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Sample records for pain meniscal tear

  1. Meniscal tears missed on MR imaging: relationship to meniscal tear patterns and anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    De Smet, A A; Graf, B K

    1994-04-01

    MR imaging of the knee is a valuable technique for diagnosing meniscal tears, but some tears found at arthroscopy are not shown on MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not tears were more frequently missed in the presence of an anterior cruciate ligament tear or when tears had certain locations or configurations. We reviewed the original MR reports and surgical records of 400 patients who had both an MR examination and arthroscopy of the knee. Using chi 2 analysis, we examined how the sensitivity for detecting meniscal tears varied with the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, with the location of the tear within the meniscus, and among six configurations of meniscal tears. We also studied whether sensitivity decreased with an increasing delay between MR examination and arthroscopy. In the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, the sensitivity decreased from 0.97 to 0.88 (p = .016) for medial meniscal tears and from 0.94 to 0.69 (p = .0005) for lateral tears. The overall sensitivity for lateral meniscal tears was significantly less for posterior (p = .001) and peripheral (p = .005) tears than for other tear locations or configurations. The sensitivities did not significantly differ between tear locations and configurations in the medial meniscus or with an increasing delay until arthroscopy. Patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament were more likely to have peripheral tears of the medial meniscus (p = .00004) and posterior (p = .0004) and peripheral (p = .04) tears of the lateral meniscus. Because of their location and configuration, meniscal tears associated with an anterior cruciate ligament injury are more difficult to detect on MR images than are tears in knees with an intact ligament. If a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament is detected, special attention should be given to the subtle peripheral tears that may be present in either meniscus, but most commonly in the posterior horn of the

  2. The potential of optical coherence tomography in meniscal tear characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hang-yin; Guo, Shuguang; Thieman, Kelley M.; Wise, Brent T.; Pozzi, Antonio; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2009-02-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the most common knee injuries leading to pain and discomfort. Partial and total meniscectomies have been widely used to treat the avascular meniscal injuries in which tears do not heal spontaneously. However, the meniscectomies would cause an alteration of the tibiofemoral contact mechanics resulting in progressive osteoarthritis (OA). To mitigate the progression of OA, maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is recommended. The clinical challenge is deciding which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and which part of damaged tissues should be removed. Current diagnosis techniques such as arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging can provide macrostructural information of menisci, but the microstructural changes that occur prior to the observable meniscal tears cannot be identified by these techniques. Serving as a nondestructive optical biopsy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a newly developed imaging modality, can provide high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissues and has been shown its capabilty in arthroscopic evaulation of articular cartilage. Our research was to demonstrate the potential of using OCT for nondestructive characterization of the histopathology of different types of meniscal tears from clinical cases in dogs, providing a fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of meniscal tears. First, cross-sectional images of torn canine menisci obtained from the OCT and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were be compared. By studying the organization of collegan fibrils in torn menisci from the SEM images, the feasibility of using OCT to characterize the organization of collegan fibrils was elucidated. Moreover, the crack size of meniscal tears was quantatitively measured from the OCT images. Changes in the crack size of the tear may be useful for understanding the failure mechanism of meniscal tears.

  3. Value of History, Physical Examination, and Radiographic Findings in the Diagnosis of Symptomatic Meniscal Tear Among Middle-Aged Subjects With Knee Pain.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Smith, Savannah R; Yang, Heidi Y; Martin, Scott D; Wright, John; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Losina, Elena

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the utility of clinical history, radiographic findings, and physical examination findings in the diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear (SMT) in patients over age 45 years, in whom concomitant osteoarthritis is prevalent. In a cross-sectional study of patients from 2 orthopedic surgeons' clinics, we assessed clinical history, physical examination findings, and radiographic findings in patients age >45 years with knee pain. The orthopedic surgeons rated their confidence that subjects' symptoms were due to meniscal tear; we defined the diagnosis of SMT as at least 70% confidence. We used logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with diagnosis of SMT, and we used the regression results to construct an index of the likelihood of SMT. In 174 participants, 6 findings were associated independently with the expert clinician having ≥70% confidence that symptoms were due to meniscal tear: localized pain, ability to fully bend the knee, pain duration <1 year, lack of varus alignment, lack of pes planus, and absence of joint space narrowing on radiographs. The index identified a low-risk group with 3% likelihood of SMT. While clinicians traditionally rely upon mechanical symptoms in this diagnostic setting, our findings did not support the conclusion that mechanical symptoms were associated with the expert's confidence that symptoms were due to meniscal tear. An index that includes history of localized pain, full flexion, duration <1 year, pes planus, varus alignment, and joint space narrowing can be used to stratify patients according to their risk of SMT, and it identifies a subgroup with very low risk. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Middle-aged patients with an MRI-verified medial meniscal tear report symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kristoffer B; Stefan Lohmander, L; Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - No consensus exists on when to perform arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since MRI and clinical tests are not accurate in detecting a symptomatic meniscal lesion, the patient's symptoms often play a large role when deciding when to perform surgery. We determined the prevalence and severity of self-reported knee symptoms in patients eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy due to a degenerative meniscal tear. We investigated whether symptoms commonly considered to be related to meniscus injury were associated with early radiographic signs of knee osteoarthritis. Patients and methods - We included individual baseline items from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score collected in 2 randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment for an MRI-verified degenerative medial meniscal tears in 199 patients aged 35-65 years. Each item was scored as no, mild, moderate, severe, extreme, and at least "mild" considering the symptoms present. Early radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, defined as a Kellgren and Lawrence grade of at least 1, were seen in 70 patients. Results - At least monthly knee pain, pain during stair walking and when twisting on the knee, and lack of confidence in knee was present in at least 80% of the patients. Median severity was at least moderate for knee pain, pain when twisting on the knee, pain walking on stairs, lack of confidence in knee, and clicking. Mechanical symptoms such as catching were rare. Early radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were associated with an increased risk of self-reported swelling, catching, and stiffness later in the day; the odds ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.9), 2.3 (1.2-4.3), and 2.3 (1.1-5.0), respectively. Interpretation - Middle-aged patients with a degenerative medial meniscus tear reported symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis. Frequent knee pain, presence of lack of confidence in the knee, and clicking did not

  5. Surgical interventions for meniscal tears: a closer look at the evidence.

    PubMed

    Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; van Eck, Carola F; van de Graaf, Victor A; Doornberg, Job N; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of various surgical treatments for meniscal injuries including (1) total and partial meniscectomy; (2) meniscectomy and meniscal repair; (3) meniscectomy and meniscal transplantation; (4) open and arthroscopic meniscectomy and (5) various different repair techniques. The Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Register, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for all (quasi) randomized controlled clinical trials comparing various surgical techniques for meniscal injuries. Primary outcomes of interest included patient-reported outcomes scores, return to pre-injury activity level, level of sports participation and persistence of pain using the visual analogue score. Where possible, data were pooled and a meta-analysis was performed. A total of nine studies were included, involving a combined 904 subjects, 330 patients underwent a meniscal repair, 402 meniscectomy and 160 a collagen meniscal implant. The only surgical treatments that were compared in homogeneous fashion across more than one study were the arrow and inside-out technique, which showed no difference for re-tear or complication rate. Strong evidence-based recommendations regarding the other surgical treatments that were compared could not be made. This meta-analysis illustrates the lack of level I evidence to guide the surgical management of meniscal tears. Level I meta-analysis.

  6. Chondral Injuries and Irreparable Meniscal Tears Among Adolescents With Anterior Cruciate Ligament or Meniscal Tears Are More Common in Patients With Public Insurance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ariel A; Mancini, Nickolas S; Solomito, Matthew J; Nissen, Carl W; Milewski, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Access to health care services is a critical component of health care reform and may differ among patients with different types of insurance. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to compare adolescents with private and public insurance undergoing surgery for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and/or meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients with public insurance would have a delayed presentation from the time of injury and therefore would have a higher incidence of chondral injuries and irreparable meniscal tears and lower preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores than patients with private insurance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This was a retrospective study of patients under 21 years of age undergoing ACL reconstruction and/or meniscal repair or debridement from January 2013 to March 2016 at a single pediatric sports medicine center. Patients were identified by a search of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. A chart review was performed for insurance type; preoperative diagnosis; date of injury, initial office visit, and surgery; preoperative IKDC score; intraoperative findings; and procedures. The study group consisted of 119 patients (mean age, 15.0 ± 1.7 years). Forty-one percent of patients had private insurance, while 59% had public insurance. There were 27 patients with isolated meniscal tears, 59 with combined meniscal and ACL tears, and 33 with isolated ACL tears. The mean time from injury to presentation was 56 days (range, 0-457 days) in patients with private insurance and 136 days (range, 0-1120 days) in patients with public insurance ( P = .02). Surgery occurred, on average, 35 days after the initial office visit in both groups. The mean preoperative IKDC score was 53 in both groups. Patients with meniscal tears with public insurance were more likely to require meniscal debridement than patients with private insurance (risk ratio [RR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1; P = .02). Patients with public insurance

  7. Diagnostic value of history-taking and physical examination for assessing meniscal tears of the knee in general practice.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Harry Pa; Heintjes, Edith M; Boks, Simone S; Berger, Marjolein Y; Verhaar, Jan An; Koes, Bart W; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma

    2008-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of history-taking and physical examination of meniscal tears in general practice. An observational study determining diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratios). General practice. Consecutive patients aged 18 to 65 years with a traumatic knee injury who consulted their general practitioner within 5 weeks after trauma. Participating patients filled out a questionnaire (history-taking) followed by a standardized physical examination. Assessment of meniscal tears was determined by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was performed blinded for the results of physical examination and history-taking. Of the 134 patients included in this study, 47 had a meniscal tear. From history-taking, the determinants "age over 40 years," "continuation of activity impossible," and "weight-bearing during trauma" indicated an association with a meniscal tear after multivariate logistic regression analysis, whereas from physical examination only "pain at passive flexion" indicated an association. These associated determinants from history-taking showed some diagnostic value; the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) reached up to 2.0 for age over 40 years, whereas the isolated test pain at passive flexion from physical examination has less diagnostic value, with an LR+ of 1.3. Combining determinants from history-taking and physical examination improved the diagnostic value with a maximum LR+ of 5.8; however, this combination only applied to a limited number of patients. History-taking has some diagnostic value, whereas physical examination did not add any diagnostic value for detecting meniscal tears in general practice.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of meniscal extrusion in medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Jeong; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between meniscal extrusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tearing of the posterior root of the medial meniscus, as well as to understand the relation between meniscal extrusion and chondral lesions. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Of these cases, 248 (64.1%) with MRI were reviewed. Arthroscopic findings were reviewed for the type of tear and medial compartment cartilage lesion. Root tear was defined as a radial tear in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus near the tibial spine (i.e., within 5 mm of the root attachment). An MRI scan of the knee was used to evaluate the presence and extent of meniscal extrusion. Meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater was considered pathologic. Arthroscopic findings were compared with respect to the extent of meniscal extrusion. There were 98 male patients and 150 female patients. The mean age was 53.5 years (range, 15 to 81 years). The results showed 127 cases (51.2%) in which the medial meniscus had meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater. Posterior root tears were found in 66 (26.6%) of the 248 knees. The mean meniscal extrusion in patients with root tear was 3.8 ± 1.4 mm, whereas the mean extrusion of those who had no root tear was 2.7 ± 1.3 mm. We found an association between pathologic meniscal extrusion and root tear (P < .001). Meniscal extrusion showed a low positive predictive value (39%) and specificity (58%) with regard to the meniscal root tear. Meniscal extrusion was also significantly correlated with severity of chondral lesions (P < .001). Considerable extrusion (≥3 mm) can be associated with tearing of the medial meniscus root and chondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Posterior Root Meniscal Tears: Preoperative, Intraoperative, and Postoperative Imaging for Transtibial Pullout Repair.

    PubMed

    Palisch, Andrew R; Winters, Ronald R; Willis, Marc H; Bray, Collin D; Shybut, Theodore B

    2016-10-01

    The menisci play an important biomechanical role in axial load distribution of the knees by means of hoop strength, which is contingent on intact circumferentially oriented collagen fibers and meniscal root attachments. Disruption of the meniscal root attachments leads to altered biomechanics, resulting in progressive cartilage loss, osteoarthritis, and subchondral edema, with the potential for development of a subchondral insufficiency fracture. Identification of meniscal root tears at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is crucial because new arthroscopic surgical techniques (transtibial pullout repair) have been developed to repair meniscal root tears and preserve the tibiofemoral cartilage of the knee. An MR imaging classification of posterior medial meniscal root ligament lesions has been recently described that is dedicated to the posterior root of the medial meniscus. An arthroscopic classification of meniscal root tears has been described that can be applied to the anterior and posterior roots of both the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. This arthroscopic classification includes type 1, partial stable root tears; type 2, complete radial root tears; type 3, vertical longitudinal bucket-handle tears; type 4, complex oblique tears; and type 5, bone avulsion fractures of the root attachments. Knowledge of these classifications and the potential contraindications to meniscal root repair can aid the radiologist in the preoperative reporting of meniscal root tear types and the evaluation of the tibiofemoral cartilage. As more patients undergo arthroscopic repair of meniscal root tears, familiarity with the surgical technique and the postoperative radiographic and MR imaging appearance is important to adequately report the imaging findings. © RSNA, 2016.

  10. Subregional effects of meniscal tears on cartilage loss over 2 years in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alison; Moisio, Kirsten; Chmiel, Joan S; Eckstein, Felix; Guermazi, Ali; Almagor, Orit; Cahue, September; Wirth, Wolfgang; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Sharma, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Meniscal tears have been linked to knee osteoarthritis progression, presumably by impaired load attenuation. How meniscal tears affect osteoarthritis is unclear; subregional examination may help to elucidate whether the impact is local. This study examined the association between a tear within a specific meniscal segment and subsequent 2-year cartilage loss in subregions that the torn segment overlies. Participants with knee osteoarthritis underwent bilateral knee MRI at baseline and 2 years. Mean cartilage thickness within each subregion was quantified. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations were used to analyse the relationship between baseline meniscal tear in each segment and baseline to 2-year cartilage loss in each subregion, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, tear in the other two segments and extrusion. 261 knees were studied in 159 individuals. Medial meniscal body tear was associated with cartilage loss in external subregions and in central and anterior tibial subregions, and posterior horn tear specifically with posterior tibial subregion loss; these relationships were independent of tears in the other segments and persisted in tibial subregions after adjustment for extrusion. Lateral meniscal body and posterior horn tear were also associated with cartilage loss in underlying subregions but not after adjustment for extrusion. Cartilage loss in the internal subregions, not covered by the menisci, was not associated with meniscal tear in any segment. These results suggest that the detrimental effect of meniscal tears is not spatially uniform across the tibial and femoral cartilage surfaces and that some of the effect is experienced locally.

  11. Meniscal tears, repairs and replacement: their relevance to osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ian

    2011-04-01

    The menisci of the knee are important load sharers and shock absorbers in the joint. Meniscal tears are common, and whenever possible meniscal tears should be surgically repaired. Meniscectomy leads to a significant increased risk of osteoarthritis, and various options now exist for replacing missing menisci, including the use of meniscal scaffolds or the replacement of the entire meniscus by meniscal allograft transplantation. The field of meniscal surgery continues to develop apace, and the future may lie in growing new menisci by tissue engineering techniques.

