and airmass trajectory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045778&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045778&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>On the driving force of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frenklach, Michael</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The kinetic factors affecting the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in high-temperature pyrolysis and combustion environments are analyzed. A lumped kinetic model representing polymerization-type growth by one irreversible step and two reversible steps is considered. It is shown that at high temperatures, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> growth is controlled by the superequilibrium of hydrogen atoms; at low temperatures and low H2 concentrations, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> growth rate is proportional to the rate of the H-abstraction of a hydrogen atom from aromatic molecules; while at low temperatures and high H2 concentrations, it is controlled by the thermodynamics of the H-abstraction and the kinetics of acetylene addition to aromatic radicals. The presence of oxygen mainly affects the small-molecule reactions during the induction period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543159"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives (alkyl-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, oxygenated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitrated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, 15 oxygenated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and retene, etc.), indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26122564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26122564"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> among other coastal environmental variables on total and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacterial communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sauret, Caroline; Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Dumas, Chloé; Lami, Raphaël; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Goutx, Madeleine; Ghiglione, Jean-François</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) among biogeochemical variables on total, metabolically active, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bacterial communities in summer and winter in surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface seawaters (SSW) across short transects along the NW Mediterranean coast from three harbors, one wastewater effluent, and one nearshore observatory reference site. At both seasons, significant correlations were found between dissolved total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria that formed a gradient from the shore to nearshore waters. Accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders was particularly high in the SML, where <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accumulated. Harbors and wastewater outfalls influenced drastically and in a different way the total and active bacterial community structure, but they only impacted the communities from the nearshore zone (<2 km from the shore). By using direct multivariate statistical analysis, we confirmed the significant effect of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations on the spatial and temporal dynamic of total and active communities in this area, but this effect was putted in perspective by the importance of other biogeochemical variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..125C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..125C"><span>Entwicklung <span class="hlt">und</span> Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ <span class="hlt">und</span> damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte <span class="hlt">und</span> damit Kraft, Macht <span class="hlt">und</span> Stärke konzentrierte <span class="hlt">und</span> einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016hael.book..875P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016hael.book..875P"><span>Grundlagen <span class="hlt">und</span> Grundbegriffe der Messtechnik</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plaßmann, Wilfried</p> <p></p> <p>Es ist eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Messtechnik, technische Vorgänge quantitativ zu erfassen <span class="hlt">und</span> anhand der gemessenen Größen Funktionsabläufe zu steuern. Als Beispiel sei ein Kraftwerk zur Energieerzeugung genannt, bei dem nur über die Messung von Temperaturen, Leistungen, Drücken <span class="hlt">und</span> anderen Größen Aussagen über den momentanen Zustand möglich sind <span class="hlt">und</span> bei Abweichungen vom Sollwert geeignete Eingriffe in das System erfolgen können. Damit eine eindeutige Kommunikation möglich wird, sind die in der Messtechnik verwendeten Begriffe, Messverfahren <span class="hlt">und</span> Maßeinheiten in entsprechenden Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22619979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22619979"><span>[Mild solvent extraction technique for the evaluation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bioavailability].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lü, Zheng-Yong; Yang, Xing-Lun; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yin-Ping; Jiang, Xin</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>n-butanol and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) were used to extract polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 9 aged agricultural fields and to assess the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bioavailability to earthworm (Eisenia fetida). It was demonstrated that the high molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (> or = 4 rings) contribute the largest proportions (4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: 34.06%, 5-6 rings: 34.09%) to the contaminants in long-term aged field soils. Moreover, the light molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were easily accumulated in the earthworm,while the high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were hard to accumulate. The extraction by mild solvent correlated well with the 3 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (r2 0.77-0.79) but not for the other rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (r2 <0.35), indicating that mild extraction may not serve as a good predictor of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bioavailability to earthworm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479375"><span>Effect of sorption and substrate pattern on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ressler, B.P.; Kaempf, C.; Winter, J.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The effect of sorption and the substrate pattern on the degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated silt in a slurry reactor was investigated. Biological degradation of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds sorbed to silt and clay particles was enhanced in the presence of low-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In soil suspensions containing silt contaminated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds of different molecular weights, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> containing four aromatic rings were degraded more readily in the presence of naphthalene. Bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was correlated to the water solubility of different compounds; a significant limitation of bacterial growth and activity due to sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to the fine particles could not be observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65913&keyword=Studies+AND+ecology+AND+aquatic+AND+insects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65913&keyword=Studies+AND+ecology+AND+aquatic+AND+insects&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ASSESSING RISKS FROM PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are one of the most ubiquitous classes of environmental contaminants. Although most <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are toxic only at concentrations large enough to cause narcosis, the toxicity of some can be greatly enhanced through mechanisms that involve molecul...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300578','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300578"><span>THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF VERY LARGE IRREGULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>): OBSERVATIONAL PROBES OF ASTRONOMICAL <span class="hlt">PAH</span> GEOMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARGE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: epeeters@uwo.ca</p> <p>2009-05-20</p> <p>The mid-infrared (IR) spectra of six large, irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with formulae (C{sub 84}H{sub 24}-C{sub 120}H{sub 36}) have been computed using density functional theory (DFT). Trends in the dominant band positions and intensities are compared to those of large, compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as a function of geometry, size, and charge. Irregular edge moieties that are common in terrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as bay regions and rings with quartet hydrogens, are shown to be uncommon in astronomical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. As for all <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> comprised solely of C and H reported to date, mid-IR emission from irregular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> fails to produce a strong CC{sub str} band at 6.2 {mu}m, the position characteristic of the important, class A astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra. Earlier studies showed that inclusion of nitrogen within a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> shifts this to 6.2 {mu}m for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations. Here we show that this band shifts to 6.3 {mu}m in nitrogenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> anions, close to the position of the CC stretch in class B astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra. Thus, nitrogenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may be important in all sources and the peak position of the CC stretch near 6.2 {mu}m appears to directly reflect the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation to anion ratio. Large irregular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibit features at 7.8 {mu}m but lack them near 8.6 {mu}m. Hence, the 7.7 {mu}m astronomical feature is produced by a mixture of small and large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> while the 8.6 {mu}m band can only be produced by large compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. As with the CC{sub str}, the position and profile of these bands reflect the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation to anion ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64856&keyword=low+AND+income+AND+families+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84654124&CFTOKEN=78865829','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64856&keyword=low+AND+income+AND+families+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84654124&CFTOKEN=78865829"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The exposures to 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) of 9 children, ages 2-5 yr, were measured over 48 hr at day care and at home. Sampled media included indoor and outdoor air, floor dust, outdoor play area soil, hand surface, and solid and liquid food. Urine samples ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230878"><span>Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of selected <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in sediments near a petroleum refinery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arnold, W.R.; Biddinger, G.R.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) along a gradient from a petroleum refinery`s wastewater diffuser. These data were used to calculate the potential risk to aquatic organisms using probabilistic modeling and Monte Carlo sampling procedures. Sediment chemistry data were used in conjunction with estimates of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors and Non-Polar Narcosis Theory to predict potential risk to bivalves. Bivalves were the receptors of choice because of their lack of a well-developed enzymatic system for metabolizing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Thus, they represent a species of higher inherent risk of adverse impact. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> considered in this paper span a broad range of octanol-water partition coefficients. Results indicate negligible risk of narcotic effects from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> existing near the refinery wastewater discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/97050','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/97050"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> on coal fly ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1995-05-09</p> <p>The major objective of this work was to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHS</span>) and their derivatives, and to attempt to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Our studies have concentrated on the photochemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed form the vapor phase on coal fly ashes, and compositional subfractions obtained therefrom. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited onto the fly ash substrates from the vapor phase, using apparatus and techniques developed in this laboratory in order to simulate, as closely as possible under laboratory conditions, the processes by which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> deposit onto fly ash particles in the atmosphere. In this report phototransformation of pyrene sorbed on fly ash fractions, and phototransformations of 1-nitropyrene sorbed on fly ash fractions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009hvuf.book...27B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009hvuf.book...27B"><span>Unfallaufnahme <span class="hlt">und</span> Datenerhebung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brösdorf, Klaus-Dieter; Moser, Andreas; Burg, Jürgen</p> <p></p> <p>Unfälle ereignen sich in unterschiedlichen Schweregraden. Man unterscheidet zwischen Unfälle mit nur Sachschaden <span class="hlt">und</span> in Unfälle mit Personenschaden. Gemäß Statistik [1] machten in Deutschland im Jahr 2005 Unfälle mit Personenschaden (336.619) etwa 15 % der Gesamtanzahl der polizeilich erfassten Unfälle (2.253.992) aus. In den amtlichen Statistiken sind nur polizeilich erfasste Unfälle enthalten. Eine größere Zahl von Unfällen, insbesondere leichtere Unfälle, wird offensichtlich polizeilich nicht gemeldet. Mit den Daten der Versicherungswirtschaft wird die Anzahl der Kfz-Schäden pro Jahr in Deutschland mit 8.673.000 angegeben [2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..67..385B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..67..385B"><span>Exploratory data analysis of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> and hydroxy-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in atmospheric PM10-bound aerosol particles. Correlations with physical and chemical factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrado, Ana Isabel; García, Susana; Castrillejo, Yolanda; Barrado, Enrique</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>A method is proposed to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, OH-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in samples of PM10 particulate matter based on liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, and applied to quantify such compounds over a 14-month period in a semiurban area of a large city (Madrid, Spain). A clear seasonal trend was observed in the levels of the compounds. The mean overall concentration of all the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> determined was 1250 pg m-3; with levels rising in the colder months to 2062 pg m-3 and descending in the warm months to 725 pg m-3. The same effect was observed for the OH-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, showing a mean of 83 pg m-3 and values of 153 pg m-3 and 36 pg m-3 in the colder and warmer months, and for the nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with a mean of 132 pg m-3 and levels of 162 pg m-3 and of 112 pg m-3 in the colder and warmer months, respectively. These trends were confirmed in the statistical analysis, which clearly revealed the difference between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in the months April-September compared to October-December or January-March. Correlations were also found between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patterns and those of their hydroxy- and nitro derivatives, as well as between both derivatives. Negative correlation was observed between O3 and OH-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and direct correlation between the presence of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the particulate matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12785527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12785527"><span>PCB and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation among particle types in contaminated harbor sediments and effects on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Upal; Zimmerman, John R; Luthy, Richard G</p> <p>2003-05-15</p> <p>This research provides particle-scale understanding of PCB and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distribution in sediments obtained from three urban locations in the United States: Hunters Point, CA; Milwaukee Harbor, WI; and Harbor Point, NY. The sediments comprised mineral grains (primarily sand, silt, and clays) and carbonaceous particles (primarily coal, coke, charcoal, pitch, cenospheres, and wood). The carbonaceous sediment fractions were separated from the mineral fractions based on their lower density and were identified by petrographic analysis. In all three sediments, carbonaceous particles contributed 5-7% of the total mass and 60-90% of the PCBs and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The production of carbonaceous particles is not known to be associated with PCB contamination, and it is very unlikely that these particles can be the source of PCBs in the environment Thus, it appears that carbonaceous particles preferentially accumulate PCBs acting as sorbents in the aqueous environment if PCBs are released directly to the sediment or if deposited as airborne soot particles. Aerobic bioslurry treatment resulted in negligible <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loss from the carbonaceous coal-derived material in Milwaukee Harbor sediment but resulted in 80% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> being removed from carbonaceous particles in Harbor Point sediment. Microscale <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction and analysis revealed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Harbor Point sediment were associated mainly with coal tar pitch residue. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in semisolid coal tar pitch are more bioavailable than <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on carbonaceous particles such as coal, coke, charcoal, and cenosphere. Results of this study illustrate the importance of understanding particle-scale association of hydrophobic organic contaminants for explaining bioavailability differences among sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013pkk..book...21F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013pkk..book...21F"><span>Kernspaltung <span class="hlt">und</span> Westintegration Beispiel österreich</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forstner, Christian</p> <p></p> <p>Während des Kalten Krieges erreichte in Europa sowohl die Verflechtung physikalischer Forschung mit Staat, Politik <span class="hlt">und</span> Industrie als auch deren öffentliche Verhandlung <span class="hlt">und</span> Bewertung eine qualitativ neuartige Dimension. Dieser Aspekt tritt am schärfsten in der Geschichte der Kernphysik <span class="hlt">und</span> Kerntechnik hervor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016adap.prop..201A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016adap.prop..201A"><span>Quantifying the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Size Distribution in H II-Regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, Louis</p> <p></p> <p>We propose to determine the astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution for 20 compact H II-regions from the ISO H II-regions spectroscopic archive (catalog). The selected sample includes H IIregions at a range of distances, all with angular sizes captured by the ISO aperture. This is the first time that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution will be put on an accurate, quantitative footing and that a breakdown of the overall <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population into different size bins is possible. Since the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties that influence the astronomical environment are <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-size dependent, this new knowledge will provide a deeper understanding of the specific, and sometimes critical, roles that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> play in different astronomical environments. This research will be carried out using the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra and tools that are available through the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochemistry.org/pahdb/). The ISO compact, H II-regions spectroscopic catalog contains the 2.3 196 µm spectra from some 45 H II-regions. Of these, 20 capture the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectrum with high enough quality between 2.5 15 µm to carry out the proposed work. From the outset of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis it has been thought that the 3.3/11.2 µm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength ratio is a qualitative proxy for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size and a rough measure of variations in the astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution between objects or within extended objects. However, because of the intrinsic uncertainties for most of the observational data available for these two bands, and the very limited spectroscopic data available for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> representative of the astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population, only very crude estimates of the astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution have been possible up to now. The work proposed here overcomes these two limitations, allowing astronomers to quantitatively and accurately determine the astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution for the first time. The spectra and tools from the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database will be used to determine the astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8893E..0QK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8893E..0QK"><span>Landslide hazard assessment along a mountain highway in the Indian Himalayan Region (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) using remote sensing and computational models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishna, Akhouri P.; Kumar, Santosh</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Landslide hazard assessments using computational models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and frequency ratio (FR), were carried out covering one of the important mountain highways in the Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>). Landslide influencing factors were either calculated or extracted from spatial databases including recent remote sensing data of LANDSAT TM, CARTOSAT digital elevation model (DEM) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for rainfall data. ANN was implemented using the multi-layered feed forward architecture with different input, output and hidden layers. This model based on back propagation algorithm derived weights for all possible parameters of landslides and causative factors considered. The training sites for landslide prone and non-prone areas were identified and verified through details gathered from remote sensing and other sources. Frequency Ratio (FR) models are based on observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide related factor. FR model implementation proved useful for assessing the spatial relationships between landslide locations and factors contributing to its occurrence. Above computational models generated respective susceptibility maps of landslide hazard for the study area. This further allowed the simulation of landslide hazard maps on a medium scale using GIS platform and remote sensing data. Upon validation and accuracy checks, it was observed that both models produced good results with FR having some edge over ANN based mapping. Such statistical and functional models led to better understanding of relationships between the landslides and preparatory factors as well as ensuring lesser levels of subjectivity compared to qualitative approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3092415','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3092415"><span>Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military’s role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described. PMID:21388565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754404"><span>Are urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. We conclude that urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737554','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737554"><span>Are urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Sixin S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C.; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. We conclude that urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106–276 μg/m3. PMID:24754404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16291565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16291565"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) ecotoxicology in marine ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hylland, Ketil</p> <p>2006-01-08</p> <p>Low levels of oil and hence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are naturally present in the marine environment, although levels have increased significantly following human extraction and use of oil and gas. Other major anthropogenic sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> include smelters, the use of fossil fuels in general, and various methods of waste disposal, especially incineration. There are two major sources for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to marine ecosystems in Norway: the inshore smelter industry, and offshore oil and gas production activities. A distinction is generally made between petrogenic (oil-derived) and pyrogenic (combustion-derived) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Although petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> appear to be bioavailable to a large extent, pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are often associated with soot particles and less available for uptake into organisms. There is extensive evidence linking sediment-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to induction of phase-I enzymes, development of DNA adducts, and eventually neoplastic lesions in fish. Most studies have focused on high-molecular-weight, carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as benzo[a]pyrene. It is less clear how two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> affect fish, and there is even experimental evidence to indicate that these chemicals may inhibit some components of the phase I system rather than produce induction. There is a need for increased research efforts to clarify biological effects of two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures, and adaptation processes in marine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18089292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18089292"><span>Conserved themes in target recognition by the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domains of the Sin3 transcriptional corepressor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahu, Sarata C; Swanson, Kurt A; Kang, Richard S; Huang, Kai; Brubaker, Kurt; Ratcliff, Kathleen; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The recruitment of chromatin-modifying coregulator complexes by transcription factors to specific sites of the genome constitutes an important step in many eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory pathways. The histone deacetylase-associated Sin3 corepressor complex is recruited by a large and diverse array of transcription factors through direct interactions with the N-terminal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> domains of Sin3. Here, we describe the solution structures of the mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 domain in the apo form and when bound to SAP25, a component of the corepressor complex. Unlike the apo-mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domain, the apo-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 domain is conformationally pure and is largely, but not completely, folded. Portions of the interacting segments of both mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 and SAP25 undergo folding upon complex formation. SAP25 binds through an amphipathic helix to a predominantly hydrophobic cleft on the surface of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1. Remarkably, the orientation of the helix is reversed compared to that adopted by NRSF, a transcription factor unrelated to SAP25, upon binding to the mSin3B <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 domain. The reversal in helical orientations is correlated with a reversal in the underlying <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1-interaction motifs, echoing a theme previously described for the mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domain. The definition of these so-called type I and type II <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1-interaction motifs has allowed us to predict the precise location of these motifs within previously experimentally characterized <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 binders. Finally, we explore the specificity determinants of protein-protein interactions involving the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domains. These studies reveal that even conservative replacements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 residues with equivalent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 residues are sufficient to alter the affinity and specificity of these protein-protein interactions dramatically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P..52B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P..52B"><span>Photodestruction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Planetary Nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Neves, R.; Pilling, S.; de Souza G. G., B.; Lago, A.</p> <p></p> <p>It is known that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are mainly formed in the dust shells of late stages of AGB type carbon rich stars. After the ejection of H-rich envelope those stars become the proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs). The chemistry in PPNs has been strongly modified by the UV photons coming from the hot central star and by the X-rays associated with its high-velocity winds. Benzene (C6H6) and small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> like Anthracene (C14H10) were effectively detected in the PPNs CRL 618 (Cernicharo et al. 2001) and Red Rectangle (Vijh, Witt & Gordon 2004) respectively. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoabsorption, photoionization and photodissociation processes of the benzene, biphenyl (C12H10), naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10) and methyl-anthracene (C14H9(CH3)). The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using soft X-ray and UV photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM beamline (12-310 eV). The experimental set-up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for some molecules were also determined (see for example: Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos 2005). We have observed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecules are extreme resistant to UV photons, confirming that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> absorb the UV photons and after some internal energetic rearrangements, they can emit in the IR range. However, these molecules are destroyed by soft X-rays photons producing several ionic fragments, some of them with great kinetic energy. In the mass spectra of the Benzene and methyl-anthracene molecules, the observed ionic fragments C4H2+, C6H2+, C4HCH3 and C2HCH3, could correspond to the same</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11569106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11569106"><span>[The composition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fly ash in Beijing].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, C; Xu, W; Zhao, G; Zhong, J; Jiang, K</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>The composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in fly ash samples which were gathered from manufacturing district of Shijingshan district and residential quarters of Haidian district were analyzed using HPLC/MS technique. The differences of the contents of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fly ash samples from manufacturing district and residential quarters were compared. The changes of the contents of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of different seasons were discussed. In this study 135 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> including 55 large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> whose molecular weights are greater than 300u were detected in fly ash sample from manufacturing district. HPLC/MS offset the deficiency of GC/MS which can not determine large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> directly and can reflect the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fly ash more roundly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20080469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20080469"><span>Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability in soils and sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuypers, C.; Grotenhuis, T.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.</p> <p>2000-05-15</p> <p>Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to biodegradation yielded only limited additional <span class="hlt">PAH</span> oxidation. This implies that oxidation and biodegradation removed approximately the same <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fraction. Persulfate oxidation thus provides a good and rapid method for the prediction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability. Thermogravimetric analysis of oxidized and untreated samples showed that persulfate oxidation primarily affected expanded organic matter. The results indicate that this expanded organic matter contained mainly readily bioavailable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24764175','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24764175"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, hopanes, and steranes in lake trout from Lake Michigan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The present study examines concentrations and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), steranes, and hopanes in lake trout collected in Lake Michigan. A total of 74 fish were collected in 2 seasons at 3 offshore sites. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration (Σ9 <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in whole fish ranged from 223 pg/g to 1704 pg/g wet weight, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and profiles were similar across season, site, and sex. The total NPAH (Σ9 NPAH) concentrations ranged from 0.2 pg/g to 31 pg/g wet weight, and carcinogenic compounds, including 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene, were detected. In the fall, NPAH concentrations were low at the Illinois site (0.2-0.5 pg/g wet wt), and site profiles differed considerably; in the spring, concentrations and profiles were similar across sites, possibly reflecting changes in fish behavior. In the fall, the total sterane (Σ5 Sterane) and total hopane (Σ2 Hopane) levels reached 808 pg/g and 141 pg/g wet weight, respectively, but concentrations in the spring were 10 times lower. Concentrations in eggs (fall only) were on the same order of magnitude as those in whole fish. These results demonstrate the presence of target semivolatile organic compounds in a top predator fish, and are consistent with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodilution observed previously. Using the available toxicity information for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs, the expected cancer risk from consumption of lake trout sampled are low. However, NPAHs contributed a significant portion of the toxic equivalencies in some samples. The present study provides the first measurements of NPAHs in freshwater fish, and results suggest that additional assessment is warranted. © 2014 SETAC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331345"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NITRO-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, HOPANES, AND STERANES IN LAKE TROUT FROM LAKE MICHIGAN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The present study examines concentrations and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), steranes, and hopanes in lake trout collected in Lake Michigan. A total of 74 fish were collected in 2 seasons at 3 offshore sites. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration (Σ9<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in whole fish ranged from 223 pg/g to 1704 pg/g wet weight, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and profiles were similar across season, site, and sex. The total NPAH (Σ9NPAH) concentrations ranged from 0.2 pg/g to 31 pg/g wet weight, and carcinogenic compounds, including 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene, were detected. In the fall, NPAH concentrations were low at the Illinois site (0.2–0.5 pg/g wet wt), and site profiles differed considerably; in the spring, concentrations and profiles were similar across sites, possibly reflecting changes in fish behavior. In the fall, the total sterane (Σ5Sterane) and total hopane (Σ2Hopane) levels reached 808 pg/g and 141 pg/g wet weight, respectively, but concentrations in the spring were 10 times lower. Concentrations in eggs (fall only) were on the same order of magnitude as those in whole fish. These results demonstrate the presence of target semivolatile organic compounds in a top predator fish, and are consistent with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodilution observed previously. Using the available toxicity information for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs, the expected cancer risk from consumption of lake trout sampled are low. However, NPAHs contributed a significant portion of the toxic equivalencies in some samples. The present study provides the first measurements of NPAHs in freshwater fish, and results suggest that additional assessment is warranted. PMID:24764175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20887755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20887755"><span>Phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lye, Lon-Fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H(4)B requirement. L. major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-type domain organization, and conservation of key catalytic residues including those implicated in pteridine binding. A <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) null mutant and an episomal complemented overexpressing derivative (<span class="hlt">pah-/+PAH</span>) were readily obtained, and metabolic labeling studies established that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was required to hydroxylate Phe to Tyr. Neither WT nor overexpressing lines were able to hydroxylate radiolabeled tyrosine or tryptophan, nor to synthesize catecholamines. WT but not <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) parasites showed reactivity with an antibody to melanin when grown with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the reactive product is unlikely to be melanin sensu strictu. WT was auxotrophic for Phe, Trp and Tyr, suggesting that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> activity was insufficient to meet normal Tyr requirements. However, <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) showed an increased sensitivity to Tyr deprivation, while the <span class="hlt">pah(-)/+PAH</span> overexpressor showed increased survival and could be adapted to grow well without added Tyr. <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) showed no alterations in H(4)B-dependent differentiation, as established by in vitro metacyclogenesis, or survival in mouse or macrophage infections. Thus Leishmania <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may mitigate but not alleviate Tyr auxotrophy, but plays no essential role in the steps of the parasite infectious cycle. These findings suggest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is unlikely to explain the Leishmania requirement for biopterin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=james+AND+baldwin&pg=4&id=EJ173803','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=james+AND+baldwin&pg=4&id=EJ173803"><span>James Baldwin <span class="hlt">und</span> das Rassenproblem in den USA. Unterrichtsprojekt zum Komplex "Texte <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> gesellschaftliche Bedingtheit" (James Baldwin and the Race Problem in the USA. Teaching Project in the Series "Texts and their Social Context")</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerschgens, Edda</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Reports on an 18-hour teaching project with students at a teachers' college. Four Baldwin texts were used. Questions considered included whether Baldwin's treatment of the race problem reveals any changes or shifts of emphasis. Suggestions are made for adaptation to teaching in grades 11-13. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.........2M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.........2M"><span>Die Absorptionseigenschaften primordialer Materie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Anwendung auf die Struktur <span class="hlt">und</span> Stabilität stationärer Akkretionsscheiben; The absorption properties of primordial matter and their application to the structure and stability of stationary accretion discs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayer, Michael</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Primordial matter mainly consists of hydrogen and helium with a small amount of lithium. Taking into account contributions to the opacity from hydrogen and helium only has been assumed to be sufficient so far. Lithium, however, influences the opacity indirectly through a change in chemical equilibrium due to absorption of atomic lithium and lithium hydride. The differences reach two orders of magnitude, compared with zero-metallicity, lithium-free opacity. Possible changes in the cooling of primordial matter are being addressed shortly. These opacity calculations are the first to extend the temperature range below 1000K. Accretion disc models calculated with this opacity show a good agreement with today's accretion discs for temperatures larger than 104K. Below that temperature there are major differences, reflecting the change in opacity: For accretion rates above 10-5Msolaryr-1 we find optically thick, CIA (collision induced) absorption dominated accretion. Below there is optically thin accretion either by molecule line absorption or isothermal accretion at 3440K resulting from a temperature locking due to a drastic change in opacity. Subsequently, the assumption of chemical equilibrium is lost with decreasing accretion rate. We find in addition to the well known H--instability two additional thermal instabilities in the optical thin regime. At least for one of them the condition for chemo-thermal instability is fulfilled. Due to the lack of dust absorption in primordial matter primordial disks are likely to show much stronger outbursts showing an increase of accretion rate of three orders of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Baldwin&pg=7&id=EJ173803','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Baldwin&pg=7&id=EJ173803"><span>James Baldwin <span class="hlt">und</span> das Rassenproblem in den USA. Unterrichtsprojekt zum Komplex "Texte <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> gesellschaftliche Bedingtheit" (James Baldwin and the Race Problem in the USA. Teaching Project in the Series "Texts and their Social Context")</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerschgens, Edda</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Reports on an 18-hour teaching project with students at a teachers' college. Four Baldwin texts were used. Questions considered included whether Baldwin's treatment of the race problem reveals any changes or shifts of emphasis. Suggestions are made for adaptation to teaching in grades 11-13. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257517"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in yogurt samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values <20% for all analytes. The results obtained demonstrate that acenaphthene, fluorantene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found in all samples with a similar distribution, but different content when yogurts with low and high fats were compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980206262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980206262"><span>[<span class="hlt">PAH</span> Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Snow, Ted</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009rom..book..125G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009rom..book..125G"><span>Restaurierung von Seen <span class="hlt">und</span> Renaturierung von Seeufern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte</p> <p></p> <p>Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensraum für Pflanzen <span class="hlt">und</span> Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde <span class="hlt">und</span> prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff <span class="hlt">und</span> Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste <span class="hlt">und</span> feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser <span class="hlt">und</span> tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche <span class="hlt">und</span> industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010inho.book..209H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010inho.book..209H"><span>Konfigurations- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sicherheitsmanagement in heterogenen Verzeichnisdienstumgebungen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hommel, Wolfgang; Pluta, Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>In komplexen Umgebungen wie IntegraTUM reicht der Einsatz eines Verzeichnisdienstprodukts mit nur einer hochverfügbaren Instanz nicht aus. Vielmehr müssen, um ein möglichst breites Spektrum an Diensten integrieren zu können, beispielsweise Microsoft Active Directory, Novell eDirectory <span class="hlt">und</span> OpenLDAP parallel <span class="hlt">und</span> jeweils in verschiedenen Ausprägungen bereitgestellt <span class="hlt">und</span> betrieben werden. Um dennoch Skalierbarkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> ein effizientes operatives Management sicherstellen zu können, müssen Betriebs- <span class="hlt">und</span> auch Sicherheitskonzepte systemübergreifend nachweislich konsistent umgesetzt werden. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die im Rahmen von IntegraTUM erarbeiteten <span class="hlt">und</span> mit sehr gutem Erfolg praktisch eingesetzten Konzepte für das Konfigurations- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sicherheitsmanagement der heterogenen Verzeichnisdienstlandschaft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010spzo.book...53F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010spzo.book...53F"><span>Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett <span class="hlt">und</span> Muskulatur</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Martin S.</p> <p></p> <p>Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb <span class="hlt">und</span> Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich <span class="hlt">und</span> bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- <span class="hlt">und</span> Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980006840','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980006840"><span>Carbon in The Universe: <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saykally, Richard J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Following the initial demonstration of this new technique (Science 265 1686 (1994)) and its application to a series of neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> which have been proposed as condidates for the UIRs (Nature 380, 227 (1996)), we have concentrated on two major aspects of this project. 1. Developing a detailed model for infrared emission spectra of a collection of highly excited <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules, in which experimental bandshapes and temperature-dependent redshifts are used in conjunction with ab initio vibrational frequencies and intensities to simulate the UIR bands. This shows that a collection of nine different cations (as large as ovalene) reproduce the UIR features better than do a collection of the corresponding neutrals, but a detailed match with the UIRs is not obtained. 2. Construction of SPIRES apparatus for the study of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion emission spectra. The design of this experiment is shown and described. Unfortunately a disasterous accident occurred just as we were preparing to start the testing of the ion apparatus. A vacuum implosion occurred, destroying the liquid He cooled monochromator. It has taken us nearly one full year to reconstruct this, and we arc only now in the final testing of the new system. We expect to try the ion experiments by the end of summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990kut..book.....A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990kut..book.....A"><span>Kosmologie <span class="hlt">und</span> Teilchenphysik.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Appenzeller, I.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft <span class="hlt">und</span> Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24941705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24941705"><span>Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban treatment sludge to the air during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) penetrating into air during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal efficiencies and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the sludge during the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> amounts with UV application and 13% of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal efficiencies and the penetration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal alternative that restricts the convection of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086156"><span>Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading genes in a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the abundance and community structure of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27139344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27139344"><span>Emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination in Europe in 2010-2015--the review of WHO and ECDC notifications for the National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point in Poland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henszel, Łukasz; Janiec, Janusz; Izdebski, Radosław; Radziszewski, Franciszek; Polański, Piotr</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point is a center set up by each Member State of the World Health Organization (WHO) in accordance with the International Health Regulations (2005). The International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) were adopted on 23 May 2005 at the World Health Assembly and entered into force since 15 June 2007 as the legal instrument designed to help protect all countries from uncontrolled international spread of diseases and other urgent public health threats. According to Article 2 of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> the purpose and scope of these Regulations are to prevent, protect against, control and provide a public health response to the international spread of disease in ways that are commensurate with and restricted to public health risks, and which avoid unnecessary interference with international traffic and trade. Primarily, the scope of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> is to establish a system of early warning (in accordance with Article 6 and 7) with the functioning in each country National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point which is available at any time to communicate with WHO <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Contact Points and other entities. The tasks of the National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Fo- cal Point in Poland which was appointed by the Minister of Health and runs in the Department of Epidemiology, National Institute of Public Health--National Institute of Hygiene from 1 September 2007 are the notification of events that may constitute a public health emergency of international concern occurring in Poland or abroad and the dissemination of this information to the WHO, other National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Points or competent authorities responsible for public health. The task of the National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point in Poland is also the dissemination of WHO and ECDC notifications, including recommendation and risk assessment documents. The aim of this work is the review of WHO and ECDC notifications received by National <span class="hlt">IHR</span> Focal Point in Poland in the period from 2010 to 2015 which were related to emerging infectious diseases not covered by routine vaccination programs or for which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813168"><span>Environmental stability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source indices in pyrogenic tars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D.