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Sample records for pah und ihre

  1. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  2. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  3. Biologie statt Philosophie? Evolutionäre Kulturerklärungen und ihre Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illies, Christian

    Vor über siebzig Jahren fand man in einer Höhle nahe Hohlenstein-Stadel, im heutigen Baden-Württemberg, eine Frau, die keiner bekannten Spezies und nicht einmal eindeutig den Hominiden zugeordnet werden konnte. Wegen ihres Aussehens wurde sie schon bald als "Löwenfrau“ bekannt (unterdessen wird sie als "Löwenmensch“ bezeichnet, da die in solchen Fragen Klarheit schaffenden Geschlechtsteile bei der Figur fehlen und in Zeiten von gender mainstreaming derartige Festlegungen gerne vermieden werden), denn sie hatte eine menschlich-aufrechte, unbehaarte Gestalt mit weiblichen Rundungen, aber zugleich eine Mähne, sowie Augen, Ohren und Schnauze eines Löwen. Eine sehr weitläufige Verwandte des Minotaurus, so schien es, und doch wesentlich älter als alle Bewohner des Olymps, denn vermutlich wurde die knapp 30 cm große Skulptur bereits in der Altsteinzeit vor etwa 32.000 Jahren aus Mammut-Elfenbein geschnitzt. Wir wissen nicht, ob sie kultischen Zwecken diente oder ein Kind mit ihr spielte, ob sie als Glücksbringer für die Jagd oder als Schamanin mit Löwenmaske verehrt und gefürchtet wurde. Aber die Löwenfrau legt nahe, dass der Mensch schon im Morgendämmern seiner Kultur über die eigene Nähe, aber auch Distanz zum Tier nachgedacht haben muss. Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Mit dem Begriff "animal rationale“, wie er unter Bezug auf Aristoteles geprägt wurde, findet sie schließlich ihre klassische, für das Abendland lange Zeit maßgebliche Antwort: Der Mensch als Tier, dessen spezifisches Merkmal die Vernunftbegabtheit ist, die ihn zugleich von allen anderen Tieren abgrenzt und über sie stellt. Aber wo genau verläuft die Grenze? Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Die aristotelische Definition beantwortet diese Fragen nach der Doppelnatur nicht, sondern erhebt das offene R

  4. Right-Wing Extremism in Germany and the Consequences for the Armed Forces (Rechtsextreme orientierungen in deutschland und ihre folgen fuer die bundeswehr)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    religi~ iser Gruppen, von denen naturgemai3 nicht alle den Einsatz fremder Streitkrafte in ihrem Staatsgebiet begrtiffen. Ober die Untergrabung von...Miinster/Westfalen. St~Sss, Richard (1994): Forschungs- und Erklarungsansatze - emn Oberblick. In: Kowalski, Wolfgang ; Schr6der, Wolfgang (Hrsg

  5. Zwergsatelliten und Sternriesen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baade, Dietrich; Kuschnig, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Leuchtkräftige Sterne sind schwierig: Fär Fotometrie mit großen Teleskopen sind sie zu hell, und ihre geringe Zahl macht konventionelle Lösungen unwirtschaftlich, besonders im Weltraum, wo die äußerste Präzision gegeben wäre. Mit einer Mini-Armada von Nanosatelliten haben Ingenieure und Astronomen aus Kanada, Österreich und Polen nun die Lösung gefunden - auch schon für viele wissenschaftliche Fragen.

  6. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  7. Ökophysik: Plaudereien über das Leben auf dem Land, im Wasser und in der Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachtigall, W.

    Prof. em. Dr. rer. nat. Werner Nachtigall, geb. 1934, war als Zoophysiologe und Biophysiker Leiter des Zoologischen Instituts der Universität des Saarlandes in Saarbrücken. In Forschung und Ausbildung hat er sich insbesondere mit Aspekten der Technischen Biologie und Bionik befasst und mit seinen Forschergruppen viele Basisdaten insbesondere zur Ökologie, Physiologie und Physik des Fliegens und Schwimmens aber auch zur Stabilität beispielsweise der Gräser erarbeitet. Lebewesen überraschen immer wieder durch ihre "Biodiversität", ihre hochspezifischen Ausgestaltungen und Anpassungen.

  8. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  9. Studies in the biodegradation of 5 PAHs (phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene und benzo(a)pyrene) in the presence of rooted poplar cuttings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Achim; Ballach, Hans-Joachim; Wittig, Rüdiger

    2004-01-01

    Cuttings of Populus nigra L. cv. Loenen were cultivated in sand treated with one of the following PAHs: phenanthrene (Phen), fluoranthene (Flt), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Chr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The PAHs were applied at varying levels of concentration to each test series. After 6 weeks the concentration and the distribution of the PAHs in the substrate of the various sets of tests were compared with the concentration in the substrate of the control. Additionally the substrate and the plant roots were tested for evidence of degradation products of PAHs. The results revealed that the levels of concentration of Phen and Pyr detected in the substrate surrounding the roots was in some cases significantly lower than in the corresponding section of substrate in the unplanted set (= control). This phenomenon did not occur for Flt and BaP and in the case of Chr only in those substrates, which had been treated with the highest levels of concentration. As the presence of lesser amounts of Phen and Pyr in the plant pots cannot only be attributed to their accumulation and metabolism in the roots, it is fair to assume that the chemical transformation of these three PAHs took place outside the roots. The set of tests treated with Phen revealed the presence of 2- or 3-hydroxy-Phen (main components), a hydroxy-methoxy-Phen, 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone and one unidentified compound in metabolite form. Altogether eleven metabolites of Pyr were identified in the root extracts, which can be divided into three groups: 1-Hydroxy-Pyr and derivatives, dihydroxy-Pyr and derivatives and ring fission products (4-Hydroxy-Pyr and a derivative of the 4-Phen-carbonic acid). However, the metabolite mass detected for Phen and Pyr represents only an insignificant percentage in comparison with the lesser amounts of PAHs observed in the planted set of tests. This indicates that the three PAHs were reduced to lower molecular compounds, which are methodically impossible to record, and subsequently

  10. Organe der Osmoregulation und Exkretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    Die meisten Schädeltiere sind in der Lage, die Wasser- und Ionenkonzentration ihres Innenmilieus zu regulieren, sind also im Hinblick auf ihren Ionenhaushalt weitgehend unabhängig von der Umgebung. Sie halten die Konzentration von Wasser und anorganischen Ionen in ihren Körperflüssigkeiten (interstitielle Flüssigkeit und Blut) innerhalb enger Grenzen konstant (Osmoregulierer). Schleim aale (Myxinoida) können zwar die Konzentration einzelner anorganischer Ionen regulieren, sind aber insgesamt der hohen Osmolarität des Meerwassers angepasst, also isoosmostisch zu diesem. Isoosmotisch oder leic ht hyperosmostisch zur Umgebung sind auch marine Neoselachier und Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), die dazu organische Osmolyte (Harnstoff und Trimethylaminoxid) im Blut akkumulieren (Osmokonformer). Bei anderen aquatischen Schädeltieren sind die Körperflüssigkeiten zur Umgebung hypoosmotisch (im Meerwasser) — sie halten Wasser zurück und scheiden anorganiche Ionen aus — oder hyperosmotisch (im Süßwasser), indem sie Wasser abgeben und anorganische Ionen aufnehmen.

  11. Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in two closely related areas: observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at and the notion of abundant, gas phase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the dust composition of the diffuse and dense ISM is reasonably well constrained and the spectroscopic case for interstellar PAHs, shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is very strong.

  12. IDSR as a Platform for Implementing IHR in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kasolo, Francis; Yoti, Zabulon; Bakyaita, Nathan; Gaturuku, Peter; Katz, Rebecca; Fischer, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    Of the 46 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) African region (AFRO), 43 are implementing Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) guidelines to improve their abilities to detect, confirm, and respond to high-priority communicable and noncommunicable diseases. IDSR provides a framework for strengthening the surveillance, response, and laboratory core capacities required by the revised International Health Regulations [IHR (2005)]. In turn, IHR obligations can serve as a driving force to sustain national commitments to IDSR strategies. The ability to report potential public health events of international concern according to IHR (2005) relies on early warning systems founded in national surveillance capacities. Public health events reported through IDSR to the WHO Emergency Management System in Africa illustrate the growing capacities in African countries to detect, assess, and report infectious and noninfectious threats to public health. The IHR (2005) provide an opportunity to continue strengthening national IDSR systems so they can characterize outbreaks and respond to public health events in the region. PMID:24041192

  13. Systemlieferant und OEM Hersteller für die Medizintechnik und Pharmabranche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Thomas; Reichenberger, Robert

    Unter einem Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) versteht man einen Hersteller fertiger Komponenten oder Produkte, der diese in seinen eigenen Produktionsfabriken produziert, sie aber anschließend nicht selbst in den Handel bringt. Die Anforderungen an einen OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche sind weitaus komplexer und umfangreicher als in anderen Branchen. Diese zusätzlichen Anforderungen haben schließlich auch ihre Berechtigung, da es letztendlich immer um die Gesundheit und das Leben von Menschen geht. Ein OEM muss neben der heute immer stärker geforderten Flexibilität, Schnelligkeit und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sämtliche für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche erforderlichen Qualitäts- und Prozesssicherheitskriterien erfüllen. Entsprechende Nachweise sind durch regelmäßige Kunden- und Überwachungsaudits zu erbringen. Das Arbeitsumfeld eines OEM für die Medizintechnik- und Pharmabranche bezieht sich somit nicht nur auf die Herstellung der Produkte für seine Kunden, sondern auch auf die Einhaltung sämtlicher Normen, Sicherheitskriterien, regulatorischen Voraussetzungen und Gesetze die zur Herstellung der Produkte notwendig sind.

  14. Vergleichende Ultrastrukturuntersuchungen der Eu- und Paraspermien von 13 Protodrilus-Arten (Polychaeta, Annelida) und ihre taxonomische und phylogenetische Bedeutung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Nordheim, Henning

    1989-06-01

    The morphology of the slender, filiform spermatozoa of 13 Protodrilus species of 22 different populations is investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy. All species have two types of spermatoza: fertile euspermatozoa, and paraspermatozoa, which are probably infertile and may comprise up to 20% of the total number of mature gametes. This is the first record of sperm dimorphism in polychaetes. The general construction pattern of the euspermatozoa is very complex. It shows a longish tapering acrosomal vesicle with an internal acrosomal rod, a rod-like conical nucleus, and a midpiece with numerous very complex supporting elements and two thin mitochondrial derivatives. Further, it has a ‘peribasal body’ surrounding the basal body of the axoneme, an anulus region with an ‘anchoring apparatus’ and an anulus cuff. Posteriorly, the tail region proper contains in some species 2 to 9 supporting rods. In several species the euspermatozoon shows very distinct and species-specific alternations of this ‘general pattern’ relating to e.g. size of sperm elements, structure of acrosome and nucleus, presence or absence of axial rod, and number, shape and size of supporting elements in midpiece and tail. In a number of species some sections of the euspermatozoon overlap with each other more or less strongly. The paraspermatozoon has a comparatively simple construction pattern and possesses no supporting structures in midpiece and tail region. The midpiece is very short and, in some species, entirely surrounded by its two thin and elongate mitochondrial derivatives. An axial rod is often missing or reduced; different sperm sections never overlap each other. In contrast to the euspermatozoa, the paraspermatozoa of the different species have a very similar ultrastructure. Their possible function in spermatophore transfer and histolytical opening of the female epidermis is discussed. A comparison of the different forms of euspermatozoa in Protodrilus elucidates possible plesiomorphous and apomorphous sperm traits. Very likely, the hypothetical plesiomorphous type of spermatozoa in Protodrilus has a very similar morphology to that of the paraspermatozoa, which for this reason are considered to be a sort of persisting representatives of the ancient Protodrilus sperm type. In Protodrilus, the different traits of the euspermatozoa represent excellent taxonomic characters for distinguishing species (e.g. ‘sibling species’). They can also be used well for phylogenetics within the genus, whereas the relations of Protodrilus to other polychaete groups cannot be clarified solely on the basis of sperm characters, since in all groups the sperm structure is primarily an adaptation to a specific mode of reproduction. Generally, the value of sperm characters in phylogenetic considerations at higher taxonomic levels seems to be very limited due to the surprisingly wide range of different sperm structures within a single genus as is demonstrated in the present paper.