  12. Cam impingement of the posterior femoral condyle in medial meniscal tears.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Jun; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Inoue, Yutaka; Yamabe, Eikou; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Fujinaka, Tarou

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of meniscal repair of the medial meniscus with or without decompression of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus for the treatment of posteromedial tibiofemoral incongruence at full flexion (PMTFI), which induces deformation of the posterior segment on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For more than 2 years, we followed up 27 patients with PMTFI who were classified into the following 2 groups. Group 1 included 8 patients (5 male joints and 3 female joints) with a medial meniscal tear with instability at the site of the tear who underwent meniscal repair. The mean age was 23.6 years. Group 2 included 19 patients (16 male joints and 3 female joints) who had a meniscal tear with instability at the site of the tear and underwent meniscal repair and decompression. The mean age was 26.5 years. In decompression of the posterior segment, redundant bone tissue on the most proximal part of the medial femoral condyle was excised. The patients were assessed by use of the Lysholm score, sagittal MRI at full flexion, and arthroscopic examination. There were no statistical differences in mean Lysholm score between the 2 groups before surgery, but the mean score in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 after surgery. Meniscal deformation of the posterior segment at full flexion on MRI disappeared in all cases after decompression. On second-look arthroscopy, the rate of complete healing at the site of the tear was 0% in group 1 but 57% in group 2, and it was significantly different between these groups. The addition of decompression of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus to meniscal repair of knee joints with PMTFI allowed more room for the medial meniscus to accommodate and improved both function of the knee joint and the rate of success of repair of isolated medial meniscal tears in patients who regularly performed full knee flexion. (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  13. Bilateral atraumatic medial meniscal tears in a 17-year-old rower

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Taryn Lise; Frankovich, Renata; Rumball, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Meniscal injury produces disability in a large portion of the population, and sports injuries are a common cause. Atraumatic meniscal tears may occur after repetitive low-energy loading. Rowing is a highly technical sport and very demanding on an athlete’s body. There are numerous reports on patellofemoral and iliotibial band friction syndrome in rowers but there is an extremely low incidence of meniscal tears reported in these athletes. This is a unique case report of a young adolescent athlete who suffered bilateral medical meniscal tears during sporting activity. Rowing is a low impact sport making this an unusual occurrence, especially in a young individual. This case report highlights the importance of considering all training activities when trying to isolate the mechanism of injury in an athlete. PMID:21686387

  14. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  15. Association of parameniscal cysts with underlying meniscal tears as identified on MRI and arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben K; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz

    2011-02-01

    Although patients with parameniscal cysts usually have underlying meniscal tears, we noted that this association was less common with anterior lateral cysts. We wished to determine whether the frequency of a meniscal tear underlying a parameniscal cyst varied with cyst location. We reviewed a database of 7,771 knee MR examinations and identified 134 patients with an MR diagnosis of 138 parameniscal cysts and correlative arthroscopy in 78 patients. We reviewed their medical records and MR studies to determine the location of the cysts and presence of an underlying meniscal tear as determined by MRI or arthroscopy. There were 50 lateral and 88 medial parameniscal cysts. Medial meniscal tears were found underlying a cyst in 96% of arthroscopy patients and 86% of patients who had only MR examinations without a location difference in tears (p = 0.68). Meniscal tears were found on MRI or arthroscopy in all 28 patients with a lateral cyst overlying the body or posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, whereas a tear was found on MRI or arthroscopy in only 14 (64%) of 22 patients with cysts adjacent to or extending to the lateral meniscus anterior horn (p = 0.006). Anterior lateral cysts extended medially either into the root or into Hoffa fat-pad, but the type of extension did not correlate with the presence of an underlying meniscal tear. In contrast to medial parameniscal cysts or cysts at other locations adjacent to the lateral meniscus, anteriorly located lateral parameniscal cysts are less likely to have underlying meniscal tears.

  16. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  17. Risk factors, diagnosis and non-surgical treatment for meniscal tears: evidence and recommendations: a statement paper commissioned by the Danish Society of Sports Physical Therapy (DSSF).

    PubMed

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Skou, Søren Thorgaard

    2018-05-01

    This statement aimed at summarising and appraising the available evidence for risk factors, diagnostic tools and non-surgical treatments for patients with meniscal tears. We systematically searched electronic databases using a pragmatic search strategy approach. Included studies were synthesised quantitatively or qualitatively, as appropriate. Strength of evidence was determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation framework. Low-quality evidence suggested that overweight (degenerative tears, k=3), male sex (k=4), contact and pivoting sports (k=2), and frequent occupational kneeling/squatting (k=3) were risk factors for meniscal tears. There was low to moderate quality evidence for low to high positive and negative predictive values, depending on the underlying prevalence of meniscal tears for four common diagnostic tests (k=15, n=2474). Seven trials investigated exercise versus surgery (k=2) or the effect of surgery in addition to exercise (k=5) for degenerative meniscal tears. There was moderate level of evidence for exercise improving self-reported pain (Effect Size (ES)-0.51, 95% CI -1.16 to 0.13) and function (ES -0.06, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.11) to the same extent as surgery, and improving muscle strength to a greater extent than surgery (ES -0.45, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.29). High-quality evidence showed no clinically relevant effect of surgery in addition to exercise on pain (ES 0.18, 95% 0.05 to 0.32) and function (ES, 0.13 95% CI -0.03 to 0.28) for patients with degenerative meniscal tears. No randomised trials comparing non-surgical treatments with surgery in patients younger than 40 years of age or patients with traumatic meniscal tears were identified. Diagnosis of meniscal tears is challenging as all clinical diagnostic tests have high risk of misclassification. Exercise therapy should be recommended as the treatment of choice for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal lesions. Evidence on

  18. Stable Meniscal Tears Left In Situ at the Time of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rothermich, Marcus A; Cohen, Jared A; Wright, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Meniscal tears can be incidentally encountered at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In these cases, the surgeon has several treatment options that include benign neglect, debridement, trephination, and repair. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature studying the various treatment options for meniscal tears discovered at the time of ACL reconstruction. This systematic review included eight articles that had relevant data regarding benign neglect compared with debridement, trephination, or repair of incidentally encountered meniscal tears. Combined data from these studies resulted in a total of 646 meniscal tears treated with benign neglect with follow-up information available. Importantly, there were differences in reoperation rates between medial and lateral meniscal tears left in situ. However, stable medial and lateral meniscal tears treated with benign neglect did not have different subjective or objective outcomes than those treated with surgical intervention. This systematic review concludes that when stable meniscal tears are encountered at the time of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, benign neglect can be used for a successful outcome. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Repair of meniscal tears with the absorbable Clearfix screw: results after 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Frosch, K H; Fuchs, M; Losch, A; Stürmer, K M

    2005-11-01

    Total meniscus resection usually leads to osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Preservation and refixation of the injured menisci are therefore of great clinical importance. The present study examines 40 meniscal injuries in 37 patients that were arthroscopically treated with Clearfix meniscal screws (Mitek, Norderstedt, Germany) in the period from August 1999 to December 2002. The mean patient age was 27.7 (range 16-62) years. Nine patients were female. A total of 24 patients (27 meniscal tears) also had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesion, and 5 patients had cartilage injuries. Twenty-two patients were treated within the first 2 weeks following the trauma, 10 patients within 8 weeks, and 5 patients after 8 weeks. The lesions were a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus in 11 cases and a bucket-handle tear of the lateral meniscus in 2 cases. The posterior horn of the medial meniscus was torn in 13 cases, and the pars intermedia in 3 cases. The posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was torn in 8 cases, and the pars intermedia in 3 cases. The mean tear length was 2.9 (+/- 1.5) cm and was fixed with an average of 1.8 (+/- 0.7) screws. In 7 cases, the anterior horn was treated with an additional meniscal suture. A total of 35 patients were examined after an average of 18 (range 7-45) months. In the event of a moderate outcome, MRI was performed as part of the follow-up investigation. The average Lysholm score was 93 (+/- 7.4), the Tegner activity index was 6.3 (+/- 2.0) before the accident and 5.8 (+/- 2.0) at the follow-up, the Marshall knee score was 47 (+/- 3.8). The VAS pain assessment was 1.6 (+/- 1.3) and the VAS function assessment was 7.9 (+/- 1.6). Of the 7 patients with a moderate result, 2 patients without additional ligament lesions suffered re-ruptures after and 13 months, respectively. The other 5 patients with a moderate result each had multiple accompanying injuries or pre-existing damage to the affected knee joint. The Clearfix screws

  20. The role of biomaterials in the treatment of meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties. This review presents a tactical evaluation of the latest biomaterials, experiments to simulate meniscal tears and the state-of-the-art materials and strategies currently used to treat tears. PMID:29158995

  1. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  2. Similar failure rate in immediate post-operative weight bearing versus protected weight bearing following meniscal repair on peripheral, vertical meniscal tears.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Bryan; Gronbeck, Kyle R; Yue, Ruixian Alexander; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-08-16

    Post-operative weight bearing after meniscal repair is a point of debate among physicians. This study sought to evaluate whether patients adhering to an immediate WBAT rehabilitation programme have a higher failure rate compared to those adhering to a more traditional, protected, NWB status following meniscal repair. The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in failure between the two groups. A retrospective review of meniscal repair patients greater than 5 years from surgery was performed for patients receiving meniscal repair treatment. Patients were categorized by post-surgical weight-bearing status, either NWB or WBAT, and then analysed for failure of repair. Failure was defined as re-operation on the torn meniscus. The study controlled for variables including age at surgery, sex, height, weight, and BMI, classification of tear type, acuity of the tear, repair location (medial or lateral), repair location within the meniscus, repair technique, and concomitant procedures. Re-operations were performed in 61 of 157 patients [38.9%]. There was no difference between weight-bearing groups for failure of meniscus repair (n.s.). The tears were acute vertical tears located in the posterior horn and body. For the 61 patients with re-operation, the average time to re-operation was 2.2 years with 10 [16%] > 5 years from surgery, 17 [28%] 2-5 years from surgery, and 34 [56%] < 2 years from surgery. In isolated meniscal repair patients (n = 62), there was no difference between weight-bearing groups for rate of re-operation (n.s.). Weight bearing as tolerated after meniscal repair for peripheral, vertical tears does not result in a higher failure rate than traditional, non-weight bearing over a five-year follow-up period. The clinical relevance is that, based on these data, it may be appropriate to allow weight bearing as tolerated following meniscal repair of peripheral, vertical tears. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  3. Posterior medial meniscus detachment: a unique type of medial meniscal tear.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Richard A; DeHaan, Alex; Baldwin, James L

    2009-10-01

    Patients with posterior medial meniscal detachment, as determined at knee arthroscopy, were evaluated retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years for 8 men and 20 women (30 knees; mean age, 57 years). Most patients had acute onset of pain with a minor specific incident. Seventeen patients were obese, 9 were overweight, and 2 were normal. Eleven of 22 magnetic resonance imaging evaluations detected a tear at the site of the posterior medial meniscus root. Nine of 16 bone scan evaluations showed moderate uptake medially. Arthroscopic treatment included partial medial meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Twelve knees (40%) showed significant progression of arthritis. Of the 7 patients with severe arthritic knees, 5 have subsequently undergone total knee arthroplasty, 1 is considering total knee arthroplasty, and the other has minimal symptoms. Patients should be counseled about the clinical course of posterior medial meniscus detachment and its potential for progressive arthritis in the joint.

  4. Arthroscopic Repair of the Medial Meniscus Radial/Oblique Tear Prevents the Progression of Meniscal Extrusion in Mildly Osteoarthritic Knees.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Hino, Tomohito; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Extrusion of the medial meniscus (MM) is associated with knee joint pain in osteoarthritic knees. The relationships among MM radial/oblique tears, MM extrusion (MME), and the effect of arthroscopic meniscal repair are not established. Here we evaluated the effects of arthroscopic all-inside MM repair on MME and the clinical outcomes in patients with radially oriented MM tears and mildly osteoarthritic knees. Twenty patients with a symptomatic radial or oblique tear of the MM posterior segment, MME ≥2.5 mm, and mildly osteoarthritic knees were treated using FasT-Fix 360 All-inside Meniscal Suture devices. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the patients' MM body width (MMBW), absolute MME, and relative MME. The Japanese Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lysholm, Tegner, IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation, and Visual Analogue Scale scores were obtained. Arthroscopic all-inside MM repair prevented increases of absolute and relative MME. The preoperative and 3- and 12-month MRI-based MMBW values were similar. Over a 24-month follow-up after the MM repairs, the clinical scores showed significant improvements. Our results suggest that all-inside meniscal repairs would be useful in preventing the progression of MME in patients suffering from symptomatic MM radial/oblique tears associated with mildly osteoarthritic knees.

  5. Patterns of meniscal tears associated with anterior cruciate ligament lesions in athletes.

    PubMed

    Binfield, P M; Maffulli, N; King, J B

    1993-09-01

    In this study, 400 clinically anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knees were arthroscoped and studied prospectively in the period January 1986 to April 1992. An ACL tear was always confirmed, and 41 per cent of these patients did not have an associated meniscal tear. In 30.25 per cent the lateral meniscus was torn; in 21.25 per cent the ACL tear was associated with a medial meniscus tear, and in the remaining 7 per cent both menisci were torn. The most frequently associated meniscal injury was the bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus (9 per cent), followed by the posterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus, which showed the same frequency as the ragged (or degenerated) tear of the lateral meniscus (6 per cent). The horizontal tear of the posterior part of the lateral meniscus showed a prevalence of 4.3 per cent. This picture is probably dependent on a secondary referral nature of the centre surveyed, in which the average time between injury and arthroscopy was 23.3 months.

  6. MR imaging of meniscal tears: comparison of intermediate-weighted FRFSE imaging with intermediate-weighted FSE imaging.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Osamu; Harada, Yuko; Ueda, Takaaki; Iida, Etsushi; Shiraishi, Gen; Motomura, Tetsuhisa; Fukuda, Kouji; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2012-11-01

    We compared intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IW-FSE) images with intermediate-weighted fast-recovery FSE (IW-FRFSE) images in the diagnosis of meniscal tears. First, 64 patients were recruited, and the arthroscopic findings (n = 40) and image analysis (n = 19) identified 59 torn menisci with 36 patients. Both the diagnostic performance and image quality in assessing meniscal tears was evaluated for IW-FSE and IW-FRFSE images using a four-point scale. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculation was performed for both sets of images. IW-FRFSE image specificity (100 %) for diagnosing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (MM) tear with reader 1 was significantly higher than that of IW-FSE images (90 %). Mean ratings of the contrast between the lesion and normal signal intensity within the meniscus were significantly higher for the IW-FRFSE image ratings than the IW-FSE images in most meniscal tears. Mean SNRs were significantly higher for IW-FSE images than for IW-FRFSE images (P < 0.05). IW-FRFSE imaging can be used as an alternative to the IW-FSE imaging to evaluate meniscal tears.

  7. Meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Campi, Stefano; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The menisci are two semilunar-shaped fibrocartilagenous structures, which are interposed between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaux. They have an important role in knee function. Long-term follow-up studies showed that virtually all meniscectomized knees develop arthritic changes with time. The meniscus has functions in load bearing, load transmission, shock absorption, joint stability, joint lubrication, and joint congruity. Because of these functions, meniscal tissue should be preserved whenever possible. A well-trained surgeon can safely rely on clinical examination for diagnosing meniscal injuries. History and clinical examination are at least as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in the skilled orthopedic surgeon’s hand. When meniscal repair is not possible, partial resection of the meniscus is indicated. Meniscal repair has evolved from open to arthroscopic techniques, which include the inside-out and outside-in suture repairs and the all-inside techniques. Meniscal transplantation is generally accepted as a management alternative option for selected symptomatic patients with previous complete or near-complete meniscectomy. PMID:24198542

  8. Incidence and patterns of meniscal tears accompanying the anterior cruciate ligament injury: possible local and generalized risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mansori, Ashraf El; Lording, Timothy; Schneider, Antoine; Dumas, Raphael; Servien, Elvire; Lustig, Sebastien

    2018-05-26

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is frequently accompanied by tears of the menisci. Some of these tears occur at the time of injury, but others develop over time in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the patient characteristics, time from injury (TFI), and posterior tibial slope (PTS) on meniscal tear patterns. Our hypothesis was that meniscal tears would occur more frequently in ACL-deficient knees with increasing age, weight, TFI, PTS, and in male patients. Of the ACL-injured patients, 362 were analyzed, and details of meniscal lesions were collected. The medial and lateral tibial slopes (MTS, LTS) were measured via computed tomography. Patient demographics, TFI, MTS, and LTS were correlated with the diagnosed meniscal tears. Of the patients, 113 had a medial meniscus (MM) tear, 54 patients had a lateral meniscus (LM) tear, 34 patients had tears of both menisci, and 161 patients had no meniscal tear. The most common tear location was the posterior horn (PH) of the MM, followed by tear involving the whole MM. Patient age, BMI, and TFI were significantly associated with the incidence of MM tear. Female patients had a higher incidence of injury than males in all tear sites except in the body and PH. Male patients had more vertical and peripheral tears. The median MTS and LTS for patients with MM tears were 7.0°and 8.7°, respectively, while those of patients with LM tears were 6.9° and 8.1°. Steeper LTS was significantly associated with tears of LM and of both menisci. Older age, male sex, increased BMI, and prolonged TFI were significant factors for the development of MM tears. An increase in the tibial slope, especially of the lateral plateau, seems to increase the risk of tear of the LM and of both menisci. Level III.