</p> <p>2006-04-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source ratios is based on the concept that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092351"><span>Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meloche, Jolyane; Renard, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pathobiology involves a remodeling process in distal pulmonary arteries, as well as vasoconstriction and in situ thrombosis, leading to enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure, to right heart failure and death. The exact mechanisms accounting for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> development remain unknown, but growing evidence demonstrate that inflammation plays a key role in triggering and maintaining pulmonary vascular remodeling. Not surprisingly, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is often associated with diverse inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, pathologic specimens from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients reveal an accumulation of inflammatory cells in and around vascular lesions, including macrophages, T and B cells, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Circulating levels of autoantibodies, chemokines, and cytokines are also increased in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients and some of these correlate with disease severity and patients' outcome. Moreover, preclinical experiments demonstrated the key role of inflammation in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pathobiology. Immunosuppressive agents have also demonstrated beneficial effects in animal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> models. In humans, observational studies suggested that immunosuppressive drugs may be effective in treating some <span class="hlt">PAH</span> subtypes associated with marked inflammation. The present chapter reviews experimental and clinical evidence suggesting that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, as well the therapeutic potential of immunosuppressive agents in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5805425','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5805425"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies to be carried out in this project include: (1) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (2) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives (especially nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (3) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives; (4) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of surface roughness'' of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on coal ash particles; (5) Identification of the major products of chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal ash particles, and examination of any effects that may exist of the nature of the coal ash surface on the identities of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> transformation products; and (6) Studies of the influence of other sorbed species on the chemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives on fly ash surfaces. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EAS....31..169B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EAS....31..169B"><span>CO and <span class="hlt">PAH+/PAH</span>0/VSG maps in external galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bayet, E.; Berné, O.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; García-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.</p> <p></p> <p>We have performed a comparison between the molecular gas emission and the mid IR dust component emission distributions in a sample of nearby galaxies. We have compared CO maps at high spatial resolution, from Wilson et al. (2000), Bayet et al. (2004, 2006) and from Kramer et al. (2005), with the emission distributions of ionised and neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>+; <span class="hlt">PAH</span>0) and of very small grains (VSGs), obtained using signal processing methods as explained in Berné et al. (2007a) and Rapacioli et al. (2005). In M 82, we have also compared the dust emission maps with dense gas tracer maps (HCO and H13CO+ data from García-Burillo et al. 2002) as well as with shock tracer maps (SiO data from García-Burillo et al. 2001).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25668360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25668360"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from nonroad diesel engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063912"><span>Explaining <span class="hlt">PAH</span> desorption from sediments using Rock Eval analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poot, Anton; Jonker, M T O; Gillissen, Frits; Koelmans, Albert A</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Here, we provide Rock Eval and black carbon (BC) characteristics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) distribution coefficients (KD) for sediments from the Danube, Elbe, Ebro, and Meuse river basins. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> desorption kinetic parameters were determined using sequential Tenax extractions. We show that residual carbon (RC) from Rock Eval analysis is an adequate predictor of fast, slow, and very slow desorbing fractions of 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. RC correlated better than BC, the latter constituting only 7% of RC. A dual domain sorption model was statistically superior to a single domain model in explaining KD for low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, whereas the opposite was observed for high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Because particularly the 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are bioavailable and relevant from a risk assessment perspective and because their fast desorbing fractions correlate best with RC, we recommend RC as a relevant characteristic for river sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370223"><span>Irreversible adsorption/desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediment/water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fu, G.; Kan, A.T.; Tomson, M.B.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Successive adsorption isotherm of phenanthrene on soil corresponds to a constant partition of phenanthrene between the bulk solution and solid phase. This shows that the hydrophobic reaction is a dominant mechanism in adsorption process. However, desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> appears irreversibility. Cyclic and multiple adsorption and desorption experiments indicated that there is an irreversibly adsorbed intrinsic capacity in the interaction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (naphthalene and phenanthrene) and soil in aqueous solution. This irreversible fraction for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (naphthalene and phenanthrene) is about 1000-5000 {mu}g/g normalized on the basis of soil organic carbon. The desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from soil appears biphasic when the total adsorbed capacity is greater than the intrinsic irreversibly adsorbed value. In phase, the partitioning coefficient of desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is similar to that of adsorption. However, the other mechanism may be responsible to control the release of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in phase 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18763487','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18763487"><span>[<span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources in road runoff system in Beijing].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shu-cai; Wan, Chao; Yue, Da-pan; Ye, You-bin; Hu, Jun-dong; Wang, Kai-yan; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xue-Jun</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>In this study, road runoff, rainwater, ground sediment and roadside tree water samples were collected from three types of roads in Beijing in 2006. The samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in each media in May-June were generally higher than those in July-August. Factor analysis indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in road runoff were mainly from ground sediment, and rainwater and roadside tree water also had certain influence to road runoff. Multiple regression analysis indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ground sediment and road runoff mainly come from vehicular emission at the vehicle way and branch road, and at the bicycle way, the contributions of vehicular emission and coal combustion were equal. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rain were mainly from coal/oil combustion, and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in roadside tree water were dominated by vehicular emission source.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467766"><span>Bioventing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination at the Reilly Tar Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolism, strong correlations were found between the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and biodegradation rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970010160&hterms=Recombination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRecombination','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970010160&hterms=Recombination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRecombination"><span>Recombination Rates of Electrons with Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ballester, Jorge (Cartographer)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this project is to develop a general model for the recombination of electrons with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules in an interstellar environment. The model is being developed such that it can be applied to a small number of families of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> without reference to specific molecular structures. Special attention will be focused on modeling the approximately circular compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a way that only depends on the number of carbon atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApJ...684..411K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ApJ...684..411K"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission from Herbig Ae/Be Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Luke D.; Sloan, G. C.; Forrest, W. J.; Ayala, S.; D'Alessio, P.; Shah, S.; Calvet, N.; Najita, J.; Li, A.; Hartmann, L.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Chen, C. H.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>We present spectra of a sample of Herbig Ae and Be (HAeBe) stars obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer. All but one of the Herbig stars show emission from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and seven of the spectra show <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission, but no silicate emission at 10 μm. The central wavelengths of the 6.2, 7.7-8.2, and 11.3 μm emission features decrease with stellar temperature, indicating that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are less photoprocessed in cooler radiation fields. The apparent low level of photoprocessing in HAeBe stars, relative to other <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission sources, implies that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are newly exposed to the UV-optical radiation fields from their host stars. HAeBe stars show a variety of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission intensities and ionization fractions but a narrow range of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectral classifications based on positions of major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature centers. This may indicate that, regardless of their locations relative to the stars, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules are altered by the same physical processes in the protoplanetary disks of intermediate-mass stars. Analysis of the mid-IR SEDs indicates that our sample likely includes both radially flared and more flattened/settled disk systems, but we do not see the expected correlation of overall <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission with disk geometry. We suggest that the strength of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from HAeBe stars may depend not only on the degree of radial flaring but also on the abundance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in illuminated regions of the disks and possibly on the vertical structure of the inner disk as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010443','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010443"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Intermediates: Links between the Atmosphere and Biological Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY; MOTORYKIN, OLEKSII; JARIYASOPIT, NARUMOL</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>China is now the world's largest emitter of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). In addition, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and their reactive intermediates, undergo trans-Pacific atmospheric transport to the Western U.S. The objectives of our research are to predict, identify and quantify novel <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates in the atmosphere and biological systems, using computational methods, as well as laboratory and field experiments. Gaussian is used to predict the thermodynamic properties of parent structure <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, as well as the associated nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy- <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates. Based on these predictions, state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques are used to identify and quantify these potential intermediates on Asian particulate matter before and after reaction in a continuous flow photochemical reactor. These same techniques are used to identify the relative proportion of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source regions (such as Beijing, China) and during long-range atmospheric transport to the Western U.S. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> personal exposure studies in China and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon will be used to assess the similarities and differences in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates in biological systems relative to the atmosphere. PMID:20849837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820781"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) removal by sorption: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from aqueous solution and to immobilise <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1742E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1742E"><span>Grafted cellulose for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal present in industrial discharge waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Euvrard, Elise; Druart, Coline; Poupeney, Amandine; Crini, Nadia; Vismara, Elena; Lanza, Tommaso; Torri, Giangiacomo; Gavoille, Sophie; Crini, Gregorio</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Keywords: cellulose; biosorbent; <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; polycontaminated wastewaters; trace levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), chemicals essentially formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials from anthropogenic activities, were present in all compartments of the ecosystem, air, water and soil. Notably, a part of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> found in aquatic system was introduced through industrial discharge waters. Since the Water Framework Directive has classified certain <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as priority hazardous substances, industrials are called to take account this kind of organic pollutants in their global environmental concern. Conventional materials such as activated carbons definitively proved their worth as finishing treatment systems but remained costly. In this study, we proposed to use cellulose grafted with glycidyl methacrylate [1] for the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in discharge waters of surface treatment industries. Firstly, to develop the device, we worked with synthetic solutions containing 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at 500 ng/L. Two types of grafted cellulose were tested over a closed-loop column with a concentration of 4g cellulose/L: cellulose C2 with a hydroxide group and cellulose C4 with an amine group. No <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was retained by the raw cellulose whereas abatement percentages of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were similar between C2 and C4 (94% and 98%, respectively, for the sum of the 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with an experiment duration of 400 min (corresponding to about 20 cycles through grafted cellulose). Secondly, to determine the shorter time to abate the amount maximum of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> through the system, a kinetic was realized from 20 min (one cycle) to 400 min with C4. The steady state (corresponding to about 95% of abatement of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was reached at 160 min. Finally, the system was then tested with real industrial discharge waters containing both mineral and organic compounds. The results indicated that the abatement percentage of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was similar between C2 and C4, corroborating the tests with synthetic solution. In return</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19731689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19731689"><span>Unlike <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Exxon Valdez crude oil, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents. Even for coals with high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content (approximately 4000 ppm total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912724S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912724S"><span>Factors governing sediment quality (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwientek, Marc; Rügner, Hermann; Scherer, Ulrike; Rode, Michael; Grathwohl, Peter</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The contamination of riverine sediments and suspended matter with hydrophobic pollutants is typically associated with urban land use. It is, however, rarely related to the sediment supply of the watershed. We show for a suite of catchments in two regions of Germany with contrasting land use and geology, that the contamination of suspended particles with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) may be predicted based on the ratio of inhabitants residing within the catchment and the catchment's sediment yield. The applicability of this concept is demonstrated for catchments ranging in size from 100 to >3000 km2. This implies that the loading of particles with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is more or less time invariant which is also indicated by long term measurements from sub catchments of the upper Neckar River in Southwest Germany. Data on sediment yields are rare and the installation of appropriate measurement stations is expensive, the establishment of data series time-consuming. Therefore, modeling of sediment yields based on the universal soil loss equation is proposed. Although this method lacks a physical basis, it is feasible at larger scales and is shown to lead to reasonable results at low costs. The importance of catchment properties in terms of sediment supply and the implications of the presented concept for water resources management are discussed. For instance, it may easily be used to estimate the vulnerability of river systems to particle-associated urban pollutants with similar input pathways as the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> or to indicate if contaminant point sources such as sites of legacy pollution exist in a river catchment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017klde.book..295R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017klde.book..295R"><span>Übergreifende Risiken <span class="hlt">und</span> Unsicherheiten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Renn, Ortwin</p> <p></p> <p>Inzwischen kann die Wissenschaft mit Klimamodellen künftige Entwicklungen <span class="hlt">und</span> Gefährdungen durch den Klimawandel relativ gut projizieren. Doch das ist immer mit Unsicherheiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Mehrdeutigkeiten verbunden, die Anlass für gesellschaftliche Debatten geben. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Kapitels steht daher die Frage, wie Individuen, Gesellschaften <span class="hlt">und</span> die Weltgemeinschaft mit globalen Risiken umgehen sollen <span class="hlt">und</span> wie sie die mit Risiko verknüpften Probleme von Komplexität, Unsicherheit <span class="hlt">und</span> Mehrdeutigkeit angehen wollen. Zudem gilt es auszuhandeln, wie viel Aufmerksamkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> wie viele Ressourcen eine Gesellschaft aufwenden soll, um das Risiko "Klimawandel" zu mindern, während noch viele andere, ebenso gravierende Risiken die Menschheit bedrohen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009luba.book..424P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009luba.book..424P"><span>Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen <span class="hlt">und</span> Platten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Platts, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Abdichtungen im Verbund mit Fliesen <span class="hlt">und</span> Platten, im Folgenden auch als Verbundabdichtungen oder mit Kurzzeichen als AIV bezeichnet, haben sich in der Baupraxis insbesondere in Innenräumen wegen des vereinfachten konstruktiven Aufbaus gegenüber Bahnenabdichtungen nach DIN 18195-5 [14.1] in der Mehrzahl der Ausführungen durchgesetzt <span class="hlt">und</span> bewährt. Sie können im Innen- <span class="hlt">und</span> Außenbereich angeordnet werden <span class="hlt">und</span> sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass die Nutzschicht in Boden- <span class="hlt">und</span> Wandbereichen im Dünnbettverfahren unmittelbar auf die Abdichtung aufgebracht wird. Aufwändige Zwischenschichten oder Einbauteile wie armierter Putz, Telleranker etc. entfallen (Bild 14.1) <span class="hlt">und</span> es lassen sich geringere Aufbauhöhen realisieren.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005608','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005608"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from Nova Cen 1986</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hyland, A. R. Harry; Mcgregor, P. J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of broad emission features between 3.2 and 3.6 microns were reported in the spectrum of Nova Cen 1986 (V842 Cen) some 300 days following outburst and remaining prominent for several months. The general characteristics of these features are similar to those attributed to polycyclic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules in other dusty sources, although the relative strengths are different, and these observations provide the first clear evidence for molecular constituents other than graphite particles in the ejecta of novae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=10158&keyword=swartz&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=10158&keyword=swartz&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> AND ALKYLATED <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> TO A MARINE INFAUNAL AMPHIPOD (RHEPOXYNIUS ABRONIUS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The marine infaunal amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius was exposed in standard 10-day toxicity tests to sediments contaminated with parent or alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. After exposures, mortalities (LC50 values) and the ability to rebury in control sediment (EC50 values) were determined. Survivo...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25064716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25064716"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) as indicators of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure: different methodological approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szlinder-Richert, J; Nermer, T; Szatkowska, U</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic environments derived from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. In fish, as in other vertebrates, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are rapidly metabolized. However, the metabolites have been proven to induce multiple deleterious effects in fish. The concentrations of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in eels (Anguilla anguilla) caught in Polish waters were measured. The main objectives of the study were to provide information on the levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in eels inhabiting Polish waters and to discuss which methodological approach is appropriate for assessing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in aquatic ecosystems. The non-normalized median concentration of 1-OH Pyr and 1-OH Phe measured in eels from Polish waters ranged from 11 to 1642 ng ml(-1) bile and from 83 to 929 ng ml(-1) bile, respectively, depending on the sampling site. Data normalization in relation to bile pigment content reduced inter-site variation, and the normalized median concentrations of 1-OH Pyr and 1-OH Phe ranged from 0.44 to 20.24 ng A(-1)380 and from 1.58 to 11.11 ng A(-1)380, respectively. Our study indicated that results were more consistent for the two species sampled in the same area (eel examined in the current study and flounder examined in our previous study) when the fluorescence response of diluted bile samples was compared than when concentrations of 1-OH Pyr determined with the mean of HPLC were compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176862"><span>Enhanced dissipation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from soil using mycorrhizal ryegrass and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, X Z; Wu, S C; Wu, F Y; Wong, M H</p> <p>2011-02-28</p> <p>The major aim of this experiment was to test the effects of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae) for cleaning up <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contaminated soil. Higher dissipation rates were observed in combination treatments: i.e., bacteria+ryegrass (BR), mycorrhizae+ryegrass (MR), and bacteria+mycorrhizae+ryegrass (BMR); than bacteria (B) and ryegrass (R) alone. The growth of ryegrass significantly (p<0.05) increased soil peroxidase activities, leading to enhanced dissipation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) from soil. Interactions between ryegrass with the two microbes further enhanced the dissipation of PHE and PYR. Mycorrhizal ryegrass (MR) significantly enhanced the dissipation of PYR from soil, PYR accumulation by ryegrass roots and soil peroxidase activities under lower PHE and PYR levels (0 and 50+50 mg kg(-1)). The present results highlighted the contribution of mycorrhiza and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria in phytoremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminated soil, however more detailed studies are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008mefg.book...69P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008mefg.book...69P"><span>FAUST: Entwicklung von Fahrerassistenz- <span class="hlt">und</span> autonomen Systemen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pareigis, Stephan; Schwarz, Bernd; Korf, Franz</p> <p></p> <p>Der Beitrag beschreibt ein Ausbildungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Entwicklungsprojekt am Department Informatik der Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften (HAW) Hamburg. Auf verschiedenen Fahrzeugplattformen werden Fahrerassistenz- <span class="hlt">und</span> autonome Systeme entwickelt. Die zu erarbeitenden Inhalte umfassen die Themen verteilte Echtzeitsysteme, Sensordatenverarbeitung <span class="hlt">und</span> Bildverarbeitung. Aus didaktischer Sicht wird durch die geforderte Teamarbeit ein hohes Motivationspotential der Studierenden erreicht, durch das neben den technologischen Kenntnissen auch Softskills vermittelt werden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.160..132E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmEn.160..132E"><span>Impact of partitioning and oxidative processing of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in fogs and clouds on atmospheric lifetimes of <span class="hlt">PAH</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eagar, Jershon Dale; Ervens, Barbara; Herckes, Pierre</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The importance of the atmospheric aqueous phase of fogs and clouds, for the processing and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is not well known. A multiphase model was developed to determine the fate and lifetime of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fogs and clouds for a limited set of daytime conditions. The model describes partitioning between three phases (aqueous, liquid organic, and gas), experimental and estimated (photo)oxidation rates. Using a limited set of microphysical and chemical input conditions, the loss rates of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the complex three-phase system are explored. At 25 °C, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with two, three and four rings are predicted to be primarily in the gas phase (fraction in the gas phase xg > 90%) while five- and six-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> partition significantly into droplets with aqueous phase fractions of 1-6% and liquid organic phase fractions of 31-91%, respectively. The predicted atmospheric chemical lifetimes of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the presence of fog or cloud droplets (<8 h) are significantly shorter than literature predictions of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> lifetimes due to wet and dry deposition (1-14 days and 5-15 months, respectively) and shorter than or equal to predicted lifetimes due to chemical reactions in the gas and organic particulate phases (1-300 h). Even though <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solubilities are ≤4 × 10-2 g L-1, the results of the current study show that often the condensed phase of fog and cloud droplets cannot be neglected as a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sink.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356176"><span>Aquatic toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures at saturation to benthic amphipods: linking toxic effects to chemical activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engraff, Maria; Solere, Clémentine; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp; Dahllöf, Ingela</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Organisms in marine sediments are usually exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), whereas risk assessment and management typically focus on the effects of single <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This can lead to an underestimation of risk if the effects of single compounds are additive or synergistic. Because of the virtually infinite number of mixture-combinations, and the many different targeted organisms, it would be advantageous to have a model for the assessment of mixture effects. In this study we tested whether chemical activity, which drives the partitioning of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into organisms, can be used to model the baseline toxicity of mixtures. Experiments were performed with two benthic amphipod species (Orchomonella pinguis and Corophium volutator), using passive dosing to control the external exposure of single <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and mixtures of three and four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The baseline toxicity of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at water saturation generally increased with increasing chemical activity of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. For O. pinguis, the baseline toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures was successfully described by the sum of chemical activities. Some compounds and mixtures showed a delayed expression of toxicity, highlighting the need to adjust the length of the experiment depending on the organism. On the other hand, some of the single compounds had a higher toxicity than expected, possibly due to the toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites. We suggest that chemical activity of mixtures can, and should, be used in addition to toxicity data for single compounds in environmental risk assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866904"><span>Composition and Integrity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Hopanes and Steranes In Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Diesel exhaust particulate matter contains many semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of environmental and health significance. This study investigates the composition, emission rates, and integrity of 25 SVOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), and diesel biomarkers hopanes and steranes. Diesel engine particulate matter (PM), generated using an engine test bench, three engine conditions, and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), was collected on borosilicate glass fiber filters. Under high engine load, the PM emission rate was 0.102 g/kWh, and emission rate of Σ<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (10 compounds), ΣNPAHs (6 compounds), Σhopanes (2 compounds), and Σsteranes (2 compounds) were 2.52, 0.351, 0.02 ~ 2 and 1μg/kWh, respectively. Storage losses were evaluated for three cases: conditioning filters in clean air at 25 °C and 33% relative humidity (RH) for 24 h; storing filter samples (without extraction) wrapped in aluminum foil at 4 °C for up to one month; and storing filter extracts in glass vials capped with Teflon crimp seals at 4 °C for up to six months. After conditioning filters for 24 h, 30% of the more volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were lost, but lower volatility NPAHs, hopanes and steranes showed negligible changes. Storing wrapped filters and extracts at 4 °C for up to one month did not lead to significant losses, but storing extracts for five months led to significant losses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs; hopanes and steranes demonstrated greater integrity. These results suggest that even relatively brief filter conditioning periods, needed for gravimetric measurements of PM mass, and extended storage of filter extracts can lead to underestimates of SVOC concentrations. Thus, SVOC sampling and analysis protocols should utilize stringent criteria and performance checks to identify and limit possible biases occurring during filter and extract processing. PMID:24363468</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..103Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..103Z"><span>Mittelwert- <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeitstaktsynchrone Simulation von Dieselmotoren</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zahn, Sebastian</p> <p></p> <p>Getrieben durch die immer restriktiveren Anforderungen an das Emissions- <span class="hlt">und</span> Verbrauchsverhalten moderner Verbrennungsmotoren steigt die Komplexität von Motormanagementsystemen mit jeder Modellgeneration an. Damit geht nicht nur eine Zunahme des Softwareumfangs von Steuergeräten sondern zugleich ein deutlicher Anstieg des Applikations-, Vermessungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Testaufwandes einher. Zur Effizienzsteigerung des Software- <span class="hlt">und</span> Funktionsentwicklungsprozesses haben sich daher in der Automobilindustrie sowie in Forschungsinstituten verschiedene modell- <span class="hlt">und</span> simulationsbasierte Methoden wie die Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) Simulation, die Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) Simulation, das Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) sowie die Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation etabliert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909968"><span>Environmental distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in pine needles, soils, and sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Ratola, Nuno; Hildebrandt, Alain; Alves, Arminda; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was determined in 60 samples from three environmental matrices (soils, sediments, and pine needles) in an effort to assess their distribution on a river basin scale. A sampling campaign was carried out in 2006, selecting urban, industrial, and agricultural sampling sites along the northeast of Spain. Techniques used included pressurized liquid extraction and solid-liquid ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. The mean total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations were 290 < 613 < 1,628 ng/g (dry weight) in pine needles, soil, and sediments, respectively. There is a good correspondence between the total concentration of soils and pine needles, as opposed to the levels between sediments and pine needles. The high concentrations found in some Pinus halepensis samples may reflect a superior uptake potential of this species in comparison to the others studied. The three matrices present a very different <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distribution pattern, with pine needles showing a predominance of the lighter (2-, 3-, and 4-ring) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, whereas 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are the most abundant in soils. Sediments display a more heterogeneous pattern, with contributions of all the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> but different distribution depending on the site, suggesting a wider range of input sources. Established <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular ratios and principal component analysis were used to identify the origins and profiles of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. While sediments showed a wide range attributed to historical inputs, soils and pine needles confirmed the compartmentalization of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with lighter airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accumulated in pine needles and heavier ones in soils. It can be suggested that the monitoring of several matrices is a strong tool to elucidate the contamination sources and accumulation patterns of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. However, given the influence of the matrix type on this assessment, the information should be considered complementary, yet allowing a more</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982560"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tairova, Zhanna M; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie; Andersen, Ole</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from different stations. Biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites than females. The urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite content did not show the same spatial trends as biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites. However, fish from Aarhus Bight and Vejle Fjord had significantly higher levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in both urine and bile compared to the reference station Agersø. Normalisation methods applied for bile and urine matrices did not have any effect or only slightly reduced the coefficients of variation in data sets. The CYP1A activity in eelpout liver did not show the same spatial distribution trends between sampling sites as did biliary or urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite contents. Male eelpouts showed significantly higher CYP1A activity than females in fall sampling period but there were no differences found in the spring period. General comparison between both seasons showed that eelpouts sampled in the fall had significantly higher CYP1A activity than fish sampled during spring season. Overall, the results of this study describe selected biomarker responses in eelpouts to environmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the different areas along Danish coasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967478"><span>Cloud deposition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at Mount Lushan in southern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cloud samples and 72.21% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2067S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2067S"><span>Global time trends in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and subsequently <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..198P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..198P"><span>The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission Characteristics of the Reflection Nebula NGC 2023</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peeters, Els; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Ricca, Alessandra; Wolfire, Mark G.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We present 5–20 μm spectral maps of the reflection nebula NGC 2023 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph SL and SH modes on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, which reveal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), C60, and H2 superposed on a dust continuum. We show that several <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission bands correlate with each other and exhibit distinct spatial distributions that reveal a spatial sequence with distance from the illuminating star. We explore the distinct morphology of the 6.2, 7.7, and 8.6 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands and find that at least two spatially distinct components contribute to the 7–9 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in NGC 2023. We report that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> features behave independently of the underlying plateaus. We present spectra of compact, oval <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranging in size from C66 to C210, determined computationally using density functional theory, and we investigate trends in the band positions and relative intensities as a function of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size, charge, and geometry. Based on the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> database, we discuss the 7–9 μm components in terms of band assignments and relative intensities. We assign the plateau emission to very small grains with possible contributions from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters and identify components in the 7–9 μm emission that likely originate in these structures. Based on the assignments and the observed spatial sequence, we discuss the photochemical evolution of the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> family as the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are more and more exposed to the radiation field of the central star in the evaporative flows associated with the Photo-Dissociation Regions in NGC 2023.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184166&hterms=PAH&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184166&hterms=PAH&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Analogs in the Laboratory: Comparison with Astronomical Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones. An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to assess the physical and chemical properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the near-UV and visible range. Intrinsic band profiles and band positions of cold gas-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can now be measured with high-sensitivity spectroscopy and directly compared to the astronomical data. Preliminary conclusions from the comparison of the laboratory data with astronomical observations will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9448059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9448059"><span>High-performance liquid chromatography of the renal blood flow marker p-aminohippuric acid (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and its metabolite N-acetyl <span class="hlt">PAH</span> improves <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearance measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Decosterd, L A; Karagiannis, A; Roulet, J M; Bélaz, N; Appenzeller, M; Buclin, T; Vogel, P; Biollaz, J</p> <p>1997-12-05</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAH</span> (N-(4-aminobenzoyl)glycin) clearance measurements have been used for 50 years in clinical research for the determination of renal plasma flow. The quantitation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in plasma or urine is generally performed by colorimetric method after diazotation reaction but the measurements must be corrected for the unspecific residual response observed in blank plasma. We have developed a HPLC method to specifically determine <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and its metabolite NAc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> using a gradient elution ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection at 273 and 265 nm, respectively. The separations were performed at room temperature on a ChromCart (125 mmx4 mm I.D.) Nucleosil 100-5 microm C18AB cartridge column, using a gradient elution of MeOH-buffer pH 3.9 1:99-->15:85 over 15 min. The pH 3.9 buffered aqueous solution consisted in a mixture of 375 ml sodium citrate-citric acid solution (21.01 g citric acid and 8.0 g NaOH per liter), added up with 2.7 ml H3PO4 85%, 1.0 g of sodium heptanesulfonate and completed ad 1000 ml with ultrapure water. The N-acetyltransferase activity does not seem to notably affect <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearances, although NAc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> represents 10.2+/-2.7% of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> excreted unchanged in 12 healthy subjects. The performance of the HPLC and the colorimetric method have been compared using urine and plasma samples collected from healthy volunteers. Good correlations (r=0.94 and 0.97, for plasma and urine, respectively) are found between the results obtained with both techniques. However, the colorimetric method gives higher concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in urine and lower concentrations in plasma than those determined by HPLC. Hence, both renal (ClR) and systemic (Cls) clearances are systematically higher (35.1 and 17.8%, respectively) with the colorimetric method. The fraction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> excreted by the kidney ClR/ClS calculated from HPLC data (n=143) is, as expected, always <1 (mean=0.73+/-0.11), whereas the colorimetric method gives a mean extraction ratio of 0.87+/-0.13 implying some</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80326&keyword=RPM&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80326&keyword=RPM&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> FROM PYROGENIC AND PETROGENIC SOURCES MEASURED USING GLASS FISH</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Geochemical evidence indicates <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> associated with pyrogenic sources behave differently than <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from petrogenic sources. There is also some evidence and supposition that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources demonstrate differing bioavailability. In this study, we evaluat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644155"><span>On the use of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular diagnostic ratios in sewage sludge for the understanding of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. Is this use appropriate?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Terzi, Eleni; Cai, Quan-Ying</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The concentrations ratios of specific pairs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are widely used for the qualitative determination of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sources. These ratios are called <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecular diagnostic ratios and are commonly used for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations in air, soils and sediments. Some scientists have extended the use of these ratios also for sewage sludges, suggesting that calculation of these ratios by individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations can be as effective as in soils or sediments. This paper describes the reason why the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular ratios calculated from sewage sludge concentrations should not be used for the understanding of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25299794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25299794"><span>Lipid-content-normalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the xylem of conifers can indicate historical changes in regional airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuang, Yuan-wen; Li, Jiong; Hou, En-qing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) concentrations as well as the lipid content in the xylem of Masson pine trees sampled from the same site were determined and compared with the days of haze occurrence and with the historical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> reported in sedimentary cores. The patterns of the lipid content as well as the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations based on the xylem dry weight (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>-DW) decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. The trajectories of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> normalized by xylem lipid content (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>-LC) coincided well with the number of haze-occurred days and were partly similar with the historical changes in airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> recorded in the sedimentary cores. The results indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>-LC in the xylem of conifers might reliably reflect the historical changes in airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at a regional scale. The species-specificity should be addressed in the utility and application of dendrochemical monitoring on historical and comparative studies of airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307276&keyword=Gender&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307276&keyword=Gender&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Are Urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Biomarkers of Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after ex...