  15. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  16. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  17. Vertical datum unification for the International Height Reference System (IHRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Laura; Sideris, Michael G.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARYThe International Association of Geodesy released in July 2015 a resolution for the definition and realisation of an International Height Reference System (<span class="hlt">IHRS</span>). According to this resolution, the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span> coordinates are potential differences referring to the equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field realised by the conventional value W0 = 62 636 853.4 m2s-2. A main component of the <span class="hlt">IHRS</span> realisation is the integration of the existing height systems into the global one; i.e. existing vertical coordinates should be referred to one and the same reference level realised by the conventional W0. This procedure is known as vertical datum unification and its main result are the vertical datum parameters, i.e., the potential differences between the local and the global reference levels. In this paper, we rigorously derive the observation equations for the vertical datum unification in terms of potential quantities based on the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach. Those observation equations are then empirically evaluated for the vertical datum unification of the North American and South American height systems. In the first case, simulations performed in North America provide numerical estimates about the impact of omission errors and direct and indirect effects on the vertical datum parameters. In the second case, a combination of local geopotential numbers, ITRF coordinates, satellite altimetry observations, tide gauge registrations and high-resolution gravity field models is performed to estimate the level differences between the South American height systems and the global level W0. Results show that indirect effects vanish when a satellite-only gravity field model with a degree higher than n ≥ 180 is used for the solution of the GBVP. However, the component derived from satellite-only global gravity models has to be refined with terrestrial gravity data to minimise the omission error and its effect on the vertical datum parameter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IREdu..43..225K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IREdu..43..225K"><span>Die Sokratische Lehrstrategie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> Relevanz FÜR Die Heutige Didaktik</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanakis, Ioannis</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>Socrates (469-399 B.C.) formulated a unique method of teaching, of which the main characteristic is dialogue. We have no authentic record, but Plato has preserved the "Socratic conversations" in his dialogues. In the first part of this study, the Socratic strategy is examined through a comparative analysis of the early Platonic dialogues with the theories of critical rationalism and the cognitive theories based on motivation for achievement and learning. In the dialogues, Socrates invites his interlocutors to express their opinions, professing himself ignorant of the matter under discussion, but gradually challenges their certainties and moves from the particular and the egocentric to the general concept, using concrete examples. The second part of this study gives a detailed presentation of the elements of the Socratic strategy of teaching and learning: conversation, the exploitation of errors in teaching, aporia (confused doubt), critical reflection and intellectual honesty, and tolerance. These continue to be of relevance today and are timely in the context of shifting values and the need for a critical approach to knowledge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994dkj..book.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994dkj..book.....K"><span>Die Kometen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539 <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Bedeutung fur die spatere Entwicklung der Kometenforschung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kokott, Wolfgang</p> <p></p> <p>The apparition of P/Halley in 1531 is known mostly for Peter Apian's statement of the antisolar direction of cometary tails and for Edmond Halley's discovery of its periodicity following its 1682 return. However, the 1531 event and the four comets of subsequent years are also remarkable for the first attempts, by several observers, to record and investigate their apparent orbits in a quantitative way with an accuracy making modern treatment feasible. Thus, the decade in question may be regarded as the beginning of modern cometary research. Within a broader historical context, the book outlines the significance of this series of comets w.r.t. the change of theory and observational practice prior to Tycho Brahe. It also documents the secondary sources throughout the following centuries and later attempts at interpreting the material. The possibilities inherent in the re-evaluation of historical observations by modern methods in the light of collateral evidence become transparent by means of the results of some recent orbit determinations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986HM.....40....1J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986HM.....40....1J"><span>Die Makrofauna <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Verteilung im Nordost-Felswatt von Helgoland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janke, Klaus</p> <p>1986-03-01</p> <p>The macrofauna and its distribution in the sheltered, rocky intertidal zone of Helgoland (North Sea) was studied at 9 vertically and/or morphologically different stations from March to September in 1984. Seasonal variations in the communities were described based on each species' “conspicuousness”. A total of 172 species was found. The macrofauna shows a zoned pattern, but also the different substrata, for example, affect its distribution. The number of species increases from the upper intertidal to the upper sublittoral zone from 23 to 133 species. The upper intertidal is characterized by Littorina saxatilis, Chaetogrammarus marinus and Hyale nilssonii. Typical and abundant species of the middle and lower intertidal are Flustrellidra hispida, Littorina mariae/obtusata, Littorina littorea, Mytilus edulis and Spirorbis spirorbis. The upper sublittoral zone is characterized by Gibbula cineraria and increasing species numbers of Bryozoa, Nemertini and Opisthobranchia. Only few species (e.g. Dynamena pumila, Laomedea flexuosa, Polydora ciliata, Fabricia sabella, Jaera albifrons, Carcinus maenas) occur in the entire intertidal zone. In comparison to other very sheltered shores in Great Britain, which are also dominated by Fucaceae, the macrofauna in the Helgoland intertidal zone lacks several littoral species, such as Patella spp., Monodonta lineata, Gibbula umbilicalis, Littorina neritoides, Chthamalus spp., whereas Littorina littorea and Gibbula cineraria are highly abundant.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li class="active"><span>1</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_1 --> <div id="page_2" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="21"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book..313V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book..313V"><span>Gesellschaft, Lebensgemeinschaft, Ökosystem - Über die Kongruenz von politischen <span class="hlt">und</span> ökologischen Theorien der Entwicklung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voigt, Annette</p> <p></p> <p>Im Jahr 1859 veröffentlichte Charles Darwin "On the Origin of Species“. Seine Evolutionstheorie ist das wohl spektakulärste Beispiel einer naturwissenschaftlichen Theorie großer gesellschaftlicher Relevanz. <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> verschiedenen Facetten wurden in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers diskutiert, unter anderem auch <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Anwendung zur Erklärung von Zuständen <span class="hlt">und</span> Prozessen menschlicher Gesellschaften. Zum Teil wurde die Seiensweise der Natur - scheinbar unabhängig von gesellschaftlichen Interessen - für die Erklärung <span class="hlt">und</span> Legitimation gesellschaftlicher Zustände oder die Legitimation von politischen Ideologien herangezogen (Sozialdarwinismus). Denn Gesellschaft funktioniere ja so, wie Darwin die Natur erklärt habe: es herrsche z. B. Konkurrenzkampf, Auslese <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeitsteilung, Erfolg hätten diejenigen, die sich an die Bedingungen am Besten anpassten.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3005581','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3005581"><span>Assessment of core capacities for the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) – Uganda, 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Uganda is currently implementing the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) within the context of Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR). The <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005) require countries to assess the ability of their national structures, capacities, and resources to meet the minimum requirements for surveillance and response. This report describes the results of the assessment undertaken in Uganda. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional assessment using the protocol developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The data collection tools were adapted locally and administered to a convenience sample of HR(2005) stakeholders, and frequency analyses were performed. Results Ugandan national laws relevant to the <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005) existed, but they did not adequately support the full implementation of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005). Correspondingly, there was a designated <span class="hlt">IHR</span> National Focal Point (NFP), but surveillance activities and operational communications were limited to the health sector. All the districts (13/13) had designated disease surveillance offices, most had IDSR technical guidelines (92%, or 12/13), and all (13/13) had case definitions for infectious and zoonotic diseases surveillance. Surveillance guidelines were available at 57% (35/61) of the health facilities, while case definitions were available at 66% (40/61) of the health facilities. The priority diseases list, surveillance guidelines, case definitions and reporting tools were based on the IDSR strategy and hence lacked information on the <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005). The rapid response teams at national and district levels lacked food safety, chemical and radio-nuclear experts. Similarly, there were no guidelines on the outbreak response to food, chemical and radio-nuclear hazards. Comprehensive preparedness plans incorporating <span class="hlt">IHR</span>(2005) were lacking at national and district levels. A national laboratory policy existed and the strategic plan was being drafted. However, there were critical gaps hampering the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA171482','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA171482"><span>Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>above expressways has been sampled and found to contain as much as several hundred ng/m3 of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Fly ash from incinerators may contain as much as 1000 ng...Occupational Health Concerns of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the Flying Community: In the flying community those who work directly with jet engines and their waste products are...movement may be slowed by the addition of sorptive materials If necessary (charcoal, zeolite ). 3. Proximity to Groundwater: This factor decides the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000121129&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000121129&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: (1) objectives, (2) approach and techniques adopted, (3) adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), and (4) results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..426C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..426C"><span>Modellgestützte Fehlererkennung <span class="hlt">und</span> Diagnose für Common-Rail-Einspritzsysteme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clever, Sebastian</p> <p></p> <p>Moderne Pkw-Dieselmotoren sind mit verschiedensten komplexen mechatronischen Komponenten ausgestattet. So kommen neben Abgasrückführsystemen zur Minderung der Stickoxidemissionen <span class="hlt">und</span> Turboladern zur Steigerung der Leistungsdichte insbesondere elektronisch gesteuerte Mehrfach-Einspritzsysteme zum Einsatz. Deshalb erhöht sich die Bedeutung einer umfassenden Fehlererkennung <span class="hlt">und</span> Diagnose, zusätzlich zu den bekannten OBD- <span class="hlt">und</span> EOBD-Vorgaben, im Rahmen steigender Anforderungen an die Zuverlässigkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> Verfügbarkeit. Um diese Anforderungen zu erfüllen, bieten sich modellbasierte Verfahren an. <span class="hlt">Ihr</span> Stand in verschiedenen Gebieten wird zum Beispiel in [1-6] beschrieben. Mit dem Einsatz modellgestützter Fehlererkennungsverfahren bei Verbrennungsmotoren beschäftigen sich beispielsweise [7-18].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15112803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15112803"><span>Bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: effects of soot carbon and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thorsen, Waverly A; Cope, W Gregory; Shea, Damian</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>The bioavailability of 38 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) compounds was determined through calculation of biota-sediment-accumulation factors (BSAF). BSAF values were calculated from individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in freshwater mussel, marine clam, and sediment obtained from field and laboratory bioaccumulation studies. Sediment that was amended with different types of soot carbon (SC) was used in some of the bioaccumulation experiments. BSAF values for petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were greater than those for pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (e.g., 1.57 +/- 0.53 vs 0.25 +/- 0.23, respectively), indicating that petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are more bioavailable than pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (p < 0.05). This trend was consistent among marine and freshwater sites. Increased SC content of sediment resulted in a linear decrease in the bioavailability of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (r2 = 0.85). The effect of increasing SC content on petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was negligible. SC was considered as an additional sorptive phase when calculating BSAF values, and using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-SC partition coefficients from the literature, we obtained unreasonably large BSAF values for all petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and some pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. This led us to conclude that a quantitative model to assess bioavailability through a combination of organic carbon and soot carbon sorption is not applicable among field sites with a wide range of soot carbon fractions and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources, at least given our current knowledge of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-SC partitioning. Our data offer evidence that many factors including analysis of a full suite of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> analytes, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hydrophobicity, sediment organic carbon content, sediment soot carbon content, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source are importantto adequately assess <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability in the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000582','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000582"><span>Toxicokinetics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Hexagenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stehly, Guy R.; Landrum, Peter F.; Henry, Mary G.; Klemm, C.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The clearance of oxygen from water is inversely and linearly related to the weight of the mayfly nymphs, but oxygen clearances were always much less than the uptake clearances of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> uptake clearance compared to oxygen clearance implies a greater surface area or efficiency for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> accumulation from water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010inho.book..419D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010inho.book..419D"><span>IntegraTUM Teilprojekt E-Mail: Aufbau eines mandantenfähigen Groupware-Services <span class="hlt">und</span> seine Integration in Identity Management <span class="hlt">und</span> E-Mail Infrastruktur der Technischen Universität München</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diehn, Max</p> <p></p> <p>Die E-Mail-Infrastruktur an der Technischen Universität München (TUM) ist historisch bedingt sehr heterogen <span class="hlt">und</span> komplex. Viele Einrichtungen müssen wertvolle Arbeitskraft auf die Administration eigener Mailserver verwenden. Auf der anderen Seite wird bei einigen Einrichtungen der Ruf nach Groupware-Funktionalitäten wie z.B. gemeinsame Kalender immer lauter. Das Teilprojekt E-Mail stellt einen zentralen Mail- <span class="hlt">und</span> Groupware-Service bereit, der den Einrichtungen ermöglichen soll, den Betrieb eigener Server <span class="hlt">und</span> zugehöriger Systeme (etwa lokaler Benutzerverwaltungen) für diesen Zweck aufzugeben <span class="hlt">und</span> diese Dienste an das Teilprojekt E-Mail zu migrieren, ohne <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Verwaltungshoheit oder <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Maildomains aufgeben zu müssen. Dieser Service versteht sich als eine Ergänzung zur bestehenden Grundversorgung der TUM mit den Maildiensten des myTUM-Mailers, ist mandantenfähig aufgebaut <span class="hlt">und</span> kann daher künftig neben der TUM auch weiteren Organisationen im Münchner Wissenschaftsnetz zur Verfügung gestellt werden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630446','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24630446"><span>A new approach of Integrated Health Responses (<span class="hlt">IHR(s</span>)) modeling for ecological risk/health assessments of an urban stream.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ja-Hyun; Yeom, Dong-Hyuk; An, Kwang-Guk</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecological health of an urban stream using Integrated Health Responses (<span class="hlt">IHRs</span>). Water chemistry analysis, habitat health, and ecotoxicity tests were conducted in the stream along with analyses of molecular/biochemical, physiological biomarkers, and population-level responses in indicator species. Chemical stresses, measured as nutrient levels, ionic content and organic matter concentrations were significantly greater (p<0.01) at the downstream than the reference site (RF). The habitat health was largely impacted in the downstream reaches and had a negative relation with the land-use pattern of % urban area. Comet assay, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and vitellogenin (VTG) were evaluated for low-level biomarker responses on DNA/physiological conditions of target species. The multi-metric fish model (Mm-F) was used to test the community-level response in relation to chemical and physical habitat stresses. The impaired responses of separate biomarker and bioindicator at the downstream sites occurred at all organizations from molecular/biochemical level to community level. Using all biomarkers/bioindicators, the star-plot model of <span class="hlt">IHRs</span> was developed and then the integrative health/risk assessments were conducted in the urban stream. The reduced values of <span class="hlt">IHRs</span> occurred in the downstream sites and the impacts were attributed to effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs) and industrial complex. Ecological health impairments, thus, were evident in the urban reach, and reflected the long-term community responses as well as short-term responses of molecular biomarkers. The degradation of the urban stream was mainly due to a combined effect of chemical pollution and physical habitat modifications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..587O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..587O"><span>Fische <span class="hlt">und</span> Fischerzeugnisse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oehlenschläger, Jörg</p> <p></p> <p>Fische <span class="hlt">und</span> Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Weichtiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Weichtiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Erzeugnisse daraus" <span class="hlt">und</span> Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- <span class="hlt">und</span>/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere <span class="hlt">und</span> Weichtiererzeugnisse <span class="hlt">und</span> tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997491','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4997491"><span>Biodegradation of Mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P3 (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517944','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27517944"><span>Biodegradation of Mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading endophytic bacteria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040644&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880040644&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Infrared emission from interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26029897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26029897"><span>Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005): Chinese lessons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang</p> <p>2015-04-17</p> <p>As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The <span class="hlt">IHR</span> aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4450733','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4450733"><span>Strengthening core public health capacity based on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005): Chinese lessons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Bin; Sun, Yan; Dong, Qian; Zhang, Zongjiu; Zhang, Liang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As an international legal instrument, the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) is internationally binding in 196 countries, especially in all the member states of the World Health Organization (WHO). The <span class="hlt">IHR</span> aims to prevent, protect against, control, and respond to the international spread of disease and aims to cut out unnecessary interruptions to traffic and trade. To meet <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, countries need to improve capacity construction by developing, strengthening, and maintaining core response capacities for public health risk and Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). In addition, all the related core capacity requirements should be met before June 15, 2012. If not, then the deadline can be extended until 2016 upon request by countries. China has promoted the implementation of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> comprehensively, continuingly strengthening the core public health capacity and advancing in core public health emergency capacity building, points of entry capacity building, as well as risk prevention and control of biological events (infectious diseases, zoonotic diseases, and food safety), radiological, nuclear, and chemical events, and other catastrophic events. With significant progress in core capacity building, China has dealt with many public health emergencies successfully, ensuring that its core public health capacity has met the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> requirements, which was reported to WHO in June 2014. This article describes the steps, measures, and related experiences in the implementation of <span class="hlt">IHR</span> in China. PMID:26029897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book...91J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book...91J"><span>Schönheit <span class="hlt">und</span> andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Junker, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier <span class="hlt">und</span> die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei <span class="hlt">und</span> Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper <span class="hlt">und</span> Filmkunst, Musik <span class="hlt">und</span> Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch <span class="hlt">ihre</span> geistigen Fähigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft <span class="hlt">und</span> Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA407661','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA407661"><span>Direct Calculation of Short Circuit Reactance, Winding Strength, and Inherent Forms of Output Transformers (Direkte Berechung der Kurzschlussreaktanzen, Wicklungskraefte <span class="hlt">und</span> Eigenformen von Leistungstransformatoren)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>1,2 Grundwehrdienst:. 06/1989-08/1990 1./PzArtBtl 335 in Dedelstorf Studium : 10/1990-11/1995 Studium der Physik an der TU Braunschweig Abschluss...<span class="hlt">ihre</span> Anwendungen, Tell 2. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1986. [10] Zurmfihl, Rudolf: Praktische Mathematik fir Ingenieure <span class="hlt">und</span> Physiker ... Physik . Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1989. [261 HP MLIB User’s Guide. Hewlett Packard Company, 1999. 148 ABBILDUNGSVERZEICHNIS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030000511&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030000511&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The cosmic deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) ratio is of key importance from a cosmological and stellar evolution perspective since deuterium originates from big-bang nucleosynthesis and is destroyed by stellar thermonuclear reactions. Further, from the interstellar perspective, the galactic distribution of deuterium and the D/H ratio among various molecular species also traces interstellar chemical evolution. Over the past few decades, radio observations have enabled the study of a handful of small, deuterated interstellar species. However, the number of deuterated species detected and environments probed are limited, raising issues of selection effects that hamper generalization and applications to other environments. Infrared spectroscopy of the interstellar medium offers a distinct advantage in this regard as the extent of deuteration of entire chemical families, rather than one species, can be probed. These observations require spaceborne telescopes because the molecular vibrations involving D which produce the strongest IR bands fall in spectral regions which are obscured by terrestrial CO2 absorption. Here we report the tentative detection of the C-D stretching vibration from deuterated interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Orion nebula. Since the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission features are widespread and probe many different types of cosmic environments, follow up observations of deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will provide fundamental, far reaching new insight and perspective into galactic and extragalactic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009husp.book..699W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009husp.book..699W"><span>Information <span class="hlt">und</span> Kommunikation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens</p> <p></p> <p>Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten <span class="hlt">und</span> Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg <span class="hlt">und</span> bezeichnet den "bewussten <span class="hlt">und</span> systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen <span class="hlt">und</span> den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien <span class="hlt">und</span> Methoden umfasst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006iga..book.....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006iga..book.....G"><span>Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen <span class="hlt">und</span> Anwendung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Genske, Dieter D.</p> <p></p> <p>Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre <span class="hlt">und</span> Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor <span class="hlt">und</span> diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen <span class="hlt">und</span> entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen <span class="hlt">und</span> Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen <span class="hlt">und</span> ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li class="active"><span>2</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_2 --> <div id="page_3" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="41"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..381R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..381R"><span>Interaktive Visualisierung von Abständen <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen für die Interventionsplanung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rössling, Ivo; Cyrus, Christian; Dornheim, Lars; Hahn, Peter; Preim, Bernhard; Boehm, Andreas</p> <p></p> <p>Im Rahmen der Interventionsplanung muss der Chirurg therapierelevante Entscheidungen auf Basis räumlicher Relationen anatomischer Strukturen treffen. Interaktive 3D-Visualisierungen unterstützen diesen Prozess qualitativ. Quantitative Fragestellungen (Tumorausdehnung, Infiltrationstiefe, etc.) erfordern die Integration einer Bemaßung, deren Nutzen wesentlich von einer geeigneten Darstellung abhängt. In dieser Arbeit haben wir allgemeine Kriterien für die Eignung von Visualisierungen von Bemaßungen in interaktiven 3D-Szenen erarbeitet. Daran orientierend haben wir verschiedene Varianten der Darstellung von Abständen <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausdehnungen anatomischer Strukturen betrachtet <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihr</span> Erscheinungsbild hierzu zweckmäßig parametrisiert. Die Ausprägungen dieser Darstellungsparameter wurden in einer Studie auf <span class="hlt">ihre</span> visuellen Wirkung hin an Chirurgen evaluiert. Es zeigte sich, dass die befragten Mediziner höchsten Wert auf Kohärenz <span class="hlt">und</span> klare Zuordnung der Bemaßung setzten <span class="hlt">und</span> überraschenderweise dafür sogar Abstriche in der direkten Lesbarkeit in Kauf nahmen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IREdu..43...73V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IREdu..43...73V"><span>Learning by doing - Piagets Konstruktivistische Lerntheorie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> Konsequenzen FÜR Die PÄDAGOGISCHE Praxis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vollmers, Burkhard</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Piaget's theory of genetic recognition has a number of pedagogical implications. With the swing from structuralism to constructivism, Piaget created one of the first constructivist learning theories around the middle of this century. After this has been briefly presented, its relationship to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice and other forms of constructivism is examined critically. Although Piaget's theory does not embrace all forms of human learning, it does contain some significant pointers for pedagogical practice. An appropriate practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by encouraging spontaneous activity and the interests of the pupils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549526','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/549526"><span>Removing <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> with cells on fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clyde, R.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>There are over 1,500 sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gas plants. White rot fungi degrade <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in soil, but the problem is to supply oxygen needed for growth of the fungus. When old cardboard boxes are buried with the fungus, oxygen is entrapped in the corrugations. A method for growing the fungus quickly is also described. Pseudomonade also degrade <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and several strains of this bacterium have been grown on fibers. The fibers have high area, and when Celite is entrapped in the fibers, more area is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27526277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27526277"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation in soils on vegetative uptake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using successive extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shu-Kai</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) speciation in soils and the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation in soils and the accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables have rarely been reported. In this study, the organic solvent extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that bind to endogenetic soil humus, soil properties, and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in B. chinensis were comprehensively studied. Mobile fulvic acid (FA) and crude humin preferred adsorbing 3-ring and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> whereas stable humic acid (HA) preferred adsorbing 5-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> speciation in soils was in the order of organic solvent extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (59.08%)>humin-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (26.20%)>FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (10.03%)>HA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (4.68%). The relative amounts of FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> versus HA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were linked to soil type. FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and humin mineral-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had a positive correlation with fine particles and were preferentially accumulated in B. chinensis. Other speciation was preferentially retained in soils and adsorbed onto the surface of and within coarse particles. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables were ideally forecasted using solvent extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and soil properties (silt, moisture, and pH). The FA-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were more soluble in water and can be easily taken up by plants together with water and nutrients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4676564','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4676564"><span>Strengthening public health laboratory capacity in Thailand for International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peruski, Anne Harwood; Birmingham, Maureen; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Chungsamanukool, Ladawan; Chungsamanukool, Preecha; Guntapong, Ratigorn; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Saengklai, Ladapan; Supawat, Krongkaew; Thattiyaphong, Aree; Wongsommart, Duangdao; Wootta, Wattanapong; Nikiema, Abdoulaye; Pierson, Antoine; Peruski, Leonard F; Liu, Xin; Rayfield, Mark A</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Introduction Thailand conducted a national laboratory assessment of core capacities related to the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) (2005), and thereby established a baseline to measure future progress. The assessment was limited to public laboratories found within the Thai Bureau of Quality and Safety of Food, National Institute of Health and regional medical science centres. Methods The World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory assessment tool was adapted to Thailand through a participatory approach. This adapted version employed a specific scoring matrix and comprised 16 modules with a quantitative output. Two teams jointly performed the on-site assessments in December 2010 over a two-week period, in 17 public health laboratories in Thailand. The assessment focused on the capacity to identify and accurately detect pathogens mentioned in Annex 2 of the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005) in a timely manner, as well as other public health priority pathogens for Thailand. Results Performance of quality management, budget and finance, data management and communications was considered strong (>90%); premises quality, specimen collection, biosafety, public health functions, supplies management and equipment availability were judged as very good (>70% but ≤90%); while microbiological capacity, staffing, training and supervision, and information technology needed improvement (>60% but ≤70%). Conclusions This assessment is a major step in Thailand towards development of an optimized and standardized national laboratory network for the detection and reporting of infectious disease that would be compliant with <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005). The participatory strategy employed to adapt an international tool to the Thai context can also serve as a model for use by other countries in the Region. The participatory approach probably ensured better quality and ownership of the results, while providing critical information to help decision-makers determine where best to invest finite resources. PMID:26693144</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210604','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210604"><span>Analysis of serum <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adducts by LC/MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McClure, P.C.; Barr, J.R.; Maggio, V.L.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are an important class of chemical carcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene is the most extensively studied and best understood carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> It is believed that Benzo[a]pyrene is metabolized in vitro to the diol epoxide, Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9, 10-epoxide which then can react with various nucleophilic centers on DNA. The major alkylation product appears to be the reaction of the Benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the N{sup 2} position of guanine sites on DNA. Methods that can measure exposure and biological response to carcinogens such as <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> are needed. Human Blood can be separated into plasma, lymphocytes, and red blood cells. The plasma should contain native <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> which may yield some useful information about recent exposure. The red blood cells contain hemoglobin and adducts of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>. Hemoglobin has an average lifetime of 120 days so quantification of hemoglobin adducts should give an average of a persons exposure over four months. Also, the electrophilic metabolites that react with hemoglobin to form adducts are the same metabolites that form DNA adducts which can lead to mutations and cancer. Lymphocytes contain DNA and therefore DNA adducts. DNA adducts can be repaired by a series of enzymes so quantification of these adducts will only yield information about recent or non-repairable adducts. DNA adduct formation is believed to be the first important step in chemical carcinogenesis so quantification of these adducts should yield some information on exposure and a great deal of important data on biological response and risk from specific <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5698282','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5698282"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> nomenclature guide. First edition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Loening, K.; Merritt, J.; Later, D.; Wright, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Research relating to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is a multidisciplinary activity carried out by scientists not familiar with the intricacies of chemical nomenclature. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> nomenclature Guide is designed to promote good communication in this field by giving instruction on how to name relevant compounds properly, by alerting the reader to the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Biochemistry (IUB), by noting the practices of Chemical Abstracts Service, and by identifying other names in use. This book concentrates on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> themselves, their nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur analogs, including functional derivatives, the metabolic products of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and enzymes. For each topic references are provided to the original nomenclature recommendations to enable the reader to check out further details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010082938&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010082938&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Laboratory Astrochemistry: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21812916S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AAS...21812916S"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Translucent Interstellar Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>We discuss the proposal of relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) present in translucent interstellar clouds. The spectra of several cold, isolated gas-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. This comparison provides - for the first time - accurate upper limits for the abundances of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from IR observations alone. The comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations leads to two major findings: (1) a finding specific to the individual molecules that were probed in this study and, which leads to the clear and unambiguous conclusion that the abundance of these specific neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> must be very low in the individual translucent interstellar clouds that were probed in this survey (<span class="hlt">PAH</span> features remain below the level of detection) and, (2) a general finding that neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibit intrinsic band profiles that are similar to the profile of the narrow DIBs indicating that the carriers of the narrow DIBs must have close molecular structure and characteristics. This study is the first quantitative survey of neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the optical range and it opens the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments. // Reference: F. Salama et al. (2011) ApJ. 728 (1), 154 // Acknowledgements: F.S. acknowledges the support of the NASA's Space Mission Directorate APRA Program. J.K. acknowledges the financial support of the Polish State (grant N203 012 32/1550). The authors are deeply grateful to the ESO archive as well as to the ESO staff members for their active support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40364A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40364A"><span>IR Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Dense Clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, Louis; Bernstein, Max; Mattioda, Andrew; Sandford, Scott</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are likely to be a component of the ice mantles that form on dust grains in dense molecular clouds. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> frozen in grain mantles will produce IR absorption bands, not IR emission features. A couple of very weak absorption features in ground based spectra of a few objects embedded in dense clouds may be due to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Additionally spaceborne observations in the 5 to 8 ?m region, the region in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectroscopy is rich, reveal unidentified new bands and significant variation from object to object. It has not been possible to properly evaluate the contribution of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands to these IR observations because the laboratory absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> condensed in realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ice analogs is lacking. This experimental data is necessary to interpret observations because, in ice mantles, the interaction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with the surrounding molecules effects <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR band positions, widths, profiles, and intrinsic strengths. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are readily ionized in pure H2O ice, further altering the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectrum. This laboratory proposal aims to remedy the situation by studying the IR spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> frozen in laboratory ice analogs that realistically reflect the composition of the interstellar ices observed in dense clouds. The purpose is to provide laboratory spectra which can be used to interpret IR observations. We will measure the spectra of these mixed molecular ices containing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> before and after ionization and determine the intrinsic band strengths of neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in these ice analogs. This will enable a quantitative assessment of the role that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can play in determining the 5-8 ?m spectrum of dense clouds and will directly address the following two fundamental questions associated with dense cloud spectroscopy and chemistry: 1- Can <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> be detected in dense clouds? 2- Are <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions components of interstellar ice?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27869373"><span>Rosazea-Management: Update über allgemeine Maßnahmen <span class="hlt">und</span> topische Therapieoptionen.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schaller, M; Schöfer, H; Homey, B; Hofmann, M; Gieler, U; Lehmann, P; Luger, T A; Ruzicka, T; Steinhoff, M</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Obwohl bislang für die Rosazea keine kurative Therapie besteht, können verschiedene Optionen zur Behandlung der Symptome <span class="hlt">und</span> zur Vorbeugung von Exazerbationen empfohlen werden. Neben Selbsthilfemaßnahme wie der Vermeidung von Triggerfaktoren <span class="hlt">und</span> einer geeigneten Hautpflege sollte das Rosazea-Management bei Patienten mit erythematöser <span class="hlt">und</span> leichter bis schwerer papulopustulöser Rosazea die Anwendung topischer Präparate als First-Line-Therapie umfassen. Da Überlappungen der charakteristischen Rosazea-Symptome im klinischen Alltag die Regel sind, sollte die medikamentöse Therapie auf die individuellen Symptome zugeschnitten werden; auch eine Kombinationstherapie kann erforderlich sein. Zu den für die Behandlung der Hauptsymptome der Rosazea zugelassenen Wirkstoffen gehören Brimonidin gegen das Erythem sowie Ivermectin, Metronidazol oder Azelainsäure gegen entzündliche Läsionen. <span class="hlt">Ihre</span> Wirksamkeit wurde in zahlreichen validen, gut kontrollierten Studien belegt. Darüber hinaus existieren verschiedene nicht zugelassene topische Behandlungsmöglichkeiten, deren Wirksamkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> Sicherheit noch in größeren, kontrollierten Studien zu untersuchen ist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book...57G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book...57G"><span>Neuausrichtung <span class="hlt">und</span> Konsolidierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grohmann, Heinz</p> <p></p> <p>Mit der Wahl von Wolfgang Wetzel zum Vorsitzenden der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft im Jahre 1972 begann eine 32jährige Ära, in der die praktische <span class="hlt">und</span> die theoretische Statistik in einem ausgewogenen Verhältnis gepflegt wurden. Ein regelmäßiger vierjähriger Wechsel im Vorsitz stärkte die Gemeinschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> die praktische wie die wissenschaftliche Arbeit gleichermaßen. Die jährlichen Hauptversammlungen behandelten gesellschaftlich aktuelle wie zukunftsorientierte Themen, <span class="hlt">und</span> die Ausschüsse sowie weitere Veranstaltungen gaben Gelegenheit zur Förderung <span class="hlt">und</span> Pflege einer Vielzahl von Arbeitsgebieten der Statistik. Darüber wird nicht nur in diesem Kapitel, sondern auch in den Teilen II <span class="hlt">und</span> III des Bandes berichtet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996tuf..book.....D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996tuf..book.....D"><span>Tensoren <span class="hlt">und</span> Felder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirschmid, Hans J.</p> <p></p> <p>Das Lehrbuch soll Studierende mit Grundkenntnissen der Differential- <span class="hlt">und</span> Integralrechnung in die klassische Feldtheorie mit modernen mathematischen Methoden einführen. Dementsprechend ist die Tensoranalysis das mathematische Thema, das Prinzip der Relativität das physikalische. Aus didaktischen Erwägungen gliedert sich der Text in zwei Teile. Um den Leser mit den Objekten vertraut zu machen, wird zunächst der affine <span class="hlt">und</span> euklidische Raum zugrundegelegt, um verallgemeinernd zur Geometrie auf Mannigfaltigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Riemannschen Räumen überleiten zu können. Im Anschluß an die mathematische Theorie wird in die spezielle <span class="hlt">und</span> allgemeine Relativitätstheorie eingeführt, wobei die Geometrie der Raum-Zeit, die Grundgesetze der Elektrodynamik <span class="hlt">und</span> der Gravitation sowie Folgerungen zur Sprache kommen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..136a2052K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..136a2052K"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Soil: Influence of Initial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamil, N. A. F. M.; Talib, S. A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Most studies on biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) evaluate the effect of initial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration in liquid medium. There are limited studies on evaluation in solid medium such as contaminated soil. This study investigated the potential of the bacteria, Corynebacterium urealyticum isolated from municipal sludge in degrading phenanthrene contaminated soil in different phenanthrene concentration. Batch experiments were conducted over 20 days in reactors containing artificially contaminated phenanthrene soil at different concentration inoculated with a bacterial culture. This study established the optimum condition for phenanthrene degradation by the bacteria under nonindigenous condition at 500 mg/kg of initial phenanthrene concentration. High initial concentration required longer duration for biodegradation process compared to low initial concentration. The bacteria can survive for three days for all initial phenanthrene concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/210362"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in sediment-slurry processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, J.B.; Beckles, D.; Chandra, S.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The focus of this research was to examine biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in lab scale slurry reactors. The studies summarized in this paper focused on the rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments, oxygen demand of anaerobic sediments, and the rate and extent of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation achieved. Mass balances were used in all cases. The studies identified several factors which may influence the design or operation of bioreactors used for sediment remediation. Mixing had the greatest effect on the rate and extent of contaminant release; solids loading and aeration had little or no effect in mixed reactors. In unmixed reactors, aerated systems showed faster rates of contaminant release than unaerated systems, indicating that the aeration process itself provides some degree of mixing. The maximum extent of mineralization appeared to be reached within five days in mixed systems; significantly lower mineralization was seen in reactors with insufficient mixing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10502602','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10502602"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from the industrial boilers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, C; Mi, H; Lee, W; You, W; Wang, Y</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) emitted from 25 industrial boilers were investigated. The fuels used for these 25 boilers included 21 heavy oil, two diesel, a co-combustion of heavy oil and natural gas (HO+NG) and a co-combustion of coke oven gas and blast furnace gas (COG+BFG) boilers. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> samples from the stack flue gas (gas and particle phases) of these 25 boilers were collected by using a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> stack sampling system. Twenty one individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in the flue gas of 83 measured data for these 25 boiler stacks ranged between 29.0 and 4250 microg/m(3) and averaged 488 microg/m(3). The average of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-homologue mass (F%) counted for the total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass was 54.7%, 9.47% and 15.3% for the 2-ring, 3-ring and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, respectively. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the stack flue gas were dominant in the lower molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The emission factors (EFs) of total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 13,300, 2920, 2880 and 208 microg/kg-fuel for the heavy oil, diesel, HO+NG and COG+BFG fueled-boiler, respectively. Nap was the most predominant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> occurring in the stack flue gas. In addition, the EF of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in heavy-oil boiler were almost the highest among the four various fueled-boilers except for those of FL and BkF in the diesel boiler. Furthermore, the EF of total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> or BaP for heavy oil were both one order of magnitude higher than that for the diesel-fueled boiler.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sia..book..339B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sia..book..339B"><span>Messung <span class="hlt">und</span> Analyse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>Für die Beurteilung von Akustik <span class="hlt">und</span> Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes <span class="hlt">und</span> Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522199','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522199"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EMISSION AT THE BRIGHT LOCATIONS OF PDRs: THE grand<span class="hlt">PAH</span> HYPOTHESIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Andrews, H.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.; Werner, M. W.; Livingston, J. E-mail: Christiaan.Boersma@nasa.gov</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) emission observed in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra of bright mid-IR locations of NGC 7023, NGC 2023, and NGC 1333 was analyzed. These objects show large variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band ratios when studied through spectral mapping. Nevertheless, the mid-IR spectra at these bright spots show a remarkably similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. We used the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database to fit the observations and analyze the derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations. Our results show that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in the 5–15 μm range appears to be rather insensitive to variations of the radiation field. Similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations of neutral small to medium-sized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (∼50%), with ionized species contributing in slightly less than 50%, provide very good fits. Analyzing the degeneracy of the results shows that subtle (but intrinsic) variations in the emission properties of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lead to observable differences in the resulting spectra. On top of this, we found that variations of <30% in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> abundances would lead to noticeable spectral differences between the three photodissociation regions (PDRs). Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> populations must be remarkably similar at these different lines of sight. To account for this, we suggest the concept of grand<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as a unique mixture of the most stable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitting at these spots. Using NGC 7023 as an example, the grand<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> refer to the robust <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population that results from the intense processing of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at the border limit between the PDR and the molecular cloud, where, due to the UV radiation that destroys the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population, the abundance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> starts decreasing as we move toward the star.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24912214"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> phytoremediation: rhizodegradation or rhizoattenuation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ouvrard, S; Leglize, P; Morel, J L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Dealing with soil contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POP) is an increasing concern amplified by both regulatory constraints and the dramatic impact of human activities on the soil resource. The most used management options are treatments which totally eradicate the toxic compounds targeted. When possible, environmental-friendly processes should be used, and recent years have seen the emergence of green technologies using biological energies involving microorganisms (bioremediation) and plants (phytoremediation). Research has focused on phytoremediation and many have presented this technology as the process ideally combining efficiency, low cost and environmental acceptance. However, the applicability of phytoremediation on soils contaminated by bio-recalcitrant organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>), has not yet proved as successful as expected. We propose here a review and discussion of the overall question of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> status in soil and their potential for treatment. The limits and applicability of bioremediation technologies are discussed, and the specific beneficial effect of plants is objectively evaluated with a special interest to processes which lead to rhizoattenuation. Given the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> high affinity to soil organic matter, availability is the main limitation to phytoremediation. In this context, bioavailability quantification remains an issue as well as the characterization of the recalcitrant fraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3008425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3008425"><span>Carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in waterpipe charcoal products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Because narghile waterpipe (shisha, hooka) smoking normally involves the use of burning charcoal, smoke inhaled by the user contains constituents originating from the charcoal in addition to those from the tobacco. We have previously found that charcoal accounts for most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and carbon monoxide in the smoke of the waterpipe, both of which are present in alarming quantities. Because charcoal manufacturing conditions favor formation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, it is reasonable to assume that charcoal sold off the shelf may be contaminated by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues. These residues may constitute a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> inhaled by the waterpipe user and those in her/his vicinity. We measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues on three kinds of raw waterpipe charcoal sampled from Beirut stores and cafés. We found that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in raw charcoal can account for more than half of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emitted in the mainstream and sidestream smoke, and about one sixth of the carcinogenic 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content of the three charcoal types varied systematically by a factor of six from the charcoal with the least to the greatest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residue. These findings indicate the possibility of regulating charcoal carcinogen content. PMID:20807559</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061246&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870061246&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>The hydrogen coverage of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This new feature shows that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In particular, it seems that very condensed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture as expected from stability arguments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012347','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870012347"><span>The hydrogen coverage of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This new feature shows that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In particular, it seems that very condensed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture as expected from stability arguments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..633V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010hale.book..633V"><span>Getreide, Brot <span class="hlt">und</span> Feine Backwaren</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit</p> <p></p> <p>Getreide <span class="hlt">und</span> Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot <span class="hlt">und</span> Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet <span class="hlt">und</span> veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz <span class="hlt">und</span> der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO <span class="hlt">und</span> dem LFGB geregelt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bein.book..321R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bein.book..321R"><span>Instandhaltung <span class="hlt">und</span> Normung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenkranz-Wuttig, Angela</p> <p></p> <p>Das DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. ist ein eingetragener Verein mit Sitz in Berlin. Das DIN erarbeitet gemeinsam mit den Experten der interessierten Kreise Normen <span class="hlt">und</span> Standards als Dienstleistung für Wirtschaft, Staat <span class="hlt">und</span> Gesellschaft. Die Kenntnis entsprechender Normen, Standards oder Regeln, sowie deren richtiger Einsatz, ist unter den heutigen Marktbedingungen für jedes Unternehmen ein nicht zu unterschätzender wirtschaftlicher Faktor. Normen schaffen Effizienz bei Produktionsabläufen <span class="hlt">und</span> sorgen durch eine gleichbleibende sowie vergleichbare Produktqualität für Vertrauen bei den Endverbrauchern. Darüber hinaus stehen Normen unter rechtlichen Aspekten für mehr Sicherheit - Hersteller erreichen bei Anwendung <span class="hlt">und</span> Einhaltung von Normen ein hohes Maß an rechtlicher Absicherung. Das DIN vertritt die deutschen Interessen in den europäischen <span class="hlt">und</span> weltweiten Normungsorganisationen, siehe Abb. 1. Zuständig für die elektrotechnische Normung in Deutschland sowie als deutscher Repräsentant in den übernationalen Gremien ist die DKE Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik im DIN <span class="hlt">und</span> VDE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008dain.book..123B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008dain.book..123B"><span>Datenintegration <span class="hlt">und</span> Deduplizierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim</p> <p></p> <p>In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art <span class="hlt">und</span> Weise ermöglicht, <span class="hlt">und</span> zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen <span class="hlt">und</span> genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt <span class="hlt">und</span> einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren <span class="hlt">und</span> nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book..137W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011sid..book..137W"><span>Statistik in Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wilrich, Peter-Theodor</p> <p></p> <p>Mit dem Aufschwung von Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik zu Beginn des 19. Jahrhunderts entstand die mathematische Statistik, angeregt aus der Geodäsie (wie die Methode der kleinsten Quadrate) <span class="hlt">und</span> der Anthropologie (wie die statistische Analyse mehrdimensionaler Beobachtungen <span class="hlt">und</span> ihrer stochastischen Abhängigkeiten). Im Gegensatz zu den Wirtschafts- <span class="hlt">und</span> Sozialwissenschaften, in denen Daten vorwiegend aus Beobachtungsstudien gewonnen werden, stehen in den Naturwissenschaften Experimente im Vordergrund. Daher gehört die statistische Versuchsplanung zu den insbesondere in Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik angewendeten statistischen Methoden, aber auch die Extremwertstatistik <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensdaueranalysen sowie die Methoden der räumlichen Statistik (insbesondere in der Umweltforschung). Im 20. Jahrhundert wurden Stichprobenpläne <span class="hlt">und</span> Regelkarten (Kontrollkarten) zur Prozessregelung als Hilfsmittel der statistischen Qualitätssicherung entwickelt. Diese Methodenbündel, mit denen sich der Ausschuss Statistik in Naturwissenschaft <span class="hlt">und</span> Technik immer wieder befasst, werden im Folgenden vorgestellt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242301','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/242301"><span>Toxicity evaluation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures using Microtox</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thompkins, J.; Guthrie, E.; Pfaender, F.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are produced from both natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are known to be toxic and carcinogenic, are prevalent at many hazardous waste sites, and pose a potential risk to both ecological and human health. To date, few researchers have assessed the toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) mixtures. The toxicity of chrysene, anthracene, pyrene, phenanthrene, fluoranthrene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and naphthalene were evaluated using Microtox, and acute toxicity assay that uses bioluminescent bacteria, Photobacterium phosphoreum, to measure toxicity. In this study, the toxicities of 2, 3, and 4 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were determined for individual compounds. Synergistic or additive effects of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures was assessed by comparing the toxicity of mixtures with that of pure compounds. Each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> or mixture was evaluated at their respective water solubility concentrations, For individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tested, the toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is inversely related to water solubility. Mixtures of two and three <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with disparate water solubilities resulted in synergistic interactions. Antagonistic interactions, a decrease in toxicity, were observed for mixtures of similar water solubilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/572355','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/572355"><span>Bacterial biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and potential effects of surfactants on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aitken, M.D.; Grimberg, S.J.; Nagel, J.; Nagel, R.D.; Stringfellow, W.T.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>The purposes of this project were to evaluate whether indigenous microorganisms from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-contaminated soils produce surfactants (biosurfactants) as a means of enhancing the bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>; to improve the understanding of the general physiology of a diverse group of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria; and to study in general how surfactants influence the biodegradation of hydrophobic chemicals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732184','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2732184"><span>Occupational <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62225&keyword=low+AND+trophic+AND+levels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84602763&CFTOKEN=88228772','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=62225&keyword=low+AND+trophic+AND+levels&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84602763&CFTOKEN=88228772"><span><span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN THE LAKE MICHIGAN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Lake Michigan Aquatic Ecosystem. Fernandez, JD*, Burkhard, LP, Cook, PM, Nichols, JW, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, Duluth MN. In this study, we are investigating the accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Lake Michigan food web. Focusing on EPA's 16 "Priority Po...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H41A1008V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H41A1008V"><span>Pavement Sealcoat, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and the Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Recent research by the USGS has identified coal-tar-based pavement sealants as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to the environment. Coal-tar-based sealcoat is commonly used to coat parking lots and driveways and is typically is 20-35 percent coal tar pitch, a known human carcinogen. Several <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are suspected mutagens, carcinogens, and (or) teratogens. In the central and eastern U.S. where the coal-tar-based sealants dominate use, sum-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in dust particles from sealcoated pavement is about 1,000 times higher than in the western U.S. where the asphalt-based formulation is prevalent. Source apportionment modeling indicates that particles from sealcoated pavement are contributing the majority of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to recent lake sediment in 35 U.S. urban lakes and are the primary cause of upward trends in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in many of these lakes. Mobile particles from parking lots with coal-tar-based sealcoat are tracked indoors, resulting in elevated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in house dust. In a recently completed study, volatilization fluxes of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sealcoated pavement were estimated to be about 60 times fluxes from unsealed pavement. Using a wide variety of methods, the author and colleagues have shown that coal-tar-based sealcoat is a major source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to the urban environment and might pose risks to aquatic life and human health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003610&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960003610&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Airborne and laboratory studies of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Hudgins, D. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>A brief history of the observations which have led to the hypothesis that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s) are the carriers of the widespread interstellar emission features near 3050, 1615, '1300' and 890 cm(exp -1) (3.29, 6.2, '7.7', and 11.2 mu m) is presented. The central role of airborne spectroscopy is stressed. The principal reason for the assignment to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s was the resemblance of the interstellar emission spectrum to the laboratory absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-like materials. Since precious little information was available on the properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in the forms that are thought to exist under interstellar conditions -isolated and ionized in the emission zones, with the smallest <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s being dehydrogenated- there was a need for a spectral data base on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s taken in these states. Here, the relevant infrared spectroscopic properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s will be reviewed. These laboratory spectra show that relative band intensities are severely altered and that band frequencies shift. It is shown that these new data alleviate several of the spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/437364','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/437364"><span>Desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>) from calcite and quartz sediments to seawater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutton, P.L.; Van Vleet, E.S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>) are ubiquitous hydrophobic organic pollutants in the marine environment. Many of the PAM`s are classified as possible carcinogens or mutagens, therefore they are of considerable concern to human and environmental health. The highest concentrations are found in coastal regions due to anthropogenic activities including oil spills, tanker operations, incomplete fossil fuel combustion and runoff. The sources and distribution of PAM`s in sediments are fairly well known, while the fate and transport of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in the marine environment are less known. Desorption is an important factor influencing the fate and transport of hydrophobic molecules at the seawater/sediment interface. The desorption of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> from contaminated marine sediments to the water column/pore water affects the availability of the pollutant to biota. The sorption of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> is determined in part by the organic carbon content of the sediments. The presence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water column may also influence sorption of hydrophobic molecules. DOC may play an important role in the fate and transport of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in coastal regions where DOC concentrations are highest. This study presents the results of the desorption of nine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sediments to seawater. Factors observed included carbon content of sediments, sediment mineralogy, fulvic acid addition to seawater and dissolved organic carbon in seawater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005621','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005621"><span>Infrared fluorescence from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cherchneff, Isabelle; Barker, John R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Several celestial objects, including UV rich regions of planetary and reflection nebulae, stars, H II regions, and extragalactic sources, are characterized by the unidentified infrared emission bands (UIR bands). A few years ago, it was proposed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon species (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are responsible for most of the UIR bands. This hypothesis is based on a spectrum analysis of the observed features. Comparisons of observed IR spectra with lab absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> support the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis. An example spectrum is represented, where the Orion Bar 3.3 micron spectrum is compared with the absorption frequencies of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Chrysene, Pyrene, and Coronene. The laser excited 3.3 micron emission spectrum is presented from a gas phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (azulen). The infrared fluorescence theory (IRF) is briefly explained, followed by a description of the experimental apparatus, a report of the results, and discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255657','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4255657"><span>Multimedia Model for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and Nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Lake Michigan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in the U.S. Great Lakes has long been of concern, but information regarding the current sources, distribution, and fate of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination is lacking, and very little information exists for the potentially more toxic nitro-derivatives of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs). This study uses fugacity, food web, and Monte Carlo models to examine 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and five NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and to derive <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH emission estimates. Good agreement was found between predicted and measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in air, but concentrations in water and sediment were generally under-predicted, possibly due to incorrect parameter estimates for degradation rates, discharges to water, or inputs from tributaries. The food web model matched measurements of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≥5 rings) in lake trout, but lighter <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (≤4 rings) were overpredicted, possibly due to overestimates of metabolic half-lives or gut/gill absorption efficiencies. Derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission rates peaked in the 1950s, and rates now approach those in the mid-19th century. The derived emission rates far exceed those in the source inventories, suggesting the need to reconcile differences and reduce uncertainties. Although additional measurements and physiochemical data are needed to reduce uncertainties and for validation purposes, the models illustrate the behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs in Lake Michigan, and they provide useful and potentially diagnostic estimates of emission rates. PMID:25373871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010tcmi.book..135H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010tcmi.book..135H"><span>Tipps <span class="hlt">und</span> Tricks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk</p> <p></p> <p>Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar <span class="hlt">und</span> sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlgm.book..229W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlgm.book..229W"><span>Arbeitsgestaltung <span class="hlt">und</span> Mitarbeiterqualifizierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin</p> <p></p> <p>Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene <span class="hlt">und</span> potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022423','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022423"><span>Urban sprawl leaves its <span class="hlt">PAH</span> signature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Furlong, E.T.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by previous coring studies that reported decreasing concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> after reaching highs in the 1950s. Concurrent with the increase in concentrations is a change in the assemblage of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that indicates the increasing trends are driven by combustion sources. The increase in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations tracks closely with increases in automobile use, even in watersheds that have not undergone substantial changes in urban land-use levels since the 1970s.The increasing vehicle traffic associated with urban sprawl in the United States is frequently linked to degradation of air quality, but its effect on aquatic sediment is less well-recognized. This study evaluates trends in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, a group of contaminants with multiple urban sources, in sediment cores from 10 reservoirs and lakes in six U.S. metropolitan areas. The watersheds chosen represent a range in degree and age of urbanization. Concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in all 10 reservoirs and lakes increased during the past 20-40 years. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination of the most recently deposited sediment at all sites exceeded sediment-quality guidelines established by Environment Canada, in some cases by several orders of magnitude. These results add a new chapter to the story told by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60633&keyword=nicotine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89983692&CFTOKEN=25182887','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60633&keyword=nicotine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89983692&CFTOKEN=25182887"><span>SOURCES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE <span class="hlt">PAH</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Personal exposures to airborne particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were studied in several populations in the US, Japan, and Czech Republic. Personal exposure monitors, developed for human exposure biomonitoring studies were used to collect fine particles (<_ 1....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452055"><span>Amphibian responses to photoinduced toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hatch, A.C.; Burton, G.A. Jr.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Amphibians are essential components of many ecosystems, yet little information exists on their sensitivity to environmental stressors. Recent evidence shows amphibian diversity is declining. Others have suggested this decline is a result of increasing ultraviolet (UV) light levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are widespread pollutants in the aquatic environment and their toxicity is increased in the presence of UV light. Embryos of two frogs (Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis) were exposed to a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, fluoranthene, to evaluate amphibian responses to this common contaminant in the presence of sunlight. Hatching rate and development were measured in field and laboratory exposures at multiple concentrations and varying UV intensities. Hatching rate was relatively unaffected, while newly hatched larvae were sensitive to low (ug/L) concentrations. Response was related to both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and UV intensity. Results suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in the aquatic environment may contribute to declines in amphibian populations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005623','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005623"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the laboratory and interstellar space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Flickinger, Gregory C.; Boyd, David A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The theory that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are a constituent of the interstellar medium, and a source of the IR emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 microns is being studied using <span class="hlt">PAH</span> containing acid insoluble residue of the Orgueil CI meteorite and coal tar. FTIR spectra of Orgueil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> material that has undergone thermal treatment, and a solvent insoluble fraction of coal tar that has been exposed to hydrogen plasma are presented. The UV excided luminescence spectrum of a solvent soluble coal tar film is also shown. Comparison of the lab measurements with observations appears to support the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> theory, and shows the process of dehydrogenation expected to take place in the interstellar medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=101420','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=101420"><span>Isolation of Adherent Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-Degrading Bacteria Using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Sorbing Carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bastiaens, Leen; Springael, Dirk; Wattiau, Pierre; Harms, Hauke; deWachter, Rupert; Verachtert, Hubert; Diels, Ludo</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-utilizing bacteria from <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Both techniques were successful, but selected from the same source different bacterial strains able to grow on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as the sole source of carbon and energy. The liquid enrichment mainly selected for Sphingomonas spp., whereas the membrane method exclusively led to the selection of Mycobacterium spp. Furthermore, in separate membrane enrichment set-ups with different membrane types, three repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-related Mycobacterium strains were recovered. The new Mycobacterium isolates were strongly hydrophobic and displayed the capacity to adhere strongly to different surfaces. One strain, Mycobacterium sp. LB501T, displayed an unusual combination of high adhesion efficiency and an extremely high negative charge. This strain may represent a new bacterial species as suggested by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These results indicate that the provision of hydrophobic sorbents containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the enrichment procedure discriminated in favor of certain bacterial characteristics. The new isolation method is appropriate to select for adherent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, which might be useful to biodegrade sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils and sludge. PMID:10788347</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20075757','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20075757"><span>Isolation of adherent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-degrading bacteria using <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sorbing carriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bastiaens, L.; Springael, D.; Wattiau, P.; Harms, H.; DeWachter, R.; Verachtert, H.; Diels, L.</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Two different procedures were compared to isolate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-utilizing bacteria from <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil and sludge samples, i.e., (i) shaken enrichment cultures in liquid mineral medium in which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were supplied as crystals and (ii) a new method in which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders were enriched on and recovered from hydrophobic membranes containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Both techniques were successful, but selected from the same source different bacterial strains able to grow on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as the sole source of carbon and energy. The liquid enrichment mainly selected for Sphingomonas spp., whereas the membrane method exclusively led to the selection of Mycobacterium spp. Furthermore, in separate membrane enrichment set-ups with different membrane types, three repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR-related Mycobacterium strains were recovered. The new Mycobactereium isolates were strongly hydrophobic and displayed the capacity to adhere strongly to different surfaces. One strain, Mycobacterium sp. LB501T, displayed an unusual combination of high adhesion efficiency and an extremely high negative charge. This strain may represent a new bacterial species as suggested by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These results indicate that the provision of hydrophobic sorbents containing sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the enrichment procedure discriminated in favor of certain bacterial characteristics. The new isolation method is appropriate to select for adherent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, which might be useful to biodegrade sorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils and sludge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22940734"><span>Microbial diversity and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catabolic genes tracking spatial heterogeneity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bengtsson, Göran; Törneman, Niklas; De Lipthay, Julia R; Sørensen, Søren J</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We analyzed the within-site spatial heterogeneity of microbial community diversity, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) catabolic genotypes, and physiochemical soil properties at a creosote contaminated site. Genetic diversity and community structure were evaluated from an analysis of denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified sequences of 16S rRNA gene. The potential <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation capability was determined from PCR amplification of a suit of aromatic dioxygenase genes. Microbial diversity, evenness, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> genotypes were patchily distributed, and hot and cold spots of their distribution coincided with hot and cold spots of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distribution. The analyses revealed a positive covariation between microbial diversity, biomass, evenness, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration, implying that the creosote contamination at this site promotes diversity and abundance. Three patchily distributed <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading genotypes, NAH, phnA, and pdo1, were identified, and their abundances were positively correlated with the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and the fraction of soil organic carbon. The covariation of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration with the number and spatial distribution of catabolic genotypes suggests that a field site capacity to degrade <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may vary with the extent of contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492807','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4492807"><span>Metabolomic analysis to define and compare the effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in developing zebrafish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elie, Marc R.; Choi, Jaewoo; Nkrumah-Elie, Yasmeen M.; Gonnerman, Gregory D.; Stevens, Jan F.; Tanguay, Robert L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their oxygenated derivatives are ubiquitously present in diesel exhaust, atmospheric particulate matter and soils sampled in urban areas. Therefore, inhalation or non-dietary ingestion of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are major routes of exposure for people; especially young children living in these localities. While there has been extensive research on the parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, limited studies exist on the biological effects of oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> which have been shown to be more soluble and more mobile in the environment. Additionally, investigations comparing the metabolic responses resulting from parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exposures have not been reported. To address these current gaps, an untargeted metabolomics approach was conducted to examine the in vivo metabolomic profiles of developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 4 µM of benz[a]anthracene (BAA) or benz[a]anthracene-7, 12-dione (BAQ). By integrating multivariate, univariate and pathway analyses, a total of 62 metabolites were significantly altered after 5 days of exposure. The marked perturbations revealed that both BAA and BAQ affect protein biosynthesis, mitochondrial function, neural development, vascular development and cardiac function. Our previous transcriptomic and genomic data were incorporated in this metabolomics study to provide a more comprehensive view of the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and oxy-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures on vertebrate development. PMID:26001975</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pmmt.book..461B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pmmt.book..461B"><span>Wirkstoffe, Medikamente <span class="hlt">und</span> Mathematische Bildverarbeitung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis</p> <p></p> <p>Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig <span class="hlt">und</span> teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- <span class="hlt">und</span> Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen <span class="hlt">und</span> anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010084624&hterms=infrared+absorption+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Babsorption%2Bspectroscopy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010084624&hterms=infrared+absorption+spectroscopy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dinfrared%2Babsorption%2Bspectroscopy"><span>Molecular Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are thought to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A long-term laboratory effort has been undertaken to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these carbon molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The laboratory results will be discussed as well as the implications for astronomy and for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. We will also present the new generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a closer simulation of space environments and a better support to space missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5218193','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5218193"><span>Developing strategies for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and TCE bioremediation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahaffey, W.R.; Nelson, M.; Kinsella, J. ); Compeau, G. )</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Bioremediation is the controlled use of microbes, commonly bacteria and fungi, to reclaim soil and water contaminated with substances that are deleterious to human health and the environment. The organisms used often naturally inhabit the polluted matrix; however, they may inhabit a different environment and be used as seed organisms because of their ability to degrade a specific class of substances. It is because of the wide diversity of microbial metabolic potential that bioremediation is possible. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are organic compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. They are present in fossil fuels and are formed during the incomplete combustion of organic material. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibit low volatility and low aqueous solubility. As the molecular weight of these compounds increases, there is an exponential decrease in solubility and volatility. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tend to adsorb onto soils and sediments because of their hydrophobic character, which is an intrinsic function of molecular size. The microbial degradation of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by pure cultures and mixed populations occurs under a wide range of soil types and environmental conditions. Generally, the factors having the greatest influence on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation rates are soil moisture content, pH, inorganic nutrients present, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loading rates, initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, and the presence of an acclimated microbial population. Feasibility studies are essential for developing a bioremediation strategy and are performed in a phased testing program that is designed to accomplish a number of objectives. These objectives include establishing an indigenous microbial population that will degrade specific contaminants, defining the rate-limiting factors for enhanced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation and the optimal treatment in terms of rates and cleanup levels attainable, and developing design parameters for field operations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010087124&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010087124&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Laboratory Studies of Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Analogs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are now considered to be an important and ubiquitous component of the organic material in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found in a large variety of extraterrestrial materials such as interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and meteoritic materials. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also good candidates to account for the infrared emission bands (UIRs) and the diffuse interstellar optical absorption bands (DIBs) detected in various regions of the interstellar medium. The recent observations made with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have confirmed the ubiquitous nature of the UIR bands and their carriers. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are though to form through chemical reactions in the outflow from carbon-rich stars in a process similar to soot formation. Once injected in the interstellar medium, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are further processed by the interstellar radiation field, interstellar shocks and energetic particles. A major, dedicated, laboratory effort has been undertaken over the past years to measure the physical and chemical characteristics of these complex molecules and their ions under experimental conditions that mimic the interstellar conditions. These measurements require collision-free conditions where the molecules and ions are cold and chemically isolated. The spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under controlled conditions represents an essential diagnostic tool to study the evolution of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The Astrochemistry Laboratory program will be discussed through its multiple aspects: objectives, approach and techniques adopted, adaptability to the nature of the problem(s), results and implications for astronomy as well as for molecular spectroscopy. A review of the data generated through laboratory simulations of space environments and the role these data have played in our current understanding of the properties of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> will be presented. The discussion will also introduce the newest generation of laboratory experiments that are currently being developed in order to provide a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970007848&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970007848&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in the Orion Bar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bregman, Jesse; Sloan, G. C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s) in the Orion Bar region is investigated using a combination of narrow-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. The goal was to study how the strength of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands vary with spatial position in this edge-on photo-dissociation region. The specific focus here is how these variations constrain the carrier of the 3.4 micron band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ascl.soft10009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ascl.soft10009S"><span>PAHFIT: Properties of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, J. D.; Draine, Bruce</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>PAHFIT is an IDL tool for decomposing Spitzer IRS spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission sources, with a special emphasis on the careful recovery of ambiguous silicate absorption, and weak, blended dust emission features. PAHFIT is primarily designed for use with full 5-35 micron Spitzer low-resolution IRS spectra. PAHFIT is a flexible tool for fitting spectra, and you can add or disable features, compute combined flux bands, change fitting limits, etc., without changing the code. PAHFIT uses a simple, physically-motivated model, consisting of starlight, thermal dust continuum in a small number of fixed temperature bins, resolved dust features and feature blends, prominent emission lines (which themselves can be blended with dust features), as well as simple fully-mixed or screen dust extinction, dominated by the silicate absorption bands at 9.7 and 18 microns. Most model components are held fixed or are tightly constrained. PAHFIT uses Drude profiles to recover the full strength of dust emission features and blends, including the significant power in the wings of the broad emission profiles. This means the resulting feature strengths are larger (by factors of 2-4) than are recovered by methods which estimate the underlying continuum using line segments or spline curves fit through fiducial wavelength anchors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160013262"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Spectroscopy: Past, Present and Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattioda, Andrew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since their discovery in the 1970's, astronomers, astrophysicists and astrochemists have been intrigued by the nearly ubiquitous unidentified infrared emission (UIR) bands. In the 1980's, investigators determined the most probably source of these emissions was a family of molecules known as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or simply <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In order to better understand these interstellar IR features and utilize them as chemical probes of the cosmos, laboratory spectroscopists have spent the last three decades investigating the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under astrophysically relevant conditions. This presentation will discuss the similarities and differences in the spectroscopic properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as one goes from the Far to Mid to Near infrared wavelength regions and probe the changes observed in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra as they go from neutral to ionized molecules suspended in an inert gas matrix, to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a water ice matrix and as a thin film. In selected instances, the experimental results will be compared to theoretical values. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on the future directions of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectroscopy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244887','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/244887"><span>Biomarkers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, J.; Robinson, R.; Solomon, K.; Hodson, P.; Rao, S.; Day, K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are mutagenic and carcinogenic, and some may cause reproductive toxicity in fish. The purpose of this study is to develop biomarkers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> effects on fathead minnows (P. promelas). Mesocosms will be treated with the wood preservative creosote (composition is ca. 80% as <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The authors anticipate that metabolism of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by fish will generate free radicals that damage DNA and cause liver tumors. Rainbow trout (RBT) (0. mykiss) and fathead minnows (FHM) will be exposed to a range of waterborne creosote concentrations below the LC,, values (5.66 mg/L for RBT and 5.97 mg/L for FHM). Fish liver, muscle, intestine, and bile will be removed to measure (1) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biotransformation (EROD activity and concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in bile), (2) oxidative stress (retinoic acid, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels), and (3) genotoxicity (micronucleus induction, DNA strand breaks, and DNA adducts). Biomarkers will be considered suitable for application when results are repeatable, show exposure dependency, and respond at sublethal concentrations typical of contaminated ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vocabulary+AND+englisch&pg=2&id=EJ179367','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vocabulary+AND+englisch&pg=2&id=EJ179367"><span>Die Besonderheiten der Aussprache des amerikanischen Englisch <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Vermittlung in Lehrwerken (Peculiarities of American English Pronunciation and their Treatment in Teaching Texts)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dahlmann-Resing, Guenther</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Divides American (Midwestern) sounds into 10 categories, and describes their pronunciation on the basis of Daniel Jones'"English Pronuncing Dictionary." Also describes American peculiarities of intonation, rhythm and nasalization. A list of words differing in pronunciation from British is added. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burkhard&pg=3&id=EJ584364','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=burkhard&pg=3&id=EJ584364"><span>Learning by Doing--Piagets konstruktivistische Lerntheorie <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Konsequenzen fur die padagogische Praxis (Learning by Doing--Piaget's Constructivist Learning Theory and Its Consequences for Pedagogical Practice).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vollmers, Burkhard</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Presents Jean Piaget's theory of genetic recognition, one of the first constructivist learning theories. Examines critically the relationship of the theory to present-day teaching and learning research, pedagogical practice, and other forms of constructivism. Asserts that one practical application of Piaget's learning theory would be to teach by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2254560B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2254560B"><span>Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large <span class="hlt">PAH</span> family, i.e. Deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, they might be accommodated in large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bumg.book..183K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bumg.book..183K"><span>Zusammenfassung <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausblick</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knopp, Lothar; Wiegleb, Gerhard</p> <p></p> <p>Mit dem vorliegenden Buch wird als Ergebnis eines durch die Deutsche BundesstiftungUmwelt (DBU) geförderten Forschungsprojektes an der Brandenburgischen Technischen Universität Cottbus eine erste Standardisierung der Vorgehensweise zur Erfassung, Risikoabschätzung <span class="hlt">und</span> Bewertung eines Biodiversitätsschadens nach dem Umweltschadensgesetz (USchadG) vorgelegt. Damit kann eine erste Bewertung potentieller Schadenssituationen vorgenommen werden. Die Nutzung der hier erarbeiteten Vorgehensweise bietet sich daher für all diejenigen an, die mit der Frage einer möglichen Haftung für Biodiversitätsschäden nach dem USchadG konfrontiert sind, seien es die Unteren <span class="hlt">und</span> Oberen Naturschutzbehörden der Länder, die Schadensversicherer, die potentiell Haftenden oder die Naturschutzverbände.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25113181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25113181"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dynamics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination on soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020074','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810020074"><span>Design, development, and field testing of Infrared Heterodyne Radiometer (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) for remote profiling of tropospheric and stratospheric species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lange, R.; Savage, M.; Peyton, B.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The performance of a dual-channel infrared heterodyne radiometer, designed to remotely monitor the concentration and vertical distribution of selected atmospheric species, is described. Ground based solar viewing measurement using the <span class="hlt">IHR</span> were performed at selected laser transitions for ammonia (NH3 and ozone O3). Flight tests were conducted aboard the Galileo II, NASA Ames CV-990, on the Latitude Survey Mission. Ozone was the selected atmospheric species for the airborne flight measurements because of the scientific interest in this atmospheric species, the availability of in situ monitors, the coordinated ozone measurements, and the availability of ground truth data. The IHS was operated in the solar viewing mode to determine ozone distributions in the stratosphere and in the nadir viewing mode to determine the ozone distribution in the troposphere. Airborne atmospheric propagation measurements also were carried out at selected CO2 laser transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15547964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15547964"><span>Performance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission from bituminous coal combustion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yan, Jian-Hua; You, Xiao-Fang; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Yin, Xue-Feng; Cen, Ke-Fa</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (16 high priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formation. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formation (especially the multi-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during coal combustion.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.183..322R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.183..322R"><span>Composition and size distribution of airborne particulate <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in two Chinese megacities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ren, Yanqin; Zhou, Bianhong; Tao, Jun; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Can; Wang, Jiayuan; Li, Jianjun; Zhang, Lu; Han, Yanni; Liu, Lang; Cao, Cong; Wang, Gehui</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Concentrations and compositions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) in four size ranges of ambient particles (< 1.1, 1.1-3.3, 3.3-9.0 and > 9.0 μm) collected in Xi'an and Guangzhou, two megacities of China, during the winter and summer of 2013 were measured and compared with those in 2003. The TSP-equivalent concentrations of Σ14<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Xi'an and Guangzhou are 57 ± 20 and 18 ± 23 ng m- 3 in winter, 5-10 times higher than those in summer. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in both cities are dominated by 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. In contrast, they are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter, probably due to enhanced gas-to-particle phase partitioning of the semi-volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. TSP-equivalent Σ7OPAHs during winter are 54 ± 15 and 23 ± 32 ng m- 3 in Xi'an and Guangzhou and dominated by 5-ring OPAHs. Size distribution results showed that the fine modes (< 3.3 μm) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs in both cities are dominated by 4- and 5-ring congeners in winter and 5- and 6-ring congeners in summer. Relative abundances of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs increased along with an increase in particle sizes, accounting for from about 1% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> or OPAHs in the smallest particles (< 1.1 μm) to > 90% of the total in the largest particles (> 9.0 μm). The toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> assessment indicated that atmospheric particles in Xi'an and Guangzhou during winter are much more toxic than those during summer and fine particles are more toxic than coarse particles. Compared to those in 2003, fine particulate <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs in both cities during winter decreased by 50-90%, most likely due to the replacement of coal by natural gas in the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5644953','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5644953"><span>Pyropheophorbide <span class="hlt">und</span> a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll <span class="hlt">und</span> a degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}, pheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} and pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} was observed. HydroxyChl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}, chlorophyllide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}, pheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a} and pyropheophorbide {<span class="hlt">und</span> a}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASInC...3..127M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ASInC...3..127M"><span>Infrared emission modeling for vinyl <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maurya, Anju; Rastogi, Shantanu</p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules are source of the infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, 12.7 and 16.4 microns that are ubiquitously observed in diverse astrophysical objects. There are variations in the profile of these emission features between sources ranging from star forming regions to late type stars and also extra galactic sources. The profile variations point towards the presence of a variety of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in different population in different objects. In order to simulate the emission spectra from different sources the vibrational spectra of a wide variety of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules have been studied. The modeled emission spectra gives good match for some bands but simultaneous fit for all features is not obtained. In particular the 6.2 micron feature, assigned to C-C stretch mode, is not fitted well. We therefore also study <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with vinyl side groups. Quantum chemical calculations using DFT/B3LYP in conjugation with optimum basis are performed to obtain the IR spectra of vinyl <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Modeling of emission is done assuming excitation by a UV photon and cascade emission through vibrational levels that are obtained theoretically. It is expected that due to the presence of C = C in vinyl group the aromatic C-C might shift closer to 6.2 micron. A closer match with the observed spectra will provide a better insight about the physical conditions and molecular evolution in the object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184202&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184202&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>A Search for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Astrophysical Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, F.; Cami, J.; Tan, X.; Biennier, L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We present the results of a dedicated search for the spectral signatures in the visible range of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in astronomical observations representing various astrophysical environments, probing a total column of line of sight material corresponding to Av=50. Laboratory measurements of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in simulated astrophysical conditions are now available (see contribution of Salama et al.) which provide for the first time the exact wavelengths for the spectral features of these molecules, as well as detailed information on the intrinsic line profiles and oscillator strengths. These measurements therefore allow a direct comparison to astronomical observations and an estimate of, or upper limit to, the abundance of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in space. As the column densities for individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in interstellar or circumstellar lines of sight are expected to be very low, such a comparison and analysis requires astronomical observations at very high signal to noise. We present such a data set here for lines of sight representing diffuse clouds and circumstellar environments of carbon stars, and their comparison with gas phase spectra of a representative set of free, cold <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14712D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14712D"><span>Airborne Measurements of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s across Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davison, B.; Jaward, F.; Jones, K.; Lee, R.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric measurements of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were taken aboard the DRL Falcon 20 during May 2001. A sampling system was designed to work aboard this aircraft platform. Particulate <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were collected on a glass fiber filter (GFF) with their gaseous component concentrated on a polyurethane foam sheets located behind the filter. Typically sampling volumes of between 20-50m^3 were collected which equated to a collection time of about 30minutes. In this way the distance travelled was kept within an acceptable level, about 60 nautical miles. The average concentrations of the data set for phenanthrene was 450 pg m-3 while values for many of the heavier <span class="hlt">PAH</span> marker compounds used in the UK such as benzo(a)pyrene, diben(ah)anthracene were below the detection limits on all flights. The results will be discussed with consideration of location, altitude and airmass trajectory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045778&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900045778&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>On the driving force of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frenklach, Michael</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The kinetic factors affecting the production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in high-temperature pyrolysis and combustion environments are analyzed. A lumped kinetic model representing polymerization-type growth by one irreversible step and two reversible steps is considered. It is shown that at high temperatures, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> growth is controlled by the superequilibrium of hydrogen atoms; at low temperatures and low H2 concentrations, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> growth rate is proportional to the rate of the H-abstraction of a hydrogen atom from aromatic molecules; while at low temperatures and high H2 concentrations, it is controlled by the thermodynamics of the H-abstraction and the kinetics of acetylene addition to aromatic radicals. The presence of oxygen mainly affects the small-molecule reactions during the induction period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26122564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26122564"><span>Influence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> among other coastal environmental variables on total and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacterial communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sauret, Caroline; Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Dumas, Chloé; Lami, Raphaël; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Conan, Pascal; Goutx, Madeleine; Ghiglione, Jean-François</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) among biogeochemical variables on total, metabolically active, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bacterial communities in summer and winter in surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface seawaters (SSW) across short transects along the NW Mediterranean coast from three harbors, one wastewater effluent, and one nearshore observatory reference site. At both seasons, significant correlations were found between dissolved total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria that formed a gradient from the shore to nearshore waters. Accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders was particularly high in the SML, where <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accumulated. Harbors and wastewater outfalls influenced drastically and in a different way the total and active bacterial community structure, but they only impacted the communities from the nearshore zone (<2 km from the shore). By using direct multivariate statistical analysis, we confirmed the significant effect of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations on the spatial and temporal dynamic of total and active communities in this area, but this effect was putted in perspective by the importance of other biogeochemical variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25543159"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives (alkyl-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, oxygenated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitrated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and azaarenes) in urban road dusts from Xi'an, Central China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Chong; Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Han, Yongming; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Wilcke, Wolfgang</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Urban road dusts are carriers of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) and are therefore considered to be a major source of contamination of other environmental compartments and a source of exposure to PACs for urban populations. We determined the occurrence, composition pattern and sources of several PACs (29 alkyl- and parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, 15 oxygenated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), and 11 nitrated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs)) in twenty urban road dusts and six suburban surface soils (0-5cm) from Xi'an, central China. The average concentrations of ∑29<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, ∑4AZAs, ∑15OPAHs, and ∑11NPAHs were 15767, 673, 4754, and 885 n gg(-1) in road dusts and 2067, 784, 854, and 118 ng g(-1) in surface soils, respectively. The concentrations of most individual PACs were higher in street dusts than suburban soils, particularly for PACs with molecular weight>192 g mol(-1). The enrichment factors of individual PACs were significantly positively correlated with log KOA and log KOW, indicating an increasing deposition and co-sorption of the PACs in urban dusts with decreasing volatility and increasing hydrophobicity. Significant correlations between the concentrations of individual and sum of PACs, carbon fractions (soot and char), and source-characteristic PACs (combustion-derived <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and retene, etc.), indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, OPAHs and AZAs were mostly directly emitted from combustion activities and had similar post-emission fates, but NPAHs were possibly more intensely photolyzed after deposition as well as being emitted from vehicle exhaust sources. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) resulting from exposure to urban dust bound-PACs was higher than 10(-6), indicating a non-negligible cancer risk to residents of Xi'an.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086156','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28086156"><span>Effects of different agricultural wastes on the dissipation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading genes in a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Xuemei; Hu, Hangwei; Shi, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Limei; He, Jizheng</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Land application of agricultural wastes is considered as a promising bioremediation approach for cleaning up soils contaminated by aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). However, it remains largely unknown about how microbial <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degraders, which play a key role in the biodegradation of soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, respond to the amendments of agricultural wastes. Here, a 90-day soil microcosm study was conducted to compare the effects of three agricultural wastes (i.e. WS, wheat stalk; MCSW, mushroom cultivation substrate waste; and CM, cow manure) on the dissipation of aged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the abundance and community structure of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading microorganisms. The results showed that all the three agricultural wastes accelerated the dissipation of aged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and significantly increased abundances of the bacterial 16S rRNA and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading genes (i.e. pdo1 and nah). CM and MCSW with lower ratios of C:N eliminated soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> more efficiently than WS with a high ratio of C:N. Low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were dissipated more quickly than those with high molecular weight. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all of the nah and C12O clones were affiliated within Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and application of agricultural wastes significantly changed the community structure of the microorganisms harboring nah and C12O genes, particularly in the CM treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that the three tested agricultural wastes could accelerate the degradation of aged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> most likely through changing the abundances and community structure of microbial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008haau.book..491A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008haau.book..491A"><span>Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung <span class="hlt">und</span> Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm</p> <p></p> <p>Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne <span class="hlt">und</span> Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479375"><span>Effect of sorption and substrate pattern on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ressler, B.P.; Kaempf, C.; Winter, J.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The effect of sorption and the substrate pattern on the degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated silt in a slurry reactor was investigated. Biological degradation of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds sorbed to silt and clay particles was enhanced in the presence of low-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In soil suspensions containing silt contaminated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds of different molecular weights, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> containing four aromatic rings were degraded more readily in the presence of naphthalene. Bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was correlated to the water solubility of different compounds; a significant limitation of bacterial growth and activity due to sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to the fine particles could not be observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300578','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21300578"><span>THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF VERY LARGE IRREGULAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>): OBSERVATIONAL PROBES OF ASTRONOMICAL <span class="hlt">PAH</span> GEOMETRY, SIZE, AND CHARGE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Peeters, Els; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: epeeters@uwo.ca</p> <p>2009-05-20</p> <p>The mid-infrared (IR) spectra of six large, irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with formulae (C{sub 84}H{sub 24}-C{sub 120}H{sub 36}) have been computed using density functional theory (DFT). Trends in the dominant band positions and intensities are compared to those of large, compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as a function of geometry, size, and charge. Irregular edge moieties that are common in terrestrial <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as bay regions and rings with quartet hydrogens, are shown to be uncommon in astronomical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. As for all <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> comprised solely of C and H reported to date, mid-IR emission from irregular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> fails to produce a strong CC{sub str} band at 6.2 {mu}m, the position characteristic of the important, class A astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra. Earlier studies showed that inclusion of nitrogen within a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> shifts this to 6.2 {mu}m for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations. Here we show that this band shifts to 6.3 {mu}m in nitrogenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> anions, close to the position of the CC stretch in class B astronomical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra. Thus, nitrogenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may be important in all sources and the peak position of the CC stretch near 6.2 {mu}m appears to directly reflect the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation to anion ratio. Large irregular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibit features at 7.8 {mu}m but lack them near 8.6 {mu}m. Hence, the 7.7 {mu}m astronomical feature is produced by a mixture of small and large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> while the 8.6 {mu}m band can only be produced by large compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. As with the CC{sub str}, the position and profile of these bands reflect the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation to anion ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64856&keyword=low+AND+income+AND+families+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84654124&CFTOKEN=78865829','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64856&keyword=low+AND+income+AND+families+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=84654124&CFTOKEN=78865829"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EXPOSURES OF NINE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The exposures to 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) of 9 children, ages 2-5 yr, were measured over 48 hr at day care and at home. Sampled media included indoor and outdoor air, floor dust, outdoor play area soil, hand surface, and solid and liquid food. Urine samples ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230878','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/230878"><span>Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of selected <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> in sediments near a petroleum refinery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Arnold, W.R.; Biddinger, G.R.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Sediment samples were collected and analyzed for a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) along a gradient from a petroleum refinery`s wastewater diffuser. These data were used to calculate the potential risk to aquatic organisms using probabilistic modeling and Monte Carlo sampling procedures. Sediment chemistry data were used in conjunction with estimates of Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors and Non-Polar Narcosis Theory to predict potential risk to bivalves. Bivalves were the receptors of choice because of their lack of a well-developed enzymatic system for metabolizing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Thus, they represent a species of higher inherent risk of adverse impact. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> considered in this paper span a broad range of octanol-water partition coefficients. Results indicate negligible risk of narcotic effects from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> existing near the refinery wastewater discharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/97050','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/97050"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> on coal fly ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1995-05-09</p> <p>The major objective of this work was to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHS</span>) and their derivatives, and to attempt to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Our studies have concentrated on the photochemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed form the vapor phase on coal fly ashes, and compositional subfractions obtained therefrom. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited onto the fly ash substrates from the vapor phase, using apparatus and techniques developed in this laboratory in order to simulate, as closely as possible under laboratory conditions, the processes by which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> deposit onto fly ash particles in the atmosphere. In this report phototransformation of pyrene sorbed on fly ash fractions, and phototransformations of 1-nitropyrene sorbed on fly ash fractions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..125C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..125C"><span>Entwicklung <span class="hlt">und</span> Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ <span class="hlt">und</span> damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte <span class="hlt">und</span> damit Kraft, Macht <span class="hlt">und</span> Stärke konzentrierte <span class="hlt">und</span> einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737554','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737554"><span>Are urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lu, Sixin S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D.; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C.; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. We conclude that urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106–276 μg/m3. PMID:24754404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754404"><span>Are urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> biomarkers of controlled exposure to diesel exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Sixin S; Sobus, Jon R; Sallsten, Gerd; Albin, Maria; Pleil, Joachim D; Gudmundsson, Anders; Madden, Michael C; Strandberg, Bo; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Rappaport, Stephen M</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after exposure. Using linear mixed-effects models, we tested for effects of DE exposure and several covariates (time, age, gender and urinary creatinine) on urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. DE exposures did not significantly alter urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels. We conclude that urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are not promising biomarkers of short-term exposures to DE in the range of 106-276 µg/m(3).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3092415','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3092415"><span>Training initiatives within the AFHSC-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System: support for <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, <span class="hlt">IHR</span> (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military’s role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described. PMID:21388565</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8893E..0QK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8893E..0QK"><span>Landslide hazard assessment along a mountain highway in the Indian Himalayan Region (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) using remote sensing and computational models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishna, Akhouri P.; Kumar, Santosh</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Landslide hazard assessments using computational models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and frequency ratio (FR), were carried out covering one of the important mountain highways in the Central Himalaya of Indian Himalayan Region (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>). Landslide influencing factors were either calculated or extracted from spatial databases including recent remote sensing data of LANDSAT TM, CARTOSAT digital elevation model (DEM) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite for rainfall data. ANN was implemented using the multi-layered feed forward architecture with different input, output and hidden layers. This model based on back propagation algorithm derived weights for all possible parameters of landslides and causative factors considered. The training sites for landslide prone and non-prone areas were identified and verified through details gathered from remote sensing and other sources. Frequency Ratio (FR) models are based on observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide related factor. FR model implementation proved useful for assessing the spatial relationships between landslide locations and factors contributing to its occurrence. Above computational models generated respective susceptibility maps of landslide hazard for the study area. This further allowed the simulation of landslide hazard maps on a medium scale using GIS platform and remote sensing data. Upon validation and accuracy checks, it was observed that both models produced good results with FR having some edge over ANN based mapping. Such statistical and functional models led to better understanding of relationships between the landslides and preparatory factors as well as ensuring lesser levels of subjectivity compared to qualitative approaches.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16291565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16291565"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) ecotoxicology in marine ecosystems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hylland, Ketil</p> <p>2006-01-08</p> <p>Low levels of oil and hence polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are naturally present in the marine environment, although levels have increased significantly following human extraction and use of oil and gas. Other major anthropogenic sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> include smelters, the use of fossil fuels in general, and various methods of waste disposal, especially incineration. There are two major sources for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to marine ecosystems in Norway: the inshore smelter industry, and offshore oil and gas production activities. A distinction is generally made between petrogenic (oil-derived) and pyrogenic (combustion-derived) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Although petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> appear to be bioavailable to a large extent, pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are often associated with soot particles and less available for uptake into organisms. There is extensive evidence linking sediment-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to induction of phase-I enzymes, development of DNA adducts, and eventually neoplastic lesions in fish. Most studies have focused on high-molecular-weight, carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as benzo[a]pyrene. It is less clear how two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> affect fish, and there is even experimental evidence to indicate that these chemicals may inhibit some components of the phase I system rather than produce induction. There is a need for increased research efforts to clarify biological effects of two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures, and adaptation processes in marine ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18089292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18089292"><span>Conserved themes in target recognition by the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domains of the Sin3 transcriptional corepressor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sahu, Sarata C; Swanson, Kurt A; Kang, Richard S; Huang, Kai; Brubaker, Kurt; Ratcliff, Kathleen; Radhakrishnan, Ishwar</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>The recruitment of chromatin-modifying coregulator complexes by transcription factors to specific sites of the genome constitutes an important step in many eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory pathways. The histone deacetylase-associated Sin3 corepressor complex is recruited by a large and diverse array of transcription factors through direct interactions with the N-terminal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> domains of Sin3. Here, we describe the solution structures of the mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 domain in the apo form and when bound to SAP25, a component of the corepressor complex. Unlike the apo-mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domain, the apo-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 domain is conformationally pure and is largely, but not completely, folded. Portions of the interacting segments of both mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 and SAP25 undergo folding upon complex formation. SAP25 binds through an amphipathic helix to a predominantly hydrophobic cleft on the surface of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1. Remarkably, the orientation of the helix is reversed compared to that adopted by NRSF, a transcription factor unrelated to SAP25, upon binding to the mSin3B <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 domain. The reversal in helical orientations is correlated with a reversal in the underlying <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1-interaction motifs, echoing a theme previously described for the mSin3A <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domain. The definition of these so-called type I and type II <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1-interaction motifs has allowed us to predict the precise location of these motifs within previously experimentally characterized <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 binders. Finally, we explore the specificity determinants of protein-protein interactions involving the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 domains. These studies reveal that even conservative replacements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 residues with equivalent <span class="hlt">PAH</span>1 residues are sufficient to alter the affinity and specificity of these protein-protein interactions dramatically.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20080469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20080469"><span>Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability in soils and sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuypers, C.; Grotenhuis, T.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.</p> <p>2000-05-15</p> <p>Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to biodegradation yielded only limited additional <span class="hlt">PAH</span> oxidation. This implies that oxidation and biodegradation removed approximately the same <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fraction. Persulfate oxidation thus provides a good and rapid method for the prediction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability. Thermogravimetric analysis of oxidized and untreated samples showed that persulfate oxidation primarily affected expanded organic matter. The results indicate that this expanded organic matter contained mainly readily bioavailable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P..52B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IAUS..235P..52B"><span>Photodestruction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Planetary Nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Neves, R.; Pilling, S.; de Souza G. G., B.; Lago, A.</p> <p></p> <p>It is known that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are mainly formed in the dust shells of late stages of AGB type carbon rich stars. After the ejection of H-rich envelope those stars become the proto-planetary nebulae (PPNs). The chemistry in PPNs has been strongly modified by the UV photons coming from the hot central star and by the X-rays associated with its high-velocity winds. Benzene (C6H6) and small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> like Anthracene (C14H10) were effectively detected in the PPNs CRL 618 (Cernicharo et al. 2001) and Red Rectangle (Vijh, Witt & Gordon 2004) respectively. The goal of this work is to experimentally study photoabsorption, photoionization and photodissociation processes of the benzene, biphenyl (C12H10), naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10) and methyl-anthracene (C14H9(CH3)). The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using soft X-ray and UV photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM beamline (12-310 eV). The experimental set-up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for some molecules were also determined (see for example: Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos 2005). We have observed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecules are extreme resistant to UV photons, confirming that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> absorb the UV photons and after some internal energetic rearrangements, they can emit in the IR range. However, these molecules are destroyed by soft X-rays photons producing several ionic fragments, some of them with great kinetic energy. In the mass spectra of the Benzene and methyl-anthracene molecules, the observed ionic fragments C4H2+, C6H2+, C4HCH3 and C2HCH3, could correspond to the same</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4331345"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NITRO-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, HOPANES, AND STERANES IN LAKE TROUT FROM LAKE MICHIGAN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The present study examines concentrations and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), steranes, and hopanes in lake trout collected in Lake Michigan. A total of 74 fish were collected in 2 seasons at 3 offshore sites. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration (Σ9<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in whole fish ranged from 223 pg/g to 1704 pg/g wet weight, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and profiles were similar across season, site, and sex. The total NPAH (Σ9NPAH) concentrations ranged from 0.2 pg/g to 31 pg/g wet weight, and carcinogenic compounds, including 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene, were detected. In the fall, NPAH concentrations were low at the Illinois site (0.2–0.5 pg/g wet wt), and site profiles differed considerably; in the spring, concentrations and profiles were similar across sites, possibly reflecting changes in fish behavior. In the fall, the total sterane (Σ5Sterane) and total hopane (Σ2Hopane) levels reached 808 pg/g and 141 pg/g wet weight, respectively, but concentrations in the spring were 10 times lower. Concentrations in eggs (fall only) were on the same order of magnitude as those in whole fish. These results demonstrate the presence of target semivolatile organic compounds in a top predator fish, and are consistent with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodilution observed previously. Using the available toxicity information for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs, the expected cancer risk from consumption of lake trout sampled are low. However, NPAHs contributed a significant portion of the toxic equivalencies in some samples. The present study provides the first measurements of NPAHs in freshwater fish, and results suggest that additional assessment is warranted. PMID:24764175</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20887755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20887755"><span>Phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) from the lower eukaryote Leishmania major.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lye, Lon-Fye; Kang, Song Ok; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Casadevall, Arturo; Beverley, Stephen M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAAH) typically use tetrahydrobiopterin (H(4)B) as the cofactor. The protozoan parasite Leishmania major requires biopterin for growth and expresses strong salvage and regeneration systems to maintain H(4)B levels. Here we explored the consequences of genetic manipulation of the sole L. major phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) to explore whether it could account for the Leishmania H(4)B requirement. L. major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> resembles AAAHs of other organisms, bearing eukaryotic-type domain organization, and conservation of key catalytic residues including those implicated in pteridine binding. A <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) null mutant and an episomal complemented overexpressing derivative (<span class="hlt">pah-/+PAH</span>) were readily obtained, and metabolic labeling studies established that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was required to hydroxylate Phe to Tyr. Neither WT nor overexpressing lines were able to hydroxylate radiolabeled tyrosine or tryptophan, nor to synthesize catecholamines. WT but not <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) parasites showed reactivity with an antibody to melanin when grown with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), although the reactive product is unlikely to be melanin sensu strictu. WT was auxotrophic for Phe, Trp and Tyr, suggesting that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> activity was insufficient to meet normal Tyr requirements. However, <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) showed an increased sensitivity to Tyr deprivation, while the <span class="hlt">pah(-)/+PAH</span> overexpressor showed increased survival and could be adapted to grow well without added Tyr. <span class="hlt">pah</span>(-) showed no alterations in H(4)B-dependent differentiation, as established by in vitro metacyclogenesis, or survival in mouse or macrophage infections. Thus Leishmania <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may mitigate but not alleviate Tyr auxotrophy, but plays no essential role in the steps of the parasite infectious cycle. These findings suggest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is unlikely to explain the Leishmania requirement for biopterin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25257517"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in yogurt samples.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values <20% for all analytes. The results obtained demonstrate that acenaphthene, fluorantene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found in all samples with a similar distribution, but different content when yogurts with low and high fats were compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980206262','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980206262"><span>[<span class="hlt">PAH</span> Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Snow, Ted</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24941705','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24941705"><span>Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban treatment sludge to the air during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) penetrating into air during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal efficiencies and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the sludge during the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> amounts with UV application and 13% of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal efficiencies and the penetration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal alternative that restricts the convection of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980006840','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980006840"><span>Carbon in The Universe: <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Saykally, Richard J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Following the initial demonstration of this new technique (Science 265 1686 (1994)) and its application to a series of neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> which have been proposed as condidates for the UIRs (Nature 380, 227 (1996)), we have concentrated on two major aspects of this project. 1. Developing a detailed model for infrared emission spectra of a collection of highly excited <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules, in which experimental bandshapes and temperature-dependent redshifts are used in conjunction with ab initio vibrational frequencies and intensities to simulate the UIR bands. This shows that a collection of nine different cations (as large as ovalene) reproduce the UIR features better than do a collection of the corresponding neutrals, but a detailed match with the UIRs is not obtained. 2. Construction of SPIRES apparatus for the study of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion emission spectra. The design of this experiment is shown and described. Unfortunately a disasterous accident occurred just as we were preparing to start the testing of the ion apparatus. A vacuum implosion occurred, destroying the liquid He cooled monochromator. It has taken us nearly one full year to reconstruct this, and we arc only now in the final testing of the new system. We expect to try the ion experiments by the end of summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=james+AND+baldwin&pg=4&id=EJ173803','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=james+AND+baldwin&pg=4&id=EJ173803"><span>James Baldwin <span class="hlt">und</span> das Rassenproblem in den USA. Unterrichtsprojekt zum Komplex "Texte <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihre</span> gesellschaftliche Bedingtheit" (James Baldwin and the Race Problem in the USA. Teaching Project in the Series "Texts and their Social Context")</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerschgens, Edda</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Reports on an 18-hour teaching project with students at a teachers' college. Four Baldwin texts were used. Questions considered included whether Baldwin's treatment of the race problem reveals any changes or shifts of emphasis. Suggestions are made for adaptation to teaching in grades 11-13. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20813168"><span>Environmental stability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source indices in pyrogenic tars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Uhler, A.D.; Emsbo-Mattingly, S.D.</p> <p>2006-04-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are widespread environmental contaminants found in soil, sediments, and airborne particulates. The majority of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> found in modern soils and sediments arise from myriad anthropogenic petrogenic and pyrogenic sources. Tars and tar products such as creosote produced from the industrial pyrolysis of coal or oil at former manufactured gas plants (MGPs) or in coking retorts are viscous, oily substances that contain significant concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, usually in excess of 30% w/w. Pyrogenic tars and tar products have unique <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patterns (source signatures) that are a function of their industrial production. Among pyrogenic materials, certain diagnostic ratios of environmentally recalcitrant 4-, 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been identified as useful environmental markers for tracking the signature of tars and petroleum in the environment. The use of selected <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source ratios is based on the concept that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with similar properties (i.e., molecular weight, partial pressure, solubility, partition coefficients, and biotic/abiotic degradation) will weather at similar rates in the environment thereby yielding stable ratios. The stability of more than 30 high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios is evaluated during controlled studies of tar evaporation and aerobic biodegradation. The starting materials in these experiments consisted of relatively unweathered tars derived from coal and petroleum, respectively. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios from these laboratory studies are compared to those measured in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues found in tar-contaminated soils at a former MGP that operated with a carburetted water gas process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092351','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092351"><span>Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meloche, Jolyane; Renard, Sébastien; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pathobiology involves a remodeling process in distal pulmonary arteries, as well as vasoconstriction and in situ thrombosis, leading to enhanced pulmonary vascular resistance and pressure, to right heart failure and death. The exact mechanisms accounting for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> development remain unknown, but growing evidence demonstrate that inflammation plays a key role in triggering and maintaining pulmonary vascular remodeling. Not surprisingly, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is often associated with diverse inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, pathologic specimens from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients reveal an accumulation of inflammatory cells in and around vascular lesions, including macrophages, T and B cells, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Circulating levels of autoantibodies, chemokines, and cytokines are also increased in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients and some of these correlate with disease severity and patients' outcome. Moreover, preclinical experiments demonstrated the key role of inflammation in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pathobiology. Immunosuppressive agents have also demonstrated beneficial effects in animal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> models. In humans, observational studies suggested that immunosuppressive drugs may be effective in treating some <span class="hlt">PAH</span> subtypes associated with marked inflammation. The present chapter reviews experimental and clinical evidence suggesting that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, as well the therapeutic potential of immunosuppressive agents in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5805425','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5805425"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Studies to be carried out in this project include: (1) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (2) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives (especially nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (3) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives; (4) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of surface roughness'' of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on coal ash particles; (5) Identification of the major products of chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal ash particles, and examination of any effects that may exist of the nature of the coal ash surface on the identities of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> transformation products; and (6) Studies of the influence of other sorbed species on the chemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives on fly ash surfaces. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EAS....31..169B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EAS....31..169B"><span>CO and <span class="hlt">PAH+/PAH</span>0/VSG maps in external galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bayet, E.; Berné, O.; Joblin, C.; Gerin, M.; García-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.</p> <p></p> <p>We have performed a comparison between the molecular gas emission and the mid IR dust component emission distributions in a sample of nearby galaxies. We have compared CO maps at high spatial resolution, from Wilson et al. (2000), Bayet et al. (2004, 2006) and from Kramer et al. (2005), with the emission distributions of ionised and neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>+; <span class="hlt">PAH</span>0) and of very small grains (VSGs), obtained using signal processing methods as explained in Berné et al. (2007a) and Rapacioli et al. (2005). In M 82, we have also compared the dust emission maps with dense gas tracer maps (HCO and H13CO+ data from García-Burillo et al. 2002) as well as with shock tracer maps (SiO data from García-Burillo et al. 2001).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25668360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25668360"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from nonroad diesel engines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Z Gerald; Wall, John C; Ottinger, Nathan A; McGuffin, Dana</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>More stringent emission requirements for nonroad diesel engines introduced with U.S. Tier 4 Final and Euro Stage IV and V regulations have spurred the development of exhaust aftertreatment technologies. In this study, several aftertreatment configurations consisting of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), diesel particulate filters (DPF), Cu zeolite-, and vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and ammonia oxidation (AMOX) catalysts are evaluated using both Nonroad Transient (NRTC) and Steady (8-mode NRSC) Cycles in order to understand both component and system-level effects of diesel aftertreatment on emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). Emissions are reported for four configurations including engine-out, DOC+CuZ-SCR+AMOX, V-SCR+AMOX, and DOC+DPF+CuZ-SCR+AMOX. Mechanisms responsible for the reduction, and, in some cases, the formation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds are discussed in detail, and suggestions are provided to minimize the formation of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds through aftertreatment design optimizations. Potency equivalency factors (PEFs) developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency are then applied to determine the impact of aftertreatment on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-derived exhaust toxicity. Finally, a comprehensive set of exhaust emissions including criteria pollutants, NO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), n-alkanes, branched alkanes, saturated cycloalkanes, aromatics, aldehydes, hopanes and steranes, and metals is provided, and the overall efficacy of the aftertreatment configurations is described. This detailed summary of emissions from a current nonroad diesel engine equipped with advanced aftertreatment can be used to more accurately model the impact of anthropogenic emissions on the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009rom..book..125G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009rom..book..125G"><span>Restaurierung von Seen <span class="hlt">und</span> Renaturierung von Seeufern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte</p> <p></p> <p>Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensraum für Pflanzen <span class="hlt">und</span> Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde <span class="hlt">und</span> prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff <span class="hlt">und</span> Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste <span class="hlt">und</span> feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser <span class="hlt">und</span> tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche <span class="hlt">und</span> industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010spzo.book...53F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010spzo.book...53F"><span>Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett <span class="hlt">und</span> Muskulatur</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Martin S.</p> <p></p> <p>Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb <span class="hlt">und</span> Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich <span class="hlt">und</span> bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- <span class="hlt">und</span> Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370223"><span>Irreversible adsorption/desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediment/water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fu, G.; Kan, A.T.; Tomson, M.B.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Successive adsorption isotherm of phenanthrene on soil corresponds to a constant partition of phenanthrene between the bulk solution and solid phase. This shows that the hydrophobic reaction is a dominant mechanism in adsorption process. However, desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> appears irreversibility. Cyclic and multiple adsorption and desorption experiments indicated that there is an irreversibly adsorbed intrinsic capacity in the interaction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (naphthalene and phenanthrene) and soil in aqueous solution. This irreversible fraction for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (naphthalene and phenanthrene) is about 1000-5000 {mu}g/g normalized on the basis of soil organic carbon. The desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from soil appears biphasic when the total adsorbed capacity is greater than the intrinsic irreversibly adsorbed value. In phase, the partitioning coefficient of desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is similar to that of adsorption. However, the other mechanism may be responsible to control the release of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in phase 2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25063912"><span>Explaining <span class="hlt">PAH</span> desorption from sediments using Rock Eval analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Poot, Anton; Jonker, M T O; Gillissen, Frits; Koelmans, Albert A</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Here, we provide Rock Eval and black carbon (BC) characteristics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) distribution coefficients (KD) for sediments from the Danube, Elbe, Ebro, and Meuse river basins. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> desorption kinetic parameters were determined using sequential Tenax extractions. We show that residual carbon (RC) from Rock Eval analysis is an adequate predictor of fast, slow, and very slow desorbing fractions of 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. RC correlated better than BC, the latter constituting only 7% of RC. A dual domain sorption model was statistically superior to a single domain model in explaining KD for low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, whereas the opposite was observed for high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Because particularly the 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are bioavailable and relevant from a risk assessment perspective and because their fast desorbing fractions correlate best with RC, we recommend RC as a relevant characteristic for river sediments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467766','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/467766"><span>Bioventing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination at the Reilly Tar Site</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alleman, B.C.; Hinchee, R.E.; Brenner, R.C.; McCauley, P.T.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>A pilot-scale bioventing demonstration has been in progress since November 1992 to determine if bioventing is an effective remediation treatment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The Reilly Tar and Chemical Corporation site in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, was selected for this demonstration. The location is the site of a former coal tar refinery and wood-preserving facility at which creosote in mineral oil served as the primary preservative. The goal of the project is to achieve 10% greater <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal over background degradation for each year of the 3-year study. Respiration measurements were made to estimate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation as a means of monitoring the progress of the technology. These measurements indicated that 13.4% and 17.3% degradation of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was possible during the first year and second year, respectively. Although not all of the respiration can be attributed conclusively to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolism, strong correlations were found between the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and biodegradation rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990kut..book.....A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990kut..book.....A"><span>Kosmologie <span class="hlt">und</span> Teilchenphysik.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Appenzeller, I.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft <span class="hlt">und</span> Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970010160&hterms=Recombination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRecombination','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970010160&hterms=Recombination&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DRecombination"><span>Recombination Rates of Electrons with Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ballester, Jorge (Cartographer)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The goal of this project is to develop a general model for the recombination of electrons with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules in an interstellar environment. The model is being developed such that it can be applied to a small number of families of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> without reference to specific molecular structures. Special attention will be focused on modeling the approximately circular compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a way that only depends on the number of carbon atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010443','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3010443"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Intermediates: Links between the Atmosphere and Biological Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY; MOTORYKIN, OLEKSII; JARIYASOPIT, NARUMOL</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>China is now the world's largest emitter of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). In addition, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and their reactive intermediates, undergo trans-Pacific atmospheric transport to the Western U.S. The objectives of our research are to predict, identify and quantify novel <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates in the atmosphere and biological systems, using computational methods, as well as laboratory and field experiments. Gaussian is used to predict the thermodynamic properties of parent structure <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, as well as the associated nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy- <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates. Based on these predictions, state-of-the-art analytical chemistry techniques are used to identify and quantify these potential intermediates on Asian particulate matter before and after reaction in a continuous flow photochemical reactor. These same techniques are used to identify the relative proportion of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source regions (such as Beijing, China) and during long-range atmospheric transport to the Western U.S. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> personal exposure studies in China and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon will be used to assess the similarities and differences in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> intermediates in biological systems relative to the atmosphere. PMID:20849837</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1742E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1742E"><span>Grafted cellulose for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal present in industrial discharge waters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Euvrard, Elise; Druart, Coline; Poupeney, Amandine; Crini, Nadia; Vismara, Elena; Lanza, Tommaso; Torri, Giangiacomo; Gavoille, Sophie; Crini, Gregorio</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Keywords: cellulose; biosorbent; <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; polycontaminated wastewaters; trace levels. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), chemicals essentially formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials from anthropogenic activities, were present in all compartments of the ecosystem, air, water and soil. Notably, a part of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> found in aquatic system was introduced through industrial discharge waters. Since the Water Framework Directive has classified certain <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as priority hazardous substances, industrials are called to take account this kind of organic pollutants in their global environmental concern. Conventional materials such as activated carbons definitively proved their worth as finishing treatment systems but remained costly. In this study, we proposed to use cellulose grafted with glycidyl methacrylate [1] for the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in discharge waters of surface treatment industries. Firstly, to develop the device, we worked with synthetic solutions containing 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at 500 ng/L. Two types of grafted cellulose were tested over a closed-loop column with a concentration of 4g cellulose/L: cellulose C2 with a hydroxide group and cellulose C4 with an amine group. No <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was retained by the raw cellulose whereas abatement percentages of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were similar between C2 and C4 (94% and 98%, respectively, for the sum of the 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with an experiment duration of 400 min (corresponding to about 20 cycles through grafted cellulose). Secondly, to determine the shorter time to abate the amount maximum of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> through the system, a kinetic was realized from 20 min (one cycle) to 400 min with C4. The steady state (corresponding to about 95% of abatement of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was reached at 160 min. Finally, the system was then tested with real industrial discharge waters containing both mineral and organic compounds. The results indicated that the abatement percentage of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was similar between C2 and C4, corroborating the tests with synthetic solution. In return</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820781','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26820781"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) removal by sorption: A review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from aqueous solution and to immobilise <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19731689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19731689"><span>Unlike <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Exxon Valdez crude oil, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deepthike, Halambage Upul; Tecon, Robin; Van Kooten, Gerry; Van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Harms, Hauke; Wells, Mona; Short, Jeffrey</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents. Even for coals with high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content (approximately 4000 ppm total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA429057','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA429057"><span>Der Forschungsflughafen <span class="hlt">und</span> das Institut fuer Luft- <span class="hlt">und</span> Raumfahrtsysteme</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>Broitzem: Deutsche Verkehrsfliegerschule Völkenrode: Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Luftfahrt (DFL) Waggum: Technische Hochschule Grundsteinlegung...Forschungsflughafen Aerodata Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- <span class="hlt">und</span> Raumfahrt DLR VW Air Services TU Braunschweig Luftfahrt -Bundesamt LBA Deutscher Aeroclub</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005608','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005608"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from Nova Cen 1986</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hyland, A. R. Harry; Mcgregor, P. J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The discovery of broad emission features between 3.2 and 3.6 microns were reported in the spectrum of Nova Cen 1986 (V842 Cen) some 300 days following outburst and remaining prominent for several months. The general characteristics of these features are similar to those attributed to polycyclic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules in other dusty sources, although the relative strengths are different, and these observations provide the first clear evidence for molecular constituents other than graphite particles in the ejecta of novae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25064716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25064716"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in European eels (Anguilla anguilla) as indicators of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure: different methodological approaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szlinder-Richert, J; Nermer, T; Szatkowska, U</p> <p>2014-10-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic environments derived from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources. In fish, as in other vertebrates, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are rapidly metabolized. However, the metabolites have been proven to induce multiple deleterious effects in fish. The concentrations of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in eels (Anguilla anguilla) caught in Polish waters were measured. The main objectives of the study were to provide information on the levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in eels inhabiting Polish waters and to discuss which methodological approach is appropriate for assessing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in aquatic ecosystems. The non-normalized median concentration of 1-OH Pyr and 1-OH Phe measured in eels from Polish waters ranged from 11 to 1642 ng ml(-1) bile and from 83 to 929 ng ml(-1) bile, respectively, depending on the sampling site. Data normalization in relation to bile pigment content reduced inter-site variation, and the normalized median concentrations of 1-OH Pyr and 1-OH Phe ranged from 0.44 to 20.24 ng A(-1)380 and from 1.58 to 11.11 ng A(-1)380, respectively. Our study indicated that results were more consistent for the two species sampled in the same area (eel examined in the current study and flounder examined in our previous study) when the fluorescence response of diluted bile samples was compared than when concentrations of 1-OH Pyr determined with the mean of HPLC were compared.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176862','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176862"><span>Enhanced dissipation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from soil using mycorrhizal ryegrass and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yu, X Z; Wu, S C; Wu, F Y; Wong, M H</p> <p>2011-02-28</p> <p>The major aim of this experiment was to test the effects of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae) for cleaning up <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contaminated soil. Higher dissipation rates were observed in combination treatments: i.e., bacteria+ryegrass (BR), mycorrhizae+ryegrass (MR), and bacteria+mycorrhizae+ryegrass (BMR); than bacteria (B) and ryegrass (R) alone. The growth of ryegrass significantly (p<0.05) increased soil peroxidase activities, leading to enhanced dissipation of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) from soil. Interactions between ryegrass with the two microbes further enhanced the dissipation of PHE and PYR. Mycorrhizal ryegrass (MR) significantly enhanced the dissipation of PYR from soil, PYR accumulation by ryegrass roots and soil peroxidase activities under lower PHE and PYR levels (0 and 50+50 mg kg(-1)). The present results highlighted the contribution of mycorrhiza and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria in phytoremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminated soil, however more detailed studies are needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356176','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21356176"><span>Aquatic toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures at saturation to benthic amphipods: linking toxic effects to chemical activity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Engraff, Maria; Solere, Clémentine; Smith, Kilian E C; Mayer, Philipp; Dahllöf, Ingela</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Organisms in marine sediments are usually exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), whereas risk assessment and management typically focus on the effects of single <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This can lead to an underestimation of risk if the effects of single compounds are additive or synergistic. Because of the virtually infinite number of mixture-combinations, and the many different targeted organisms, it would be advantageous to have a model for the assessment of mixture effects. In this study we tested whether chemical activity, which drives the partitioning of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into organisms, can be used to model the baseline toxicity of mixtures. Experiments were performed with two benthic amphipod species (Orchomonella pinguis and Corophium volutator), using passive dosing to control the external exposure of single <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and mixtures of three and four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The baseline toxicity of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at water saturation generally increased with increasing chemical activity of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. For O. pinguis, the baseline toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures was successfully described by the sum of chemical activities. Some compounds and mixtures showed a delayed expression of toxicity, highlighting the need to adjust the length of the experiment depending on the organism. On the other hand, some of the single compounds had a higher toxicity than expected, possibly due to the toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites. We suggest that chemical activity of mixtures can, and should, be used in addition to toxicity data for single compounds in environmental risk assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866904','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3866904"><span>Composition and Integrity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Hopanes and Steranes In Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Diesel exhaust particulate matter contains many semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) of environmental and health significance. This study investigates the composition, emission rates, and integrity of 25 SVOCs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), and diesel biomarkers hopanes and steranes. Diesel engine particulate matter (PM), generated using an engine test bench, three engine conditions, and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD), was collected on borosilicate glass fiber filters. Under high engine load, the PM emission rate was 0.102 g/kWh, and emission rate of Σ<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (10 compounds), ΣNPAHs (6 compounds), Σhopanes (2 compounds), and Σsteranes (2 compounds) were 2.52, 0.351, 0.02 ~ 2 and 1μg/kWh, respectively. Storage losses were evaluated for three cases: conditioning filters in clean air at 25 °C and 33% relative humidity (RH) for 24 h; storing filter samples (without extraction) wrapped in aluminum foil at 4 °C for up to one month; and storing filter extracts in glass vials capped with Teflon crimp seals at 4 °C for up to six months. After conditioning filters for 24 h, 30% of the more volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were lost, but lower volatility NPAHs, hopanes and steranes showed negligible changes. Storing wrapped filters and extracts at 4 °C for up to one month did not lead to significant losses, but storing extracts for five months led to significant losses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs; hopanes and steranes demonstrated greater integrity. These results suggest that even relatively brief filter conditioning periods, needed for gravimetric measurements of PM mass, and extended storage of filter extracts can lead to underestimates of SVOC concentrations. Thus, SVOC sampling and analysis protocols should utilize stringent criteria and performance checks to identify and limit possible biases occurring during filter and extract processing. PMID:24363468</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12227511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12227511"><span>Profiles of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from steel and iron industries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lai, Soon-Onn; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Hsueh, Hung-Junt; Chi, Tze-Wen</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>In order to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) emission from steel and iron industries, this study measured the stack emission of twelve steel and iron plants in southern Taiwan to construct a set of source fingerprints. The study sampled the emissions by the USEPA's sampling method 5 with the modification of Graseby for the gas and particulate phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and, then, used Hewlett-Packard 5890 gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer detector to analyze the samples. The steel and iron industries are classified into three categories on the basis of auxiliary energy source: Category I uses coal as fuel, Category II uses heavy oil as fuel and Category III uses electric arc furnace. The pollution source profiles are obtained by averaging the ratios of individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations to the total concentration of 21 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and total particulate matter measured in this study. Results of the study show that low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are predominant in gas plus particulate phase for all three categories. For particulate phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, however, the contribution of large molecular weight compounds increases. Two-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> account for the majority of the mass, varying from 84% to 92% with an average of 89%. The mass fractions of 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Category I are found to be more than those of the other two categories. The mass of Category III is dominated by 7-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Large (or heavy) molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are carcinogenic. Over all categories, these compounds are less than 1% of the total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass on the average. The indicatory <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene for Category I, benzo[a]pyrene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene for Category II and coronene, pyrene, benzo[b]chrycene for Category III. The indicatory <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> among categories are very different. Thus, dividing steel and iron industry into categories by auxiliary fuel is to increase the precision of estimation by a receptor model. Average total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25967478"><span>Cloud deposition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at Mount Lushan in southern China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cloud samples and 72.21% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2067S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2067S"><span>Global time trends in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and subsequently <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21982560"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> biomarkers in common eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) from Danish waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tairova, Zhanna M; Strand, Jakob; Chevalier, Julie; Andersen, Ole</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Eelpouts (Zoarces viviparus) sampled at surveillance stations during the fall of 2007 and spring 2008 in different Danish coastal areas, were studied for biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) exposure and effects. Two analytical techniques, synchronous fluorescence spectrometry (SFS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), were applied for detecting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in bile and urine. CYP1A activity, in this study regarded as potential biomarker of effect, was measured as 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver of eelpouts from different stations. Biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite measurements were used for monitoring the environmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the surveillance stations. There was found significant difference in biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite content between sexes with male fish containing higher concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites than females. The urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite content did not show the same spatial trends as biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites. However, fish from Aarhus Bight and Vejle Fjord had significantly higher levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in both urine and bile compared to the reference station Agersø. Normalisation methods applied for bile and urine matrices did not have any effect or only slightly reduced the coefficients of variation in data sets. The CYP1A activity in eelpout liver did not show the same spatial distribution trends between sampling sites as did biliary or urinary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolite contents. Male eelpouts showed significantly higher CYP1A activity than females in fall sampling period but there were no differences found in the spring period. General comparison between both seasons showed that eelpouts sampled in the fall had significantly higher CYP1A activity than fish sampled during spring season. Overall, the results of this study describe selected biomarker responses in eelpouts to environmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the different areas along Danish coasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184166&hterms=PAH&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184166&hterms=PAH&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Analogs in the Laboratory: Comparison with Astronomical Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones. An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to assess the physical and chemical properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the near-UV and visible range. Intrinsic band profiles and band positions of cold gas-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can now be measured with high-sensitivity spectroscopy and directly compared to the astronomical data. Preliminary conclusions from the comparison of the laboratory data with astronomical observations will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..198P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..198P"><span>The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission Characteristics of the Reflection Nebula NGC 2023</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peeters, Els; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Ricca, Alessandra; Wolfire, Mark G.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We present 5–20 μm spectral maps of the reflection nebula NGC 2023 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph SL and SH modes on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, which reveal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), C60, and H2 superposed on a dust continuum. We show that several <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission bands correlate with each other and exhibit distinct spatial distributions that reveal a spatial sequence with distance from the illuminating star. We explore the distinct morphology of the 6.2, 7.7, and 8.6 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands and find that at least two spatially distinct components contribute to the 7–9 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in NGC 2023. We report that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> features behave independently of the underlying plateaus. We present spectra of compact, oval <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranging in size from C66 to C210, determined computationally using density functional theory, and we investigate trends in the band positions and relative intensities as a function of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size, charge, and geometry. Based on the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> database, we discuss the 7–9 μm components in terms of band assignments and relative intensities. We assign the plateau emission to very small grains with possible contributions from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters and identify components in the 7–9 μm emission that likely originate in these structures. Based on the assignments and the observed spatial sequence, we discuss the photochemical evolution of the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> family as the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are more and more exposed to the radiation field of the central star in the evaporative flows associated with the Photo-Dissociation Regions in NGC 2023.