  9. Meniscal repair using the Polysorb Meniscal Stapler XLS.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Michael A; Chisar, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We present our technique of repair of meniscal tears in 11 patients using a newly designed stapler, the Polysorb Meniscal Stapler XLS (USS Sports Medicine, Norwalk, CT), to increase the effectiveness and ease of repair of tears in the vascular zone while limiting potential complications. The low-profile stapler comes with a reloadable pistol grip device and a disposable straight or 15 degrees upcurved shaft with a single preloaded 10-mm staple. Standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals were used, along with a superomedial portal for inflow. The portal was enlarged slightly to facilitate introduction of the cannula or the stapler directly into the knee. The nose of the stapler was applied to the superior surface of the inner edge of the meniscal tear. The sharp points on the tip of the nose were used to manipulate the inner edge and coapt the tear site. Firm pressure was applied to the meniscal tissue, and the nose of the stapler was embedded in the inner edge of the meniscus no more than 2 to 3 mm from the tear (as measured along the meniscal surface). The handle was pulled slowly as the staple engaged the meniscal tissue. This step was repeated every 3 to 4 mm to ensure ideal tear stabilization.

  10. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  11. Comparison of the accuracy rates of 3-T and 1.5-T MRI of the knee in the diagnosis of meniscal tear.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jeffrey W; De Smet, Arthur A; Shinki, Kazuhiko

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of 3-T MRI with that of 1.5-T MRI of the knee in the diagnosis of meniscal tear and to analyze the causes of diagnostic error. We reviewed the medical records and original MRI interpretations of 100 consecutive patients who underwent 3-T MRI of the knee and of 100 consecutive patients who underwent 1.5-T MRI of the knee to determine the accuracy of diagnoses of meniscal tear. Knee arthroscopy was the reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed all MRI diagnostic errors to determine the cause of the errors. At arthroscopy, 109 medial and 77 lateral meniscal tears were identified in the 200 patients. With two abnormal MR images indicating a meniscal tear, the sensitivity and specificity for medial tear were 92.7% and 82.2% at 1.5-T MRI and 92.6% and 76.1% at 3-T MRI (p = 1.0, p = 0.61). The sensitivity and specificity for lateral tears were 68.4% and 95.2% at 1.5-T MRI and 69.2% and 91.8% at 3-T MRI (p = 1.0, p = 0.49). Of the false-positive diagnoses of medial meniscal tear, five of eight at 1.5 T and seven of 11 at 3 T were apparent peripheral longitudinal tears of the posterior horn. Fifteen of the 26 missed medial and lateral meniscal tears were not seen in retrospect even with knowledge of the tear type and location. Allowing for sample size limitations, we found comparable accuracy of 3-T and 1.5-T MRI of the knee in the diagnosis of meniscal tear. The causes of false-positive and false-negative MRI diagnoses of meniscal tear are similar for 3-T and 1.5-T MRI.

  12. Stem cell-based tissue-engineering for treatment of meniscal tears in the avascular zone.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Johannes; Hierl, Katja; Mueller, Michael; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Krutsch, Werner; Geis, Sebastian; Gehmert, Sebastian; Kujat, Richard; Dendorfer, Sebastian; Prantl, Lukas; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Meniscal tears in the avascular zone have a poor self-healing potential, however partial meniscectomy predisposes the knee for early osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem cells and a hyaluronan collagen based scaffold is a promising approach to repair meniscal tears in the avascular zone. 4 mm longitudinal meniscal tears in the avascular zone of lateral menisci of New Zealand White Rabbits were performed. The defect was left empty, sutured with a 5-0 suture or filled with a hyaluronan/collagen composite matrix without cells, with platelet rich plasma or with autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Matrices with stem cells were in part precultured in chondrogenic medium for 14 days prior to the implantation. Menisci were harvested at 6 and 12 weeks. The developed repair tissue was analyzed macroscopically, histologically and biomechanically. Untreated defects, defects treated with suture alone, with cell-free or with platelet rich plasma seeded implants showed a muted fibrous healing response. The implantation of stem cell-matrix constructs initiated fibrocartilage-like repair tissue, with better integration and biomechanical properties in the precultured stem cell-matrix group. A hyaluronan-collagen based composite scaffold seeded with mesenchymal stem cells is more effective in the repair avascular meniscal tear with stable meniscus-like tissue and to restore the native meniscus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  13. Physicians’ accuracy and interrator reliability for the diagnosis of unstable meniscal tears in patients having osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Dervin, Geoffrey F.; Stiell, Ian G.; Wells, George A.; Rody, Kelly; Grabowski, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine clinicians’ accuracy and reliability for the clinical diagnosis of unstable meniscus tears in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A single tertiary care centre. Patients One hundred and fifty-two patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee refractory to conservative medical treatment were selected for prospective evaluation of arthroscopic débridement. Intervention Arthroscopic débridement of the knee, including meniscal tear and chondral flap resection, without abrasion arthroplasty. Outcome measures A standardized assessment protocol was administered to each patient by 2 independent observers. Arthroscopic determination of unstable meniscal tears was recorded by 1 observer who reviewed a video recording and was blinded to preoperative data. Those variables that had the highest interobserver agreement and the strongest association with meniscal tear by univariate methods were entered into logistic regression to model the best prediction of resectable tears. Results There were 92 meniscal tears (77 medial, 15 lateral). Interobserver agreement between clinical fellows and treating surgeons was poor to fair (κ < 0.4) for all clinical variables except radiographic measures, which were good. Fellows and surgeons predicted unstable meniscal tear preoperatively with equivalent accuracy of 60%. Logistic regression modelling revealed that a history of swelling and a ballottable effusion were negative predictors. A positive McMurray test was the only positive predictor of unstable meniscal tear. “Mechanical” symptoms were not reliable predictors in this prospective study. The model was 69% accurate for all patients and 76% for those with advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis defined by a joint space height of 2 mm or less. Conclusions This study underscored the difficulty in using clinical variables to predict unstable medial meniscal tears in patients with pre

  14. Comparison of CT and MRI in patients with tibial plateau fracture: can CT findings predict ligament tear or meniscal injury?

    PubMed

    Mui, Leonora W; Engelsohn, Eliyahu; Umans, Hilary

    2007-02-01

    (1) To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of ligament tear and avulsion in patients with tibial plateau fracture. (2) To evaluate whether the presence or severity of fracture gap and articular depression can predict meniscal injury. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist retrospectively reviewed knee CT and MRI examinations of 41 consecutive patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with tibial plateau fractures. Fracture gap, articular depression, ligament tear and footprint avulsions were assessed on CT examinations. The MRI studies were examined for osseous and soft tissue injuries, including meniscal tear, meniscal displacement, ligament tear, and ligament avulsion. CT demonstrated torn ligaments with 80% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Only 2% of ligaments deemed intact on careful CT evaluation had partial or complete tears on MRI. Although the degree of fracture gap and articular depression was significantly greater in patients with meniscal injury compared with those without meniscal injury, ROC analysis demonstrated no clear threshold for gap or depression that yielded a combination of high sensitivity and specificity. In the acute setting, CT offers high sensitivity and specificity for depicting osseous avulsions, as well as high negative predictive value for excluding ligament injury. However, MRI remains necessary for the preoperative detection of meniscal injury.

  15. Meniscal pathology associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears in patients with open physes.

    PubMed

    Samora, Walter P; Palmer, Ryan; Klingele, Kevin E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize meniscal pathology associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in skeletally immature patients. We also evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting ACL and meniscus pathology. A retrospective chart review was performed on 124 skeletally immature patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction within 3 months of injury. Operative reports and arthroscopic images were reviewed to determine patterns of meniscal injury. The accuracy of preoperative MRI in predicting ACL rupture and meniscus pathology was also compared. One hundred twenty-four patients, including 80 males with an average age of 14.3 years, and 44 females with an average age of 14.1 years were included. The lateral meniscus was torn in 51 patients, the medial meniscus in 17 patients, and both menisci in 19. The prevalence of meniscus tear was 69.3%. Location of the tear occurred in the posterior horn in 69 tears (65.0%), the middle and posterior horn in 31 tears (29.2%), the middle horn in 4 tears (3.7%), and the anterior horn and posterior horn in 2 tears (1.8%). MRI showed 95.6% sensitivity in detecting complete ACL rupture. Further, MRI had a sensitivity of 58.6% and a specificity of 91.3% in characterizing meniscus tears. There are many studies that evaluate ACL rupture in the skeletally immature population, but few studies focus on the meniscus pathology that is associated with these injuries. We reinforce the fact that meniscal injury is commonly associated with ACL rupture in patients with open physes (prevalence of 69.3%). We were able to conclude that lateral meniscus tears are more common than medial meniscus tears, which were equally as common as combined tears in our patient population. The posterior horn is injured in most of patients, and is usually in a repairable configuration and vascular zone. These findings will help to guide surgeons in their clinical evaluation and

  16. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. Patients and methods We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. Results In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 105 person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 105 person-years in 1997 to 97 per 105 person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. Interpretation The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries. PMID:26122621

  17. [SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF "RIPPLE SIGN" OF MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE UNDER ARTHROSCOPE IN MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL MENISCAL TEARS].

    PubMed

    Ren Shiyou; Sun, Limang; Chen, Guofei; Jiang, Changqing; Zhang, Xintao; Zhang Wentao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of the "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle in the diagnosis of medial longitudinal meniscal tears under arthroscope. Between June 2013 and June 2014, 56 patients with knee injuries were included. There were 35 males and 21 females with an average age of 22.2 years (range, 12-38 years). The causes of injury were sports in 40 cases, falling in 10 cases, and traffic accident in 6 cases. The injury was located at the left knee in 22 cases and at the right knee in 34 cases. The disease duration was 10-40 days (mean, 20.2 days). Of 56 patients, 15 cases had simple medial meniscal injury; 41 cases had combined injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury in 38 cases, posterior cruciate ligament injury in 2 cases, and patellar dislocation in 1 case. The "ripple sign" was observed under arthroscope before operation. Repair of medial meniscal injury and reconstruction of cruciate ligament were performed. The positive "ripple sign" was seen under arthroscope in all patients, who were diagnosed to have longitudinal meniscal tears, including 23 cases of mild "ripple sign" , 28 cases of moderate "ripple sign", and 5 cases of severe "ripple sign". The "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle is a reliable diagnostic evidence of medial longitudinal meniscal tears.

  18. Synovial chemokine expression and relationship with knee symptoms in patients with meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anjali; Gan, Justin; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Verma, Nikhil; Tetreault, Matthew W.; Saha, Kanta; Margulis, Arkady; Fogg, Louis; Scanzello, Carla R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with knee OA, synovitis is associated with knee pain and symptoms. We previously identified synovial mRNA expression of a set of chemokines (CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL-1, CCR7) associated with synovitis in patients with meniscal tears but without radiographic OA. CCL19 and CCR7 were also associated with knee symptoms. This study sought to validate expression of these chemokines and association with knee symptoms in more typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, many who have pre-existing OA. Design Synovial biopsies and fluid (SF) were collected from patients undergoing meniscal arthroscopy. Synovial mRNA expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was administered preoperatively. Regression analyses determined if associations between chemokine mRNA levels and KOOS scores were independent of other factors including radiographic OA. CCL19 in SF was measured by ELISA, and compared to patients with advanced knee OA and asymptomatic organ donors. Results 90% of patients had intra-operative evidence of early cartilage degeneration. CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL1, CCR7 transcripts were detected in all patients. Synovial CCL19 mRNA levels independently correlated with KOOS Activities of Daily Living scores (95% CI [-8.071, -0.331], p= 0.036), indicating higher expression was associated with more knee-related dysfunction. SF CCL19 was detected in 7 of 10 patients, compared to 4 of 10 asymptomatic donors. Conclusion In typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, synovial CCL19 mRNA expression was associated with knee-related difficulty with activities of daily living, independent of other factors including presence of radiographic knee OA. PMID:25724256

  19. Characterization of synovial fluid cytokine profiles in chronic meniscal tear of the knee.

    PubMed

    Bigoni, Marco; Turati, Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Gaddi, Diego; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gandolla, Marta; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J; Bresciani, Elena; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid samples collected from patients with chronic meniscal tears were investigated. An acute inflammatory response is generally reported 24-48 h after knee injury, but the largest body of data available in literature concerns anterior cruciate ligament injury and very little information is available about the balance of soluble factors in the synovial fluid of knees with chronic meniscal tears. Sixty-nine patients (46 males and 23 females) with meniscal tear that occurred more than 3 months earlier were enrolled. According to cartilage integrity assessment by arthroscopic examination, patients were assigned to one of the following groups: (i) no chondral damage (n = 18); (ii) chondral damage graded from I to II (n = 15); and (iii) chondral damage graded from III to IV (n = 37). In all groups, levels of IL-10 and inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 where greater compared with those reported in the intact population; by contrast, levels of IL-1ra and IL-1β were significantly lower. Interestingly, IL-6 levels were higher in female than male patients. Cytokine levels did not correlate with degree of chondral damage. IL-6 and IL-1ra levels positively correlated with IL-1β, and negatively correlated with TNF-α. Interestingly, levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were inversely correlated. Our data demonstrate increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) in the chronic phase of meniscal trauma. This pro-inflammatory state is maintained in the joint from the time of initial injury to several months later and could be a key factor in hampering cartilage regeneration. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:340-346, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Patient-reported outcome measures for patients with meniscal tears: a systematic review of measurement properties and evaluation with the COSMIN checklist

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Robert; Beard, David J; Price, Andrew J; Hopewell, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Objective Meniscal tears occur frequently in the population and the most common surgical treatment, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, is performed in approximately two million cases worldwide each year. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise and critically appraise the evidence for the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with meniscal tears. Design A systematic review was undertaken. Data on reported measurement properties were extracted and the quality of the studies appraised according to Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments. Data sources A search of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and PsycINFO, unlimited by language or publication date (last search 20 February 2017). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Development and validation studies reporting the measurement properties of PROMs in patients with meniscal tears were included. Results 11 studies and 10 PROMs were included. The overall quality of studies was poor. For measurement of symptoms and functional status, there is only very limited evidence supporting the selection of either the Lysholm Knee Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form or the Dutch version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. For measuring health-related quality of life, only limited evidence supports the selection of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET). Of all the PROMs evaluated, WOMET has the strongest evidence for content validity. Conclusion For patients with meniscal tears, there is poor quality and incomplete evidence regarding the validity of the currently available PROMs. Further research is required to ensure these PROMs truly reflect the symptoms, function and quality of life of patients with meniscal tears. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017056847. PMID:29030413

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of the Thessaly test, standardised clinical history and other clinical examination tests (Apley's, McMurray's and joint line tenderness) for meniscal tears in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Blyth, Mark; Anthony, Iain; Francq, Bernard; Brooksbank, Katriona; Downie, Paul; Powell, Andrew; Jones, Bryn; MacLean, Angus; McConnachie, Alex; Norrie, John

    2015-08-01

    taking were significant predictors of MRI diagnosis. No physical tests were significant predictors of MRI diagnosis in our multivariate models. The specificity of MRI diagnosis was tested in subgroup of patients who went on to have a knee arthroscopy and was found to be low [0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.77)], although the sensitivity was 1.0. The Thessaly test was no better at diagnosing meniscal tears than other established physical tests. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of all physical tests was too low to be of routine clinical value as an alternative to MRI. Caution needs to be exercised in the indiscriminate use of MRI scanning in the identification of meniscal tears in the diagnosis of the painful knee, due to the low specificity seen in the presence of concomitant knee pathology. Further research is required to determine the true diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of MRI for the detection of meniscal tears. Current Controlled Trial ISRCTN43527822. The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

  2. Advances in Meniscal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Forriol, Francisco; Romeo, Giovanni; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common knee injuries and have a poor ability of healing. In the last few decades, several techniques have been increasingly used to optimize meniscal healing. Current research efforts of tissue engineering try to combine cell-based therapy, growth factors, gene therapy, and reabsorbable scaffolds to promote healing of meniscal defects. Preliminary studies did not allow to draw definitive conclusions on the use of these techniques for routine management of meniscal lesions. We performed a review of the available literature on current techniques of tissue engineering for the management of meniscal tears. PMID:25098366

  3. Medial meniscal posterior root/horn radial tears correlate with cartilage degeneration detected by T1ρ relaxation mapping.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Mori, Atsushi; Sato, Akiko; Majima, Tokifumi; Takai, Shinro

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify factors on routine pulse sequence MRI associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. This study included 137 subjects with knee pain. T1ρ values were measured in the regions of interest on the surface layer of the cartilage on mid-coronal images of the femorotibial joint. Assessment of cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and ligaments was performed using routine pulse sequence MRI. Radiographic evaluation for osteoarthritis was also performed. Multiple regression analysis revealed posterior root/horn tears to be independent factors increasing the T1ρ values of the cartilage in the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint. Even when adjusted for radiographically defined early-stage osteoarthritis, medial posterior meniscal radial tears significantly increased the T1ρ values. This study showed that posterior root/horn radial tears in the medial meniscus are particularly important MRI findings associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. Morphological factors of the medial meniscus on MRI provide findings useful for screening early-stage osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient-reported symptoms and changes up to 1 year after meniscal surgery.