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.1888O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.1888O"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in indoor emission from decorative candles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Orecchio, Santino</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>This study investigates <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> indoor emissions from burning decorative candle in an indoor environment because emissions from burning wax in home have rarely been addressed. A total of 12 air samples were collected during the entire burning period of the decorative candles. Particulate and gaseous <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emissions were simultaneously measured by passing effluent through a filter (to collect particulate-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), a cold trap and ORBO 43 tubes (to capture gaseous-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). Analysis involved ultrasound extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The measured total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration (particulate + aqueous phase + gas phases) for the candles, reported as mass of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted/mass of candle burning, was between 2.3 and 49.8 μg kg -1 and mean 15 μg kg -1. Considering the volume of sampled air, the concentrations of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 7 ng m -3 to 267 ng m -3. Concentrations of B[ a]P emitted by candles ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 ng m -3, while total carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, expressed as B[a] eq, ranged from 0.2 to 10.7 ng m -3. The values of all the isomeric indices calculated in this research are in good agreement to literature data for emissions from high temperature processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177687"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in livers of California sea otters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were measured in livers of 81 adult female sea otters collected along the California coast in 1992-2002. Concentrations of summation operator<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in livers of sea otters were in the range of 588-17400ng/g lipid wt (mean: 3880ng/g, lipid wt). On a wet weight basis, the concentrations ranged from 17 to 1430ng/g (mean: 146ng/g). Overall, di- and tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene/anthracene, and acenaphthylene, were the predominant compounds found in the livers. Although petroleum-related sources appear to be the major contributors to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in sea otters, exposure sources varied by geographical sub-regions. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was found to comprise a significant proportion of the summation operator<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in sea otters from the northern sub-region of the study area. No significant difference existed in the concentrations of summation operator<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> among sea otters that died from infectious diseases, emaciation, and noninfectious causes. Concentrations of summation operator<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in livers of sea otters decreased significantly from 1992 to 2002. Because of the rapid metabolism of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marine mammals such as sea otters, further studies examining the association of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with health effects should determine hydroxylated metabolites in livers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307276&keyword=Gender&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90676030&CFTOKEN=80140505','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307276&keyword=Gender&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90676030&CFTOKEN=80140505"><span>Are Urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Biomarkers of Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after ex...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...801..108R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...801..108R"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Clusters as Sources of Interstellar Infrared Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roser, J. E.; Ricca, A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been the subject of astrochemical research for several decades as principal sources of the interstellar aromatic infrared emission bands. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters could possibly contribute to these emission bands, but a lack of data on their infrared properties has made this hypothesis difficult to evaluate. Here we investigate homogeneous neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters by measuring the mid-infrared absorption spectra of the five nonlinear <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, perylene, and benzo[ghi]perylene within solid argon ice at a fixed temperature of 5 K. We attribute observed spectral shifts in their principal absorption bands as a function of argon/<span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratio to clustering of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules within the argon matrix. These shifts are related to the cluster structures forming in the matrix and the topology of the monomer <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule. We predict that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules that are relatively large (no fewer than 50 carbon atoms per molecule) and compact will have clusters that contribute to the asymmetrically red-shaded profile of the interstellar 11.2 μm emission band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839459"><span>[Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHS</span>) contents in bakery products].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ciemniak, Artur; Witczak, Agata</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of well-known chemical carcinogens with a wide distribution in the environment and formed by the incomplete combustion of organic substances. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have attracted most attention because of their carcinogenic potential. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been found as contaminants in different food categories such as dairy products, smoked and barbecued meat, vegetables, fruits, oils, coffee, tea, and cereals. Processing of food at high temperatures increases the amount of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the food Diet is the major source of human exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The major dietary source of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are oils and fats, cereals products and vegetables. The aims of this study were to determine the content levels of 23 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in various sorts of bread. The analytical procedure was based Soxhlet extraction with n--hexane and cleaned up in aflorisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was low end varied between 2.61 microg/kg to 43.4 microg/kg. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> between rind and bread-crumb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452083"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination on soil invertebrate communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Snow-Ashbrook, J.L.; Erstfeld, K.M.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Soils were collected from an abandoned industrial site to study the effects of historic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on soil invertebrate communities. Nematode abundance and diversity, microarthropod abundance (orders Collembola and Acarina) and earthworm growth were evaluated. Physical and chemical characteristics of soils may affect both invertebrate community structure and the mobility/bioavailability of pollutants in soils. Soil characteristics were measured and included with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> data in multiple regression analyses to identify factors which influences the responses observed in the soil invertebrate community. Positive associations were observed between eight invertebrate community endpoints and soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content. For all of these endpoints but one, a higher degree of variability was explained when both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content and soil characteristics were considered. It is theorized that the positive response to soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content may be the result of an increased abundance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading soil microbes. Increased microbial abundance could stimulate invertebrate communities by providing a direct food source or increasing the abundance of microbially-produced nutrients. These results suggest that both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content and soil characteristics significantly influenced the soil invertebrate community. It is not clear whether these factors influenced the invertebrate community independently, or whether differences in soil characteristics affected the community response by influencing the mobility or bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7070697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7070697"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in particulate air by micellar liquid chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kayali, M.N.; Rubio-Barroso, S.; Polo-Diez, L.M. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An acetonitrile/0.20M SDS mobile phase was used to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Because the peak area is greater the method is more sensitive than using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The method was applied to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in particulate air samples and the results are in good agreement with those found by GC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5134734','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5134734"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH Flux during the Deepwater Horizon Incident</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tidwell, Lane G.; Allan, Sarah E.; O'Connell, Steven G.; Hobbie, Kevin A.; Smith, Brian W.; Anderson, Kim A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 22 oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and diffusive flux of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations ranged between 6.6 and 210 ng/m3 and 0.02 and 34 ng/m3 respectively. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was shown to be at least partially influenced by the DWH incident. The largest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi at nominal rates of 56,000 and 42,000 ng/m2/day in the summer. Naphthalene was the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with the highest observed volatilization rate of 52,000 ng/m2/day in June 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:27391856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.431B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.431B"><span>Theoretical spectroscopic study of protonated and deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit</p> <p></p> <p>The study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) plays a key role to understand astrophysical environments as they are ubiquitous in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They account for about 5-10% of carbon budget in the universe and are responsible for the strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7mum seen towards most of the interstellar objects including HII regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, late-type stars, as well as active star-forming regions. These IR features result from the relaxation of vibrationally excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. As <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are stable enough to survive the interstellar conditions, they could possibly be responsible for the enigmatic Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) which are optical absorption features on the interstellar extinction curve. The fact that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are more likely to be ions has motivated the study of radical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Protonated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formed by H(+) addition to neutral parent molecules, denoted as HPAH(+) , are an important form of closed shell <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation. Protonated forms show electronic transitions in the visible part of the spectrum where most DIBs are present, whereas neutral forms generally show their strongest electronic transitions in the UV region. We also report quantum chemical calculations on HPAH(+) and DPAH(+) (D(+) attached to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) to get the electronic and IR spectra to understand the IR emission and DIB features. A comparison of theoretical spectra with the available experimental spectra has also been carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/944477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/944477"><span>Solubilization, Solution Equilibria, and Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s under Thermophilic Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Viamajala, S.; Peyton, B. M.; Richards, L. A.; Petersen, J. N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Biodegradation rates of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 C, 40 C and 60 C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 C and degraded the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010120465&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010120465&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Imaging of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission Bands in the Orion Bar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bregman, Jesse; Harker, David; Rank, David; Temi, Pasqiale; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The infrared spectrum of many planetary nebulae, HII regions, galactic nuclei, reflection nebulae, and WC stars are dominated by a set of narrow and broad features which for many years were called the "unidentified infrared bands". These bands have been attributed to several carbon-rich molecular species which all contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms, and fall into the class of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules or are conglomerates of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> skeletons. If these bands are from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, then <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contain 1-10% of the interstellar carbon, making them the most abundant molecular species in the interstellar medium after CO. From ground based telescopes, we have studied the emission bands assigned to C-H bond vibrations in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (3.3, 11.3 microns) in the Orion Bar region, and showed that their distribution and intensities are consistent with a quantitative <span class="hlt">PAH</span> model. We have recently obtained spectral images of the Orion Bar from the KAO at 6.2 and 7.7 microns using a 128 x 128 Si:Ga array camera in order to study the C-C modes of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules. We will show these new data along with our existing C-H mode data set, and make a quantitative comparison of the data with the existing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844542"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Measurements in Air in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Yu-Mei; Harner, Tom; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil</p> <p>2015-05-05</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) measurements were conducted by Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) at four community ambient Air quality Monitoring Stations (AMS) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The 2012 and 2013 mean concentrations of a subset of the 22 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species were 9.5, 8.4, 8.8, and 32 ng m(-3) at AMS 1 (Fort McKay), AMS 6 (residential Fort McMurray), AMS 7 (downtown Fort McMurray), and AMS 14 (Anzac), respectively. The average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray were in the range of rural and semirural areas, but peak values reflect an industrial emission influence. At these stations, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were generally associated with NO, NO2, PM2.5, and SO2, indicating the emissions were from the combustion sources such as industrial stacks, vehicles, residential heating, and forest fires, whereas the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations at AMS 14 (∼35 km south of Fort McMurray) were more characteristic of urban areas with a unique pattern: eight of the lower molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibited strong seasonality with higher levels during the warmer months. Enthalpies calculated from Clausius-Clapeyron plots for these eight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> suggest that atmospheric emissions were dominated by temperature-dependent processes such as volatilization at warm temperatures. These findings point to the potential importance of localized water-air and/or surface-air transfer on observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27754275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27754275"><span>SY 18-1 TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chung, Wook-Jin</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome.Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) is the first modern <span class="hlt">PAH</span> registries in Asian ethnicity. Total 39 centers participated and 625 patients were enrolled. This study evaluated the incidence, prevalence, epidemiology, therapeutic modalities and survival data of Korean patients with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>."Gachon experiences" was to characterize the clinical outcomes and evaluate the factors influencing survival time of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients in Korean. This study compared the cumulative survival of total 43 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients who received targeted or conventional therapy.<span class="hlt">PAH</span> Ilopost BMPR-2 gene in Korea IIT Multi-institutional (PILGRIM) is a prospective, investigator-initiative, and multi-institutional clinical trials. This study was recently completed in March by 7 institutes, and aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of BMPR-2 gene mutations in the Korean <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients and (2) the effect of iloprost inhalation solution on hemodynamic response, and exercise echocardiography.<span class="hlt">PAH</span> basic research focuses on two major themes: (1) Systematic comparison of the effects of adipose tissue, bone marrow and umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on MCT-induced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in rats and (2) investigation of the effect of human UCB-derived MSC (hUCB-MSC) transplantation combined with apelin-13 administration on MCT-induced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in rats. Data suggests that, although the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6290371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6290371"><span>Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in fish from the Arabian Gulf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1094916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1094916"><span>Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Environmentally Relevant Oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knecht, Andrea; Goodale, Britton; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael; Swanson, Annika; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban air, dust and in the soil of most industrial coal gassification, coal burning, coke production and wood preservation sites (Howsam and Jones 1998). It is widely recognized that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pose risks to human health,having been associated with increased risks of systemic inflammation (Delfino et al. 2010), cardiopulmonary mortality (Lee et al. 2011; Lewtas 2007) and lung cancer mortality (Grant 2009; Hoshuyama et al. 2006). The potential risks may be especially acute for the developing fetus and infant where <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures have been linked to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, in-utero mortality and lower intelligence (Dejmek et al. 1999; Dejmek et al. 2000; Perera et al. 1999; Perera et al. 2009; Perera et al. 2006; Perera et al. 1998; Wu et al. 2010). Despite the more than two decades of intensive study devoted to parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, they are only part of the hazard spectrum from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...804L...7Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...804L...7Z"><span>Laboratory Photo-chemistry of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: Ionization versus Fragmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are expected to be strongly processed by vacuum ultraviolet photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C24H12), ovalene (C32H14) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C42H18) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8-40 eV. The results show that for small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18687509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18687509"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> desorption from river floodplain soils using supercritical fluid extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Yi; Cajthaml, Tomás; Hofmann, Thilo</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Sequential supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was performed in order to estimate desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from river floodplain soils which contain coal and coal-derived particles. Original soils, soils' light fractions (rho<2 g cm(-3)), and <63 microm fractions were studied for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>' desorption kinetics. Desorption data were successfully described using a two-site model. Desorption rate constants were one order of magnitude lower than those of "slow" and "very slow" desorption rates from other studies. This suggests very slow and extremely slow desorption. Estimated time scales releasing 99% of total extractable contaminants ranged from decades for 2-4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and hundreds of years for 5-6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. We demonstrate that, despite high soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations which are due to coal and coal-derived particles, the general environmental risk is reduced by the very slow and extremely slow desorption rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364722"><span>ON THE VIABILITY OF THE <span class="hlt">PAH</span> MODEL AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules are widely considered the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper, we report the results of fitting a variety of non-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal, and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra can be well fitted by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures. This suggests that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/420924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/420924"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from a gasoline-powdered engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mi, H.H.; Lee, W.J.; Wang, L.C.; Lin, T.A.; Chao, H.R.; Wu, T.L.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>A gasoline powered engine operated on a dynamometer was used to investigate the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) emission. A 95-leadfree gasoline (95-LFG) and a premium leaded gasoline (PLG) were used as power-fuels. The engine was simulated for the idling condition and for the cruising speeds at 40, 80 and 110 km/hr. The concentrations of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the engine exhaust, gasolines, and the ambient air were determined. Engine exhaust samples were collected by a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sampling system, while the ambient air sample was collected by using a standard PS-1 sampler. Twenty one individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Naphthalene (Nap) has the highest concentration in the liquid phase of both 95-LFG and PLG, in which it accounts for respectively 98.3% and 76.6% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. In terms of the mean fraction of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> entering the 95-LFG and PLG engines, the ambient air contributed less than 0.108% and 0.012%, respectively. Gasoline is the major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> supplier for the automobile engine. By monitoring the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> output/input mass ratios, the fuel combustion was found to be a generation process for 11 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; and a depletion process for the rest 10 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, in both 95-LFG and PLG powered engines. The mean emission factors of BaP were 2.92 and 2.47 {mu}g/km for 95-LFG and PLG powered engines, respectively. 11 refs., 12 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMMR22A..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMMR22A..04A"><span>The Photochemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Water Ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Bouwman, J.; Cuppen, H.; Gudipati, M. S.; Linnartz, H.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and related aromatic materials are present in virtually all phases of the interstellar medium. In dense clouds, they condense out of the gas and become part of the water-rich mixed molecular ices that are a major component of the dust in dense molecular clouds. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also likely to be frozen on icy Solar System objects. Although the UV radiative processing of simple mixed molecular ices has been studied for nearly 30 years, research into the in-situ photochemistry of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> containing ices has only recently begun. This paper will review some of that work. The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photochemistry of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> naphthalene, pyrene, 4-methylpyrene and quatterylene in water ice at 10 to 30 K will be summarized. In all cases, the neutral parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is readily and efficiently (>70%) converted to the radical cation (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>+) form upon exposure to VUV radiation. These <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations remain trapped and stabilized within the ice to remarkably high temperatures as the ice is warmed to the sublimation point. To understand the chemical processes and kinetics during photolysis we carried out a systematic study on several <span class="hlt">PAH</span>/H2O ices. A new apparatus was developed which permits tracking the in-situ behavior of the parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and its photoproducts as a function of ice temperature and time with sub-second responsivity. Ice temperature determines the dominant reaction routes while photolysis duration processes the ice. The ability to measure spectra simultaneously with photolysis and with sub-second time resolution permits kinetic studies previously inaccessible and provides new insights into the processes occurring within the ice during photolysis. These studies show that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may well play important but overlooked roles in cosmic ice chemistry and physics, whether they are in the Solar System or near star forming regions in dense clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745428"><span>[Characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fly ashes from coke production].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in ashes from coking, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/684512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/684512"><span>Size distribution and dry deposition of road dust <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, H.H.; Chiang, C.F.; Lee, W.J.; Hwang, K.P.; Wu, E.M.Y.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) for road dust and for the engine exhaust of both gasoline-powered cars and motorcycles was investigated. In addition, by using the measured size distribution data, monitoring and modeling the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dry deposition, the contribution fraction of road dust on the dry deposition materials was also studied. Twenty-one <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed primarily by using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The mass median diameters (MMDs) of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for resuspendable road dust (cut size < 100 {micro}m) ranged between 63.4 {micro}m and 65.5 {micro}m. However, the MMDs of total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distributions for the engine exhaust of both gasoline-powered cars and four-stroke motorcycles averaged 0.45 {micro}m and 0.35 {micro}m, respectively, which were near the MMDs of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (average 0.50 {micro}m) in the ambient air of traffic intersections. Suspended particle-phase total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the ambient air of traffic intersections were found to be more than 90% of the result of the automobile exhaust; that is, less than 10% of the amount was contributed by the road dust. However, the modeled MMDs of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on the dry deposition material were between 22.1 {micro}m and 44.6 {micro}m, and the contribution fraction of road dust on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dry deposition was found to be more than 95%, even though the suspendable ambient-air <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were mainly from the mobile exhaust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674706"><span>Passive samplers accurately predict <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in resident crayfish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paulik, L Blair; Smith, Brian W; Bergmann, Alan J; Sower, Greg J; Forsberg, Norman D; Teeguarden, Justin G; Anderson, Kim A</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Contamination of resident aquatic organisms is a major concern for environmental risk assessors. However, collecting organisms to estimate risk is often prohibitively time and resource-intensive. Passive sampling accurately estimates resident organism contamination, and it saves time and resources. This study used low density polyethylene (LDPE) passive water samplers to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) levels in signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Resident crayfish were collected at 5 sites within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Megasite (PHSM) in the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. LDPE deployment was spatially and temporally paired with crayfish collection. Crayfish visceral and tail tissue, as well as water-deployed LDPE, were extracted and analyzed for 62 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using GC-MS/MS. Freely-dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water were calculated from concentrations in LDPE. Carcinogenic risks were estimated for all crayfish tissues, using benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq). ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span> were 5-20 times higher in viscera than in tails, and ∑BaPeq were 6-70 times higher in viscera than in tails. Eating only tail tissue of crayfish would therefore significantly reduce carcinogenic risk compared to also eating viscera. Additionally, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in crayfish were compared to levels in crayfish collected 10 years earlier. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in crayfish were higher upriver of the PHSM and unchanged within the PHSM after the 10-year period. Finally, a linear regression model predicted levels of 34 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in crayfish viscera with an associated R-squared value of 0.52 (and a correlation coefficient of 0.72), using only the Cfree <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water. On average, the model predicted <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in crayfish tissue within a factor of 2.4 ± 1.8 of measured concentrations. This affirms that passive water sampling accurately estimates <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in crayfish. Furthermore, the strong predictive ability of this simple model suggests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412353"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A</p> <p>2015-01-06</p> <p>Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 22 oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4291772','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4291772"><span>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and Oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 22 oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130334','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130334"><span>Modulation of the Effect of Prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Exposure on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA Adducts in Cord Blood by Plasma Antioxidants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and cord blood concentration of α-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adducts in cord blood. The association between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adducts was much stronger among those with low α-tocopherol (β = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (β = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high α-tocopherol: β = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: β = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. PMID:19661084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016lex2.book...23H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016lex2.book...23H"><span>Ruhende Flüssigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Gase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heintze, Joachim</p> <p></p> <p>Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016hael.book.1249P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016hael.book.1249P"><span>Ton- <span class="hlt">und</span> Bildübertragung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plaßmann, Wilfried</p> <p></p> <p>Stichworte zum Kapitel: Analoge Rundfunk-Stereoübertragung; Digitale Farbfernsehtechnik: Zielsetzung, Vorgaben, DVB-Projekt, MPEG-2 Standard, Redundanz- <span class="hlt">und</span> Irrelevanzreduktion, Differenz-Pulsmodulation, Diskrete Kosinus-Transformation, Fehler-Erkennung <span class="hlt">und</span> -Korrektur, Energieverwischung, 16-QAPSK-Modulation, Gleichwellennetz, Statistischer Multiplex, Daten zum DVB-T.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhuZ...34..187H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhuZ...34..187H"><span>Physik gestern <span class="hlt">und</span> heute Das Eiskalorimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heering, P.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik <span class="hlt">und</span> der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier <span class="hlt">und</span> Pierre Simon de Laplace.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...590A..26C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...590A..26C"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sizes in NGC 7023 with SOFIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Croiset, B. A.; Candian, A.; Berné, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Context. NGC 7023 is a well-studied reflection nebula, which shows strong emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules in the form of aromatic infrared bands (AIBs). The spectral variations of the AIBs in this region are connected to the chemical evolution of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules which, in turn, depends on the local physical conditions. Aims: Our goal is to map <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sizes in NGC 7023 with respect to the location of the star. We focus on the north west (NW) photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the south PDR of NGC 7023 to understand the photochemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, using size as a proxy. Methods: We use the unique capabilities of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to observe a 3.2' × 3.4' region of NGC 7023 at wavelengths that we observe with high spatial resolution (2.7'') at 3.3 and 11.2 μm. We compare the SOFIA images with existing images of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission at 8.0 μm (Spitzer), emission from evaporating very small grains (eVSG) extracted from Spitzer-IRS spectral cubes, the extended red emission (Hubble Space Telescope and Canadian French Hawaiian Telescope), and H2 (2.12 μm). We create maps of the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to probe the morphology of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution and the 8.0/11.2 μm ratio to probe the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization. We make use of an emission model and of vibrational spectra from the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> database to translate the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sizes. Results: The 11.2/3.3 μm ratio map shows the smallest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrate on the PDR surface (H2 and extended red emission) in the NW and south PDR. We estimated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the NW PDR bear, on average, a number of carbon atoms (Nc) of ~70 in the PDR cavity and ~50 at the PDR surface. In the entire nebula, the results reveal a factor of 2 variation in the size of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. We relate these size variations to several models for the evolution of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> families when they traverse from the molecular cloud to the PDR. Conclusions: The high-resolution <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size map</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414649"><span>Degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by high frequency ultrasound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manariotis, Ioannis D; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are persistent organic compounds, which have been reported in the literature to efficiently degrade at low (e.g. 20 kHz) and moderate (e.g. 506 kHz) ultrasound frequencies. The present study focuses on degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene by ultrasound at three different relatively high frequencies (i.e. 582, 862, and 1142 kHz). The experimental results indicate that for all three frequencies and power inputs ≥ 133 W phenanthrene degrades to concentrations lower than our experimental detection limit (<1 μg/L). Phenanthrene degrades significantly faster at 582 kHz than at 862 and 1142 kHz. For all three frequencies, the degradation rates per unit mass are similar for naphthalene and phenanthrene and lower for pyrene. Furthermore, naphthalene degradation requires less energy than phenanthrene, which requires less energy than pyrene under the same conditions. No hexane-extractable metabolites were identified in the solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442441"><span>Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>): a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P</p> <p>2009-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have gathered significant environmental concern. Although <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H(2)O, CO(2) (aerobic) or CH(4) (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..449S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..449S"><span>Quantitative Analyse <span class="hlt">und</span> Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion <span class="hlt">und</span> somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht <span class="hlt">und</span> damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet <span class="hlt">und</span> mithilfe von Diagrammen <span class="hlt">und</span> Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke <span class="hlt">und</span> 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28448936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28448936"><span>Composite of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria reduces contamination and health risks caused by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Jian; Liu, Juan; Ling, Wanting; Huang, Qingguo; Gao, Yanzheng</p> <p>2017-11-15</p> <p>Vegetables accumulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) at high concentrations when grown in contaminated sites. Inoculation with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria (EBPAH) has been recognized as one of the most promising ways to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from plant bodies; however, the performance of single endophytic bacteria is generally limited. This investigation used a composite of eight EBPAH to reduce the contamination and health risk posed by 16 EPA priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables including Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) and pakchoi (Brassica campestris L.). Composite EBPAH have strong <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation abilities, and more than 65% of ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span> were degraded after 10-day insuspension with composite EBPAH. Vegetable were contacted with composite EBPAH by seed soaking (SS) and leaf painting (LP) with an EBPAH cell incubation at OD600nm=0.2-1.5. Compared with those in non-inoculated controls, the ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in edible parts of Chinese cabbage and pakchoi colonized by composite EBPAH via SS and LP with bacterial suspension at OD600nm=0.2-1.5 were 42.07-70.77% and 15.79-53.20% lower, and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values for males and females were 31.78-84.08% and 26.60-83.40% smaller, respectively. SS was the optimal inoculation method for reducing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and ILCR values. Our results indicate that inoculating plants with composite EBPAH can lower the health risk posed by vegetables contaminated with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and may be used to mitigate plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267726"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sediment to biota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> isomer ratio in sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28654923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28654923"><span>Antibakterielle In-vitro-Wirksamkeit ätherischer Öle gegen veterinärmedizinisch relevante Keime klinischer Isolate von Hunden, Katzen <span class="hlt">und</span> Pferden.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bismarck, Doris; Schneider, Marianne; Müller, Elisabeth</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Einleitung: Ätherische Öle sind die Grundlage der Aromatherapie. Unter anderem wird ihnen eine antibakterielle Wirkung zugeschrieben. In dieser Studie sollte die In-vitro-Wirksamkeit ätherischer Öle gegen ein breites Spektrum veterinärmedizinisch relevanter Erreger getestet werden. Methoden: Die antibakterielle Aktivität von 16 ätherischen Ölen wurde mittels Agardiffusionstest bestimmt. Getestet wurden grampositive <span class="hlt">und</span> gramnegative Erreger, die aus klinischen Isolaten von Hunden, Katzen <span class="hlt">und</span> Pferden aus der veterinärmedizinischen Routinediagnostik stammten. Die Einteilung der Wirksamkeit in nicht, gering-, mittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> hochgradig wirksam erfolgte anhand der Größe der Hemmhofradien des Bakterienwachstums. Ergebnisse: Generell zeigten sich sowohl grampositive als auch gramnegative Erreger empfindlich gegen einige der getesteten ätherischen Öle. Nicht nur gegen Staphylokokken, sondern auch gegen Methicillin-resistente Stämme der Staphylokokken wiesen die ätherischen Öle in vitro eine nicht zu vernachlässigende Wirkung auf. Pasteurella multocida stellte sich als eher sensibler Keim heraus, während Pseudomonas aeruginosa als vollkommen resistenter Keim eine Ausnahme bildete. Teebaum-, Oregano-, <span class="hlt">und</span> Bergbohnenkrautöl waren die potentesten Öle. Zusätzlich zeigten sich bei den grampositiven Erregern Lemongrasöl <span class="hlt">und</span> bei den gramnegativen Erregern Thymianöl als gut wirksam. Schlussfolgerung: Ätherische Öle verfügen in vitro über eine antibakterielle Aktivität gegen klinische Isolate von Hunden, Katzen <span class="hlt">und</span> Pferden. Diese Studie bietet eine Grundlage für die Anwendung ätherischer Öle in der Veterinärmedizin. Es zeichneten sich Tendenzen im Wirkspektrum einzelner ätherischer Öle bzw. im Grad der Wirksamkeit ätherischer Öle hinsichtlich einzelner Erregerspezies ab, allerdings lässt sich keine sichere Vorhersage über <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Wirksamkeit gegen einen spezifischen Keim eines individuellen Patienten treffen. Deswegen sollte vor einer Therapie mit </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27838911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27838911"><span>Bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated farmland: field experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ma, Lin; Deng, Fucai; Yang, Chen; Guo, Chuling; Dang, Zhi</p> <p>2016-11-12</p> <p>The agricultural soil contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is gradually emerging and becoming serious in China with the rapid development of economy. To reduce the risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in agricultural soil and guarantee the food safety, the biological agent that Mycobacterium gilvum immobilized on modified peanut shell powder enhanced remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated vegetable farmland was investigated under the conditions of the field experiment. The results indicated that adding biological agent could promote <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in the soil, especially high-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The degradation rates of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the soil could be further improved to 16.5-43.5 %, respectively, compared with the soil without the biological agent. Adding the biological agent could significantly improve soil dehydrogenase activity and microbial diversity. It also could reduce the enrichment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in mustard planted in the polluted field, which indicated that the biological treatments might be less ecological risk. The work suggested that adding the biological agent might be a promising in situ bioremediation strategy for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated farmland field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22432279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22432279"><span>Distribution and characteristic of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in snow of Fildes Peninsula.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Na, Guangshui; Liu, Chunyang; Wang, Zhen; Ge, Linke; Ma, Xindong; Yao, Ziwei</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) investigation in different matrices has been reported largely, whereas reports on snow samples were limited. Snow, as the main matrix in the polar region, has an important study meaning. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in snow samples were analyzed to investigate the distribution and contamination status of them in the Antarctic, as well as to provide some references for global migration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Snow samples collected in Fildes Peninsula were enriched and separated by solid-phase membrane disks and eluted by methylene dichloride, then quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All types of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were detected except for Benzo(a)pyrene. Principal component analysis method was applied to characterize them. Three factors (Naphthalene, Fluorene and Phenanthrene) accounted for 60.57%, 21.61% and 9.80%, respectively. The results showed that the major <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sources maybe the atmospheric transportation, and the combustion of fuel in Fildes Peninsula. The comparison of concentration and types of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> between accumulated snow and fresh snow showed that the main compound concentrations in accumulated snow samples were higher than those in fresh ones. The risk assessment indicated that the amount of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the snow samples would not lead to ecological risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/458349"><span>Annual variability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in the Potomac River watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maher, I.L.; Foster, G.D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Dynamics of organic contaminant transport in a large river system is influenced by annual variability in organic contaminant concentrations. Surface runoff and groundwater input control the flow of river waters. They are also the two major inputs of contaminants to river waters. The annual variability of contaminant concentrations in rivers may or may not represent similar trends to the flow changes of river waters. The purpose of the research is to define the annual variability in concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in riverine environment. To accomplish this, from March 1992 to March 1995 samples of Potomac River water were collected monthly or bimonthly downstream of the Chesapeake Bay fall line (Chain Bridge) during base flow and main storm flow hydrologic conditions. Concentrations of selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were measured in the dissolved phase and the particulate phase via GC/MS. The study of the annual variability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations will be performed through comparisons of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations seasonally, annually, and through study of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration river discharge dependency and rainfall dependency. For selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> monthly and annual loadings will be estimated based on their measured concentrations and average daily river discharge. The monthly loadings of selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be compared by seasons and annually.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6815920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6815920"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. During the past year the following specific aspects of this broad problem area have been investigated: (a) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (b) The use of gas-solid chromatography to measure heats of sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives, on coal fly ashes and ash fractions. (c) Identification of the major photoproduct(s) of the photodecomposition of one <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (benz[a]anthracene) sorbed on model adsorbents; (d) Estimation of fractal dimensions'' of coal fly ash particles by use of specific surface area measurements, with an ultimate objective of using these measurements to assess the importance of inner-filter effects'' on the photodecomposition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on fly ash particles. (e) The photochemical transformation of a representative nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivative (1-nitropyrene) sorbed on fly ash. (f) Development of techniques for studying the nonphotochemical reactions of hydroxyl radicals (and other atmospheric constituents) with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on fly ash. Progress achieved, and problems encountered, in each of these major areas of emphasis is described below.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011642','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011642"><span>Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barker, J. R.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) hypothesis, which is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The fundamental vibrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-like species which determine the IR and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar IR band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described and the IR fluorescence from one <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, chrysene, is traced. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contain between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15965718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15965718"><span>Dissolved oxygen saturation controls <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in freshwater estuary sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyd, T J; Montgomery, M T; Steele, J K; Pohlman, J W; Reatherford, S R; Spargo, B J; Smith, D C</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are common contaminants in terrestrial and aquatic environments and can represent a significant constituent of the carbon pool in coastal sediments. We report here the results of an 18-month seasonal study of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation and heterotrophic bacterial production and their controlling biogeochemical factors from 186 sediment samples taken in a tidally influenced freshwater estuary. For each sampling event, measurements were averaged from 25-45 stations covering approximately 250 km(2). There was a clear relationship between bacterial production and ambient temperature, but none between production and bottom water dissolved oxygen (DO) % saturation or <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. In contrast with other studies, we found no effect of temperature on the biodegradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, or fluoranthene. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mineralization correlated with bottom water DO saturation above 70% (r(2) > 0.99). These results suggest that the proportional utilization of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> carbon to natural organic carbon is as much as three orders of magnitude higher during cooler months, when water temperatures are lower and DO % saturation is higher. Infusion of cooler, well-oxygenated water to the water column overlying contaminated sediments during the summer months may stimulate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolism preferentially over non-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> organic matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20005438','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20005438"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments: Unmixing and CMB modeling of sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Christensen, E.R.; Rachdawong, P.; Karls, J.F.; Van Camp, R.P.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>A chemical mass balance (CMB) model, applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) compounds, is used to apportion <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources in a group of seven sediment cores in the Milwaukee Basin of the central Lake Michigan area. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> apportionment results indicate the dominance of coke oven emissions from 1925--1976, and of highway inputs from 1983--1992 for most of the seven cores. This is consistent with results of carbon particle analysis from the same basin. Milwaukee and Port Washington appear to be primary contributors of point source inputs of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from coke ovens and highway dust. Wood burning is a minor source ({lt}13%). These findings are supported by an independent factor analysis study. Historical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> records are also determined for the seven sediment cores. The records are unmixed and averaged over the basin. The resulting average record is then used as measured profile in a CMB model to determine <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. Source profiles are historical records of the consumption of coal, petroleum, and wood, including coal used for coke production. A cubic spline technique is developed and applied for the curve fitting of original data points for all of the cores. Unmixed profiles reveal a number of features that are not seen in the original data. Wood burning, coke oven emissions, and highway dust profiles are found to resemble the national consumption records. Coal burning is a very small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source ({lt}1%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23162467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23162467"><span>The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Catechols and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-Quinones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones to form <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026970"><span>Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491511"><span>Photoinduced degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the presence of ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schutt, W.S.; Li, Y.; Sigman, M.E. |</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are formed from both anthropogenic and natural sources. In order to assess the environmental impact caused by the surface-adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the chemical lifetimes of these compounds in the atmosphere must be determined. Although ozone is known to be a primary reactant in the chemical transformation of surface-adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the atmosphere, the kinetics of these reactions have not been investigated in detail. In addition to the experimental difficulties that arise in using an oxygen-ozone stream while monitoring the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with fluorescence, complications in analyzing the kinetic mechanism also exist. It is difficult to determine whether the ozone or oxygen initially quenches the excited state of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Ozone could enhance the degradation rate by simply reacting with a product derived from the excited state of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and oxygen. The focus of this study is to demonstrate the use of fluorescence spectroscopy in monitoring the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adsorbed on a three dimensional particle in the presence of gaseous ozone free from the interference of oxygen. More specifically, the experimental procedure will involve the generation of an ozone-nitrogen gas stream to be used in the investigation of dark and photochemical reactions between ozone and naphthalene. The absence of oxygen in the system will allow for the accurate monitoring of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fluorescence decay due solely to ozone quenching. It will also aid in the determination of the reaction mechanism. This is the first time that the direct interaction of ozone with an excited state of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> has been demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3801335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3801335"><span>Gaseous and adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in an iron foundry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knecht, U; Elliehausen, H J; Woitowitz, H J</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p>The increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers is assumed to be associated with the inhalation of gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). These compounds are produced during pyrolysis of carbon containing loading material in the moulding sand. The concentrations of 20 <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, some of which are carcinogenic, have been determined in the dusty casting area of an iron foundry by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total dust was fractionated by means of a precision cascade impactor. It was possible to differentiate the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load in microgram/mg dust in seven particle size fractions ranging from 0.36- greater than or equal to 24.95 microns. Initially, there was an increase of the adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass concentration with increasing particle diameter up to a maximum of 1.1 microgram/mg in the dust of the 1.57 micron fraction. Thereafter there was a continuous decrease of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass concentration with increasing particle size. When the differing weights of the seven fractions are taken into account, however, the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load of the individual fractions increases steadily with increasing particle size. The inhalable fine dust, 31.4% of the total dust, contains 49.9% of the total adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. The gas phase contained on average three times more carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with four and five rings than was adsorbed on the dust. Thus the percentage of the gaseous substances amounts to 77% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the place of work in an iron foundry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1007764','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1007764"><span>Gaseous and adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in an iron foundry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Knecht, U; Elliehausen, H J; Woitowitz, H J</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers is assumed to be associated with the inhalation of gaseous and particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). These compounds are produced during pyrolysis of carbon containing loading material in the moulding sand. The concentrations of 20 <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, some of which are carcinogenic, have been determined in the dusty casting area of an iron foundry by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total dust was fractionated by means of a precision cascade impactor. It was possible to differentiate the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load in microgram/mg dust in seven particle size fractions ranging from 0.36- greater than or equal to 24.95 microns. Initially, there was an increase of the adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass concentration with increasing particle diameter up to a maximum of 1.1 microgram/mg in the dust of the 1.57 micron fraction. Thereafter there was a continuous decrease of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass concentration with increasing particle size. When the differing weights of the seven fractions are taken into account, however, the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load of the individual fractions increases steadily with increasing particle size. The inhalable fine dust, 31.4% of the total dust, contains 49.9% of the total adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. The gas phase contained on average three times more carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with four and five rings than was adsorbed on the dust. Thus the percentage of the gaseous substances amounts to 77% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the place of work in an iron foundry. PMID:3801335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26208268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26208268"><span>Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in infrared absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-01-05</p> <p>We have analyzed a set of 51 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12053482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12053482"><span>[Some toxicological aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) effects].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zasadowski, Arkadiusz; Wysocki, Adam</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are found through environment in the air, in the soil, in water, in plants, and also in food. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are formed during pyrolisis and the incomplete combustion of organic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be man-made or occur naturally. They undergo metabolic activation after entering the mammalian cells to highly toxic reactive metabolite intermediates and can irreversibly damage cellular macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons represent a class of toxicological compounds which can create a variety of hazardous effects in vivo, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenesis described in present paper.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874984"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the coastal seawater, surface sediment and oyster from Dalian, Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Wen-Jun; Jia, Hongliang; Li, Yi-Fan; Sun, Yeqing; Liu, Xianjie; Wang, Luo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A total of 46 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, 21 parent and 25 alkylated) were determined in seawater, surface sediment and oyster from coastal area of Dalian, North China. The concentration of Σ46<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in seawater, sediment, and oyster were 136-621 ng/L, 172-4700 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 60.0-129 ng/g wet weight (ww) in winter, and 65.0-1130 ng/L, 71.1-1090 ng/g dw and 72.8-216 ng/g ww in summer, respectively. High <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels were found in industrial area both in winter and summer. Selected <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL, TEL-PEL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism and the results indicate that surface sediment from all sampling sites have a low to medium ecotoxicological risk. Daily intake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> via oyster as seafood by humans were estimated and the results indicated that oyster intake would not pose a health risk to humans even 30 days after a oil spill accident near by. Water-sediment exchange analysis showed that, both in winter and summer, the fluxes for most high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were from seawater to sediment, while for low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, an equilibrium was reached between seawater and sediment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18589992"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-induced carcinogenic potency, and particle-extract-Induced cytotoxicity of traffic-related nano/ultrafine particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chaung, Hso-Chi</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) bound in nano/ ultrafine particles from vehicle emissions may cause adverse health effects. However, little is known about the characteristics of the nanoparticle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-associated carcinogenic potency/cytotoxicity; therefore, traffic-related nano/ultrafine particles were collected in this study using a microorifice uniform deposition impactor(MOUDI) and a nano-MOUDI. For PM0.056--18, the difference in size-distribution of particulate total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> between non-after-rain and after-rain samples was statistically significant at alpha = 0.05; however, this difference was not significant for PM0.01--0.056. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> correlation between PM0.01--0.1 and PM0.1--1.8 was lower for the after-rain samples than forthe non-after-rain samples. The average particulate total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in five samplings displayed a trimodal distribution with a major peak in the Aitken mode (0.032--0.056 microm). About half of the particulate total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were in the ultrafine size range. The BaPeq sums of BaP, IND, and DBA (with toxic equivalence factors > or = 0.1) accounted for approximately 90% of the total-BaPeq in the nano/ultrafine particles, although these three compounds contributed little to the mass of the sampled particles. The mean content of the particle-bound total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/-BaPeqs and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>/BaPeq-derived carcinogenic potency followed the order nano > ultrafine > fine > coarse. For a sunny day sample, the cytotoxicity of particle extracts (using 1:1 (v/v) n-hexane/dichloromethane) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for the nano (particularly the 10-18 nm)/ultrafine particles than for the coarser particles and bleomycin. Therefore, traffic-related nano and ultrafine particles are possibly cytotoxic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2027F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2027F"><span>Dentalwerkstoffe <span class="hlt">und</span> Dentalimplantate - Teil 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faltermeier, Andreas</p> <p></p> <p>Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar <span class="hlt">und</span> darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen <span class="hlt">und</span> zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle <span class="hlt">und</span> als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book...38S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book...38S"><span>Aufbau <span class="hlt">und</span> Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- <span class="hlt">und</span> Dieselmotoren</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René</p> <p></p> <p>Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche <span class="hlt">und</span> strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung <span class="hlt">und</span> Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen <span class="hlt">und</span> werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016isms.confETD05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016isms.confETD05J"><span>Electronic Spectroscopy of Trapped <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Photofragments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joblin, Christine; Bonnamy, Anthony</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The PIRENEA set-up combines an ion cyclotron resonance cell mass spectrometer with cryogenic cooling in order to study the physical and chemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) of astrophysical interest. In space, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are submitted to UV photons that lead to their dissociation. It is therefore of interest to study fragmentation pathways and search for species that might be good interstellar candidates because of their stability. Electronic spectroscopy can bring major insights into the structure of species formed by photofragmentation. This is also a way to identify new species in space as recently illustrated in the case of C60^+. In PIRENEA, the trapped ions are not cold enough, and thus we cannot use complexation with rare gas in order to record spectroscopy, as was nicely performed in the work by Campbell et al. on C60^+. We are therefore using the dissociation of the trapped ions themselves instead, which requires in general a multiple photon scheme. This leads to non-linear effects that affect the measured spectrum. We are working on improving this scheme in the specific case of the photofragment obtained by H-loss from 1-methylpyrene cation (CH_3-C16H9^+). A recent theoretical study has shown that a rearrangement can occur from 1-pyrenemethylium cation (CH_2-C16H9^+) to a system containing a seven membered ring (tropylium like pyrene system). This study also reports the calculated electronic spectra of both isomers, which are specific enough to distinguish them, and as a function of temperature. We will present experiments that have been performed to study the photophysics of these ions using the PIRENEA set-up and a two-laser scheme for the action spectroscopy. J. Montillaud, C. Joblin, D. Toublanc, Astron. & Astrophys. 552 (2013), id.A15 E.K. Campbell, M. Holz, D. Gerlich, and J.P. Maier, Nature 523 (2015), 322-323 F. Useli-Bacchitta, A. Bonnamy, G. Malloci, et al., Chem. Phys. 371 (2010), 16-23; J. Zhen, A. Bonnamy, G. Mulas, C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114613"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash. Final technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The objectives of this work were to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>) and their derivatives, and to attempt to understand the influence of surface properties of coal ash in the chemical transformations of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37400','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37400"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on the feeding activity of tubificid worms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lotufo, G.R.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B73A..10G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B73A..10G"><span>Pore Water <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Transport in Amended Sediment Caps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gidley, P. T.; Kwon, S.; Ghosh, U.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Capping is a common remediation strategy for contaminated sediments that creates a physical barrier between contaminated sediments and the water column. Diffusive flux of contaminants through a sediment cap is small. However, under certain hydrodynamic conditions such as groundwater potential and tidal pumping, groundwater advection can accelerate contaminant transport. Hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) could be transported through the cap under advective conditions. To better understand <span class="hlt">PAH</span> migration under these conditions, physical models of sediment caps were evaluated in the laboratory through direct measurement of pore water using solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Contaminated sediment and capping material was obtained from an existing Superfund site that was capped at Eagle Harbor, Washington. A <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dissolution model linked to an advection-dispersion equation with retardation using published organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc) was compared to measured <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediment and cap porewater of the physical model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.108...13P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.108...13P"><span>Enhanced PM10 bounded <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from shipping emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Choochuay, C.; Mekmok, R.; Wuttijak, N.; Ketratanakul, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of maritime transport as a main contributor of air pollutants in port area. The authors intended to investigate the effects of shipping emissions on the enhancement of PM10 bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and mutagenic substances in an industrial area of Rayong province, Thailand. Daily PM10 speciation data across two air quality observatory sites in Thailand during 2010-2013 were collected. Diagnostic binary ratios of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congeners, analysis of variances (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the enhanced genotoxicity of PM10 during the docking period. Significant increase of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and mutagenic index (MI) of PM10 were observed during the docking period in both sampling sites. Although stationary sources like coal combustions from power plants and vehicular exhausts from motorway can play a great role in enhancing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, regulating shipping emissions from diesel engine in the port area like Rayong is predominantly crucial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143204&keyword=low+AND+income&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89353380&CFTOKEN=66484954','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143204&keyword=low+AND+income&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89353380&CFTOKEN=66484954"><span>POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) EXPOSURE OF 257 PRESCHOOL CHILDREN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352597"><span>"Omics" Insights into <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Degradation toward Improved Green Remediation Biotechnologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Amrani, Abdelhak; Dumas, Anne-Sophie; Wick, Lukas Y; Yergeau, Etienne; Berthomé, Richard</p> <p>2015-10-06</p> <p>This review summarizes recent knowledge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) biotransformation by microorganisms and plants. Whereas most research has focused on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation either by plants or microorganisms separately, this review specifically addresses the interactions of plants with their rhizosphere microbial communities. Indeed, plant roots release exudates that contain various nutritional and signaling molecules that influence bacterial and fungal populations. The complex interactions of these populations play a pivotal role in the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and other complex molecules. Emerging integrative approaches, such as (meta-) genomics, (meta-) transcriptomics, (meta-) metabolomics, and (meta-) proteomics studies are discussed, emphasizing how "omics" approaches bring new insight into decipher molecular mechanisms of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation both at the single species and community levels. Such knowledge address new pictures on how organic molecules are cometabolically degraded in a complex ecosystem and should help in setting up novel decontamination strategies based on the rhizosphere interactions between plants and their microbial associates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=215528','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=215528"><span>DISSIPATION OF <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> IN SATURATED, DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A FIELD TRIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully conta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020074601&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020074601&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Deuterium Enrichment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005702','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005702"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> formation in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feigelson, Eric D.; Frenklach, Michael</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>While there is growing observational evidence that some fraction of interstellar carbon is in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s), the mechanisms by which these molecules might be formed have not been extensively studied. A detailed investigation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> production in the outflowing molecular envelopes of carbon-rich red giant star is presented. The gasphase kinetics of a chemical reaction mechanism developed to study soot production in hydrocarbon flames is modified to apply in circumstellar environments. It was found that astrophysically significant quantities of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s can be formed in carbon star envelopes provided the gas is sufficiently dense and resides for a long time in the temperature range of 900 to 1100 k. The precise yield of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s is very sensitive to astronomical parameters of the envelope (e.g., mass loss rate, outflow velocity, and acetylene abundance) and certain poorly determined chemical reaction rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mmid.book...35K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mmid.book...35K"><span>PCR <span class="hlt">und</span> Real-Time PCR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich</p> <p></p> <p>Die vielfältigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Polymerasekettenreaktion (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) machen sie zu einer der wichtigsten <span class="hlt">und</span> am häufigsten eingesetzten Methoden in der molekularbiologischen Forschung <span class="hlt">und</span> Diagnostik. Für diese Technologie wurde der Erfinder der Methode, Kary Mullis, 1993 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Die PCR erlaubt einen hochsensitiven <span class="hlt">und</span> spezifischen in-vitro-Nachweis von Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNA), da im Zuge der Reaktion Sequenzabschnitte gezielt vermehrt werden. Innerhalb weniger Stunden können aus einem einzigen Zielmolekül 1012 identische Moleküle entstehen [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997eunu.conf...72M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997eunu.conf...72M"><span>Symmetriebrechung <span class="hlt">und</span> Emergenz in der Kosmologie.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mainzer, K.</p> <p></p> <p>Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen <span class="hlt">und</span> regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung <span class="hlt">und</span> strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie <span class="hlt">und</span> Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6431659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6431659"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Danish leafy crops. Part I: <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in kale and beets relate to point sources of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Part II: a survey of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in commercial grown fresh and deep-frozen kale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vahl, M.; Beck, J.; Stoebet, M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Part I discusses the investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) has been to demonstrate the possible pollution of leafy vegetables from expected <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-emmissions, and to compare with similar investigations in Scandinavia. Part II is a survey has been to establish levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to which consumers are normally exposed from intake of fruits and above ground parts of vegetables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18808392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18808392"><span>A spatial approach to environmental risk assessment of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bengtsson, Göran; Törneman, Niklas</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The extent of remediation of contaminated industrial sites depends on spatial heterogeneity of contaminant concentration and spatially explicit risk characterization. We used sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and indicator kriging (IK) to describe the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), pH, electric conductivity, particle aggregate distribution, water holding capacity, and total organic carbon, and quantitative relations among them, in a creosote polluted soil in southern Sweden. The geostatistical analyses were combined with risk analyses, in which the total toxic equivalent concentration of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture was calculated from the soil concentrations of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and compared with ecotoxicological effect concentrations and regulatory threshold values in block sizes of 1.8 x 1.8 m. Most <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were spatially autocorrelated and appeared in several hot spots. The risk calculated by SGS was more confined to specific hot spot areas than the risk calculated by IK, and 40-50% of the site had <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations exceeding the threshold values with a probability of 80% and higher. The toxic equivalent concentration of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture was dependent on the spatial distribution of organic carbon, showing the importance of assessing risk by a combination of measurements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and organic carbon concentrations. Essentially, the same risk distribution pattern was maintained when Monte Carlo simulations were used for implementation of risk in larger (5 x 5 m), economically more feasible remediation blocks, but a smaller area became of great concern for remediation when the simulations included <span class="hlt">PAH</span> partitioning to two separate sources, creosote and natural, of organic matter, rather than one general.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475003','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475003"><span>Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during woodworking operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruschweiler, Evin D.; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are generated from wood during common wood working operations, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24–7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were between 37.5–119.8 ng m−3 during wood working operations. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure. PMID:23087908</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...514A...5T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...514A...5T"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) luminous galaxies at z ~ 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takagi, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Goto, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Wada, T.; Pearson, C. P.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M.; Lee, M. G.; Shim, H.; Hanami, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Imai, K.; White, G. J.; Serjeant, S.; Malkan, M.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Aims: The NEP-deep survey, an extragalactic AKARI survey towards the north ecliptic pole (NEP), provides a comprehensive wavelength coverage from 2 to 24 μm using all 9 photometric bands of the infrared camera (IRC). It allows us to photometrically identify galaxies whose mid-IR emission is clearly dominated by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Methods: We propose a single-colour selection method to identify such galaxies, using two mid-IR flux ratios at 11-to-7 μm and 15-to-9 μm (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>-to-continuum flux ratio in the rest frame), which are useful for identifying starburst galaxies at z ~ 0.5 and 1, respectively. We perform a fitting of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from optical to mid-IR wavelengths, using an evolutionary starburst model with a proper treatment of radiative transfer (SBURT), in order to investigate their nature. Results: The SBURT model reproduces observed optical-to-mid-IR SEDs of more than a half of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-selected galaxies. Based on the 8 μm luminosity, we find ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) among <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-selected galaxies. Their <span class="hlt">PAH</span> luminosity is higher than local ULIRGs with a similar luminosity, and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-to-total IR luminosity ratio is consistent with that of less luminous starburst galaxies. They are a unique galaxy population at high redshifts, and we call these <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-selected ULIRGs “<span class="hlt">PAH</span>-luminous” galaxies. Although they are not as massive as submillimetre galaxies at z ~ 2, they have the stellar mass of > 3 × 1010 M_⊙ and therefore are moderately massive.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496325"><span>Plumbagin reverses proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in experimental <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Courboulin, Audrey; Barrier, Marjorie; Perreault, Tanya; Bonnet, Pierre; Tremblay, Veronique L; Paulin, Roxane; Tremblay, Eve; Lambert, Caroline; Jacob, Maria H; Bonnet, Sandra N; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Like cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is characterised by a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic phenotype. In <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is enhanced and apoptosis suppressed. The sustainability of this phenotype requires the activation of pro-survival transcription factors, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). There are no drugs currently available that are able to efficiently and safely inhibit this axis. We hypothesised that plumbagin (PLB), a natural organic compound known to block STAT3 in cancer cells, would reverse experimental pulmonary hypertension. Using human <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-PASMC, we demonstrated in vitro that PLB inhibits the activation of the STAT3/NFAT axis, increasing the voltage-gated K(+) current bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2), and decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)1 and interleukin (IL)-6, contributing to the inhibition of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-PASMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TUNEL, Ki67 and anexine V). In vivo, PLB oral administration decreases distal pulmonary artery remodelling, mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy without affecting systemic circulation in both monocrotaline- and suden/chronic hypoxia-induced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in rats. This study demonstrates that the STAT3/NFAT axis can be therapeutically targeted by PLB in human <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-PASMC and experimental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> rat models. Thus, PLB could be considered a specific and attractive future therapeutic strategy for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..95..355X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..95..355X"><span>Gas/particle partitioning of n-alkanes, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in urban Denver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Barsanti, Kelley C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this study, a medium volume sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and a polyurethane foam (PUF)/XAD-4/PUF sandwich (PXP) was used to collect semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in both gaseous and particle (PM2.5) phases. A backup QFF (bQFF) was used to evaluate possible sampling artifact of particulate organics due to vapor-phase adsorption. A series of n-alkanes (molecular weight: 170-562) and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (128-300), and two oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (acenaphthenone, 168; fluorenone, 180) were measured. Breakthrough experiments demonstrated that the PXP could collect all gas-phase target compounds with high efficiency, even the low molecular weight (MW) species (e.g., naphthalene). Comparing species concentrations across different sampling matrices encountered at the Denver, Colorado field site, the light n-alkanes (MW < 282) and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (MW < 192) were mostly distributed into the gas phase; while those heavy n-alkanes (MW > 324) and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (MW > 202) were primarily in the particle phase (Average temperature, 12.5 ± 10.1 °C). Log values of measured gas/particle (G/P) partitioning coefficients (Kmp,OM) of selected SVOCs (docosane, tricosane, fluoranthene, pyrene, acenaphthenone and fluorenone) were linearly regressed to those of theoretically-based partitioning coefficients (Ktp,OM) for comparison. Prior to Kmp,OM calculation, the gas- and particle-phase concentrations of SVOCs were corrected following two different approaches based on bQFF measurements. The first approach assumed that the bQFF associated SVOCs were from the adsorption of gaseous SVOCs (positive artifact); the second approach assumed equal contributions from positive and negative (organics evaporated from top QFF and adsorbed by bQFF) artifacts. Under both corrections, significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between log Kmp,OM and log Ktp,OM for the six selected SVOCs, suggesting that the predicted G/P partitioning can reasonably capture the measured G/P partitioning behavior. The large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26579786"><span>Biogeochemical Approaches to Assess <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Pollution in an Urban Waterway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Xianhao; Forsythe, Jennifer; Peterkin, Earl</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Biogeochemical approaches were applied to enhance the study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pollution in an urban waterway. Chemical characterizations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the studied area were identified, geochemical factors were revealed, and related mechanisms were discussed. It was found that, during summer, an early diagenetic process in the sediment could play a major role for the existence of high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, especially high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≥ 4 rings), in the water column and sediment porewater. This effect could vary with tidal cycling, and higher <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in the water column would be expected during low tide. Other potential pollution sources were also evaluated in the studied creek. Results showed that pyrogenic sources dominated in the creek, generally. Nevertheless, petroleum products from a metal recycling plant could be an important point source to the waterway during wet weather. Comparing with previous studies in other waterways of the same watershed and published literature suggested that the limited toxicity to the ecosystem was only detected in sediments. More information needs to be collected during low tide for a more objective evaluation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> toxicity in the creek.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060017069&hterms=children&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchildren','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060017069&hterms=children&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dchildren"><span>Steps Toward Identifying <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Child's Garden of Recent Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on over two decades of experimental, observational and theoretical studies by scientists around the world. It is now widely accepted that the composite emission of mixtures of vibrationally-excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions can accommodate the general pattern of band positions, intensities, and profiles observed in the discreet IR emission features of carbon-rich interstellar dust, as well as the variations in those characteristics. These variations provide insight into the detailed nature of the emitting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population and reflect conditions within the emitting regions giving the population enormous potential as probes of astrophysical environments. Moreover, the ubiquity and abundance of this material has impacts that extend well beyond the IR. In this presentation we will examine recent, combined experimental, theoretical, and observational studies that indicate that nitrogen-substituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> represent an important component of the interstellar dust population, and we will go on to explore some of the ramifications of this result. We will also explore the results of recent experimental studies of the strong, low-lying electronic transitions of ionized <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions in the Near-IR (0.7 - 2.5 microns) and explore the role that these transitions might play in pumping the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR emission in regions of low-excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27241206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27241206"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in North China, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> abatement in North China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JAESc...5..257L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JAESc...5..257L"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> in fossil fuels and their geochemical significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin Renzi; Wang Peirong</p> <p></p> <p>With the help of the advanced TSQ-45 model GC-MS-MS with INCOS data system, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) of 85 samples from twelve sedimentary basins both in China and abroad, including crude oils, source rocks, oil shales and coals, have been studied. <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, source features, sedimentary environments and maturity of organic matter have been discussed. Three series, i.e. fluorene series, dibenzofuran series and dibenzothiophene series, may be derived from the same original materials, and their properties of internal compositions may be mainly controlled by oxi-reduction conditions. The major changes of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are cracking, dealkylation and structural rearrangement during the maturation of organic matter, therefore the changes in ring number of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, the internal composition of the same series of compounds and methylphenanthrene index may reflect the maturity of organic matter. On the basis of our analysis and study, a new maturity parameter, i.e. the stable three-fluorene series index, has been proposed. Biphenyl series compounds may be the products of high-temperature cracking. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> can be used in oil-source correlation studies. The fingerprint of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is particularly important for those crude oils or source rocks which are high-mature or in which steroids and terpenoids have been severely altered because of biodegradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014813"><span>Ethanol-enhanced bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, P.H.; Ong, S.K.; Golchin, J.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to soil organic matter. Two <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds. The biodegradation of various <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the pretreated soils was assessed using soil slurry reactor studies. The time needed to degrade 90% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the pretreated soils was at least 5 days faster than soils that were not pretreated with ethanol. A distinctive advantage with the pretreatment of soils with ethanol was the enhanced removal of 4-ring compounds such as chrysene. Approximately 90% of chrysene in the ethanol-treated soils were removed within 15 days while soils without pretreatment needed more than 30 days to obtain similar removal levels. After 35 days of biotreatment in the slurry reactors, approximately 40% of benzo(a)pyrene were removed in the ethanol-treated soils while only 20% were removed in soils not pretreated with ethanol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060017069&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060017069&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Steps Toward Identifying <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Child's Garden of Recent Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on over two decades of experimental, observational and theoretical studies by scientists around the world. It is now widely accepted that the composite emission of mixtures of vibrationally-excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions can accommodate the general pattern of band positions, intensities, and profiles observed in the discreet IR emission features of carbon-rich interstellar dust, as well as the variations in those characteristics. These variations provide insight into the detailed nature of the emitting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population and reflect conditions within the emitting regions giving the population enormous potential as probes of astrophysical environments. Moreover, the ubiquity and abundance of this material has impacts that extend well beyond the IR. In this presentation we will examine recent, combined experimental, theoretical, and observational studies that indicate that nitrogen-substituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> represent an important component of the interstellar dust population, and we will go on to explore some of the ramifications of this result. We will also explore the results of recent experimental studies of the strong, low-lying electronic transitions of ionized <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions in the Near-IR (0.7 - 2.5 microns) and explore the role that these transitions might play in pumping the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR emission in regions of low-excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18479765"><span>Fish embryos are damaged by dissolved <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, not oil particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carls, Mark G; Holland, Larry; Larsen, Marie; Collier, Tracy K; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P</p> <p>2008-06-23</p> <p>To distinguish the toxicity of whole oil droplets from compounds dissolved in water, responses of zebrafish embryos exposed to particulate-laden, mechanically dispersed Alaska North Slope crude oil (mechanically dispersed oil (MDO)) were compared to those of embryos protected from direct oil droplet contact by an agarose matrix. Most polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in MDO were contained in oil droplets; about 16% were dissolved. The agarose precluded embryo contact with particulate oil but allowed diffusive passage of dissolved <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The incidence of edema, hemorrhaging, and cardiac abnormalities in embryos was dose-dependent in both MDO and agarose and the biological effects in these compartments were identical in character. Although mean total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (TPAH) concentrations in MDO were about 5-9 times greater than in agarose, dissolved <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were similar in the two compartments. Furthermore, mean differences in paired embryo responses between compartments were relatively small (14-23%, grand mean 17%), typically with a larger response in embryos exposed to MDO. Therefore, the embryos reacted only to dissolved <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the response difference between compartments is explained by diffusion. Averaged over 48 h, the estimated mean TPAH concentration in agarose was about 16% less than the dissolved TPAH concentration in MDO. Thus, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> dissolved from oil are toxic and physical contact with oil droplets is not necessary for embryotoxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..128A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..128A"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives (oxygenated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitrated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361780"><span>PM₂.₅-bound oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the atmosphere of a Chinese megacity: seasonal variation, sources and cancer risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Meusel, Hannah; Huang, Ru-Jin; Ho, Kinfai; Cao, Junji; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Wilcke, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in air particulate matter contribute considerably to the health risk of air pollution. The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence and variation in concentrations and sources of PM2.5-bound PACs [Oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>] sampled from the atmosphere of a typical Chinese megacity (Xi'an), to study the influence of meteorological conditions on PACs and to estimate the lifetime excess cancer risk to the residents of Xi'an (from inhalation of PM2.5-bound PACs). To achieve these objectives, we sampled 24-h PM2.5 aerosols (once in every 6 days, from 5 July 2008 to 8 August 2009) from the atmosphere of Xi'an and measured the concentrations of PACs in them. The PM2.5-bound concentrations of Σcarbonyl-OPAHs, ∑hydroxyl+carboxyl-OPAHs, Σnitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Σalkyl+parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged between 5-22, 0.2-13, 0.3-7, and 7-387 ng m(-3), respectively, being markedly higher than in most western cities. This represented a range of 0.01-0.4% and 0.002-0.06% of the mass of organic C in PM2.5 and the total mass of PM2.5, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of each compound group had winter-to-summer ratios ranging from 3 to 8 and most individual OPAHs and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had higher concentrations in winter than in summer, suggesting a dominant influence of emissions from household heating and winter meteorological conditions. Ambient temperature, air pressure, and wind speed explained a large part of the temporal variation in PACs concentrations. The lifetime excess cancer risk from inhalation (attributable to selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was six fold higher in winter (averaging 1450 persons per million residents of Xi'an) than in summer. Our results call for the development of emission control measures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2841582','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2841582"><span>Hemodynamics in pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>): do they explain long-term clinical outcomes with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-specific therapy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) has witnessed dramatic treatment advances over the past decade. However, with the exception of epoprostenol, data from short-term randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not shown a benefit of these drugs on survival. There remains a need to differentiate between available therapies and current endpoint responses which in turn, could be used to guide treatment selection and provide long-term prognostic information for patients. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for RCTs of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-specific therapy published between January 1980 and May 2009. Articles were selected if they contained a placebo comparator and described hemodynamic changes from baseline. We applied the weighted mean change in hemodynamic variables to the equation developed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Registry to estimate long-term survival with each therapy. Results Ten RCTs involving 1,635 patients met the inclusion criteria. Suitable hemodynamic data were identified for bosentan, sitaxentan, sildenafil, epoprostenol, beraprost and treprostinil. 77.6% of patients were female and the mean (SD) age was 46.5 ± 4.9 years. 55.5% of patients had idiopathic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (i<span class="hlt">PAH</span>), 23.9% <span class="hlt">PAH</span> related to connective tissue disease, and 18.2% <span class="hlt">PAH</span> related to congenital heart disease. Based on the effects observed in short-term trials and, relative to placebo, all analyzed therapies improved survival. The estimated 1-year survival was 78.4%, 77.8%, 76.1%, 75.8%, 75.2%, and 74.1% for epoprostenol, bosentan, treprostinil, sitaxentan, sildenafil, and beraprost, respectively. These estimates are considerably lower than the 1-year observed survival reported in several open-label and registry studies with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-specific therapies: 88% - 97%. Conclusion When applied to the NIH Registry equation, hemodynamic changes from baseline appear to underestimate the survival benefits observed with long-term <span class="hlt">PAH</span> therapy. PMID:20170553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997kkud.book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997kkud.book.....H"><span>Kosmische Katastrophen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Ursprung der Religion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoyle, F.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter <span class="hlt">und</span> Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/vessels-marinas-and-ports/uniform-national-discharge-standards-unds-outreach','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/vessels-marinas-and-ports/uniform-national-discharge-standards-unds-outreach"><span>Uniform National Discharge Standards (<span class="hlt">UNDS</span>): Outreach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Describes the Federalism and Tribal consultation efforts related to the Uniform National Discharge Standards (<span class="hlt">UNDS</span>) and links to copies of each presentation, both to state and local representatives, as well as federally-recognized tribes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fur&pg=5&id=EJ448317','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fur&pg=5&id=EJ448317"><span>Hochschule fur Film <span class="hlt">und</span> Fernsehen (Babelsberg).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Neumann, Roland</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Describes the Hochschule fur Film <span class="hlt">und</span> Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014dlr..book...36J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014dlr..book...36J"><span>Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche <span class="hlt">und</span> gesteuerte bewegung.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jochim, E. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung <span class="hlt">und</span> Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, <span class="hlt">und</span> insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei <span class="hlt">und</span> singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung <span class="hlt">und</span> Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21222277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21222277"><span>Unlike <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Exxon Valdez crude oil, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents. Even for coals with high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content (4000 ppm total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525483"><span>Removal efficiency of vapour/particulate phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by using alternative protective respirators in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exposure workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Chien-Hung; Lin, Ming-Hsiu</p> <p>2012-06-15</p> <p>Due to the high heat environment in foundry industries, it is difficult for foundry workers to wear masks during their workday. Thus, how to prevent inhaling vapour or the particulate phase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is important for occupational hazard management. The present study assesses the characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission in foundry and plastic industries to evaluate the removal efficiencies of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> while workers use alternative personal protective equipment. The highest 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) level was found for workers who used a cotton-fabric face mask (1.19 μg/g creatinine) and activated-carbon face mask (1.16 μg/g creatinine), compared to a lower level in workers who wore a surgical face mask (0.27 μg/g creatinine) and a N95 respirator (0.51 μg/g creatinine). The urinary 1-OHP in end-of-shift samples correlated to the airborne vapour phase Bapeq, but not for the particulate phase Bapeq in the foundry industry. This is probably because workers wore personal protective equipment that only removed the particulate phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. The current study suggests that future work focus on developing an appropriate and comfortable respirator with high removal efficiency for ultrafine particulates and vapour phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> simultaneously in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> work environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671402"><span>Correlations between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability, degrading bacteria, and soil characteristics during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in five diffusely contaminated dissimilar soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crampon, M; Bureau, F; Akpa-Vinceslas, M; Bodilis, J; Machour, N; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The natural biodegradation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by native microorganisms was studied in five soils from Normandy (France) from diffusely polluted areas, which can also pose a problem in terms of surfaces and amounts of contaminated soils. Bioavailability tests using cyclodextrin-based extractions were performed. The natural degradation of low molecular weight (LMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was not strongly correlated to their bioavailability due to their sorption to geosorbents. Conversely, the very low degradation of high molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was partly correlated to their poor availability, due to their sorption on complexes of organic matter and kaolinites or smectites. A principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between the respective degradation behaviors of LMW and HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. LMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were degraded in less than 2-3 months and were strongly influenced by the relative percentage of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria over total bacteria in soils. HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were not significantly degraded, not only because they were less bioavailable but also because of a lack of degrading microorganisms. Benzo[a]pyrene stood apart since it was partly degraded in acidic soils, probably because of a catabolic cooperation between bacteria and fungi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book.1281B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book.1281B"><span>Hobeln <span class="hlt">und</span> Stoßen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Böge, Wolfgang</p> <p></p> <p>Im Gegensatz zum Drehen ist die Schnittbewegung bei Maschinen mit hin- <span class="hlt">und</span> hergehender Bewegung nicht gleichförmig (Hobel-, Stoß- <span class="hlt">und</span> Räummaschinen). Die mittlere Rücklaufgeschwindigkeit v mr ist meist größer als die mittlere Geschwindigkeit beim Arbeitshub v ma , z. B. beim Antrieb durch die schwingende Kurbelschleife ({v}_{m}\\colon{v}_{ma} etwa 1,4-1,8).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book.1827B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017hama.book.1827B"><span>Kostenüberwachung <span class="hlt">und</span> Wirtschaftlichkeitsrechnung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Jürgen</p> <p></p> <p>Die ERP-Produktkalkulation erfolgt auf der Basis des Mengen- <span class="hlt">und</span> Wertgerüsts der Produktionsprozesse. Sie greift dabei auf die Stammdaten (Materialstamm, Arbeitsplätze, Arbeitspläne, Stücklisten) zu. Basis ist die übliche Industriekalkulation in der Form einer Zuschlagskalkulation, ergänzt durch Platzkostensätze der Maschinen <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeitsplätze (siehe Teil ).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..118B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..118B"><span>Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne <span class="hlt">und</span> externe Analyse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan</p> <p></p> <p>Die Initiierung <span class="hlt">und</span> Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken <span class="hlt">und</span> Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen <span class="hlt">und</span> Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten <span class="hlt">und</span> nur auf das "hier <span class="hlt">und</span> heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8143','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/8143"><span>Aus Wirtschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Betrieb. Biomasse: Gewinnung <span class="hlt">und</span> Verarbeitung mit Profilschal-maschinen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>P. Koch</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>1963 wurden in den Südstaaten der USA nur 30% der oberund unterirdischen Biomasse der geernteten sog. Southern pines für Schnittholz <span class="hlt">und</span> Zellstoff verwertet bzw. als getrockneies, gehobletes <span class="hlt">und</span> abgelängtes Schnittholz oder als Kraftpapier verkauft. Keine der zusammen mit den Kiefern vorkommenden Laubholzarten wurde bisher in nennenswertem Umfan verwertet. Auch heute...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/191271','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/191271"><span>Toxicity and photoactivation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures in marine sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swartz, R.; Ferraro, S.; Lamberson, J.; Cole, F.; Ozretich, R.; Boese, B.; Schults, D.; Behrenfeld, M.; Ankley, G.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The toxicity and toxicological photoactivation of mixtures of sediment-associated fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and acenaphthene were determined using standard 10 d sediment toxicity tests with the marine amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius. The four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were spiked into sediment in a concentration series of either single compounds or an equitoxic mixture. Spiked sediment was stored at 4 C for 28 d before testing. Toxicity tests were conducted under fluorescent lighting. Survivors after 10 d in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment were exposed for 1 h to UV light in the absence of sediment and then tested for their ability to bury in clean sediment. The 10 d LC50s for single <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 3.3, 2.2, 2.8, and 2.3 mg/g oc for fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and acenaphthene, respectively. These LC50s were used to calculate the sum of toxic units ({Sigma}TU) of the four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the equitoxic mixture treatments. The {Sigma}TU LC50 was then calculated for the mixture treatments. If the toxicological interaction of the four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the mixture was additive, the {Sigma}TU LC50 should equal 1.0. The observed {Sigma}TU LC50 in the mixture was 1.55, indicating the interaction was slightly less than additive. UV enhancement of toxic effects of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was correctly predicted by photophysical properties, i.e. pyrene and fluoranthene were photoactivated and phenanthrene and acenaphthene were not. UV effects in the mixture of four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be explained by the photoactivation of pyrene and fluoranthene alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..173B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..173B"><span>Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μm IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ˜15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ˜15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12889637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12889637"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in fine and coarse particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vardar, Nedim; Noll, Kenneth E</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>Measurements of the urban air concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> associated with PM2.5-fine and PM 10-coarse particles in Chicago on the campus of IIT were achieved using a Universal Air Sampler. Short sampling time (12 hr) and high flow rates were used to measure the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in fine and coarse particles. Measured ambient concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were classified based on wind direction and back trajectory calculations as Land and Lake samples. Differences in ambient concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were observed between Land and Lake samples. Fine particle concentrations varied from 9.5 to 25.7 ng m(-3) and averaged 18.2 ng m(-3) for the Land samples, while they ranged from 4.2 to 31.5 ng m(-3) and averaged 13.4 ng m(-3) for the Lake samples. The measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in coarse particles varied from 6.2 to 22.1 ng m(-3) and averaged 12.9 ng m(-3) for the Land samples, and they ranged from 2.4 to 13.0 ng m(-3) with an average value of 7.3 ng m(-3) for the Lake samples. The fine/coarse ratio of each individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compound varied between 1.3 and 2.7 for the Land samples: it varied between 1.6 and 4.2 for the Lake samples. There was an increase in the fine/coarse ratio of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> as molecular weight of the compound increases for both Land and Lake samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.3703M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.3703M"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission From ULIRGs: Evidence For Unusual Grain Properties?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marshall, Jason A.; Armus, L.; Spoon, H. W. W.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The tremendous power emerging from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) is driven both by high levels of star-formation activity and AGN-related accretion. Observations of star-forming regions in the Milky Way and external star-forming galaxies provide evidence that the first of these energy generation mechanisms often also gives rise to emission from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules in the form of characteristic mid-IR features. Given the composite nature of ULIRGs, it is not surprising that many also exhibit significant emission from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Perhaps more surprising, however, is that some ULIRGs believed to be powered primarily by AGNs also show emission from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, although typically at lower levels relative to their total dust output. To investigate the nature of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from galaxies powered either by star-formation or AGN accretion alone, as well as emission from composite systems such as ULIRGs powered by both mechanisms, we present a detailed study of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission spectra from galaxies of each type. We use the CAFE spectral energy distribution decomposition software we have developed to derive and extinction correct the spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from a sample of 100 galaxies with Spitzer/IRS observations, and use the results of this analysis to calculate the ratios of the various mid-IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature luminosities. In particular, we investigate to what extent these relative feature strengths vary as a function of the optical classification of galaxies, and we inquire into whether or not the derived feature strength ratios provide evidence for unusual grain properties in the extreme conditions within ULIRGs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhuZ...36..236B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhuZ...36..236B"><span>Ein mobiler <span class="hlt">und</span> offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin <span class="hlt">und</span> Materialforschung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene <span class="hlt">und</span> mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen <span class="hlt">und</span> unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung <span class="hlt">und</span> Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil <span class="hlt">und</span> die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten <span class="hlt">und</span> modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681396"><span>Concentrations, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soils of Liaohe estuarine wetland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Nannan; Lang, Yinhai; Cheng, Fangfang; Wang, Minjie</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Concentration, source, and risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were investigated in 31 sites from surface soils of Liaohe estuarine wetland. Total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations ranged from 293.4 to 1735.9 ng/g with a mean of 675.4 ng/g. The 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the dominant species. The ratios of high-molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to low-molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and anthracene/(anthracene+phenanthrene) were calculated to apportion sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. It was found that both pyrogenic and petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sources were important. Effect range low and effect range median showed that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> would occasionally cause adverse effects. The nemerow composite index revealed that about 41.9% soil sampling sites were safety; about 58.1% sites had different grades of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0009R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0009R"><span>Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> analysis showed that two and three rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. The sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds.<span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017klde.book..267B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017klde.book..267B"><span>Das Assessment von Vulnerabilitäten, Risiken <span class="hlt">und</span> Unsicherheiten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birkmann, Jörn; Greiving, Stefan; Serdeczny, Olivia Maria</p> <p></p> <p>Die Risiken <span class="hlt">und</span> möglichen Folgen des Klimawandels für Menschen, Produktions- <span class="hlt">und</span> Ökosysteme sind eng mit sozioökonomischen Entwicklungen <span class="hlt">und</span> Rahmenbedingungen verflochten. Die Schlüsselbegriffe "Vulnerabilität", "Risiko" <span class="hlt">und</span> "Unsicherheit" werden näher beleuchtet, um u. a. deutlich zu machen, wie sie im neueren Risikoansatz des Fünften Sachstandsberichts (AR5) des Weltklimarats (IPCC) genutzt werden. Das Risikokonzept wird vom Vulnerabilitätskonzept unterschieden. In den Fokus rückt die Betrachtung von Gefahr <span class="hlt">und</span> Exposition. Auch die Frage, was unter Unsicherheit <span class="hlt">und</span> Bandbreiten möglicher Entwicklungen des Klimas <span class="hlt">und</span> sogenannter sozioökonomischer Entwicklungspfade zu verstehen ist, spielt dabei eine wichtige Rolle. Bisherige Untersuchungsmethoden zu Risiken im Kontext des Klimawandels <span class="hlt">und</span> darauf aufbauende Entscheidungsprozesse werden im Hinblick auf künftige Anpassungsmaßnahmen diskutiert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51A0700L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51A0700L"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in Soils and Sludges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, L.; Tindall, J. A.; Zhang, W.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs biodegradation are evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in a soil/water system, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals at remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration. Model responses were validated by a favorable match to measurements of biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in a land treatment unit operated by Aluminum Corporation of America Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (SRA) reduces to zero (i.e., undetectable), with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (SIA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (SIA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs will leach only slightly, if at all from the treatment site and thus, they constitute no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large Kd, i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity, K (as described by Monod kinetics parameters), regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential active</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852613"><span>Occurrence and source apportionment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in highly vulnerable karst system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shao, Yixian; Wang, Yanxin; Xu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Zhou; He, Shanshan; Qian, Kun</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>The concentration and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in topsoil, groundwater and groundwater suspended solids (SS) at Guozhuang karst water system of northern China were investigated. The total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 622 to 87,880 ng/g dry weight in topsoil, from 4739 to 59,314 ng/g dry weight in SS, and from 2137 to 9037 ng/L in groundwater, with mean values of 17,174 ng/g, 11,990 ng/g and 5020 ng/L, respectively. High concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were mainly observed in the coal mining industrial area and the discharge area. The composition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> indicated that low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were predominant in groundwater samples, the content of medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was elevated in SS, and carcinogenic high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were frequently detected in topsoil. The high contents of low-medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in groundwater and SS suggested relatively recent local sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that were transported into the aquifer via leakage of contaminated surface water and/or infiltration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-containing precipitation. The results of evaluating sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using ratios of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds showed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> mainly originated from coal and wood combustion. Furthermore, five sources were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the contribution to the total loadings of groundwater <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were: 2% for unburnt oil, 32% for coal combustion, 22% for vehicle emission, 27% for biomass combustion and 18% for coke production, respectively. Furthermore, strong correlations of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with total organic carbon (TOC) in topsoil indicated co-emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and TOC. Poor correlations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater indicated that other factors exert stronger influences. Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> might have posed a major threat to the quality of potable groundwater in Guozhuang karst water system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...832...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...832...51B"><span>The Charge State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Across Reflection Nebulae: <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Charge Balance and Calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission is broken down into <span class="hlt">PAH</span> charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength approach, which interprets particular <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength ratios as proxies for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction (f i ). The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction is converted into the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization parameter, which relates the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band is evaluated as a tracer for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission observed from NGC 2023.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13086','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13086"><span>The formation of aromatics and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in laminar flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K</p> <p>1999-04-01</p> <p>The formation of aromatics and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s is an important problem in combustion. These compounds are believed to contribute to the formation of soot whose emission from diesel engines is regulated widely throughout the industrial world. Additionally, the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of many aromatics and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from stationary industrial burners, under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The above emission regulations have created much interest in understanding how these species are formed in combustion systems. Much previous work has been done on aromatics and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s. The work is too extensive to review here, but is reviewed in Reference 1. A few recent developments are highlighted here. McEnally, Pfefferle and coworkers have studied aromatic, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and soot formation in a variety of non-premixed flames with hydrocarbon additives [2-4]. They found additives that contain a C5 ring increase the concentration of aromatics and soot [4]. Howard and coworkers have studied the formation of aromatic and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in low pressure, premixed, laminar hydrocarbon flames. They found the cyclopentadienyl radical to be a key species in naphthalene formation in a fuel-rich, benzene/Ar/O2 flame [5].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4681094','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4681094"><span>LABORATORY PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>: IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are expected to be strongly processed by Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C24H12), ovalene (C32H14) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C42H18) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–40 eV. The results show that for small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium (ISM) are briefly discussed. PMID:26688710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92...51R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92...51R"><span>Indoor <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romagnoli, P.; Balducci, C.; Perilli, M.; Gherardi, M.; Gordiani, A.; Gariazzo, C.; Gatto, M. P.; Cecinato, A.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in three microenvironments (schools, homes and offices) in the city of Rome, Italy, between winter 2011 and summer 2012. Molecular signatures and indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were investigated, with special emphasis on carcinogenic congeners. At indoor locations, total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged, on average, from 1.8 to 8.4 ng/m3 in winter and from 0.30 to 1.35 ng/m3 in spring/summer. Outdoors, total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were found to reach 6.3-17.9 ng/m3 in winter and 0.42-1.74 ng/m3 in spring-summer. Indoors, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was as high as 1.1 ng/m3 in winter and below 0.1 ng/m3 in the warm season, independently of site type; the yearly average remained below the European guideline value. The indoor/outdoor concentration ratios of individual compounds were lower than one for most of congeners, suggesting that outdoor sources were predominant. Nonetheless, the percentages of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds changed with sites and seasons; in particular, in spring/summer, the concentration of BaP at our sites was more than twice that recorded at the regional network stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518994"><span>LABORATORY PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Ligterink, Niels; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine E-mail: junfeng.zhen@irap.omp.eu</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are expected to be strongly processed by vacuum ultraviolet photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}), ovalene (C{sub 32}H{sub 14}) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C{sub 42}H{sub 18}) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–40 eV. The results show that for small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..497..155G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..497..155G"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Formation in O-rich Evolved Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around these objects. We recently proposed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. Using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands and ionised emission from the [S IV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionised material is mostly present in the inner parts, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation of exoplanets in post-common-envelope binary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.441..364G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.441..364G"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> formation in O-rich planetary nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around such objects. We recently proposed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. In this work, using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands and ionized emission from the [S IV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionized material is mostly present in the inner parts of these tori, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation of exoplanets in post-common-envelope binary systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460501','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/460501"><span>Geochemical factors affecting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distribution in Chesapeake Bay sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitra, S.; Dickhut, R.M.; Kimbrough, K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Sediment/pore water distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were examined with depth at two sites in the Elizabeth River, a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Areas of the Elizabeth River have been historically extensively contaminated with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Varying trends in distribution coefficients were observed both across the range of molecular weights of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and with depth in the sediment. Linear relations between log K{sub d} and octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub ow}) were observed deep in the cores but not near the surface of the sediments. This phenomena indicates that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sediment/porewater distributions are not at equilibrium near the sediment-water interface. Moreover, down-core K{sub d}s decreased and were, in most cases, inversely related with fraction organic carbon. These data indicate that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may play a potentially significant role in mobilizing sediment-associated organic contaminants. The extent to which DOC and other geochemical parameters such as total lipid extract (TLE) and BET surface area control K{sub d}s of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, is under further investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21782733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21782733"><span>Molecular structural characteristics governing biocatalytic oxidation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with hemoglobin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niu, Junfeng; Yu, Gang</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Based on some fundamental quantum chemical descriptors computed by PM3 hamiltonian, two quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for biocatalytic oxidation specific activity of unmodified and chemically modified hemoglobin in the oxidation of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in 15% acetonitrile were developed, respectively, using partial least squares analysis (PLS). The cross-validated Q(cum)(2) values for the two optimal QSAR models are 0.785 and 0.747, respectively, indicating a good predictive ability for biocatalytic oxidation specific activity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The main factors affecting specific activity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are most positive net atomic charges on a hydrogen atom (q(H)(+)), largest negative atomic charge on a carbon atom (q(C)(-)), dipole moment (μ), the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)), and (E(LUMO) - E(HOMO))(2). The biocatalytic oxidation specific activity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with big q(C)(-) and (E(LUMO) - E(HOMO))(2) values tends to be slow. Increasing q(H)(+), μ, and E(HOMO) values of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> leads to increase of specific activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484952"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in a phenanthrene-degrading pseudomonad</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stringfellow, W.T.; Chen, S.H.; Aitken, M.D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) substrates are metabolized by common enzymes in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, implying that inducers for low-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation may coinduce for the metabolism of higher-molecular-weight compounds. The authors have tested this hypothesis with a well-characterized <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas saccharophila P-15. Growth of P-15 on salicylate, a metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, and a known inducer for naphthalene degradation, induced the metabolism of both substrates. Several potential inducers were then tested for their effects on metabolism of the four-ring compounds pyrene and fluoranthene, neither of which is a growth substrate for P-15, but both of which can be metabolized by this organism. Incubation of P-15 in the presence of phenanthrene or salicylate induced the metabolism of pyrene and fluoranthene in resting-cell assays. Catechol, another intermediate of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation, did not induce the metabolism of either compound and interfered with the inducing effect of salicylate. These results have implications for strategies designed to maintain <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in contaminated environments, particularly for compounds that are degraded slowly or are degraded only by nongrowth metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450341"><span>Emission characterization and δ(13)C values of parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM2.5-10), intermediate (PM1-2.5) and fine (PM1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both p<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM1-2.5 and PM1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, high molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were more enriched in finer PMs. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply <span class="hlt">PAH</span> diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18001805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18001805"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in transplanted Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) from the Lagoon of Venice as assessed by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/shell weight index: a preliminary study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boscolo, Rossella; Cacciatore, Federica; Giovanardi, Otello</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) levels was assessed in Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. Clams were transplanted from a polluted area next to Porto Marghera to two rearing areas of the Southern Lagoon. Analyses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were made in sediments and clams by GC/MS at first sampling and after 30, 60 and 180 days. Principal component analysis was performed to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration pattern and input sources. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor (BSAF) was applied to evaluate the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> input sources from sediment. Condition index was calculated to compare the seasonal variation of clam tissue to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels. To propose results not affected by seasonal changes in flesh weight of clams, the approach based on the calculation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/SW index was applied. From the results, it was concluded that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/SW index is more recommendable to asses temporal variation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels in Manila clams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001flas.book..293W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001flas.book..293W"><span>Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer <span class="hlt">und</span> Meister der Beobachtungstechnik</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolfschmidt, Gudrun</p> <p></p> <p>Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg <span class="hlt">und</span> der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg <span class="hlt">und</span> Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi <span class="hlt">und</span> Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente <span class="hlt">und</span> Meßtechniken <span class="hlt">und</span> bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie <span class="hlt">und</span> der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. <span class="hlt">und</span> 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23043344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23043344"><span>Multi-level stressor analysis from the DNA/biochemical level to community levels in an urban stream and integrative health response (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) assessments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Joon Ha; Oh, Hee-Mock; An, Kwang-Guk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to identify multi-level stressors at the DNA/biochemical level to the community level in fish in an urban stream and to develop an integrative health response (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) model for ecological health diagnosis. A pristine control site (S (c) ) and an impacted site (S (i) ) were selected from among seven pre-screened sites studied over seven years. Various chemical analyses indicated that nutrient enrichment (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) and organic pollution were significantly greater (t > 8.783, p < 0.01) at the S (i) site compared to the S (c) site. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays) of DNA-level impairment indicated significantly (t = 5.678, p < 0.01) greater tail intensity, expressed as % tail-DNA, at the S (i) site and genotoxic responses were detected in the downstream reach. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assays, as a physiological bioindicator, were 2.8-fold higher (p < 0.05, NK-test after ANOVA) at the S (i) site. Tissue analysis using a necropsy-based health assessment index (NHAI) showed distinct internal organ disorders in three tissues, i.e., liver, kidney, and gill, at the S (i) site. Population-level analysis using the sentinel species Zacco platypus showed that the regression coefficient (b) was 3.012 for the S (i) site and 2.915 for the S (c) site, indicating population skewness in the downstream reach. Community-level health was impaired at the S (i) site based on an index of biological integrity (IBI), and physical habitat modifications were identified by a qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI). Overall, the model values for the integrative health response (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>), developed using the star plot approach, were 3.22 (80.5%) at the S (c) site and 0.74 (18.5%) at the S (i) site, indicating that, overall, ecological health impairments were evident in the urban reach. Our study was based on multi-level approaches using biological organization and the results suggest that there is a pivotal point of linkage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020073508&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020073508&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in the 11-14 micron Region: New Insights and a Tracer of Ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Ames infrared spectral database of isolated, neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) shows that aromatic CH out-of-plane bending frequencies are significantly shifted upon ionization. For non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH groups, the shift is pronounced and consistently toward higher frequencies. The non-adjacent modes are blueshifted by an average of 27 per cm and the doubly-adjacent modes by an average of 17 per cm. For triply- and quadruply-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes the ionization shifts are more erratic and typically more modest. As a result of these ionization shifts, both the non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes move out of the regions classically associated with their respective vibrations in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The doubly-adjacent modes of ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tend to fall into the frequency range traditionally associated with the non-adjacent modes, while the non-adjacent modes are shifted to frequencies above those normally attributed to out-of-plane bending vibrations. Consequently, the origin of the interstellar infrared emission feature near 11.2 microns, traditionally attributed to the out-of-plane bending of non-adjacent CH groups on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is rendered ambiguous. Instead, this feature likely reflects contributions from both non-adjacent CH units in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and doubly-adjacent CH units in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, the dominant charge state in the most energetic emission regions. This greatly relieves the structural constraints placed on the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population by the dominance of the 11.2 micron band in this region and eliminates the necessity to invoke extensive dehydrogenation of the emitting species. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emission between 926 and 904 per cm (10.8 and 11.1 microns) observed in many sources can be unambiguously attributed to the non-adjacent CH out-of-plane bending modes of moderately-sized (fewer than 50 carbon atom) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations making this emission an unequivocal tracer of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020073508&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020073508&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in the 11-14 micron Region: New Insights and a Tracer of Ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Ames infrared spectral database of isolated, neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) shows that aromatic CH out-of-plane bending frequencies are significantly shifted upon ionization. For non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH groups, the shift is pronounced and consistently toward higher frequencies. The non-adjacent modes are blueshifted by an average of 27 per cm and the doubly-adjacent modes by an average of 17 per cm. For triply- and quadruply-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes the ionization shifts are more erratic and typically more modest. As a result of these ionization shifts, both the non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes move out of the regions classically associated with their respective vibrations in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The doubly-adjacent modes of ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tend to fall into the frequency range traditionally associated with the non-adjacent modes, while the non-adjacent modes are shifted to frequencies above those normally attributed to out-of-plane bending vibrations. Consequently, the origin of the interstellar infrared emission feature near 11.2 microns, traditionally attributed to the out-of-plane bending of non-adjacent CH groups on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is rendered ambiguous. Instead, this feature likely reflects contributions from both non-adjacent CH units in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and doubly-adjacent CH units in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, the dominant charge state in the most energetic emission regions. This greatly relieves the structural constraints placed on the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population by the dominance of the 11.2 micron band in this region and eliminates the necessity to invoke extensive dehydrogenation of the emitting species. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emission between 926 and 904 per cm (10.8 and 11.1 microns) observed in many sources can be unambiguously attributed to the non-adjacent CH out-of-plane bending modes of moderately-sized (fewer than 50 carbon atom) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations making this emission an unequivocal tracer of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1183E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1183E"><span>Search for fullerenes and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the diffuse interstellar medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest carbon-containing molecules as the best candidates for carriers of the unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). considering their abundance and ability to form stable bonds in interstellar space. We have searched for new DIBs in the near-IR and have detected two new diffuse bands that are consistent with laboratory measurements of C 60+ in a neon matrix. Criteria for this possible identification are discussed. From these observations and the DIB treasured absorption. we estimate that up to 0.9% of interstellar carbon could be in the form of C 60+ We also searched for poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) canons and have derived corresponding limits for the presence of the coronene C 24H 12 and ovalene C 32H 14 cations in space. We have studied the ionization properties of these <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, which could explain their selective destruction. From these results we discuss the role of fullerenes and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as possible DIB carriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3222690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3222690"><span>Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in an urban snowpack.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boom, A; Marsalek, J</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>Accumulations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a snowpack were studied in an industrial urban area with numerous anthropogenic sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loadings stored in the snowpack were determined, plotted on a map of the study area, and arenal distribution approximated by isoloading contours. The loading contours exhibited a marked elongation in the direction of prevailing winds. The unit-area deposition rates observed in the study area exceeded the typical rates reported for other urban areas, and were the highest immediately downwind of a steel plant. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in snowmelt were well below the freshwater aquatic life toxicity criteria, but exceeded both the WHO drinking water standard and the U.S. EPA carcinogenic criteria at the 10(-5) risk level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..855..225C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..855..225C"><span>Diffuse interstellar bands and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Galaxy and beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Nick L. J.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are ubiquitously observed towards reddened stars throughout the Milky Way. In the past decade, DIBs have been observed in only a few extra-galactic lines of sight. The carriers of DIBs are likely large organic gas phase molecules that reside in the diffuse interstellar medium. However, ever since they were first observed in the 1920s their identity remains a mystery. Investigated candidate carriers include, but are not limited to, carbon chains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), fullerenes and tubular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Recent advances and successes in laboratory and theoretical work have given a great boost to the study of large molecules under interstellar conditions, i.e. low temperature, gas phase. We present here a short overview of our recent (extra)-galactic DIBs observations and the related studies of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> chemistry in these environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244863"><span>[Health risk assessment of coke oven <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emissions].