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9448059','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9448059"><span>High-performance liquid chromatography of the renal blood flow marker p-aminohippuric acid (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and its metabolite N-acetyl <span class="hlt">PAH</span> improves <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearance measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Decosterd, L A; Karagiannis, A; Roulet, J M; Bélaz, N; Appenzeller, M; Buclin, T; Vogel, P; Biollaz, J</p> <p>1997-12-05</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAH</span> (N-(4-aminobenzoyl)glycin) clearance measurements have been used for 50 years in clinical research for the determination of renal plasma flow. The quantitation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in plasma or urine is generally performed by colorimetric method after diazotation reaction but the measurements must be corrected for the unspecific residual response observed in blank plasma. We have developed a HPLC method to specifically determine <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and its metabolite NAc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> using a gradient elution ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection at 273 and 265 nm, respectively. The separations were performed at room temperature on a ChromCart (125 mmx4 mm I.D.) Nucleosil 100-5 microm C18AB cartridge column, using a gradient elution of MeOH-buffer pH 3.9 1:99-->15:85 over 15 min. The pH 3.9 buffered aqueous solution consisted in a mixture of 375 ml sodium citrate-citric acid solution (21.01 g citric acid and 8.0 g NaOH per liter), added up with 2.7 ml H3PO4 85%, 1.0 g of sodium heptanesulfonate and completed ad 1000 ml with ultrapure water. The N-acetyltransferase activity does not seem to notably affect <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearances, although NAc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> represents 10.2+/-2.7% of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> excreted unchanged in 12 healthy subjects. The performance of the HPLC and the colorimetric method have been compared using urine and plasma samples collected from healthy volunteers. Good correlations (r=0.94 and 0.97, for plasma and urine, respectively) are found between the results obtained with both techniques. However, the colorimetric method gives higher concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in urine and lower concentrations in plasma than those determined by HPLC. Hence, both renal (ClR) and systemic (Cls) clearances are systematically higher (35.1 and 17.8%, respectively) with the colorimetric method. The fraction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> excreted by the kidney ClR/ClS calculated from HPLC data (n=143) is, as expected, always <1 (mean=0.73+/-0.11), whereas the colorimetric method gives a mean extraction ratio of 0.87+/-0.13 implying some</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17644155"><span>On the use of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular diagnostic ratios in sewage sludge for the understanding of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. Is this use appropriate?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Terzi, Eleni; Cai, Quan-Ying</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The concentrations ratios of specific pairs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are widely used for the qualitative determination of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sources. These ratios are called <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecular diagnostic ratios and are commonly used for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations in air, soils and sediments. Some scientists have extended the use of these ratios also for sewage sludges, suggesting that calculation of these ratios by individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations can be as effective as in soils or sediments. This paper describes the reason why the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular ratios calculated from sewage sludge concentrations should not be used for the understanding of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25299794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25299794"><span>Lipid-content-normalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the xylem of conifers can indicate historical changes in regional airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuang, Yuan-wen; Li, Jiong; Hou, En-qing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The temporal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) concentrations as well as the lipid content in the xylem of Masson pine trees sampled from the same site were determined and compared with the days of haze occurrence and with the historical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> reported in sedimentary cores. The patterns of the lipid content as well as the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations based on the xylem dry weight (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>-DW) decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. The trajectories of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> normalized by xylem lipid content (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>-LC) coincided well with the number of haze-occurred days and were partly similar with the historical changes in airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> recorded in the sedimentary cores. The results indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>-LC in the xylem of conifers might reliably reflect the historical changes in airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at a regional scale. The species-specificity should be addressed in the utility and application of dendrochemical monitoring on historical and comparative studies of airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307276&keyword=Gender&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90676030&CFTOKEN=80140505','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=307276&keyword=Gender&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90676030&CFTOKEN=80140505"><span>Are Urinary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Biomarkers of Controlled Exposure to Diesel Exhaust?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were evaluated as possible biomarkers of exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) in two controlled-chamber studies. We report levels of 14 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from 28 subjects in urine that were collected before, immediately after and the morning after ex...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...801..108R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...801..108R"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Clusters as Sources of Interstellar Infrared Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roser, J. E.; Ricca, A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been the subject of astrochemical research for several decades as principal sources of the interstellar aromatic infrared emission bands. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters could possibly contribute to these emission bands, but a lack of data on their infrared properties has made this hypothesis difficult to evaluate. Here we investigate homogeneous neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clusters by measuring the mid-infrared absorption spectra of the five nonlinear <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, perylene, and benzo[ghi]perylene within solid argon ice at a fixed temperature of 5 K. We attribute observed spectral shifts in their principal absorption bands as a function of argon/<span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratio to clustering of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules within the argon matrix. These shifts are related to the cluster structures forming in the matrix and the topology of the monomer <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule. We predict that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules that are relatively large (no fewer than 50 carbon atoms per molecule) and compact will have clusters that contribute to the asymmetrically red-shaded profile of the interstellar 11.2 μm emission band.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18177687"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in livers of California sea otters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were measured in livers of 81 adult female sea otters collected along the California coast in 1992-2002. Concentrations of summation operator<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in livers of sea otters were in the range of 588-17400ng/g lipid wt (mean: 3880ng/g, lipid wt). On a wet weight basis, the concentrations ranged from 17 to 1430ng/g (mean: 146ng/g). Overall, di- and tri-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene/anthracene, and acenaphthylene, were the predominant compounds found in the livers. Although petroleum-related sources appear to be the major contributors to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in sea otters, exposure sources varied by geographical sub-regions. Dibenz[a,h]anthracene was found to comprise a significant proportion of the summation operator<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in sea otters from the northern sub-region of the study area. No significant difference existed in the concentrations of summation operator<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> among sea otters that died from infectious diseases, emaciation, and noninfectious causes. Concentrations of summation operator<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in livers of sea otters decreased significantly from 1992 to 2002. Because of the rapid metabolism of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marine mammals such as sea otters, further studies examining the association of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with health effects should determine hydroxylated metabolites in livers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/452083"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination on soil invertebrate communities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Snow-Ashbrook, J.L.; Erstfeld, K.M.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Soils were collected from an abandoned industrial site to study the effects of historic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on soil invertebrate communities. Nematode abundance and diversity, microarthropod abundance (orders Collembola and Acarina) and earthworm growth were evaluated. Physical and chemical characteristics of soils may affect both invertebrate community structure and the mobility/bioavailability of pollutants in soils. Soil characteristics were measured and included with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> data in multiple regression analyses to identify factors which influences the responses observed in the soil invertebrate community. Positive associations were observed between eight invertebrate community endpoints and soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content. For all of these endpoints but one, a higher degree of variability was explained when both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content and soil characteristics were considered. It is theorized that the positive response to soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content may be the result of an increased abundance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading soil microbes. Increased microbial abundance could stimulate invertebrate communities by providing a direct food source or increasing the abundance of microbially-produced nutrients. These results suggest that both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content and soil characteristics significantly influenced the soil invertebrate community. It is not clear whether these factors influenced the invertebrate community independently, or whether differences in soil characteristics affected the community response by influencing the mobility or bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7070697','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7070697"><span>Determination of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in particulate air by micellar liquid chromatography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kayali, M.N.; Rubio-Barroso, S.; Polo-Diez, L.M. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>An acetonitrile/0.20M SDS mobile phase was used to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Because the peak area is greater the method is more sensitive than using an acetonitrile/water mobile phase. The method was applied to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in particulate air samples and the results are in good agreement with those found by GC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/944477','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/944477"><span>Solubilization, Solution Equilibria, and Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s under Thermophilic Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Viamajala, S.; Peyton, B. M.; Richards, L. A.; Petersen, J. N.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Biodegradation rates of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are typically low at mesophilic conditions and it is believed that the kinetics of degradation is controlled by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solubility and mass transfer rates. Solubility tests were performed on phenanthrene, fluorene and fluoranthene at 20 C, 40 C and 60 C and, as expected, a significant increase in the equilibrium solubility concentration and of the rate of dissolution of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was observed with increasing temperature. A first-order model was used to describe the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dissolution kinetics and the thermodynamic property changes associated with the dissolution process (enthalpy, entropy and Gibb's free energy of solution) were evaluated. Further, other relevant thermodynamic properties for these <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, including the activity coefficients at infinite dilution, Henry's law constants and octanol-water partition coefficients, were calculated in the temperature range 20-60 C. In parallel with the dissolution studies, three thermophilic Geobacilli were isolated from compost that grew on phenanthrene at 60 C and degraded the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> more rapidly than other reported mesophiles. Our results show that while solubilization rates of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are significantly enhanced at elevated temperatures, the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under thermophilic conditions is likely mass transfer limited due to enhanced degradation rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010120465&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010120465&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Imaging of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission Bands in the Orion Bar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bregman, Jesse; Harker, David; Rank, David; Temi, Pasqiale; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The infrared spectrum of many planetary nebulae, HII regions, galactic nuclei, reflection nebulae, and WC stars are dominated by a set of narrow and broad features which for many years were called the "unidentified infrared bands". These bands have been attributed to several carbon-rich molecular species which all contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms, and fall into the class of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules or are conglomerates of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> skeletons. If these bands are from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, then <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contain 1-10% of the interstellar carbon, making them the most abundant molecular species in the interstellar medium after CO. From ground based telescopes, we have studied the emission bands assigned to C-H bond vibrations in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (3.3, 11.3 microns) in the Orion Bar region, and showed that their distribution and intensities are consistent with a quantitative <span class="hlt">PAH</span> model. We have recently obtained spectral images of the Orion Bar from the KAO at 6.2 and 7.7 microns using a 128 x 128 Si:Ga array camera in order to study the C-C modes of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules. We will show these new data along with our existing C-H mode data set, and make a quantitative comparison of the data with the existing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844542','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25844542"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Measurements in Air in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsu, Yu-Mei; Harner, Tom; Li, Henrik; Fellin, Phil</p> <p>2015-05-05</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) measurements were conducted by Wood Buffalo Environmental Association (WBEA) at four community ambient Air quality Monitoring Stations (AMS) in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Northeastern Alberta, Canada. The 2012 and 2013 mean concentrations of a subset of the 22 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species were 9.5, 8.4, 8.8, and 32 ng m(-3) at AMS 1 (Fort McKay), AMS 6 (residential Fort McMurray), AMS 7 (downtown Fort McMurray), and AMS 14 (Anzac), respectively. The average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in Fort McKay and Fort McMurray were in the range of rural and semirural areas, but peak values reflect an industrial emission influence. At these stations, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were generally associated with NO, NO2, PM2.5, and SO2, indicating the emissions were from the combustion sources such as industrial stacks, vehicles, residential heating, and forest fires, whereas the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations at AMS 14 (∼35 km south of Fort McMurray) were more characteristic of urban areas with a unique pattern: eight of the lower molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exhibited strong seasonality with higher levels during the warmer months. Enthalpies calculated from Clausius-Clapeyron plots for these eight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> suggest that atmospheric emissions were dominated by temperature-dependent processes such as volatilization at warm temperatures. These findings point to the potential importance of localized water-air and/or surface-air transfer on observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.431B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E.431B"><span>Theoretical spectroscopic study of protonated and deuteronated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit</p> <p></p> <p>The study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) plays a key role to understand astrophysical environments as they are ubiquitous in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They account for about 5-10% of carbon budget in the universe and are responsible for the strong IR emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7mum seen towards most of the interstellar objects including HII regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, late-type stars, as well as active star-forming regions. These IR features result from the relaxation of vibrationally excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. As <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are stable enough to survive the interstellar conditions, they could possibly be responsible for the enigmatic Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) which are optical absorption features on the interstellar extinction curve. The fact that interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are more likely to be ions has motivated the study of radical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Protonated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> formed by H(+) addition to neutral parent molecules, denoted as HPAH(+) , are an important form of closed shell <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation. Protonated forms show electronic transitions in the visible part of the spectrum where most DIBs are present, whereas neutral forms generally show their strongest electronic transitions in the UV region. We also report quantum chemical calculations on HPAH(+) and DPAH(+) (D(+) attached to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) to get the electronic and IR spectra to understand the IR emission and DIB features. A comparison of theoretical spectra with the available experimental spectra has also been carried out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27754275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27754275"><span>SY 18-1 TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chung, Wook-Jin</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome.Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) is the first modern <span class="hlt">PAH</span> registries in Asian ethnicity. Total 39 centers participated and 625 patients were enrolled. This study evaluated the incidence, prevalence, epidemiology, therapeutic modalities and survival data of Korean patients with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>."Gachon experiences" was to characterize the clinical outcomes and evaluate the factors influencing survival time of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients in Korean. This study compared the cumulative survival of total 43 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients who received targeted or conventional therapy.<span class="hlt">PAH</span> Ilopost BMPR-2 gene in Korea IIT Multi-institutional (PILGRIM) is a prospective, investigator-initiative, and multi-institutional clinical trials. This study was recently completed in March by 7 institutes, and aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of BMPR-2 gene mutations in the Korean <span class="hlt">PAH</span> patients and (2) the effect of iloprost inhalation solution on hemodynamic response, and exercise echocardiography.<span class="hlt">PAH</span> basic research focuses on two major themes: (1) Systematic comparison of the effects of adipose tissue, bone marrow and umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on MCT-induced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in rats and (2) investigation of the effect of human UCB-derived MSC (hUCB-MSC) transplantation combined with apelin-13 administration on MCT-induced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in rats. Data suggests that, although the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...804L...7Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...804L...7Z"><span>Laboratory Photo-chemistry of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: Ionization versus Fragmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are expected to be strongly processed by vacuum ultraviolet photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C24H12), ovalene (C32H14) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C42H18) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8-40 eV. The results show that for small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6290371','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6290371"><span>Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in fish from the Arabian Gulf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DouAbdul, A.A.Z.; Abaychi, J.K.; Al-Edanee, T.E.; Ghani, A.A.; Al-Saad, H.T.</p> <p>1987-03-01</p> <p>Emphasis has been placed upon the identification and qualification of compounds with potential adverse health effects on humans. Prominent among this group are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), several of which are known or suspected carcinogens. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> enter the marine environment from a variety of sources including petroleum pollution, industrial and domestic effluents, atmospheric particles, and biosynthesis by plants and microorganisms. Although one-third of the world's oil is produced around the Arabian Gulf, no detailed analysis have been conducted to determine <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in this region. Nevertheless, numerous investigations have shown the ability of marine organisms including fish to accumulation <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from solution or dispersion in seawater. When fish are harvested, a human health hazard may result. In the present communication, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and measure sixteen <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> priority pollutants issued by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in fourteen species of commercially significant fish from the NW Arabian Gulf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1094916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1094916"><span>Comparative Developmental Toxicity of Environmentally Relevant Oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knecht, Andrea; Goodale, Britton; Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael; Swanson, Annika; Matzke, Melissa M.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous pollutants in urban air, dust and in the soil of most industrial coal gassification, coal burning, coke production and wood preservation sites (Howsam and Jones 1998). It is widely recognized that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pose risks to human health,having been associated with increased risks of systemic inflammation (Delfino et al. 2010), cardiopulmonary mortality (Lee et al. 2011; Lewtas 2007) and lung cancer mortality (Grant 2009; Hoshuyama et al. 2006). The potential risks may be especially acute for the developing fetus and infant where <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures have been linked to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, in-utero mortality and lower intelligence (Dejmek et al. 1999; Dejmek et al. 2000; Perera et al. 1999; Perera et al. 2009; Perera et al. 2006; Perera et al. 1998; Wu et al. 2010). Despite the more than two decades of intensive study devoted to parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, they are only part of the hazard spectrum from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364722"><span>ON THE VIABILITY OF THE <span class="hlt">PAH</span> MODEL AS AN EXPLANATION OF THE UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION FEATURES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules are widely considered the preferred candidate for the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission bands observed in the interstellar medium and circumstellar envelopes. In this paper, we report the results of fitting a variety of non-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra (silicates, hydrogenated amorphous carbon, coal, and even artificial spectra) using the theoretical infrared spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database. We show that these non-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra can be well fitted by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures. This suggests that a general match between astronomical spectra and those of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures does not necessarily provide definitive support for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23745428"><span>[Characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fly ashes from coke production].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in ashes from coking, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/420924','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/420924"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from a gasoline-powdered engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mi, H.H.; Lee, W.J.; Wang, L.C.; Lin, T.A.; Chao, H.R.; Wu, T.L.</p> <p>1996-09-01</p> <p>A gasoline powered engine operated on a dynamometer was used to investigate the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) emission. A 95-leadfree gasoline (95-LFG) and a premium leaded gasoline (PLG) were used as power-fuels. The engine was simulated for the idling condition and for the cruising speeds at 40, 80 and 110 km/hr. The concentrations of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the engine exhaust, gasolines, and the ambient air were determined. Engine exhaust samples were collected by a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sampling system, while the ambient air sample was collected by using a standard PS-1 sampler. Twenty one individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed primarily by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Naphthalene (Nap) has the highest concentration in the liquid phase of both 95-LFG and PLG, in which it accounts for respectively 98.3% and 76.6% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. In terms of the mean fraction of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> entering the 95-LFG and PLG engines, the ambient air contributed less than 0.108% and 0.012%, respectively. Gasoline is the major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> supplier for the automobile engine. By monitoring the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> output/input mass ratios, the fuel combustion was found to be a generation process for 11 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; and a depletion process for the rest 10 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, in both 95-LFG and PLG powered engines. The mean emission factors of BaP were 2.92 and 2.47 {mu}g/km for 95-LFG and PLG powered engines, respectively. 11 refs., 12 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/684512','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/684512"><span>Size distribution and dry deposition of road dust <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, H.H.; Chiang, C.F.; Lee, W.J.; Hwang, K.P.; Wu, E.M.Y.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>The size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) for road dust and for the engine exhaust of both gasoline-powered cars and motorcycles was investigated. In addition, by using the measured size distribution data, monitoring and modeling the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dry deposition, the contribution fraction of road dust on the dry deposition materials was also studied. Twenty-one <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed primarily by using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The mass median diameters (MMDs) of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for resuspendable road dust (cut size < 100 {micro}m) ranged between 63.4 {micro}m and 65.5 {micro}m. However, the MMDs of total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distributions for the engine exhaust of both gasoline-powered cars and four-stroke motorcycles averaged 0.45 {micro}m and 0.35 {micro}m, respectively, which were near the MMDs of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (average 0.50 {micro}m) in the ambient air of traffic intersections. Suspended particle-phase total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the ambient air of traffic intersections were found to be more than 90% of the result of the automobile exhaust; that is, less than 10% of the amount was contributed by the road dust. However, the modeled MMDs of 21 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on the dry deposition material were between 22.1 {micro}m and 44.6 {micro}m, and the contribution fraction of road dust on the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dry deposition was found to be more than 95%, even though the suspendable ambient-air <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were mainly from the mobile exhaust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26674706"><span>Passive samplers accurately predict <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in resident crayfish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paulik, L Blair; Smith, Brian W; Bergmann, Alan J; Sower, Greg J; Forsberg, Norman D; Teeguarden, Justin G; Anderson, Kim A</p> <p>2016-02-15</p> <p>Contamination of resident aquatic organisms is a major concern for environmental risk assessors. However, collecting organisms to estimate risk is often prohibitively time and resource-intensive. Passive sampling accurately estimates resident organism contamination, and it saves time and resources. This study used low density polyethylene (LDPE) passive water samplers to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) levels in signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Resident crayfish were collected at 5 sites within and outside of the Portland Harbor Superfund Megasite (PHSM) in the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. LDPE deployment was spatially and temporally paired with crayfish collection. Crayfish visceral and tail tissue, as well as water-deployed LDPE, were extracted and analyzed for 62 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using GC-MS/MS. Freely-dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water were calculated from concentrations in LDPE. Carcinogenic risks were estimated for all crayfish tissues, using benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq). ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span> were 5-20 times higher in viscera than in tails, and ∑BaPeq were 6-70 times higher in viscera than in tails. Eating only tail tissue of crayfish would therefore significantly reduce carcinogenic risk compared to also eating viscera. Additionally, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in crayfish were compared to levels in crayfish collected 10 years earlier. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in crayfish were higher upriver of the PHSM and unchanged within the PHSM after the 10-year period. Finally, a linear regression model predicted levels of 34 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in crayfish viscera with an associated R-squared value of 0.52 (and a correlation coefficient of 0.72), using only the Cfree <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water. On average, the model predicted <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in crayfish tissue within a factor of 2.4 ± 1.8 of measured concentrations. This affirms that passive water sampling accurately estimates <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in crayfish. Furthermore, the strong predictive ability of this simple model suggests</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4291772','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4291772"><span>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and Oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (OPAH) Air–Water Exchange during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 22 oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water–air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m3 and 0.3 and 27 ng/m3, respectively. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air–water flux of 13 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10 000 ng/m2/day. Acenaphthene was the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m2/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air–water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology. PMID:25412353</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130334','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3130334"><span>Modulation of the Effect of Prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Exposure on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA Adducts in Cord Blood by Plasma Antioxidants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Susan; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Camann, David; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The fetus is more susceptible than the adult to the effects of certain carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). Nutritional factors, including antioxidants, have been shown to have a protective effect on carcinogen-DNA adducts and cancer risk in adults. We investigated whether the effect of prenatal airborne <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure, measured by personal air monitoring during pregnancy, on the level of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adducts in a baby's cord blood is modified by the concentration of micronutrients in maternal and cord blood. The micronutrients examined were: retinol (vitamin A), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol (vitamin E), and carotenoids. With the use of multiple linear regression, we found a significant interaction between prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and cord blood concentration of α-tocopherol and carotenoids in predicting the concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adducts in cord blood. The association between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adducts was much stronger among those with low α-tocopherol (β = 0.15; P = 0.001) and among those with low carotenoids (β = 0.16; P < 0.001) compared with babies with high levels of these micronutrients (among those with high α-tocopherol: β = 0.05; P = 0.165; among those with high carotenoids: β = 0.06; P = 0.111). These results suggest a protective effect of micronutrients on the DNA damage and potential cancer risk associated with prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. PMID:19661084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412353','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25412353"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (OPAH) air-water exchange during the deepwater horizon oil spill.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tidwell, Lane G; Allan, Sarah E; O'Connell, Steven G; Hobbie, Kevin A; Smith, Brian W; Anderson, Kim A</p> <p>2015-01-06</p> <p>Passive sampling devices were used to measure air vapor and water dissolved phase concentrations of 33 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 22 oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) at four Gulf of Mexico coastal sites prior to, during, and after shoreline oiling from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH). Measurements were taken at each site over a 13 month period, and flux across the water-air boundary was determined. This is the first report of vapor phase and flux of both <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs during the DWH. Vapor phase sum <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations ranged between 1 and 24 ng/m(3) and 0.3 and 27 ng/m(3), respectively. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and OPAH concentrations in air exhibited different spatial and temporal trends than in water, and air-water flux of 13 individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were strongly associated with the DWH incident. The largest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> volatilizations occurred at the sites in Alabama and Mississippi in the summer, each nominally 10,000 ng/m(2)/day. Acenaphthene was the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with the highest observed volatilization rate of 6800 ng/m(2)/day in September 2010. This work represents additional evidence of the DWH incident contributing to air contamination, and provides one of the first quantitative air-water chemical flux determinations with passive sampling technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..103Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..103Z"><span>Mittelwert- <span class="hlt">und</span> Arbeitstaktsynchrone Simulation von Dieselmotoren</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zahn, Sebastian</p> <p></p> <p>Getrieben durch die immer restriktiveren Anforderungen an das Emissions- <span class="hlt">und</span> Verbrauchsverhalten moderner Verbrennungsmotoren steigt die Komplexität von Motormanagementsystemen mit jeder Modellgeneration an. Damit geht nicht nur eine Zunahme des Softwareumfangs von Steuergeräten sondern zugleich ein deutlicher Anstieg des Applikations-, Vermessungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Testaufwandes einher. Zur Effizienzsteigerung des Software- <span class="hlt">und</span> Funktionsentwicklungsprozesses haben sich daher in der Automobilindustrie sowie in Forschungsinstituten verschiedene modell- <span class="hlt">und</span> simulationsbasierte Methoden wie die Model-in-the-Loop (MiL) Simulation, die Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) Simulation, das Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) sowie die Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation etabliert.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879100','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27879100"><span>Topika <span class="hlt">und</span> deren Einsatz in der Dermatologie.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wohlrab, Johannes</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Grundkenntnisse zur Zusammensetzung <span class="hlt">und</span> den regulatorischen Hintergründen von Topika gehören zu den alltäglich benötigten Herausforderungen dermatologisch-ärztlichen Handelns. Ein professioneller <span class="hlt">und</span> indikationsgerechter Umgang bei der Auswahl, Verordnung <span class="hlt">und</span> Anwendung topischer Präparate ist somit Voraussetzung für eine verantwortungsvolle fachärztliche Tätigkeit. Dabei bereiten die regulatorische Zuordnung (Arzneimittel, Medizinprodukt, Kosmetikum), die Feststellung der Erstattungsfähigkeit durch die GKV <span class="hlt">und</span> die unzureichende Kennzeichnung des Vehikelsystems einzelner Präparate nicht selten Probleme. Bestreben sollte es sein, neben der Wahl des geeigneten Wirkstoffs <span class="hlt">und</span> der geeigneten Konzentration ein an die Indikation der Therapie angepasstes galenisches System auszuwählen, um dessen Eigenwirkung für den therapeutischen Effekt nutzen zu können. Bei der Verschreibung von Rezepturarzneimitteln sollte nach Möglichkeit immer auf eine standardisierte Rezeptur (Magistralrezeptur) zurückgegriffen werden. Durch die Vielzahl der möglichen Inhaltsstoffe <span class="hlt">und</span> der sich daraus ergebenden Komplexität eines galenischen Systems ist eine willkürliche Manipulation durch qualitative oder quantitative Veränderungen einzelner Komponenten mit hohen Risiken für eine Instabilität <span class="hlt">und</span> damit für Sicherheit <span class="hlt">und</span> Sinnhaftigkeit verbunden. Eine optimierte Anwendung von Topika setzt zudem Grundlagenkenntnisse zur Pharmakokinetik <span class="hlt">und</span> zur evidenzbasierten Therapieplanung voraus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...590A..26C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...590A..26C"><span>Mapping <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sizes in NGC 7023 with SOFIA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Croiset, B. A.; Candian, A.; Berné, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Context. NGC 7023 is a well-studied reflection nebula, which shows strong emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules in the form of aromatic infrared bands (AIBs). The spectral variations of the AIBs in this region are connected to the chemical evolution of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules which, in turn, depends on the local physical conditions. Aims: Our goal is to map <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sizes in NGC 7023 with respect to the location of the star. We focus on the north west (NW) photo-dissociation region (PDR) and the south PDR of NGC 7023 to understand the photochemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, using size as a proxy. Methods: We use the unique capabilities of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) to observe a 3.2' × 3.4' region of NGC 7023 at wavelengths that we observe with high spatial resolution (2.7'') at 3.3 and 11.2 μm. We compare the SOFIA images with existing images of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission at 8.0 μm (Spitzer), emission from evaporating very small grains (eVSG) extracted from Spitzer-IRS spectral cubes, the extended red emission (Hubble Space Telescope and Canadian French Hawaiian Telescope), and H2 (2.12 μm). We create maps of the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to probe the morphology of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size distribution and the 8.0/11.2 μm ratio to probe the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization. We make use of an emission model and of vibrational spectra from the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> database to translate the 11.2/3.3 μm ratio to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sizes. Results: The 11.2/3.3 μm ratio map shows the smallest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrate on the PDR surface (H2 and extended red emission) in the NW and south PDR. We estimated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the NW PDR bear, on average, a number of carbon atoms (Nc) of ~70 in the PDR cavity and ~50 at the PDR surface. In the entire nebula, the results reveal a factor of 2 variation in the size of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. We relate these size variations to several models for the evolution of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> families when they traverse from the molecular cloud to the PDR. Conclusions: The high-resolution <span class="hlt">PAH</span> size map</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21414649"><span>Degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by high frequency ultrasound.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Manariotis, Ioannis D; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are persistent organic compounds, which have been reported in the literature to efficiently degrade at low (e.g. 20 kHz) and moderate (e.g. 506 kHz) ultrasound frequencies. The present study focuses on degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene by ultrasound at three different relatively high frequencies (i.e. 582, 862, and 1142 kHz). The experimental results indicate that for all three frequencies and power inputs ≥ 133 W phenanthrene degrades to concentrations lower than our experimental detection limit (<1 μg/L). Phenanthrene degrades significantly faster at 582 kHz than at 862 and 1142 kHz. For all three frequencies, the degradation rates per unit mass are similar for naphthalene and phenanthrene and lower for pyrene. Furthermore, naphthalene degradation requires less energy than phenanthrene, which requires less energy than pyrene under the same conditions. No hexane-extractable metabolites were identified in the solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442441"><span>Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>): a review.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haritash, A K; Kaushik, C P</p> <p>2009-09-30</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are aromatic hydrocarbons with two or more fused benzene rings with natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenicity. Due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity, the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have gathered significant environmental concern. Although <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may undergo adsorption, volatilization, photolysis, and chemical degradation, microbial degradation is the major degradation process. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation depends on the environmental conditions, number and type of the microorganisms, nature and chemical structure of the chemical compound being degraded. They are biodegraded/biotransformed into less complex metabolites, and through mineralization into inorganic minerals, H(2)O, CO(2) (aerobic) or CH(4) (anaerobic) and rate of biodegradation depends on pH, temperature, oxygen, microbial population, degree of acclimation, accessibility of nutrients, chemical structure of the compound, cellular transport properties, and chemical partitioning in growth medium. A number of bacterial species are known to degrade <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil or sediments. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomons fluoresens, Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. Lignolytic fungi too have the property of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Bjerkandera adusta, and Pleurotus ostreatus are the common <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading fungi. Enzymes involved in the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are oxygenase, dehydrogenase and lignolytic enzymes. Fungal lignolytic enzymes are lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase. They are extracellular and catalyze radical formation by oxidation to destabilize bonds in a molecule. The biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> has been observed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the rate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27267726"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> related effects on fish in sedimentation ponds for road runoff and potential transfer of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sediment to biota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grung, Merete; Petersen, Karina; Fjeld, Eirik; Allan, Ian; Christensen, Jan H; Malmqvist, Linus M V; Meland, Sondre; Ranneklev, Sissel</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Road runoff is an important source of pollution to the aquatic environment, and sedimentation ponds have been installed to mitigate effects on the aquatic environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a) fish from sedimentation ponds were affected by road pollution and; b) the transfer of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from road runoff material to aquatic organisms was substantial. Minnow from a sedimentation pond (Skullerud) near Oslo (Norway) had higher levels of CYP1A enzyme and DNA stand breaks than minnow from the nearby river, but high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-metabolites in bile revealed that both populations were highly exposed. Principal component analysis revealed that CYP1A and age of fish were correlated, while levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-metabolites were not correlated to CYP1A or DNA damage. Minnow from a lake un-affected by traffic had much lower levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-metabolites than the exposed fish, and also an improved condition. The latter results indicate that fish health was affected by road runoff. A closer investigation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels of the ecosystems of two sedimentation ponds (Skullerud and Vassum) and nearby environments were conducted. The concentration of the 16 EPA <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments of the sedimentation ponds were high (1900-4200ngg(-1)), and even higher levels were observed in plants. Principal component analysis of selected ion chromatograms of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed a clear separation of plants vs. sediments. The plants preferentially accumulated the high molecular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, both from sedimentation ponds with a petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> isomer ratio in sediments; and from a lake with pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> isomer ratio in sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6815920','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6815920"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this research is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. During the past year the following specific aspects of this broad problem area have been investigated: (a) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (b) The use of gas-solid chromatography to measure heats of sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives, on coal fly ashes and ash fractions. (c) Identification of the major photoproduct(s) of the photodecomposition of one <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (benz[a]anthracene) sorbed on model adsorbents; (d) Estimation of fractal dimensions'' of coal fly ash particles by use of specific surface area measurements, with an ultimate objective of using these measurements to assess the importance of inner-filter effects'' on the photodecomposition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on fly ash particles. (e) The photochemical transformation of a representative nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivative (1-nitropyrene) sorbed on fly ash. (f) Development of techniques for studying the nonphotochemical reactions of hydroxyl radicals (and other atmospheric constituents) with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on fly ash. Progress achieved, and problems encountered, in each of these major areas of emphasis is described below.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15965718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15965718"><span>Dissolved oxygen saturation controls <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in freshwater estuary sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyd, T J; Montgomery, M T; Steele, J K; Pohlman, J W; Reatherford, S R; Spargo, B J; Smith, D C</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are common contaminants in terrestrial and aquatic environments and can represent a significant constituent of the carbon pool in coastal sediments. We report here the results of an 18-month seasonal study of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation and heterotrophic bacterial production and their controlling biogeochemical factors from 186 sediment samples taken in a tidally influenced freshwater estuary. For each sampling event, measurements were averaged from 25-45 stations covering approximately 250 km(2). There was a clear relationship between bacterial production and ambient temperature, but none between production and bottom water dissolved oxygen (DO) % saturation or <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. In contrast with other studies, we found no effect of temperature on the biodegradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, or fluoranthene. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mineralization correlated with bottom water DO saturation above 70% (r(2) > 0.99). These results suggest that the proportional utilization of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> carbon to natural organic carbon is as much as three orders of magnitude higher during cooler months, when water temperatures are lower and DO % saturation is higher. Infusion of cooler, well-oxygenated water to the water column overlying contaminated sediments during the summer months may stimulate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolism preferentially over non-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> organic matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011642','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870011642"><span>Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barker, J. R.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) hypothesis, which is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The fundamental vibrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-like species which determine the IR and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar IR band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described and the IR fluorescence from one <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, chrysene, is traced. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contain between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23162467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23162467"><span>The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Catechols and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-Quinones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Li; Jin, Yi; Huang, Meng; Penning, Trevor M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR) catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones to form <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox-cycling of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which <span class="hlt">PAH</span> o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12026970"><span>Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Takada, Hideshige; Tsutsumi, Shinobu; Ohno, Kei; Yamada, Junya; Kouno, Eriko; Kumata, Hidetoshi</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>This is the first publication on the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in riverine and coastal sediments in South East Asia where the rapid transfer of land-based pollutants into aquatic environments by heavy rainfall and runoff waters is of great concern. Twenty-nine Malaysian riverine and coastal sediments were analyzed for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (3-7 rings) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations in the sediment ranged from 4 to 924 ng/g. Alkylated homologues were abundant for all sediment samples. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), an index of petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contribution, was more than unity for 26 sediment samples and more than 3 for seven samples for urban rivers covering a broad range of locations. The MP/P ratio showed a strong correlation with the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations, with an r2 value of 0.74. This ratio and all other compositional features indicated that Malaysian urban sediments are heavily impacted by petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This finding is in contrast to other studies reported in many industrialized countries where <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are mostly of pyrogenic origin. The MP/P ratio was also significantly correlated with higher molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as benzo[a]pyrene, suggesting unique <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> source in Malaysia which contains both petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and hopanes fingerprints indicated that used crankcase oil is one of the major contributors of the sedimentary <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Two major routes of inputs to aquatic environments have been identified: (1) spillage and dumping of waste crankcase oil and (2) leakage of crankcase oils from vehicles onto road surfaces, with the subsequent washout by street runoff. N-Cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolamine (NCBA), a molecular marker of street dust, was detected in the polluted sediments. NCBA and other biomarker profiles confirmed our hypothesis of the input from street dust contained the leaked crankcase oil. The fingerprints excluded crude oil</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/491511"><span>Photoinduced degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the presence of ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schutt, W.S.; Li, Y.; Sigman, M.E. |</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are formed from both anthropogenic and natural sources. In order to assess the environmental impact caused by the surface-adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the chemical lifetimes of these compounds in the atmosphere must be determined. Although ozone is known to be a primary reactant in the chemical transformation of surface-adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the atmosphere, the kinetics of these reactions have not been investigated in detail. In addition to the experimental difficulties that arise in using an oxygen-ozone stream while monitoring the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with fluorescence, complications in analyzing the kinetic mechanism also exist. It is difficult to determine whether the ozone or oxygen initially quenches the excited state of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Ozone could enhance the degradation rate by simply reacting with a product derived from the excited state of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and oxygen. The focus of this study is to demonstrate the use of fluorescence spectroscopy in monitoring the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> adsorbed on a three dimensional particle in the presence of gaseous ozone free from the interference of oxygen. More specifically, the experimental procedure will involve the generation of an ozone-nitrogen gas stream to be used in the investigation of dark and photochemical reactions between ozone and naphthalene. The absence of oxygen in the system will allow for the accurate monitoring of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fluorescence decay due solely to ozone quenching. It will also aid in the determination of the reaction mechanism. This is the first time that the direct interaction of ozone with an excited state of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> has been demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26208268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26208268"><span>Fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in infrared absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tommasini, Matteo; Lucotti, Andrea; Alfè, Michela; Ciajolo, Anna; Zerbi, Giuseppe</p> <p>2016-01-05</p> <p>We have analyzed a set of 51 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> whose structures have been hypothesized from mass spectrometry data collected on samples extracted from carbon particles of combustion origin. We have obtained relationships between infrared absorption signals in the fingerprint region (mid-IR) and the chemical structures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, thus proving the potential of IR spectroscopy for the characterization of the molecular structure of aromatic combustion products. The results obtained here for the spectroscopic characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be also of interest in Materials Science and Astrophysics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016lex2.book...23H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016lex2.book...23H"><span>Ruhende Flüssigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Gase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heintze, Joachim</p> <p></p> <p>Das mechanische Verhalten von Flüssigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Gasen ist dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass sie keine statische Schubfestigkeit besitzen, andernfalls würden sie nicht beginnen, zu fließen. In ruhenden Flüssigkeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Gasen können daher keine Schubspannungen bestehen:</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhuZ...34..187H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhuZ...34..187H"><span>Physik gestern <span class="hlt">und</span> heute Das Eiskalorimeter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heering, P.</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik <span class="hlt">und</span> der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier <span class="hlt">und</span> Pierre Simon de Laplace.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26874984"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the coastal seawater, surface sediment and oyster from Dalian, Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Wen-Jun; Jia, Hongliang; Li, Yi-Fan; Sun, Yeqing; Liu, Xianjie; Wang, Luo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A total of 46 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, 21 parent and 25 alkylated) were determined in seawater, surface sediment and oyster from coastal area of Dalian, North China. The concentration of Σ46<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in seawater, sediment, and oyster were 136-621 ng/L, 172-4700 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 60.0-129 ng/g wet weight (ww) in winter, and 65.0-1130 ng/L, 71.1-1090 ng/g dw and 72.8-216 ng/g ww in summer, respectively. High <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels were found in industrial area both in winter and summer. Selected <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in sediments were compared with Sediments Quality Guidelines (ERM-ERL, TEL-PEL indexes) for evaluation probable toxic effects on marine organism and the results indicate that surface sediment from all sampling sites have a low to medium ecotoxicological risk. Daily intake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> via oyster as seafood by humans were estimated and the results indicated that oyster intake would not pose a health risk to humans even 30 days after a oil spill accident near by. Water-sediment exchange analysis showed that, both in winter and summer, the fluxes for most high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were from seawater to sediment, while for low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, an equilibrium was reached between seawater and sediment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..449S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..449S"><span>Quantitative Analyse <span class="hlt">und</span> Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter</p> <p></p> <p>Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion <span class="hlt">und</span> somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht <span class="hlt">und</span> damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet <span class="hlt">und</span> mithilfe von Diagrammen <span class="hlt">und</span> Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke <span class="hlt">und</span> 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/114613"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash. Final technical report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The objectives of this work were to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>) and their derivatives, and to attempt to understand the influence of surface properties of coal ash in the chemical transformations of <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016isms.confETD05J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016isms.confETD05J"><span>Electronic Spectroscopy of Trapped <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Photofragments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joblin, Christine; Bonnamy, Anthony</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The PIRENEA set-up combines an ion cyclotron resonance cell mass spectrometer with cryogenic cooling in order to study the physical and chemical properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) of astrophysical interest. In space, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are submitted to UV photons that lead to their dissociation. It is therefore of interest to study fragmentation pathways and search for species that might be good interstellar candidates because of their stability. Electronic spectroscopy can bring major insights into the structure of species formed by photofragmentation. This is also a way to identify new species in space as recently illustrated in the case of C60^+. In PIRENEA, the trapped ions are not cold enough, and thus we cannot use complexation with rare gas in order to record spectroscopy, as was nicely performed in the work by Campbell et al. on C60^+. We are therefore using the dissociation of the trapped ions themselves instead, which requires in general a multiple photon scheme. This leads to non-linear effects that affect the measured spectrum. We are working on improving this scheme in the specific case of the photofragment obtained by H-loss from 1-methylpyrene cation (CH_3-C16H9^+). A recent theoretical study has shown that a rearrangement can occur from 1-pyrenemethylium cation (CH_2-C16H9^+) to a system containing a seven membered ring (tropylium like pyrene system). This study also reports the calculated electronic spectra of both isomers, which are specific enough to distinguish them, and as a function of temperature. We will present experiments that have been performed to study the photophysics of these ions using the PIRENEA set-up and a two-laser scheme for the action spectroscopy. J. Montillaud, C. Joblin, D. Toublanc, Astron. & Astrophys. 552 (2013), id.A15 E.K. Campbell, M. Holz, D. Gerlich, and J.P. Maier, Nature 523 (2015), 322-323 F. Useli-Bacchitta, A. Bonnamy, G. Malloci, et al., Chem. Phys. 371 (2010), 16-23; J. Zhen, A. Bonnamy, G. Mulas, C</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26352597"><span>"Omics" Insights into <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Degradation toward Improved Green Remediation Biotechnologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Amrani, Abdelhak; Dumas, Anne-Sophie; Wick, Lukas Y; Yergeau, Etienne; Berthomé, Richard</p> <p>2015-10-06</p> <p>This review summarizes recent knowledge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) biotransformation by microorganisms and plants. Whereas most research has focused on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation either by plants or microorganisms separately, this review specifically addresses the interactions of plants with their rhizosphere microbial communities. Indeed, plant roots release exudates that contain various nutritional and signaling molecules that influence bacterial and fungal populations. The complex interactions of these populations play a pivotal role in the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and other complex molecules. Emerging integrative approaches, such as (meta-) genomics, (meta-) transcriptomics, (meta-) metabolomics, and (meta-) proteomics studies are discussed, emphasizing how "omics" approaches bring new insight into decipher molecular mechanisms of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation both at the single species and community levels. Such knowledge address new pictures on how organic molecules are cometabolically degraded in a complex ecosystem and should help in setting up novel decontamination strategies based on the rhizosphere interactions between plants and their microbial associates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B73A..10G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSM.B73A..10G"><span>Pore Water <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Transport in Amended Sediment Caps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gidley, P. T.; Kwon, S.; Ghosh, U.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Capping is a common remediation strategy for contaminated sediments that creates a physical barrier between contaminated sediments and the water column. Diffusive flux of contaminants through a sediment cap is small. However, under certain hydrodynamic conditions such as groundwater potential and tidal pumping, groundwater advection can accelerate contaminant transport. Hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) could be transported through the cap under advective conditions. To better understand <span class="hlt">PAH</span> migration under these conditions, physical models of sediment caps were evaluated in the laboratory through direct measurement of pore water using solid phase micro-extraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Contaminated sediment and capping material was obtained from an existing Superfund site that was capped at Eagle Harbor, Washington. A <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dissolution model linked to an advection-dispersion equation with retardation using published organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (Koc) was compared to measured <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediment and cap porewater of the physical model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37400','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/37400"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on the feeding activity of tubificid worms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lotufo, G.R.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Sediment collected from a clean site in LA was sieved through a 125{mu}m screen and contaminated with individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (pyrene, phenanthrene and dibenzofuran) at increasing concentrations using spiking procedure and with a mixture of the 3 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at a single concentration by shell coating. Feeding activity was estimated by defecation rate. Groups of 15 worms were assigned to defecation chambers in 4 replicates per treatment. Feces were collected daily for 10 days, filtered through a 8{mu}m membrane filter and dry weight measured. Results obtained with phenanthrene and mixture of 3 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> indicate that PHA bulk concentration of 100 mg/dry kg and higher significantly reduce tubificid ingestion of sediment. Total recovery to control levels occurred when worms exposed to high concentration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were transferred to clean sediment. Total OC was determined to be 3.2 %.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143204&keyword=low+AND+income&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89353380&CFTOKEN=66484954','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=143204&keyword=low+AND+income&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89353380&CFTOKEN=66484954"><span>POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) EXPOSURE OF 257 PRESCHOOL CHILDREN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposure of 257 preschool children and their adult caregivers in their everyday environments. Participants were recruited randomly from eligible homes and daycare centers within six North Carolina (NC) and six Ohio (OH) c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.108...13P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.108...13P"><span>Enhanced PM10 bounded <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from shipping emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Choochuay, C.; Mekmok, R.; Wuttijak, N.; Ketratanakul, A.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of maritime transport as a main contributor of air pollutants in port area. The authors intended to investigate the effects of shipping emissions on the enhancement of PM10 bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and mutagenic substances in an industrial area of Rayong province, Thailand. Daily PM10 speciation data across two air quality observatory sites in Thailand during 2010-2013 were collected. Diagnostic binary ratios of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congeners, analysis of variances (ANOVA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to evaluate the enhanced genotoxicity of PM10 during the docking period. Significant increase of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and mutagenic index (MI) of PM10 were observed during the docking period in both sampling sites. Although stationary sources like coal combustions from power plants and vehicular exhausts from motorway can play a great role in enhancing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, regulating shipping emissions from diesel engine in the port area like Rayong is predominantly crucial.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005702','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005702"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> formation in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feigelson, Eric D.; Frenklach, Michael</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>While there is growing observational evidence that some fraction of interstellar carbon is in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s), the mechanisms by which these molecules might be formed have not been extensively studied. A detailed investigation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> production in the outflowing molecular envelopes of carbon-rich red giant star is presented. The gasphase kinetics of a chemical reaction mechanism developed to study soot production in hydrocarbon flames is modified to apply in circumstellar environments. It was found that astrophysically significant quantities of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s can be formed in carbon star envelopes provided the gas is sufficiently dense and resides for a long time in the temperature range of 900 to 1100 k. The precise yield of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s is very sensitive to astronomical parameters of the envelope (e.g., mass loss rate, outflow velocity, and acetylene abundance) and certain poorly determined chemical reaction rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=215528','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=215528"><span>DISSIPATION OF <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> IN SATURATED, DREDGED SEDIMENTS: A FIELD TRIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Sediments dredged from navigable rivers often contain elevated concentrations of recalcitrant, potentially toxic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The presence of these compounds often requires that the sediments be stored in fully conta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020074601&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020074601&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Deuterium Enrichment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6431659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6431659"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Danish leafy crops. Part I: <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in kale and beets relate to point sources of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Part II: a survey of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in commercial grown fresh and deep-frozen kale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vahl, M.; Beck, J.; Stoebet, M.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Part I discusses the investigation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) has been to demonstrate the possible pollution of leafy vegetables from expected <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-emmissions, and to compare with similar investigations in Scandinavia. Part II is a survey has been to establish levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to which consumers are normally exposed from intake of fruits and above ground parts of vegetables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475003','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3475003"><span>Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during woodworking operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bruschweiler, Evin D.; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are generated from wood during common wood working operations, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24–7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures were between 37.5–119.8 ng m−3 during wood working operations. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure. PMID:23087908</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22496325"><span>Plumbagin reverses proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in experimental <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Courboulin, Audrey; Barrier, Marjorie; Perreault, Tanya; Bonnet, Pierre; Tremblay, Veronique L; Paulin, Roxane; Tremblay, Eve; Lambert, Caroline; Jacob, Maria H; Bonnet, Sandra N; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Like cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is characterised by a pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic phenotype. In <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is enhanced and apoptosis suppressed. The sustainability of this phenotype requires the activation of pro-survival transcription factors, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). There are no drugs currently available that are able to efficiently and safely inhibit this axis. We hypothesised that plumbagin (PLB), a natural organic compound known to block STAT3 in cancer cells, would reverse experimental pulmonary hypertension. Using human <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-PASMC, we demonstrated in vitro that PLB inhibits the activation of the STAT3/NFAT axis, increasing the voltage-gated K(+) current bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2), and decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)1 and interleukin (IL)-6, contributing to the inhibition of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-PASMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TUNEL, Ki67 and anexine V). In vivo, PLB oral administration decreases distal pulmonary artery remodelling, mean pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy without affecting systemic circulation in both monocrotaline- and suden/chronic hypoxia-induced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in rats. This study demonstrates that the STAT3/NFAT axis can be therapeutically targeted by PLB in human <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-PASMC and experimental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> rat models. Thus, PLB could be considered a specific and attractive future therapeutic strategy for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...514A...5T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010A%26A...514A...5T"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) luminous galaxies at z ~ 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takagi, T.; Ohyama, Y.; Goto, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Wada, T.; Pearson, C. P.; Lee, H. M.; Im, M.; Lee, M. G.; Shim, H.; Hanami, H.; Ishigaki, T.; Imai, K.; White, G. J.; Serjeant, S.; Malkan, M.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Aims: The NEP-deep survey, an extragalactic AKARI survey towards the north ecliptic pole (NEP), provides a comprehensive wavelength coverage from 2 to 24 μm using all 9 photometric bands of the infrared camera (IRC). It allows us to photometrically identify galaxies whose mid-IR emission is clearly dominated by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Methods: We propose a single-colour selection method to identify such galaxies, using two mid-IR flux ratios at 11-to-7 μm and 15-to-9 μm (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>-to-continuum flux ratio in the rest frame), which are useful for identifying starburst galaxies at z ~ 0.5 and 1, respectively. We perform a fitting of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from optical to mid-IR wavelengths, using an evolutionary starburst model with a proper treatment of radiative transfer (SBURT), in order to investigate their nature. Results: The SBURT model reproduces observed optical-to-mid-IR SEDs of more than a half of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-selected galaxies. Based on the 8 μm luminosity, we find ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) among <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-selected galaxies. Their <span class="hlt">PAH</span> luminosity is higher than local ULIRGs with a similar luminosity, and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-to-total IR luminosity ratio is consistent with that of less luminous starburst galaxies. They are a unique galaxy population at high redshifts, and we call these <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-selected ULIRGs “<span class="hlt">PAH</span>-luminous” galaxies. Although they are not as massive as submillimetre galaxies at z ~ 2, they have the stellar mass of > 3 × 1010 M_⊙ and therefore are moderately massive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..95..355X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..95..355X"><span>Gas/particle partitioning of n-alkanes, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in urban Denver</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Mingjie; Hannigan, Michael P.; Barsanti, Kelley C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In this study, a medium volume sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and a polyurethane foam (PUF)/XAD-4/PUF sandwich (PXP) was used to collect semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in both gaseous and particle (PM2.5) phases. A backup QFF (bQFF) was used to evaluate possible sampling artifact of particulate organics due to vapor-phase adsorption. A series of n-alkanes (molecular weight: 170-562) and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (128-300), and two oxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (acenaphthenone, 168; fluorenone, 180) were measured. Breakthrough experiments demonstrated that the PXP could collect all gas-phase target compounds with high efficiency, even the low molecular weight (MW) species (e.g., naphthalene). Comparing species concentrations across different sampling matrices encountered at the Denver, Colorado field site, the light n-alkanes (MW < 282) and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (MW < 192) were mostly distributed into the gas phase; while those heavy n-alkanes (MW > 324) and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (MW > 202) were primarily in the particle phase (Average temperature, 12.5 ± 10.1 °C). Log values of measured gas/particle (G/P) partitioning coefficients (Kmp,OM) of selected SVOCs (docosane, tricosane, fluoranthene, pyrene, acenaphthenone and fluorenone) were linearly regressed to those of theoretically-based partitioning coefficients (Ktp,OM) for comparison. Prior to Kmp,OM calculation, the gas- and particle-phase concentrations of SVOCs were corrected following two different approaches based on bQFF measurements. The first approach assumed that the bQFF associated SVOCs were from the adsorption of gaseous SVOCs (positive artifact); the second approach assumed equal contributions from positive and negative (organics evaporated from top QFF and adsorbed by bQFF) artifacts. Under both corrections, significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between log Kmp,OM and log Ktp,OM for the six selected SVOCs, suggesting that the predicted G/P partitioning can reasonably capture the measured G/P partitioning behavior. The large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JAESc...5..257L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JAESc...5..257L"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> in fossil fuels and their geochemical significance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin Renzi; Wang Peirong</p> <p></p> <p>With the help of the advanced TSQ-45 model GC-MS-MS with INCOS data system, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) of 85 samples from twelve sedimentary basins both in China and abroad, including crude oils, source rocks, oil shales and coals, have been studied. <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, source features, sedimentary environments and maturity of organic matter have been discussed. Three series, i.e. fluorene series, dibenzofuran series and dibenzothiophene series, may be derived from the same original materials, and their properties of internal compositions may be mainly controlled by oxi-reduction conditions. The major changes of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are cracking, dealkylation and structural rearrangement during the maturation of organic matter, therefore the changes in ring number of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, the internal composition of the same series of compounds and methylphenanthrene index may reflect the maturity of organic matter. On the basis of our analysis and study, a new maturity parameter, i.e. the stable three-fluorene series index, has been proposed. Biphenyl series compounds may be the products of high-temperature cracking. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> can be used in oil-source correlation studies. The fingerprint of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is particularly important for those crude oils or source rocks which are high-mature or in which steroids and terpenoids have been severely altered because of biodegradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20014813"><span>Ethanol-enhanced bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, P.H.; Ong, S.K.; Golchin, J.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to soil organic matter. Two <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds. The biodegradation of various <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the pretreated soils was assessed using soil slurry reactor studies. The time needed to degrade 90% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the pretreated soils was at least 5 days faster than soils that were not pretreated with ethanol. A distinctive advantage with the pretreatment of soils with ethanol was the enhanced removal of 4-ring compounds such as chrysene. Approximately 90% of chrysene in the ethanol-treated soils were removed within 15 days while soils without pretreatment needed more than 30 days to obtain similar removal levels. After 35 days of biotreatment in the slurry reactors, approximately 40% of benzo(a)pyrene were removed in the ethanol-treated soils while only 20% were removed in soils not pretreated with ethanol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060017069&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060017069&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Steps Toward Identifying <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Child's Garden of Recent Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Based on over two decades of experimental, observational and theoretical studies by scientists around the world. It is now widely accepted that the composite emission of mixtures of vibrationally-excited <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions can accommodate the general pattern of band positions, intensities, and profiles observed in the discreet IR emission features of carbon-rich interstellar dust, as well as the variations in those characteristics. These variations provide insight into the detailed nature of the emitting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population and reflect conditions within the emitting regions giving the population enormous potential as probes of astrophysical environments. Moreover, the ubiquity and abundance of this material has impacts that extend well beyond the IR. In this presentation we will examine recent, combined experimental, theoretical, and observational studies that indicate that nitrogen-substituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> represent an important component of the interstellar dust population, and we will go on to explore some of the ramifications of this result. We will also explore the results of recent experimental studies of the strong, low-lying electronic transitions of ionized <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions in the Near-IR (0.7 - 2.5 microns) and explore the role that these transitions might play in pumping the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR emission in regions of low-excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..128A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..128A"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives (oxygenated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitrated-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and azaarenes) in size-fractionated particles emitted in an urban road tunnel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alves, C. A.; Vicente, A. M. P.; Gomes, J.; Nunes, T.; Duarte, M.; Bandowe, B. A. M.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A sampling campaign of size segregated particulate matter (PM0.5, PM0.5-1, PM1-2.5 and PM2.5-10) was carried out at two sites, one in a road tunnel (Braga, Portugal) and another at an urban background location in the neighbourhood. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds were extracted with organic solvents and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Twenty six parent and alkyl-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), 4 azaarenes (AZAs), 15 nitrated and 15 oxygenated derivatives (NPAHs and OPAHs) were analysed. On average, submicron particles (PM1) in the tunnel comprised 93, 91, 96 and 71% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, OPAHs, NPAHs and AZAs mass in PM10, respectively. Tunnel to outdoor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration ratios between 10 and 14 reveal the strong contribution of fresh exhaust emissions to the PM loads. The dominant <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the tunnel were pyrene, retene and benzo[ghi]perylene, accounting for 20, 17 and 8% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in PM10, respectively. Isomer ratios indicated the importance of unburnt fuel as a significant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source. The only NPAH consistently present in all samples was 5-nitroacenaphthene. Indanone and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were the most abundant OPAHs, accounting for 25 and 17% of the total concentrations of this organic class, respectively. Other abundant OPAHs were 1,4-naphthoquinone, 9-fluorenone, 1,2-acenaphthylenequinone and 7H-benz[de]anthracene-7-one. Individual emission factors (μg veh- 1 km- 1) were estimated and compared with those obtained in other tunnel studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24361780"><span>PM₂.₅-bound oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the atmosphere of a Chinese megacity: seasonal variation, sources and cancer risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Meusel, Hannah; Huang, Ru-Jin; Ho, Kinfai; Cao, Junji; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Wilcke, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in air particulate matter contribute considerably to the health risk of air pollution. The objectives of this study were to assess the occurrence and variation in concentrations and sources of PM2.5-bound PACs [Oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>] sampled from the atmosphere of a typical Chinese megacity (Xi'an), to study the influence of meteorological conditions on PACs and to estimate the lifetime excess cancer risk to the residents of Xi'an (from inhalation of PM2.5-bound PACs). To achieve these objectives, we sampled 24-h PM2.5 aerosols (once in every 6 days, from 5 July 2008 to 8 August 2009) from the atmosphere of Xi'an and measured the concentrations of PACs in them. The PM2.5-bound concentrations of Σcarbonyl-OPAHs, ∑hydroxyl+carboxyl-OPAHs, Σnitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Σalkyl+parent-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged between 5-22, 0.2-13, 0.3-7, and 7-387 ng m(-3), respectively, being markedly higher than in most western cities. This represented a range of 0.01-0.4% and 0.002-0.06% of the mass of organic C in PM2.5 and the total mass of PM2.5, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of each compound group had winter-to-summer ratios ranging from 3 to 8 and most individual OPAHs and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had higher concentrations in winter than in summer, suggesting a dominant influence of emissions from household heating and winter meteorological conditions. Ambient temperature, air pressure, and wind speed explained a large part of the temporal variation in PACs concentrations. The lifetime excess cancer risk from inhalation (attributable to selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was six fold higher in winter (averaging 1450 persons per million residents of Xi'an) than in summer. Our results call for the development of emission control measures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2027F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.2027F"><span>Dentalwerkstoffe <span class="hlt">und</span> Dentalimplantate - Teil 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faltermeier, Andreas</p> <p></p> <p>Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar <span class="hlt">und</span> darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen <span class="hlt">und</span> zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle <span class="hlt">und</span> als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book...38S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book...38S"><span>Aufbau <span class="hlt">und</span> Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- <span class="hlt">und</span> Dieselmotoren</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René</p> <p></p> <p>Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche <span class="hlt">und</span> strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung <span class="hlt">und</span> Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen <span class="hlt">und</span> werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21222277','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21222277"><span>Unlike <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Exxon Valdez crude oil, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Gulf of Alaska coals are not readily bioavailable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Halambage Upul Deepthike; Robin Tecon; Gerry van Kooten; Jan Roelof van der Meer; Hauke Harms; Mona Wells; Jeffrey Short</p> <p>2009-08-15</p> <p>In the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, spatially and temporally spill-correlated biological effects consistent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposure were observed. Some works have proposed that confounding sources from local source rocks, prominently coals, are the provenance of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Representative coal deposits along the southeast Alaskan coast (Kulthieth Formation) were sampled and fully characterized chemically and geologically. The coals have variable but high total organic carbon content, technically classifying as coals and coaly shale, and highly varying <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents. Even for coals with high <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content (4000 ppm total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), a <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-sensitive bacterial biosensor demonstrates nondetectable bioavailability as quantified, based on naphthalene as a test calibrant. These results are consistent with studies indicating that materials such as coals strongly diminish the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds and support previous work suggesting that hydrocarbons associated with the regional background in northern Gulf of Alaska marine sediments are not appreciably bioavailable. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22525483"><span>Removal efficiency of vapour/particulate phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by using alternative protective respirators in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> exposure workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Yang, Chien-Hung; Lin, Ming-Hsiu</p> <p>2012-06-15</p> <p>Due to the high heat environment in foundry industries, it is difficult for foundry workers to wear masks during their workday. Thus, how to prevent inhaling vapour or the particulate phase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is important for occupational hazard management. The present study assesses the characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission in foundry and plastic industries to evaluate the removal efficiencies of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> while workers use alternative personal protective equipment. The highest 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) level was found for workers who used a cotton-fabric face mask (1.19 μg/g creatinine) and activated-carbon face mask (1.16 μg/g creatinine), compared to a lower level in workers who wore a surgical face mask (0.27 μg/g creatinine) and a N95 respirator (0.51 μg/g creatinine). The urinary 1-OHP in end-of-shift samples correlated to the airborne vapour phase Bapeq, but not for the particulate phase Bapeq in the foundry industry. This is probably because workers wore personal protective equipment that only removed the particulate phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. The current study suggests that future work focus on developing an appropriate and comfortable respirator with high removal efficiency for ultrafine particulates and vapour phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> simultaneously in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> work environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671402"><span>Correlations between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability, degrading bacteria, and soil characteristics during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in five diffusely contaminated dissimilar soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crampon, M; Bureau, F; Akpa-Vinceslas, M; Bodilis, J; Machour, N; Le Derf, F; Portet-Koltalo, F</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The natural biodegradation of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by native microorganisms was studied in five soils from Normandy (France) from diffusely polluted areas, which can also pose a problem in terms of surfaces and amounts of contaminated soils. Bioavailability tests using cyclodextrin-based extractions were performed. The natural degradation of low molecular weight (LMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was not strongly correlated to their bioavailability due to their sorption to geosorbents. Conversely, the very low degradation of high molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was partly correlated to their poor availability, due to their sorption on complexes of organic matter and kaolinites or smectites. A principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish between the respective degradation behaviors of LMW and HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. LMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were degraded in less than 2-3 months and were strongly influenced by the relative percentage of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria over total bacteria in soils. HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were not significantly degraded, not only because they were less bioavailable but also because of a lack of degrading microorganisms. Benzo[a]pyrene stood apart since it was partly degraded in acidic soils, probably because of a catabolic cooperation between bacteria and fungi.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mmid.book...35K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010mmid.book...35K"><span>PCR <span class="hlt">und</span> Real-Time PCR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Konrad, Regina; Busch, Ulrich</p> <p></p> <p>Die vielfältigen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten der Polymerasekettenreaktion (polymerase chain reaction, PCR) machen sie zu einer der wichtigsten <span class="hlt">und</span> am häufigsten eingesetzten Methoden in der molekularbiologischen Forschung <span class="hlt">und</span> Diagnostik. Für diese Technologie wurde der Erfinder der Methode, Kary Mullis, 1993 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnet. Die PCR erlaubt einen hochsensitiven <span class="hlt">und</span> spezifischen in-vitro-Nachweis von Desoxyribonukleinsäuren (DNA), da im Zuge der Reaktion Sequenzabschnitte gezielt vermehrt werden. Innerhalb weniger Stunden können aus einem einzigen Zielmolekül 1012 identische Moleküle entstehen [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.3703M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.3703M"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission From ULIRGs: Evidence For Unusual Grain Properties?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marshall, Jason A.; Armus, L.; Spoon, H. W. W.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The tremendous power emerging from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) is driven both by high levels of star-formation activity and AGN-related accretion. Observations of star-forming regions in the Milky Way and external star-forming galaxies provide evidence that the first of these energy generation mechanisms often also gives rise to emission from <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules in the form of characteristic mid-IR features. Given the composite nature of ULIRGs, it is not surprising that many also exhibit significant emission from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Perhaps more surprising, however, is that some ULIRGs believed to be powered primarily by AGNs also show emission from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, although typically at lower levels relative to their total dust output. To investigate the nature of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from galaxies powered either by star-formation or AGN accretion alone, as well as emission from composite systems such as ULIRGs powered by both mechanisms, we present a detailed study of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission spectra from galaxies of each type. We use the CAFE spectral energy distribution decomposition software we have developed to derive and extinction correct the spectra of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission from a sample of 100 galaxies with Spitzer/IRS observations, and use the results of this analysis to calculate the ratios of the various mid-IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature luminosities. In particular, we investigate to what extent these relative feature strengths vary as a function of the optical classification of galaxies, and we inquire into whether or not the derived feature strength ratios provide evidence for unusual grain properties in the extreme conditions within ULIRGs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/191271','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/191271"><span>Toxicity and photoactivation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures in marine sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swartz, R.; Ferraro, S.; Lamberson, J.; Cole, F.; Ozretich, R.; Boese, B.; Schults, D.; Behrenfeld, M.; Ankley, G.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The toxicity and toxicological photoactivation of mixtures of sediment-associated fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and acenaphthene were determined using standard 10 d sediment toxicity tests with the marine amphipod, Rhepoxynius abronius. The four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were spiked into sediment in a concentration series of either single compounds or an equitoxic mixture. Spiked sediment was stored at 4 C for 28 d before testing. Toxicity tests were conducted under fluorescent lighting. Survivors after 10 d in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment were exposed for 1 h to UV light in the absence of sediment and then tested for their ability to bury in clean sediment. The 10 d LC50s for single <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 3.3, 2.2, 2.8, and 2.3 mg/g oc for fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and acenaphthene, respectively. These LC50s were used to calculate the sum of toxic units ({Sigma}TU) of the four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the equitoxic mixture treatments. The {Sigma}TU LC50 was then calculated for the mixture treatments. If the toxicological interaction of the four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the mixture was additive, the {Sigma}TU LC50 should equal 1.0. The observed {Sigma}TU LC50 in the mixture was 1.55, indicating the interaction was slightly less than additive. UV enhancement of toxic effects of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was correctly predicted by photophysical properties, i.e. pyrene and fluoranthene were photoactivated and phenanthrene and acenaphthene were not. UV effects in the mixture of four <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be explained by the photoactivation of pyrene and fluoranthene alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..173B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...836..173B"><span>Observational Evidence Linking Interstellar UV Absorption to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blasberger, Avi; Behar, Ehud; Perets, Hagai B.; Brosch, Noah; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The 2175 Å UV extinction feature was discovered in the mid-1960s, yet its physical origin remains poorly understood. One suggestion is absorption by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules, which is supported by theoretical molecular structure computations and by laboratory experiments. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are positively detected by their 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm IR emission bands, which are specified by their modes of vibration. A definitive empirical link between the 2175 Å UV extinction and the IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission bands, however, is still missing. We present a new sample of hot stars that have both 2175 Å absorption and IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. We find significant shifts of the central wavelength of the UV absorption feature, up to 2350 Å, but predominantly in stars that also have IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission. These UV shifts depend on stellar temperature in a fashion that is similar to the shifts of the 6.2 and 7.7 μm IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands, that is, the features are increasingly more redshifted as the stellar temperature decreases, but only below ∼15 kK. Above 15 kK both UV and IR features retain their nominal values. Moreover, we find a suggestive correlation between the UV and IR shifts. We hypothesize that these similar dependences of both the UV and IR features on stellar temperature hint at a common origin of the two in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and may establish the missing link between the UV and IR observations. We further suggest that the shifts depend on molecular size, and that the critical temperature of ∼15 kK above which no shifts are observed is related to the onset of UV-driven hot-star winds and their associated shocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21681396"><span>Concentrations, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soils of Liaohe estuarine wetland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Nannan; Lang, Yinhai; Cheng, Fangfang; Wang, Minjie</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Concentration, source, and risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were investigated in 31 sites from surface soils of Liaohe estuarine wetland. Total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations ranged from 293.4 to 1735.9 ng/g with a mean of 675.4 ng/g. The 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the dominant species. The ratios of high-molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to low-molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and anthracene/(anthracene+phenanthrene) were calculated to apportion sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. It was found that both pyrogenic and petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sources were important. Effect range low and effect range median showed that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> would occasionally cause adverse effects. The nemerow composite index revealed that about 41.9% soil sampling sites were safety; about 58.1% sites had different grades of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0009R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1784f0009R"><span>Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in surface sediments of Pulau Tinggi, Johor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Razak, Ezzati Sulhi Abdul; Halim, Izzyan Syazwani Abdul; Ali, Masni Mohd</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Surface sediments samples were collected at 11 stations around the Pulau Tinggi, Johor in September 2015. A total of 15 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were determined and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations of surface sediments from Pulau Tinggi ranged from 39.61 ng/g to 149.2 ng/g and they were classified as being in low to moderate pollution range. Individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> analysis showed that two and three rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the most frequently detected isomers and accounted for 22 - 46% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. The sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were evaluated by employing diagnostic ratiosof specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds.<span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios analysis showed a prevalence of pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> origin at most of the stations with exception of only a few stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852613"><span>Occurrence and source apportionment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in highly vulnerable karst system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shao, Yixian; Wang, Yanxin; Xu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Xiao; Jiang, Zhou; He, Shanshan; Qian, Kun</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>The concentration and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in topsoil, groundwater and groundwater suspended solids (SS) at Guozhuang karst water system of northern China were investigated. The total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 622 to 87,880 ng/g dry weight in topsoil, from 4739 to 59,314 ng/g dry weight in SS, and from 2137 to 9037 ng/L in groundwater, with mean values of 17,174 ng/g, 11,990 ng/g and 5020 ng/L, respectively. High concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were mainly observed in the coal mining industrial area and the discharge area. The composition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> indicated that low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were predominant in groundwater samples, the content of medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was elevated in SS, and carcinogenic high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were frequently detected in topsoil. The high contents of low-medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in groundwater and SS suggested relatively recent local sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that were transported into the aquifer via leakage of contaminated surface water and/or infiltration of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-containing precipitation. The results of evaluating sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using ratios of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds showed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> mainly originated from coal and wood combustion. Furthermore, five sources were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the contribution to the total loadings of groundwater <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were: 2% for unburnt oil, 32% for coal combustion, 22% for vehicle emission, 27% for biomass combustion and 18% for coke production, respectively. Furthermore, strong correlations of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with total organic carbon (TOC) in topsoil indicated co-emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and TOC. Poor correlations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in groundwater indicated that other factors exert stronger influences. Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> might have posed a major threat to the quality of potable groundwater in Guozhuang karst water system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...832...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...832...51B"><span>The Charge State of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Across Reflection Nebulae: <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Charge Balance and Calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boersma, C.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, L. J.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Low-resolution Spitzer spectral map data (>1700 spectra) of ten reflection nebulae (RNe) fields are analyzed using the data and tools available through the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission is broken down into <span class="hlt">PAH</span> charge state using a database fitting approach. Here, the physics of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission process is taken into account and uses target appropriate parameters, e.g., a stellar radiation model for the exciting star. The breakdown results are combined with results derived using the traditional <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength approach, which interprets particular <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength ratios as proxies for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> charge state, e.g., the 6.2/11.2 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength ratio. These are successfully calibrated against their database equivalent; the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction (f i ). The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction is converted into the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization parameter, which relates the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction to the strength of the radiation field, gas temperature and electron density. The behavior of the 12.7 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band is evaluated as a tracer for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization and erosion. The plot of the 8.6 versus 11.2 μm <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band strength for the northwest photo-dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 is shown to be a robust diagnostic template for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionized fraction. Remarkably, most of the other RNe fall within the limits set by NGC 7023. Finally, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectroscopic templates are constructed and verified as principal components. Template spectra derived from NGC 7023 and NGC 2023 compare extremely well with each other, with those derived for NGC 7023 successfully reproducing the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission observed from NGC 2023.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51A0700L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.B51A0700L"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in Soils and Sludges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, L.; Tindall, J. A.; Zhang, W.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs biodegradation are evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in a soil/water system, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals at remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration. Model responses were validated by a favorable match to measurements of biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in a land treatment unit operated by Aluminum Corporation of America Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (SRA) reduces to zero (i.e., undetectable), with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (SIA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (SIA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs will leach only slightly, if at all from the treatment site and thus, they constitute no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large Kd, i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity, K (as described by Monod kinetics parameters), regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential active</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fur&pg=5&id=EJ448317','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fur&pg=5&id=EJ448317"><span>Hochschule fur Film <span class="hlt">und</span> Fernsehen (Babelsberg).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Neumann, Roland</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Describes the Hochschule fur Film <span class="hlt">und</span> Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014dlr..book...36J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014dlr..book...36J"><span>Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche <span class="hlt">und</span> gesteuerte bewegung.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jochim, E. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung <span class="hlt">und</span> Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, <span class="hlt">und</span> insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei <span class="hlt">und</span> singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung <span class="hlt">und</span> Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997kkud.book.....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997kkud.book.....H"><span>Kosmische Katastrophen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Ursprung der Religion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoyle, F.</p> <p></p> <p>This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten <span class="hlt">und</span> Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen <span class="hlt">und</span> der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter <span class="hlt">und</span> Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/vessels-marinas-and-ports/uniform-national-discharge-standards-unds-outreach','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/vessels-marinas-and-ports/uniform-national-discharge-standards-unds-outreach"><span>Uniform National Discharge Standards (<span class="hlt">UNDS</span>): Outreach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Describes the Federalism and Tribal consultation efforts related to the Uniform National Discharge Standards (<span class="hlt">UNDS</span>) and links to copies of each presentation, both to state and local representatives, as well as federally-recognized tribes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..497..155G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ASPC..497..155G"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Formation in O-rich Evolved Stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around these objects. We recently proposed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. Using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands and ionised emission from the [S IV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionised material is mostly present in the inner parts, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation of exoplanets in post-common-envelope binary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.441..364G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MNRAS.441..364G"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> formation in O-rich planetary nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Lagadec, E.; Jones, D.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Gesicki, K.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been observed in O-rich planetary nebulae towards the Galactic bulge. This combination of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich material, known as dual-dust or mixed chemistry, is not expected to be seen around such objects. We recently proposed that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be formed from the photodissociation of CO in dense tori. In this work, using VISIR/VLT, we spatially resolved the emission of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands and ionized emission from the [S IV] line, confirming the presence of dense central tori in all the observed O-rich objects. Furthermore, we show that for most of the objects, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are located at the outer edge of these dense/compact tori, while the ionized material is mostly present in the inner parts of these tori, consistent with our hypothesis for the formation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in these systems. The presence of a dense torus has been strongly associated with the action of a central binary star and, as such, the rich chemistry seen in these regions may also be related to the formation of exoplanets in post-common-envelope binary systems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518994','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518994"><span>LABORATORY PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Ligterink, Niels; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine E-mail: junfeng.zhen@irap.omp.eu</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are expected to be strongly processed by vacuum ultraviolet photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}), ovalene (C{sub 32}H{sub 14}) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C{sub 42}H{sub 18}) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–40 eV. The results show that for small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4681094','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4681094"><span>LABORATORY PHOTO-CHEMISTRY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>: IONIZATION VERSUS FRAGMENTATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhen, Junfeng; Castellanos, Pablo; Paardekooper, Daniel M.; Ligterink, Niels; Linnartz, Harold; Nahon, Laurent; Joblin, Christine; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are expected to be strongly processed by Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) photons. Here, we report experimental studies on the ionization and fragmentation of coronene (C24H12), ovalene (C32H14) and hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC; C42H18) cations by exposure to synchrotron radiation in the range of 8–40 eV. The results show that for small <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations such as coronene, fragmentation (H-loss) is more important than ionization. However, as the size increases, ionization becomes more and more important and for the HBC cation, ionization dominates. These results are discussed and it is concluded that, for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, fragmentation only becomes important when the photon energy has reached the highest ionization potential accessible. This implies that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are even more photo-stable than previously thought. The implications of this experimental study for the photo-chemical evolution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the interstellar medium (ISM) are briefly discussed. PMID:26688710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484952','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484952"><span>Induction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in a phenanthrene-degrading pseudomonad</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stringfellow, W.T.; Chen, S.H.; Aitken, M.D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Recent evidence suggests that different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) substrates are metabolized by common enzymes in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria, implying that inducers for low-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation may coinduce for the metabolism of higher-molecular-weight compounds. The authors have tested this hypothesis with a well-characterized <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacterium, Pseudomonas saccharophila P-15. Growth of P-15 on salicylate, a metabolite of phenanthrene degradation, and a known inducer for naphthalene degradation, induced the metabolism of both substrates. Several potential inducers were then tested for their effects on metabolism of the four-ring compounds pyrene and fluoranthene, neither of which is a growth substrate for P-15, but both of which can be metabolized by this organism. Incubation of P-15 in the presence of phenanthrene or salicylate induced the metabolism of pyrene and fluoranthene in resting-cell assays. Catechol, another intermediate of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation, did not induce the metabolism of either compound and interfered with the inducing effect of salicylate. These results have implications for strategies designed to maintain <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in contaminated environments, particularly for compounds that are degraded slowly or are degraded only by nongrowth metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450341','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450341"><span>Emission characterization and δ(13)C values of parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM2.5-10), intermediate (PM1-2.5) and fine (PM1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both p<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM1-2.5 and PM1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, high molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were more enriched in finer PMs. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply <span class="hlt">PAH</span> diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and combustion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18001805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18001805"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in transplanted Manila clams (Tapes philippinarum) from the Lagoon of Venice as assessed by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/shell weight index: a preliminary study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boscolo, Rossella; Cacciatore, Federica; Giovanardi, Otello</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) levels was assessed in Tapes philippinarum from the Lagoon of Venice. Clams were transplanted from a polluted area next to Porto Marghera to two rearing areas of the Southern Lagoon. Analyses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were made in sediments and clams by GC/MS at first sampling and after 30, 60 and 180 days. Principal component analysis was performed to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration pattern and input sources. Biota-Sediment-Accumulation-Factor (BSAF) was applied to evaluate the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> input sources from sediment. Condition index was calculated to compare the seasonal variation of clam tissue to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels. To propose results not affected by seasonal changes in flesh weight of clams, the approach based on the calculation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/SW index was applied. From the results, it was concluded that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>/SW index is more recommendable to asses temporal variation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels in Manila clams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..118B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mkmu.book..118B"><span>Positionsbestimmung des Unternehmens: Interne <span class="hlt">und</span> externe Analyse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bergmann, Lars; Crespo, Isabel; Portmann, Stefan</p> <p></p> <p>Die Initiierung <span class="hlt">und</span> Lenkung von Maßnahmen zur integrierten Modernisierung zielen auf die Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens ab. Damit diese Maßnahmen zielgerichtet die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit verbessern können, ist Wissen über die bestehende Wettbewerbsfähigkeit sowie über die bestehenden Fähigkeiten eine zentrale Voraussetzung. Eine zielgerichtete Auswahl problemadäquater Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit bedarf daher im Vorfeld einer Bewertung der aktuellen Situation des Unternehmens im Sinne einer Positionsbestimmung. Erst wenn die internen Stärken <span class="hlt">und</span> Schwächen sowie die externen Chancen <span class="hlt">und</span> Risiken identifiziert sind, kann ein ganzheitliches Bild von der Position eines Unternehmens in seiner Umwelt gewonnen werden. Auf Basis der Kenntnisse über die Position des Unternehmens können anschließend zielgerichtet Maßnahmen ausgewählt werden, die einen Beitrag zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit des Unternehmens haben. Damit kommt der Positionsbestimmung als initialer Schritt des Prozesses der strategischen Unternehmensplanung eine zentrale Bedeutung im Rahmen der integrierten Modernisierung zu. Erfolgt die Auswahl von Maßnahmen ohne eine vorherige Positionsbestimmung, also lediglich auf Basis drängender Probleme, so besteht die Gefahr einer unbedachten <span class="hlt">und</span> nur auf das "hier <span class="hlt">und</span> heute“ bezogenen Schwerpunktbildung ohne Berücksichtigung der mittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> langfristigen Ziele des Unternehmens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020073508&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020073508&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Emission in the 11-14 micron Region: New Insights and a Tracer of Ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Ames infrared spectral database of isolated, neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) shows that aromatic CH out-of-plane bending frequencies are significantly shifted upon ionization. For non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH groups, the shift is pronounced and consistently toward higher frequencies. The non-adjacent modes are blueshifted by an average of 27 per cm and the doubly-adjacent modes by an average of 17 per cm. For triply- and quadruply-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes the ionization shifts are more erratic and typically more modest. As a result of these ionization shifts, both the non-adjacent and doubly-adjacent CH out-of-plane modes move out of the regions classically associated with their respective vibrations in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The doubly-adjacent modes of ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tend to fall into the frequency range traditionally associated with the non-adjacent modes, while the non-adjacent modes are shifted to frequencies above those normally attributed to out-of-plane bending vibrations. Consequently, the origin of the interstellar infrared emission feature near 11.2 microns, traditionally attributed to the out-of-plane bending of non-adjacent CH groups on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is rendered ambiguous. Instead, this feature likely reflects contributions from both non-adjacent CH units in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and doubly-adjacent CH units in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, the dominant charge state in the most energetic emission regions. This greatly relieves the structural constraints placed on the interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> population by the dominance of the 11.2 micron band in this region and eliminates the necessity to invoke extensive dehydrogenation of the emitting species. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emission between 926 and 904 per cm (10.8 and 11.1 microns) observed in many sources can be unambiguously attributed to the non-adjacent CH out-of-plane bending modes of moderately-sized (fewer than 50 carbon atom) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations making this emission an unequivocal tracer of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23043344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23043344"><span>Multi-level stressor analysis from the DNA/biochemical level to community levels in an urban stream and integrative health response (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) assessments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Joon Ha; Oh, Hee-Mock; An, Kwang-Guk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to identify multi-level stressors at the DNA/biochemical level to the community level in fish in an urban stream and to develop an integrative health response (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>) model for ecological health diagnosis. A pristine control site (S (c) ) and an impacted site (S (i) ) were selected from among seven pre-screened sites studied over seven years. Various chemical analyses indicated that nutrient enrichment (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) and organic pollution were significantly greater (t > 8.783, p < 0.01) at the S (i) site compared to the S (c) site. Single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assays) of DNA-level impairment indicated significantly (t = 5.678, p < 0.01) greater tail intensity, expressed as % tail-DNA, at the S (i) site and genotoxic responses were detected in the downstream reach. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assays, as a physiological bioindicator, were 2.8-fold higher (p < 0.05, NK-test after ANOVA) at the S (i) site. Tissue analysis using a necropsy-based health assessment index (NHAI) showed distinct internal organ disorders in three tissues, i.e., liver, kidney, and gill, at the S (i) site. Population-level analysis using the sentinel species Zacco platypus showed that the regression coefficient (b) was 3.012 for the S (i) site and 2.915 for the S (c) site, indicating population skewness in the downstream reach. Community-level health was impaired at the S (i) site based on an index of biological integrity (IBI), and physical habitat modifications were identified by a qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI). Overall, the model values for the integrative health response (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>), developed using the star plot approach, were 3.22 (80.5%) at the S (c) site and 0.74 (18.5%) at the S (i) site, indicating that, overall, ecological health impairments were evident in the urban reach. Our study was based on multi-level approaches using biological organization and the results suggest that there is a pivotal point of linkage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23987121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23987121"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span>-CALUX, an optimized bioassay for AhR-mediated hazard identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) as individual compounds and in complex mixtures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pieterse, B; Felzel, E; Winter, R; van der Burg, B; Brouwer, A</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) represent a class of ubiquitously occurring environmental compounds that are implicated in a wide range of toxicological effects. Routine measurement of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination generally involves chemical analytical analysis of a selected group of representatives, for example, EPA-16, which may result in underestimation of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related toxicity of a sample. Many high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are known ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a nuclear receptor that mediates toxic effects related to these compounds. Making use of this property we developed a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX assay, a mammalian, H4IIe- cell-based reporter assay for the hazard identification of total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX reporter cell line allows for specific, rapid (4 h exposure time) and reliable quantification of AhR-induced luciferase induction relative to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), which is used as a positive reference <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congener. Full dose response relationships with inductions over 100-fold were reached within only 2 h of exposure to BaP. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX is highly sensitive, that is, using a 4 h exposure time, a limit of detection (LOD) of 5.2 × 10(-11) M BaP was achieved, and highly accurate, that is, a repeatability of 5.9% and a reproducibility of 6.6% were established. Screening of a selection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that were prioritized by the European Union and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency showed that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX bioassay has a high predictability, particularly for carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Experiments with synthetic mixtures and reference materials containing complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures show the suitability of the assay for these types of applications. Moreover, the presented results suggest that application of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CALUX will result in a lower risk of underestimation of the toxicity of a sample than chemical analytical approaches that focus on a limited set of prioritized compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..855..225C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AIPC..855..225C"><span>Diffuse interstellar bands and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Galaxy and beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cox, Nick L. J.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are ubiquitously observed towards reddened stars throughout the Milky Way. In the past decade, DIBs have been observed in only a few extra-galactic lines of sight. The carriers of DIBs are likely large organic gas phase molecules that reside in the diffuse interstellar medium. However, ever since they were first observed in the 1920s their identity remains a mystery. Investigated candidate carriers include, but are not limited to, carbon chains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), fullerenes and tubular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Recent advances and successes in laboratory and theoretical work have given a great boost to the study of large molecules under interstellar conditions, i.e. low temperature, gas phase. We present here a short overview of our recent (extra)-galactic DIBs observations and the related studies of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> chemistry in these environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244863"><span>[Health risk assessment of coke oven <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emissions].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3222690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3222690"><span>Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in an urban snowpack.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boom, A; Marsalek, J</p> <p>1988-08-01</p> <p>Accumulations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a snowpack were studied in an industrial urban area with numerous anthropogenic sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loadings stored in the snowpack were determined, plotted on a map of the study area, and arenal distribution approximated by isoloading contours. The loading contours exhibited a marked elongation in the direction of prevailing winds. The unit-area deposition rates observed in the study area exceeded the typical rates reported for other urban areas, and were the highest immediately downwind of a steel plant. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in snowmelt were well below the freshwater aquatic life toxicity criteria, but exceeded both the WHO drinking water standard and the U.S. EPA carcinogenic criteria at the 10(-5) risk level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1183E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1183E"><span>Search for fullerenes and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the diffuse interstellar medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ehrenfreund, P.; Foing, B. H.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>Recent studies suggest carbon-containing molecules as the best candidates for carriers of the unidentified diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). considering their abundance and ability to form stable bonds in interstellar space. We have searched for new DIBs in the near-IR and have detected two new diffuse bands that are consistent with laboratory measurements of C 60+ in a neon matrix. Criteria for this possible identification are discussed. From these observations and the DIB treasured absorption. we estimate that up to 0.9% of interstellar carbon could be in the form of C 60+ We also searched for poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) canons and have derived corresponding limits for the presence of the coronene C 24H 12 and ovalene C 32H 14 cations in space. We have studied the ionization properties of these <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, which could explain their selective destruction. From these results we discuss the role of fullerenes and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as possible DIB carriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/370262"><span>Sediment-porewater partitioning of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Maruya, K.A.; Risebrough, R.W.; Horne, A.J.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Quantifying the distribution of hydrophobic organic compounds between contaminated sediment and interstitial water is key to understanding their fate and effects in aquatic ecosystems. Sampling during the wet and dry-seasons in San Francisco Bay has revealed that the extent of partitioning, measured as the apparent sediment organic carbon-porewater distribution coefficient (K{sub oc}{prime}), was positively correlated with the octanol-water distribution coefficient (K{sub ow}) for a suite of pyrogenically-derived, 2-6 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In addition, sediment <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (organic carbon basis) were associated with the silt fraction and organic carbon content. Moreover, K{sub oc}{prime} decreased along an intertidal gradient and was an order of magnitude higher during the wet season when runoff into the Bay was high. Our results provide evidence that substrate heterogeneity, a factor not accounted for in simple equilibrium models, can significantly alter the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in this environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.6764C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AtmEn..40.6764C"><span>Improved GC/MS methods for measuring hourly <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in urban particulate matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crimmins, Bernard S.; Baker, Joel E.</p> <p></p> <p>This study presents two methods for the quantification of nitro-substituted and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, respectively), respectively, utilizing large volume injection gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Both methods (<span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH, respectively) employed a programmed temperature vaporization injector (PTV) in solvent vent mode, optimized using standard solutions. For the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> method, the precision of the PTV was comparable to hot splitless injection for exhibiting a percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) consistently below 8% for 100 pg injections. Compound %RSDs for the NPAH method were consistently below 5% using the PTV. Microgram quantities (30-500 μg) of particulate matter Standard Reference Materials (SRM 1649 and 1650, National Institutes of Standards and Technology) were analyzed to simulate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and NPAH quantification on small aerosol mass loadings. The method detection limits from this study suggest <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs can be easily quantified using low-volume samplers (>5 Lpm) on hourly timescales. In addition, this technique enabled the quantification of 12-h NPAH size distributions in the Baltimore, MD, atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16749696','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16749696"><span>Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pollution at a motorway site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Johnsen, Anders R; De Lipthay, Julia R; Reichenberg, Fredrik; Sørensen, Søren J; Andersen, Ole; Christensen, Peter; Binderup, Mona-lise; Jacobsen, Carsten S</p> <p>2006-05-15</p> <p>Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, amounts of bioaccessible <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, total bacterial populations, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of 14C-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and mutagenicity. Elevated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled at greater distances (12-24 m) contained only background levels of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The total bacterial populations (CFU and numbers of 16S rDNA genes) were similar for all soil samples, whereas the microbial degrader populations (culturable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degraders and numbers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dioxygenase genes) were most abundant in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot particles. The increased <span class="hlt">PAH</span> level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/ 24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/ microsome assay of total extractable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> activated by liver enzymes. The potential for lighter molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in combination with low bioaccessibility of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is proposed to lead to a likely increase in concentration of heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> over time. These residues are, however, likely to be of low biological significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16294863','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16294863"><span>Abundance, composition, and vertical transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marsh sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Helen K; Xu, Li; Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons continue to persist in Wild Harbor, West Falmouth, MA, following a spill of No. 2 fuel oil in 1969 from the barge Florida. Recent analysis of marsh sediments revealed that residues of degraded oil are present with concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons as high as approximately 9 mg g(-1). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) constitute only a minor fraction of these residues with maximum concentrations of 134 mirog g(-1), but their fate is of interest because of their potential toxicity to organisms. As compared to typical unweathered No. 2 fuel oil, the current distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediments reflects substantial weathering by abiotic and biotic processes, specifically a preferential loss of naphthalenes relative to phenanthrenes, as well as isomer-specific biodegradation of alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Based on comparison to results from an earlier study, it appears that little or no change has occurred to the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> since 1989, indicating that weathering at this site has stalled or is now proceeding at a significantly slower rate. To assess whether sediment-water partitioning and molecular diffusion in the interstitial medium are now the dominant processes controlling the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, downcore profiles were compared to a numerical model. While in some cases the model accurately reproduced the measured data, there were instances where the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was slightly under or overestimated. Reasons for these discrepancies are discussed and are likely due to bioturbation, colloid-facilitated transport, or both. Assessment of the influence of these processes on the spilled oil expands our understanding of the overall fate of these compounds and their potential long-term effects on the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17689010','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17689010"><span>Remediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediments by chemical oxidation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferrarese, Elisa; Andreottola, Gianni; Oprea, Irina Aura</p> <p>2008-03-21</p> <p>The aim of this experimental investigation was to assess the feasibility of using chemical oxidation to degrade sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in case of old date sediment contamination. For this purpose several bench scale laboratory tests were performed, with the following liquid reactants: hydrogen peroxide, modified Fenton's reagent, activated sodium persulfate, potassium permanganate, as well as a combination of potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide, and a combination of activated sodium persulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The main target of the study was to find out what liquid oxidant was more effective in reducing the pollutant content and to assess the optimal reactant doses. The initial total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in sediment samples was about 2800mg/kgSS (light <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> about 1600mg/kgSS, heavy <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> about 1200mg/kgSS) and a 95% degradation was required to meet the remediation goals. Based on the results of this study, chemical oxidation proved to be an effective remediation technology, amenably applicable for the ex situ remediation of the sediments of concern. Different reactants resulted however in different removal efficiencies. The best remediation performances were achieved with the use of modified Fenton's reagent, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate, with oxidant dosages about 100mmols per 30g sediment sample. In all these cases the residual heavy <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration in the treated samples was below 100mg/kgSS. The optimal oxidant dosages determined in this study were quite high, as sorbed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mineralization requires very vigorous oxidation conditions, especially for soils and sediments with high organic matter content. The results indicated that the optimal oxidant dose must be carefully determined under site-specific conditions. In fact, if the oxidation conditions are not strong enough, the reactants cannot be able to attack the most recalcitrant compounds, while also too high oxidant doses can result in a decrease in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24198716','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24198716"><span>Global time trends in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Shen, Guofeng; Li, Wei; Su, Shenshen; Huang, Ye; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Sun, Kang</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Emission from motor vehicles is the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban areas. Emission factors of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for motor vehicles reported in the literature varied 4 to 5 orders of magnitude, leading to high uncertainty in emission inventory. In this study, key factors affecting emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (EFPAH) for motor vehicles were evaluated quantitatively based on thousands of EFPAH measured in 16 countries for over 50 years. The result was used to develop a global emission inventory of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from motor vehicles. It was found that country and vehicle model year are the most important factors affecting EFPAH, which can be quantified using a monovariate regression model with per capita gross domestic production (purchasing power parity) as a sole independent variable. On average, 29% of variation in log-transformed EFPAH could be explained by the model, which was equivalent to 90% reduction in overall uncertainty on arithmetic scale. The model was used to predict EFPAH and subsequently <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions from motor vehicles for various countries in the world during a period from 1971 to 2030. It was estimated that the global emission reached its peak value of approximate 101 Gg in 1978 and decreased afterwards due to emission control in developed countries. The annual emission picked up again since 1990 owing to accelerated energy consumption in China and other developing countries. With more and more rigid control measures taken in the developing world, global emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is currently passing its second peak. It was predicted that the emission would decrease from 77 Gg in 2010 to 42 Gg in 2030.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23247292"><span>Phototransformation rate constants of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> associated with soot particles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M; Anastasio, Cort</p> <p>2013-01-15</p> <p>Photodegradation is a key process governing the residence time and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in particles, both in the atmosphere and after deposition. We have measured photodegradation rate constants of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in bulk deposits of soot particles illuminated with simulated sunlight. The photodegradation rate constants at the surface (k(p)(0)), the effective diffusion coefficients (D(eff)), and the light penetration depths (z(0.5)) for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on soot layers of variable thickness were determined by fitting experimental data with a model of coupled photolysis and diffusion. The overall disappearance rates of irradiated low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (with 2-3 rings) on soot particles were influenced by fast photodegradation and fast diffusion kinetics, while those of high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (with 4 or more rings) were apparently controlled by either the combination of slow photodegradation and slow diffusion kinetics or by very slow diffusion kinetics alone. The value of z(0.5) is more sensitive to the soot layer thickness than the k(p)(0) value. As the thickness of the soot layer increases, the z(0.5) values increase, but the k(p)(0) values are almost constant. The effective diffusion coefficients calculated from dark experiments are generally higher than those from the model fitting method for illumination experiments. Due to the correlation between k(p)(0) and z(0.5) in thinner layers, D(eff) should be estimated by an independent method for better accuracy. Despite some limitations of the model used in this study, the fitted parameters were useful for describing empirical results of photodegradation of soot-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013795','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130013795"><span>Recent Progress in DIB Research: Survey of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> and DIBS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Farid; Galazutdinov, G.; Krelowski, J.; Biennier, L.; Beletsky, Y.; Song, I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The spectra of several neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> isolated in the gas phase at low temperature have been measured in the laboratory under experimental conditions that mimic interstellar conditions and are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars [1, 2]. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data provide upper limits for the abundances of specific neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and ions along specific lines-of-sight. Something that is not attainable from infrared observations alone. We present the characteristics of the laboratory facility (COSmIC) that was developed for this study and discuss the findings resulting from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. COSmIC combines a supersonic free jet expansion with discharge plasma and high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy and provides experimental conditions that closely mimic the interstellar conditions. The column densities of the individual neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and ions probed in these surveys are derived from the comparison of these unique laboratory data with high resolution, high S/N ratio astronomical observations. The comparisons of astronomical and laboratory data lead to clear and unambiguous conclusions regarding the expected abundances for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of various sizes and charge states in the interstellar environments probed in the surveys. Band profile comparisons between laboratory and astronomical spectra lead to information regarding the molecular structures and characteristics associated with the DIB carriers in the corresponding lines-of-sight. These quantitative surveys of neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the optical range open the way for unambiguous quantitative searches of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and complex organics in a variety of interstellar and circumstellar environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030070','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030070"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in soils and sludges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Liu, L.; Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs biodegradation were evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in soil/water systems, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals on remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration process. Model responses were verified by comparison to measurements of biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in land treatment units; a favorable match was found between them. Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (S RA) reduces to undetectable levels, with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (S IA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (S IA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, little or no <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs will leach from the treatment site and constitutes no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large K d , i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity (K in Monod kinetics, i.e., number of microbes, nutrients, and electron acceptor, etc.) regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393797"><span>[Biological monitoring of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure among asphalt workers].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campo, Laura; Calisti, Roberto; Polledri, Elisa; Barretta, Francesco; Stopponi, Roberta; Massacesi, Stefania; Bertazzi, Pieralberto; Fustinoni, Silvia</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aim of this work was the assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) in asphalt workers. Median levels of 1-OHPyr resulted higher in asphalt workers than in controls (184 vs. < 20 ng/L, p < 0.001). The determinants of exposure of 1-OHPyr resulted smoking habit, the number of consecutive days at work and the job task; 1-OHPyr was also associated to urinary creatinine. End of work week 1-OHPyr is suggested as an useful indicator of occupational exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in bitumen fumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/490963','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/490963"><span>Use of alternative growth substrates to enhance <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tittle, P.C.; Liu, Y.T.; Strand, S.E.; Stensel, H.D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Freshwater and saltwater polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-degrading enrichments were developed from seed from a manufactured gas plant site and contaminated marine sediment, respectively. Both enrichments were able to maintain specific degradation rates of 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> after growth with salicylate or phthalate, which increased their biomass concentrations by a factor of 9 to 10. Phthalate was a more effective alternative substrate than was salicylate. Specific degradation rates of phenanthrene and anthracene by the freshwater enrichment were increased after growth with phthalate. Growth with phthalate increased the specific degradation rates of phenanthrene and pyrene by the saltwater enrichment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26142749"><span>Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Me-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, PCBs) in dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases in freshwater systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Net, Sopheak; Ouddane, Baghdad; Merhaby, Dima; Dumoulin, David; Popescu, Tudor; Ravelonandro, Pierre</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The occurrence of three groups of hazardous organic contaminants (PCBs, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Me-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in fifteen watercourses and rivers located in highly urbanized and industrialized zones was studied. The distribution of 62 organic contaminants was determined in three matrices: in the dissolved phase, associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) and in sediment. Their distributions in the aquatic environment depend strongly on their physicochemical properties. Low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were predominant in the dissolved phase while those with high molecular weight accumulated preferentially in SSM and sediments. Among the 28 PCBs congeners, only PCB153 was detected. The results showed that the contamination of these areas originated mainly from combustion processes. The three the most polluted sites identified are surrounded by big cities. Ecotoxicological assessment based on the international Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) showed that the toxic effects of the sediment in these watercourses and rivers occurred due to high levels of hydrocarbons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85612&keyword=Manhattan+AND+project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736783&CFTOKEN=42345569','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=85612&keyword=Manhattan+AND+project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736783&CFTOKEN=42345569"><span>ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=88300&keyword=Toxicity+AND+Waste+AND+Management+AND+Bioremediation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89648836&CFTOKEN=84439532','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=88300&keyword=Toxicity+AND+Waste+AND+Management+AND+Bioremediation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89648836&CFTOKEN=84439532"><span>A TOXICITY ASSESSMENT APPROACH FOR EVALUATION OF IN-SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) represent a group of organic contaminants known for their prevalence and persistence in petroleum-impacted environment such as groundwater, soils and sediments. Many high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are suspected carcinogens and the existence of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104716&keyword=triton&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78213360&CFTOKEN=97168026','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=104716&keyword=triton&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78213360&CFTOKEN=97168026"><span>BIODEGRADATION OF SEDIMENT-BOUND <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has been reported to occur under aerobic, sulfate reducing, and denitrifying conditions. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in contaminated sites, however, are known for their persistence. Most published studies were conducted in systems wh...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003asdu.confE.157G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003asdu.confE.157G"><span>Optical Spectroscopy of Radiation Processed Cosmic Ices & <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-doped Water-rich Ices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.</p> <p></p> <p>Water-rich, mixed molecular ices and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are common throughout interstellar molecular clouds and the Solar System. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and particle bombardment of these abiotic ices produces complex organic species, including important biogenic molecules such as amino acids and functionalized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This ability of such water-rich, oxygen-dominated ices to promote production of complex organic species is important. We will present studies on cosmic ices that include <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-impurities upon vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation using electronic spectroscopy. VUV-irradiation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> / H2O ices leads to efficient conversion of the neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to their cation form (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>+). Further, these H2O / <span class="hlt">PAH</span>+ ices are stable at temperatures below 50 K, a temperature domain common throughout interstellar clouds and the Solar System. In view of this, we conclude that charged <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and other molecular ions should be common and abundant in many cosmic ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039289','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039289"><span>Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. It was reported recently that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76647&keyword=plants+AND+grow+AND+better+AND+sunlight+OR+artificial+AND+light&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76041162&CFTOKEN=63905650','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=76647&keyword=plants+AND+grow+AND+better+AND+sunlight+OR+artificial+AND+light&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76041162&CFTOKEN=63905650"><span>ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR PHOTO-ACTIVATED TOXICITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN AQUATIC SYSTEMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants introduced through combustion processes and from release of petroleum and petroleum products. Assessing the ecological risk from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is complicated by several factors, including their occurrence a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24775063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24775063"><span>Increased zooplankton <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations across hydrographic fronts in the East China Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hung, Chin-Chang; Ko, Fung-Chi; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chen, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Jian-Ming; Chiang, Hsin-Lun; Peng, Sen-Chueh; Santschi, Peter H</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>The Changjiang has transported large quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to the East China Sea (ECS), but information of these pollutants in zooplankton is limited. To understand <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution in zooplankton in the ECS, total concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in zooplankton from surface waters were measured. Values of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 2 to 3500 ng m(-3) in the ECS, with highest <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> levels located at the salinity front between the Changjiang Diluted Water (CDW) and the mid-shelf waters. In contrast, concentrations of zooplankton <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the mid-shelf and outer-shelf waters were significantly lower (2-23 ng m(-3)) than those in the CDW. These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are conspicuously accumulated in zooplankton at the salinity front between the CDW and the mid-shelf waters. These higher levels of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in zooplankton at the salinity front may be further biomagnified in marine organisms of higher trophic levels through their feeding activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343286"><span>Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is considered not significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16004327','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16004327"><span>[Influences of surfactant on the transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in artificially contaminated soil columns].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jing; Wang, Xue-jun; Hu, Jun-dong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wen-xin</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The effect of anionic surfactant LAS on leaching of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from artificially contaminated soil was studied. The interaction of these processes were studied in a two-layer column experiment with a base layer of uncontaminated soil(9cm) and a top layer of artificially contaminated soil(1cm). Results show that 5 critical micelle concentration (CMC) LAS enhanced the transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The breakthrough curves of low ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> followed the normal distribution and the relative leaching ratios of 4 or more rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were low, and not more than 10%. The transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was retarded compared with LAS, and the high ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were retarded more significantly. Linear correlation was observed between the relative leachability of the individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the octanol/water coefficient of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24981104"><span>Biological risk and pollution history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Nansha mangrove, South China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Shejun; Mai, Bixian; Zhou, Xizhen; Xia, Lihua; Geng, Xinhua</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>Chinese government has taken various measures to alleviate pollution caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the region of Pearl River Delta since the economic reform in 1978, but the effectiveness of these measures remains largely unknown. This study aimed to elucidate the biological risk and pollution history of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by measuring the concentrations of 28 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the surface and core sediments, respectively, in Nansha mangrove. Results found that the biological risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was low without obvious spatial variation. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration along the depth gradient indicated that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution was stabilized since the early 1990s while the source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> has gradually changed from combustion of coal to petroleum products. This implied that the mitigation measures taken by the Chinese government were effective. Compared to marine bottom sediment, we propose that using mangrove sediment can provide a more accurate and precise estimate of pollution history of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013021','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24013021"><span>A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their human health effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Kabir, Ehsanul; Brown, Richard J C</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are a large group of organic compounds comprised of two or more fused benzene rings arranged in various configurations. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are widespread environmental contaminants formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic materials such as fossil fuels. The occurrence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ambient air is an increasing concern because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Although emissions and allowable concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in air are now regulated, the health risk posed by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure suggests a continuing need for their control through air quality management. In light of the environmental significance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure, this review offers an overview of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties, fates, transformations, human exposure, and health effects (acute and chronic) associated with their emission to the atmosphere. Biomarkers of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and their significance are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25239676"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (Σ<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> averaged 59.67% of the Σ<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21143830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21143830"><span>Laboratory capacity building for the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) in resource-poor countries: the experience of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Masanza, Monica Musenero; Nqobile, Ndlovu; Mukanga, David; Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo</p> <p>2010-12-03</p> <p>Laboratory is one of the core capacities that countries must develop for the implementation of the International Health Regulations (<span class="hlt">IHR</span>[2005]) since laboratory services play a major role in all the key processes of detection, assessment, response, notification, and monitoring of events. While developed countries easily adapt their well-organized routine laboratory services, resource-limited countries need considerable capacity building as many gaps still exist. In this paper, we discuss some of the efforts made by the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in supporting laboratory capacity development in the Africa region. The efforts range from promoting graduate level training programs to building advanced technical, managerial and leadership skills to in-service short course training for peripheral laboratory staff. A number of specific projects focus on external quality assurance, basic laboratory information systems, strengthening laboratory management towards accreditation, equipment calibration, harmonization of training materials, networking and provision of pre-packaged laboratory kits to support outbreak investigation. Available evidence indicates a positive effect of these efforts on laboratory capacity in the region. However, many opportunities exist, especially to support the roll-out of these projects as well as attending to some additional critical areas such as biosafety and biosecuity. We conclude that AFENET's approach of strengthening national and sub-national systems provide a model that could be adopted in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26298851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26298851"><span>Variations of emission characterization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted from different utility boilers of coal-fired power plants and risk assessment related to atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ruwei; Liu, Guijian; Zhang, Jiamei</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) represent important source of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, however, their emission characterization are still largely unknown. In this work, the concentration, distribution and gas-particle partitioning of PM10- and gas-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in flue gas emitted from different coal-fired utility boilers were investigated. Moreover, concentration and distribution in airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from different functional areas of power plants were studied. People's inhalatory and dermal exposures to airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at these sites were estimated and their resultant lung cancer and skin cancer risks were assessed. Results indicated that the boiler capacity and operation conditions have significant effect on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in both PM10 and gas phases due to the variation of combustion efficiency, whereas they take neglected effect on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distributions. The wet flue gas desulphurization (WFGD) takes significant effect on the scavenging of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in both PM10 and gas phases, higher scavenging efficiency were found for less volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> partitioning is dominated by absorption into organic matter and accompanied by adsorption onto PM10 surface. In addition, different partitioning mechanism is observed for individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, which is assumed arising from their chemical affinity and vapor pressure. Risk assessment indicates that both inhalation and dermal contact greatly contribute to the cancer risk for CFPP workers and nearby residents. People working in workshop are exposed to greater inhalation and dermal exposure risk than people living in nearby vicinity and working office.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17513044"><span>Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in contaminated soils by Fenton's reagent: a multivariate evaluation of the importance of soil characteristics and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jonsson, Sofia; Persson, Ylva; Frankki, Sofia; van Bavel, Bert; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigated how the chemical degradability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in aged soil samples from various contaminated sites is influenced by soil characteristics and by <span class="hlt">PAH</span> physico-chemical properties. The results were evaluated using the multivariate statistical tool, partial least squares projections to latent structures (PLS). The <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil samples were characterised (by pH, conductivity, organic matter content, oxide content, particle size, specific surface area, and the time elapsed since the contamination events, i.e. age), and subjected to relatively mild, slurry-phase Fenton's reaction conditions. In general, low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were degraded to a greater extent than large, highly hydrophobic variants. Anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, and pyrene were more susceptible to degradation than other, structurally similar, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; an effect attributed to the known susceptibility of these compounds to reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The presence of organic matter and the specific surface area of the soil were clearly negatively correlated with the degradation of bi- and tri-cyclic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, whereas the amount of degraded organic matter correlated positively with the degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with five or six fused rings. This was explained by enhanced availability of the larger <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, which were released from the organic matter as it degraded. Our study shows that sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is influenced by a combination of soil characteristics and physico-chemical properties of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Multivariate statistical tools have great potential for assessing the relative importance of these parameters.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001flas.book..293W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001flas.book..293W"><span>Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer <span class="hlt">und</span> Meister der Beobachtungstechnik</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wolfschmidt, Gudrun</p> <p></p> <p>Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg <span class="hlt">und</span> der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg <span class="hlt">und</span> Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi <span class="hlt">und</span> Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente <span class="hlt">und</span> Meßtechniken <span class="hlt">und</span> bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie <span class="hlt">und</span> der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. <span class="hlt">und</span> 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4101084','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4101084"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), Nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Hopanes and Steranes Biomarkers in Sediments of Southern Lake Michigan, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Batterman, Stuart A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metric tons per year (t/yr) of Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56±18%), coal power plants (27±14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16±11%), and coke ovens (7±12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAHs levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for further work</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784742"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and hopane and sterane biomarkers in sediments of southern Lake Michigan, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Lei; Chernyak, Sergei M; Batterman, Stuart A</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Great Lakes basin are of concern due to their toxicity and persistence in bottom sediments. Their nitro derivatives, nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NPAHs), which can have stronger carcinogenic and mutagenic activity than parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, may follow similar transport routes and also are accumulated in sediments. Limited information exists regarding the current distribution, trends and loadings of these compounds, especially NPAHs, in Lake Michigan sediments. This study characterizes <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, NPAHs, and biomarkers steranes and hopanes in surface sediments collected at 24 offshore sites in southern Lake Michigan. The Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14 (sum of 14 compounds) ranged from 213 to 1,291 ng/g dry weight (dw) across the sites, levels that are 2 to 10 times lower than those reported 20 to 30 years earlier. Compared to consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations suggest very low risk to benthic organisms. The ΣNPAH5 concentration ranged from 2.9 to 18.6 ng/g dw, and included carcinogenic compounds 1-nitropyrene and 6-nitrochrysene. ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5 concentrations ranged from 6.2 to 36 and 98 to 355 ng/g dw, respectively. Based on these concentrations, Lake Michigan is approximately receiving 11, 0.16, 0.25 and 3.6 metrictons per year (t/yr) of Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>14, ΣNPAH5, ΣSterane6 and ΣHopane5, respectively. Maps of OC-adjusted concentrations display that concentrations decline with increasing off-shore distance. The major sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and NPAHs are pyrogenic in nature, based on diagnostic ratios. Using chemical mass balance models, sources were apportioned to emissions from diesel engines (56 ± 18%), coal power plants (27 ± 14%), coal-tar pavement sealants (16 ± 11%), and coke ovens (7 ± 12%). The biomarkers identify a combination of petrogenic and biogenic sources, with the southern end of the lake more impacted by petroleum. This first report of NPAH levels in sediments of Lake Michigan reveals several carcinogenic compounds at modest concentrations, and a need for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/371991','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/371991"><span>Evaporation and vapor characterization of low-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> binders for Soederberg cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Eie, M.; Oeye, H.A.; Soerlie, M.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents in anode pitches as well as in their pitch vapors have been characterized, for both standard anode pitches and the new types of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-reduced cut-back pitches. This data has been compared to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions measured from industrial VS Soederberg cells. A total of 16 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in the pitches, from phenanthrene to dibenzopyrenes, have been analyzed in this work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65957&keyword=pet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76142678&CFTOKEN=30652280','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=65957&keyword=pet&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76142678&CFTOKEN=30652280"><span>AN OVERVIEW OF PARTITIONING AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Understanding and predicting any adverse effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> depends on generating a reliable measure or estimate of how much <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is available for uptake. Simply knowing the total amount of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in soil, water or sediment is insufficient for determining whether or not these compounds ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=87754&keyword=microbiota&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78680580&CFTOKEN=46937879','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=87754&keyword=microbiota&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78680580&CFTOKEN=46937879"><span>ASSESSING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> IN FIELD-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT USING XAD-2 ASSISTED DESORPTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the bioremediation of soils/sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) it is imperative to determine the fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that is amenable to remediation. For example, what fraction of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is available to the indigenous microorganisms, i.e. bi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-26/pdf/2010-4082.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-26/pdf/2010-4082.pdf"><span>75 FR 8937 - Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-26</p> <p>... AGENCY Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>...) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) Mixtures'' (EPA/635/R-08/012A). The draft document was... of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) Mixtures''...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16182861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16182861"><span>Temporal variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) leaves in an urban area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were due to the medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.1209C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AtmEn..41.1209C"><span>Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung</p> <p></p> <p>This work investigated the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Nap was the most predominant water-phase <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22476000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22476000"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.</p> <p>2015-02-15</p> <p>Highlights: • <span class="hlt">PAH</span> from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more <span class="hlt">PAH</span> than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the tar. • The mechanism of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more <span class="hlt">PAH</span> than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28063713','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28063713"><span>Phytoavailability and mechanism of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in filed contaminated soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Yanzheng; Hu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yize; Sun, Bingqing</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the phytoavailability of bound residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soils is essential to assessing their environmental fate and risks. This study investigated the release and plant uptake of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues (reference to parent compounds) in field contaminated soils after the removal of extractable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fractions. Plant pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) to examine the phytoavailablility of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues, and microcosm incubation experiments with and without the addition of artificial root exudates (AREs) or oxalic acid were conducted to examine the effect of root exudates on the release of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> accumulation in the ryegrass after a 50-day growth period indicated that bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues were significantly phytoavailable. The extractable fractions, including the desorbing and non-desorbing fractions, dominated the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in vegetated soils after 50 days, indicating the transfer of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues to the extractable fractions. This transfer was facilitated by root exudates. The addition of AREs and oxalic acid to test soils enhanced the release of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues into their extractable fractions, resulting in enhanced phytoavailability of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in soils. This study provided important information regarding environmental fate and risks of bound <span class="hlt">PAH</span> residues in soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64772&keyword=classroom+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89764378&CFTOKEN=62074768','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64772&keyword=classroom+AND+development&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89764378&CFTOKEN=62074768"><span>MULTIMEDIA CONCENTRATIONS OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IN SEVERAL DAY CARE CENTERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in nine day care centers in the spring of 1997. Indoor and outdoor air, food and beverages, indoor dust, and outdoor play area soil were sampled. The mean sums of 20 target <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were 265 and 199 ng...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26221084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26221084"><span>Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) using rhizosphere technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512045','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4512045"><span>Bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) using rhizosphere technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bisht, Sandeep; Pandey, Piyush; Bhargava, Bhavya; Sharma, Shivesh; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Krishan D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The remediation of polluted sites has become a priority for society because of increase in quality of life standards and the awareness of environmental issues. Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants, because of the high economic cost of physicochemical strategies, the biological tools for remediation of these persistent pollutants is the better option. Major foci have been considered on persistent organic chemicals i.e. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) due to their ubiquitous occurrence, recalcitrance, bioaccumulation potential and carcinogenic activity. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated rhizospheric microbes is the creative biotechnological approach that has been explored in this review. Moreover, in this review we showed the significance of rhizoremediation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from other bioremediation strategies i.e. natural attenuation, bioaugmentation and phytoremediation and also analyze certain environmental factor that may influence the rhizoremediation technique. Numerous bacterial species were reported to degrade variety of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and most of them are isolated from contaminated soil, however few reports are available from non contaminated soil. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomons fluoresens , Mycobacterium spp., Haemophilus spp., Rhodococcus spp., Paenibacillus spp. are some of the commonly studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. Finally, exploring the molecular communication between plants and microbes, and exploiting this communication to achieve better results in the elimination of contaminants, is a fascinating area of research for future perspective. PMID:26221084</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024567','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5024567"><span>Urinary concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and VOC metabolites in marijuana users</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OH-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752861','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15752861"><span>Sequencing batch reactor performance treating <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminated lagoon sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Giordano, Andrea; Stante, Loredana; Pirozzi, Francesco; Cesaro, Raffaele; Bortone, Giuseppe</p> <p>2005-03-17</p> <p>The applicability of sediment slurry sequencing batch reactors (SBR) to treat Venice lagoon sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was investigated, carrying out experimental tests. The slurry, obtained mixing tap water and contaminated sediments with 17.1 mg kg(-1) TS total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> content, was loaded to a 8l lab-scale completely stirred reactor, operated as a sequencing batch reactor. Oxygen uptake rate exerted by the slurry, measured by means of a DO-stat titrator, was used to monitor the in-reactor biological activity and to select the optimal operating conditions for the sediment slurry SBR. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal efficiency was evaluated in different operating conditions, obtained changing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the lab-scale reactor and adding an external carbon source to the slurry. HRT values used during the experiments are 98, 70 and 35 days, whereas the carbon source was added in order to evaluate its effect on the biological activity. The results have shown a stable degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with a removal efficiency close to 55%, not dependent on the addition of carbon source and the tested HRTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60567&keyword=food+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89989636&CFTOKEN=19611851','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=60567&keyword=food+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89989636&CFTOKEN=19611851"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> EXPOSURES OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR ADULT CAREGIVERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The results of four small studies of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exposures of preschool children in low-income families from the Piedmont area of North Carolina were combined to allow comparisons of the total exposures of the children and their adult caregivers. I...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005625','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005625"><span>Angular motion of a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in interstellar environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rouan, D.; Leger, Alain; Omont, A.; Giard, Martin</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules have recently been proposed as an important and hitherto undetected component of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). The theory was based on an explanation of the Unidentified IR Emission Bands by Leger et al. It has already led to a verified prediction on extended galactic and extragalactic emissions measured by IRAS, or by a recent balloon borne experiment. The physics that rules the motion of such molecules in the ISM was studied, taking into account their coupling with the ambient gas, the radiation field (absorption and emission) and the static magnetic field. This is important for many implications of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> theory such as the radio emission by these molecules or the expected polarization of their IR emission. A reflection nebulae is considered where the situation is rather well known. Every day life of a mean <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in such a region is as follows: every 3 hrs a UV photon is absorbed heating the molecule to a thousand degs; the temperature decay due to cooling by IR emission follows then within a few seconds. A collision with a molecule of gas occurs typically once a week, while an H atom is ejected or captured at the same rate. A typical cooling cycle after a heat impulse is given. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules studied as representative of the family has typically 50 atoms, a radius of 4.5 A, is circular and has a molecular mass of M = 300; its permanent dipole moment is 3 Debye.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82487&keyword=tea&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78772341&CFTOKEN=72925734','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=82487&keyword=tea&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78772341&CFTOKEN=72925734"><span>LAND TREATMENT OF TWO PLATEAU MATERIALS CONTAMINATED WITH <span class="hlt">PAHS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This study was designed to evaluate several treatments for their ability to enhance the biological removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from contaminated soil and sediment. Previously land-treated material was used to test the treatments in a 13 week bench scale stu...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002LPI....33.1076H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002LPI....33.1076H"><span>Are Biogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Precursors for Fullerenes on Earth?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heymann, D.</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>C60 fullerene in shungite and in bitumen from the Bohemian Massif could have formed in situ in two steps: 1. Cyclotrimerization of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> C20H12. 2. Dehydrogenation of C60H30 to C60. The necessary heat was provided during metamorphism.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005626','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005626"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecules and heating of the interstellar gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Verstraete, Laurent; Leger, Alain; Dhendecourt, Louis B.; Dutuit, O.; Defourneau, D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Until now it has remained difficult to account for the rather high temperatures seen in many diffuse interstellar clouds. Various heating mechanisms have been considered: photoionization of minor species, ionization of H by cosmic rays, and photoelectric effect on small grains. Yet all these processes are either too weak or efficient under too restricting conditions to balance the observed cooling rates. A major heat source is thus still missing in the thermal balance of the diffuse gas. Using photoionization cross sections measured in the lab, it was shown that in order to balance the observed cooling rates in cold diffuse clouds (T approx. 80 K) the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> would have to contain 15 percent of the cosmic abundance of carbon. This value does not contradict the former estimation of 6 percent deduced from the IR emission bands since this latter is to be taken as a lower limit. Further, it was estimated that the contribution to the heating rate due to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in a warm HI cloud, assuming the same <span class="hlt">PAH</span> abundance as for a cold HI cloud, would represent a significant fraction of the value required to keep the medium in thermal balance. Thus, photoionization of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> might well be a major heat source for the cold and warm HI media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..474G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..99..474G"><span>Levels, trends and health concerns of atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garrido, Adrián; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Ratola, Nuno</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in climate can affect the concentration patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) by altering the dispersion (wind speed, mixing layer height, convective fronts), deposition by precipitation, dry deposition, photochemistry, natural emissions and background concentrations. This means the evolution trends of these pollutants have to be studied under a multi-scale perspective, allowing the establishment of transport patterns and distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In this sense, this work tries to unveil the atmospheric behaviour of these pollutants using temporal data series collected in different stations from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) air sampling network. These sites are thought to avoid the direct influence of emitting areas (background stations), allowing the study of long-range transport effects, intra- and trans-annual variability, relationships between concentrations patterns and meteorological variables and latitudinal gradients of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels in Europe. Overall, a typical high concentration pattern was found for the colder months (and an opposite behaviour is found for summertime). Negative trends were detected over high latitudes, for instance, in Svalbard (Norway), whereas for the United Kingdom the pattern is the inverse. Also, negative latitudinal gradients were observed in 4 of the 15 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> studied. Finally, air quality parameters revealed concern over human health issues, given the recent increase of BaP levels in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232904&keyword=organization+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89479895&CFTOKEN=76241432','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=232904&keyword=organization+AND+children&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89479895&CFTOKEN=76241432"><span>Human Exposures to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: an Eastern United States Pilot Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD and in four surrounding counties (NHEXAS-Maryland). An objective of this effort was to esta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21714631"><span>Efficiency of butyl rubber sorbent to remove the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> toxicity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okay, O S; Özdemir, P; Yakan, S D</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Large amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been released to the marine environment as a result of oil spills and from other sources including wastewaters, surface runoff, industrial processes, atmospheric deposition, biosynthesis, and natural events such as forest fires. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been known to affect a variety of biological processes and can be potent cell mutagens/carcinogens and toxic. In this study, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> toxicity removal was investigated by using a novel macroporous butyl rubber (BR) sorbent. To find out the toxicity removal efficiency of the sorbents, the toxicity tests with Vibrio fisheri (luminescence bacteria) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (marine algae) were applied to the acenaphthene (Ace) and phenanthrene (Phen) solutions in seawater (Ace: 500- 1000 μg/L; Phen; 100-1000 μg/L) before and after sorbent applications. Additionally, lysosomal stability and filtration rate biomarker techniques were applied to the mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to 1000 μg/L Phen solution and bioaccumulation was measured. The results showed that the toxicity of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solutions decreased 50-100 percent depending on the concentration of the solutions and organisms. Phaeodactylum was found as the most sensitive organism to Phen and Ace. Since the application of BR sorbent removed the Phen from the solution, the bioaccumulated Phen amount in the mussels decreased accordingly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007695&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007695&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in interplanetary dust particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, <span class="hlt">PAH</span>'s in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZAGeo..40...19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ZAGeo..40...19S"><span>Corporate Regional Responsibility - Warum engagieren sich Unternehmen gemeinsam für <span class="hlt">ihre</span> Region?. Motive der kollektiven regionalen Verantwortungsübernahme von Unternehmen an den Beispielen des Initiativkreises Ruhr <span class="hlt">und</span> der Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schiek, Meike</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Companies can voluntarily participate in matters of regional developments, thereby accepting responsibility on a regional level. Referring to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the term Corporate Regional Responsibility (CRR) is used to describe this behavior. Moreover, companies can form a CRR-corporation with other companies in order to take over a collective CRR. So far, the motives of companies for exercising collective CRR are unknown, thus, corporate resources can not be mobilized and utilized efficiently for regional developments. This article explores the subject of collective CRR and illustrates CRR motives using the example of the two CRR-cooperations Initiativkreis Ruhr and Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21094979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21094979"><span>Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on glass surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Yuan; Posch, Tjorben; Schmidt, Torsten C</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to glass commonly used in laboratories was studied. Sorption coefficients (Kd) of five selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to borosilicate glass surfaces were measured using column chromatography. A linear relationship between log Kd and the corresponding water solubility of the subcooled liquid (log Sw) of the investigated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was observed. Based on the determined sorption coefficients our data revealed that mass loss caused by sorption on glass walls strongly depends on the ratio of solution volume to contacted surface area (V/S). The influence of solution chemistry such as ionic strength, solution pH, presence of cosolvent, and the influence of temperature on the sorption process were investigated. In the presence of ionic strength, sorption coefficients concurrently increased but less than a factor of 2 up to 0.005 M calcium chloride concentration. However, further increasing ionic strength had no influence on Kd. The cosolvent reduced sorption at a concentration of methanol in water above 0.5% (v/v); however, for benzo[a]pyrene even with 10% (v/v) methanol the mass loss would be still higher than 10% (with a V/S ratio less than 0.25). Significant effects of the solution pH and temperature were not observed. These results suggest that van der Waal's forces dominate the sorption process. In the analysis of highly hydrophobic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in aqueous samples, mass loss due to sorption on glass walls should be accounted for in the final result if untreated glass is used. The presented relationship between log Kd and log Sw may help to decide if such a correction is necessary. Furthermore, the frequently used silanization of glass surfaces may not be sufficient to suppress sorption for large <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1175W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1175W"><span>Plasma processing of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into solar system kerogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Lee, Wei; Cronin, John; Beegle, Luther W.; Robinson, Michael S.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of im-estigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama Lit Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the. precursor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> naphthalene, a new material having an I R absorption spectrum (Lee. W. and Wdowiak, T. J., Astrophys. J., 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J. R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula. where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089440&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089440&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Plasma processing of interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into solar system kerogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wdowiak, T. J.; Lee, W.; Cronin, J.; Beegle, L. W.; Robinson, M. S.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Processes resulting in the formation of hydrocarbons of carbonaceous chondrites and the identity of the interstellar molecular precursors involved are an objective of investigations into the origin of the solar system and perhaps even life on earth. We have combined the resources and experience of an astronomer and physicists doing laboratory simulations with those of a chemical expert in the analysis of meteoritic hydrocarbons, in a project that investigated the conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) formed in stellar atmospheres into alkanes found in meteorites. Plasma hydrogenation has been found in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Astrophysics Laboratory to produce from the precursor <span class="hlt">PAH</span> naphthalene, a new material having an IR absorption spectrum (Lee, W. and Wdowiak, T.J., Astrophys. J. 417, L49-L51, 1993) remarkably similar to that obtained at Arizona State University of the benzene-methanol extract of the Murchison meteorite (Cronin, J.R. and Pizzarello, S., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2859-2868, 1990). There are astrophysical and meteoritic arguments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species from extra-solar sources being incorporated into the solar nebula, where plasma hydrogenation is highly plausible. Conversion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into alkanes could also have occurred in the interstellar medium. The synthesis of laboratory analogs of meteoritic hydrocarbons through plasma hydrogenation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species is underway, as is chemical analysis of those analogs. The objective is to clarify this heretofore uninvestigated process and to understand its role during the origin of the solar system as a mechanism of production of hydrocarbon species now found in meteorites. Results have been obtained in the form of time-of-flight spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the lab analog prepared from naphthalene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799...14C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...799...14C"><span>Photochemistry of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cosmic Water Ice: The Role of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Ionization and Concentration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, Amanda M.; Ricca, Alessandra; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Bouwman, Jordy; Roser, Joseph; Linnartz, Harold; Bregman, Jonathan; Allamandola, Louis J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H2O, pyrene:H2O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H2O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H2O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H2O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) n ] and quinones [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) n ] for all <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H2O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati & Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is the dominant photochemical reaction, but <span class="hlt">PAH</span> erosion to smaller <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (producing CO2 and H2CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations are important contributors to the C2 component and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) n and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) n to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ~2%-4% level relative to H2O. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40674L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007sptz.prop40674L"><span>Modeling the Infrared Emission Spectra of Specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Molecules in Interstellar Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Aigen</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 micron emission features ubiquitously seen in a wide variety of Galactic and extragalactic objects, are generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules. Although the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> hypothesis is quite successful in explaining the general pattern of the observed emission spectra, so far there is no actual precise identification of a single specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in interstellar space. Therefore, when modeling the observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission spectra, astronomers usually take an empirical approach by constructing 'astro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>' which do not represent any specific material, but approximate the actual absorption properties of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture in astrophysical regions. We propose a Spitzer Theory Program to study the photoexcitation of specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and their ions in interstellar space, taking a statistical-mechanical (instead of thermal) approach. For most of the specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules selected for this research (with a small number of vibrational degrees of freedom), thermal approximation is not valid. Using available laboratory and quantum-chemical data (e.g. vibrational frequencies, UV/visible/IR absorption cross sections), we will calculate the emission spectra of 21 representative specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and their ions, ranging from naphthalene to circumcoronene, illuminated by interstellar radiation fields of a wide range of intensities. This program will create a web-based 'library' of the emission spectra of 21 specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules and their ions as a function of starlight intensities. This 'library' will be made publicly available by October 2008 on the internet at http://www.missouri.edu/~lia/. By comparing observed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra with model spectra produced by co-adding the emission spectra of different <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules available in this 'library' (with different weights for different species), one will be able to estimate the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mass and relative abundances of each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species, using real <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364554','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364554"><span>PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COSMIC WATER ICE: THE ROLE OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IONIZATION AND CONCENTRATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cook, Amanda M.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Roser, Joseph; Bregman, Jonathan; Bouwman, Jordy; Linnartz, Harold</p> <p>2015-01-20</p> <p>Infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated, water-rich, cosmic ice analogs containing small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are described. The irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices (14 K) at various concentrations reported by Bouwman et al. are extended. While aromatic alcohols and ketones have been reported in residues after irradiated <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H{sub 2}O ices were warmed to 270 K, it was not known if they formed during ice irradiation or during warm-up when reactants interact as H{sub 2}O sublimes. Recent work has shown that they form in low temperature ice. Using DFT computed IR spectra to identify photoproducts and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, we tentatively identify the production of specific alcohols [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) {sub n} ] and quinones [<span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) {sub n} ] for all <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H{sub 2}O ices considered here. Little evidence is found for hydrogenation at 14 K, consistent with the findings of Gudipati and Yang. Addition of O and OH to the parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is the dominant photochemical reaction, but <span class="hlt">PAH</span> erosion to smaller <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (producing CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO) is also important. DFT spectra are used to assess the contribution of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-related species to interstellar absorption features from 5 to 9 μm. The case is made that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations are important contributors to the C2 component and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(OH) {sub n} and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>(O) {sub n} to the C5 component described by Boogert et al. Thus, interstellar ices should contain neutral and ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, alcohols, ketones and quinones at the ∼2%-4% level relative to H{sub 2}O. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, their photoproducts, and ion-mediated processes should therefore be considered when modeling interstellar ice processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2515Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.2515Z"><span>Nitration of particle-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their derivatives (nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with NO 3 radicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yang; Yang, Bo; Gan, Jie; Liu, Changgeng; Shu, Xi; Shu, Jinian</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The heterogeneous reactions of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives (nitro-, oxy-, and hydroxy-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) adsorbed on azelaic acid particles with NO 3 radicals are investigated using a flow-tube reactor coupled to a vacuum ultraviolet photoionization aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-ATOFMS). The mono-nitro-, di-nitro-, and poly-nitro-products from successive nitro-substitution reactions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their derivatives are observed in real time with VUV-ATOFMS. 9-Nitroanthracene, anthraquinone, anthrone, 9,10-dinitroanthracene, 2-, 4-, and 9-nitrophenanthrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrene, 7-nitrobenzo[ a]anthracene, and benzo[ a]anthracene-7,12-dione are identified by GC/MS analysis of the reaction products of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their derivatives coated on the inner bottom surface of the conical flasks with NO 3 radicals. Other oxygenated products are tentatively assigned. 1-Nitropyrene is the only mono-nitrated product detected in the reaction of surface-bound pyrene with gas-phase NO 3 radicals. This phenomenon is different from what has been observed in previous studies of the gas-phase pyrene nitration, showing that 2-nitropyrene is the sole nitration product. The experimental results may reveal the discrepancies between the heterogeneous and homogeneous nitrations of pyrene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4532996','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4532996"><span>Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nine nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. PMID:26265155</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16623741','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16623741"><span>Distribution of the Mycobacterium community and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) among different size fractions of a long-term <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uyttebroek, Maarten; Breugelmans, Philip; Janssen, Mieke; Wattiau, Pierre; Joffe, Boris; Karlson, Ulrich; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio; Bastiaens, Leen; Ryngaert, Annemie; Hausner, Martina; Springael, Dirk</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Summary Mycobacterium is often isolated from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-contaminated soil as degraders of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In model systems, Mycobacterium shows attachment to the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> substrate source, which is considered to be a particular adaptation to low bioavailability as it results into increased substrate flux to the degraders. To examine whether <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading Mycobacterium in real <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils, in analogy with model systems, are preferentially associated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-enriched soil particles, the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-mineralizing capacity and of Mycobacterium over different fractions of a soil with an aged <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination was investigated. The clay fraction contained the majority of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and showed immediate pyrene- and phenanthrene-mineralizing activity upon addition of (14)C-labelled pyrene or phenanthrene. In contrast, the sand and silt fractions showed a lag time of 15-26 h for phenanthrene and 3-6 days for pyrene mineralization. The maximum pyrene and phenanthrene mineralization rates of the clay fraction expressed per gram fraction were three to six times higher than those of the sand and silt fractions. Most-probable-number (MPN)-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that Mycobacterium represented about 10% of the eubacteria in the clay fraction, while this was only about 0.1% in the sand and silt fractions, indicating accumulation of Mycobacterium in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-enriched clay fraction. The Mycobacterium community composition in the clay fraction represented all dominant Mycobacterium populations of the bulk soil and included especially species related to Mycobacterium pyrenivorans, which was also recovered as one of the dominant species in the eubacterial communities of the bulk soil and the clay fraction. Moreover, Mycobacterium could be identified among the major culturable <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading populations in both the bulk soil and the clay fraction. The results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading mycobacteria are mainly associated with the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25339526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25339526"><span>Combined use of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and EROD activities in the determination of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) pollution by measuring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The chemical analyses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265155"><span>Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu</p> <p>2015-08-12</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nine nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...512992L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...512992L"><span>Fast analysis of 29 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Liu, Chun-Hu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous in the environment. Some of them are probable carcinogens and some are source markers. This work presents an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous analysis of 20 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nine nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These compounds are separated in 15 minutes in the positive mode and 11 minutes in the negative mode, one half of GC/MS analysis time. Two pairs of precursor/product ions are offered, which is essential for confirmation. This method separates and quantifies benzo[a]pyrene (the most toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and non-priority benzo[e]pyrene (isomers, little toxicity) to avoid overestimation of toxin levels, demonstrating its importance for health-related researches. With 0.5% 2,4-difluoroanisole in chlorobenzene as the dopant, limits of detection of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except acenaphthylene and those of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except 2-nitrofluoranthene are below 10 pg and 3 pg, respectively, mostly lower than or comparable to those reported using LC-related systems. The responses were linear over two orders of magnitude with fairly good accuracy and precision. Certified reference materials and real aerosol samples were analyzed to demonstrate its applicability. This fast, sensitive, and reliable method is the first UHPLC-APPI-MS/MS method capable of simultaneously analyzing 29 environmentally and toxicologically important <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203892','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26203892"><span>Review of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in food products and their health hazards.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bansal, Vasudha; Kim, Ki-Hyun</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Public concern over the deleterious effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has grown rapidly due to recognition of their toxicity, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity. The aim of this review is to describe the status of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution among different food types, the route of dietary intake, measures for its reduction, and legislative approaches to control <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. To this end, a comprehensive review is outlined to evaluate the status of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in many important food categories along with dietary recommendations. Our discussion is also extended to describe preventive measures to reduce <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in food products to help reduce the risks associated with human intake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698810"><span>Splicing of phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) exon 11 is vulnerable: molecular pathology of mutations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heintz, Caroline; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Demirkol, Mübeccel; Blau, Nenad; Andresen, Brage Storstein</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In about 20-30% of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, phenylalanine (Phe) levels can be controlled by cofactor 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) administration. The phenylalanine hydroxylase (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) genotype has a predictive value concerning BH(4)-response and therefore a correct assessment of the mutation molecular pathology is important. Mutations that disturb the splicing of exons (e.g. interplay between splice site strength and regulatory sequences like exon splicing enhancers (ESEs)/exon splicing silencers (ESSs)) may cause different severity of PKU. In this study, we identified <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11 as a vulnerable exon and used patient derived lymphoblast cell lines and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> minigenes to study the molecular defect that impacted pre-mRNA processing. We showed that the c.1144T>C and c.1066-3C>T mutations cause exon 11 skipping, while the c.1139C>T mutation is neutral or slightly beneficial. The c.1144T>C mutation resides in a putative splicing enhancer motif and binding by splicing factors SF2/ASF, SRp20 and SRp40 is disturbed. Additional mutations in potential splicing factor binding sites contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis of mutations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11. We suggest that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exon 11 is vulnerable due to a weak 3' splice site and that this makes exon 11 inclusion dependent on an ESE spanning position c.1144. Importantly, this implies that other mutations in exon 11 may affect splicing, since splicing is often determined by a fine balance between several positive and negative splicing regulatory elements distributed throughout the exon. Finally, we identified a pseudoexon in intron 11, which would have pathogenic consequences if activated by mutations or improved splicing conditions. Exonic mutations that disrupt splicing are unlikely to facilitate response to BH(4) and may lead to inconsistent genotype-phenotype correlations. Therefore, recognizing such mutations enhances our ability to predict the BH(4)-response.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19273905"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) pollutants in groundwater from coal gangue stack area: characteristics and origin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, X W; Zhong, N N; Hu, D M; Liu, Z Z; Zhang, Z H</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the leachate from the gangue and 20 groundwater samples, which were collected from the 12th Coal Mine around gangue piles in Henan Province, China, were determined by SPE-GC-MS. The characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollutants in groundwater were investigated, and compared with the concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the leachate from different weathered gangues to discuss the pollution effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from coal gangue on groundwater. The results showed that total concentrations of the 16 EPA preferentially controlled <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 146.9 ng/L to 1220.6 ng/L.The components of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b + k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]-pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were fairly high. The 2-4 rings <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and chrysene were dominant in groundwater, which was similar to those of the leachate from the different weathered gangues. Therefore, it should be paid much more attention on the transport of lower ring numbered <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> leached by rains from the coal mines after landfilling and dumping. Based on the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 2-4 rings in groundwater and leaching samples, there might be other pollution sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> except for penetration from coal gangue into groundwater in the Pingdingshan coal mine area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ChJOL..22..136Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ChJOL..22..136Z"><span>Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in marine environment of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J.; Shouming, O.; Zheng, Jianhua</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds that have raised considerable environmental concern. The highest concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the coastal sediment samples in China was 5.8 11.0μg/g (dry weight) in the core from the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The second highest concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was 4.42μg/g (dry weight) in surface sediment of Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, and 5.73μg/g (dry weight) in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao City. The low concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were always in the sediments far away from industrial zones and cities, and ranged from 0.10 to 0.30μg/g (dry weight). Several environmental parameters are considered for the identification of sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marine environment. High proportion of naphthalene, low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, plus high ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene (>15) and low ratio of fluoranthene to pyrene (<1) suggested a petrogenic source. According to these parameters, the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary of Shanghai, Jiaozhou Bay of Qingdao City, Zhujiang (Pearl) River mouth, Jiulong River mouth and most of Hong Kong coastal waters were heavily contaminated by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from petrogenic sources. However, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rural coastal areas were dominated by pyrolytic origin <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. This review clearly showed that oil pollution and incomplete combustion of oil, coal and biomass are the main reason for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> anormalies in the study areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17055641','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17055641"><span>Activated carbon adsorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun</p> <p>2007-05-08</p> <p>Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838201"><span>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in food is the fraction of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6200964','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6200964"><span>Biological and abiotic losses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from soils freshly amended with sewage sludge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wild, S.R.; Jones, K.C. )</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Sewage sludge containing typical indigenous concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was applied to several different soils in glass microcosms. Biologically active and sterilized soils were monitored for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content over a period of approximately 205 d. Agricultural soils with and without previous exposure to sewage sludge were tested, together with a forest soil and a soil from a major roadside. Loss of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from a soil spike with a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> standard solution was also investigated. Results indicate the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds with less than four benzene rings are susceptible to abiotic loss processes. However, losses by these mechanisms were insignificant for compounds with four or more benzene rings. Half-lives for the sludge-applied <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were derived and indicated a strong dependence of persistence on chemical structure. Half-lives for phenanthrene and benzo[ghi]perylene were between 83 and 193 d and 282 and 535 d, respectively. Mean half-lives correlate directly with log K[sub ow] and inversely with log water solubility. Behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was different in each soil, probably due to different soil characteristics and history of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. The soil spiked with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> provided the lowest half-life values for most <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds, suggesting a higher susceptibility of spiked <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to both abiotic and biological degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658619','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658619"><span>Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karaca, Gizem</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+ residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of ∑7 carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the ∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> consisting of 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds. The ∑12 BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27939208"><span>Evergreen or deciduous trees for capturing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from ambient air? A case study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>De Nicola, Flavia; Concha Graña, Estefanía; López Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada Rodríguez, Darío; Retuerto, Rubén; Carballeira, Alejo; Aboal, Jesús R; Fernández, J Ángel</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Tree canopies play a key role in the cycling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in terrestrial ecosystems, as leaves can capture <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the air. In this study, accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was compared in an evergreen species, P. pinaster, and in a deciduous species, Q. robur, in relation to some physio-morphological characteristics. For this purpose, pine needles and oak leaves collected from different sites across Galicia (NW Spain) were analysed to determine <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents, specific leaf area, stomatal density and conductance. Leaves and needles contained similar total amounts of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The major contribution of particle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in oak (the concentrations of 4- and 5-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were two times higher, and those of 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> five times higher in oak than in pine) may be related to the higher specific leaf area (13 and 4 cm(2) g(-1) dry mass in respectively oak and pine). However, the major contribution of vapor-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in pines may be affected by the stomatal conductance (two times higher in pine than in oak). Moreover, an increase in the diameter at breast height of trees led to an increase in accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with pine capturing higher amounts of low and medium molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The study findings underline the potential role of trees in improving air quality, taking into account the canopy biomass and life cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16763739','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16763739"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination in bank sediment of the Yamuna river, Delhi, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agarwal, Tripti; Khillare, P S; Shridhar, Vijay</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>This study was performed to elucidate the distribution, concentration trend and possible sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in bank sediment of river Yamuna in Delhi, India. The levels of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were analyzed during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in the sediment fraction < 53 microm. Reference standards and internal standards were used for identification and quantification of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by HPLC. The sum of 16 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds ranged from 4.50 to 23.53 microg/g with a mean concentration of 10.15 +/- 4.32 microg/g (dry wt.). Among 5 sites studied, the site, Income Tax Office (ITO) was found to be the hotspot attaining highest concentration. Predominance of 2-4 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> suggests a relatively recent local sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the study area. Moreover, molecular indices based source apportionment also illustrates pyrogenic source fingerprint of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. No significant temporal trend was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673601','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4673601"><span>The Occurrence of 16 EPA <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Food – A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Occurrence and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been extensively studied in countries all over the world. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> generally occur in complex mixtures which may consist of hundreds of compounds. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed in the 1970 to monitor a set of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> which are frequently found in environmental samples. This article reviews the suitability of the 16 EPA <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for the assessment of potential health threats to humans stemming from the exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by food ingestion. It presents details on analysis methods, the occurrence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in food, regulatory aspects, and related risk management approaches. In addition, consideration is given to newer evaluations of the toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the requirements for risk assessment and management stemming from them. PMID:26681897</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22720565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22720565"><span>[Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Pahs</span> pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184195&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050184195&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A Semi-Empirical Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337031"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal from spiked municipal wastewater sewage sludge using biological, chemical and electrochemical treatments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zheng, Xue-Jing; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Bergeron, Mario; Drogui, Patrick</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been widely studied due to their presence in all the environmental media and toxicity to life. These molecules are strongly adsorbed on the particulate matters of soils, sludges or sediments because of their strong hydrophobicity which makes them less bioavailability, thus limiting their bioremediation. Different sludge treatment processes were tested to evaluate their performances for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal from sludge prealably doped with 11 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (5.5mg each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> kg(-1) of dry matter (DM)): two biological processes (mesophilic aerobic digestion (MAD) and simultaneous sewage sludge digestion and metal leaching (METIX-BS)) were tested to evaluate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in sewage sludge. In parallel, two chemical processes (quite similar Fenton processes: chemical metal leaching (METIX-AC) and chemical stabilization (STABIOX)) and one electrochemical process (electrochemical stabilization (ELECSTAB)) were tested to measure <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal by these oxidative processes. Moreover, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> solubilisation from sludge by addition of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 (Tw80) was also tested. The best yields of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal were obtained by MAD and METIX-BS with more than 95% 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal after a 21-day treatment period. Tw80 addition during MAD treatment increased 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal rate. In addition, more than 45% of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were removed from sludge by METIX-AC and during ELECSTAB process were quiet good with approximately 62% of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> removal. However, little weaker removal of 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (<35%) by STABIOX. None of the tested processes were efficient for the elimination of high molecular weight (> or = 5-ring) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sludge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3590140','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3590140"><span>Ca2+ Promoted the Low Transformation Efficiency of Plasmid DNA Exposed to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Yanzheng; Long, Jian; Wang, Qian</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The effects of interactions between genetic materials and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on gene expression in the extracellular environment remain to be elucidated and little information is currently available on the effect of ionic strength on the transformation of plasmid DNA exposed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Phenanthrene and pyrene were used as representative <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to evaluate the transformation of plasmid DNA after <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and to determine the role of Ca2+ during the transformation. Plasmid DNA exposed to the test <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> demonstrated low transformation efficiency. In the absence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the transformation efficiency was 4.7 log units; however, the efficiency decreased to 3.72–3.14 log units with phenanthrene/pyrene exposures of 50 µg·L–1. The addition of Ca2+ enhanced the low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Based on the co-sorption of Ca2+ and phenanthrene/pyrene by DNA, we employed Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the mechanisms involved in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-induced DNA transformation. The observed low transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to either phenanthrene or pyrene can be attributed to a broken hydrogen bond in the double helix caused by planar <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Added Ca2+ formed strong electrovalent bonds with “–POO––” groups in the DNA, weakening the interaction between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and DNA based on weak molecular forces. This decreased the damage of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to hydrogen bonds in double-stranded DNA by isolating DNA molecules from <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and consequently enhanced the transformation efficiency of DNA exposed to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminants. The findings provide insight into the effects of anthropogenic trace <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on DNA transfer in natural environments. PMID:23484001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2871345"><span>Significance of Indirect Deposition on Wintertime <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Concentrations in an Urban Northern California Creek</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Daekyun; Young, Thomas M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Abstract To investigate the main inputs and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) into surface water, stream and precipitation samples were collected along an urban tributary to the Sacramento River, California. Dissolved, particulate, and colloid-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were monitored four times between October 2004 and March 2005. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranged from 192 to 3784 ng/L in surface water and from 77 to 236 ng/L in precipitation. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene were the most abundant compounds in both rain and surface water. Surface water had truly dissolved <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations between 18 and 48 ng/L and precipitation had similar values (15–66 ng/L). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> larger than four rings were seldom found in the dissolved phase. Colloid-associated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accounted for 4–25% of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rain, while they contributed only 0.1–6% to the total surface water <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Indirect deposition (i.e., washoff of atmospheric particles previously deposited to land) of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> into surface water is likely a more significant input pathway for total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> than direct dry or wet deposition during the wet season in California's Mediterranean climate. During the sampling period, there was not an obvious seasonal variation in dissolved <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations of surface water despite an enormous wintertime increase in the total aqueous concentrations. Particulate matter carried by stormwater runoff was the major source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in surface water in the early rainy season; this material likely represents a combination of indirect atmospheric inputs and other non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs (e.g., oil leaks and spills). Selected <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ratios indicate that observed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in rainwater came from pyrogenic sources and those in surface water had more complicated and variable origins. PMID:20485462</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4803068','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4803068"><span>Developmental exposure to a complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DR, Brown; JM, Bailey; AN, Oliveri; ED, Levin; RT, Di Giulio</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure in both naive killifish and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24 hours post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3 months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naïve killifish. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26548404"><span>Developmental exposure to a complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture causes persistent behavioral effects in naive Fundulus heteroclitus (killifish) but not in a population of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, D R; Bailey, J M; Oliveri, A N; Levin, E D; Di Giulio, R T</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Acute exposures to some individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures are known to cause cardiac malformations and edema in the developing fish embryo. However, the heart is not the only organ impacted by developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. The developing brain is also affected, resulting in lasting behavioral dysfunction. While acute exposures to some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are teratogenically lethal in fish, little is known about the later life consequences of early life, lower dose subteratogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposures. We sought to determine and characterize the long-term behavioral consequences of subteratogenic developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure in both naive killifish and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish using sediment pore water derived from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site. Killifish offspring were embryonically treated with two low-level <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture dilutions of Elizabeth River sediment extract (ERSE) (TPAH 5.04 μg/L and 50.4 μg/L) at 24h post fertilization. Following exposure, killifish were raised to larval, juvenile, and adult life stages and subjected to a series of behavioral tests including: a locomotor activity test (4 days post-hatch), a sensorimotor response tap/habituation test (3 months post hatch), and a novel tank diving and exploration test (3months post hatch). Killifish were also monitored for survival at 1, 2, and 5 months over 5-month rearing period. Developmental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure caused short-term as well as persistent behavioral impairments in naive killifish. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish did not show behavioral alterations following <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture exposure caused increased mortality in reference killifish over time; yet, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-adapted killifish, while demonstrating long-term rearing mortality, had no significant changes in mortality associated with ERSE exposure. This study demonstrated that early embryonic exposure to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment pore water caused long-term locomotor and behavioral alterations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113985D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1113985D"><span>Distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are persistent organic pollutants, which can be transferred to a long distance and tend to accumulation in marine sediment. However, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> distribution and natural bioattenuation is less known in open sea, especially in the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS, we found that the concentrations of 16 EPA-priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight in total and decreased with sediment depths and as well as from the southern to northern sites. Among the targeted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. To learn the diversity of bacteria involved in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation in situ, the 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high throughput sequencing (IHTS). In all the sediments, occurred the potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant. Meanwhile on board, enrichment with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was initiated and repeated transfer in laboratory to obtain the degrading consortia. Most above mentioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas, occurred alternately as a predominant member in enrichment cultures from different sediments, as revealed with IHTS and PCR-DGGE. To reconfirm their role in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus and Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperature. Taken together, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may play the most important role</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.2163D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGeo...12.2163D"><span>Distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria in the deep-sea sediments of the high-latitude Arctic Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, C.; Bai, X.; Sheng, H.; Jiao, L.; Zhou, H.; Shao, Z.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are common organic pollutants that can be transferred long distances and tend to accumulate in marine sediments. However, less is known regarding the distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and their natural bioattenuation in the open sea, especially the Arctic Ocean. In this report, sediment samples were collected at four sites from the Chukchi Plateau to the Makarov Basin in the summer of 2010. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compositions and total concentrations were examined with GC-MS. The concentrations of 16 EPA-priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied from 2.0 to 41.6 ng g-1 dry weight and decreased with sediment depth and movement from the southern to the northern sites. Among the targeted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, phenanthrene was relatively abundant in all sediments. The 16S rRNA gene of the total environmental DNA was analyzed with Illumina high-throughput sequencing (IHTS) to determine the diversity of bacteria involved in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation in situ. The potential degraders including Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Marinomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, Colwellia, Acinetobacter, Alcanivorax, Salinisphaera and Shewanella, with Dietzia as the most abundant, occurred in all sediment samples. Meanwhile, enrichment with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was initiated onboard and transferred to the laboratory for further enrichment and to obtain the degrading consortia. Most of the abovementioned bacteria in addition to Hahella, Oleispira, Oceanobacter and Hyphomonas occurred alternately as predominant members in the enrichment cultures from different sediments based on IHTS and PCR-DGGE analysis. To reconfirm their role in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation, 40 different bacteria were isolated and characterized, among which Cycloclasticus Pseudomonas showed the best degradation capability under low temperatures. Taken together, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria were widespread in the deep-sea sediments of the Arctic Ocean. We propose that bacteria of Cycloclasticus, Pseudomonas, Pseudoalteromonas, Halomonas, Marinomonas and Dietzia may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398219','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398219"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioconcentration in Mytilus sp from Sinclair Inlet, WA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Frazier, J.; Young, D.; Ozretich, R.; Echols, S.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Approximately 20 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) were measured by GC/MS in seawater and whole soft tissues of the intertidal mussel Mytilus sp. collected in July 1991 within and around Puget Sound`s Sinclair Inlet. Low variability was observed in the water concentrations collected over three days at control sites, yielding reliable values for the exposure levels experienced by this bioindicator mollusk. Mean water concentrations of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene in the control region were 2.7 {+-} 0.8, 2.8 {+-} 0.8, and 3.1 {+-} 0.7 ng/liter, respectively. Levels measured near sites of vessel activity were higher but much more variable; this reduced the reliability of the tissue/water bioconcentration factors (BCF) obtained from these samples. An empirical model relating values of Log BCF and Log Kow for the control zone samples supports the utility of this estuarine bioindicator for monitoring general levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in nearshore surface waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/324809','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/324809"><span>Cells on fibers to degrade <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and upgrade coal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Clyde, R.</p> <p>1997-12-31</p> <p>There are over 2000 sites contaminated with <span class="hlt">PAH`s</span> from coal burning plants. White rot fungus degrades phenanthrene and anthracene, but the fungus needs air to grow. When grown on old cardboard boxes and buried, air is entrapped in the corrugations for growth of the fungus. When holes are put in the valleys of the corrugations and rotated in a half full reactor, drops are formed. Mass transfer to drops is much faster than to a flat surface, as described in Patent 5,256,570, so the fungus grows faster. Low rank coal can be upgraded to more valuable products with the fungus, say some Australians, but the problem is supplying oxygen. Celite can be entrapped in the fibers to ferment coal derived synthesis gas. The paper describes these processes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B11A0466J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.B11A0466J"><span>Reduction of Ferrrihydrite and Akaganeite by Shewanella alga (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>93)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, M.; Kim, Y.; Lee, Y.; Kwon, K.; Roh, Y.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Shewanella species are capable of oxidizing diverse organic acids coupled to reducing Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides to crystalline Fe(II)-containing phases such as magnetite, siderite, and vivianite. The objective of this study was to examine reduction of ferrihydrite and akaganeite as the electron acceptors using various organic acids as the electron donors by Shewanella alga (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>93) isolated from Yeosu, South Korea. Microbial reduction of akaganeite (40 mM) and ferrihydrite (40 mM) was examined using acetate (10 mM), glucose (10 mM), and lactate (10 mM) as electron donors at room temperature. Ferrozine method was used to analyze both water soluble and HCl soluble Fe(II) concentrations during the microbial Fe(III) reduction. XRD and TEM-EDX analyses were used to characterize biominerals formed by <span class="hlt">PAH</span>93. <span class="hlt">PAH</span>93 was completely reduced ferrihydrite to Fe(II), which transformed as siderite (FeCO3). <span class="hlt">PAH</span>93 was oxidized acetate, glucose, and lactate coupled to reducing akaganeite to magnetite or green rust. Microbial reduction of ferrihydrite resulted in higher soluble Fe(II) concentration (446 - 498 mg/L) than the reduction of akaganeite (255 - 284 mg/L) within 6 days of incubation. For 21 days of incubation, souble Fe(II) concentration during akaganeite reduction (945 - 1316 mg/L) was higher than ferrihydrite reduction (120 - 738 mg/L). It may be attributed to the differences of crystallinity of the iron minerals used for microbial iron reduction. This study indicates types of the electron acceptors, ferrihydrite and akaganeite, affect Fe(II) reduction rate and types of the biotransformed minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18311639"><span>Prediction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mutagenicity in human cells by QSAR classification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papa, E; Pilutti, P; Gramatica, P</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous pollutants of high environmental concern. The experimental data of a mutagenicity test on human B-lymphoblastoid cells (alternative to the Ames bacterial test) for a set of 70 oxo-, nitro- and unsubstituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, detected in particulate matter (PM), were modelled by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) classification methods (k-NN, k-Nearest Neighbour, and CART, Classification and Regression Tree) based on different theoretical molecular descriptors selected by Genetic Algorithms. The best models were validated for predictivity both externally and internally. For external validation, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) were applied to split the original data set. The best models, developed on the training set alone, show good predictive performance also on the prediction set chemicals (sensitivity 69.2-87.1%, specificity 62.5-87.5%). The classification of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> according to their mutagenicity, based only on a few theoretical molecular descriptors, allows a preliminary assessment of the human health risk, and the prioritisation of these compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhCS...4..211N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhCS...4..211N"><span>Measurement of the recombination of photoproduced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Novotny, O.; Sivaraman, B.; Rebrion-Rowe, C.; Travers, D.; Mitchell, J. B. A.; Rowe, B. R.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A new technique, Flowing Afterglow with Photo Ions - FLAPI, has been developed for measuring the rate coefficient for the recombination of complex ions with electrons. The method is based on the FALP-MS apparatus at the Université de Rennes I. A helium plasma is generated by a microwave discharge in a He buffer gas and downstream a small amount of argon gas is injected to get rid of helium metastables. A very small amount of neutral <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules is added to the afterglow plasma by evaporation from a plate coated with the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to be studied. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ions are then produced by photoionization of the parent molecule using a pulsed UV laser (157 nm). The laser beam is oriented along the flow-tube and so a constant spatial concentration of photoions is obtained. The electron concentration along the flow-tube is measured by means of a movable Langmuir probe. The decay of the ion concentration in time is measured at a fixed position using a quadrupole mass spectrometer which is triggered by the laser pulse. Anthracene ion recombination has been studied using this technique and we have obtained the preliminary recombination rate coefficient (1.1 +/- 0.5) × 10-6 cm3 s-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6215M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6215M"><span>Sorption of <span class="hlt">Pahs</span> To Soil Minerals and Subsurface Soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, S.; Totsche, K. U.; Koegel-Knabner, I.</p> <p></p> <p>In subsurface soil horizons, the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants may primarily be controlled by the composition and the properties of the soil minerals. Therefore this study aimed to elucidate the sorption and the sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic contaminants to different inorganic soil constituents and subsurface soil horizons. Batch sorption experiments are conducted with three poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHS</span>; phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene), with the model minerals quartz sand, quartz sand coated with goethite and a quartz sand - mont- morillonite mixture, and with b and c horizons of different soil types developped in the temperate climate. Batch experiments show a considerable sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> to all soil minerals and soil horizons except for the sorption of phenanthrene to quartz sand. The sorption process of <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> to single minerals is rapid and completed after 4 hours of contact time. The sorption to subsurface soil horizons, however, is not in equilibrium after 120h of contact time and shows a considerable sorption kinetic. Sorption capacity is higher for clay minerals and iron oxides than for quartz sand which corresponds with a higher sorption capacity of soil horizons with a high clay content. Sorption isotherms of the soil minerals are best described by a nonlinear isotherm whereas the sorption isotherms of the subsurface soil horizons are more or less linear indicating different sorption mechanisms for mineral sorbents and soil horizons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.1510W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.1510W"><span>A <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Deficit in Extremely Low Luminosity Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Rongying; Hogg, D. W.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We present a study of 29 extremely low luminosity galaxies randomly selected from the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The galaxies comprise a statistically complete sample of galaxies with Mr > -15 and recession velocity v < 2000 km s^-1 as measured in SDSS Data Release 2 (DR2). We also observe these sample galaxies in all four channels with the Spitzer Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The photometry in SDSS shows that these galaxies appear to be visually blue (g-r < 0.6), and the IRAC color analysis shows that they are blue in IRAC infrared color [3.6]-[8]. The IRAC [3.6] magnitude measures the starlight, and the [8] measures <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions. We find that these star-forming galaxies show very low <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to star ratios. This result agrees with earlier observations on other dwarf galaxies including SBS0335-052 and small samples from ISO and the overlap of the SDSS with the Spitzer First Look Survey, but it is worth emphasizing that this sample has a lower mean luminosity than those samples. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deficiency of these galaxies is discussed in the context of their metallicity and dust properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12717801"><span>Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in human hair by HPLC with fluorescence detection: a biological monitoring method to evaluate the exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Toriba, Akira; Kuramae, Yayoi; Chetiyanukornkul, Thaneeya; Kizu, Ryoichi; Makino, Tsunehisa; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection was developed for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in human hair. Fifteen kinds of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> classified as priority pollutants by the US EPA were quantified with four perdeuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as internal standards. After 50 mg hair samples were washed with n-hexane to remove external contamination of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the samples were digested in 2.5 M sodium hydroxide. The digests were extracted with n-hexane and then analyzed by HPLC. Eleven kinds of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were identified in hair samples of 20 subjects, and 10 kinds of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were eventually quantified using the internal standards. For anthracene, chrysene and benzo[k]fluoranthene, significant differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers. Although benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were observed in the particulates of indoor and outdoor air, they were not detected in all hair samples. The analysis of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in human hair should be useful as a new biomarker to evaluate the exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25762425"><span>Distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the food web of Nansi Lake, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guizhai; Pan, Zhaoke; Wang, Xiaoming; Mo, Xiaojie; Li, Xiaoming</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were analyzed in water, sediment, and biota (aquatic plant, shrimp, and fish) of Nansi Lake by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 27.54-55.04 ng L(-1) in water, 80.31-639.23 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediments, 20.92-192.78 ng g(-1) dw in aquatic plants, and 67.3-533.9 ng g(-1) dw in fish and shrimp muscles. The ratios of phenanthrene to anthracene (Ph/An), fluoranthene to pyrene (Flu/Pyr), and low molecular weight to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) in sediment indicated that the sources of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were a mixture of pyrolytic and petrogenic contamination at most sampling sites in Nansi Lake. The composition profile of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in plants was similar to that in water and animals with 2-3 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> being dominant. The 4-6 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the dominant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in sediment. There is a positive correlation between sediment and aquatic plants, but their <span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition profiles were different, implying that aquatic plant absorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sediment is selective and the accumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in aquatic plants is different. The concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fish showed a positive correlation with plants, reflecting that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fish are mainly absorbed from aquatic plants rather than directly from the water. Bioaccumulation of LMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in aquatic biota was higher than HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) values of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the plants Potamogeton lucens Linn and Ceratophyllum demersum Linn were higher than that in most animals. The BSAF values of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in animals were in the following order: Cyprinus carpio>Macrobrachium nipponense>Carassius auratus>Channa argus. There was no significant relationship between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioaccumulation and trophic levels in Nansi Lake. Risk assessment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water, sediment, and animals indicated that the water environment of Nansi Lake is safe at present. It is worthwhile to note that benzo [a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867160"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) from the Argentinean market.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garcia Londoño, Victor Alonso; Reynoso, Marcela; Resnik, Silvia</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) occurrence in 50 samples marketed in the main supermarkets from Argentina was surveyed. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied with fluorescence detection (FLD) and UV-VIS diodes array detector (DAD) for the analysis of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis), with recoveries higher than 89% and limits of detection and quantification lower than that found by other methodologies in previous studies. Contamination expressed as the sum of 16 analysed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged between 224.6 and 4449.5 μg kg(-1) on dry mass. The contamination expressed as <span class="hlt">PAH</span>4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene) varied between 8.3 and 512.4 μg kg(-1). The correlation coefficient for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene and chrysene) and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>4 groups was 0.99, for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>2 and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>8 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and indeno(1,2,3cd) pyrene) 0.97 and for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>4 and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>8 0.98.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14749103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14749103"><span>Preliminary evaluation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sorptive changes in soil by Soxhlet extraction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hwang, Sangchul; Cutright, Teresa J</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of sorbent modification by synthetic, chemical/thermal weathering on the sorptive behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). A clean sandy-clay-loam soil was subjected to Soxhlet extraction and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sorptive phenomena were evaluated based on quantity and quality changes in soil organic matter (SOM) and clay minerals. Critical changes in sorption capacity were found to depend on the initial <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. Above 7 mg/l, weathering increased the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in comparison to that of unmodified soil, whereas it decreased when applied below this concentration. Similarly, less <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was desorbed from the altered soil when <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was applied above 7 mg/l. Therefore, when <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was applied below 7 mg/l, quantitative reduction of sorbent amount (i.e., SOM and clay minerals) by soil weathering governed <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sorptive behavior. However, when the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was applied above the critical limit, qualitative modifications in the sorbents facilitated an opposite trend. Sorbent swelling, removal of competing compounds, and possible changes in surface characteristics by Soxhlet extraction, together with increased concentration gradient effects were factors that resulted in dissimilar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sorptive phenomena, pivoting at the critical concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.120..253S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AtmEn.120..253S"><span>Spatial and seasonal atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deposition patterns and sources in Rhode Island</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schifman, Laura A.; Boving, Thomas B.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) enter the environment through various combustion processes and can travel long distances via atmospheric transport. Here, atmospheric <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deposition was measured in six locations throughout Rhode Island using passive atmospheric bulk-deposition samplers for three years. The measurements were evaluated using two source-specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span> isomer signatures, a multivariate receptor model, and an innovative contamination index that is weighted based on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination, number of detected compounds, and toxicity. Urban areas had significantly higher deposition rates (up to 2261 μg m-2 yr-1 ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) compared to peri-urban, coastal, and rural areas (as low as 73.6 μg m-2 yr-1 ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). In fall and winter, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deposition was up to 10 times higher compared to summer/spring. On an annual basis a total of 3.64 t yr-1 ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span> (2256.9 μg yr-1 m-2 ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are estimated to be deposited atmospherically onto Rhode Island. Both, the analysis using isomer ratios and the statistical analysis using positive matrix factorization agreed on source identification. Overall gasoline, petrodiesel, and oil combustion sources were identified in all samples year-round while wood combustion associated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deposition was only detected during the cold season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16321403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16321403"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> transport by sinking particles in the open Mediterranean Sea: a 1 year sediment trap study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Méjanelle, Laurence; Pete, Romain; Fillaux, Joëlle; Lorre, Anne; Point, Vanessa</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>One year time series of sinking particles were collected at two depths in the open Mediterranean Sea and analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). Average total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were 593+/-284 ng g(-1) at 250 m and 551 +/- 198 ng g(-1) at 2850 m. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fluxes averaged 73 +/- 58 ng m(-2) d(-1) at 250 m and 53 +/- 39 ng m(-2) d(-1) at 2850 m. Contamination levels and, thus, exposure of marine organisms to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are comparable in surface and deep waters. Deep waters appear as a significant, yet overlooked, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sink. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> temporal patterns show noticeable seasonality. This is partly due to varying levels of specific components such as the winter increase of pyrolytic <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Downward transport processes and the nature of sinking particles also impact on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> fluxes, as inferred during periods of increasing productivity. Different phase-associations and interactions with particulate organic carbon for low-MW fossil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and high-MW pyrolytic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> influence their downward transport efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25872721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25872721"><span>Anaerobic biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in mangrove sediment with amendment of NaHCO3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Chun-Hua; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Wang, Hong-Yuan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Mangrove sediment is unique in chemical and biological properties. Many of them suffer polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination. However, the study on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biological remediation for mangrove sediment is deficient. Enriched <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading microbial consortium and electron acceptor amendment are considered as two effective measures. Compared to other electron acceptors, the study on CO2, which is used by methanogens, is still seldom. This study investigated the effect of NaHCO3 amendment on the anaerobic biodegradation of four mixed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, namely fluorene (Fl), phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flua) and pyrene (Pyr), with or without enriched <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading microbial consortium in mangrove sediment slurry. The trends of various parameters, including <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations, microbial population size, electron-transport system activities, electron acceptor and anaerobic gas production were monitored. The results revealed that the inoculation of enriched <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading consortium had a significant effect with half lives shortened by 7-13 days for 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and 11-24 days for 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. While NaHCO3 amendment did not have a significant effect on the biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and other parameters, except that CO2 gas in the headspace of experimental flasks was increased. One of the possible reasons is that mangrove sediment contains high concentrations of other electron acceptors which are easier to be utilized by anaerobic bacteria, the other one is that the anaerobes in mangrove sediment can produce enough CO2 gas even without adding NaHCO3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26841964','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26841964"><span>Current Approaches to the Treatment of Systemic-Sclerosis-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sobanski, Vincent; Launay, David; Hachulla, Eric; Humbert, Marc</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Pulmonary arterial hypertension (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) is a severe condition causing significant morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Despite the use of specific treatments, SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> survival remains poorer than in idiopathic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (IPAH). Recent therapeutic advances in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> show a lower magnitude of response in SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> and a higher risk of adverse events, as compared to IPAH. The multifaceted underlying mechanisms and the multisystem nature of SSc probably explain part of the worse outcomes in SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> compared to IPAH. This review describes the current management of SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> with an emphasis on the impact of the different organ involvements in the prognosis and treatment response. An earlier detection of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and a better characterization of the clinical phenotypes of SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> are warranted in clinical practice and future trials. Determinants of prognosis, surrogate markers of clinical improvement or worsening, and relevance of the common endpoints used in clinical trials should be evaluated in this specific population. A multidisciplinary approach in expert referral centers is mandatory for SSc-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23089061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23089061"><span>Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve</p> <p>2012-11-30</p> <p>Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Batch experiments quantified <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, but then releases the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066859','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26066859"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from deep-frying and frying cooking fumes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yao, Zhiliang; Li, Jing; Wu, Bobo; Hao, Xuewei; Yin, Yong; Jiang, Xi</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Cooking fumes are an important indoor source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). Because indoor pollution has a more substantial impact on human health than outdoor pollution, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from cooking fumes have drawn considerable attention. In this study, 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted through deep-frying and frying methods using rapeseed, soybean, peanut, and olive oil were examined under a laboratory fume hood. Controlled experiments were conducted to collect gas- and particulate-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emitted from the cooking oil fumes, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that deep-frying methods generate more <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (1.3 and 10.9 times, respectively) because they consume greater volumes of edible oil and involve higher oil temperatures relative to those of frying methods. In addition, the total B[a]Peq concentration of deep-frying is 2.2-fold larger than that of frying. Regarding the four types of edible oils studied, rapeseed oil produced more <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission than the other three oil varieties. For all of the cooking tests, three- and four-ringed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the main <span class="hlt">PAH</span> components regardless of the food and oil used. Concerning the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> partition between gas and particulate phase, the gaseous compounds accounted for 59-96 % of the total. Meanwhile, the particulate fraction was richer of high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (five-six rings). Deep-frying and frying were confirmed as important sources of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in internal environments. The results of this study provide additional insights into the polluting features of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> produced via cooking activities in indoor environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304595"><span>Generation and distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the process of medical waste incineration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui</p> <p>2013-05-15</p> <p>Highlights: ► <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AtmEn..43..812Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AtmEn..43..812Z"><span>Global atmospheric emission inventory of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) for 2004</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yanxu; Tao, Shu</p> <p></p> <p>The global atmospheric emissions of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) listed as the US EPA priority pollutants were estimated using reported emission activity and emission factor data for the reference year 2004. A database for emission factors was compiled, and their geometric means and frequency distributions applied for emission calculation and uncertainty analysis, respectively. The results for 37 countries were compared with other <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission inventories. It was estimated that the total global atmospheric emission of these 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in 2004 was 520 giga grams per year (Gg y -1) with biofuel (56.7%), wildfire (17.0%) and consumer product usage (6.9%) as the major sources, and China (114 Gg y -1), India (90 Gg y -1) and United States (32 Gg y -1) were the top three countries with the highest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources in the individual countries varied remarkably. For example, biofuel burning was the dominant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source in India, wildfire emissions were the dominant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source in Brazil, while consumer products were the major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission source in the United States. In China, in addition to biomass combustion, coke ovens were a significant source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Globally, benzo(a)pyrene accounted for 0.05% to 2.08% of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission, with developing countries accounting for the higher percentages. The <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission density varied dramatically from 0.0013 kg km -2 y in the Falkland Islands to 360 kg km -2 y in Singapore with a global mean value of 3.98 kg km -2 y. The atmospheric emission of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was positively correlated to the country's gross domestic product and negatively correlated with average income. Finally, a linear bivariate regression model was developed to explain the global <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17665143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17665143"><span>The concentrations, distribution and sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in agricultural soils and vegetables from Shunde, Guangdong, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yong Tao; Li, Fang Bai; Chen, Jun Jian; Yang, Guo Yi; Wan, Hong Fu; Zhang, Tian Bin; Zeng, Xiao Duo; Liu, Jian Ming</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>The concentrations, distribution and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were determined in 30 agricultural soil and 16 vegetable samples collected from subtropical Shunde area, an important manufacturing center in China. The total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 33.7 to 350 microg/kg in soils, and 82 to 1,258 microg/kg in vegetables. The most abundant individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are phenanthrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo(b)fluoranthene for soil samples, and anthracene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene for vegetable samples. Average vegetable-soil ratios of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were 2.20 for leafy vegetables and 1.27 for fruity vegetables. Total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetable samples are not significantly correlated to those in corresponding soil samples. Principal component analyses were conducted to distinguish samples on basis of their distribution in each town, soil type and vegetable specie. Relatively abundant soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were found in town Jun'an, Beijiao, Chencun, Lecong and Ronggui, while abundant vegetable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were observed in town Jun'an, Lecong, Xingtan, Daliang and Chenchun. The highest level of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were found in vegetable soil, followed by pond sediment and "stacked soil" on pond banks. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contents in leafy vegetables are higher than those in fruity vegetables. Some <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compound ratios suggest the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> derived from incomplete combustion of petroleum, coal and refuse from power generation and ceramic manufacturing, and paint spraying on furniture, as well as sewage irrigation from textile industries. Soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contents have significant logarithmic correlation with total organic carbon, which demonstrates the importance of soil organic matter as sorbent to prevent losses of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17084915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17084915"><span>Influence of biotransformation on trophic transfer of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, fluoranthene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmqvist, Annemette; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Forbes, Valery E</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in marine sediments may be influenced by benthic invertebrate bioturbation. Through processes such as deposit-feeding and enhancement of microbial metabolic activity <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may be remobilized from the sediment compartment, and either transferred to organisms at higher trophic levels or to the overlying water column, both processes inevitably changing the bioavailability of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. Accumulation of contaminants from one level in the food chain to the next depends on feeding rate and assimilation efficiency, two factors that basically vary with food quality and contaminant type. Though it is generally believed that pre-consumptive biotransformation will reduce bioavailability due to the more polar nature of the metabolites compared to the unchanged parent compound, theoretically the decrease in lipophilicity will increase the sediment/food desorption rate in the intestine, and some metabolites will still be lipophilic enough to be absorbed by passive diffusion. We examined the trophic transfer of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, fluoranthene from two closely related polychaete species (i.e., Capitella sp. I and Capitella sp. S), differing in their biotransformation ability, to the predatory polychaete, Nereis virens. We found that N. virens fed the biotransforming species, Capitella sp. I, accumulated significantly more Flu equivalents compared to worms fed Capitella sp. S, which have a very limited biotransformation ability. The dose-specific increase in N. virens intestinal Flu concentration was approximately twice as high in worms fed Capitella sp. I (equation: gut content=7.3 x dose-3.9) compared to worms fed Capitella sp. S (equation: gut content=3.2 x dose+0.6). In addition, we measured DNA damage, using the comet assay, in N. virens intestinal cells after feeding with the two prey species. We did not detect DNA damage above 'background' levels for worms fed either of the two Capitella species, possibly due to relatively low</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26213425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26213425"><span>High Voltage Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) as a New Method for Detection of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> During Screening for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Degrading Microbial Consortia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Staninska, Justyna; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna; Staninski, Krzysztof; Czarny, Jakub; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Nowak, Jacek; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Cyplik, Paweł</p> <p></p> <p>The search for new bacterial consortia capable of removing <span class="hlt">PAH</span> from the environment is associated with the need to employ novel, simple, and economically efficient detection methods. A fluorimetric method (FL) as well as high voltage electrochemiluminescence (ECL) on a modified surface of an aluminum electrode were used in order to determine the changes in the concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the studied aqueous solutions. The ECL signal (the spectrum and emission intensity for a given wavelength) was determined with the use of an apparatus operating in single photon counting mode. The dependency of ECL and FL intensity on the concentration of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene was linear in the studied concentration range. The biodegradation kinetics of the particular <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds was determined on the basis of the obtained spectroscopic determinations. It has been established that the half-life of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at initial concentrations of 50 mg/l (beyond the solubility limit) reached 41, 75, and 130 h, accordingly. Additionally, the possibility of using ECL for rapid determination of the soluble fraction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> directly in the aqueous medium has been confirmed. Metagenomic analysis of the gene encoding 16S rRNA was conducted on the basis of V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and allowed to identify 198 species of bacteria that create the S4consortium. The consortium was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (78.82 %), Flavobacteria (9.25 %), Betaproteobacteria (7.68 %), Sphingobacteria (3.76 %), Alphaproteobacteria (0.42 %), Clostridia (0.04 %), and Bacilli (0.03 %).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268125','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18268125"><span>Assessment of interactions between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and genetic polymorphisms on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative <span class="hlt">PAH</span> found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3171162','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3171162"><span>Assessment of Interactions between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Exposure and Genetic Polymorphisms on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA Adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian Mothers and Newborns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Shuang; Chanock, Stephen; Tang, Deliang; Li, Zhigang; Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Perera, Frederica P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are widespread pollutants commonly found in air, food, and drinking water. Benzo[a]pyrene is a well-studied representative <span class="hlt">PAH</span> found in air from fossil fuel combustion and a transplacental carcinogen experimentally. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bind covalently to DNA to form DNA adducts, an indicator of DNA damage, and an informative biomarker of potential cancer risk. Associations between <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adduct levels and both cancer risk and developmental deficits have been seen in previous experimental and epidemiologic studies. Several genes have been shown to play an important role in the metabolic activation or detoxification of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in polluted air. Here, we have explored interactions between prenatal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure and 17 polymorphisms in these genes (rs2198843, rs1456432, rs4646903, rs4646421, rs2606345, rs7495708, rs2472299, rs162549, rs1056837, rs1056836, rs162560, rs10012, rs2617266, rs2719, rs1622002, rs140194, and gene deletion GSTM1-02) and haplotypes on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adducts in cord blood of 547 newborns and in maternal blood of 806 mothers from three different self-described ethnic groups: African Americans, Dominicans, and Caucasians. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were measured by personal air monitoring of mothers during pregnancy. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were observed between certain genetic polymorphisms and CYP1A1 haplotype and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in mothers and their newborns in the three ethnic groups. However, with our limited sample size, the current findings are suggestive only, warranting further study. PMID:18268125</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H21Q..04V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H21Q..04V"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> Concentrations Decline Following 2006 Ban on Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealants in Austin, Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Metre, P. C.; Mahler, B. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies have concluded that coal-tar-based pavement sealants (CT sealants) are a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in non-industrial urban settings in the United States. In 2006, Austin, TX, became the first jurisdiction in the U.S. to ban the use of CT sealants. We evaluated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations following the ban by analyzing sediment cores collected from Lady Bird Lake in 2012; Lady Bird Lake impounds the Colorado River in central Austin and receives runoff from much of the greater Austin area. The mean sum concentration of the 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span>16) in one of two 2012 sediment cores analyzed for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> declined 75% from before 2006 (mean of 4 samples=8,090 μg kg-1) to 2012 (mean of 2 samples=2,030 μg kg-1), reversing a 40-year (1959-1999) upward trend in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations that was previously documented. The downward trend in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in the seven uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals in the first 2012 core was statistically significant (r=0.93, p-value=0.002). Post-2008 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> trends in the second 2012 core were similar (significant downward trend in the six uppermost 1 cm sampling intervals and mean 2012 ∑<span class="hlt">PAH</span>16 of 2,390 μg kg-1); however, pre-2007 sediment did not appear to have been preserved in this core likely because of the effects of flooding on sediment deposition and mixing at this site--the largest flood on the Colorado River in Austin in 20 years was in 2007. On the basis of a comparison of lake-sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> profiles to 22 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source profiles, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loading to lake sediment continues to be dominated by CT sealants. The continued dominance of proportional <span class="hlt">PAH</span> loading by CT sealants in spite of decreased concentrations since 2006 might be because legacy CT sealant and contaminated soils and sediments continue to yield <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to runoff. A previous study using source-receptor modeling concluded that CT sealants were the largest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source to 40 urban lakes studied in the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16487985','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16487985"><span>Distribution and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in riverine, estuarine, and marine sediments in Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige</p> <p>2006-08-01</p> <p>To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in coastal and riverine environments in Thailand, we collected 42 surface sediment samples from canals, a river, an estuary, and coastal areas in Thailand in 2003 and analyzed them for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 3-7 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 6 to 8399 ng/g dry weight. The average total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were 2290+/-2556 ng/g dry weight (n=8) in canals, 263+/-174 (n=11) in the river, 179+/-222 (n=9) in the estuary, and 50+/-56 (n=14) in coastal areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranked <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in Thai sediments as low to moderate. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) allows discrimination of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources between petrogenic (>2) and pyrogenic (<0.5) origins. Sediments from urban canals in Bangkok showed the highest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and petrogenic signatures (MP/P=1.84+/-0.98 [n=6] in canal sediments) with abundant alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, indicating major sources of petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the city. To identify the sources of the petrogenic inputs in Thailand, we analyzed triterpanes, biomarkers of petroleum pollution, in the sediment samples and in potential source materials. Hopane profiles were remarkably uniform throughout the nation, suggesting a diffuse single source (e.g. automobiles). Molecular profiles of hopanes and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments from the urban canals were similar to those in street dust, indicating that street dust is one of the major sources of petrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the urban area. On the other hand, low levels of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (approximately 50 ng/g) with a pyrogenic signature (MP/P ratio approximately 0.5) were widely recorded in remote areas of the coast and the Chao Phraya River. These pyrogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may be atmospherically transported throughout the nation. Middle and lower reaches of the Chao Phraya River, the river</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9050165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9050165"><span>ATSDR evaluation of health effects of chemicals. IV. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>): understanding a complex problem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mumtaz, M M; George, J D; Gold, K W; Cibulas, W; DeRosa, C T</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are a group of chemicals that are formed during the incomplete burning of coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, or other organic substances, such as tobacco and charbroiled meat. There are more than 100 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> generally occur as complex mixtures (for example, as part of products such as soot), not as single compounds. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are found throughout the environment in the air, water, and soil. As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals, including <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (ATSDR, 1995), found at facilities on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) and which pose the most significant potential threat to human health, as determined by ATSDR and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These profiles include information on health effects of chemicals from different routes and durations of exposure, their potential for exposure, regulations and advisories, and the adequacy of the existing database. Assessing the health effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is a major challenge because environmental exposures to these chemicals are usually to complex mixtures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with other chemicals. The biological consequences of human exposure to mixtures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> depend on the toxicity, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic, of the individual components of the mixture, the types of interactions among them, and confounding factors that are not thoroughly understood. Also identified are components of exposure and health effects research needed on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that will allow estimation of realistic human health risks posed by exposures to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The exposure assessment component of research should focus on (1) development of reliable analytical methods for the determination of bioavailable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> following ingestion, (2) estimation of bioavailable <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from environmental media, particularly the determination of particle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, (3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......168W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......168W"><span>Edelgase als Tracer für Wechselwirkungen von Krusten- <span class="hlt">und</span> Mantelfluiden mit diamantführenden Gesteinen des östlichen Baltischen Schildes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wiersberg, Thomas</p> <p>2001-11-01</p> <p>In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden anhand der Edelgaszusammensetzung von Kimberliten <span class="hlt">und</span> Lamproiten sowie ihrer gesteinsbildenden Minerale die Wechselwirkungen dieser Gesteine mit Fluiden diskutiert. Die untersuchten Proben stammen vom östlichen Baltischen Schild, vom Kola-Kraton (Poria Guba <span class="hlt">und</span> Kandalaksha) <span class="hlt">und</span> vom karelischen Kraton (Kostamuksha). Edelgasanalysen nach thermischer oder mechanischer Gasextraktion von 23 Gesamtgesteinsproben <span class="hlt">und</span> 15 Mineralseparaten ergeben folgendes Bild: Helium- <span class="hlt">und</span> Neon-Isotopendaten der Fluideinschlüsse von Lamproiten aus Kostamuksha lassen auf den Einfluss einer fluiden Phase krustaler Herkunft schliessen. Diese Wechselwirkungen fanden wahrscheinlich schon während des Magmenaufstiegs statt, denn spätere Einflüsse krustaler Fluide auf die Lamproite <span class="hlt">und</span> <span class="hlt">ihr</span> Nebengestein (Quarzit) sind gering, wie anhand der C/36Ar-Zusammensetzung gezeigt wird. Auch sind die mit verschiedenen Datierungsmethoden (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ar) an Mineralseparaten <span class="hlt">und</span> teilweise an Gesamtgestein ermittelten Alter konsistent <span class="hlt">und</span> machen eine metamorphe Überprägung unwahrscheinlich. Aufgrund der Verteilung der primordialen Edelgasisotope zwischen Fluideinschlüssen <span class="hlt">und</span> Gesteinsmatrix ist ein langsamer Magmenaufstieg anzunehmen, was die Möglichkeit der Kontamination mit einem krustalen Fluid während des Magmenaufstiegs erhöht. Die Gasextraktion aus Mineralseparaten erfolgte thermisch, wodurch eine Freisetzung der Gase ausschließlich aus Fluideinschlüssen nicht möglich ist. Hierbei zeigen Amphibol <span class="hlt">und</span> Klinopyroxen, separiert aus Kostamuksha-Lamproiten, in ihrer Neon-Isotopenzusammensetzung im Vergleich zur krustalen Zusammensetzung (Kennedy et al., 1990) ein leicht erhöhtes Verhältnis von 20Ne/22Ne, was ein Hinweis auf Mantel-Neon sein könnte. Kalifeldspäte, Quarz <span class="hlt">und</span> Karbonate enthalten dagegen nur Neon krustaler Zusammensetzung. Phlogopite haben sehr kleine Verhältnisse von 20Ne/22Ne <span class="hlt">und</span> 21Ne/22Ne, zurückzuführen auf in-situ-Produktion von 22Ne</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......249M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......249M"><span>Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse <span class="hlt">und</span> Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Möseneder, Jutta M.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse <span class="hlt">und</span> Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern <span class="hlt">und</span> (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung <span class="hlt">und</span> ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) <span class="hlt">und</span> des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie <span class="hlt">und</span> ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst <span class="hlt">und</span> Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% <span class="hlt">ihres</span> täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen <span class="hlt">und</span> 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- <span class="hlt">und</span> Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- <span class="hlt">und</span> Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während <span class="hlt">und</span> fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28318300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28318300"><span>Bacteria from Wheat and Cucurbit Plant Roots Metabolize <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and Aromatic Root Exudates: Implications for Rhizodegradation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F</p> <p>2017-03-20</p> <p>The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria which degrade <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits, however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds - morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid - appear to be linked to bacterial degradation of 3- and 4- ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the rhizosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440914','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21440914"><span>Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in seawater from the Western Taiwan Strait, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xin-Hong; Li, Yong-Yu; Hong, Hua-Sheng</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Seawater samples (including surface water and bottom water) were collected from the Western Taiwan Strait (WTS) during June 24-25, 2009; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in dissolved phase and particulate phase were analyzed, respectively. The results showed that the total concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the dissolved phase and particulate phase were ranged from 12.3 to 58.0 ng L(-1), and 10.3-45.5 ng L(-1), which showed a low-middle contamination level in the China Seas. The spatial variability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may be related to the complicated currents of WTS, especially the Min-Zhe coastal current. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> diagnostic ratios suggested that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> mainly originated from the inputs of pyrolytic (combustion) sources, which might be contributed to land-based atmospheric deposition. The particle-water partition coefficients of individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> showed that partitions were not correlated with suspended particulate matter content, dissolved organic carbon or salinity, similar to the Yangtze coastal area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/45280','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/45280"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> characteristics and genotoxicity in the ambient air of a petrochemical industry complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Peng, Being-Hwa; Lee, Ding-Zang; Lee, Ching-Chang</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) samples, at four sampling sites, in the ambient air of petrochemical plants were collected by several PS-1 samplers from October 1993 to July 1994 in a petrochemical complex area located in southern Taiwan. In addition, the genotoxicity of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> samples were investigated by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay system. The winter/summer ratios of total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition were 0.60, 1.39, 2.97, and 1.28 for sites A, B, C, and D, respectively. This result implied that wind direction is the most significant parameter affecting the total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition in these four sampling sites. Sampling sites B, C, and D were located on the downwind side of the petrochemical plant and gave higher total-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition than those of sampling site A. Particle phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> had higher mutagenicity than those in the gas phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910181"><span>Sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span>: contrasting levels in the Caspian Sea and Anzali Wetland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yancheshmeh, Rokhsareh Azimi; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Mortazavi, Samar; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan</p> <p>2014-07-15</p> <p>A comparative study of 23 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congeners in sediment of the Caspian Sea coast and Anzali Wetland was conducted in 2010. Surface sediment was analyzed using chromatography and mass spectrometry. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranged between 212 and 9009 ng g(-1) dw. Spatial distribution maps revealed that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels were higher in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea where oil related activities have been common since 1800's. Diagnostic ratios analysis indicated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> largely originated from petrogenic processes. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> toxicity level was assessed using sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalent concentrations to determine toxic effects on marine organism. Based on these investigations, in our study areas, the probability of toxicity for benthic organisms is "low to medium". The toxic equivalent concentrations of carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied between 11 and 231 ng TEQ/g; higher total toxic equivalent concentrations values were found in the coastal areas of the Caspian Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24838935','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24838935"><span>Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to lignin: effects of hydrophobicity and temperature.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ming; Ahmad, Mahtab; Lee, Sang Soo; Xu, Li Heng; Ok, Yong Sik</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The study of the sorption of contaminants to lignin is significant for understanding the migration of contaminants in the environment as well as developing low cost sorbent. In this study, sorption of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), naphthalene, acenaphthene and phenanthrene, to lignin was investigated. Sorption isotherms were well described by both linear and Freundlich sorption models. Sorption coefficients of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to lignin from water obtained from regression of both linear model (K d) and Freundlich model (K f) were highly positively correlated with hydrophobicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The amorphous structure of lignin provided sufficient sorption domain for partitioning of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and the attraction between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> molecules and aromatic fractions in lignin via π-π electron-donor-acceptor (π-π EDA) interaction is hypothesized to provide a strong sorption force. Thermodynamic modeling revealed that sorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to lignin was a spontaneous and exothermic process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100092"><span>Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from soil in soil washing technologies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53O0382Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53O0382Z"><span>Formation of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the heterogeneous reaction of ambient particle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with NO3/N2O5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zimmermann, K.; Jariyasopit, N.; Simonich, S. L.; Atkinson, R.; Arey, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their nitrated derivatives (nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been shown to be mutagenic in bacterial and mammalian assays and are classified as probable human carcinogens. Semi-volatile <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> partition between the gas and particulate phases, depending on their liquid-phase vapor pressures and ambient temperatures. These <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been extensively measured in ambient particulate matter and can ultimately undergo long-range transport from source regions (e.g., China to the western USA) (1). During transport these particle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may undergo reaction with NO3/N2O5 to form nitro-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives. Previous studies of heterogeneous nitration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have used particles composed of graphite, diesel soot, and wood smoke (2-4). This study investigates the heterogeneous formation of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from ambient particle-bound <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Beijing, China and sites located within the Los Angeles air basin. These ambient particle samples, along with filters coated with isotopically labeled <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, were exposed to a mix of NO2/NO3/N2O5 in a 7000 L Teflon chamber, with analysis focused on the heterogeneous formation of molecular weight 247 and 273 nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The heterogeneous formation of certain nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (including1-nitropyrene and 1- and 2-nitrotriphenylene) was observed for some, but not all, ambient samples. Formation of nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> typically formed through gas-phase reactions (2-nitrofluoranthene and 2-nitropyrene) was not observed. The effect of particle age and local photochemical conditions during sampling on the degree of nitration in environmental chamber reactions, as well as ambient implications, will be presented. 1. Primbs, T.; Simonich, S.; Schmedding, D.; Wilson, G.; Jaffe, D.; Takami, A.; Kato, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Kajii, Y. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2007, 41, 3551-3558. 2. Esteve, W.; Budzinski, H.; Villenave, E. Atmospheric Environment 2004, 38, 6063-6072. 3. Nguyen, M.; Bedjanian, Y.; Guilloteau, A. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 2009, 62</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009revo.book...23H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009revo.book...23H"><span>Ökologische Grundlagen <span class="hlt">und</span> limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hölzel, N.; Rebele, F.; Rosenthal, G.; Eichberg, C.</p> <p></p> <p>In den dicht besiedelten <span class="hlt">und</span> agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- <span class="hlt">und</span> Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung <span class="hlt">und</span> Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume <span class="hlt">und</span> Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker <span class="hlt">und</span> Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen <span class="hlt">und</span> praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer <span class="hlt">und</span> Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen <span class="hlt">und</span> die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough <span class="hlt">und</span> Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..328H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010emmf.book..328H"><span>Modellgestützte Hybrid Systementwicklung - Modellierung <span class="hlt">und</span> Optimierung</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huber, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>Im Bereich der Hybridfahrzeugentwicklung wird nach wie vor intensiv an Konzepten zur Verbrauchseinsparung <span class="hlt">und</span> Reduzierung von Emissionen gearbeitet. Gleichzeitig sollen "Fahrspaß" <span class="hlt">und</span> Komfort solcher Fahrzeuge verbessert werden. Für verschiedene Anwendungen sind unterschiedlichste Hybridkonzepte denkbar <span class="hlt">und</span> sinnvoll. Trotz dieser Variantenvielfalt <span class="hlt">und</span> den daraus resultierenden technischen Anforderungen sind die Kosten eines Hybridfahrzeugs zu minimieren, wobei ein wesentlicher Aspekt bei der Kostenreduzierung die Stückzahl ist. Bei der Entwicklung von Komponenten steht daher, neben den technischen Anforderungen, deren vielseitige Einsetzbarkeit im Vordergrund.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA413677','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA413677"><span>Depth Profile of Bacterial Metabolism and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-11-02</p> <p>organisms and the resultant changes in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolism by bacteria can complicate interpretation of sedimentation and biodegradation rates based on analytical...Metabolism and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments Washington, DC 20375-5320 MICHAEL T. MONTGOMERY CHRISTOPHER L...Metabolism and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Biodegradation in Bioturbated and Unbioturbated Marine Sediments Unclassified 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N0001499WX20525 5b. GRANT NUMBER 61-7800</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25707714"><span>Insight into the Modulation of Dissolved Organic Matter on Microbial Remediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Contaminated Soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Microorganisms play a key role in degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in environments. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can enhance microbial degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils. However, it is not clear how will the soil microbial community respond to addition of DOM during bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils. In this study, DOMs derived from various agricultural wastes were applied to remediate the aging <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils in a 90-day microcosm experiment. Results showed that the addition of DOMs offered a more efficient and persistent elimination of soil <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> compared to the control which had no DOM addition. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal effects were different among treatments with various DOMs; the addition of DOMs with high proportion of hydrophobic fraction could remove <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> more efficiently from the soil. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were more easily eliminated than that with high-molecular-weight (HMW). Addition of DOMs significantly increased abundance of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), pdo1, nah, and C12O genes and obviously changed community compositions of nah and C12O genes in different ways in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analyses of clone libraries exhibited that all of nah sequences and most of C12O sequences were affiliated into Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. These results suggested that external stimuli produced by DOMs could enhance the microbial degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soils through not only solubilizing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> but also altering abundance and composition of indigenous microbial degraders. Our results reinforce the understanding of role of DOMs in mediating degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by microorganims in soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21330505B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AAS...21330505B"><span>The NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database: A Demo of its Contents and Web Tools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boersma, Christiaan; Sánchez de Armas, F.; Ricca, A.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Mattioda, A. L.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Allamandola, L. J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The features formerly known as the Unidentified Infrared (UIR) Emission Bands are now generally attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). Exploitation of these features as astrophysical and astrochemical probes requires the IR properties of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> under interstellar conditions. To fulfill this need, we experimentally measured and theoretically computed the 2-2000 µm spectra of many <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> over the past 18 years at NASA's Ames Research Center. Today's collection comprises about 600 theoretically computed and 60 laboratory measured spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in different forms. The molecules in the collection range in size from C10H8 to C130H28. For most of these, spectra are available for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in their neutral and singly charged (+/-) states. In some cases, IR spectra of multiply charged species were also computed. The database includes pure <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> containing nitrogen (PANHs), oxygen, and silicon; <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with side groups; <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with extra hydrogens; and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> complexed with iron and magnesium. This collection of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra from 2 - 2000 µm has been assembled into a uniform database, which we will make publicly available on the web in early 2009. A WebGUI interface has been developed that can effectively interrogate the database using a variety of queries, such as formula, molecular name, charge, specific number of atoms, etc. Several molecules can be selected in such a process and one can obtain their 3-D structures, plot and co-add their spectra, adjust parameters such as the bandwidth, download their data and print graphs. The database can also be downloaded as a whole and IDL-routines are provided to interrogate it. This talk will present an overview of the contents and the web-GUI tools of the NASA Ames <span class="hlt">PAH</span> IR Spectroscopic Database. Hands-on demonstrations will be available at the SOFIA Booth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChEd..76..962F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChEd..76..962F"><span>Quantitative Determination of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Diesel Engine Exhausts by GC-MS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleurat-Lessard, Paul; Pointet, Karine; Renou-Gonnord, Marie-France</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical protocol for quantitation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in diesel exhaust particles, adapted for a single laboratory period, is proposed. Gravitational chromatography is first used to isolate aromatic compounds. Then quantitative determination of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) is performed by GC-MS, using deuterated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as internal standards. Results obtained by students for recovery yields and for quantitation are reproducible.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25679782','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25679782"><span>Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soil-Brassica chinensis system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6)). The concentration of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was (1052 ± 73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4) with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4), which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4)). The geochemical indices indicated that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (the ratio of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetation to total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and vegetation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713860Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713860Z"><span>Response of microbial activities and diversity to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination at coal tar contaminated land</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, with essential roles in biochemical process for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination level was positively correlated (p<0.05) with the bacteria count (0.9×107-14.2×107 CFU/mL), catalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination stimulated the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> contamination and soil microbial functions at the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5668422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5668422"><span>Comparative carcinogenicity of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> as a basis for acceptable exposure levels (AELs) in drinking water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rugen, P.J.; Stern, C.D.; Lamm, S.H. )</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>The carcinogenicity of various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has generally been demonstrated by their ability to act as complete carcinogens in the development of cancers in rodent skin tests. In order to develop proposed acceptable concentration levels for various <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in drinking water, we reviewed the studies that formed the basis for determining that these specific <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were carcinogenic in animals. We found that the relative potency of these <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> varied over a range of many orders of magnitude. For example, the carcinogenic strength of benz(a)anthracene (BaA) is found to be about 1/2000th that of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). We have used the calculated carcinogenic potency of the various <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> relative to that of BaP as a means for proposing specific acceptable concentration levels in drinking water for each of the specific <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. BaP is the only carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAH</span> for which EPA has published an acceptable concentration level based on carcinogenicity. Based on the level EPA set for BaP (0.028 micrograms/liter), this methodology has provided for the specific <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> a determination of proposed acceptable concentration levels quantitatively based on the same data that were used to qualitatively determine them to be animal carcinogens. We have proposed acceptable concentration levels for the carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in drinking water that range from 0.03 micrograms/liter for BaP to 6.5 micrograms/liter for BaA. We recommend that acceptable concentration levels for the various <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> be based on their relative carcinogenic potencies rather than the EPA method of using the potency of only one specific <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, BaP, to serve as the exposure level determinant for all <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. We further suggest that this methodology may be applicable to other classes of carcinogenic compounds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19615818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19615818"><span>Concentration level, pattern and toxic potential of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in traffic soil of Delhi, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agarwal, Tripti</p> <p>2009-11-15</p> <p>Present study was envisaged to examine the impact of vehicular traffic on the contamination status of urban traffic sites in Delhi with respect to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>). Surface soil (0-5 cm) from three traffic sites and one rural site was analyzed and the content of 16 priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was determined. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration at traffic sites ranged from 1062 microg kg(-1) to 9652 microg kg(-1) with an average value of 4694+/-3028 microg kg(-1). At the rural site average concentration of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was found to be 886+/-303 microg kg(-1). Carcinogenic potency of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load in traffic soil was nearly 21 times higher as compared to the rural soil. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pattern was dominated by five- and six-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (contributing >50% to the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) at all the three traffic sites. On the other hand, rural soil showed a predominance of low molecular weight two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (contributing >50% to the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). A lack of correlation was observed between total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> and total organic carbon (TOC) content in traffic soils but in rural soil both were positively correlated (r=0.76). In rural soil naphthalene (r=0.88, P=<0.05) displayed strongest correlation with TOC. Indeno[123-cd]pyrene/benz[ghi]perylene (IP/BgP) ratio indicated that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> load at the traffic sites is predominated by the gasoline-driven vehicles. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) provided the fingerprints of vehicular traffic emission and coal combustion in the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334532','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4334532"><span>Accumulation, Allocation, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Soil-Brassica chinensis System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Juan; Fan, Shukai; Du, Xiaoming; Yang, Juncheng; Wang, Wenyan; Hou, Hong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi’an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), rather than discrimination of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1×10−6). The concentration of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was (1052±73) μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean±standard error). The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10−5 to 2×10−4 with an average of 1.66×10−4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1×10−4). The geochemical indices indicated that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (the ratio of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetation to total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil) increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and vegetation. PMID:25679782</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25534968"><span>Remediation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang</p> <p>2015-03-21</p> <p>A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> accumulation in plants. However, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dissipation, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil <span class="hlt">PAH</span> quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12561188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12561188"><span>[Advances in studies on the effect of surfactant on bioavailability of polycylcic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in soil].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jiang, Xia; Jing, Xin; Gao, Xuesheng; Ou, Ziqing</p> <p>2002-09-01</p> <p>The solubility and adsorption/desorption equilibrium of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil and their interaction with soil bacterium can be altered by surfactants, which lead to the alternation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> bioavailability. The bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be enhanced by the decrease of interface tension between soil and water, the increasement of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>' solubility, and the transportation facilitation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the presence of surfactants. It also can be inhibited by the surfactant toxicity to the bacteria or by the competitive ultilization between non-toxicitic surfactants and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by the bacteria. In addition, the effects of surfactants on the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of different existence-forms in soils are different. The bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can be affected by the type and concentrion of surfactants, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and soil microorganisms, and also by soil physi-chemical characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211193','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5211193"><span>Sources, fate, and effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in shallow water environments: a review with special reference to small watercraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Albers, P.H.; Kennish, Michael J.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two to seven fused carbon (benzene) rings that can have substituted groups attached. Shallow coastal, estuarine, lake, and river environments receive <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from treated wastewater, stormwater runoff, petroleum spills and natural seeps, recreational and commercial boats, natural fires, volcanoes, and atmospheric deposition of combustion products. Abiotic degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is caused by photooxidation, photolysis in water, and chemical oxidation. Many aquatic microbes, plants, and animals can metabolize and excrete ingested <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; accumulation is associated with poor metabolic capabilities, high lipid content, and activity patterns or distributions that coincide with high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Resistance to biological transformation increases with increasing number of carbon rings. Four- to seven-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are the most difficult to metabolize and the most likely to accumulate in sediments. Disturbance by boating activity of sediments, shorelines, and the surface microlayer of water causes water column re-entry of recently deposited or concentrated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Residence time for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in undisturbed sediment exceeds several decades. Toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> causes lethal and sublethal effects in plants and animals, whereas some substituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and metabolites of some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> cause mutations, developmental malformations, tumors, and cancer. Environmental concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water are usually several orders of magnitude below levels that are acutely toxic, but concentrations can be much higher in sediment. The best evidence for a link between environmental <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and induction of cancerous neoplasms is for demersal fish in areas with high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18205051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18205051"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker to indicate <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in the marine coastal environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Xin H; Hong, Hua S; Mu, Jing L; Lin, Jian Q; Wang, Shong H</p> <p>2008-02-15</p> <p>In this study, analysis methods for the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites of naphthalene (Na), pyrene (Py) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) with different benzo-rings (2-4-5 rings respectively) were developed and the metabolism kinetics of Py and BaP in marine fishes were studied. Two <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites of Na and Py, namely 1-naphthol (1-OH Na) and 1-hydroxy pyrene (1-OH Py), were determined using the fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) method, and the BaP metabolite, 3-hydroxy benzo(a)pyrene (3-OH BaP), was determined using reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. The dose- and time-response of Lateolabrax japonicus to Py metabolites and Sparus macrocephalus to BaP metabolites were studied in order to evaluate the use of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites as a means of assessing exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The results showed that both fishes could be induced to metabolize and eliminate their metabolites in vivo with increasing Py and BaP exposure concentrations in seawater. As Py and BaP concentrations increased, metabolite concentrations in the fish bile also increased. A significant dose-response of biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites was observed after exposure for 1, 3 and 7 days for Py and 2, 4 and 7 days for BaP, respectively. These results provide the proof necessary for using <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in marine fishes as a specific biomarker or early warning signal of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> pollution in the marine coastal environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1077/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1077/"><span>Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Concentrations of 18 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20943246"><span>Evolution of bacterial community during bioremediation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a coal tar contaminated soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lors, Christine; Ryngaert, Annemie; Périé, Frédéric; Diels, Ludo; Damidot, Denis</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The monitoring of a windrow treatment applied to soil contaminated by mostly 2-, 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> produced by coal tar distillation was performed by following the evolution of both <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and the bacterial community. Total and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacterial community structures were followed by 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE in parallel with quantification by bacterial counts and 16 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> measurements. Six months of biological treatment led to a strong decrease in 2-, 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations (98, 97 and 82% respectively). This result was associated with the activity of bacterial <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degraders belonging mainly to the Gamma-proteobacteria, in particular, the Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas genera, which were detected over the course of the treatment. This group was considered to be a good bioindicator to determine the potential <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation of contaminated soil. Conversely, other species, like the Beta-proteobacteria, were detected after 3months, when 2-, 3- and 4-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were almost completely degraded. Thus, presence of the Beta-proteobacteria group could be considered a good candidate indicator to estimate the endpoint of biotreatment of this type of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20422285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20422285"><span>Predicting bioaccumulation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the trophic chain in the estuary region of Paranagua, Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Froehner, Sandro; Maceno, Marcell; Machado, Karina Scurupa</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) compounds in sediment and water samples collected in the estuary area of Paranagua, southern Brazil, was investigated. There is a lot of port activity in the region. Recreational fishing is widespread; thus, there is concern about possible contamination by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The 16 priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were investigated, and only eight were found. The total concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 40.8 to 406.8 ng/g. High molecular weight were the most abundant, while <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with a low molecular weight were absent. There are suspicions that the main source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is combustion, but some uncertainties exist, and there may even be the presence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> resulting from accidental spills of crude oil. Although the sediments contain <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the amount is below the maximum concentrations allowed by the Brazilian environmental legislation, as well as the maximum levels at which adverse effects are observed. From the analytical results, a probable bioaccumulation was assessed in the local trophic chain using a mathematical model (Arnot and Gobas, Environ Toxicol Chem 23(10):2343-2355, 2004). The model showed that there is a possibility of biomagnification along the food chain selected. Three fishes with high local consumption were selected, and the concentration of some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> could be found in those fishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119194"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ribeiro, Joana; Silva, Tais; Mendonca Filho, Joao Graciano; Flores, Deolinda</p> <p>2012-01-15</p> <p>The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in unburned samples and a mixture of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and greater abundance of HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3267189','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3267189"><span>Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) Contamination in Different Environmental Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Seung</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon. PMID:22303141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26291912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26291912"><span>Removing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from urban runoff water by combining ozonation and carbon nano-onions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve D; Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Li, Xu; Harris, Clifford E</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Ozone (O3) is a chemical oxidant capable of transforming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban runoff within minutes but complete oxidation to CO2 can take days to weeks. We developed and tested a flow-through system that used ozone to quickly transform <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a runoff stream and then removed the ozone-transformed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> via adsorption to carbon nano-onions (CNOs). To quantify the efficacy of this approach, (14)C-labeled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, as well as a mixture of 16 unlabeled <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were used as test compounds. These <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were pumped from a reservoir into a flow-through reactor that continuously ozonated the solution. Outflow from the reactor then went to a chamber that contained CNOs to adsorb the ozone-transformed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and allowed clean water to pass. By adding a microbial consortium to the CNOs following adsorption, we observed that bacteria were able to degrade the adsorbed products and release more soluble, biodegradable products back into solution. Control treatments confirmed that parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> structures (i.e., non-ozonated) were not biologically degraded following CNO adsorption and that O3-transformed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were not released from the CNOs in the absence of bacteria. These results support the combined use of ozone, carbon nano-onions with subsequent biological degradation as a means of removing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from urban runoff or a commercial waste stream.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17712506','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17712506"><span>Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and metal evaluation after a diesel spill in Oaxaca, Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salazar-Coria, L; Amezcua-Allieri, M A; Tenorio-Torres, M; González-Macías, C</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Pollution in the marine environment due to a diesel spill takes days to months to complete natural remediation owing to its low volatility. Metal and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination caused by an accidental diesel spill were studied. V, Ni and Hg levels increased immediately after the spill, while <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels decreased after 1 month (79.4-7.6 microg kg(-1)). At the diesel spill point, fluoranthene exceeded acute and chronic levels, although most of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were within the range of low effects. In fish body burden, the highest bioaccumulation factor (2.63 for naphthalene) was related to the lower molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10195345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10195345"><span>Sorption and chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on coal fly ash. Technical progress report No. 8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The objective of this work is to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and their derivatives, and to understand the influence of the surface properties of coal ash (and other atmospheric particles) on the chemical transformations of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Specific investigations directed toward this overall objective include: (a) Fractionation of heterogeneous coal fly ash samples into different particle types varying in size and chemical composition (carbonaceous, mineral-magnetic, and mineral nonmagnetic); (b) Measurement of the rates of chemical transformation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives (especially nitro-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and the manner in which the rates of such processes are influenced by the chemical and physical properties of coal fly ash particles; (c) Chromatographic and spectroscopic studies of the nature of the interactions of coal fly ash particles with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives; (d) Characterization of the fractal nature of fly ash particles (via surface area measurements) and the relationships of {open_quotes}surface roughness{close_quotes} of fly ash particles to the chemical behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sorbed on coal ash particles. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited, under controlled laboratory conditions, onto coal ash surfaces from the vapor phase, in order to mimic the processes by which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are deposited onto particulate matter in the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27038213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27038213"><span>Biological impact of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) as endocrine disruptors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yanyan; Dong, Sijun; Wang, Hongou; Tao, Shu; Kiyama, Ryoiti</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are often detected in the environment and are regarded as endocrine disruptors. We here designated mixtures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the environment as environmental <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (e<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) to discuss their effects collectively, which could be different from the sum of the constituent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. We first summarized the biological impact of environmental <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (e<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) found in the atmosphere, sediments, soils, and water as a result of human activities, accidents, or natural phenomena. e<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are characterized by their sources and forms, followed by their biological effects and social impact, and bioassays that are used to investigate their biological effects. The findings of the bioassays have demonstrated that e<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have the ability to affect the endocrine systems of humans and animals. The pathways that mediate cell signaling for the endocrine disruptions induced by e<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have also been summarized in order to obtain a clearer understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these effects without animal tests; they include specific signaling pathways (MAPK and other signaling pathways), regulatory mechanisms (chromatin/epigenetic regulation, cell cycle/DNA damage control, and cytoskeletal/adhesion regulation), and cell functions (apoptosis, autophagy, immune responses/inflammation, neurological responses, and development/differentiation) induced by specific <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[l]aceanthrylene, cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, 3-methylcholanthrene, perylene, phenanthrene, and pyrene as well as their derivatives. Estrogen signaling is one of the most studied pathways associated with the endocrine-disrupting activities of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and involves estrogen receptors and aryl hydrocarbon receptors. However, some of the actions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are contradictory, complex, and unexplainable. Although several possibilities have been suggested, such as direct interactions between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270801"><span>Historical changes in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Lake Peipsi sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Punning, Jaan-Mati; Terasmaa, Jaanus; Vaasma, Tiit; Kapanen, Galina</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The distribution of 11 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was analysed in a (210)Pb dated sediment core from the deepest area of Lake Peipsi and in four surface sediment samples taken from littoral areas. According to the concentrations in the core three groups of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> may be distinguished: (1) relatively stable concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> within the whole studied time interval; (2) very low concentrations in sediments accumulated before intensive anthropogenic impact (from 19th century up to the 1920s) following a slight increase and (3) an overall increase in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations since the 1920s up to the present. Comprehensive analysis of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the core and monitoring data obtained in the 1980s together with the lithology of sediments show that an increase of anthropogenically induced <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> correlates well with the history of fuel consumption in Estonia and speaks about atmospheric long-distance transport of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The continuous increase of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations since the 1920s do not support the earlier hypothesis about the dominating impact of the oil shale fired power plants near the lake, because their emissions decreased significantly in the 1990s. The concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the deep lake core sample correlates well with the content of organic matter, indicating absorption and co-precipitation with plankton in the sediment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26531715"><span>Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from inorganic clay mineral: Bentonite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karaca, Gizem; Baskaya, Hüseyin S; Tasdemir, Yücel</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>There has been limited study of the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from inorganic clay minerals. Determining the amount of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal is important in predicting their environmental fate. This study was carried out to the degradation and evaporation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from bentonite, which is an inorganic clay mineral. UV apparatus was designed specifically for the experiments. The impacts of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2), and diethylamine (DEA) on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal were determined. After 24 h, 75 and 44 % of ∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in the bentonite were removed with and without UV rays, respectively. DEA was more effective as a photocatalyst than TiO2 during UV application. The ∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal ratio reached 88 % with the addition of DEA to the bentonite. It was concluded that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were photodegraded at high ratios when the bentonite samples were exposed to UV radiation in the presence of a photocatalyst. At the end of all the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal applications, higher evaporation ratios were obtained for 3-ring compounds than for heavier ones. More than 60 % of the amount of ∑12 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> evaporated consisted of 3-ring compounds.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017343','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21017343"><span>Characterization and distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in surface sediments of Daliao River, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, J.X.; Ni, Y.W.; Yang, M.; Zhang, H.J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, J.P.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The concentrations of 16 priority pollutant <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the samples of Daliao River were analyzed by a method based on Soxhlet extraction, solid-phase extraction clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography-programmable fluorescence/ultra violet detection. The total concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Daliao River ranged from 267.9 ng/g to 9,212 ng/g. The highest concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was 9,212 ng/g at the Station 24 (Anshan Railroad Bridge), and the lowest 267.9 ng/g at the Station 19 (Estuary). Compared with the total concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> of rivers in other parts of the world, the degree of contamination of Daliao River by <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was moderate to high. Specific compounds or groups of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have been used as molecular markers to differentiate petrogenic and pyrogenic origin. The results showed that the main sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Daliao River were pyrolytic inputs such as combustion of coal, wood and petrogenic chemicals. The data was also compared by mean of two guideline values, an effects range-low (ER-L) and effects range-medium (ER-M), to assess the potential biological effects of the sediment adsorbed <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. It showed that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in some sites of Daliao River would exert adverse biological effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820i0001Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820i0001Z"><span>A review of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) research progress in China based on CNKI database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Zhao</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>This article using the retroactive content analysis method summarizes the research progress of air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during 1983 to 2016, and is based on the 72 search results about "Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons" in CNKI database. This article directly points out the study achievements and improvements about air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 4 aspects, the reviews of the studies of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a special stage, the studies on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> determination and analysis method, the studies on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration in different places and the studies on the relationship between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration in air and human health, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036360','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100036360"><span>Recent Advances in Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the Far Infrared</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mattioda, Andrew L.; Ricca, Alessandra; Tucker, Jonathan; Boersma, Christiaan; Bauschlicher, Charles, Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Over 25 years of observations and laboratory work have shown that the mid-IR spectra of a majority of astronomical sources are dominated by emission features near 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 microns, which originate in free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> dominate the mid-IR emission from many galactic and extragalactic objects. As such, this material tracks a wide variety of astronomical processes, making this spectrum a powerful probe of the cosmos Apart from bands in the mid-IR, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have bands spanning the Far-IR (FIR) and emission from these FIR features should be present in astronomical sources showing the Mid-IR <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bands. However, with one exception, the FIR spectral characteristics are known only for a few neutral small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> trapped in salt pellets or oils at room temperature, data which is not relevant to astrophysics. Furthermore, since most emitting <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> responsible for the mid-IR astronomical features are ionized, the absence of any experimental or theoretical <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ion FIR spectra will make it impossible to correctly interpret the FIR data from these objects. In view of the upcoming Herschel space telescope mission and SOFIA's FIR airborne instrumentation, which will pioneer the FIR region, it is now urgent to obtain <span class="hlt">PAH</span> FIR spectra. This talk will present an overview recent advances in the laboratory spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, Highlighting the FIR spectroscopy along with some quantum calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842825"><span>Molecular and stable carbon isotopic characterization of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contaminants at McMurdo Station, Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Moonkoo; Kennicutt, Mahlon C; Qian, Yaorong</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The molecular and stable carbon isotopic compositions of contaminant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica were analyzed in samples collected from land and sub-tidal area. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the study areas were characterized by high amounts of naphthalene and alkylated naphthalenes from petroleum products introduced by human activities in the area. Principal component analysis (PCA) of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> composition data identified multiple sources of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in the study area. Compositional assignments of origins were confirmed using compound specific stable carbon isotopic analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27318541"><span>Spatial distribution and source apportionment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in marine surface sediments of Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xue, Rui; Chen, Ling; Lu, Zhibo; Wang, Juan; Yang, Haizhen; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Minghong</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This paper reports the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in marine sediments sampled from Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranged from 12.95 to 30.93 ng/g, with a mean of 17.99 ± 5.57 ng/g. Two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the most abundant compounds found at the majority of the sampling stations of Prydz Bay. Long-range atmospheric transportation was found to play an important role in determining the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediments sampled here. However, transport by ocean currents and release from melting glaciers were also found to influence <span class="hlt">PAH</span> distributions in the sediments of East Antarctica. The vertical migration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments showed a decreasing trend with depth, with higher concentrations in the relatively shallow-water regions (<500 m) found on the Fram and Four Ladies banks compared with those of the intermediate-depth (500-1000 m) and deep-water regions (>1000 m) of the Amery Basin and associated Canyons, respectively. A Pearson correlation analysis between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and sediment parameters demonstrated that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> has poor correlations with grain size, but has positive correlation with total organic carbon, indicated complex processing during transfer to remote environments. The results of qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> sampled here were derived mainly from a mixture of biomass combustion, traffic emissions, and petrogenic sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25869435"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size <0.045 mm), the content of the Al-Si glass phase and the surface characteristics were the main factors, which could affect the accessibility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for leaching. The mobility of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from OSA of CFB and PF boilers was 20.2 and 9.9%, respectively. Hardening of OSA-based materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Release of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398227','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/398227"><span>Further evidence for limited bioavailability of sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> from an aluminum smelter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Allard, P.J.; Chapman, P.M.; Murdoch, M.H.; Paine, M.D.; Minifie, D.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Spatial trends in benthic community structure and various parameters measured in resident Dungeness crabs (i.e., parent <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in hepatopancreas, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in haemolymph, abnormalities, size, condition, female reproductive potential) were determined as part of a Sediment Quality Triad study into potential effects of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in marine sediments of Kitimat Arm, BC. Despite high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> near the smelter (historically close to percent levels), previous evidence from a battery of toxicity tests and analyses of fish, shellfish and crab tissue had suggested limited <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability. In this study, there were differences between the benthas near the smelter and in a reference area. However, the pattern observed, of reduced abundance and increased richness (i.e., diversity) near the smelter is the reverse of what is generally considered to be a negative effect (i.e., increased abundance, decreased richness). Resident Dungeness crabs showed no evidence of contaminant effects and only limited evidence of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability. Crab hepatopancreas contained low concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, primarily in crab collected near the smelter but also, unexpectedly, in crab from the reference area. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in crab haemolymph were elevated close to the smelter but nowhere else. These results extend and strengthen conclusions from past studies, specifically that sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in this area has very limited bioavailability. More, importantly, the results indicate little evidence of adverse biological effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484948','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/484948"><span>Surfactant influence on <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in a creosote-contaminated soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deschenes, L.; Lafrance, P.; Villeneuve, J.P.; Samson, R.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>This study consisted of assessing the biodegradation of 13 of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in a creosote-contaminated soil, using both biological and chemical surfactants. The assumption was that surfactants may enhance the mobilization of the hydrophobic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, and possibly their biodegradation. The rhamnolipid biosurfactants were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2. The chemical surfactant was sodium dodecyl sulfate. Over a period of 45 weeks, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were periodically extracted from soil and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that, at three studied concentrations, surfactant addition did not enhance <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation in the creosote-contaminated soil. Furthermore, for the four-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, surfactant presence seemed harmful to the biodegradation process, the residual concentrations of each studied <span class="hlt">PAH</span> decreasing more slowly than those found in the untreated soil. Moreover, this effect increased as a function of surfactant concentration. The negative effect was less evident with biosurfactants than for the chemical surfactant. The high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were not degraded by the indigenous microorganisms. For the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in general, the higher the molecular weight, the more recalcitrant was the contaminant. It is suggested that the surfactants were used as a preferential substrate by the indigenous microflora, which may have interfered with the biodegradation of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005607"><span>A survey for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in H II regions, planetary and proto-planetary nebulae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Demuizon, M.; Cox, P.; Lequeux, J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The results of a systematic investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) emission in H II regions, planetary nebulae (PN), and proto-planetary nebulae (PNN), are reported. Data is obtained from the low resolution spectra (LRS) of IRAS. The results show that: <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are formed in carbon rich objects; and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission is ubiquitous in general interstellar medium and requires the presence of ultraviolet photons, in planetary and proto-planetary nebulae, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission is seen only where an ionizing flux is present and in carbon rich objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4052105','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4052105"><span>The Investigation of Reducing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> Emission from Coal Pyrolysis by Gaseous Catalytic Cracking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Yulong; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Chun; Li, Guanlong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Fan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The catalytic cracking method of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for the pyrolysis gaseous products is proposed to control their pollution to the environment. In this study, the Py-GC-MS is used to investigate in situ the catalytic effect of CaO and Fe2O3 on the 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from Pingshuo coal pyrolysis under different catalytic temperatures and catalyst particle sizes. The results demonstrate that Fe2O3 is effective than that of CaO for catalytic cracking of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and that their catalytic temperature corresponding to the maximum <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> cracking rates is different. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> cracking rate is up to 60.59% for Fe2O3 at 600°C and is 52.88% at 700°C for CaO. The catalytic temperature and particle size of the catalysts have a significant effect on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> cracking rate and CaO will lose the capability of decreasing 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> when the temperature is higher than 900°C. The possible cracking process of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is deduced by elaborately analyzing the cracking effect of the two catalysts on 16 different species of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. PMID:24963507</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083104"><span><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution from traffic sources in air of Hangzhou, China: trend and influencing factors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhu, Li-Zhong; Wang, Jing</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution in air of arterial roads was investigated from October 1998 to October 2001 in Hangzhou, China. The results showed that sigma10 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was 13-36 microg/m3, among which, BaP, a strong carcinogenic kind ranged from 0.034 microg/m3 to 0.12 microg/m3. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollutions in four seasons were winter > autumn > spring-summer. The annual averages of sigma<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration were 25 microg/m3 for 1999, 28 microg/m3 for 2000, and 29 microg/m3 for 2001, respectively. Leaded gasoline was banned in December 1998 in Hangzhou, thus comparative measurements with <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in leaded and lead-free gasoline powered motor exhausts made it certain that the use of lead-free gasoline leaded to a heavier <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution in roadside air from December, 1998, in China, and sigma<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in air samples after the lead-banning were more than twice of that in samples before the action. For the large contribution of vehicle discharge to air pollution in roadside, further research was performed to suggest the factors influencing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> distribution in vehicle exhaust in order to control air pollution effectively. Compared to gasoline engines, emissions from diesel engines were less toxic, although they might produce more <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Of the same vehicular and oil type, automobiles of longer mileages produced more toxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> distributions in the vehicular exhausts were related to the oil type. Large difference was found in the abundance of 3-, 5- and 6-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> between exhausts from gasoline and diesel oil engines. Diesel oil engines produced relative lighter <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> such as NAPH, ACEN, FLUOR, while gasoline engines emitted heavier kinds such as BkF, IN and BP. The automobile produced more <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with the increase of mileage especially FLUR, PY, BaP, BP. Some significant ratios for traffic source in Hangzhou such as PHEN/AN, FLUR/PY, IN/BP were 0.50-4.3, 0.58-7.4, 0.51-1.5, respectively. A source fingerprint for vehicle exhausts of a mixture of vehicle and oil types in the city district for light</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17766819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17766819"><span>Differential responses of eubacterial, Mycobacterium, and Sphingomonas communities in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-contaminated soil to artificially induced changes in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> profile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Uyttebroek, Maarten; Spoden, Astrid; Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio; Wouters, Katinka; Wattiau, Pierre; Bastiaens, Leen; Springael, Dirk</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Recent reports suggest that Mycobacterium is better adapted to soils containing poorly bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) compared to Sphingomonas. To study this hypothesis, artificial conditions regarding <span class="hlt">PAH</span> profile and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioavailability were induced in two <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soils and the response of the eubacterial, Mycobacterium, and Sphingomonas communities to these changed conditions was monitored during laboratory incubation. Soil K3663 with a relatively high proportion of high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was amended with phenanthrene or pyrene to artificially change the soil into a soil with a relatively increased bioavailable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination. Soil AndE with a relatively high proportion of bioavailable low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was treated by a single-step Tenax extraction to remove the largest part of the easily bioavailable <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination. In soil K3663, the added phenanthrene or pyrene compounds were rapidly degraded, concomitant with a significant increase in the number of phenanthrene and pyrene degraders, and minor and no changes in the Mycobacterium community and Sphingomonas community, respectively. However, a transient change in the eubacterial community related to the proliferation of several gamma-proteobacteria was noted in the phenanthrene-amended soil. In the extracted AndE soil, the Sphingomonas community initially developed into a more diverse community but finally decreased in size below the detection limit. Mycobacterium in that soil never increased to a detectable size, while the eubacterial community became dominated by a gamma-proteobacterial population. The results suggest that the relative bioavailability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in soil affects bacterial community structure but that the behavior of Mycobacterium and Sphingomonas in soil is more complex than prospected from studies on their ecology and physiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010025059','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010025059"><span>Identification of Gas Phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Absorption Towards Protostellar Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bregman, Jesse D.; Temi, Pasquale; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The infrared emission bands (also known as the UIR bands.) have recently been observed in absorption at 3.25 micrometers in the ices surrounding a few proto-stellar objects at 11.2 micrometers in MonR2, and at 6.2 micrometers towards two sources near the galactic center. The UIR bands have been observed in emission for many years, but identifying these bands has proven to be both difficult and contentious as no one has yet found a single material that provides a good match to the features. However, most investigators agree that some form of carbon-based material with aromatic bonds is the most likely candidate, and many arguments favor free molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) as the carriers of at least the narrow emission bands. Since the emission arises not from a single molecule but from a family of molecules, identifying which <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are contributing to the infrared emission bands is difficult. The identification is further complicated by the fact that the emission at short wavelengths is dominated by small molecules while at long wavelengths it is dominated by large molecules. Thus, for example, the emission at 3.3 micrometers is from a different mix of molecules than those which produce the 11.2 micrometer band. To complicate matters further, the molecular mix includes both neutral and ionic species. In absorption, the same mixture of molecules contributes at all wavelengths and the molecules should be neutral, potentially simplifying comparisons with lab data. Also, absorption strengths measured in the lab are directly applicable to interstellar absorption bands without the need to model an emission spectrum of an unknown mixture of ionized and neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In this paper we show that a mixture of argon matrix isolated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules can reproduce the 3.25 micrometers absorption band seen in the ISO SWS spectra of four embedded Infrared sources, S140 IRS1, AFGL 2591, Elias 29, and AFGL 989. In section 2 we describe the ISO SWS data analysis and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book..127R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010deme.book..127R"><span>Darwin, Engels <span class="hlt">und</span> die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen <span class="hlt">und</span> kulturellen Evolution des Menschen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reichholf, Josef H.