    PubMed

    Skou, Søren T; Pihl, Kenneth; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Uffe; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2018-06-01

    Background and purpose - Detailed information on the symptoms and limitations that patients with meniscal tears experience is lacking. This study was undertaken to map the most prevalent self-reported symptoms and functional limitations among patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery and investigate which symptoms and limitations had improved most at 1 year after surgery. Patients and methods - Patients aged 18-76 years from the Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS) undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery were included in this analysis of individual subscale items from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and 1 question on knee stability. Severity of each item was scored as none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme. Improvements were evaluated using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and effect size (ES). Results - The most common symptoms were knee grinding and clicking, knee pain in general, pain when twisting and bending the knee and climbing stairs (88-98%), while the most common functional limitations were difficulty bending to the floor, squatting, twisting, kneeling, and knee awareness (97-99%). Knee pain in general and knee awareness improved most 1 year after meniscal surgery (ES -0.47 and -0.45; p < 0.001), while knee instability and general knee difficulties improved least (ES 0.10 and -0.08; p < 0.006). Interpretation - Adults undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear commonly report clinical symptoms and functional limitations related to their daily activities. Moderate improvements were observed in some symptoms and functional limitations and small to no improvement in others at 1 year after surgery. These findings can assist the clinical discussion of symptoms, treatments, and patients' expectations.

  5. Effect of radial meniscal tear on in situ forces of meniscus and tibiofemoral relationship.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yuta; Mae, Tatsuo; Fujie, Hiromichi; Shino, Konsei; Ohori, Tomoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the effect of the radial tear of the lateral meniscus on the in situ meniscus force and the tibiofemoral relationship under axial loads and valgus torques. Ten intact porcine knees were settled to a 6-degree of freedom robotic system, while the force and 3-dimensional path of the knees were recorded via Universal Force Sensor (UFS) during 3 cycles of 250-N axial load and 5-Nm valgus torque at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of knee flexion. The same examination was performed on the following 3 meniscal states sequentially; 33, 66, and 100% width of radial tears at the middle segment of the lateral meniscus, while recording the force and path of the knees via UFS. Finally, all paths were reproduced after total lateral meniscectomy and the in situ force of the lateral meniscus were calculated with the principle of superposition. The radial tear of 100% width significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused tibial medial shift and valgus rotation at 30°-60° of knee flexion in both testing protocols. Under a 250-N axial load at 60° of knee flexion, the in situ force decreased to 36 ± 29 N with 100% width of radial tear, which was 122 ± 38 N in the intact state. Additionally, the tibia shifted medially by 2.1 ± 0.9 mm and valgusrotated by 2.5 ± 1.9° with the complete radial tear. However, the radial tear of 33 or 66% width had little effect on either the in situ force or the tibial position. A radial tear of 100% width involving the rim significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused medial shift and valgus rotation of the tibia, whereas a radial tear of up to 66% width produced only little change. The clinical relevance is that loss of meniscal functions due to complete radial tear can lead to abnormal stress concentration in a focal area of cartilage and can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future.

  6. A novel hypothesis: The application of platelet-rich plasma can promote the clinical healing of white-white meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li-Cheng; Gao, Shu-Guang; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Summary The white-white tears (meniscus lesion completely in the avascular zone) are without blood supply and theoretically cannot heal. Basal research has demonstrated that menisci are unquestionably important in load bearing, load redistribution, shock absorption, joint lubrication and the stabilization of the knee joint. It has been proven that partial or all-meniscusectomy results in an accelerated degeneration of cartilage and an increased rate of early osteoarthritis. Knee surgeons must face the difficult decision of removing or, if possible, retaining the meniscus; if it is possible to retain the meniscus, surgeons must address the difficulties of meniscal healing. Some preliminary approaches have progressed to improve meniscal healing. However, the problem of promoting meniscal healing in the avascular area has not yet been resolved. The demanding nature of the approach as well as its low utility and efficacy has impeded the progress of these enhancement techniques. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentration derived from autologous blood. In recent years, PRP has been used widely in preclinical and clinical applications for bone regeneration and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesize that the application of platelet-rich plasma for white-white meniscal tears will be a simple and novel technique of high utility in knee surgery. PMID:22847210

  7. A novel arthroscopic all-inside suture technique using the Fast-Fix 360 system for repairing horizontal meniscal tears in young athletes

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Hara, Kunio; Arai, Yuji; Yamada, Manabu; Mizoshiri, Naoki; Kamitani, Aguri; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Considering the risk of osteoarthritis following resection of a horizontally torn meniscus of the knee, repairing and preserving the meniscus as much as possible is preferred. We report 3 cases of restoration of horizontally torn menisci using a novel arthroscopic method we have called “all-inside interleaf vertical suture” that afforded preservation. Patient concerns: The 3 patients (aged 14, 17, and 21 years) had knee pain through sports activity. Diagnoses: All patients had horizontal tears in the posteromedial part of the meniscus. Interventions: The method uses Fast-Fix, whereby a first anchor is inserted from the tibial surface of the tear's superior leaflet and a second anchor is inserted from the femoral surface of the tear's inferior leaflet, and the 2 leaflets are closed using vertical suture. In all cases, the suture knots were embedded between the superior leaflet and inferior leaflet, avoiding contact with the articular cartilage, and superior leaflet and inferior leaflet crimping was good. Outcomes: All 3 were able to resume competing in sport and ≥ 1 year after surgery they had no pain and their postoperative mean Lysholm scores were 99.7. There were no complications or recurrence. On magnetic resonance imaging, the signal intensity of all the horizontal tears was high before surgery but low after surgery, suggesting that the repaired tear was healing. Lessons: The all-inside interleaf vertical suture procedure is a new surgical technique that can repair posteromedial horizontal meniscal tears of the knee of young people by easy crimping of the superior and inferior leaflets without the suture knots causing complications. PMID:29443758

  8. The Value of History, Physical Examination, and Radiographic Findings in the Diagnosis of Symptomatic Meniscal Tear among Middle-Age Subjects with Knee Pain

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Jeffrey N.; Smith, Savannah R.; Yang, Heidi Y.; Martin, Scott D.; Wright, John; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A.; Losina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of clinical history, radiographic and physical exam findings in the diagnosis of symptomatic meniscal tear (SMT) in patients over age 45, in whom concomitant osteoarthritis is prevalent. Methods In a cross-sectional study of patients from two orthopedic surgeons’ clinics we assessed clinical history, physical examination and radiographic findings in patients over 45 with knee pain. The orthopedic surgeons rated their confidence that subjects’ symptoms were due to MT; we defined the diagnosis of SMT as at least 70% confidence. We used logistic regression to identify factors independently associated with diagnosis of SMT and we used the regression results to construct an index of the likelihood of SMT. Results In 174 participants, six findings were associated independently with the expert clinician having ≥70% confidence that symptoms were due to MT: localized pain, ability to fully bend the knee, pain duration <1 year, lack of varus alignment, lack of pes planus, and absence of joint space narrowing on radiographs. The index identified a low risk group with 3% likelihood of SMT. Conclusion While clinicians traditionally rely upon mechanical symptoms in this diagnostic setting, our findings did not support the conclusion that mechanical symptoms were associated with the expert’s confidence that symptoms were due to MT. An index that includes history of localized pain, full flexion, duration <1 year, pes planus, varus alignment, and joint space narrowing can be used to stratify patients according to their risk of SMT and it identifies a subgroup with very low risk. PMID:27390312

  9. Arthroscopic Treatment of Discoid Lateral Meniscus Tears in Children With Achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Alfred; Wallace, Maegen; Bober, Michael B; Mackenzie, William

    2016-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia that presents to the pediatric orthopaedist. More than half of achondroplasia patients are affected with knee pain. It is thought that the majority of this pain may be due to spinal stenosis, hip pathology, or knee malalignment. Discoid menisci can be a source of lateral knee joint pain in skeletally immature patients in general. We present the first case series of patients with achondroplasia who had symptomatic discoid lateral menisci treated with arthroscopic knee surgery. The charts of 6 patients (8 knees) with achondroplasia who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery for symptomatic discoid lateral menisci were collected. History and physical examination data, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and operative reports were reviewed. Meniscal tear configuration and treatment type (meniscectomy vs. repair) were noted. Each patient was found to have a tear of the discoid meniscus. All menisci were treated with saucerization. In addition, meniscal repair was performed in 2 cases, partial meniscectomy in 3 cases, and subtotal meniscectomy in 3 cases. Two patients had bilateral discoid meniscal tears which were treated. Average follow-up was 2.4 years (range, 1 to 4.5 y) and the average pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (pedi-IKDC) score was 85.3% (range, 75% to 95.4%). At final follow-up, all patients were pain free and able to return to full activities. Discoid meniscus tears may be a source of lateral joint line pain in patients with achondroplasia. These injuries can be successfully treated with arthroscopic surgery in this patient population. Future studies need to be done to determine the exact incidence of discoid menisci in achondroplasia patients and also to determine whether there is a genetic relationship between the 2 conditions. Level IV-case series.

  10. Cost effectiveness of meniscal allograft for torn discoid lateral meniscus in young women.

    PubMed

    Ramme, Austin J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Gold, Heather T

    2016-09-01

    A discoid meniscus is more prone to tears than a normal meniscus. Patients with a torn discoid lateral meniscus are at increased risk for early onset osteoarthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Optimal management for this condition is controversial given the up-front cost difference between the two treatment options: the more expensive meniscal allograft transplantation compared with standard partial meniscectomy. We hypothesize that meniscal allograft transplantation following excision of a torn discoid lateral meniscus is more cost-effective compared with partial meniscectomy alone because allografts will extend the time to TKA. A decision analytic Markov model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of two treatments for symptomatic, torn discoid lateral meniscus: meniscal allograft and partial meniscectomy. Probability estimates and event rates were derived from the scientific literature, and costs and benefits were discounted by 3%. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to test model robustness. Over 25 years, the partial meniscectomy strategy cost $10,430, whereas meniscal allograft cost on average $4040 more, at $14,470. Partial meniscectomy postponed TKA an average of 12.5 years, compared with 17.30 years for meniscal allograft, an increase of 4.8 years. Allograft cost $842 per-year-gained in time to TKA. Meniscal allografts have been shown to reduce pain and improve function in patients with discoid lateral meniscus tears. Though more costly, meniscal allografts may be more effective than partial meniscectomy in delaying TKA in this model. Additional future long term clinical studies will provide more insight into optimal surgical options.

  11. Epidemiology of isolated meniscal injury and its effect on performance in athletes from the National Basketball Association.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter C; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen; Vitti, Gary; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The current incidence and outcomes of meniscal injury have not been quantified in professional athletes. To describe the incidence, risk, amount of time lost, and effect on performance for isolated meniscal injury in athletes from the National Basketball Association (NBA). Demographic factors predicting the risk of meniscal tears and the effect of injury in return to play were also investigated. Descriptive epidemiology study. A centralized database was queried to identify meniscal injuries occurring in the NBA over 21 seasons. The frequency of injury, time lost, game exposures, and incidence, rate, and risk were calculated. The preinjury and postinjury player efficiency rating (PER) was used to identify changes in player performance. We identified 129 isolated meniscal tears in NBA athletes during a 21-season span. From this number, 77 (59.7%) involved the lateral meniscus and 52 (40.3%) the medial meniscus. Injuries occurred more frequently in games. The lateral meniscus had a statistically significant higher injury rate. Both left and right knees were equally affected. The number of days missed for lateral meniscal tears and medial meniscal tears was 43.8 ± 35.7 days and 40.9 ± 29.7 days, respectively, and was not statistically different. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and rate of lateral meniscal tears, with lateral meniscal tears more likely to occur up to age 30 years; beyond that medial meniscal tears were more common. Players with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 had a significantly increased risk of meniscal tears compared with players with a BMI less than 25, specifically with an increased risk of lateral meniscal tears. Twenty-five players (19.4%) did not return to play. For those who did, upon returning to competition, there was no statistical change in PER from their preinjury status, and the mean number of seasons completed was 4.1 ± 3.7 seasons. The lateral meniscus is more frequently torn than the medial meniscus

  12. Surgery versus physical therapy for a meniscal tear and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Brophy, Robert H; Chaisson, Christine E; de Chaves, Leigh; Cole, Brian J; Dahm, Diane L; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Guermazi, Ali; Haas, Amanda K; Jones, Morgan H; Levy, Bruce A; Mandl, Lisa A; Martin, Scott D; Marx, Robert G; Miniaci, Anthony; Matava, Matthew J; Palmisano, Joseph; Reinke, Emily K; Richardson, Brian E; Rome, Benjamin N; Safran-Norton, Clare E; Skoniecki, Debra J; Solomon, Daniel H; Smith, Matthew V; Spindler, Kurt P; Stuart, Michael J; Wright, John; Wright, Rick W; Losina, Elena

    2013-05-02

    Whether arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for symptomatic patients with a meniscal tear and knee osteoarthritis results in better functional outcomes than nonoperative therapy is uncertain. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving symptomatic patients 45 years of age or older with a meniscal tear and evidence of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis on imaging. We randomly assigned 351 patients to surgery and postoperative physical therapy or to a standardized physical-therapy regimen (with the option to cross over to surgery at the discretion of the patient and surgeon). The patients were evaluated at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference between the groups with respect to the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical-function score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) 6 months after randomization. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the mean improvement in the WOMAC score after 6 months was 20.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 23.9) in the surgical group and 18.5 (95% CI, 15.6 to 21.5) in the physical-therapy group (mean difference, 2.4 points; 95% CI, -1.8 to 6.5). At 6 months, 51 active participants in the study who were assigned to physical therapy alone (30%) had undergone surgery, and 9 patients assigned to surgery (6%) had not undergone surgery. The results at 12 months were similar to those at 6 months. The frequency of adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups. In the intention-to-treat analysis, we did not find significant differences between the study groups in functional improvement 6 months after randomization; however, 30% of the patients who were assigned to physical therapy alone underwent surgery within 6 months. (Funded by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; METEOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00597012.).

  13. Success of Meniscal Repair at ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Toman, Charles; Spindler, Kurt P.; Dunn, Warren R.; Amendola, Annunziata; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Flanigan, David; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Huston, Laura J.; Harrell, Frank E.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Meniscal repair is performed in an attempt to prevent posttraumatic arthritis resulting from meniscal dysfunction after meniscal tears. The socioeconomic implications of premature arthritis are significant in the young patient population. Investigations and techniques focusing on meniscus preservation and healing are now at the forefront of orthopaedic sports medicine. Hypothesis Concomitant meniscal repair with ACL reconstruction is a durable and successful procedure at two year follow-up. Study Design Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods All unilateral primary ACL reconstructions entered in 2002 in a prospective cohort who had meniscal repair at the time of ACLR were evaluated. Validated patient oriented outcome instruments were completed preoperatively and then again at the two-year postoperative time point. Reoperation after the index procedure was also documented and confirmed by operative reports. Results 437 unilateral primary ACL reconstructions were performed with 86 concomitant meniscal repairs (57 medial, 29 lateral) in 84 patients during the study period. Patient follow-up was obtained on 94% (81/86) of the meniscal repairs, allowing confirmation of meniscal repair success (defined as no repeat arthroscopic procedure) or failure. The overall success rate for meniscal repairs was 96% (76/79 patients) at two-year follow-up. Conclusions Meniscal repair is a successful procedure in conjunction with ACL reconstruction. When confronted with a “repairable” meniscal tear at the time of ACL reconstruction, orthopaedic surgeons can expect an estimated >90% clinical success rate at two-year follow-up using a variety of methods as shown in our study. PMID:19465734

  14. Posteromedial meniscal tears may be missed during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Adrien; Lording, Timothy D; Lustig, Sébastien; Servien, Elvire; Maubisson, Laurent; Neyret, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the benefit of using an arthroscopic intercondylar view and a posterior medial viewing portal during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the diagnosis of posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) tears. A secondary objective was to determine clinical and radiological risk factors for the PHMM. Forty-one patients undergoing isolated ACL reconstruction were prospectively evaluated. At ACL reconstruction, the PHMM was assessed using a standard 30° arthroscope in 3 sequential stages: a "classic" anterolateral portal view, an intercondylar view, and a view through a posteromedial portal. Thirty-nine patients were included (12 female patients and 27 male patients). A posteromedial tear of the medial meniscus was found in 17 patients using the anterolateral portal view. The intercondylar view identified 4 new additional lesions and extensions of 3 previously identified lesions. The posteromedial portal view identified 6 new lesions and 5 extensions of known lesions compared with the anterolateral portal view. Two lesions seen through the posteromedial portal were not identified by either the anterolateral portal view or the intercondylar view. Tears of the PHMM may be underdiagnosed by intraoperative assessment using only an anterolateral portal view during ACL reconstruction. The intercondylar view combined with a posteromedial portal aids in the diagnosis of PHMM tears and should be considered in routine ACL reconstruction to assess meniscal status, particularly when the interval from injury to surgery is prolonged. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of arthroscopic medial meniscal suture repair techniques: inside-out versus all-inside repair.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Victoroff, Brian N