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370262"><span>Sediment-porewater partitioning of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maruya, K.A.; Risebrough, R.W.; Horne, A.J.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Quantifying the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds between contaminated sediment and interstitial water is key to understanding their fate and effects in aquatic ecosystems. Sampling during the wet and dry-seasons in San Francisco Bay has revealed that the extent of partitioning, measured as the apparent sediment organic carbon-porewater distribution coefficient (K{sub oc}{prime}), was positively correlated with the octanol-water distribution coefficient (K{sub ow}) for a suite of pyrogenically-derived, 2-6 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In addition, sediment <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (organic carbon basis) were associated with the silt fraction and organic carbon content. Moreover, K{sub oc}{prime} decreased along an intertidal gradient and was an order of magnitude higher during the wet season when runoff into the Bay was high. Our results provide evidence that substrate heterogeneity, a factor not accounted for in simple equilibrium models, can significantly alter the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in this environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.6764C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.6764C"><span>Improved GC/MS methods for measuring hourly <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in urban particulate matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crimmins, Bernard S.; Baker, Joel E.</p> <p></p> <p>This study presents two methods for the quantification of nitro-substituted and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, respectively), respectively, utilizing large volume injection gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Both methods (<span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH, respectively) employed a programmed temperature vaporization injector (PTV) in solvent vent mode, optimized using standard solutions. For the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> method, the precision of the PTV was comparable to hot splitless injection for exhibiting a percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) consistently below 8% for 100 pg injections. Compound %RSDs for the NPAH method were consistently below 5% using the PTV. Microgram quantities (30-500 μg) of particulate matter Standard Reference Materials (SRM 1649 and 1650, National Institutes of Standards and Technology) were analyzed to simulate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH quantification on small aerosol mass loadings. The method detection limits from this study suggest <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs can be easily quantified using low-volume samplers (>5 Lpm) on hourly timescales. In addition, this technique enabled the quantification of 12-h NPAH size distributions in the Baltimore, MD, atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23987121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23987121"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span>-CALUX, an optimized bioassay for AhR-mediated hazard identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) as individual compounds and in complex mixtures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pieterse, B; Felzel, E; Winter, R; van der Burg, B; Brouwer, A</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) represent a class of ubiquitously occurring environmental compounds that are implicated in a wide range of toxicological effects. Routine measurement of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination generally involves chemical analytical analysis of a selected group of representatives, for example, EPA-16, which may result in underestimation of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related toxicity of a sample. Many high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are known ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nuclear receptor that mediates toxic effects related to these compounds. Making use of this property we developed a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX assay, a mammalian, H4IIe- cell-based reporter assay for the hazard identification of total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX reporter cell line allows for specific, rapid (4 h exposure time) and reliable quantification of AhR-induced luciferase induction relative to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), which is used as a positive reference <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congener. Full dose response relationships with inductions over 100-fold were reached within only 2 h of exposure to BaP. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX is highly sensitive, that is, using a 4 h exposure time, a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.2 × 10(-11) M BaP was achieved, and highly accurate, that is, a repeatability of 5.9% and a reproducibility of 6.6% were established. Screening of a selection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that were prioritized by the European Union and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency showed that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX bioassay has a high predictability, particularly for carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Experiments with synthetic mixtures and reference materials containing complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures show the suitability of the assay for these types of applications. Moreover, the presented results suggest that application of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX will result in a lower risk of underestimation of the toxicity of a sample than chemical analytical approaches that focus on a limited set of prioritized compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24198716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24198716"><span>Global time trends in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (EFPAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EFPAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EFPAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EFPAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EFPAH and subsequently <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16294863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16294863"><span>Abundance, composition, and vertical transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marsh sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Helen K; Xu, Li; Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons continue to persist in Wild Harbor, West Falmouth, MA, following a spill of No. 2 fuel oil in 1969 from the barge Florida. Recent analysis of marsh sediments revealed that residues of degraded oil are present with concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons as high as approximately 9 mg g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) constitute only a minor fraction of these residues with maximum concentrations of 134 mirog g(-1), but their fate is of interest because of their potential toxicity to organisms. As compared to typical unweathered No. 2 fuel oil, the current distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediments reflects substantial weathering by abiotic and biotic processes, specifically a preferential loss of naphthalenes relative to phenanthrenes, as well as isomer-specific biodegradation of alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Based on comparison to results from an earlier study, it appears that little or no change has occurred to the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> since 1989, indicating that weathering at this site has stalled or is now proceeding at a significantly slower rate. To assess whether sediment-water partitioning and molecular diffusion in the interstitial medium are now the dominant processes controlling the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, downcore profiles were compared to a numerical model. While in some cases the model accurately reproduced the measured data, there were instances where the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was slightly under or overestimated. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and are likely due to bioturbation, colloid-facilitated transport, or both. Assessment of the influence of these processes on the spilled oil expands our understanding of the overall fate of these compounds and their potential long-term effects on the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013795','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013795"><span>Recent Progress in DIB Research: Survey of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> and DIBS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The spectra of several neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars [1, 2]. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of various sizes and charge states in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the optical range open the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17689010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17689010"><span>Remediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediments by chemical oxidation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrarese, Elisa; Andreottola, Gianni; Oprea, Irina Aura</p> <p>2008-03-21</p> <p>The aim of this experimental investigation was to assess the feasibility of using chemical oxidation to degrade sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in case of old date sediment contamination. For this purpose several bench scale laboratory tests were performed, with the following liquid reactants: hydrogen peroxide, modified Fenton's reagent, activated sodium persulfate, potassium permanganate, as well as a combination of potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide, and a combination of activated sodium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The main target of the study was to find out what liquid oxidant was more effective in reducing the pollutant content and to assess the optimal reactant doses. The initial total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in sediment samples was about 2800mg/kgSS (light <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> about 1600mg/kgSS, heavy <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> about 1200mg/kgSS) and a 95% degradation was required to meet the remediation goals. Based on the results of this study, chemical oxidation proved to be an effective remediation technology, amenably applicable for the ex situ remediation of the sediments of concern. Different reactants resulted however in different removal efficiencies. The best remediation performances were achieved with the use of modified Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate, with oxidant dosages about 100mmols per 30g sediment sample. In all these cases the residual heavy <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in the treated samples was below 100mg/kgSS. The optimal oxidant dosages determined in this study were quite high, as sorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mineralization requires very vigorous oxidation conditions, especially for soils and sediments with high organic matter content. The results indicated that the optimal oxidant dose must be carefully determined under site-specific conditions. In fact, if the oxidation conditions are not strong enough, the reactants cannot be able to attack the most recalcitrant compounds, while also too high oxidant doses can result in a decrease in the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247292"><span>Phototransformation rate constants of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> associated with soot particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M; Anastasio, Cort</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Photodegradation is a key process governing the residence time and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in particles, both in the atmosphere and after deposition. We have measured photodegradation rate constants of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in bulk deposits of soot particles illuminated with simulated sunlight. The photodegradation rate constants at the surface (k(p)(0)), the effective diffusion coefficients (D(eff)), and the light penetration depths (z(0.5)) for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on soot layers of variable thickness were determined by fitting experimental data with a model of coupled photolysis and diffusion. The overall disappearance rates of irradiated low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (with 2-3 rings) on soot particles were influenced by fast photodegradation and fast diffusion kinetics, while those of high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (with 4 or more rings) were apparently controlled by either the combination of slow photodegradation and slow diffusion kinetics or by very slow diffusion kinetics alone. The value of z(0.5) is more sensitive to the soot layer thickness than the k(p)(0) value. As the thickness of the soot layer increases, the z(0.5) values increase, but the k(p)(0) values are almost constant. The effective diffusion coefficients calculated from dark experiments are generally higher than those from the model fitting method for illumination experiments. Due to the correlation between k(p)(0) and z(0.5) in thinner layers, D(eff) should be estimated by an independent method for better accuracy. Despite some limitations of the model used in this study, the fitted parameters were useful for describing empirical results of photodegradation of soot-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816389','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816389"><span>Global time trends in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (EFPAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EFPAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EFPAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EFPAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EFPAH and subsequently <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030. PMID:24198716</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37496','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37496"><span>Physical model for the photo-induced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Greenburg, B.M.; Krylov, S.N.; Huang, H.D.; Dixon, D.G.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>A model for photo-induced toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to duckweed was developed. Growth inhibition was described by photochemical reactions between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and a hypothetical group of biomolecules (given the notation G) which are required for growth of the plants. Light activation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was considered in a two compartment system (water and leaves). The reaction scheme includes: photooxidation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, partitioning of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into leaves, triplet formation of intact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, photosensitization reactions that consume G, and reaction between photooxidized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and G. The assumptions used in the model are: the rate of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> photooxidation is slower than the rate of assimilation, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content in solution is approximately constant over the length of the toxicity test, the fluence rate of actinic radiation is lower in the leaves than in solution, the toxicity of intact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with G in the absence of light is negligible, and the reaction of photooxidized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with G does not require light. The authors then analyzed a series of differential equations that described toxicity. The result was an expression for growth inhibition as a function of the initial concentration of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, the spectral distribution of the light source, the absorption spectrum of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, the quantum yield for formation of triplet state <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and the rate of photo-oxidation of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. The expression also includes two complex constants that can be solved by a least squares analysis of the empirical data for growth inhibition. Thus, the model allows a prediction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> photo-induced toxicity using only physical parameters of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16749696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16749696"><span>Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pollution at a motorway site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnsen, Anders R; De Lipthay, Julia R; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Sørensen, Søren J; Andersen, Ole; Christensen, Peter; Binderup, Mona-lise; Jacobsen, Carsten S</p> <p>2006-05-15</p> <p>Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, amounts of bioaccessible <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, total bacterial populations, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of 14C-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and mutagenicity. Elevated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled at greater distances (12-24 m) contained only background levels of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The total bacterial populations (CFU and numbers of 16S rDNA genes) were similar for all soil samples, whereas the microbial degrader populations (culturable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders and numbers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dioxygenase genes) were most abundant in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot particles. The increased <span class="hlt">PAH</span> level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/ 24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/ microsome assay of total extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> activated by liver enzymes. The potential for lighter molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in combination with low bioaccessibility of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is proposed to lead to a likely increase in concentration of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> over time. These residues are, however, likely to be of low biological significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23002611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23002611"><span>[Contamination characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in surface water from Jialing River in Chongqing].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Wen-Liang; Luo, Gu-Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Yi; Du, Xian</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>To understand the composition, sources and contamination characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in surface water from Jialing River in Chongqing, water samples were collected from 8 different sections in August 2009 and the concentrations of the 16 priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were determined using GC-MS. The results indicated that the concentration of Sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the water body ranged from 467.13 to 987.97 ng x L(-1), with an average concentration of 702.91 ng x L(-1). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations in surface waters were positively correlated with the dissolved organic carbon content. The predominant <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the water body were 2-3 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, accounting for 68.90% of Sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The ratios of specific <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> revealed that the main <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> source in Cuntan was the combustion of wood and coal, the origin of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Caotianmen was mostly petrogenic; whereas the main <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> source in other sampling sections of Jialing River in Chongqing was petroleum combustion. Compared with other areas in China, the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination in Jialing River around Chongqing was at a relatively low level, however, the concentrations of BaP in the surface water of 5 sampling sites exceeded the environmental quality standards for surface water in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393797"><span>[Biological monitoring of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure among asphalt workers].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campo, Laura; Calisti, Roberto; Polledri, Elisa; Barretta, Francesco; Stopponi, Roberta; Massacesi, Stefania; Bertazzi, Pieralberto; Fustinoni, Silvia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aim of this work was the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in asphalt workers. Median levels of 1-OHPyr resulted higher in asphalt workers than in controls (184 vs. < 20 ng/L, p < 0.001). The determinants of exposure of 1-OHPyr resulted smoking habit, the number of consecutive days at work and the job task; 1-OHPyr was also associated to urinary creatinine. End of work week 1-OHPyr is suggested as an useful indicator of occupational exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in bitumen fumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/490963','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/490963"><span>Use of alternative growth substrates to enhance <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tittle, P.C.; Liu, Y.T.; Strand, S.E.; Stensel, H.D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Freshwater and saltwater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-degrading enrichments were developed from seed from a manufactured gas plant site and contaminated marine sediment, respectively. Both enrichments were able to maintain specific degradation rates of 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> after growth with salicylate or phthalate, which increased their biomass concentrations by a factor of 9 to 10. Phthalate was a more effective alternative substrate than was salicylate. Specific degradation rates of phenanthrene and anthracene by the freshwater enrichment were increased after growth with phthalate. Growth with phthalate increased the specific degradation rates of phenanthrene and pyrene by the saltwater enrichment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030070','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030070"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in soils and sludges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Liu, L.; Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs biodegradation were evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in soil/water systems, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals on remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration process. Model responses were verified by comparison to measurements of biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in land treatment units; a favorable match was found between them. Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (S RA) reduces to undetectable levels, with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (S IA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (S IA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, little or no <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs will leach from the treatment site and constitutes no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large K d , i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity (K in Monod kinetics, i.e., number of microbes, nutrients, and electron acceptor, etc.) regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142749"><span>Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Me-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, PCBs) in dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases in freshwater systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Net, Sopheak; Ouddane, Baghdad; Merhaby, Dima; Dumoulin, David; Popescu, Tudor; Ravelonandro, Pierre</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The occurrence of three groups of hazardous organic contaminants (PCBs, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Me-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in fifteen watercourses and rivers located in highly urbanized and industrialized zones was studied. The distribution of 62 organic contaminants was determined in three matrices: in the dissolved phase, associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) and in sediment. Their distributions in the aquatic environment depend strongly on their physicochemical properties. Low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were predominant in the dissolved phase while those with high molecular weight accumulated preferentially in SSM and sediments. Among the 28 PCBs congeners, only PCB153 was detected. The results showed that the contamination of these areas originated mainly from combustion processes. The three the most polluted sites identified are surrounded by big cities. Ecotoxicological assessment based on the international Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) showed that the toxic effects of the sediment in these watercourses and rivers occurred due to high levels of hydrocarbons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017klde.book...87B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017klde.book...87B"><span>Hochwasser <span class="hlt">und</span> Sturzfluten an Flüssen in Deutschland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bronstert, Axel; Bormann, Helge; Bürger, Gerd; Haberlandt, Uwe; Hattermann, Fred; Heistermann, Maik; Huang, Shaochun; Kolokotronis, Vassilis; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Menzel, Lucas; Meon, Günter; Merz, Bruno; Meuser, Andreas; Paton, Eva Nora; Petrow, Theresia</p> <p></p> <p>Flusshochwasser werden in lokale <span class="hlt">und</span> plötzliche Sturzfluten <span class="hlt">und</span> in Hochwasser an größeren Flüssen unterschieden. Für verschiedene Hochwasserindikatoren <span class="hlt">und</span> Flusseinzugsgebiete ergeben sich erhebliche Unterschiede, wobei sowohl überwiegend aus Regen als auch überwiegend aus Schmelzwasser gespeiste Hochwasserereignisse betrachtet werden. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit finden Hochwasserereignisse an Rhein, Elbe, Weser <span class="hlt">und</span> Ems sowie die Entwicklung von Sturzfluten infolge von Extremniederschlägen kurzer Dauer, wobei die Beobachtungen <span class="hlt">und</span> Trends zu Modellierungsergebnissen in Beziehung gesetzt werden. Auch die Notwendigkeit von Anpassungsmaßnahmen aufgrund überwiegend positiver Trends wird diskutiert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21143830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21143830"><span>Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo</p> <p>2010-12-03</p> <p>Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104716&keyword=NITRATE+AND+DEGRADATION+AND+WATER&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104716&keyword=NITRATE+AND+DEGRADATION+AND+WATER&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT-BOUND <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has been reported to occur under aerobic, sulfate reducing, and denitrifying conditions. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in contaminated sites, however, are known for their persistence. Most published studies were conducted in systems wh...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76647&keyword=UV+AND+photo&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78821947&CFTOKEN=43024025','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76647&keyword=UV+AND+photo&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78821947&CFTOKEN=43024025"><span>ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR PHOTO-ACTIVATED TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants introduced through combustion processes and from release of petroleum and petroleum products. Assessing the ecological risk from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is complicated by several factors, including their occurrence a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24775063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24775063"><span>Increased zooplankton <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16004327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16004327"><span>[Influences of surfactant on the transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in artificially contaminated soil columns].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jing; Wang, Xue-jun; Hu, Jun-dong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The effect of anionic surfactant LAS on leaching of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from artificially contaminated soil was studied. The interaction of these processes were studied in a two-layer column experiment with a base layer of uncontaminated soil(9cm) and a top layer of artificially contaminated soil(1cm). Results show that 5 critical micelle concentration (CMC) LAS enhanced the transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The breakthrough curves of low ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> followed the normal distribution and the relative leaching ratios of 4 or more rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were low, and not more than 10%. The transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was retarded compared with LAS, and the high ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were retarded more significantly. Linear correlation was observed between the relative leachability of the individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the octanol/water coefficient of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=88300&keyword=genetic+AND+molecular+AND+techniques&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78853119&CFTOKEN=44959609','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=88300&keyword=genetic+AND+molecular+AND+techniques&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78853119&CFTOKEN=44959609"><span>A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85612&keyword=vaporization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78806798&CFTOKEN=20028819','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85612&keyword=vaporization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78806798&CFTOKEN=20028819"><span>ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039289','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039289"><span>Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. It was reported recently that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003asdu.confE.157G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003asdu.confE.157G"><span>Optical Spectroscopy of Radiation Processed Cosmic Ices & <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-doped Water-rich Ices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.</p> <p></p> <p>Water-rich, mixed molecular ices and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are common throughout interstellar molecular clouds and the Solar System. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and particle bombardment of these abiotic ices produces complex organic species, including important biogenic molecules such as amino acids and functionalized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This ability of such water-rich, oxygen-dominated ices to promote production of complex organic species is important. We will present studies on cosmic ices that include <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-impurities upon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation using electronic spectroscopy. VUV-irradiation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> / H2O ices leads to efficient conversion of the neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to their cation form (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>+). Further, these H2O / <span class="hlt">PAH</span>+ ices are stable at temperatures below 50 K, a temperature domain common throughout interstellar clouds and the Solar System. In view of this, we conclude that charged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and other molecular ions should be common and abundant in many cosmic ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85612&keyword=vaporization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85612&keyword=vaporization&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104716&keyword=Triton&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78811513&CFTOKEN=72653620','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104716&keyword=Triton&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78811513&CFTOKEN=72653620"><span>BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT-BOUND <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has been reported to occur under aerobic, sulfate reducing, and denitrifying conditions. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in contaminated sites, however, are known for their persistence. Most published studies were conducted in systems wh...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=88300&keyword=genetic+AND+research+AND+cost&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=88300&keyword=genetic+AND+research+AND+cost&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981104"><span>Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Nansha mangrove, South China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by measuring the concentrations of 28 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was low without obvious spatial variation. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration along the depth gradient indicated that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013021"><span>A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their human health effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Kabir, Ehsanul; Brown, Richard J C</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ambient air is an increasing concern because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Although emissions and allowable concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in air are now regulated, the health risk posed by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure suggests a continuing need for their control through air quality management. In light of the environmental significance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure, this review offers an overview of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties, fates, transformations, human exposure, and health effects (acute and chronic) associated with their emission to the atmosphere. Biomarkers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and their significance are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239676"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (Σ<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> averaged 59.67% of the Σ<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343286"><span>Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is considered not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pmmt.book..323L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pmmt.book..323L"><span>Topologie <span class="hlt">und</span> Dynamische Netzwerke: Anwendungen Der Optimierung MIT Zukunft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leugering, Günter; Martin, Alexander; Stingl, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Die optimale Auslegung von Infrastrukturen z. B. bei der Verkehrsplanung <span class="hlt">und</span> bei der Planung von Versorgungssystemen, die optimale Strukturierung bzw. Formgebung von Materialien <span class="hlt">und</span> Werkstücken z. B. im Leichtbau sind aktuelle Themen angewandter Forschung. In beiden Bereichen wurde bis in die jüngste Zeit vornehmlich eine simulationsbasierte Optimierung auf der Grundlage einer Parameterjustierung vorgenommen, die oft wenig systematisch <span class="hlt">und</span> zeit- <span class="hlt">und</span> kostenintensiv ist. Stattdessen erweisen sich modellbasierte mathematische Optimierungsalgorithmen zusammen mit moderner numerischer Simulations-<span class="hlt">und</span> Visualisierungstechnologie zunehmend als Katalysator neuer Technologien. Eine so verstandene Mathematische Optimierung kann bereits auf beeindruckende Erfolgsgeschichten verweisen <span class="hlt">und</span> so den Anspruch als eine Zukunftsdisziplin behaupten. Diesem Anspruch trägt die Einrichtung des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1253, Optimierung mit partiellen Differentialgleichungen’ im Jahre 2006 Rechnung, in dem über 25 Projekte im Bundesgebiet sowohl auf die theoretische Fundierung, als auch <span class="hlt">und</span> insbesondere auf die Verzahnung zwischen Methodenentwicklung <span class="hlt">und</span> numerischer Realisierung fokussieren. Forschung im Bereich der mathematischen Optimierung <span class="hlt">und</span> Steuerung von Prozessen bzw. Eigenschaften, die mit Hilfe partieller Differentialgleichungen, so genannten, verteilten Systemen’, beschrieben werden, erfolgt im Kontext konkreter <span class="hlt">und</span> exemplarischer Anwendungssituationen, die neue mathematische Herausforderungen markieren: Sicherheitsvorgaben etwa bei der Belastung von Gas- <span class="hlt">und</span> Frischwasserleitungen oder solche für die Belastbarkeit von Verkehrsflugzeugen führen auf Druckbeschränkungen bzw.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26298851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26298851"><span>Variations of emission characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513044"><span>Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jonsson, Sofia; Persson, Ylva; Frankki, Sofia; van Bavel, Bert; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...516L..41H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999ApJ...516L..41H"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in the 11-14 Micron Region: New Insightsfrom Laboratory Data and a Tracer of Ionized <span class="hlt">PAHS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>The Ames infrared spectral database of isolated, neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) shows that aromatic CH out-of-plane bending frequencies are significantly shifted upon ionization. For solo- and duet-CH groups, the shift is pronounced and consistently toward higher frequencies. The solo-CH modes are blueshifted by an average of 27 cm-1 and the duet-CH modes by an average of 17 cm-1. For trio- and quartet-CH groups, the ionization shifts of the out-of-plane modes are more erratic and typically more modest. As a result of these ionization shifts, the solo-CH out-of-plane modes move out of the region classically associated with these vibrations in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, falling instead at frequencies well above those normally attributed to out-of-plane bending vibrations of any type. In addition, for the compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> studied, the duet-CH out-of-plane modes are shifted into the frequency range traditionally associated with the solo-CH modes. These results refine our understanding of the origin of the dominant interstellar infrared emission feature near 11.2 μm, whose envelope has traditionally been attributed only to the out-of-plane bending of solo-CH groups on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and provide a natural explanation for the puzzling emission feature near 11.0 μm within the framework of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> model. Specifically, the prevalent but variable long-wavelength wing or shoulder that is often observed near 11.4 μm likely reflects the contributions of duet-CH units in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations. Also, these results indicate that the emission between 926 and 904 cm-1 (10.8 and 11.1 μm) observed in many sources can be unambiguously attributed to the out-of-plane wagging of solo-CH units in moderately sized (fewer than 50 carbon atom) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, making this emission an unequivocal tracer of ionized interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4101084','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4101084"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), Nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Hopanes and Steranes Biomarkers in Sediments of Southern Lake Michigan, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metric tons per year (t/yr) of Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56±18%), coal power plants (27±14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16±11%), and coke ovens (7±12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAHs levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for further work</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784742"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments of southern Lake Michigan, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1,291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metrictons per year (t/yr) of Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56 ± 18%), coal power plants (27 ± 14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16 ± 11%), and coke ovens (7 ± 12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAH levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AAS...212.0604C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AAS...212.0604C"><span>The Formation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Case Study on Carbon-rich AGB Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caputo, Daniel P.; Speck, A. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Wesson, R.; Volk, K.; Clayton, G. C.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules have characteristic emission bands that have been observed in many astrophysical environments. However, there is one notable exception: carbon-rich AGB (C) stars. Whereas formation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the circumstellar shells of C stars is expected, only a handful of C stars exhibit the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectral features and all have hot (A or B star) companions. This makes C stars with hot companions an ideal location to investigate the physical conditions associated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> formation. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> absorb single photons and then re-emit the energy in spectral features at characteristic wavelengths where the precise wavelengths and strength ratios of the features depend on the size, composition and charge state of the individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Additionally, the wavelength of photons needed to excite <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> depends on the individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> size and charge state. While small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> undoubtedly need higher energy (UV) photons, it has been suggested that large or ionized <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> (>100; C atoms) can be excited by visible or even near-IR photons. The lack of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from single carbon stars suggests that either <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> do not form around C stars or that only small neutral grains form, which cannot be excited by a C star's cool radiation field. There are two competing formation mechanisms for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> around C stars: (1) "bottom-up” where acetylene molecules (C2H2) react to form aromatic carbon rings, building up to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; or (2) "top-down", where small carbon grains react with H atoms and desorb <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These two scenarios should lead to differences in the spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission features around these stars. We present preliminary results from Gemini/MICHELLE spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of C stars with hot companions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/371991','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/371991"><span>Evaporation and vapor characterization of low-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> binders for Soederberg cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eie, M.; Oeye, H.A.; Soerlie, M.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents in anode pitches as well as in their pitch vapors have been characterized, for both standard anode pitches and the new types of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-reduced cut-back pitches. This data has been compared to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions measured from industrial VS Soederberg cells. A total of 16 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in the pitches, from phenanthrene to dibenzopyrenes, have been analyzed in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZAGeo..40...19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZAGeo..40...19S"><span>Corporate Regional Responsibility - Warum engagieren sich Unternehmen gemeinsam für <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Region?. Motive der kollektiven regionalen Verantwortungsübernahme von Unternehmen an den Beispielen des Initiativkreises Ruhr <span class="hlt">und</span> der Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schiek, Meike</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Companies can voluntarily participate in matters of regional developments, thereby accepting responsibility on a regional level. Referring to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the term Corporate Regional Responsibility (CRR) is used to describe this behavior. Moreover, companies can form a CRR-corporation with other companies in order to take over a collective CRR. So far, the motives of companies for exercising collective CRR are unknown, thus, corporate resources can not be mobilized and utilized efficiently for regional developments. This article explores the subject of collective CRR and illustrates CRR motives using the example of the two CRR-cooperations Initiativkreis Ruhr and Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..474G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..474G"><span>Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garrido, Adrián; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ratola, Nuno</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in climate can affect the concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by altering the dispersion (wind speed, mixing layer height, convective fronts), deposition by precipitation, dry deposition, photochemistry, natural emissions and background concentrations. This means the evolution trends of these pollutants have to be studied under a multi-scale perspective, allowing the establishment of transport patterns and distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In this sense, this work tries to unveil the atmospheric behaviour of these pollutants using temporal data series collected in different stations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. These sites are thought to avoid the direct influence of emitting areas (background stations), allowing the study of long-range transport effects, intra- and trans-annual variability, relationships between concentrations patterns and meteorological variables and latitudinal gradients of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in Europe. Overall, a typical high concentration pattern was found for the colder months (and an opposite behaviour is found for summertime). Negative trends were detected over high latitudes, for instance, in Svalbard (Norway), whereas for the United Kingdom the pattern is the inverse. Also, negative latitudinal gradients were observed in 4 of the 15 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> studied. Finally, air quality parameters revealed concern over human health issues, given the recent increase of BaP levels in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005626','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005626"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecules and heating of the interstellar gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verstraete, Laurent; Leger, Alain; Dhendecourt, Louis B.; Dutuit, O.; Defourneau, D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Until now it has remained difficult to account for the rather high temperatures seen in many diffuse interstellar clouds. Various heating mechanisms have been considered: photoionization of minor species, ionization of H by cosmic rays, and photoelectric effect on small grains. Yet all these processes are either too weak or efficient under too restricting conditions to balance the observed cooling rates. A major heat source is thus still missing in the thermal balance of the diffuse gas. Using photoionization cross sections measured in the lab, it was shown that in order to balance the observed cooling rates in cold diffuse clouds (T approx. 80 K) the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> would have to contain 15 percent of the cosmic abundance of carbon. This value does not contradict the former estimation of 6 percent deduced from the IR emission bands since this latter is to be taken as a lower limit. Further, it was estimated that the contribution to the heating rate due to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in a warm HI cloud, assuming the same <span class="hlt">PAH</span> abundance as for a cold HI cloud, would represent a significant fraction of the value required to keep the medium in thermal balance. Thus, photoionization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> might well be a major heat source for the cold and warm HI media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714631"><span>Efficiency of butyl rubber sorbent to remove the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> toxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okay, O S; Özdemir, P; Yakan, S D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Large amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been released to the marine environment as a result of oil spills and from other sources including wastewaters, surface runoff, industrial processes, atmospheric deposition, biosynthesis, and natural events such as forest fires. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been known to affect a variety of biological processes and can be potent cell mutagens/carcinogens and toxic. In this study, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> toxicity removal was investigated by using a novel macroporous butyl rubber (BR) sorbent. To find out the toxicity removal efficiency of the sorbents, the toxicity tests with Vibrio fisheri (luminescence bacteria) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (marine algae) were applied to the acenaphthene (Ace) and phenanthrene (Phen) solutions in seawater (Ace: 500- 1000 μg/L; Phen; 100-1000 μg/L) before and after sorbent applications. Additionally, lysosomal stability and filtration rate biomarker techniques were applied to the mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to 1000 μg/L Phen solution and bioaccumulation was measured. The results showed that the toxicity of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solutions decreased 50-100 percent depending on the concentration of the solutions and organisms. Phaeodactylum was found as the most sensitive organism to Phen and Ace. Since the application of BR sorbent removed the Phen from the solution, the bioaccumulated Phen amount in the mussels decreased accordingly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232904&keyword=organization+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89479895&CFTOKEN=76241432','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232904&keyword=organization+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89479895&CFTOKEN=76241432"><span>Human Exposures to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: an Eastern United States Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024567','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024567"><span>Urinary concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and VOC metabolites in marijuana users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OH-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/576277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/576277"><span>Pilot-scale bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pradhan, S.P.; Paterek, J.R.; Liu, B.Y.; Conrad, J.R.; Srivastava, V.J.