</p> <p></p> <p>Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen <span class="hlt">und</span> die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet <span class="hlt">und</span> vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit <span class="hlt">und</span> der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.1987N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009mlse.book.1987N"><span>Implantate <span class="hlt">und</span> Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neuhann, Tobias H.</p> <p></p> <p>Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg <span class="hlt">und</span> Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen <span class="hlt">und</span> im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..459S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009bime.book..459S"><span>Haptische Modellierung <span class="hlt">und</span> Deformation einer Kugelzelle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd</p> <p></p> <p>Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv <span class="hlt">und</span> damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert <span class="hlt">und</span> damit trainiert werden kann.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482976','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25482976"><span>Development and application of a simultaneous SPE-method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, heterocyclic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NSO-HET) and phenols in aqueous samples from German Rivers and the North Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Siemers, Anne-Kathrin; Mänz, Jan Sebastian; Palm, Wolf-Ulrich; Ruck, Wolfgang K L</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), heterocyclic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (NSO-HETs), alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and phenols are known as the prevailing contaminants in groundwater at tar contaminated sites. Besides these local sources, the concentrations and the distribution in particular of NSO-HETs in environmental samples, such as rivers, have received notably less attention. To investigate their occurrence in river basins two sensitive analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of 86 substances including NSO-HETs, classical EPA-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and phenols were developed: liquid-liquid extraction for the whole water phase and solid phase extraction for the dissolved water phase only. Solely GC-MS or additionally LC-MSMS for fractionated basic nitrogen heterocycles (N-HETs) were used for quantification. Limits of quantification were in the low ngL(-1) range. Concentrations were determined in 29 aqueous samples from 8 relatively large rivers located in Lower Saxony (Germany) and the North Sea. NSO-HETs had comparable or even higher sum concentrations than EPA-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. N-HETs, especially acridine and quinolines with concentrations of up to 20ngL(-1) per substance, were predominant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26646479','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26646479"><span>Determination of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in urban stream sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Recent studies indicate that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> transformation products such as ketone or quinone-substituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (OPAHs) are potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activators that elicit toxicological effects independent of those observed for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Here, we measured eight OPAHs, two sulfur-containing (SPAH), one oxygen-containing (DBF), and one nitrogen-containing (CARB) heterocyclic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (i.e. ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> = OPAH8 + SPAH + DBF + CARB) in 35 stream sediments collected from a small (∼1303 km(2)) urban watershed located in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. Combined ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranged from 59 to 1897 μg kg(-1) (mean = 568 μg kg(-1); median = 425 μg kg(-1)) and were 2.4 times higher in urban versus rural areas, suggesting that activities taking place on urban land serve as a source of ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to sediments. To evaluate urban land use metrics that might explain these data, Spearman rank correlation analyses was used to evaluate the degree of association between ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and urban land-use/land-cover metrics along an urban-rural transect at two spatial scales (500-m and 1000-m upstream). Combined ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations showed highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlations with Σ<span class="hlt">PAH</span>19, residential and commercial/industrial land use (RESCI), and combined state and local road miles (MILES), suggesting that ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> originate from similar sources as <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. To evaluate OPAH sources, a subset of ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> for which reference assemblages exist, an average OPAH fractional assemblage for urban sediments was derived using agglomerative hierarchal cluster (AHC) analysis, and compared to published OPAH source profiles. Urban sediments from the Condoguinet Creek (n = 21) showed highly significant correlations with urban particulate matter (X(2) = 0.05, r = 0.91, p = 0.0047), suggesting that urban particulate matter is an important OPAH source to sediments in this watershed. Results suggest the inclusion of ΣONS-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> measurements</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16457170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16457170"><span>Bacterial community changes with N'-N' dimethylforamide (DMF) additives during polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) biodegardation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Y T; Lee, J F; Chao, H P; Liao, W L</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the changes in the bacterial community during biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) substrate when N'-N' dimethylformamide (DMF) was added. The microbial populations that biodegrade the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> substrate were assessed by Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and changed from 49.45% Archaea and 49.15% Bacteria to 42.00% Archaea and 51.78% Bacteria when the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was supplemented with DMF. Nine microorganisms were classified as Gram-negative alpha-, beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria bacteria during biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> alone by the Biolog system. Incentive eleven microorganisms obtained from the <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DMF mixed substrate were found to be beta-, gamma-Proteobacteria bacteria, high G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC), low G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC) and there was even one Deinococcus-Thermus strain; this indicates greater biodiversity. The numbers in the Pseudomonad group were as high as 10(5)-10(6) CFU ml(-1), suggesting that this group plays an important role in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation. Community-Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP) and physiological characterization were different in the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation process with and without DMF. Utilization of the 95 carbon sources from the Biolog GN2 microtiter plate was greater during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation when <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is present alone compared to that in the presence of DMF. The range of enzymatic activities during <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation was lower in the presence of DMF. These results show that DMF should be used with caution when <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is a substrate during laboratory or pilot biotreatability studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27679456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27679456"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) around tea processing industries using high-sulfur coals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saikia, Jyotilima; Khare, Puja; Saikia, Prasenjit; Saikia, Binoy K</p> <p>2016-09-27</p> <p>In the present investigation, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) associated with PM2.5, PM10 and dust particles emitted from two tea processing industrial units were studied that uses high-sulfur coal as their energy source. A total of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (viz. naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), acenaphthylene (Acen), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fluo), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were measured. The total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration was found to be 94.7 ng/m(3) (∑4 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the PM10 particle, 32.5 (∑12 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in PM2.5 and 1.08 ng/m(3) (∑6 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the dust sample from site A. In site B, the sum of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the PM2.5, PM10 and dust samples are found to be 154.4 ng/m(3) (∑7 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), 165 ng/m(3) (∑3 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 1.27 ng/m(3) (∑6 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), respectively. Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model study revealed the contribution of local or long-range transport of aerosol sources. Along with the coal combustion activities in the study sites, other sources such as biomass burning and vehicular emission may contribute to the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the aerosol samples.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21789533','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21789533"><span>Multivariate analysis of mixed contaminants (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and heavy metals) at manufactured gas plant site soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thavamani, Palanisami; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to provide an overview of the distribution pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and heavy metals in former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site soils. PCA is the powerful multivariate method to identify the patterns in data and expressing their similarities and differences. Ten <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (naphthalene, acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene) and four toxic heavy metals - lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and zinc (Zn) - were detected in the site soils. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination was contributed equally by both low and high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. PCA was performed using the varimax rotation method in SPSS, 17.0. Two principal components accounting for 91.7% of the total variance was retained using scree test. Principle component 1 (PC1) substantially explained the dominance of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination in the MGP site soils. All <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, except anthracene, were positively correlated in PC1. There was a common thread in high molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> loadings, where the loadings were inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and molecular weight of individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Anthracene, which was less correlated with other individual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, deviated well from the origin which can be ascribed to its lower toxicity and different origin than its isomer phenanthrene. Among the four major heavy metals studied in MGP sites, Pb, Cd and Cr were negatively correlated in PC1 but showed strong positive correlation in principle component 2 (PC2). Although metals may not have originated directly from gaswork processes, the correlation between <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and metals suggests that the materials used in these sites may have contributed to high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn. Thus, multivariate analysis helped to identify the sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, heavy metals and their association in MGP site, and thereby better characterise the site risk, which would not be possible if one uses chemical analysis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...833..163Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...833..163Y"><span>Spatial Variations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Properties in M17SW Revealed by Spitzer/IRS Spectral Mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamagishi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Onaka, T.; Nagayama, T.; Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Nishimura, A.; Matsuo, M.; Fujita, S.; Tsuda, Y.; Kohno, M.; Ohashi, S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present Spitzer/IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Brγ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST 13CO (J = 1-0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2 μm. We find that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Brγ and the molecular cloud traced by 13CO, supporting that the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer/IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> 7.7 μm/<span class="hlt">PAH</span> 11.3 μm varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> 12.0 μm, 12.7 μm, 13.5 μm, and 14.2 μm features to the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> 11.3 μm feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> near the M17 center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28372820','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28372820"><span>Air-water exchange of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and OPAHs at a superfund mega-site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tidwell, Lane G; Blair Paulik, L; Anderson, Kim A</p> <p>2017-03-31</p> <p>Chemical fate is a concern at environmentally contaminated sites, but characterizing that fate can be difficult. Identifying and quantifying the movement of chemicals at the air-water interface are important steps in characterizing chemical fate. Superfund sites are often suspected sources of air pollution due to legacy sediment and water contamination. A quantitative assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (OPAHs) diffusive flux in a river system that contains a Superfund Mega-site, and passes through residential, urban and agricultural land, has not been reported before. Here, passive sampling devices (PSDs) were used to measure 60 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) and 22 oxygenated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (OPAHs) in air and water. From these concentrations the magnitude and direction of contaminant flux between these two compartments was calculated. The magnitude of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> flux was greater at sites near or within the Superfund Mega-site than outside of the Superfund Mega-site. The largest net individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> deposition at a single site was naphthalene at a rate of -14,200 (±5780) (ng/m(2))/day. The estimated one-year total flux of phenanthrene was -7.9×10(5) (ng/m(2))/year. Human health risk associated with inhalation of vapor phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and dermal exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water were assessed by calculating benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations. Excess lifetime cancer risk estimates show potential increased risk associated with exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> at sites within and in close proximity to the Superfund Mega-site. Specifically, estimated excess lifetime cancer risk associated with dermal exposure and inhalation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was above 1 in 1 million within the Superfund Mega-site. The predominant depositional flux profile observed in this study suggests that the river water in this Superfund site is largely a sink for airborne <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, rather than a source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......362S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......362S"><span>Herstellung von Chitosan <span class="hlt">und</span> einige Anwendungen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur <span class="hlt">und</span> die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD <span class="hlt">und</span> gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD <span class="hlt">und</span> niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD <span class="hlt">und</span> Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie <span class="hlt">und</span> NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD <span class="hlt">und</span> Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC <span class="hlt">und</span> MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien <span class="hlt">und</span> Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle <span class="hlt">und</span> billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit <span class="hlt">und</span> Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...562A..22C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...562A..22C"><span>Photochemistry of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in cosmic water ice. The effect of concentration on UV-VIS spectroscopy and ionization efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cuylle, Steven H.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Linnartz, Harold</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Context. Observations and models show that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium. Like other molecules in dense clouds, <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> accrete onto interstellar dust grains, where they are embedded in an ice matrix dominated by water. In the laboratory, mixed molecular ices (not containing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) have been extensively studied using Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. Experiments including <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ices have started, however, the concentrations used are typically much higher than the concentrations expected for interstellar ices. Optical spectroscopy offers a sensitive alternative. Aims: We report an experimental study of the effect <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration has on the electronic spectra and the vacuum UV (VUV) driven processes of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in water-rich ices. The goal is to apply the outcome to cosmic ices. Methods: Optical spectroscopic studies allow us to obtain in-situ and quasi real-time electronic solid state spectra of two prototypical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (pyrene and coronene) embedded in water ice under VUV photoprocessing. The study is carried out on <span class="hlt">PAH</span>:H2O concentrations in the range of 1:30 000 to pure <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, covering the temperature range from 12 to 125 K. Results: <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration strongly influences the efficiency of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cation formation. At low concentrations, ionization efficiencies are over 60% dropping to about 15% at 1:1000. Increasing the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration reveals spectral broadening in neutral and cation <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectra attributed to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clustering inside the ice. At the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations expected for interstellar ices, some 10 to 20% may be present as cations. The presence of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in neutral and ion form will add distinctive absorption bands to cosmic ice optical spectra and this may serve as a tool to determine <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26110215"><span>Quantitative Assessment of Parametric Uncertainty in Northern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thackray, Colin P; Friedman, Carey L; Zhang, Yanxu; Selin, Noelle E</p> <p>2015-08-04</p> <p>We quantitatively examine the relative importance of uncertainty in emissions and physicochemical properties (including reaction rate constants) to Northern Hemisphere (NH) and Arctic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) concentrations, using a computationally efficient numerical uncertainty technique applied to the global-scale chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Using polynomial chaos (PC) methods, we propagate uncertainties in physicochemical properties and emissions for the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene and phenanthrene to simulated spatially resolved concentration uncertainties. We find that the leading contributors to parametric uncertainty in simulated concentrations are the black carbon-air partition coefficient and oxidation rate constant for benzo[a]pyrene, and the oxidation rate constants for phenanthrene and pyrene. NH geometric average concentrations are more sensitive to uncertainty in the atmospheric lifetime than to emissions rate. We use the PC expansions and measurement data to constrain parameter uncertainty distributions to observations. This narrows a priori parameter uncertainty distributions for phenanthrene and pyrene, and leads to higher values for OH oxidation rate constants and lower values for European PHE emission rates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20681335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20681335"><span>Batch leaching tests: Colloid release and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> leachability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bergendahl, J.</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess leaching potential of contaminants from waste, and to provide a test to classify, hazardous waste. It is a batch leaching test where a waste (such as contaminated soil) and an extraction fluid are agitated for a predetermined time. Since TCLP employs an aggressive mixing technique, it is possible that hydrophobic contaminant-laden colloidal fractions may appear as 'dissolved' constituents. In this study, TCLP was employed to determine the leachability of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination from a coal tar contaminated site. Generated colloids and the apparent aqueous concentrations of naphthalene and phenanthrene were measured at various mixing times in the extraction fluid. A mathematical model was developed that predicted the apparent aqueous contaminant concentration in the filtrate. This model accounted for the presence of colloids in the filtrate, and quantified contaminant desorption from colloids. The fraction of colloid-bound contaminant was predicted to be negligible for naphthalene. However, phenanthrene was predicted to have a significant fraction of the total contaminant in the colloidal phase, while naphthalene was primarily dissolved. The desorption model and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> desorption data are presented here to determine the extent of colloid-facilitated desorption during leaching tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474244','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474244"><span>Degradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in soil by indigenous and inoculated bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aamand, J.; Bruntse, G.; Jepsen, M.; Joergensen, C.; Jensen, B.K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>In soil heavily polluted by coal tar, the inherent mineralization of radio-labeled phenanthrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was relatively slow, and a stimulation of degradation was observed by inoculation with a mixed population of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria. A much faster inherent mineralization of phenanthrene was observed in soil slightly polluted by coal tar, and inoculation of this soil had no effect. Several phenanthrene-degrading bacteria were isolated from different soils. Two strains were further characterized as an Arthrobacter sp. and a Pseudomonas sp. In an organic medium without phenanthrene, growth rates of 0.52 h{sup {minus}1} and 0.71 h{sup {minus}1} were measured for the Arthrobacter sp. and the Pseudomonas sp., respectively. Most isolates grown in the phenanthrene-free medium, including the Arthrobacter sp., rapidly adapted to phenanthrene degradation following transfer to a phenanthrene-containing medium. In contrast, the phenanthrene-degrading capability of other strains, including the Pseudomonas sp., was lost during growth in the phenanthrene-free medium. Growth in an organic medium without phenanthrene of strains that retain the ability to degrade phenanthrene could prove to be a useful technique for production of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria on a larger scale for soil inoculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21401363','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21401363"><span>Comparative study on the growth mechanisms of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shukla, Bikau; Koshi, Mitsuo</p> <p>2011-02-15</p> <p>The efficiencies of recently proposed, phenyl addition/cyclization (PAC), methyl addition/cyclization (MAC) and a popular hydrogen abstraction/acetylene addition (HACA) mechanisms have been examined experimentally by detecting the gas phase reaction products of pyrolysis of toluene with/without addition of benzene + acetylene by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) single photon ionization (SPI) time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Besides the observation of verities of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), intense mass peaks of indene, phenylacetylene and propyne confirmed a remarkable quenching of the major active species, benzyl, phenyl and methyl radicals by acetylene. In spite of quenching, only benzyl contributed products were diminished while phenyl and methyl contributed products were enhanced. Uniquely observed symmetrical <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>; corrannulene/coronene; formed by the active involvement of PAC, HACA and/or MAC mechanisms, reflects the interdependencies of these mechanisms. Individually, PAC was found highly efficient for endless growth, HACA for filling triple fusing site and MAC for expanding cyclotetra/pentafused into benzenoid structure, respectively. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...532A.132K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011A%26A...532A.132K"><span>UV action spectroscopy of protonated <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klærke, B.; Holm, A. I. S.; Andersen, L. H.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Aims: We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods: The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3 - C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215-338 nm spectral range using the electrostatic storage ring ELISA, an electrospray ion source and 3 ns UV laser pulses. Results: It is shown that the absorption profile is both redshifted and broadened when moving the methyl group from the heterocycle containing nitrogen to the homoatomic ring. The absorption profiles are explained by TD-DFT calculations. The dissociation time of the studied molecules is found to be of several milliseconds at 230 nm and it is shown that after redistribution of the absorbed energy the molecules dissociate in several channels. The dissociation time found is an order of magnitude faster than the estimated IR relaxation time. Photophysical properties of both nitrogen containing and methyl-substituted <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are interesting in an astrophysical context in connection with identifying the aromatic component of the interstellar medium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474252','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474252"><span>Use of microbial encapsulation/immobilization for biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lin, J.E.; Lantz, S.; Mueller, J.G.; Schultz, W.W.; Pritchard, P.H.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Bioaugmentation as a strategy in bioremediation has great potential but has had little success to support its use. Problems have arisen because of a general inability to support the growth and/or activity of the introduced organism in the environment because of competition factors, poor survival of the inoculum, and grazing by protozoa. A specialized technique that has been used to overcome these problems is cell immobilization or encapsulation, in which the inoculant can be placed in environmental media in a way that reduces competition from the indigenous microflora and allows expression of the specific introduced metabolic function. Packaging of specific bacterial or fungal cells in a porous polymeric material potentially improves storage of inocula, and enhances the capability of directly introducing viable and active cells into environmental material at some future time without the need to regrow the cells. The authors have been experimenting with encapsulation;immobilization procedures for use in the bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>)-contaminated soil. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the potential usefulness of polyurethane foam and vermiculite for this purpose and show that optimal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation can be maintained with immobilized cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7273339"><span>Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and DNA binding of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in feral eel (Anguilla anguilla) exposed to polluted sediments: A field survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Oost, R. Van Der; Heida, H.; Satumalay, K. ); Schooten, F.J. Van . Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology); Ariese, F.; Vermeulen, N.P.E. )</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>Samples of sediment and eel taken from six sites in Amsterdam with different levels of water pollution were analyzed for 16 parental <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. In addition, biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites and hepatic <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adducts were determined in the eel to evaluate biomonitoring techniques for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. There was a clear difference between <span class="hlt">PAH</span> profiles in sediments and eel. Mainly two- and three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were detected in eel, whereas four-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> predominated in the sediments. Because <span class="hlt">PAH</span> bioaccumulation was highest in eel from the reference sites, tissue levels of the parental <span class="hlt">PAH</span> are probably not the most accurate monitor of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure in fish. An elevated excretion of 1-OH pyrene (determined by synchronous scan fluorescence) was observed in the bile of fish from three of the four polluted sites, indicating that this parameter may be used as a biomarker for <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. A significant increase in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-DNA adduct levels was observed in the liver of eel from all polluted sites. Therefore, this parameter seems to be a sensitive biomarker for exposure to mutagenic and carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744908"><span><span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearance after renal ischemia and reperfusion is a function of impaired expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para-aminohippurate (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigated this phenomenon in a rat model of renal ischemia and reperfusion by determining <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearance, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> net secretion, and the expression of rOat1 and rOat3. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction was seriously impaired after ischemia and reperfusion which led to a threefold underestimation of RPF when <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction ratio was not considered. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction directly correlated with the expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3. Tubular <span class="hlt">PAH</span> secretion directly correlated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction. Consequently, our data offer an explanation for impaired renal <span class="hlt">PAH</span> extraction by reduced expression of the rate limiting basolateral organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Moreover, we show that determination of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> net secretion is suitable to correct <span class="hlt">PAH</span> clearance for impaired extraction after ischemia and reperfusion in order to get valid results for RPF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1293R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995P%26SS...43.1293R"><span>Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> species in the gas phase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Robinson, Michael S.; Beegle, Luther W.; Wdowiak, Thomas J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>At elevated temperatures, the structured CH stretch absorption occurring at room temperature of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) molecules encapsulated in KBr coalesces to a single peak whose wavelength is a very close match for that of the observed 3.3 μm unidentified infrared band (UIR) emission feature (Flickinger and Wdowiak. Astrophys. J.362, L71-L74. 1990). The temperature of approximately 800 K is significant because a <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule in the interstellar radiation field, upon absorption of an ultraviolet photon, is expected to be excited to an energy equivalent to temperatures of this order (Sellgren, Astrophys. J.277, 623 1984). Our previous study of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecules in the vapor phase at 600-800 K showed that the C-H stretch <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature near 3.3 μm is at a shorter wavelength than in the condensed state (Flickinger et al., Astrophys. J.380, L43-L46, 1991). Recent work by Joblin et al. ( 1st Symp. on the Infrared Cirrus and Diffuse Interstellar Clouds. 1994) in a short path length diamond cell indicates the gas phase wavelength of the 3.3 μm region C-H stretch feature of naphthalene is directly proportional to temperature over a large temperature range. Laser-excited IR fluorescence studies have also suggested that the wavelength is sensitive to laser photon energy in a direct relationship (Williams and Leone, The Diffuse Interstellar Bands Conf., 1994). Comprehensive studies of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> thermally excited up to the decomposition temperature are therefore important to carry out. We have utilized a long-path-length optical heat pipe to confirm that the wavelength of the peak of the C-H stretch band of naphthalene vapor obeys a direct relationship with temperature as reported by Joblin, and to demonstrate that this feature undergoes a strengthening with respect to the longer wavelength band due to an out-of-plane deformation (782 cm -1) as temperature increases. The shift from 3067.6 to 3063.7 cm -1 over the temperature range of 316-996 K seems to be linear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2753067','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2753067"><span>Influence of Vegetation on the In Situ Bacterial Community and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) Degraders in Aged <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-Contaminated or Thermal-Desorption-Treated Soil▿ †</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Faure, Pierre; Norini, Marie-Paule; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Leyval, Corinne</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination, bacterial community, and <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading bacteria were monitored in aged <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated soil (Neuves-Maisons [NM] soil; with a mean of 1,915 mg of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>·kg−1 of soil dry weight) and in the same soil previously treated by thermal desorption (TD soil; with a mean of 106 mg of 16 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>·kg−1 of soil dry weight). This study was conducted in situ for 2 years using experimental plots of the two soils. NM soil was colonized by spontaneous vegetation (NM-SV), planted with Medicago sativa (NM-Ms), or left as bare soil (NM-BS), and the TD soil was planted with Medicago sativa (TD-Ms). The bacterial community density, structure, and diversity were estimated by real-time PCR quantification of the 16S rRNA gene copy number, temporal thermal gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting, and band sequencing, respectively. The density of the bacterial community increased the first year during stabilization of the system and stayed constant in the NM soil, while it continued to increase in the TD soil during the second year. The bacterial community structure diverged among all the plot types after 2 years on site. In the NM-BS plots, the bacterial community was represented mainly by Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The presence of vegetation (NM-SV and NM-Ms) in the NM soil favored the development of a wider range of bacterial phyla (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi) that, for the most part, were not closely related to known bacterial representatives. Moreover, under the influence of the same plant, the bacterial community that developed in the TD-Ms was represented by different bacterial species (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria) than that in the NM-Ms. During the 2 years of monitoring, the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration did not evolve significantly. The abundance of gram-negative (GN</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088919&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040088919&hterms=PAH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPAH"><span>Interstellar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emission in the 11-14 micron region: new insights from laboratory data and a tracer of ionized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Ames infrared spectral database of isolated, neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHS</span>) shows that aromatic CH out-of-plane bending frequencies are significantly shifted upon ionization. For solo- and duet-CH groups, the shift is pronounced and consistently toward higher frequencies. The solo-CH modes are blueshifted by an average of 27 cm-1 and the duet-CH modes by an average of 17 cm-1. For trio- and quartet-CH groups, the ionization shifts of the out-of-plane modes are more erratic and typically more modest. As a result of these ionization shifts, the solo-CH out-of-plane modes move out of the region classically associated with these vibrations in neutral <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>, falling instead at frequencies well above those normally attributed to out-of-plane bending, vibrations of any type. In addition, for the compact <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> studied, the duet-CH out-of-plane modes are shifted into the frequency range traditionally associated with the solo-CH modes. These results refine our understanding of the origin of the dominant interstellar infrared emission feature near 11.2 microns, whose envelope has traditionally been attributed only to the out-of-plane bending of solo-CH groups on <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>, and provide a natural explanation for the puzzling emission feature near 11.0 microns within the framework of the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> model. Specifically, the prevalent but variable long-wavelength wing or shoulder that is often observed near 11.4 microns likely reflects the contributions of duet-CH units in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations. Also, these results indicate that the emission between 926 and 904 cm-1 (10.8 and 11.1 microns) observed in many sources can be unambiguously attributed to the out-of-plane wagging, of solo-CH units in moderately sized (fewer than 50 carbon atom) <span class="hlt">PAH</span> cations, making this emission an unequivocal tracer of ionized interstellar <span class="hlt">PAHS</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74952&keyword=Manhattan+AND+project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736783&CFTOKEN=42345569','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=74952&keyword=Manhattan+AND+project&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736783&CFTOKEN=42345569"><span>MEASURING AIRBORNE <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> FROM THE NEW YORK WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous in ambient air, are suspected human carcinogens, and have been linked to genotoxic and mutagenic effects. Although there are no specific monitoring programs for <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in ambient air in the United States, there is a national...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485234','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485234"><span>Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from industrial sludges in the ambient air conditions: automotive industry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karaca, Gizem; Tasdemir, Yucel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) existed in automotive industry treatment sludge was examined by considering the effects of temperature, UV, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and diethyl amine (DEA) in different dosages (i.e., 5% and 20%) in this study. Application of TiO2 and DEA to the sludge samples in ambient environment was studied. Ten <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (Σ10 <span class="hlt">PAH</span>) compounds were targeted and their average value in the sludge was found to be 4480 ± 1450 ng/g dry matter (DM). Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content of the sludge was reduced by 25% in the ambient air environment. Meteorological conditions, atmospheric deposition, evaporation and sunlight irradiation played an effective role in the variations in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> levels during the tests carried out in ambient air environment. Moreover, it was observed that when the ring numbers of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> increased, their removal rates also increased. Total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> level did not change with the addition of 5% DEA and only 10% decreased with 5% TiO2 addition. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal ratios were 8% and 32% when DEA (20%) and TiO2 (20%) were added, respectively. It was concluded that DEA was a weak photo-sensitizer yet TiO2 was effective only at 20% dosage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375290','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21375290"><span>Effect of a nonionic surfactant on biodegradation of slowly desorbing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in contaminated soils.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno-Montes, Marisa; Springael, Dirk; Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>The influence of the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 on biodegradation of slowly desorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) was determined in contaminated soils. We employed a soil originated from a creosote-polluted site, and a manufactured gas plant soil that had been treated by bioremediation. The two soils differed in their total content in five indicator 3-, 4-, and 5-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (2923 mg kg(-1) and 183 mg kg(-1) in the creosote-polluted and bioremediated soils, respectively) but had a similar content (140 mg kg(-1) vs 156 mg kg(-1)) of slowly desorbing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present in the bioremediated soil were highly recalcitrant. The surfactant at a concentration above its critical micelle concentration enhanced the biodegradation of slowly desorbing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in suspensions of both soils, but it was especially efficient with bioremediated soil, causing a 62% loss of the total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> content. An inhibition of biodegradation was observed with the high-molecular-weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in the untreated soil, possibly due to competition effects with other solubilized <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> present at relatively high concentrations. We suggest that nonionic surfactants may improve bioremediation performance with soils that have previously undergone extensive bioremediation to enrich for a slowly desorbing profile.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24292847"><span>Source apportionment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> using Unmix model for Yantai costal surface sediments, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lang, Yin-Hai; Yang, Wei</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>16 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in 20 surface sediments from Yantai offshore area were measured. The total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations varied from 450.0 to 4,299.0 ng/g, with a mean of 2,492.9 ng/g. The high molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were most abundant and the ratio ranged from 54.9 % to 81.6 % in all sampling stations, indicating that pyrogenic sources were a predominant contribution to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> pollution. The source contributions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were estimated based on the EPA Unmix 6.0 receptor model. The data were well simulated due to a high correlation coefficient between predicted and measured <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration (R(2) = 0.99). A mixed source of coal combustion and traffic pollution contributed to 38.9 % of the measured <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, followed by diesel emission (38.8 %) and a mixed source of biomass combustion and gasoline engine emissions (22.3 %). The current findings further validated that Unmix model could be applied to apportion the sources of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910005624"><span>The effect of ionization on the infrared absorption spectra of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: A preliminary report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Defrees, Doug J.; Miller, M. D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The emission lines observed in many interstellar IR sources at 3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7, and 11.3 microns are theorized to originate from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>). These assignments are based on analyses of lab IR spectra of neutral <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. However, it is likely that in the interstellar medium that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are ionized, i.e., are positively charged. Besides, as pointed out by Allamandola et al., although the IR emission band spectrum resembles what one might expect from a mixture of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, it does not match in details such as frequency, band profile, or relative intensities predicted from the absorption spectra of any known <span class="hlt">PAH</span> molecule. One source of more information to test the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> theory is ab initio molecular orbital theory. It can be used to compute, from first principles, the geometries, vibrational frequencies, and vibrational intensities for model <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds which are difficult to study in the lab. The Gaussian 86 computer program was used to determine the effect of ionization on the infrared absorption spectra of several small <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>: naphthalene and anthracene. A preliminary report is presented of the results of these calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=97732&keyword=Biotechnology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78690323&CFTOKEN=25905816','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=97732&keyword=Biotechnology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78690323&CFTOKEN=25905816"><span>MANAGEMENT OF <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-IMPACTED SITES VIA IN SITU CHEMICAL CONTAINMENT AND MONITORING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>On a world-wide basis the magnitude of environmental contamination problems involving polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) is unmatched by any other group of organic chemicals. Despite the recognized limitations to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation (e.g., intrinsic chemical stability of the h...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmRe.118..271H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AtmRe.118..271H"><span>Seasonal variation and source apportionment of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in TSP in the atmosphere of Guiyang, Southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, J.; Liu, C. Q.; Zhang, G. P.; Zhang, Y. L.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected during January to December in 2005 at urban and rural sites in Guiyang, and were analyzed for 14 particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (P-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The total concentration of the P-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 6.0-29.1 ng/m3 at monitoring sites, and 1.2-84.8 ng/m3 in and around Guiyang. P-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration in samples collected from Guiyang possesses distinct seasonal variation with a higher concentration in winter and lower concentration in summer. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with 5-ring were found to have the most distinct seasonal variation among other target <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Correlations between the TSP concentration, ambient temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), and the P-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentrations were evaluated. It was found that the TSP had significant influence on the P-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration with correlation coefficients of 0.69 (P < 0.01, n = 180). In addition, the P-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span> concentration showed negative correlation with RH (r = - 0.28, P < 0.01, n = 180), and a moderate negative correlation with T (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05 n = 180). Diagnostic ratios and Principal Component Analysis suggest that the main pollution sources identified were coal combustion emission (52.5%), traffic gasoline (21.4%) and other miscellaneous sources (14.2%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24027979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24027979"><span>[Emission factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in residential coal combustion and its influence factors].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hai, Ting-Ting; Chen, Ying-Jun; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Lin, Tian</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>As the emission source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), domestic coal combustion has attracted increasing attention in China. According to the coal maturity, combustion form and stove type associated with domestic coal combustion, a large-size, full-flow dilution tunnel and fractional sampling system was employed to collect the emissions from five coals with various maturities, which were burned in the form of raw-coal-chunk (RCC)/honeycomb-coal-briquettes (HCB) in different residential stoves, and then the emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (EF(<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>)) were achieved. The results indicate that the EF(<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) of bituminous coal ranged from 1.1 mg x kg(-1) to 3.9 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 2.5 mg x kg(-1) to 21. 1 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, and the anthracite EF(<span class="hlt">PAH</span>8) were 0.2 mg x kg(-1) for RCC and 0.6 mg x kg(-1) for HCB, respectively. Among all the influence factors of emission factors of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from domestic coal combustion, the maturity of coal played a major role, the range of variance reaching 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in coals with different maturity. Followed by the form of combustion (RCC/HCB), the EF(<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) of HCB was 2-6 times higher than that of RCC for the same geological maturity of the coal. The type of stove had little influence on EF(<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381356','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27381356"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> uptake by selected Monocotyledones and Dicotyledones from municipal and industrial sewage sludge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gworek, Barbara; Klimczak, Katarzyna; Kijeńska, Marta; Gozdowski, Dariusz</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The study was focused on two goals: (i) the confirmation of the existence of a general relation between the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in sewage sludge and in plants growing in it, regardless of the type and content of sewage sludge, and (ii) if so, the answer to the question whether the uptake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by plants depends on their type. To realize the set aims, the contents of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in four differentiated plant species were measured, two belonging to the Monocotyledones and two belonging to Dicotyledones group, growing in municipal and industrial sewage sludge in two locations. All the investigations were carried out during the period of 3 years. The results clearly demonstrated that the uptake of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> by a plant depended on polyaromatic hydrocarbon concentration in the sewage sludge. The relation between accumulation coefficient of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in plant material vs. the content of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in sewage sludge was of exponential character. The results indicate that in case of four- and five-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, the root uptake mechanism from soil solution occurs, regardless of the type and origin of sewage sludge and the type of plant. For three-ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, we can assume for Monocotyledones that the root uptake mechanism occurs because we observe a significant correlation between the content of fluorene, phenanthrene, and anthracene in plant material and in the sewage sludge. For Dicotyledones, the correlation is insignificant, and in this case probably two mechanisms occur-the uptake by roots and by leaves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20063893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20063893"><span>Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to settled house dust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mahler, Barbara J; Metre, Peter C Van; Wilson, Jennifer T; Musgrove, Marylynn; Burbank, Teresa L; Ennis, Thomas E; Bashara, Thomas J</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, we measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 microg/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 microg/g, n = 12]). T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 microg/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 microg/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24952456','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24952456"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in the mariculture zones of China's northern Yellow Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zong, Humin; Ma, Xindong; Na, Guangshui; Huo, Chuanlin; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Zhifeng</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations ranged from 110.8 ng/L to 997.2 ng/L and 142.2 ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2 ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding <span class="hlt">PAH</span> behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediment indicated that the source of the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> ranged from 7 ng TEQ/gdw to 92 ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819521','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19819521"><span>Paleolimnological evidence of variations in deposition of atmosphere-borne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in Ireland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Dwyer, B; Taylor, D</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous in the environment and are produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, principally from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. Levels of emissions of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased rapidly over the last ca. 200 years. As <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> have detrimental environmental and human health impacts, assessing spatial and temporal variations in environmental loadings has become a pressing issue in many industrialised and industrializing countries. The current paper reports spatial and temporal variations in levels of atmospheric deposition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> recorded in sediment cores from three lakes in Ireland, the locations of which were selected on the basis of known geographic differences in the deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Thirteen <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds were analysed for in samples of lake sediment that were assumed to represent contemporary/recent and historical (possibly reference) levels of deposition. A third sample was selected from each core on the basis of measured levels of spheroidal carbonaceous particles, which are regarded as a direct indicator of depositions from the industrial-level combustion of fossil fuels. Chronological control was provided by the (210)Pb dating technique which also allowed for the calculation of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> flux. For the most part, and when compared with the limited published data, measured levels of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> depositions were relatively low. However, levels of deposition of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the west of Ireland are higher now than previously, which is in contrast to a general trend of decreasing levels in Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281056','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281056"><span>Estimation of decrease in cancer risk by biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> content from an urban traffic soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok</p> <p>2017-03-09</p> <p>The role of preferential biodegradation in the reduction of cancer risk caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) has been studied. A consortium of microorganisms isolated from aged oil refinery exposed soil was used to degrade 13 <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> content extracted from an urban traffic site soil. The biodegradation arranged in a batch process with a mineral salt broth, where <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were the sole carbon source. 70.46% biodegradation of the total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> occurred in an incubation period of 25 days. Sequential or preferential biodegradation took place as the lower molecular weight (LMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were more prone to biodegradation than that of the higher molecular weight (HMW) <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Microorganisms from the isolated consortia preferred the simpler carbon sources first. The relatively higher carcinogenicity of the HMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> than that of the LMW <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> leads to only 40.26% decrement in cancer risk. Initial cancer risk for children was 1.60E-05, which was decreased to 9.47E-06, whereas, for the adults, the risk decreased to 1.01E-05 from an initial value of 1.71E-05. The relative skin adherence factor for soil (AF) turned out to be the most influential parameter with 54.2% contributions to variance in total cancer risk followed by the exposure duration (ED) for children. For the adults, most contributions to the variance in total cancer risk were 58.5% by ED and followed by AF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033899','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033899"><span>Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> to settled house dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, we measured <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> (T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span> in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-<span class="hlt">PAH</span>. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61286&keyword=love&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78762204&CFTOKEN=32797825','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61286&keyword=love&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78762204&CFTOKEN=32797825"><span>BILIARY <span class="hlt">PAH</span> METABOLITES AS A BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR OF FISH EXPOSURE IN TRIBUTARIES OF LAKE ERIE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) metabolites have been studied as a biological indicator of fish exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> since the mid 1980's. Brown bullheads were collected from the following Lake Erie tributaries: Buffalo River (BUF), Niagara River at Love Canal (NIA)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191650&keyword=stainless+AND+steel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78693619&CFTOKEN=46316167','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191650&keyword=stainless+AND+steel&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78693619&CFTOKEN=46316167"><span>Measurement of gaseous <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with an innovative passive sampler in community exposure studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A sensitive, simple, and cost-effective passive sampling methodology was developed to quantify gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in personal, indoor and outdoor air. A Fan-Lioy passive <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sampler (FL-PPS) is constructed from four 80 sections of 1 cm long SPB-5 GC c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3010/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3010/"><span>Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), and environmental health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18501954','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18501954"><span>VOCs and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emissions from creosote-treated wood in a field storage area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallego, E; Roca, F J; Perales, J F; Guardino, X; Berenguer, M J</p> <p>2008-08-25</p> <p>In this study, the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, in this case aromatic hydrocarbons containing one benzene ring and furans) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) from wood recently treated with creosote are examined. The VOCs and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were identified and quantified in the gas phase. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were quantified in the particulate phase. Glass multi-sorbent tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack X, Carboxen-569) were used to hold the VOCs. The analysis was performed using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> vapours were collected on XAD-2 resin, and particulate matter was collected on glass fibre filters. The <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were analysed using GC/MS. The main components of the vapours released from the creosote-treated wood were naphthalene, toluene, m+p-xylene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, isopropylbenzene, benzene and 2-methylnaphthalene. VOCs emission concentrations ranged from 35 mg m(-3) of air on the day of treatment to 5 mg m(-3) eight days later. <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> emission concentrations ranged from 28 microg m(-3) of air on the day of treatment to 4 microg m(-3) eight days later. The air concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in particulate matter were composed predominantly of benzo[b+j]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene and 1-methylnaphthalene. The emission concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons varied between 0.2 and 43.5 ng m(-3). Finally, the emission factors of VOCs and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28208113"><span>Ranking the factors influencing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) build-up on urban roads.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, An; Ma, Yukun; Deilami, Kaveh; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>An in-depth understanding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) build-up on urban roads is essential for effective stormwater treatment design. Past research studies have pointed out the relationship between influential factors and <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> build-up individually. However, these studies do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationships and the hierarchy of factors in terms of their importance in influencing <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> build-up. This paper presents the outcomes of an in-depth investigation into the range of influential factors, including traffic volume, land use, distance to highway and roughness of road surfaces by ranking them in terms of their influence on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> build-up. A number of data analysis techniques including forward stepwise linear regression (FSWLR), principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were employed for the analyses undertaken. The outcomes confirmed that traffic volume is ranked first while land use and roughness of road surfaces are second and the third, respectively. Distance to highway did not show a significant influence on <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> build-up. Additionally, it was noted that a high traffic volume tended to produce high loads of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> with more than 4 rings and the spatial variability of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> build-up were relatively higher in high traffic volume areas. These outcomes contributed to the formulation of a robust stormwater treatment strategy and generation of priority area maps focusing on the removal of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028195','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028195"><span>Biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites and the hepatosomatic index of brown bullheads from Lake Erie tributaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Baumann, P.C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In studies designed to investigate the environmental exposure of fish in Lake Erie tributaries, a benthic fish, the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), was collected from the industrially contaminated Detroit River, Ottawa River, Black River, Cuyahoga River-harbor and -upstream, Ashtabula River, Buffalo River, and Niagara River, and the non-industrialized Old Woman Creek during 1997-2000. Biliary benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)- and naphthalene (NAPH)-type metabolites and the hepatosomatic index (HSI) were measured in fish and compared between different sites. Fish from all of the contaminated sites except Niagara River had significantly higher concentrations of both types of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) metabolites than fish from the Old Woman Creek. Concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites in bile of fish were positively associated with concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments, supporting the use of bile metabolites as a measure of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure. Relatively low concentrations of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> detected in fish bile and sediments of the Niagara River, which had undergone extensive remediation, suggested a lowered <span class="hlt">PAH</span> exposure for fish at this site. No apparent trend was observed in HSI between the industrialized and non-industrialized sites. This study demonstrates that biliary <span class="hlt">PAH</span> metabolites are an effective indicator of exposure of fish to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. However, because factors other than contamination could also affect the liver size of wild fish, HSI alone may be not a reliable biomarker for assessing contaminant stress. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27883232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27883232"><span>Primary sources and toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Milwaukee-area streambed sediment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Lutz, Michelle A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca; Magruder, Christopher; Magruder, Matthew</p> <p>2016-11-24</p> <p>High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in streams can be a significant stressor to aquatic organisms. To understand the likely sources and toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Milwaukee-area streams, streambed sediment samples from 40 sites and parking lot dust samples from 6 sites were analyzed for 38 parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and 25 alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Diagnostic ratios, profile correlations, principal components analysis, source-receptor modeling, and mass fractions analysis were used to identify potential <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources to streambed sediment samples, and land-use analysis was used to relate streambed sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations to different urban-related land uses. On the basis of this multiple lines-of-evidence approach, coal-tar pavement sealant was indicated as the primary source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a majority of streambed sediment samples, contributing an estimated 77% of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to samples, on average. Comparison with the probable effect concentrations and (or) the equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark indicates that 78% of stream sediment samples are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. Laboratory toxicity tests on a 16-sample subset of the streambed sites using the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d) measured significant reductions in 1 or more biological endpoints, including survival, in 75% of samples, with H. azteca more responsive than C. dilutus. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-14. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304636','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18304636"><span>In situ biomonitoring of <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediments using juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barbee, Gary C; Barich, John; Duncan, Bruce; Bickham, John W; Matson, Cole W; Hintze, Christopher J; Autenrieth, Robin L; Zhou, Guo-Dong; McDonald, Thomas J; Cizmas, Leslie; Norton, Dale; Donnelly, Kirby C</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous marine and freshwater sediment contaminants. Extensive data exist to confirm that <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> are toxic to aquatic receptors. However, limited information is available regarding the bioavailability and genotoxicity of sediment <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to aquatic organisms. This study investigated an integrated biomonitoring approach using chemical analyses and biomarkers to characterize the bioavailability and genotoxicity of a complex <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixture in freshwater lake sediments associated with a former manufactured gas plant (MGP). Sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> genotoxicity was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM), DNA adduct (32)P-postlabeling, and erythrocyte micronuclei in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) caged in the water column. Significant <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-induced genotoxicity was observed with FCM and (32)P-postlabeling, but not with erythrocyte micronuclei. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood and hepatic DNA adducts correlated with sediment, but not water column <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations. Total hepatic DNA adducts in salmon caged nearest the former MGP facility was 39+/-6.5 (RALx10(9)), while salmon caged in a reference lake had 28+/-2.3 total hepatic DNA adducts per 10(9) nucleotides. These results indicate that in situ biomonitoring using biomarkers and caged fish can be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19107389"><span>Monitoring nutrient impact on bacterial community composition during bioremediation of anoxic <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Myungsu; Bae, Seung Seob; Seol, Mijin; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Young-Sook</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Marine harbor sediments are frequently polluted with significant amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) some of which are naturally toxic, recalcitrant, mutagenic, and carcinogenic. To stimulate biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediments collected from near Gwangyang Bay, Korea, lactate was chosen as a supplementary carbonaceous substrate. Sediment packed into 600 ml air-tight jar was either under no treatment condition or lactate amended condition (1%, w/v). Microbial community composition was monitored by bacteria-specific and archaea-specific PCR-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), in addition to measuring the residual <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration. Results showed that lactate amendment enhanced biodegradation rate of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in the sediment by 4 to 8 times, and caused a significant shift in archaebacterial community in terms of structure and diversity with time. Phylogenetic analysis of 23 archaeal clones with distinctive RFLP patterns among 288 archaeal clones indicated that majority of the archaeal members were closest to unculturable environmental rDNA clones from hydrocarbon-contaminated and/or methanogenesis-bearing sediments. Lactate amendment led to the enrichment of some clones that were most closely related to <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-degrading Methanosarcina species. These results suggest a possible contribution of methanogenic community to <span class="hlt">PAH</span> degradation and give us more insights on how to effectively remediate <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-contaminated sediments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995556"><span>Investigation of the release of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from artificially contaminated sediments using cyclolipopeptidic biosurfactants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Portet-Koltalo, F; Ammami, M T; Benamar, A; Wang, H; Le Derf, F; Duclairoir-Poc, C</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) can be preponderant in contaminated sediments and understanding how they are sorbed in the different mineral and organic fractions of the sediment is critical for effective removal strategies. For this purpose, a mixture of seven <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was studied at the sediment/water interface and sorption isotherms were obtained. The influence of various factors on the sorption behavior of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was evaluated, such as the nature of minerals, pH, ionic strength and amount of organic matter. Afterwards, the release of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from the sediment by surfactants was investigated. The effectiveness of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was compared to natural biosurfactants, of cyclolipopeptidic type (amphisin and viscosin-like mixture), produced by two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. The desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (from naphthalene to pyrene), from the highly retentive kaolinite fraction, could be favored by adding SDS or amphisin, but viscosin-like biosurfactants were only effective for 2-3 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> desorption (naphthalene to phenanthrene). Moreover, while SDS favors the release of all the target <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from a model sediment containing organic matter, the two biosurfactants tested were only effective to desorb the lowest molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (naphthalene to fluorene).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/947953','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/947953"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> Biodegradation and Desorption Kinetics During Bioremediation of Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.</p> <p>2000-09-20</p> <p>It is commonly assumed that mass-transfer limitations are the cause for slow and incomplete biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in aged soils. In order to test this hypothesis, the biodegradation rate and the abiotic release rate were measured and compared for selected <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in three different soils. It was found that <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation was not mass-transfer limited during slurry bioremediation of an aged loamy soil. By contrast, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation rates were much larger than abiotic release rates in kaolinite clay indicating that sorbed-phase <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can apparently be biodegraded directly from mineral surfaces without prior desorption or dissolution into the aqueous phase. A comparison of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> biodegradation rates and abiotic release rates at termination of the slurry bioremediation treatment revealed that abiotic release rates are much larger than the respective biodegradation rates. In addition, it was found that the number of hydrocarbon degraders decreased by four orders of magnitude during the bioremediation treatment. It can therefore be concluded that the slow and incomplete biodegradation of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> is not caused by mass-transfer limitations but rather by microbial factors. Consequently, the residual <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> that remain after extensive bioremediation treatment are still bioavailable and for that reason could pose a greater risk to environmental receptors than previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261761','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261761"><span>Using chemical desorption of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> from sediment to model biodegradation during bioavailability assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spasojević, Jelena M; Maletić, Snežana P; Rončević, Srđan D; Radnović, Dragan V; Cučak, Dragana I; Tričković, Jelena S; Dalmacija, Božo D</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This work compares the biodegradation potential of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) (phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene, chosen as representatives of the 3, 4 and 5 ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) with their desorption from sediment by XAD4 resin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD). The biodegradation study was conducted under various conditions (biostimulation, bioaugmentation and their combination). The results show that total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> removal in all treatments except biostimulation gave similar results, whereby the total amount of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was decreased by about 30-35%. The desorption experiment showed that XAD4 desorbed a greater fraction of phenanthrene (77% versus 52%), and benzo(a)pyrene (44% versus 25%) than MCD. The results for four ring <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were similar for both desorption agents (about 30%). Comparing the maximum biodegraded amount of each <span class="hlt">PAH</span> with the rapidly desorbed XAD4 and MCD fraction, XAD4 was found to correlate better with biodegradation for the high molecular <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene), although it overestimated the availability of phenanthrene. In contrast, MCD showed better correlation with the biodegradation of low molecular weight <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26347445','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26347445"><span>Remarkably constant <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations in Swiss soils over the last 30 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gubler, Andreas; Wächter, Daniel; Blum, Franziska; Bucheli, Thomas D</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) are of concern due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and their ubiquitous occurrence in environmental compartments, only few studies assessed the temporal evolutions of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contents of soils over extended time periods. The Swiss Soil Monitoring Network NABO runs long-term monitoring sites resampled every five years since the 1980s. In the present study, soil (0-20 cm) samples collected from 1985 through 2013 at 25 selected monitoring sites were analysed for the 16 priority <span class="hlt">PAH</span> according to the U.S. EPA and five <span class="hlt">PAH</span> marker substances. We observed divergent trends for light <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, such as naphthalene and phenanthrene, compared with heavy <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, such as benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[ghi]perylene. Whereas the former showed decreasing concentrations since the late 1980s, no significant trends were found for the latter. Furthermore, the analyses showed that naphthalene contents decreased most strongly at rural sites featuring low population densities, while phenanthrene contents generally decreased most strongly at semi-rural sites. The deviating evolutions of light and heavy <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were mainly attributed to their differing physico-chemical properties. Temporal evolutions in soils contradict emission inventory data suggesting <span class="hlt">PAH</span> emissions to decline since the 1980s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25312776"><span>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAH</span>) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more <span class="hlt">PAH</span> than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span>, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring <span class="hlt">PAH</span> dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24183652','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24183652"><span>Marine sponges as bioindicators of oil and combustion derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in coastal waters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Batista, Daniela; Tellini, Karla; Nudi, Adriana H; Massone, Thaís P; Scofield, Arthur de L; Wagener, Angela de L R</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The present study evaluates the potential of Hymeniacidon heliophila as bioindicator of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> contamination. For this, concentration of 33 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> was determined in organisms from sites with different contamination level including the heavily polluted Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, and less impacted coastal areas. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration and typology were determined in sponges collected from different depths and in two different seasons. The brown mussel broadly studied as bioindicator was also sampled from the same sites for comparison. Both species provided similar information on total <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration which is related to site contamination level. Sponges, however, revealed slight tendency to accumulation of combustion-derived <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in relation to petrogenic compounds. Differences in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> typology between species may derive from the interspecific variation in particle size ingestion. Different hydrocarbon typologies were observed in sponges from dry and wet season and <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentration varied with depth. H. heliophila may be used as an alternative approach to investigate the presence and sources of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> in estuarine areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24215941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24215941"><span>Coal-tar-based sealcoated pavement: a major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source to urban stream sediments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Witter, Amy E; Nguyen, Minh H; Baidar, Sunil; Sak, Peter B</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>We used land-use analysis, <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations and assemblages, and multivariate statistics to identify sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources in a small (~1303 km(2)) urbanizing watershed located in South-Central, Pennsylvania, USA. A geographic information system (GIS) was employed to quantify land-use features that may serve as <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. Urban <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations were three times higher than rural levels, and were significantly and highly correlated with combined residential/commercial/industrial land use. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to group sediments with similar <span class="hlt">PAH</span> assemblages, and correlation analysis compared <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sediment assemblages to common <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources. The strongest correlations were observed between rural sediments (n = 7) and coke-oven emissions sources (r = 0.69-0.78, n = 5), and between urban sediments (n = 22) and coal-tar-based sealcoat dust (r = 0.94, n = 47) suggesting that coal-tar-based sealcoat is an important urban <span class="hlt">PAH</span> source in this watershed linked to residential and commercial/industrial land use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2734299','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2734299"><span>Nonadditive effects of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> on Early Vertebrate Development: mechanisms and implications for risk assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Billiard, Sonya M.; Meyer, Joel N.; Wassenberg, Deena M.; Hodson, Peter V.; Di Giulio, Richard T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Traditionally, much of the research has focused on the carcinogenic potential of specific <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>, such as benzo(a)pyrene, but recent studies using sensitive fish models have shown that exposure to <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> alters normal fish development. Some <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> can induce a teratogenic phenotype similar to that caused by planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, such as dioxin. Consequently, mechanism of action is often equated between the two classes of compounds. Unlike dioxins, however, the developmental toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> mixtures is not necessarily additive. This is likely related to their multiple mechanisms of toxicity and their rapid biotransformation by CYP1 enzymes to metabolites with a wide array of structures and potential toxicities. This has important implications for risk assessment and management as the current approach for complex mixtures of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> usually assumes concentration addition. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of teratogenicity caused by single <span class="hlt">PAH</span> compounds and by mixtures and the importance of these latest findings for adequately assessing risk of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to humans and wildlife. Throughout, we place particular emphasis on research on the early life stages of fish, which has proven to be a sensitive and rapid developmental model to elucidate effects of hydrocarbon mixtures. PMID:18156145</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17633653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17633653"><span>[Concentration and distribution of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in vegetables grown near an iron and steel industrial area].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Fei; Zhu, Li-Zhong</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Concentrations of 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were determined in 8 vegetable species and their growing environment (soil and atmosphere) near an iron and steel industrial area. The total concentrations of 15 kinds of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were 227.1 - 1 533.2 ng/g, 759.1 ng/g in average. The concentrations of 8 carcinogenic <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (sigma care<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) were 7.1 - 231.2 ng/g, 70.6 ng/g in average. Of the various vegetable species determined, the highest polyaromatic burden was observed in the leafy vegetables, followed by melon and fruit species, while the rhizome species accumulated the lowest amount. In melon and fruit species, most <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> were accumulated on the peel, only about 30% transfer into the core. The ability of the plant accumulating <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> was mainly influenced by the lipid content of the plant. Leaf with pubescence or rough surface was found to have higher sigma <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> than the other, and the fibre higher than the taproot, when the lipid contents were close.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24793324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24793324"><span>Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) on photosynthetic performance are not related to their aromaticity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jajoo, Anjana; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Tomar, Rupal Singh; Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) are very toxic and highly persistent environmental pollutants which accumulate in soil and affect growth of the plants adversely. This study aims to investigate inhibitory effects of 3 major <span class="hlt">PAH</span> particularly on photosynthetic processes in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in soil treated with <span class="hlt">PAH</span>. The 3 <span class="hlt">PAH</span> chosen differ from each other in aromaticity (number of rings) comprising their structure (2 rings: naphthalene, 3 rings: anthracene and 4 rings: pyrene). Several growth parameters and Chlorophyll a fluorescence was monitored in <span class="hlt">PAH</span> treated plants. BN-PAGe analysis was done in order to get information about change in the protein conformation. <span class="hlt">PAH</span> treatment led to increased value of Fo which collaborated with increase in the amount of free LHC as seen through BN-Page analysis. Thus <span class="hlt">PAH</span> were found to inhibit PS II photochemistry and caused distinct change in pigment composition. However the results led us to infer that 3-ring anthracence is more inhibitory as compared to 2-ring naphthalene and 4-ring pyrene. This indicates that aromaticity of <span class="hlt">PAH</span> is unrelated to their response on photosynthetic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020038578&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020038578&hterms=pahs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dpahs"><span>Variations in the 3 Micron Spectrum Across the Orion Bar: <span class="hlt">PAHS</span> and Related Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sloan, G. C.; Bregman, J. D.; Geballe, T. R.; Allamandola, L. J.; Woodward, C. E.; Wittborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Long-slit spectra across the Orion Bar reveal significant differences in the spatial behavior of the components of the 3 micrometer <span class="hlt">PAH</span> spectrum. The strong <span class="hlt">PAH</span> band at 3.29 micrometers generally decreases exponentially with distance from the ionization front into the molecular cloud (scale height approximately 12"), although excesses appear approximately 10" and approximately 20" behind the ionization front, close to layers of H2 and CO emission respectively. The 3.40 micrometer <span class="hlt">PAH</span> feature separates into two components with very different spatial distributions. The main component (at 3.395 micrometers), along with the 3.51 micrometer band and the <span class="hlt">PAH</span> plateau (3.3-3.6 micrometers), shows excess emission approximately 10" and approximately 20" behind the ionization front, stronger than the excesses in the 3.29 micrometer band. The extra component of the 3.40 micrometer band, which peaks at approximately 3.405 micrometers, has a spatial distribution very similar to the H2 emission. Aromatic C-H stretches in <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> most likely produce the 3.29 micrometer feature. Aliphatic C-H stretches in either attached methyl sidegroups or super-hydrogenated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> (H-<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>), or perhaps both, could produce the complicated spectral and spatial structure at 3.40 micrometers. The distribution of these fragile <span class="hlt">PAH</span>-based species traces the physical and chemical conditions in the interface between the ionized region and molecular cloud.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178624','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70178624"><span>Primary sources and toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Milwaukee-area streambed sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Magruder, Christopher; Magruder, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (<span class="hlt">PAHs</span>) in streams can be a significant stressor to aquatic organisms. To understand the likely sources and toxicity of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in Milwaukee-area streams, streambed sediment samples from 40 sites and parking lot dust samples from 6 sites were analyzed for 38 parent <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> and 25 alkylated <span class="hlt">PAHs</span>. Diagnostic ratios, profile correlations, principal components analysis, source-receptor modeling, and mass fractions analysis were used to identify potential <span class="hlt">PAH</span> sources to streambed sediment samples, and land-use analysis was used to relate streambed sediment <span class="hlt">PAH</span> concentrations to different urban-related land uses. On the basis of this multiple lines-of-evidence approach, coal-tar pavement sealant was indicated as the primary source of <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> in a majority of streambed sediment samples, contributing an estimated 77% of total <span class="hlt">PAHs</span> to samples, on average. Comparison to the Probable Effect Concentrations and (or) the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark indicates that 78% of stream sediment samples are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. Laboratory toxicity tests on a 16-sample subset of the streambed sites using the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day) and the midge Chironomus dil