    2009-11-01

    There are no reports comparing meniscal healing between inside-out and all-inside repairs using sutures. No difference in healing rate exists between meniscal repairs with inside-out and all-inside suture repair in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-eight consecutive patients underwent meniscal repairs of longitudinal tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. All-inside repair was attempted when the tears were located in the red-red zone or the ramp area of the meniscus. If a tear that was in the ramp area or red-red zone extended to the midbody of the meniscus, or if there was a tear in red-white zone, the inside-out repair technique was used. Fourteen patients had all-inside meniscal repairs, and 34 patients had inside-out meniscal repairs with absorbable sutures. Identical postoperative rehabilitation protocols were used. Postoperative evaluations included Lysholm knee scoring scale, Tegner activity levels, Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and KT-1000 arthrometer. Assessment of meniscal status was performed using joint line tenderness, McMurray test, and range of motion. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on all patients. Mean follow-up was 35.7 months. No patient had joint line tenderness or reported pain or clicking on McMurray test. There was no significant difference in range of motion between groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that 10 (71.4%) menisci were healed and 4 (28.6%) partially healed in the all-inside group; 24 (70.6%) menisci were healed and 10 (29.4%) partially healed in the inside-out group. There was no significant difference in meniscal healing between groups. There were no differences in Lachman test, KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side differences measurements, Lysholm scores, and Tegner activity scales. There was a significant difference in

  16. Contemporary Surgical Trends in the Management of Symptomatic Meniscal Tears among United States Military Servicemembers from 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Pekari, Timothy B; Wang, Kevin C; Cotter, Eric J; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Waterman, Brian R

    2018-03-07

    The purpose of this investigation is to report on trends over time in the treatment of meniscal pathology among military orthopaedic surgeons, as well as to evaluate the impact of patient demographics and concomitant procedure on the type of meniscal procedure performed. We performed a retrospective analysis of all active-duty United States military servicemembers who underwent a meniscal procedure from 2010 to 2015 within the Military Health System. Patient demographics and surgical variables were extracted from the electronic medical record. Treatments were categorized by location and by type of intervention (i.e., repair or debridement). Chi-square and linear regression analyses were performed to identify temporal trends in meniscal procedures and factors that were correlated with the type of meniscal procedure performed. Out of 29,571 meniscal procedures analyzed, partial meniscectomy was performed in 81.3% ( n  = 24,343) of cases, meniscal repair in 20.3% ( n  = 6,073), and meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) in 0.7% ( n  = 206). The rates of debridement, repair, and concomitant surgeries did not demonstrate any significant temporal trends, whereas MAT demonstrated a significant decrease in overall utilization. Nearly two-thirds of all meniscal procedures were performed in the medial compartment. MAT occurred equally between the medial and lateral compartments. Lateral meniscal lesions demonstrated significantly higher rates of debridement. With each year of advancing age, there was a 3.7% increasing likelihood of meniscectomy and 6.5% decreasing likelihood of repair. Females were more likely to undergo meniscal repair than males. Patients in the military population were more likely to undergo meniscal repair compared with previously reported rates in the civilian population. In this physically active cohort of nearly 30,000 military patients, 1 in 5 meniscal tears were treated with meniscal repair. Meniscal repairs were performed at a higher

  17. Arthroscopic Decompression for a Giant Meniscal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Correlation of Meniscal T2* with Multiphoton Microscopy, and Change of Articular Cartilage T2 in an Ovine Model of Meniscal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Koff, Matthew F.; Shah, Parina; Pownder, Sarah; Romero, Bethsabe; Williams, Rebecca; Gilbert, Susannah; Maher, Suzanne; Fortier, Lisa A.; Rodeo, Scott A.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To correlate meniscal T2* relaxation times using ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with quantitative microscopic methods, and to determine the effect of meniscal repair on post-operative cartilage T2 values. Design A medial meniscal tear was created and repaired in the anterior horn of one limb of 28 crossbred mature ewes. MR scans for morphological evaluation, meniscal T2* values, and cartilage T2 values were acquired at 0, 4 and 8 months post-operatively for the Tear and Non-Op limb. Samples of menisci from both limbs were analyzed using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) analysis and biomechanical testing. Results Significantly prolonged meniscal T2* values were found in repaired limbs than in control limbs, p<0.0001. No regional differences of T2* were detected for either the repaired or control limbs in the anterior horn. Repaired limbs had prolonged cartilage T2 values, primarily anteriorly, and tended to have lower biomechanical force to failure at 8 months than Non-Op limbs. MPM autofluorescence and second harmonic generation data correlated with T2* values at 8 months (ρ=−0.48, p=0.06). Conclusions T2* mapping is sensitive to detecting temporal and zonal differences of meniscal structure and composition. Meniscal MPM and cartilage T2 values indicate changes in tissue integrity in the presence of meniscal repair. PMID:23680878

  19. Posterior root tear of the medial and lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wolf; Forkel, Philipp; Feucht, Matthias J; Zantop, Thore; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U

    2014-02-01

    An avulsion of the tibial insertion of the meniscus or a radial tear close to the meniscal insertion is defined as a root tear. In clinical practice, the incidence of these lesions is often underestimated. However, several biomechanical studies have shown that the effect of a root tear is comparable to a total meniscectomy. Clinical studies documented progredient arthritic changes following root tears, thereby supporting basic science studies. The clinical diagnosis is limited by unspecific symptoms. In addition to the diagnostic arthroscopy, MRI is considered to be the gold standard of diagnosis of a meniscal root tear. Three different direct MRI signs for the diagnosis of a meniscus root tear have been described: Radial linear defect in the axial plane, vertical linear defect (truncation sign) in the coronal plane, and the so-called ghost meniscus sign in the sagittal plane. Meniscal extrusion is also considered to be an indirect sign of a root tear, but is less common in lateral root tears. During arthroscopy, the function of the meniscus root must be assessed by probing. However, visualization of the meniscal insertions is challenging. Refixation of the meniscal root can be performed using a transtibial pull-out suture, suture anchors, or side-to-side repair. Several short-term studies reported good clinical results after medial or lateral root repair. Nevertheless, MRI and second-look arthroscopy revealed high rates of incomplete or absent healing, especially for medial root tears. To date, most studies are case series with short-term follow-up and level IV evidence. Outerbridge grade 3 or 4 chondral lesions and varus malalignment of >5° were found to predict an inferior clinical outcome after medial meniscus root repair. Further research is needed to evaluate long-term results and to define evident criteria for meniscal root repair.

  20. Gene Expression in Human Meniscal Tears has Limited Association with Early Degenerative Changes in Knee Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Robert H.; Sandell, Linda J.; Cheverud, James M.; Rai, Muhammad Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Purpose/Aim Meniscus tears are a common injury to the knee associated with the development of osteoarthritis. Gene expression in the injured meniscus may be associated with early degeneration in the articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that gene expression in meniscus tears is associated with early degenerative changes in the articular cartilage at the time of partial meniscectomy. Materials and Methods Torn meniscus was removed at the time of partial meniscectomy in 63 patients without radiographic osteoarthritis. Meniscal mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR for multiple molecular markers of osteoarthritis and cartilage homeostasis. The presence of early degenerative changes in the knee was recorded by X-ray (N=63), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, N=48) and arthroscopy (N=63). Gene expression was tested for correlation with the presence/absence of degenerative changes after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. Results Overall gene expression varied significantly with degenerative changes based on X-ray (P=0.047) and MRI (P=0.018). The linear combination of gene variation was also significant. However, only adiponectin (ADIPOQ) (P=0.015) was expressed at a significantly lower level in patients with chondrosis on MRI while the expression of ADIPOQ (P=0.035) and resistin (RETN) (P=0.017) was higher in patients with early degenerative changes on X-ray. Conclusions There is an overall association of gene expression in meniscal tears to early degenerative changes in the knee, but only a limited number of specific genes demonstrate this relationship. The roles of adiponectin and resistin in knee injury and osteoarthritis deserve further study. PMID:27435997

  1. Meniscus Repair in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Treatment Approaches, Meniscal Healing, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti; Murphy, Colin P; Gomes, João Luiz Ellera

    2018-05-23

    Although the consequences of traumatic meniscus tears and the importance of meniscal repair are well-established in adults, the same cannot be said for the young population. Better evidence regarding the outcomes following traumatic meniscal tears in children would improve our understanding of this increasing pathology and help define important factors in deciding the best treatment option. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE Ovid, and MEDLINE PubMed databases. Inclusion criteria were as follows: studies reporting the outcomes of meniscal repair in patients 18 years old or younger, with a minimum mean follow-up of 12 months, Portuguese, Spanish, or English languages, and human studies including 10 or more patients. Our search identified 2,534 individual titles. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies were included, evaluating 287 patients with repaired meniscal tears. All eight studies were classified as level of evidence IV. The mean methodological index for nonrandomized studies score was 8.6 ± 1.4. Meniscal repair included all meniscal zones and tear patterns. Anterior cruciate ligament tear was the most common associated injury. The all-inside and inside-out techniques were predominantly reported. The majority of the patients reported good to excellent outcomes and had clinical signals of meniscal healing; meniscectomies following meniscal repair were performed in just 44 cases. In conclusion, meniscal tears in pediatrics are not uncommon. Repairs of this injury were associated with good to excellent outcomes in most patients, regardless of the injury pattern, zone, or technique. Reported complications were minimal; however, higher quality studies are needed to confirm the findings of this systematic review. This is a systematic

  2. Does high knee flexion cause separation of meniscal repairs?

    PubMed

    Lin, David L; Ruh, Sarah S; Jones, Hugh L; Karim, Azim; Noble, Philip C; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2013-09-01

    Previous clinical studies comparing nonrestrictive and restrictive protocols after meniscal repair have shown no difference in outcomes; however, some surgeons still limit range of motion out of concern that it will place undue stress on the repair. Large acute medial meniscal tears will gap during simulated open chain exercises at high flexion angles, and a repaired construct with vertical mattress sutures will not gap. Controlled laboratory study. Tantalum beads were implanted in the medial menisci of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees via an open posteromedial approach. Each knee underwent 10 simulated open chain flexion cycles with loading of the quadriceps and hamstrings. Testing was performed on 3 different states of the meniscus: intact, torn, and repaired. Biplanar radiographs were taken of the loaded knee in 90°, 110°, and 135° of flexion for each state. A 2.5-cm tear was created in the posteromedial meniscus and repaired with inside-out vertical mattress sutures. Displacement of pairs of beads spanning the tear was measured in all planes by use of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) with an accuracy of better than 80 μm. With a longitudinal tear, compression rather than gapping occurred in all 3 regions of the posterior horn of the meniscus (mean ± standard deviation for medial collateral ligament [MCL], -321 ± 320 μm; midposterior, -487 ± 256 μm; root, -318 ± 150 μm) with knee flexion. After repair, meniscal displacement returned part way to intact values in both the MCL (+55 ± 250 μm) and root region (-170 ± 123 μm) but not the midposterior region, where further compression was seen (-661 ± 278 μm). Acute posteromedial meniscal tears and repairs with vertical mattress sutures do not gap, but rather compress in the transverse plane at higher flexion angles when subjected to physiologic loads consistent with active, open kinetic chain range of motion rehabilitation exercises. The kinematics of the repaired meniscus more closely resemble that of

  3. Meniscal healing after meniscal repair: a CT arthrography assessment.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Nicolas; Panarella, Ludovico; Selmi, Tarik Ait Si; Neyret, Philippe; Fithian, Donald; Beaufils, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Studies evaluating healing of repaired meniscus are rare and primarily retrospective. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were different healing rates for arthroscopic meniscal repair with respect to the different zones of the meniscus. This study was conducted to assess outcomes and to document anatomic characteristics of the repaired meniscus with postoperative arthrography combined with computed tomography (arthro-CT), particularly the dimensions and healing of the repaired meniscus. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-three arthroscopic meniscal repairs were prospectively evaluated between 2002 and 2004 in 2 orthopaedic departments. There were 36 medial and 17 lateral torn menisci. All ACL tears (n = 31, 58.5%) underwent reconstruction. Patients were preoperatively evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical evaluation included International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores before the operation and 6 and 12 months afterward. Healing criteria were evaluated at 6 months by arthro-CT scan. Three parameters were evaluated--healing in thickness (Henning criteria), overall healing rate, and reduction in the width of the remaining meniscus. According to the objective IKDC score, 26 patients were graded A, 20 B, and 4 C (92% good results). The mean subjective IKDC score was 78.9 (standard deviation [SD], 16.2). According to Henning's criteria, 58% of the menisci healed completely, 24% partially, and 18% failed. The overall healing rate was 73.1% (SD, 38.5). Twenty tears located in the posterior part had a healing rate of 59.8% (SD, 46.0). Nineteen tears extending from the posterior to the middle part had a healing rate of 79.2% (SD, 28.2). Isolated tears located in the posterior part had a lower healing rate (P < .05). There was a 9% +/- 1.2% reduction in the width of the remaining medial meniscus in the middle and posterior repaired portions (P < .02). There was a 15% +/- 14% reduction in the width of the remaining lateral meniscus

  4. Arthroscopic meniscal repair with use of the outside-in technique.

    PubMed

    Rodeo, S A

    2000-01-01

    The outside-in technique of arthroscopic repair is effective for repair of most meniscal tears. The overall indications for the use of this technique are similar to those for the commonly used inside-out technique. The outside-in technique is especially useful for suturing the anterior horn of the meniscus as well as for suturing meniscal replacement devices such as a collagen meniscal implant or a meniscal allograft. Other specific advantages of this technique include the ability to predictably avoid neurovascular injury without the need for a large posterior incision. A particular disadvantage is the difficulty of achieving perpendicular orientation of sutures when a tear is adjacent to the site of attachment of the posterior horn. Use of the inside-out technique or an all-inside implant is suggested for these tears. The use of this suturing technique is facilitated by attention to several technical points. The knee should be maintained in flexion for repair of tears of the lateral meniscus (to avoid injury to the peroneal nerve) and in nearly full extension for repair of the posterior aspect of the medial meniscus (to avoid injury to the saphenous nerve and its branches). Care must be taken to avoid tying the sutures around a branch of the saphenous nerve during repair of the medial meniscus. The sutures should be retrieved through a cannula in the anterior portal to avoid the entrapment of the sutures in soft tissue. A probe can be used to prevent displacement of the inner fragment of a bucket handle tear when the needles are placed across the tear, as the entering needles may push the torn fragment into the knee. A vertical suture orientation is preferred in order to evenly co-apt the meniscus to the capsule. If knot-end sutures (so-called Mulberry knots) are used, 2 sutures can be vertically stacked, with 1 on each surface of the meniscus. If a mattress suture is used, a vertical orientation is easily achieved with the outside-in technique. Use of an

  5. Diagnostic Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests for Traumatic and Degenerative Symptomatic Meniscal Tears.

    PubMed

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Frémont, Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie E; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-05-01

    The current approach to the clinical diagnosis of traumatic and degenerative symptomatic meniscal tears (SMTs) proposes combining history elements and physical examination tests without systematic prescription of imaging investigations, yet the evidence to support this diagnostic approach is scarce. To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude traumatic and degenerative SMT compared with other knee disorders. Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients were recruited from 2 orthopedic clinics, 2 family medicine clinics, and from a university community. A total of 279 consecutive patients who underwent consultation for a new knee complaint. Each patient was assessed independently by 2 evaluators. History elements and standardized physical examination tests performed by a physiotherapist were compared with the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including a clinical examination and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Participating expert physicians were orthopedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of SMT and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty patients had a diagnosis of SMT (28.7%), including 35 traumatic tears and 45 degenerative tears. The combination a history of trauma during a pivot, medial knee pain location, and a positive medial joint line tenderness test was able to diagnose (LR+ = 8.9; 95% CI 6.1-13.1) or exclude (LR- = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03-0.28) a traumatic SMT. Combining a history of

  6. Meniscal injuries in the young, athletically active patient.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Matthew R; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-02-01

    Meniscal injuries are common in young physically active individuals, particularly those who are involved in contact level 1 sports that involve frequent pivoting, such as soccer and American football. This is a unique population because of their high physical activity at a young age, and it is important that correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment are provided, as the medial and lateral menisci are essential for normal knee function. In this article, we review the anatomy and function of the meniscus, the epidemiology of meniscal tears, and mechanism(s) of injury. Important concomitant injuries are also discussed. When making a diagnosis, relevant patient history, physical examination, and appropriate imaging studies are required. Nonoperative treatment is rarely successful for treating meniscal tears in young athletes, and therefore repair of the torn menisci is often required. We also discuss partial resection (which should only be performed when repair is not possible), as well as rehabilitation protocols after repair has been performed. All of these factors associated with meniscal injuries are important for a physician when diagnosing and treating these often complex injuries.