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) conducted a pilot-scale study at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in New Jersey. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of an innovative chemical/biological treatment process (MGP-REM process) to remediate soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). In order to identify the benefits of the MGP-REM process, the system was also operated in the conventional bioremediation mode. Results showed that the MGP-REM process can effectively treat <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated MGP site soils, and it reduced the toxicity of the soil by a factor of 50, as indicated by the Microtox Toxicity Test. The MGP-REM process was 70% more efficient than conventional bioremediation in the removal of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the soils. Air emissions data suggest that minimal air pollution control and monitoring are required for the slurry-phase application of both the MGP-REM process and the conventional biological treatment. Process economics indicate that the MGP-REM process in a slurry-phase mode has an estimated treatment cost of $100/cubic yard for remediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils. 7 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002LPI....33.1076H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002LPI....33.1076H"><span>Are Biogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Precursors for Fullerenes on Earth?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heymann, D.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>C60 fullerene in shungite and in bitumen from the Bohemian Massif could have formed in situ in two steps: 1. Cyclotrimerization of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> C20H12. 2. Dehydrogenation of C60H30 to C60. The necessary heat was provided during metamorphism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60567&keyword=recommendation+AND+food&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60567&keyword=recommendation+AND+food&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752861"><span>Sequencing batch reactor performance treating <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminated lagoon sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giordano, Andrea; Stante, Loredana; Pirozzi, Francesco; Cesaro, Raffaele; Bortone, Giuseppe</p> <p>2005-03-17</p> <p>The applicability of sediment slurry sequencing batch reactors (SBR) to treat Venice lagoon sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was investigated, carrying out experimental tests. The slurry, obtained mixing tap water and contaminated sediments with 17.1 mg kg(-1) TS total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> content, was loaded to a 8l lab-scale completely stirred reactor, operated as a sequencing batch reactor. Oxygen uptake rate exerted by the slurry, measured by means of a DO-stat titrator, was used to monitor the in-reactor biological activity and to select the optimal operating conditions for the sediment slurry SBR. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal efficiency was evaluated in different operating conditions, obtained changing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the lab-scale reactor and adding an external carbon source to the slurry. HRT values used during the experiments are 98, 70 and 35 days, whereas the carbon source was added in order to evaluate its effect on the biological activity. The results have shown a stable degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with a removal efficiency close to 55%, not dependent on the addition of carbon source and the tested HRTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82487&keyword=Lettuce&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91059108&CFTOKEN=48807241','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82487&keyword=Lettuce&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91059108&CFTOKEN=48807241"><span>LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH <span class="hlt">PAHS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22831802B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AAS...22831802B"><span>Creating a full-sky map of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berkeley, Matthew; Kogut, Alan J.; Chuss, David T.; WISE</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Accurate characterization of foreground components has been a pressing issue in the CMB community for some time. In particular, the Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME), first detected in 1995 and confirmed by WMAP and Planck, has remained mysterious, though the leading hypothesis proposes that this excess emission is due to electric dipole emission from spinning dust grains. The leading candidate for such ‘spinning dust’ is Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have characteristic emission lines in the mid-IR and can be analyzed using archived data from the WISE satellite. We have been working using publicly available data from WISE to create a full-sky map across the four WISE frequency bands: 3.4um, 4.6um, 12um and 22um. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission is brightest in the 12um band; however it is possible to localize this population more accurately by linearly combining the maps across all four frequencies to create a full-sky map tracing the small-grain population of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.We present preliminary results from this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64772&keyword=classroom+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89764378&CFTOKEN=62074768','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64772&keyword=classroom+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89764378&CFTOKEN=62074768"><span>MULTIMEDIA CONCENTRATIONS OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IN SEVERAL DAY CARE CENTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in nine day care centers in the spring of 1997. Indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil were sampled. The mean sums of 20 target <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were 265 and 199 ng...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512045"><span>Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) using rhizosphere technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82487&keyword=chemical+AND+reactors&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82487&keyword=chemical+AND+reactors&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH <span class="hlt">PAHS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60567&keyword=food+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89989636&CFTOKEN=19611851','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60567&keyword=food+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89989636&CFTOKEN=19611851"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26221084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26221084"><span>Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) using rhizosphere technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005625','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005625"><span>Angular motion of a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in interstellar environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rouan, D.; Leger, Alain; Omont, A.; Giard, Martin</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules have recently been proposed as an important and hitherto undetected component of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). The theory was based on an explanation of the Unidentified IR Emission Bands by Leger et al. It has already led to a verified prediction on extended galactic and extragalactic emissions measured by IRAS, or by a recent balloon borne experiment. The physics that rules the motion of such molecules in the ISM was studied, taking into account their coupling with the ambient gas, the radiation field (absorption and emission) and the static magnetic field. This is important for many implications of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> theory such as the radio emission by these molecules or the expected polarization of their IR emission. A reflection nebulae is considered where the situation is rather well known. Every day life of a mean <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in such a region is as follows: every 3 hrs a UV photon is absorbed heating the molecule to a thousand degs; the temperature decay due to cooling by IR emission follows then within a few seconds. A collision with a molecule of gas occurs typically once a week, while an H atom is ejected or captured at the same rate. A typical cooling cycle after a heat impulse is given. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules studied as representative of the family has typically 50 atoms, a radius of 4.5 A, is circular and has a molecular mass of M = 300; its permanent dipole moment is 3 Debye.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232904&keyword=activities+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232904&keyword=activities+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Human Exposures to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: an Eastern United States Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...23020201J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AAS...23020201J"><span>Cosmic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: from infrared astronomy to laboratory astrophysics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joblin, Christine</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Astronomers consider polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to be the smallest dust particles and they use their infrared emission features, the aromatic infrared bands (AIBs), as a diagnostic of physical conditions in regions of star formation from the small scales of protoplanetary disks to the large scales of galaxies. This topic has to face several obstacles. One is the lack of identification of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species. Another one is that the AIB features carry not only information on the chemical diversity of species but also on photophysical processes involved in the relaxation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> after having been energized by the absorption of UV photons from stars. In this presentation, I will discuss how we can progress in the analysis of the observed AIB spectrum by addressing both the photophysics of isolated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the formation and evolution of these molecules in cosmic environments. This is achieved by the combination of astronomical models with detailed investigation of molecular processes. The study of these processes has stimulated the development of dedicated laboratory setups and theoretical simulations at the forefront of molecular physics. I will more specifically present the opening given by ERC Synergy project Nanocosmos and the perspectives with the coming James Webb telescope.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007695&hterms=swan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dswan','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007695&hterms=swan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dswan"><span>Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in interplanetary dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007695&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007695&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in interplanetary dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690539','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690539"><span>Urinary concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and VOC metabolites in marijuana users.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P; Blount, Benjamin C</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world's third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Measurements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OH-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p<0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p<0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p<0.001) and acrylamide (p<0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=87754&keyword=biodegradation+AND+hydrocarbons+AND+microbial&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=87754&keyword=biodegradation+AND+hydrocarbons+AND+microbial&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>ASSESSING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT USING XAD-2 ASSISTED DESORPTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the bioremediation of soils/sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) it is imperative to determine the fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that is amenable to remediation. For example, what fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is available to the indigenous microorganisms, i.e. bi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65957&keyword=pet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65957&keyword=pet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>AN OVERVIEW OF PARTITIONING AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Understanding and predicting any adverse effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> depends on generating a reliable measure or estimate of how much <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is available for uptake. Simply knowing the total amount of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in soil, water or sediment is insufficient for determining whether or not these compounds ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22476000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22476000"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Highlights: • <span class="hlt">PAH</span> from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more <span class="hlt">PAH</span> than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the tar. • The mechanism of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more <span class="hlt">PAH</span> than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=87754&keyword=rate+AND+force+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78825661&CFTOKEN=52445535','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=87754&keyword=rate+AND+force+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78825661&CFTOKEN=52445535"><span>ASSESSING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT USING XAD-2 ASSISTED DESORPTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the bioremediation of soils/sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) it is imperative to determine the fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that is amenable to remediation. For example, what fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is available to the indigenous microorganisms, i.e. bi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.1209C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.1209C"><span>Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung</p> <p></p> <p>This work investigated the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Nap was the most predominant water-phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65957&keyword=pet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76142678&CFTOKEN=30652280','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65957&keyword=pet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76142678&CFTOKEN=30652280"><span>AN OVERVIEW OF PARTITIONING AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Understanding and predicting any adverse effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> depends on generating a reliable measure or estimate of how much <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is available for uptake. Simply knowing the total amount of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in soil, water or sediment is insufficient for determining whether or not these compounds ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16182861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16182861"><span>Temporal variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) leaves in an urban area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were due to the medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753331','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753331"><span>Bm<span class="hlt">PAH</span> Catalyzes the Initial Melanin Biosynthetic Step in Bombyx mori</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, Ping; Li, Li; Wang, Jiying; Li, Haiyin; Li, Yan; Lv, Yin; Lu, Cheng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pigmentation during insect development is a primal adaptive requirement. In the silkworm, melanin is the primary component of larval pigments. The rate limiting substrate in melanin synthesis is tyrosine, which is converted from phenylalanine by the rate-limiting enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). While the role of tyrosine, derived from phenylalanine, in the synthesis of fiber proteins has long been known, the role of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in melanin synthesis is still unknown in silkworm. To define the importance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, we cloned the cDNA sequence of Bm<span class="hlt">PAH</span> and expressed its complete coding sequence using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. Purified recombinant protein had high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> activity, some tryptophan hydroxylase activity, but no tyrosine hydroxylase activity, which are typical properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in invertebrates. Because melanin synthesis is most robust during the embryonic stage and larval integument recoloring stage, we injected Bm<span class="hlt">PAH</span> dsRNA into silkworm eggs and observed that decreasing Bm<span class="hlt">PAH</span> mRNA reduced neonatal larval tyrosine and caused insect coloration to fail. In vitro cultures and injection of 4th instar larval integuments with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> inhibitor revealed that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> activity was essential for larval marking coloration. These data show that Bm<span class="hlt">PAH</span> is necessary for melanin synthesis and we propose that conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is the first step in the melanin biosynthetic pathway in the silkworm. PMID:23991017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.8101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.8101K"><span>Mid-infrared Spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in Herbig AeBe Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keller, Luke D.; Sloan, G. C.; Shah, S.; Chitrakar, N.; Forrest, W. J.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Li, A.; Najita, J.; Chen, C. H.; Green, J. D.; Herter, T. F.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Hartman, L.; Houck, J. R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We present spectra for 20 Herbig Ae and Be stars obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. All objects show emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), most very strong. Five of the spectra show strong <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission but no silicate emission at 10 microns. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization fraction is higher for systems in our sample with hotter, brighter central stars. Our sample includes both flared and flattened/settled disk systems, but the overall <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission is not negatively correlated with independent indicators of dust settling or disk flattening. Our objects show a remarkable variety of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> luminosities and ionization fractions, but very similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectral classifications based on positions of major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature centroids. This may indicate that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules are altered by the same physical processes in Ae/Be disks but to varying degrees. It may be that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra indicate very little processing of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules implying that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are relatively new to the scene in Ae/Be disks. Finally, we see no strong correlations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> luminosity with stellar evolutionary stage from system to system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28063713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28063713"><span>Phytoavailability and mechanism of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in filed contaminated soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Yanzheng; Hu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yize; Sun, Bingqing</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the phytoavailability of bound residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soils is essential to assessing their environmental fate and risks. This study investigated the release and plant uptake of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues (reference to parent compounds) in field contaminated soils after the removal of extractable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fractions. Plant pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) to examine the phytoavailablility of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues, and microcosm incubation experiments with and without the addition of artificial root exudates (AREs) or oxalic acid were conducted to examine the effect of root exudates on the release of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> accumulation in the ryegrass after a 50-day growth period indicated that bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues were significantly phytoavailable. The extractable fractions, including the desorbing and non-desorbing fractions, dominated the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in vegetated soils after 50 days, indicating the transfer of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues to the extractable fractions. This transfer was facilitated by root exudates. The addition of AREs and oxalic acid to test soils enhanced the release of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues into their extractable fractions, resulting in enhanced phytoavailability of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in soils. This study provided important information regarding environmental fate and risks of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470.3071J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470.3071J"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> features within few hundred parsecs of active galactic nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jensen, J. J.; Hönig, S. F.; Rakshit, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Asmus, D.; Gandhi, P.; Kishimoto, M.; Smette, A.; Tristram, K. R. W.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Spectral features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules observed in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range are typically used to infer the amount of recent and ongoing star formation on kiloparsec scales around active galactic nuclei (AGN) where more traditional methods fail. This method assumes that the observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> features are excited predominantly by star formation. With current ground-based telescopes and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, much smaller spatial scales can be probed and we aim at testing if this assumption still holds in the range of few tens to few hundreds of parsecs. For that, we spatially map the emitted 11.3 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> surface flux as a function of distance from 0.4-4 arcsec from the centre in 28 nearby AGN using ground-based high-angular-resolution mid-IR spectroscopy. We detect and extract the 11.3 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature in 13 AGN. The fluxes within each aperture are scaled to a luminosity-normalized distance from the nucleus to be able to compare intrinsic spatial scales of AGN radiation spanning about two orders of magnitude in luminosity. For this, we establish an empirical relation between the absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity and the sublimation radius in these sources. Once normalized, the radial profiles of the emitted <span class="hlt">PAH</span> surface flux show similar radial slopes, with a power-law index of approximately -1.1, and similar absolute values, consistent within a factor of a few of each other as expected from the uncertainty in the intrinsic scale estimate. We interpret this as evidence that the profiles are caused by a common compact central physical process, either the AGN itself or circumnuclear star formation linked in strength to the AGN power. A photoionization-based model of an AGN exciting dense clouds in its environment can reproduce the observed radial slope and confirms that the AGN radiation field is strong enough to explain the observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> surface fluxes within ∼10-500 pc of the nucleus. Our results advice caution</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1175W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1175W"><span>Plasma processing of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into solar system kerogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Lee, Wei; Cronin, John; Beegle, Luther W.; Robinson, Michael S.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of im-estigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama Lit Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the. precursor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> naphthalene, a new material having an I R absorption spectrum (Lee. W. and Wdowiak, T. J., Astrophys. J., 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J. R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula. where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21094979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21094979"><span>Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on glass surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Yuan; Posch, Tjorben; Schmidt, Torsten C</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to glass commonly used in laboratories was studied. Sorption coefficients (Kd) of five selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to borosilicate glass surfaces were measured using column chromatography. A linear relationship between log Kd and the corresponding water solubility of the subcooled liquid (log Sw) of the investigated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was observed. Based on the determined sorption coefficients our data revealed that mass loss caused by sorption on glass walls strongly depends on the ratio of solution volume to contacted surface area (V/S). The influence of solution chemistry such as ionic strength, solution pH, presence of cosolvent, and the influence of temperature on the sorption process were investigated. In the presence of ionic strength, sorption coefficients concurrently increased but less than a factor of 2 up to 0.005 M calcium chloride concentration. However, further increasing ionic strength had no influence on Kd. The cosolvent reduced sorption at a concentration of methanol in water above 0.5% (v/v); however, for benzo[a]pyrene even with 10% (v/v) methanol the mass loss would be still higher than 10% (with a V/S ratio less than 0.25). Significant effects of the solution pH and temperature were not observed. These results suggest that van der Waal's forces dominate the sorption process. In the analysis of highly hydrophobic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in aqueous samples, mass loss due to sorption on glass walls should be accounted for in the final result if untreated glass is used. The presented relationship between log Kd and log Sw may help to decide if such a correction is necessary. Furthermore, the frequently used silanization of glass surfaces may not be sufficient to suppress sorption for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089440&hterms=naphthalene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnaphthalene','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089440&hterms=naphthalene&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnaphthalene"><span>Plasma processing of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into solar system kerogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, T. J.; Lee, W.; Cronin, J.; Beegle, L. W.; Robinson, M. S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of investigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the precursor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> naphthalene, a new material having an IR absorption spectrum (Lee, W. and Wdowiak, T.J., Astrophys. J. 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J.R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula, where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11540308"><span>Plasma processing of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into solar system kerogen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, T J; Lee, W; Cronin, J; Beegle, L W; Robinson, M S</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of investigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the precursor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> naphthalene, a new material having an IR absorption spectrum (Lee, W. and Wdowiak, T.J., Astrophys. J. 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J.R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula, where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089440&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089440&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Plasma processing of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into solar system kerogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, T. J.; Lee, W.; Cronin, J.; Beegle, L. W.; Robinson, M. S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of investigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the precursor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> naphthalene, a new material having an IR absorption spectrum (Lee, W. and Wdowiak, T.J., Astrophys. J. 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J.R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula, where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2515Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2515Z"><span>Nitration of particle-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their derivatives (nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with NO 3 radicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Yang, Bo; Gan, Jie; Liu, Changgeng; Shu, Xi; Shu, Jinian</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The heterogeneous reactions of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives (nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) adsorbed on azelaic acid particles with NO 3 radicals are investigated using a flow-tube reactor coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The mono-nitro-, di-nitro-, and poly-nitro-products from successive nitro-substitution reactions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their derivatives are observed in real time with VUV-ATOFMS. 9-Nitroanthracene, anthraquinone, anthrone, 9,10-dinitroanthracene, 2-, 4-, and 9-nitrophenanthrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene, 7-nitrobenzo[ a]anthracene, and benzo[ a]anthracene-7,12-dione are identified by GC/MS analysis of the reaction products of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their derivatives coated on the inner bottom surface of the conical flasks with NO 3 radicals. Other oxygenated products are tentatively assigned. 1-Nitropyrene is the only mono-nitrated product detected in the reaction of surface-bound pyrene with gas-phase NO 3 radicals. This phenomenon is different from what has been observed in previous studies of the gas-phase pyrene nitration, showing that 2-nitropyrene is the sole nitration product. The experimental results may reveal the discrepancies between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nitrations of pyrene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364554','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364554"><span>PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold</p> <p>2015-01-20</p> <p>Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) {sub n} ] for all <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is the dominant photochemical reaction, but <span class="hlt">PAH</span> erosion to smaller <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations are important contributors to the C2 component and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) {sub n} and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799...14C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799...14C"><span>Photochemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmic Water Ice: The Role of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Ionization and Concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, Amanda M.; Ricca, Alessandra; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Bouwman, Jordy; Roser, Joseph; Linnartz, Harold; Bregman, Jonathan; Allamandola, Louis J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H2O, pyrene:H2O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H2O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H2O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H2O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) n ] and quinones [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) n ] for all <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H2O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati & Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is the dominant photochemical reaction, but <span class="hlt">PAH</span> erosion to smaller <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (producing CO2 and H2CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations are important contributors to the C2 component and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) n and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ~2%-4% level relative to H2O. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22699412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22699412"><span>Effects of three different <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on nitrogen-fixing bacterial diversity in mangrove sediment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Sun, Cui-Ci; Peng, Ya-Lan; Deng, Chao</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are of great environmental and human health concerns due to their widespread occurrence, persistence and carcinogenic properties. There is now compelling evidence that the mangrove sediment microbial structure is susceptible to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination. The study aimed to assess the effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community of mangrove sediment. Three types of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, naphthalene (NAP), a two-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span>; fluorene (FLU), a three-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span>; and pyrene (PYR), a four-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span>; were applied at three doses. After 7 and 24 days of incubation, the nitrogen-fixing bacterial population and diversity were evidenced in the nifH gene polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profile. DGGE pattern shows that the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community changed significantly with the types and doses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and the incubation time. As far as single <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is concerned, high concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> has larger impact on the nitrogen-fixing bacteria than low concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Besides, among the three types of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NAP has the greatest short term toxicity; PYR has the strongest long-term impact, whereas FLU has relatively higher long-time effect. Multidimensional scaling analysis and correspondence analysis are two reliable multivariate analysis methods for investigating the relationship between the nitrogen-fixing bacterial community and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination. Investigating the effect of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on the nitrogen-fixing bacterial diversity could yield useful information for understanding the process of biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in mangrove sediment. The present study reveals that nitrogen-fixing bacterial community can be used as an important parameter indicating the impact of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on mangrove sediment ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40674L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40674L"><span>Modeling the Infrared Emission Spectra of Specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Molecules in Interstellar Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Aigen</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 micron emission features ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic objects, are generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules. Although the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis is quite successful in explaining the general pattern of the observed emission spectra, so far there is no actual precise identification of a single specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in interstellar space. Therefore, when modeling the observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission spectra, astronomers usually take an empirical approach by constructing 'astro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>' which do not represent any specific material, but approximate the actual absorption properties of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture in astrophysical regions. We propose a Spitzer Theory Program to study the photoexcitation of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and their ions in interstellar space, taking a statistical-mechanical (instead of thermal) approach. For most of the specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules selected for this research (with a small number of vibrational degrees of freedom), thermal approximation is not valid. Using available laboratory and quantum-chemical data (e.g. vibrational frequencies, UV/visible/IR absorption cross sections), we will calculate the emission spectra of 21 representative specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and their ions, ranging from naphthalene to circumcoronene, illuminated by interstellar radiation fields of a wide range of intensities. This program will create a web-based 'library' of the emission spectra of 21 specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and their ions as a function of starlight intensities. This 'library' will be made publicly available by October 2008 on the internet at http://www.missouri.edu/~lia/. By comparing observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra with model spectra produced by co-adding the emission spectra of different <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules available in this 'library' (with different weights for different species), one will be able to estimate the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass and relative abundances of each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species, using real <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25339526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25339526"><span>Combined use of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and EROD activities in the determination of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pollution by measuring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The chemical analyses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16623741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16623741"><span>Distribution of the Mycobacterium community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) among different size fractions of a long-term <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uyttebroek, Maarten; Breugelmans, Philip; Janssen, Mieke; Wattiau, Pierre; Joffe, Boris; Karlson, Ulrich; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio; Bastiaens, Leen; Ryngaert, Annemie; Hausner, Martina; Springael, Dirk</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Summary Mycobacterium is often isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-contaminated soil as degraders of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In model systems, Mycobacterium shows attachment to the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> substrate source, which is considered to be a particular adaptation to low bioavailability as it results into increased substrate flux to the degraders. To examine whether <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading Mycobacterium in real <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils, in analogy with model systems, are preferentially associated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-enriched soil particles, the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-mineralizing capacity and of Mycobacterium over different fractions of a soil with an aged <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination was investigated. The clay fraction contained the majority of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and showed immediate pyrene- and phenanthrene-mineralizing activity upon addition of (14)C-labelled pyrene or phenanthrene. In contrast, the sand and silt fractions showed a lag time of 15-26 h for phenanthrene and 3-6 days for pyrene mineralization. The maximum pyrene and phenanthrene mineralization rates of the clay fraction expressed per gram fraction were three to six times higher than those of the sand and silt fractions. Most-probable-number (MPN)-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Mycobacterium represented about 10% of the eubacteria in the clay fraction, while this was only about 0.1% in the sand and silt fractions, indicating accumulation of Mycobacterium in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-enriched clay fraction. The Mycobacterium community composition in the clay fraction represented all dominant Mycobacterium populations of the bulk soil and included especially species related to Mycobacterium pyrenivorans, which was also recovered as one of the dominant species in the eubacterial communities of the bulk soil and the clay fraction. Moreover, Mycobacterium could be identified among the major culturable <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading populations in both the bulk soil and the clay fraction. The results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading mycobacteria are mainly associated with the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4532996','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4532996"><span>Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nine nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. PMID:26265155</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265155"><span>Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nine nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...512992L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...512992L"><span>Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nine nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203892"><span>Review of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in food products and their health hazards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bansal, Vasudha; Kim, Ki-Hyun</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Public concern over the deleterious effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has grown rapidly due to recognition of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The aim of this review is to describe the status of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution among different food types, the route of dietary intake, measures for its reduction, and legislative approaches to control <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. To this end, a comprehensive review is outlined to evaluate the status of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in many important food categories along with dietary recommendations. Our discussion is also extended to describe preventive measures to reduce <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in food products to help reduce the risks associated with human intake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398020','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26398020"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents in road dust on principal roads collected nationwide in Japan and their influential factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ozaki, Noriatsu; Akagi, Yuma; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Fifty-four road dust samples were collected from principal roads (n = 37) and residential roads (n = 17) nationwide in Japan from March 2010 to November 2012. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and ignition loss (IL) were determined. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents ranged from 62 to 6,325 ng g(-1) with a geometric mean of 484 ng g(-1). The IL ranged from 0.8 to 17% with a mean of 6%. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents were correlated with the IL contents, and the IL contents were dependent on the population density. From the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pattern analysis, the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from road dust are considered to be mainly from diesel emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698810"><span>Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exon 11 is vulnerable: molecular pathology of mutations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Demirkol, Mübeccel; Blau, Nenad; Andresen, Brage Storstein</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11 as a vulnerable exon and used patient derived lymphoblast cell lines and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> minigenes to study the molecular defect that impacted pre-mRNA processing. We showed that the c.1144T>C and c.1066-3C>T mutations cause exon 11 skipping, while the c.1139C>T mutation is neutral or slightly beneficial. The c.1144T>C mutation resides in a putative splicing enhancer motif and binding by splicing factors SF2/ASF, SRp20 and SRp40 is disturbed. Additional mutations in potential splicing factor binding sites contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis of mutations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11. We suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11 is vulnerable due to a weak 3' splice site and that this makes exon 11 inclusion dependent on an ESE spanning position c.1144. Importantly, this implies that other mutations in exon 11 may affect splicing, since splicing is often determined by a fine balance between several positive and negative splicing regulatory elements distributed throughout the exon. Finally, we identified a pseudoexon in intron 11, which would have pathogenic consequences if activated by mutations or improved splicing conditions. Exonic mutations that disrupt splicing are unlikely to facilitate response to BH(4) and may lead to inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlations. Therefore, recognizing such mutations enhances our ability to predict the BH(4)-response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24902389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24902389"><span><span class="hlt">Unde</span> venis? Amebiasis presenting as appendicitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, Dennis A; Wilson, Gerald A; Bryan, Charles S</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A returning traveler presenting with fever accompanied by abdominal "pressure" and pain proved to have amebic appendicitis, amebic liver abscess, and probable recent amebic dysentery--a rare combination of findings amply illustrating the value of asking "<span class="hlt">Unde</span> venis--from where do you come?"