  7. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years) and 30 years (range: 14-62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is common in

  8. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients’ ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29–71 years) and 30 years (range: 14–62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is

  9. The knee meniscus: management of traumatic tears and degenerative lesions

    PubMed Central

    Beaufils, Philippe; Becker, Roland; Kopf, Sebastian; Matthieu, Ollivier; Pujol, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Meniscectomy is one of the most popular orthopaedic procedures, but long-term results are not entirely satisfactory and the concept of meniscal preservation has therefore progressed over the years. However, the meniscectomy rate remains too high even though robust scientific publications indicate the value of meniscal repair or non-removal in traumatic tears and non-operative treatment rather than meniscectomy in degenerative meniscal lesions In traumatic tears, the first-line choice is repair or non-removal. Longitudinal vertical tears are a proper indication for repair, especially in the red-white or red-red zones. Success rate is high and cartilage preservation has been proven. Non-removal can be discussed for stable asymptomatic lateral meniscal tears in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Extended indications are now recommended for some specific conditions: horizontal cleavage tears in young athletes, hidden posterior capsulo-meniscal tears in ACL injuries, radial tears and root tears. Degenerative meniscal lesions are very common findings which can be considered as an early stage of osteoarthritis in middle-aged patients. Recent randomised studies found that arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) has no superiority over non-operative treatment. Thus, non-operative treatment should be the first-line choice and APM should be considered in case of failure: three months has been accepted as a threshold in the ESSKA Meniscus Consensus Project presented in 2016. Earlier indications may be proposed in cases with considerable mechanical symptoms. The main message remains: save the meniscus! Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160056. Originally published online at www.efortopenreviews.org PMID:28698804

  10. Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal repair in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Myung Chul; Han, Hyuk-Soo

    2018-03-20

    A case of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with meniscal repair in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient is reported. A 24-year-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta type 1a suffered from a valgus extension injury resulting in tear of ACL and medial meniscus. She underwent an arthroscopic-assisted ACL reconstruction and medial meniscus repair. Meniscal tear at the menisco-capsular junction of the posterior horn of medial meniscus was repaired with three absorbable sutures via inside-out technique. ACL reconstruction was then performed with a bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft. The patient was followed up for 1 year with intact ACL grafts and healed medial meniscus. This case report showed that successful ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair is possible in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient.Level of evidence V.

  11. Biomechanical consequences of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal root repair.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Christopher M; Foad, Abdullah; Smith, Sean D; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Dornan, Grant J; Engebretsen, Lars; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    Posterior medial meniscal root tears have been reported to extrude with the meniscus becoming adhered posteromedially along the posterior capsule. While anatomic repair has been reported to restore tibiofemoral contact mechanics, it is unknown whether nonanatomic positioning of a meniscal root repair to a posteromedial location would restore the loading profile of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to compare the tibiofemoral contact mechanics of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal tear with that of the intact knee or anatomic repair. It was hypothesized that a nonanatomic root repair would not restore the tibiofemoral contact pressures and areas to that of the intact or anatomic repair state. Controlled laboratory study. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics were recorded in 6 male human cadaveric knee specimens (average age, 45.8 years) using pressure sensors. Each knee underwent 5 testing conditions for the posterior medial meniscal root: (1) intact knee; (2) root tear; (3) anatomic transtibial pull-out repair; (4) nonanatomic transtibial pull-out repair, placed 5 mm posteromedially along the edge of the articular cartilage; and (5) root tear concomitant with an ACL tear. Knees were loaded with a 1000-N axial compressive force at 4 flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated. Contact area was significantly lower after nonanatomic repair than for the intact knee at all flexion angles (mean = 44% reduction) and significantly higher for anatomic versus nonanatomic repair at all flexion angles (mean = 27% increase). At 0° and 90°, and when averaged across flexion angles, the nonanatomic repair significantly increased mean contact pressures in comparison to the intact knee or anatomic repair. When averaged across flexion angles, the peak contact pressures after nonanatomic repair were significantly higher than the intact knee but not the anatomic repair. In contrast, when

  12. Relationship between meniscal integrity and risk factors for cartilage degeneration.

    PubMed

    Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher P; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Oh, Cheongeun; Abramson, Steven; Walker, Peter S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use MRI to determine if a loss of meniscal intra-substance integrity, as determined by T2* relaxation time, is associated with an increase of Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade, and if this was correlated with risk factors for cartilage degeneration, namely meniscal extrusion, contact area and anterior-posterior (AP) displacement. Eleven symptomatic knees with a KL 2 to 4 and 11 control knees with a KL 0 to 1 were studied. A 3 Tesla MRI scanner was used to scan all knees at 15° of flexion. With a 222N compression applied, a 3D SPACE sequence was obtained, followed by a spin echo 3D T2* mapping sequence. Next, an internal tibial torque of 5Nm was added and a second 3D SPACE sequence obtained. The MRI scans were post-processed to evaluate meniscal extrusion, contact area, AP displacement and T2* relaxation time. KL grade was correlated with T2* relaxation time for both the anterior medial meniscus (r=0.79, p<0.001) and the posterior lateral meniscus (r=0.55, p=0.009). In addition, T2* relaxation time was found to be correlated with risk factors for cartilage degeneration. The largest increases in meniscal extrusion and decreases in contact area were noted for those with meniscal tears (KL 3 to 4). All patients with KL 3 to 4 indicated evidence of meniscal tears. This suggests that a loss of meniscal integrity, in the form of intra-substance degeneration, is correlated with risk factors for cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Repair of Torn Avascular Meniscal Cartilage Using Undifferentiated Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From In Vitro Optimization to a First-in-Human Study.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Michael R; Howells, Nicholas R; Parry, Michael C; Austin, Eric; Kafienah, Wael; Brady, Kyla; Goodship, Allen E; Eldridge, Jonathan D; Blom, Ashley W; Hollander, Anthony P

    2017-04-01

    Meniscal cartilage tears are common and predispose to osteoarthritis (OA). Most occur in the avascular portion of the meniscus where current repair techniques usually fail. We described previously the use of undifferentiated autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto a collagen scaffold (MSC/collagen-scaffold) to integrate meniscal tissues in vitro. Our objective was to translate this method into a cell therapy for patients with torn meniscus, with the long-term goal of delaying or preventing the onset of OA. After in vitro optimization, we tested an ovine-MSC/collagen-scaffold in a sheep meniscal cartilage tear model with promising results after 13 weeks, although repair was not sustained over 6 months. We then conducted a single center, prospective, open-label first-in-human safety study of patients with an avascular meniscal tear. Autologous MSCs were isolated from an iliac crest bone marrow biopsy, expanded and seeded into the collagen scaffold. The resulting human-MSC/collagen-scaffold implant was placed into the meniscal tear prior to repair with vertical mattress sutures and the patients were followed for 2 years. Five patients were treated and there was significant clinical improvement on repeated measures analysis. Three were asymptomatic at 24 months with no magnetic resonance imaging evidence of recurrent tear and clinical improvement in knee function scores. Two required subsequent meniscectomy due to retear or nonhealing of the meniscal tear at approximately 15 months after implantation. No other adverse events occurred. We conclude that undifferentiated MSCs could provide a safe way to augment avascular meniscal repair in some patients. Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register, 2010-024162-22. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1237-1248. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  14. Associations of anatomical measures from MRI with radiographically defined knee osteoarthritis score, pain, and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Maryfran; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A; Jacobson, Jon A; Jiang, Yebin; Yosef, Matheos

    2011-02-02

    The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis is traditionally based on radiographic findings, but magnetic resonance imaging is now being used to provide better visualization of bone, cartilage, and soft tissues as well as the patellar compartment. The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalences of knee features defined on magnetic resonance imaging in a population and to relate these abnormalities to knee osteoarthritis severity scores based on radiographic findings, physical functioning, and reported knee pain in middle-aged women. Magnetic resonance images of the knee were evaluated for the location and severity of cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions, osteophytes, subchondral cysts, meniscal and/or ligamentous tears, effusion, and synovitis among 363 middle-aged women (724 knees) from the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. These findings were related to Kellgren-Lawrence osteoarthritis severity scores from radiographs, self-reported knee pain, self-reported knee injury, perception of physical functioning, and physical performance measures to assess mobility. Radiographs, physical performance assessment, and interviews were undertaken at the 1996 study baseline and again (with the addition of magnetic resonance imaging assessment) at the follow-up visit during 2007 to 2008. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis changed from 3.7% at the baseline assessment to 26.7% at the follow-up visit eleven years later. Full-thickness cartilage defects of the medial, lateral, and patellofemoral compartments were present in 14.5% (105 knees), 4.6% (thirty-three knees), and 26.2% (190 knees), respectively. Synovitis was identified in 24.7% (179) of the knees, and joint effusions were observed in 70% (507 knees); 21.7% (157) of the knees had complex or macerated meniscal tears. Large osteophytes, marked synovitis, macerated meniscal tears, and full-thickness tibial cartilage defects were associated with increased odds of knee pain and with

  15. Medial Meniscus Root Tear in the Middle Aged Patient: A Case Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Carreau, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biomechanical studies have shown that medial meniscal root tears result in meniscal extrusion and increased tibiofemoral joint contact pressures, which can accelerate the progression of arthritis. Repair is generally recommended for acute injuries in the young, active patient population. The far more common presentation however, is a subacute root tear with medial meniscal extrusion in a middle aged patient. Coexisting arthritis is common in this population and complicates decision making. Treatment should be based on the severity of the underlying arthritis. In cases of early or minimal arthritis, root repair is ideal to improve symptoms and restore meniscal function. In patients with moderate or severe medial compartment arthritis, medial unloader bracing or injections can be tried initially. When non-operative treatment fails, high tibial osteotomy or arthroplasty is recommended. Long term clinical studies are needed to determine the natural history of medial meniscal root tears in middle aged patients and the best surgical option. PMID:28852346

  16. A comparison of MRI findings in patients with acute and chronic ACL tears.

    PubMed

    Dimond, P M; Fadale, P D; Hulstyn, M J; Tung, G A; Greisberg, J

    1998-01-01

    This retrospective study compared the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 87 patients with acute and chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Sixty patients had acute tears and 27 had chronic tears. The appearance of the torn ligament was examined on MRI, and associated meniscal and osteochondral injuries were described. All findings were verified at arthroscopy. Acute ACL tears (MRI examination was performed within 6 weeks of injury) were typified by the presence of diffuse (58%) or focal (42%) increased signal within the ligament, whereas chronic ACL tears (MRI examination was performed more than 6 months after injury) usually appeared as either a fragmented ligament (44%) or an intact band of low signal with abnormal orientation (30%). Patients with chronic ACL tears had a higher prevalence of medial meniscal tears (78% versus 40%), articular chondromalacia, and an increased posterior cruciate bow ratio (0.47 versus 0.37) in association with chronic ACL tears. A bone bruise was seen in 68% of acute ACL tears but in no case of chronic ACL tear. On MRI, there are salient differences between acute and chronic ACL tears. Chronic ACL tears are associated with a greater prevalence of meniscal and osteochondral injuries. These findings may have implications for future treatment recommendations.

  17. The 180° spin of meniscal bearing in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Nam, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Seung Ryol; Ahn, Hye Sun

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-bearing Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been widely used and has produced good results in the treatment of medial compartmental osteoarthritis. But it is associated with the potential risk of meniscal bearing dislocation. Symptoms caused by most meniscal bearing dislocations include acute pain, knee swelling, and locking. We report two unusual cases of meniscal bearing spinning of 180° without remarkable symptoms, which would have been easily missed if we had not watched carefully. Therefore, if there is sudden locking, pain, swelling, or a slight locking history, the possibility of meniscal bearing spin out as well as meniscal bearing dislocation should be considered and the direction of meniscal bearing markers should be confirmed, especially on lateral radiographs.

  18. Outcomes after repair of chronic bucket-handle tears of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Serrano-Fernández, José Miguel; Martín-Castilla, Belén; Estades-Rubio, Francisco Javier; Briggs, Karen K; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes after repair of chronic bucket-handle medial meniscal tears by use of magnetic resonance imaging, clinical examination, and patient-reported outcomes. A retrospective review of patients with chronic bucket-handle medial meniscal tears that had been repaired with meniscal sutures was undertaken. The following criteria for inclusion were adopted: minimum tear length of 2 cm and chronic medial meniscal tear identified at the time of arthroscopy. The tears were susceptible to dislocation with probing. Data collected included demographic, clinical, radiologic, and surgical data. Postoperative healing was assessed with the clinical criteria of Barrett et al. The International Knee Documentation Committee rating, Lysholm score, and Tegner activity level were determined, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate healing in accordance with the criteria of Henning et al. Twenty-four patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean time from injury to surgery was 10 months (range, 2 to 60 months). Sixteen patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 1 patient underwent posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and 6 patients underwent meniscus repair only. A median of 5 sutures (range, 3 to 6 sutures) were used for repair. Four cases (all of which had undergone meniscus repair only) required revision. Complete healing was achieved in 83% of cases according to the criteria of Barrett et al. The mean follow-up time was 48 months (range, 24 to 112 months). An International Knee Documentation Committee rating of A or B was achieved in the 20 patients who did not require revision. The median Lysholm score was 95 (range, 92 to 100). The median Tegner activity level before injury was 7, and it remained unchanged after surgery in all cases. This study showed that repair of chronic bucket-handle meniscal tears can lead to good clinical outcomes and a relatively low (17

  19. Incomplete response to artificial tears is associated with features of neuropathic ocular pain.

    PubMed

    Galor, Anat; Batawi, Hatim; Felix, Elizabeth R; Margolis, Todd P; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Martin, Eden R; Levitt, Roy C

    2016-06-01

    Artificial tears are first-line therapy for patients with dry eye symptoms. It is not known, however, which patient factors associate with a positive response to therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether certain ocular and systemic findings are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. Cross-sectional study of 118 individuals reporting artificial tears use (hypromellose 0.4%) to treat dry eye-associated ocular pain. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms (via the dry eye questionnaire 5 and ocular surface disease index), ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints and ocular signs (tear osmolarity, tear breakup time, corneal staining, Schirmer testing with anaesthesia, and eyelid and meibomian gland assessment). The main outcome measures were factors associated with differential subjective response to artificial tears. By self-report, 23 patients reported no improvement, 73 partial improvement and 22 complete improvement in ocular pain with artificial tears. Patients who reported no or partial improvement in pain with artificial tears reported higher levels of hot-burning ocular pain and sensitivity to wind compared with those with complete improvement. Patients were also asked to rate the intensity of systemic pain elsewhere in the body (other than the eye). Patients who reported no or incomplete improvement with artificial tears had higher systemic pain scores compared with those with complete improvement. Both ocular and systemic (non-ocular) pain complaints are associated with a differential subjective response to artificial tears. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Return to play after all-inside meniscal repair in competitive football players: a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Llobet, Federico; Granados, Nelson; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Cugat, Ramón

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the mid-to-long-term return to sports after all-inside meniscal repair in competitive football players. All football players undergoing all-inside meniscal repair with a minimum Tegner activity score of 9 and minimum follow-up of 5 years were eligible for inclusion. Patients were excluded if: (a) they had ipsilateral or contralateral: meniscectomy, posterior cruciate ligament tear, multi-ligament knee injuries, osteotomies, or meniscal transplant (b) they had meniscal tears in the anterior horn, and (c) they had bucket-handle tears. All patients included were contacted by phone and asked for current sport status or Tegner score. Preoperative Tegner scores were collected from the medical charts. All patients (n = 29) were men with a median (range) age of 27 (18-37) years and a follow-up of 6 (5-8) years. All meniscal injuries were complete and longitudinal tears. The median preinjury Tegner activity score was 9 (range 9-10). Two patients required revision arthroscopy (6.7 %) with partial meniscectomy before being able to return to competitive football due to suture failure. Twenty-six patients (89.6 %) returned to the same level of competition after recovering from surgery. At the last follow-up, 13 patients (45 %) were able to continue playing football at any level, and 8 (28 %) of them were able to return to the same pre-injury competitive level. The main reasons for the decreased level of activity (from competitive to recreational) or to give up football were job-related or changes in their personal life situation, but were not related to knee or meniscal disorders. Fourteen patients underwent meniscal repair alone, whereas 15 patients had an associated ACL reconstruction procedure. There were no significant differences in the collected variables between both subgroups. All-inside meniscal repair allows for excellent results with regard to return-to-play rates in competitive football. However, only half of the

  1. The effect of a nonanatomic repair of the meniscal horn attachment on meniscal tension: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Stärke, Christian; Kopf, Sebastian; Gröbel, Karl-Heinz; Becker, Roland

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this biomechanical study was to investigate the potential effect of a nonanatomic repair of the meniscal horn attachment on the resultant circumferential tension in a large animal model and to show that the circumferential tension of the meniscus affects the local stress of the cartilage. All investigations were done in the medial compartment of porcine knees. First, the anterior horn attachment of the meniscus was mechanically separated from the surrounding tibial bone and fitted with a force transducer (n = 8). The femorotibial joint was loaded in compression at different flexion angles, and the resultant tension at the horn attachment was recorded. The measurements were done with the horn attachment at its anatomic position and repeated with the horn attachment being displaced medially or laterally by 3 mm. In the second part the local deformation of the cartilage under a femorotibial compressive load was measured at different levels of meniscal hoop tension (n = 5). A nonanatomic position of the horn attachment had a significant effect on the resultant tension (P < .01). Placing the horn attachment 3 mm medially decreased the tension at the horn attachment by 49% to 73%, depending on flexion angle and femorotibial load. The opposite placement resulted in a relative increase in the tension by 28% to 68%. Lower levels of meniscal hoop tension caused increased deformation of the cartilage (P < .05), indicating increased local stress. A nonanatomic position of the horn attachment strongly affects conversion of femorotibial loads into circumferential tension. There is a narrow window for a functionally sufficient repair of meniscal root tears. Although clinical inferences are limited because the specimens used were from a different species, there seems to be only a narrow window for a mechanically sufficient repair of root tears. Copyright 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Relationship Between Intraoperative Tear Dimensions and Postoperative Pain in 1624 Consecutive Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Daniel Y T; Walton, Judie R; Lam, Patrick; Murrell, George A C

    2017-03-01

    Rotator cuff repair often results in significant pain postoperatively, the cause of which is undetermined. Purpose/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between rotator cuff tear area and postoperative pain in patients who had undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that larger tears would be more painful because of elevated repair tension at 1 week postoperatively but that smaller tears would be more painful because of a greater healing response, especially from 6 weeks postoperatively. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1624 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included in this study. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe osteoarthritis, isolated subscapularis repair, calcific tendinitis, synthetic patch repair, revision surgery, and retears on ultrasound at 6 months after surgery. Rotator cuff tears were subdivided into groups based on the tear size and retear rate found for each group. A modified L'Insalata questionnaire was given before surgery and at 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after surgery. Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient tests were performed between rotator cuff tear areas and pain scores. Intraoperative rotator cuff tear areas did not correlate with pain scores preoperatively or at 1 week after surgery. A smaller tear area was associated with more frequent and severe pain with overhead activities, at rest, and during sleep as well as a poorer perceived overall shoulder condition at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after repair ( r = 0.11-0.23, P < .0001). Patients who were younger, had partial-thickness tears, and had occupational injuries experienced more pain postoperatively ( r = 0.10-0.28, P < .0001). Larger tears did not have more pain at 1 week after surgery. The retear rate was 7% in tears <2 cm 2 but reached 44% in tears >8 cm 2 . There were fewer retears with smaller tears, but they were more painful than large tears postoperatively

  3. [Diagnostic value of MRI for posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Qian, Yue-Nan; Liu, Fang; Dong, Yi-Long; Cai, Chun-Yuan

    2018-03-25

    To explore diagnostic value of MRI on posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus. From January 2012 to January 2016, clinical data of 43 patients with meniscal posterior root tear confirmed by arthroscopy were retrospective analyzed, including 25 males and 18 females, aged from 27 to 69 years old with an average age of(42.5±8.3)years old;27 cases on the right side and 16 cases on the left side. MRI examinations of 43 patients with tear of posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. MRI images were double-blinded, independently, retrospectively scored by two imaging physicians. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI diagnosis of lateral and medial meniscus posterior root tear were calculated, and knee ligament injury and meniscal dislocation were calculated. Forty-three of 143 patients were diagnosed with meniscus posterior root tears by arthroscopy, including 19 patients with lateral tears and 24 patients with medial tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior medial meniscus root tears for doctor A were 91.67%, 86.6% and 83.9% respectively, and for doctor B were 87.5%, 87.4% and 87.4%, 19 patients with medial meniscal protrusion and 2 patients with anterior cruciate ligament tear. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior lateral meniscus root tears for doctor A were 73.7%, 79.9% and 79% respectively, and for doctor B were 78.9%, 82.3% and 82.5%, 4 patients with lateral meniscus herniation and 16 patients with cruciate ligament tear. Kappa statistics for posterior medial meniscus root tears and posterior lateral meniscus root tears were 0.84 and 0.72. MRI could effectively demonstrate imaging features of medial and lateral meniscal root tear and its accompanying signs. It could provide the basis for preoperative diagnosis of clinicians, and be worthy to be popularized. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  4. A Computer-Aided Type-II Fuzzy Image Processing for Diagnosis of Meniscus Tear.

    PubMed

    Zarandi, M H Fazel; Khadangi, A; Karimi, F; Turksen, I B

    2016-12-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the prevalent knee disorders among young athletes and the aging population, and requires correct diagnosis and surgical intervention, if necessary. Not only the errors followed by human intervention but also the obstacles of manual meniscal tear detection highlight the need for automatic detection techniques. This paper presents a type-2 fuzzy expert system for meniscal tear diagnosis using PD magnetic resonance images (MRI). The scheme of the proposed type-2 fuzzy image processing model is composed of three distinct modules: Pre-processing, Segmentation, and Classification. λ-nhancement algorithm is used to perform the pre-processing step. For the segmentation step, first, Interval Type-2 Fuzzy C-Means (IT2FCM) is applied to the images, outputs of which are then employed by Interval Type-2 Possibilistic C-Means (IT2PCM) to perform post-processes. Second stage concludes with re-estimation of "η" value to enhance IT2PCM. Finally, a Perceptron neural network with two hidden layers is used for Classification stage. The results of the proposed type-2 expert system have been compared with a well-known segmentation algorithm, approving the superiority of the proposed system in meniscal tear recognition.

  5. Posterior Meniscal Root Repairs: Outcomes of an Anatomic Transtibial Pull-Out Technique.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Robert F; Matheny, Lauren M; Moulton, Samuel G; James, Evan W; Dean, Chase S

    2017-03-01

    Outcomes after transtibial pull-out repair for posterior meniscal root tears remain underreported, and factors that may affect outcomes are unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare patient-centered outcomes after transtibial pull-out repair for posterior root tears in patients <50 and ≥50 years of age. We hypothesized that improvement in function and activity level at minimum 2-year follow-up would be similar among patients <50 years of age compared with patients ≥50 years and among patients undergoing medial versus lateral root repairs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 18 years or older who underwent anatomic transtibial pull-out repair of the medial or lateral posterior meniscus root by a single surgeon. All patients were identified from a data registry consisting of prospectively collected data in a consecutive series. Cohorts were analyzed by age (<50 years [n = 35] vs ≥50 years [n = 15]) and laterality (lateral [n = 15] vs medial [n = 35]). Patients completed a subjective questionnaire preoperatively and at minimum of 2 years postoperatively (Lysholm, Tegner, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], and patient satisfaction with outcome). Failure was defined as revision meniscal root repair or partial meniscectomy. The analysis included 50 knees in 49 patients (16 females, 33 males; mean age, 38.3 years; mean body mass index, 26.6). Of the 50 knees, 45 were available for analysis. Three of 45 (6.7%) required revision surgery. All failures were in patients <50 years old, and all failures underwent medial root repair. No significant difference in failure was found based on age ( P=.541) or laterality ( P = .544). For age cohorts, Lysholm and WOMAC scores demonstrated significant postoperative improvement. For laterality cohorts, all functional scores significantly improved postoperatively. No significant difference

  6. Evaluation of acute knee pain in primary care.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jeffrey L; O'Malley, Patrick G; Kroenke, Kurt

    2003-10-07

    The evaluation of acute knee pain often includes radiography of the knee. To synthesize the literature to determine the role of radiologic procedures in evaluating common causes of acute knee pain: fractures, meniscal or ligamentous injuries, osteoarthritis, and pseudogout. MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2002. We included all published, peer-reviewed studies of decision rules for fractures. We included studies that used arthroscopy as the gold standard for measuring the accuracy of the physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for meniscal and ligamentous knee damage. We included all studies on the use of radiographs in pseudogout. We extracted all data in duplicate and abstracted physical examination and MRI results into 2 x 2 tables. Among the 5 decision rules for deciding when to use plain films in knee fractures, the Ottawa knee rules (injury due to trauma and age >55 years, tenderness at the head of the fibula or the patella, inability to bear weight for 4 steps, or inability to flex the knee to 90 degrees) have the strongest supporting evidence. When the history suggests a potential meniscal or ligamentous injury, the physical examination is moderately sensitive (meniscus, 87%; anterior cruciate ligament, 74%; and posterior cruciate ligament, 81%) and specific (meniscus, 92%; anterior cruciate ligament, 95%; and posterior cruciate ligament, 95%). The Lachman test is more sensitive and specific for ligamentous tears than is the drawer sign. For meniscal tears, joint line tenderness is sensitive (75%) but not specific (27%), while the McMurray test is specific (97%) but not sensitive (52%). Compared with the physical examination, MRI is more sensitive for ligamentous and meniscal damage but less specific. When the differential diagnosis for acute knee pain includes an exacerbation of osteoarthritis, clinical features (age >50 years, morning stiffness <30 minutes, crepitus, or bony enlargement) are 89% sensitive and 88% specific for

  7. Symptoms of Pain Do Not Correlate with Rotator Cuff Tear Severity

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Warren R.; Kuhn, John E.; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bishop, Julie Y.; Brophy, Robert H.; Carey, James L.; Holloway, G. Brian; Jones, Grant L.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Marx, Robert G.; McCarty, Eric C.; Poddar, Sourav K.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spencer, Edwin E.; Vidal, Armando F.; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For many orthopaedic disorders, symptoms correlate with disease severity. The objective of this study was to determine if pain level is related to the severity of rotator cuff disorders. Methods: A cohort of 393 subjects with an atraumatic symptomatic full-thickness rotator-cuff tear treated with physical therapy was studied. Baseline pretreatment data were used to examine the relationship between the severity of rotator cuff disease and pain. Disease severity was determined by evaluating tear size, retraction, superior humeral head migration, and rotator cuff muscle atrophy. Pain was measured on the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) in the patient-reported American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. A linear multiple regression model was constructed with use of the continuous VAS score as the dependent variable and measures of rotator cuff tear severity and other nonanatomic patient factors as the independent variables. Forty-eight percent of the patients were female, and the median age was sixty-one years. The dominant shoulder was involved in 69% of the patients. The duration of symptoms was less than one month for 8% of the patients, one to three months for 22%, four to six months for 20%, seven to twelve months for 15%, and more than a year for 36%. The tear involved only the supraspinatus in 72% of the patients; the supraspinatus and infraspinatus, with or without the teres minor, in 21%; and only the subscapularis in 7%. Humeral head migration was noted in 16%. Tendon retraction was minimal in 48%, midhumeral in 34%, glenohumeral in 13%, and to the glenoid in 5%. The median baseline VAS pain score was 4.4. Results: Multivariable modeling, controlling for other baseline factors, identified increased comorbidities (p = 0.002), lower education level (p = 0.004), and race (p = 0.041) as the only significant factors associated with pain on presentation. No measure of rotator cuff tear severity correlated with pain (p > 0.25). Conclusions

  8. Changes in Contact Area in Meniscus Horizontal Cleavage Tears Subjected to Repair and Resection.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Brandon S; Walley, Kempland C; Okajima, Stephen; Manoukian, Ohan S; Perez-Viloria, Miguel; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J; Nazarian, Ara

    2017-03-01

    To assess the changes in tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area in human knees with a horizontal cleavage tear before and after treatment. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested. Pressure sensors were placed under the medial meniscus and the knees were loaded at twice the body weight for 20 cycles at 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion. Contact area and pressure were recorded for the intact meniscus, the meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear, after meniscal repair, after partial meniscectomy (single leaflet), and after subtotal meniscectomy (double leaflet). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced effective average tibiofemoral contact area at all flexion angles tested compared with the intact state (P < .03). There was approximately a 70% increase in contact pressure after creation of the horizontal cleavage tear. Repairing the horizontal cleavage tear restored peak contact pressures and areas to within 15% of baseline, statistically similar to the intact state at all angles tested (P < .05). Partial meniscectomy and subtotal meniscectomy significantly increased average peak contact pressure and reduced average contact area at all degrees of flexion compared with the intact state (P < .05). The presence of a horizontal cleavage tear in the medial meniscus causes a significant reduction in contact area and a significant elevation in contact pressure. These changes may accelerate joint degeneration. A suture-based repair of these horizontal cleavage tears returns the contact area and contact pressure to nearly normal, whereas both partial and subtotal meniscectomy lead to significant reductions in contact area and significant elevations in contact pressure within the knee. Repairing horizontal cleavage tears may lead to improved clinical outcomes by preserving meniscal tissue and the meniscal function. Understanding contact area and peak contact pressure resulting from differing strategies

  9. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells or meniscal cells: what is the best cell source for regenerative meniscus treatment in an early osteoarthritis situation?

    PubMed

    Zellner, Johannes; Pattappa, Girish; Koch, Matthias; Lang, Siegmund; Weber, Johannes; Pfeifer, Christian G; Mueller, Michael B; Kujat, Richard; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2017-10-10

    Treatment of meniscus tears within the avascular region represents a significant challenge, particularly in a situation of early osteoarthritis. Cell-based tissue engineering approaches have shown promising results. However, studies have not found a consensus on the appropriate autologous cell source in a clinical situation, specifically in a challenging degenerative environment. The present study sought to evaluate the appropriate cell source for autologous meniscal repair in a demanding setting of early osteoarthritis. A rabbit model was used to test autologous meniscal repair. Bone marrow and medial menisci were harvested 4 weeks prior to surgery. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and meniscal cells were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds before implantation. A punch defect model was performed on the lateral meniscus and then a cell-seeded scaffold was press-fit into the defect. Following 6 or 12 weeks, gross joint morphology and OARSI grade were assessed, and menisci were harvested for macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation using a validated meniscus scoring system. In conjunction, human meniscal cells isolated from non-repairable bucket handle tears and human MSCs were expanded and, using the pellet culture model, assessed for their meniscus-like potential in a translational setting through collagen type I and II immunostaining, collagen type II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and gene expression analysis. After resections of the medial menisci, all knees showed early osteoarthritic changes (average OARSI grade 3.1). However, successful repair of meniscus punch defects was performed using either meniscal cells or MSCs. Gross joint assessment demonstrated donor site morbidity for meniscal cell treatment. Furthermore, human MSCs had significantly increased collagen type II gene expression and production compared to meniscal cells (p < 0.05). The regenerative potential of the

  10. Complex Meniscus Tears Treated with Collagen Matrix Wrapping and Bone Marrow Blood Injection

    PubMed Central

    Piontek, Tomasz; Ciemniewska-Gorzela, Kinga; Naczk, Jakub; Jakob, Roland; Szulc, Andrzej; Grygorowicz, Monika; Slomczykowski, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Objective To collect and analyze the 2-year follow-up clinical and MRI results of patients treated with an arthroscopic technique of collagen membrane-based meniscus repair. Design 53 consecutive patients with combined (horizontal and radial or longitudinal component) and complex meniscal tears (tear extended through avascular zones or/and composed with two or more morphological tear pattern) were treated with an “all-inside” arthroscopic suture of meniscus and wrapping with a collagen membrane (Chondro-Gide) technique with bone marrow blood injection. The IKDC 2000 subjective score, IKDC 2000 clinical evaluation score, Lysholm score and Barret clinical criteria of meniscal healing were recorded. All patients were examinated by MRI 2 years postoperatively, using modified WORMS criteria for meniscal integrity. Results The 2 year follow-up was achieved in 50 cases. Of these, 2 patients were excluded from the evaluation due to incomplete data and 2 patients underwent partial meniscectomy and were classified as failures. In 46 patients (86.8% of the intended to treat cases), a statistically significant improvement in IKDC 2000 subjective, Lysholm scores and IKDC 2000 clinical assessment between preoperative and the 2-year follow-up time points were obsereved. Barret criteria demonstrated an improved clinical outcome between pre- and post-operative values. MRI revealed a non-homogeneous signal without meniscal tear (WORMS grade 1) in 76% of the operated menisci (13% WORMS grade 2). Conclusions The 2-year follow-up data demonstrate that this technique is safe and can offer an additional tool to save the meniscus in the patients otherwise scheduled for meniscal removal. Level of evidence IV PMID:27047635

  11. Meniscal Extrusion Progresses Shortly after the Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Hino, Tomohito; Okazaki, Yoshiki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-12-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) induce medial meniscus extrusion (MME). However, the time-dependent extent of MME in patients suffering from the MMPRT remains unclear. This study evaluated the extent of MME after painful popping events that occurred at the onset of the MMPRT. Thirty-five patients who had an episode of posteromedial painful popping were investigated. All the patients were diagnosed as having an MMPRT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 12 months after painful popping. Medial meniscus body width (MMBW), absolute MME, and relative MME (100×absolute MME/MMBW) were assessed among three groups divided according to the time after painful popping events: early period (〈1 month), subacute period (1-3 months), and chronic period (4-12 months). In the early period, absolute and relative MMEs were 3.0 mm and 32.7%, respectively. Absolute MME increased up to 4.2 mm and 5.8 mm during the subacute and chronic periods, respectively. Relative MME also progressed to 49.2% and 60.3% in the subacute and chronic periods, respectively. This study demonstrated that absolute and relative MMEs increased progressively within the short period after the onset of symptomatic MMPRT. Our results suggest that early diagnosis of an MMPRT may be important to prevent progression of MME following the MMPRT.