</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27137192"><span>Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) of southern Taiwan in relation to monsoons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jing-O; Ko, Fung-Chi; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were intensively measured in the Hengchun Peninsula of southern Taiwan. The concentrations of total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (Σ38<span class="hlt">PAH</span>), including gas and particle phases, ranged from 0.85 to 4.40 ng m(-3). No significant differences in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and patterns were found between the samples taken at day and at night. The gas phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were constant year-round, but the highest levels of particle-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were found during the northeast monsoon season. Long-range transport and rainfall scavenging mechanisms contributed to the elevated levels in aerosols andΣ38<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. Results from principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the major sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in this study were vehicular emissions. The back trajectories demonstrated that air mass movement driven by the monsoon system was the main influence on atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span> profiles and concentrations in the rural region of southern Taiwan. Gas-particle partition coefficients (K p ) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were well-correlated with sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (P (o) L ) and demonstrated significant seasonal variation between the northeast (NE) and the southwest (SW) monsoon seasons. This study sheds light on the role of Asian monsoons regarding the atmospheric transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939208"><span>Evergreen or deciduous trees for capturing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from ambient air? A case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nicola, Flavia; Concha Graña, Estefanía; López Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada Rodríguez, Darío; Retuerto, Rubén; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R; Fernández, J Ángel</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tree canopies play a key role in the cycling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in terrestrial ecosystems, as leaves can capture <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the air. In this study, accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was compared in an evergreen species, P. pinaster, and in a deciduous species, Q. robur, in relation to some physio-morphological characteristics. For this purpose, pine needles and oak leaves collected from different sites across Galicia (NW Spain) were analysed to determine <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents, specific leaf area, stomatal density and conductance. Leaves and needles contained similar total amounts of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The major contribution of particle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in oak (the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were two times higher, and those of 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> five times higher in oak than in pine) may be related to the higher specific leaf area (13 and 4 cm(2) g(-1) dry mass in respectively oak and pine). However, the major contribution of vapor-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in pines may be affected by the stomatal conductance (two times higher in pine than in oak). Moreover, an increase in the diameter at breast height of trees led to an increase in accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with pine capturing higher amounts of low and medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The study findings underline the potential role of trees in improving air quality, taking into account the canopy biomass and life cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838201"><span>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in food is the fraction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273905"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) pollutants in groundwater from coal gangue stack area: characteristics and origin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, X W; Zhong, N N; Hu, D M; Liu, Z Z; Zhang, Z H</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the leachate from the gangue and 20 groundwater samples, which were collected from the 12th Coal Mine around gangue piles in Henan Province, China, were determined by SPE-GC-MS. The characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollutants in groundwater were investigated, and compared with the concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the leachate from different weathered gangues to discuss the pollution effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from coal gangue on groundwater. The results showed that total concentrations of the 16 EPA preferentially controlled <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 146.9 ng/L to 1220.6 ng/L.The components of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b + k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]-pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were fairly high. The 2-4 rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and chrysene were dominant in groundwater, which was similar to those of the leachate from the different weathered gangues. Therefore, it should be paid much more attention on the transport of lower ring numbered <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> leached by rains from the coal mines after landfilling and dumping. Based on the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 2-4 rings in groundwater and leaching samples, there might be other pollution sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except for penetration from coal gangue into groundwater in the Pingdingshan coal mine area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ChJOL..22..136Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ChJOL..22..136Z"><span>Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in marine environment of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J.; Shouming, O.; Zheng, Jianhua</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that have raised considerable environmental concern. The highest concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the coastal sediment samples in China was 5.8 11.0μg/g (dry weight) in the core from the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The second highest concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was 4.42μg/g (dry weight) in surface sediment of Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, and 5.73μg/g (dry weight) in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao City. The low concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were always in the sediments far away from industrial zones and cities, and ranged from 0.10 to 0.30μg/g (dry weight). Several environmental parameters are considered for the identification of sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marine environment. High proportion of naphthalene, low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, plus high ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene (>15) and low ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene (<1) suggested a petrogenic source. According to these parameters, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary of Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao City, Zhujiang (Pearl) River mouth, Jiulong River mouth and most of Hong Kong coastal waters were heavily contaminated by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from petrogenic sources. However, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rural coastal areas were dominated by pyrolytic origin <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This review clearly showed that oil pollution and incomplete combustion of oil, coal and biomass are the main reason for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> anormalies in the study areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865172','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25865172"><span>Distribution, partition and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during coking wastewater treatment processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; An, Guanfeng</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In this study, we report the performance of a full-scale conventional activated sludge (A-O1-O2) treatment in eliminating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). Both aqueous and solid phases along with the coking wastewater treatment processes were analyzed for the presence of 18 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. It was found that the target compounds occurred widely in raw coking wastewater, treated effluent and sludge samples. In the coking wastewater treatment system, 4-5 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the dominant compounds, while 4 rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> predominated in the sludge samples. Over 98% of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal was achieved in the coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), with the total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> being 21.3 ± 1.9 μg L(-1) in the final effluent. During the coking wastewater treatment processes, the association of the lower molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with suspended solids was generally less than 60%, while the association of higher molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was greater than 90%. High distribution efficiencies (Kdp and Kds) were found, suggesting that adsorption was the potential removal pathway of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Finally, the mass balances of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in various stages of the coking WWTP were obtained, and the results indicated that adsorption to sludge was the main removal pathway for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the coking wastewater treatment processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17055641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17055641"><span>Activated carbon adsorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun</p> <p>2007-05-08</p> <p>Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27585277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27585277"><span>Watershed-scale modeling on the fate and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ligaray, Mayzonee; Baek, Sang Soo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Cho, Kyung Hwa</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are potentially carcinogenic substances that are persistent in the environment. Increasing concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were observed due to rapid urbanization, thus; monitoring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations is necessary. However, it is expensive to conduct intensive monitoring activities of a large number of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This study addressed this issue by developing a multimedia model coupled with a hydrological model (i.e., Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)) for Taehwa River (TR) watershed in Ulsan, the industrial capital of South Korea. The hydrologic module of the SWAT was calibrated, and further used to simulate the fate and transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and waterbody. The model demonstrated that the temporal or seasonal variation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and waterbody can be well reproduced. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed that urban areas in TR watershed have the highest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loadings compared to rural areas. Sensitivity analyses of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> soil and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> water parameters were also able to determine the critical processes in TR watershed: degradation, deposition, volatilization, and wash off mechanism. We hope that this model will be able to aid the stakeholders in: regulating <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations emitted by various sources; and also apply the model to other Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18068208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18068208"><span>The influence of Sarcocornia fruticosa on retention of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in salt marsh sediments (Sado estuary, Portugal).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martins, Marta; Ferreira, Ana Maria; Vale, Carlos</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Depth concentration profiles of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, organic carbon and dissolved oxygen in non-colonised sediments and sediments colonised by Sarcocornia fruticosa from Mitrena salt marsh (Sado, Portugal) were determined in November 2004 and April 2005. Belowground biomass and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in below and aboveground material were also determined. In both periods, colonised sediments were oxygenated until 15-cm, rich in organic carbon (max 4.4%) and presented much higher <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (max. 7.1 microg g(-1)) than non-colonised sediments (max. 0.55 microg g(-1)). Rooting sediments contained the highest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. The five- and six-ring compounds accounted to 50-75% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in colonised sediments, while only to 30% in non-colonised sediments. The elevated concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in colonised sediments may be attributed to the transfer of dissolved <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds towards the roots as plant uptake water and subsequent sequestration onto organically rich particles. A phase-partitioning mechanism probably explains the higher retention of the heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In addition oxygenated conditions of the rooting sediments favour the degradation of the lighter <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and explain the elevated proportion of the heavier compounds. Below and aboveground materials presented lower <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (0.18-0.38 microg g(-1)) than colonised sediments. Only 3- and 4-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were quantified in aboveground material, reflecting either preferential translocation of lighter compounds from roots or atmospheric deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6200964','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6200964"><span>Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wild, S.R.; Jones, K.C. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Sewage sludge containing typical indigenous concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was applied to several different soils in glass microcosms. Biologically active and sterilized soils were monitored for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content over a period of approximately 205 d. Agricultural soils with and without previous exposure to sewage sludge were tested, together with a forest soil and a soil from a major roadside. Loss of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from a soil spike with a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> standard solution was also investigated. Results indicate the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds with less than four benzene rings are susceptible to abiotic loss processes. However, losses by these mechanisms were insignificant for compounds with four or more benzene rings. Half-lives for the sludge-applied <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were derived and indicated a strong dependence of persistence on chemical structure. Half-lives for phenanthrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were between 83 and 193 d and 282 and 535 d, respectively. Mean half-lives correlate directly with log K[sub ow] and inversely with log water solubility. Behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was different in each soil, probably due to different soil characteristics and history of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. The soil spiked with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> provided the lowest half-life values for most <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds, suggesting a higher susceptibility of spiked <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to both abiotic and biological degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658619"><span>Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karaca, Gizem</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ∑7 carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the ∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> consisting of 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds. The ∑12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22720565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22720565"><span>[Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Pahs</span> pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184195&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184195&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Semi-Empirical Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> features.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673601','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673601"><span>The Occurrence of 16 EPA <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Food – A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Occurrence and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been extensively studied in countries all over the world. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> generally occur in complex mixtures which may consist of hundreds of compounds. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed in the 1970 to monitor a set of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> which are frequently found in environmental samples. This article reviews the suitability of the 16 EPA <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for the assessment of potential health threats to humans stemming from the exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by food ingestion. It presents details on analysis methods, the occurrence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in food, regulatory aspects, and related risk management approaches. In addition, consideration is given to newer evaluations of the toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the requirements for risk assessment and management stemming from them. PMID:26681897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21822516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21822516"><span>Behaviour of different lichen species as biomonitors of air pollution by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in natural ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; López, Patricia; Nerín, Cristina</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Six different species of lichens (Parmelia sulcata Tayl., Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., Ramalina farinacea, Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf., Usnea sp. and Lobaria pulmonaria (Schreb.) Hoffm.) were collected in two mountain valleys in Central Pyrenees: the Aspe and Aragon valleys. Two multivariate techniques have been applied with different purposes, ANOVA and Discriminant Analysis (DA), to evaluate the data. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> spatial distribution was studied in the three more abundant and widespread species in the area: P. sulcata, E. prunastri (L.) Ach. and R. farinacea in terms of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> related to the combustion processes and toxicity. Different behaviour of each lichen species to trap <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was found, being P. sulcata the best one to monitor the most persistent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of pyrogenic origin and E. prunastri the most appropriate to provide information about pyrogenic and petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Traffic was the most relevant influence in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bioaccumulation in lichen species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25805371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25805371"><span>Ecotoxicological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban soil of Isfahan metropolis, Iran.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Khabazi, S; Lahijanzadeh, A; Kermani, M</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Concentration, distribution, probable sources, and health risks of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were investigated in 52 soil samples collected within a radius 50 km from Isfahan metropolis center. Total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 57.70 to 11,730.08 μg/kg averaging 2,000.56 μg/kg. Spatial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> profiles were site-specific and higher concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was observed in the vicinity of industrial zones within Isfahan metropolis. The molecular indices, ring classes, and principal component analysis indicated that the sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were both geogenic and pyrogenic. The incremental lifetime cancer risks of exposure to soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for adults and children living in the study area were 2.3×10(-2) and 2.2×10(-3), respectively. The results suggest that current <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels in Isfahan metropolis soil are highly carcinogenic and may hold a serious health risk for local resident.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16763739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16763739"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination in bank sediment of the Yamuna river, Delhi, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agarwal, Tripti; Khillare, P S; Shridhar, Vijay</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>This study was performed to elucidate the distribution, concentration trend and possible sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in bank sediment of river Yamuna in Delhi, India. The levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were analyzed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in the sediment fraction < 53 microm. Reference standards and internal standards were used for identification and quantification of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by HPLC. The sum of 16 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds ranged from 4.50 to 23.53 microg/g with a mean concentration of 10.15 +/- 4.32 microg/g (dry wt.). Among 5 sites studied, the site, Income Tax Office (ITO) was found to be the hotspot attaining highest concentration. Predominance of 2-4 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> suggests a relatively recent local sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the study area. Moreover, molecular indices based source apportionment also illustrates pyrogenic source fingerprint of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. No significant temporal trend was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184195&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184195&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Semi-Empirical Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337031"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal from spiked municipal wastewater sewage sludge using biological, chemical and electrochemical treatments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xue-Jing; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Bergeron, Mario; Drogui, Patrick</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been widely studied due to their presence in all the environmental media and toxicity to life. These molecules are strongly adsorbed on the particulate matters of soils, sludges or sediments because of their strong hydrophobicity which makes them less bioavailability, thus limiting their bioremediation. Different sludge treatment processes were tested to evaluate their performances for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal from sludge prealably doped with 11 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (5.5mg each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> kg(-1) of dry matter (DM)): two biological processes (mesophilic aerobic digestion (MAD) and simultaneous sewage sludge digestion and metal leaching (METIX-BS)) were tested to evaluate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in sewage sludge. In parallel, two chemical processes (quite similar Fenton processes: chemical metal leaching (METIX-AC) and chemical stabilization (STABIOX)) and one electrochemical process (electrochemical stabilization (ELECSTAB)) were tested to measure <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal by these oxidative processes. Moreover, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solubilisation from sludge by addition of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (Tw80) was also tested. The best yields of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal were obtained by MAD and METIX-BS with more than 95% 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal after a 21-day treatment period. Tw80 addition during MAD treatment increased 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal rate. In addition, more than 45% of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were removed from sludge by METIX-AC and during ELECSTAB process were quiet good with approximately 62% of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal. However, little weaker removal of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (<35%) by STABIOX. None of the tested processes were efficient for the elimination of high molecular weight (> or = 5-ring) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sludge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3590140','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3590140"><span>Ca2+ Promoted the Low Transformation Efficiency of Plasmid DNA Exposed to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Yanzheng; Long, Jian; Wang, Qian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and to determine the role of Ca2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72–3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg·L–1. The addition of Ca2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Based on the co-sorption of Ca2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the mechanisms involved in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Added Ca2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with “–POO––” groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on DNA transfer in natural environments. PMID:23484001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871345"><span>Significance of Indirect Deposition on Wintertime <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Concentrations in an Urban Northern California Creek</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Abstract To investigate the main inputs and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) into surface water, stream and precipitation samples were collected along an urban tributary to the Sacramento River, California. Dissolved, particulate, and colloid-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were monitored four times between October 2004 and March 2005. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranged from 192 to 3784 ng/L in surface water and from 77 to 236 ng/L in precipitation. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene were the most abundant compounds in both rain and surface water. Surface water had truly dissolved <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations between 18 and 48 ng/L and precipitation had similar values (15–66 ng/L). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> larger than four rings were seldom found in the dissolved phase. Colloid-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accounted for 4–25% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rain, while they contributed only 0.1–6% to the total surface water <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Indirect deposition (i.e., washoff of atmospheric particles previously deposited to land) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into surface water is likely a more significant input pathway for total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> than direct dry or wet deposition during the wet season in California's Mediterranean climate. During the sampling period, there was not an obvious seasonal variation in dissolved <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations of surface water despite an enormous wintertime increase in the total aqueous concentrations. Particulate matter carried by stormwater runoff was the major source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in surface water in the early rainy season; this material likely represents a combination of indirect atmospheric inputs and other non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs (e.g., oil leaks and spills). Selected <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios indicate that observed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rainwater came from pyrogenic sources and those in surface water had more complicated and variable origins. PMID:20485462</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4803068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4803068"><span>Developmental exposure to a complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DR, Brown; JM, Bailey; AN, Oliveri; ED, Levin; RT, Di Giulio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure in both naive killifish and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24 hours post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3 months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naïve killifish. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548404"><span>Developmental exposure to a complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure in both naive killifish and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487302','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12487302"><span>Comparing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> availability from manufactured gas plant soils and sediments with chemical and biological tests. 1. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> release during water desorption and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hawthorne, Steven B; Poppendieck, Dustin G; Grabanski, Carol B; Loehr, Raymond C</p> <p>2002-11-15</p> <p>Soil and sediment samples from oil gas (OG) and coal gas (CG) manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were selected to represent a range of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (150-40,000 mg/kg) and sample matrix compositions. Samples varied from vegetated soils to lampblack soot and had carbon contents from 3 to 87 wt %. SFE desorption (120 min) and water/XAD2 desorption (120 days) curves were determined and fit with a simple two-site model to determine the rapid-released fraction (F) for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranging from naphthalene to benzo[ghi]perylene. F values varied greatly among the samples, from ca. 10% to >90% for the two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and from <1% to ca. 50% for the five- and six-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Release rates did not correlate with sample matrix characteristics including <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, elemental composition (C, H, N, S), or "hard" and "softs" organic carbon, indicating that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> release cannot easily be estimated on the basis of sample matrix composition. Fvalues for CG site samples obtained with SFE and water desorption agreed well (linear correlation coefficient, r2 = 0.87, slope = 0.93), but SFE yielded higher F values for the OG samples. These behaviors were attributed to the stronger ability of carbon dioxide than water to desorb <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the highly aromatic (hard) carbon of the OG matrixes, while carbon dioxide and water showed similar abilities to desorb <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the more polar (soft) carbon of the CG samples. The combined SFE and water desorption approaches should improve the understanding of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sequestration and release from contaminated soils and sediments and provide the basis for subsequent studies using the same samples to compare <span class="hlt">PAH</span> release with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> availability to earthworms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113985D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113985D"><span>Distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are persistent organic pollutants, which can be transferred to a long distance and tend to accumulation in marine sediment. However, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> distribution and natural bioattenuation is less known in open sea, especially in the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS, we found that the concentrations of 16 EPA-priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight in total and decreased with sediment depths and as well as from the southern to northern sites. Among the targeted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. To learn the diversity of bacteria involved in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation in situ, the 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high throughput sequencing (IHTS). In all the sediments, occurred the potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant. Meanwhile on board, enrichment with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was initiated and repeated transfer in laboratory to obtain the degrading consortia. Most above mentioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas, occurred alternately as a predominant member in enrichment cultures from different sediments, as revealed with IHTS and PCR-DGGE. To reconfirm their role in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus and Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperature. Taken together, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may play the most important role</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.2163D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.2163D"><span>Distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are common organic pollutants that can be transferred long distances and tend to accumulate in marine sediments. However, less is known regarding the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their natural bioattenuation in the open sea, especially the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to the Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compositions and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 EPA-priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight and decreased with sediment depth and movement from the southern to the northern sites. Among the targeted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. The 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high-throughput sequencing (IHTS) to determine the diversity of bacteria involved in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in situ. The potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant, occurred in all sediment samples. Meanwhile, enrichment with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was initiated onboard and transferred to the laboratory for further enrichment and to obtain the degrading consortia. Most of the abovementioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas occurred alternately as predominant members in the enrichment cultures from different sediments based on IHTS and PCR-DGGE analysis. To reconfirm their role in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperatures. Taken together, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017heut.book...29R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017heut.book...29R"><span>Kommunale Energieversorger als wesentliche Akteure der Digitalisierung - Strategien <span class="hlt">und</span> Handlungsoptionen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reiche, Katherina</p> <p></p> <p>Die Digitalisierung erfasst sämtliche Bereiche des Lebens <span class="hlt">und</span> Wirtschaftens. Auch die Kommunalwirtschaft - insbesondere die kommunale Energiewirtschaft - sieht sich perspektivisch disruptiven Entwicklungen gegenüber. Stadtwerke haben bereits viele Herausforderungen erfolgreich gemeistert <span class="hlt">und</span> stehen auch der Digitalisierung positiv gegenüber. Vielerorts gestalten kommunale Unternehmen den digitalen Wandel bereits aktiv mit. Dieser Artikel arbeitet die Assets kommunaler Unternehmen heraus <span class="hlt">und</span> zeigt Strategien <span class="hlt">und</span> Handlungsoptionen zum Umgang mit der digitalen Transformation für kommunale Energieversorgungsunternehmen auf. Dabei zeigt sich, dass das politische <span class="hlt">und</span> regulatorische Umfeld für das positive Gelingen der Digitalisierung entscheidend sind. Kommunale Unternehmen benötigen die gleichen Marktzugangsbedingungen wie andere Akteure. Ferner profitieren kommunale Unternehmen von einigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen, etwa hohen Vertrauenswerten ihrer Kunden <span class="hlt">und</span> umfangreiches Know-how im Datenmanagement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398219"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioconcentration in Mytilus sp from Sinclair Inlet, WA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frazier, J.; Young, D.; Ozretich, R.; Echols, S.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Approximately 20 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) were measured by GC/MS in seawater and whole soft tissues of the intertidal mussel Mytilus sp. collected in July 1991 within and around Puget Sound`s Sinclair Inlet. Low variability was observed in the water concentrations collected over three days at control sites, yielding reliable values for the exposure levels experienced by this bioindicator mollusk. Mean water concentrations of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene in the control region were 2.7 {+-} 0.8, 2.8 {+-} 0.8, and 3.1 {+-} 0.7 ng/liter, respectively. Levels measured near sites of vessel activity were higher but much more variable; this reduced the reliability of the tissue/water bioconcentration factors (BCF) obtained from these samples. An empirical model relating values of Log BCF and Log Kow for the control zone samples supports the utility of this estuarine bioindicator for monitoring general levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in nearshore surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/324809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/324809"><span>Cells on fibers to degrade <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and upgrade coal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clyde, R.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>There are over 2000 sites contaminated with <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> from coal burning plants. White rot fungus degrades phenanthrene and anthracene, but the fungus needs air to grow. When grown on old cardboard boxes and buried, air is entrapped in the corrugations for growth of the fungus. When holes are put in the valleys of the corrugations and rotated in a half full reactor, drops are formed. Mass transfer to drops is much faster than to a flat surface, as described in Patent 5,256,570, so the fungus grows faster. Low rank coal can be upgraded to more valuable products with the fungus, say some Australians, but the problem is supplying oxygen. Celite can be entrapped in the fibers to ferment coal derived synthesis gas. The paper describes these processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006trsh.book.....S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006trsh.book.....S"><span>Transrapid <span class="hlt">und</span> Rad-Schiene-Hochgeschwindigkeitsbahn: Ein gesamtheitlicher Systemvergleich</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schach, R.; Jehle, P.; Naumann, R.</p> <p></p> <p>Der Transrapid bietet im Hochgeschwindigkeitsbereich eine sehr interessante Alternative. Über Vor-<span class="hlt">und</span> Nachteile des Transrapid im Vergleich mit konventionellen Rad-Schiene-Systemen, im Hochgeschwindigkeitsbereich auf Strecken zwischen 150 <span class="hlt">und</span> 800 Kilometernund als peer-to-peer-Verbindung im Kurzstreckenbereich, wurden viele einze lne Aspekte behandelt, darunter sachliche wie politische Statements. Ein Systemvergleich muß aber alle technischen, wirtschaftlichen <span class="hlt">und</span> ökologischen Faktoren einschließen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009husp.book...25W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009husp.book...25W"><span>Rahmen, Herausforderungen <span class="hlt">und</span> Visionen für die Unternehmensorganisation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Westkämper, Engelbert; Seidel, Bernhard; Bruhn, Manfred; Bahke, Torsten; Klotz, Ulrich; Buck, Hartmut</p> <p></p> <p>Die Produktion trägt entscheidend zur gesamten Wertschöpfung des Landes mit mehr als einem Drittel aller Beschäftigten bei. Die direkte Wertschöpfung ist dabei für ein rohstoff- <span class="hlt">und</span> energiearmes Land allein durch Veredelung <span class="hlt">und</span> technisches Know-how sowie durch die Herstellung von Produkten für den Binnen- <span class="hlt">und</span> Weltmarkt möglich.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23D3269C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A23D3269C"><span>SOA Formation from Photooxidation of Individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, C. L.; Kacarab, M.; Tang, P.; Cocker, D. R., III</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Individual SOA experiments on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes were conducted at the UCR CE-CERT environmental chamber. Measurements were made with a suite of instrumentation that includes HR-ToF-AMS, VTDMA, and APM-SMPS to comprehensively understand the chemical composition characteristics, volatility and density of particles. Our results indicated that the SOA yield from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is large and the elemental and chemical composition analysis of HR-ToF-AMS revealed that oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O/C) increases with oxidation time and also suggested that the SOA from these three <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are mostly low volatility OOA. The density of aerosol formed from 1-methylnaphthalene photooxidation under high NOx condition was observed to decrease from 1.5 g/cm3 to 0.7 g/cm3 during the course of experiment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of 1-methylnaphthalene SOA showed that the SOA coagulated after 5~6 hours photooxidation to form fractal-like particles. The sensitivity of SOA formation to varying HC mixtures is further explored. Serial mixtures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> photooxidation experiments were conducted, including naphthalene, 1-methylnapthalene, 2-methylnaphtalene with m-xylene, and/or the surrogate mixture used to develop the Carter O3 reactivity scales. Preliminary results show that the SOA formation from m-xylene and naphthalene mixture photooxidation was found to be suppressed by m-xylene, and the volatility measured as volume remaining fraction (VRF) of the m-xylene and naphthalene mixture increases from 0.2 to 0.4, which indicates the volatility of mixture SOA is dominated by m-xylene SOA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B11A0466J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B11A0466J"><span>Reduction of Ferrrihydrite and Akaganeite by Shewanella alga (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>93)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, M.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kwon, K.; Roh, Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Shewanella species are capable of oxidizing diverse organic acids coupled to reducing Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides to crystalline Fe(II)-containing phases such as magnetite, siderite, and vivianite. The objective of this study was to examine reduction of ferrihydrite and akaganeite as the electron acceptors using various organic acids as the electron donors by Shewanella alga (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>93) isolated from Yeosu, South Korea. Microbial reduction of akaganeite (40 mM) and ferrihydrite (40 mM) was examined using acetate (10 mM), glucose (10 mM), and lactate (10 mM) as electron donors at room temperature. Ferrozine method was used to analyze both water soluble and HCl soluble Fe(II) concentrations during the microbial Fe(III) reduction. XRD and TEM-EDX analyses were used to characterize biominerals formed by <span class="hlt">PAH</span>93. <span class="hlt">PAH</span>93 was completely reduced ferrihydrite to Fe(II), which transformed as siderite (FeCO3). <span class="hlt">PAH</span>93 was oxidized acetate, glucose, and lactate coupled to reducing akaganeite to magnetite or green rust. Microbial reduction of ferrihydrite resulted in higher soluble Fe(II) concentration (446 - 498 mg/L) than the reduction of akaganeite (255 - 284 mg/L) within 6 days of incubation. For 21 days of incubation, souble Fe(II) concentration during akaganeite reduction (945 - 1316 mg/L) was higher than ferrihydrite reduction (120 - 738 mg/L). It may be attributed to the differences of crystallinity of the iron minerals used for microbial iron reduction. This study indicates types of the electron acceptors, ferrihydrite and akaganeite, affect Fe(II) reduction rate and types of the biotransformed minerals.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......168W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......168W"><span>Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- <span class="hlt">und</span> Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiersberg, Thomas</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden anhand der Edelgaszusammensetzung von Kimberliten <span class="hlt">und</span> Lamproiten sowie ihrer gesteinsbildenden Minerale die Wechselwirkungen dieser Gesteine mit Fluiden diskutiert. Die untersuchten Proben stammen vom östlichen Baltischen Schild, vom Kola-Kraton (Poria Guba <span class="hlt">und</span> Kandalaksha) <span class="hlt">und</span> vom karelischen Kraton (Kostamuksha). Edelgasanalysen nach thermischer oder mechanischer Gasextraktion von 23 Gesamtgesteinsproben <span class="hlt">und</span> 15 Mineralseparaten ergeben folgendes Bild: Helium- <span class="hlt">und</span> Neon-Isotopendaten der Fluideinschlüsse von Lamproiten aus Kostamuksha lassen auf den Einfluss einer fluiden Phase krustaler Herkunft schliessen. Diese Wechselwirkungen fanden wahrscheinlich schon während des Magmenaufstiegs statt, denn spätere Einflüsse krustaler Fluide auf die Lamproite <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihr</span> Nebengestein (Quarzit) sind gering, wie anhand der C/36Ar-Zusammensetzung gezeigt wird. Auch sind die mit verschiedenen Datierungsmethoden (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) an Mineralseparaten <span class="hlt">und</span> teilweise an Gesamtgestein ermittelten Alter konsistent <span class="hlt">und</span> machen eine metamorphe Überprägung unwahrscheinlich. Aufgrund der Verteilung der primordialen Edelgasisotope zwischen Fluideinschlüssen <span class="hlt">und</span> Gesteinsmatrix ist ein langsamer Magmenaufstieg anzunehmen, was die Möglichkeit der Kontamination mit einem krustalen Fluid während des Magmenaufstiegs erhöht. Die Gasextraktion aus Mineralseparaten erfolgte thermisch, wodurch eine Freisetzung der Gase ausschließlich aus Fluideinschlüssen nicht möglich ist. Hierbei zeigen Amphibol <span class="hlt">und</span> Klinopyroxen, separiert aus Kostamuksha-Lamproiten, in ihrer Neon-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Vergleich zur krustalen Zusammensetzung (Kennedy et al., 1990) ein leicht erhöhtes Verhältnis von 20Ne/22Ne, was ein Hinweis auf Mantel-Neon sein könnte. Kalifeldspäte, Quarz <span class="hlt">und</span> Karbonate enthalten dagegen nur Neon krustaler Zusammensetzung. Phlogopite haben sehr kleine Verhältnisse von 20Ne/22Ne <span class="hlt">und</span> 21Ne/22Ne, zurückzuführen auf in-situ-Produktion von 22Ne</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6215M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6215M"><span>Sorption of <span class="hlt">Pahs</span> To Soil Minerals and Subsurface Soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, S.; Totsche, K. U.; Koegel-Knabner, I.</p> <p></p> <p>In subsurface soil horizons, the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants may primarily be controlled by the composition and the properties of the soil minerals. Therefore this study aimed to elucidate the sorption and the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminants to different inorganic soil constituents and subsurface soil horizons. Batch sorption experiments are conducted with three poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHS</span>; phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene), with the model minerals quartz sand, quartz sand coated with goethite and a quartz sand - mont- morillonite mixture, and with b and c horizons of different soil types developped in the temperate climate. Batch experiments show a considerable sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> to all soil minerals and soil horizons except for the sorption of phenanthrene to quartz sand. The sorption process of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> to single minerals is rapid and completed after 4 hours of contact time. The sorption to subsurface soil horizons, however, is not in equilibrium after 120h of contact time and shows a considerable sorption kinetic. Sorption capacity is higher for clay minerals and iron oxides than for quartz sand which corresponds with a higher sorption capacity of soil horizons with a high clay content. Sorption isotherms of the soil minerals are best described by a nonlinear isotherm whereas the sorption isotherms of the subsurface soil horizons are more or less linear indicating different sorption mechanisms for mineral sorbents and soil horizons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.1510W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.1510W"><span>A <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Deficit in Extremely Low Luminosity Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Rongying; Hogg, D. W.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We present a study of 29 extremely low luminosity galaxies randomly selected from the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The galaxies comprise a statistically complete sample of galaxies with Mr > -15 and recession velocity v < 2000 km s^-1 as measured in SDSS Data Release 2 (DR2). We also observe these sample galaxies in all four channels with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The photometry in SDSS shows that these galaxies appear to be visually blue (g-r < 0.6), and the IRAC color analysis shows that they are blue in IRAC infrared color [3.6]-[8]. The IRAC [3.6] magnitude measures the starlight, and the [8] measures <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions. We find that these star-forming galaxies show very low <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to star ratios. This result agrees with earlier observations on other dwarf galaxies including SBS0335-052 and small samples from ISO and the overlap of the SDSS with the Spitzer First Look Survey, but it is worth emphasizing that this sample has a lower mean luminosity than those samples. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deficiency of these galaxies is discussed in the context of their metallicity and dust properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121266','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121266"><span>Two fish bile reference materials certified for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ariese, Freek; Beyer, Jonny; Wells, David</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Environmental pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from pyrogenic or petrochemical sources is a matter of concern in many aquatic ecosystems. For field monitoring purposes, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite levels in fish bile samples can be used as biomarkers of exposure, but previously there were no reference materials for analytical method validation or quality control. In this paper we describe the preparation and certification of two fish bile materials. BCR 720 is a pure bile material from sediment-exposed flounder (Platichthys flesus) and BCR 721 is a pure bile material from oil-exposed plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Homogeneity and stability tests were carried out and a group of 12 expert laboratories was assembled for the certification measurements. The methods applied were liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection or gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. In BCR 720 three <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites were certified: 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, 1-hydroxypyrene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene. In BCR 721 1-hydroxypyrene was certified. The fourth target compound, 2-hydroxynaphthalene, could not be certified, but the results obtained are listed. The major findings from earlier feasibility studies and recommendations for the optimal use of the reference materials are also included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhCS...4..211N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhCS...4..211N"><span>Measurement of the recombination of photoproduced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novotny, O.; Sivaraman, B.; Rebrion-Rowe, C.; Travers, D.; Mitchell, J. B. A.; Rowe, B. R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A new technique, Flowing Afterglow with Photo Ions - FLAPI, has been developed for measuring the rate coefficient for the recombination of complex ions with electrons. The method is based on the FALP-MS apparatus at the Université de Rennes I. A helium plasma is generated by a microwave discharge in a He buffer gas and downstream a small amount of argon gas is injected to get rid of helium metastables. A very small amount of neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules is added to the afterglow plasma by evaporation from a plate coated with the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to be studied. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions are then produced by photoionization of the parent molecule using a pulsed UV laser (157 nm). The laser beam is oriented along the flow-tube and so a constant spatial concentration of photoions is obtained. The electron concentration along the flow-tube is measured by means of a movable Langmuir probe. The decay of the ion concentration in time is measured at a fixed position using a quadrupole mass spectrometer which is triggered by the laser pulse. Anthracene ion recombination has been studied using this technique and we have obtained the preliminary recombination rate coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.5) × 10-6 cm3 s-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311639"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mutagenicity in human cells by QSAR classification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papa, E; Pilutti, P; Gramatica, P</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous pollutants of high environmental concern. The experimental data of a mutagenicity test on human B-lymphoblastoid cells (alternative to the Ames bacterial test) for a set of 70 oxo-, nitro- and unsubstituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, detected in particulate matter (PM), were modelled by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) classification methods (k-NN, k-Nearest Neighbour, and CART, Classification and Regression Tree) based on different theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithms. The best models were validated for predictivity both externally and internally. For external validation, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) were applied to split the original data set. The best models, developed on the training set alone, show good predictive performance also on the prediction set chemicals (sensitivity 69.2-87.1%, specificity 62.5-87.5%). The classification of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> according to their mutagenicity, based only on a few theoretical molecular descriptors, allows a preliminary assessment of the human health risk, and the prioritisation of these compounds.</p> </li>