  12. The Use of Blood Vessel–Derived Stem Cells for Meniscal Regeneration and Repair

    PubMed Central

    OSAWA, AKI; HARNER, CHRISTOPHER D.; GHARAIBEH, BURHAN; MATSUMOTO, TOMOYUKI; MIFUNE, YUTAKA; KOPF, SEBASTIAN; INGHAM, SHEILA J. M.; SCHREIBER, VERENA; USAS, ARVYDAS; HUARD, JOHNNY

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgical repairs of tears in the vascular region of the meniscus usually heal better than repairs performed in the avascular region; thus, we hypothesized that this region might possess a richer supply of vascular-derived stem cells than the avascular region. Methods In this study, we analyzed 6 menisci extracted from aborted human fetuses and 12 human lateral menisci extracted from adult human subjects undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Menisci were immunostained for CD34 (a stem cell marker) and CD146 (a pericyte marker) in situ, whereas other menisci were dissected into two regions (peripheral and inner) and used to isolate meniscus-derived cells by flow cytometry. Cell populations expressing CD34 and CD146 were tested for their multi-lineage differentiation potentials, including chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Fetal peripheral meniscus cells were transplanted by intracapsular injection into the knee joints of an athymic rat meniscal tear model. Rat menisci were extracted and histologically evaluated after 4 wk posttransplantation. Results Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that a higher number of CD34- and CD146-positive cells were found in the peripheral region compared with the inner region. The CD34- and CD146-positive cells isolated from the vascular region of both fetal and adult menisci demonstrated multilineage differentiation capacities and were more potent than cells isolated from the inner (avascular) region. Fetal CD34- and CD146-positive cells transplanted into the athymic rat knee joint were recruited into the meniscal tear sites and contributed to meniscus repair. Conclusions The vascularized region of the meniscus contains more stem cells than the avascular region. These meniscal-derived stem cells were multi-potent and contributed to meniscal regeneration. PMID:23247715

  13. [Meniscal lesion. A pre-osteoarthritic condition of the knee joint].

    PubMed

    Goebel, L; Reinhard, J; Madry, H

    2017-10-01

    A close relationship between meniscal damage and articular cartilage exist. Likewise, (partial) meniscectomy may lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). With a special emphasis on therapeutic consequences for orthopaedic surgeons, the structural and functional relationship between meniscal tears/extrusion and cartilage loss, and/or the effect of meniscectomy or meniscal repair on the development of OA, are emphasized. A selective literature review with implementation of own research findings. The close topographical and functional interplay between the menisci and the tibiofemoral cartilage is the basis for the clinically important relationship between meniscal damage and cartilage degeneration. In particular, due to its close connection to tibiofemoral OA, a degenerative meniscal lesion represents a pre-osteoarthritic condition. Meniscus extrusion is also often associated with tibiofemoral OA. Even large cartilage defects can cause meniscus lesions. Partial meniscectomy is strongly associated with the incidence and risk of progression of OA. Clinical results are particularly problematic after partial resection of the lateral meniscus. Although the use of arthroscopic partial resection for degenerative meniscal lesions has been controversially discussed, no long-term studies are available. A large number of studies emphasize the medium-term value of meniscus reconstruction compared to partial meniscus resection. Combined meniscus and cartilage damage are complex cases, and the value of a simultaneous therapy remains unclear. Preserving the meniscus is the first step towards cartilage repair. Randomized and controlled studies will provide better information on the long-term outcomes of meniscal resection and repair with regard to OA development.

  14. Advances and Prospects in Tissue-Engineered Meniscal Scaffolds for Meniscus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weimin; Liu, Shuyun; Zhu, Yun; Yu, Changlong; Lu, Shibi; Yuan, Mei; Huang, Jingxiang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Jifeng; Zhang, Li; Sui, Xiang; Xu, Wenjing; Guo, Quanyi

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus plays a crucial role in maintaining knee joint homoeostasis. Meniscal lesions are relatively common in the knee joint and are typically categorized into various types. However, it is difficult for inner avascular meniscal lesions to self-heal. Untreated meniscal lesions lead to meniscal extrusions in the long-term and gradually trigger the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA is complex. Partial meniscectomy, which is the primary method to treat a meniscal injury, only relieves short-term pain; however, it does not prevent the development of knee OA. Similarly, other current therapeutic strategies have intrinsic limitations in clinical practice. Tissue engineering technology will probably address this challenge by reconstructing a meniscus possessing an integrated configuration with competent biomechanical capacity. This review describes normal structure and biomechanical characteristics of the meniscus, discusses the relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA, and summarizes the classifications and corresponding treatment strategies for meniscal lesions to understand meniscal regeneration from physiological and pathological perspectives. Last, we present current advances in meniscal scaffolds and provide a number of prospects that will potentially benefit the development of meniscal regeneration methods. PMID:26199629

  15. UTE-T2* mapping detects sub-clinical meniscus injury after anterior cruciate ligament tear

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A.; Qian, Y.; Golla, S.; Chu, C.R.

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Meniscus tear is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative assessment of meniscus degeneration, prior to surface break-down, is important to identification of early disease potentially amenable to therapeutic interventions. This work examines the diagnostic potential of ultrashort echo time-enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to detect human meniscus degeneration in vitro and in vivo in subjects at risk of developing OA. Design UTE-T2* maps of 16 human cadaver menisci were compared to histological evaluations of meniscal structural integrity and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment by a musculoskeletal radiologist. In vivo UTE-T2* maps were compared in 10 asymptomatic subjects and 25 ACL-injured patients with and without concomitant meniscal tear. Results In vitro, UTE-T2* values tended to be lower in histologically and clinically normal meniscus tissue and higher in torn or degenerate tissue. UTE-T2* map heterogeneity reflected collagen disorganization. In vivo, asymptomatic meniscus UTE-T2* values were repeatable within 9% (root-mean-square average coefficient of variation). Posteromedial meniscus UTE-T2* values in ACL-injured subjects with clinically diagnosed medial meniscus tear (n = 10) were 87% higher than asymptomatics (n = 10, P < 0.001). Posteromedial menisci UTE-T2* values of ACL-injured subjects without concomitant medial meniscal tear (n = 15) were 33% higher than asymptomatics (P = 0.001). Posterolateral menisci UTE-T2* values also varied significantly with degree of joint pathology (P = 0.001). Conclusion Significant elevations of UTE-T2* values in the menisci of ACL-injured subjects without clinical evidence of subsurface meniscal abnormality suggest that UTE-T2* mapping is sensitive to subclinical meniscus degeneration. Further study is needed to determine whether elevated subsurface meniscus UTE-T2* values predict progression of meniscal degeneration and development of OA. PMID:22306000

  16. Evolution of Intrameniscal Signal-Intensity Alterations Detected on MRI Over 24 Months in Patients With Traumatic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Julio Brandao; Facchetti, Luca; Schwaiger, Benedikt J; Gersing, Alexandra S; Majumdar, Sharmila; Ma, Benjamin C; Li, Xiaojuan; Link, Thomas M

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the prevalence and evolution of intrameniscal signal-intensity alteration in subjects with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear over 24 months and compare clinical outcome and changes of cartilage between subjects with and those without this meniscal abnormality. Fifty-seven subjects with an ACL tear were screened for intrameniscal signal-intensity alteration. Morphologic and compositional MRI was performed before ACL reconstruction and 12 and 24 months after ACL reconstruction. Twelve subjects with an intrameniscal signal-intensity alteration and 12 subjects without any meniscal abnormality on MRI were identified. Clinical outcome was measured using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and T1ρ and T2 maps of the cartilage were obtained. In 10 of 12 subjects (83%) the meniscal signal-intensity abnormality identified on baseline MRI was located at the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. None of these subjects presented with a meniscal tear over 24 months of follow-up. At 12 months after the ACL tear, the intrameniscal signal-intensity alteration detected on baseline MRI had completely resolved in seven of 12 subjects (58%), showed a signal-intensity decrease in four (33%), and remained stable in one subject (8%). Of the 10 subjects who underwent MRI at 24 months, the meniscal signal-intensity alteration had completely resolved in eight (80%), and the signal intensity had decreased in the other two subjects. Changes in the KOOS and cartilage T1ρ and T2 values from baseline and 24 months did not differ significantly between subjects with and those without intrameniscal signal-intensity alteration (p > 0.05). High intrameniscal signal-intensity alterations are a common finding in subjects with an ACL tear and have a benign course over 24 months after surgical repair of the ACL tear.

  17. Efficacy of therapeutic ultrasound treatment of a meniscus tear in a severely disabled patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muché, Julie A

    2003-10-01

    This report focuses on diagnosis and management of a meniscus tear of unknown etiology in a functionally impaired patient. The patient was a 21-year-old man diagnosed with viral meningoencephalitis and postvaccinal central pontine myelinolysis, who experienced respiratory failure and required prolonged mechanical ventilation. He was in a comatose state for approximately 1.5 months. He presented to our facility 3 weeks after coma complaining of left knee pain and limited range of motion (ROM). Diagnostic workup, including magnetic resonance imaging, showed a grade II posterior horn medial meniscus tear and lateral tibial stress injury of the left knee. Management of the meniscus tear included the RICE protocol (rest, ice, compression, elevation), therapeutic ultrasound, and physical therapy. The patient responded extremely well to initial ultrasound therapy, with decreased pain and increased ROM of the left knee, which allowed him to make significant functional gains and to make overall progress in our comprehensive acute rehabilitation program. To date, nonoperative care of acute meniscal injury is commonly considered to be unsatisfactory; however, in this patient it led to rapid functional gains. Thus, therapeutic ultrasound may be a beneficial modality to decrease pain and increase ROM of the knee in an acutely torn meniscus, which, in turn, would likely promote good functional progress in any rehabilitation program.

  18. Characteristics of radial tears in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus compared to horizontal tears.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Song, In-Bum; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The clinical and radiologic features of radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn were compared with those of horizontal tears. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Among these, 91 were radial tears in the medial meniscus posterior horn, and 95 were horizontal tears in the posterior segment of the medial meniscus. The patients' data (age, gender, duration of symptom, body mass index, and injury history), radiographic findings (Kellgren and Lawrence score, posterior tibial slope, and femorotibial angle), and chondral lesions were recorded. The patient factors of age, gender, and body mass index were related to radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Radial tears were significantly correlated with Kellgren and Lawrence score, varus alignment, posterior tibial slope, and severity of the chondral lesion. Radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn are a unique clinical entity that are associated with older age, females and obesity, and are strongly associated with an increased incidence and severity of cartilage degeneration compared to horizontal tears.

  19. Wii knee revisited: meniscal injury from 10-pin bowling

    PubMed Central

    Almedghio, Sami M; Shablahidis, Odisseas; Rennie, Winston; Ashford, Robert U

    2009-01-01

    The present report concerns a 23-year-old woman who sustained an injury to her right knee while playing 10-pin bowling on a Nintendo Wii video game console. She presented to our orthopaedic outpatients clinic 3 months later with history and examination findings suggestive of a medial meniscal tear, which was confirmed by MRI scan. She underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:21686424

  20. Defining the Value of Future Research to Identify the Preferred Treatment of Meniscal Tear in the Presence of Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Dervan, Elizabeth E.; Paltiel, A. David; Dong, Yan; Wright, R. John; Spindler, Kurt P.; Mandl, Lisa A.; Jones, Morgan H.; Marx, Robert G.; Safran-Norton, Clare E.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) is extensively used to relieve pain in patients with symptomatic meniscal tear (MT) and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Recent studies have failed to show the superiority of APM compared to other treatments. We aim to examine whether existing evidence is sufficient to reject use of APM as a cost-effective treatment for MT+OA. Methods We built a patient-level microsimulation using Monte Carlo methods and evaluated three strategies: Physical therapy (‘PT’) alone; PT followed by APM if subjects continued to experience pain (‘Delayed APM’); and ‘Immediate APM’. Our subject population was US adults with symptomatic MT and knee OA over a 10 year time horizon. We assessed treatment outcomes using societal costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), incorporating productivity costs as a sensitivity analysis. We also conducted a value-of-information analysis using probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Calculated ICERs were estimated to be $12,900/QALY for Delayed APM as compared to PT and $103,200/QALY for Immediate APM as compared to Delayed APM. In sensitivity analyses, inclusion of time costs made Delayed APM cost-saving as compared to PT. Improving efficacy of Delayed APM led to higher incremental costs and lower incremental effectiveness of Immediate APM in comparison to Delayed APM. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses indicated that PT had 3.0% probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY. Delayed APM was cost effective 57.7% of the time at WTP = $50,000/QALY and 50.2% at WTP = $100,000/QALY. The probability of Immediate APM being cost-effective did not exceed 50% unless WTP exceeded $103,000/QALY. Conclusions We conclude that current cost-effectiveness evidence does not support unqualified rejection of either Immediate or Delayed APM for the treatment of MT+OA. The amount to which society would be

  1. Mental Health Has a Stronger Association with Patient-Reported Shoulder Pain and Function Than Tear Size in Patients with Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Suter, Thomas; Potter, Michael Q; Granger, Erin K; Tashjian, Robert Z

    2016-02-17

    Patient-reported outcome measures have increasingly accompanied objective examination findings in the evaluation of orthopaedic interventions. Our objective was to determine whether a validated measure of mental health (Short Form-36 Mental Component Summary [SF-36 MCS]) or measures of tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging were more strongly associated with self-assessed shoulder pain and function in patients with symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears. One hundred and sixty-nine patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears were prospectively enrolled. Patients completed the Short Form-36, visual analog scales for shoulder pain and function, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) instrument at the time of diagnosis. Shoulder magnetic resonance imaging examinations were reviewed to document the number of tendons involved, tear size, tendon retraction, and tear surface area. Age, sex, body mass index, number of medical comorbidities, smoking status, and Workers' Compensation status were recorded. Bivariate correlations and multivariate regression models were calculated to identify associations with baseline shoulder scores. The SF-36 MCS had the strongest correlation with the visual analog scale for shoulder pain (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.48; p < 0.001), the visual analog scale for shoulder function (Pearson correlation coefficient, -0.33; p < 0.001), the SST (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.37; p < 0.001), and the ASES score (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.51; p < 0.001). Tear severity only correlated with the visual analog scale for shoulder function; the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.19 for tear size (p = 0.018), 0.18 for tendon retraction (p = 0.025), 0.18 for tear area (p = 0.022), and 0.20 for the number of tendons involved (p = 0.011). Tear severity did not correlate with other scores in bivariate correlations (all p > 0.05). In all multivariate models, the SF-36 MCS had the

  2. Repair of a complete radial tear in the midbody of the medial meniscus using a novel crisscross suture transtibial tunnel surgical technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    James, Evan W; LaPrade, Christopher M; Feagin, John A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Complete radial meniscus tears have been reported to result in deleterious effects in the knee joint if left unrepaired. An emphasis on meniscal preservation is important in order to restore native meniscal function. In this case report, a complete radial tear of the medial meniscus midbody was repaired using a novel crisscross suture transtibial technique. This technique secured the anterior and posterior meniscal horns, which were released from their extruded and scarred position along the capsule, using crisscrossing sutures passed through two transtibial tunnels and secured over a bone bridge on the anterolateral tibia. In addition, the repair was supplemented with the injection of platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate to promote the healing of the meniscal tissue. Complete healing on second-look arthroscopy is presented, including in the previously unreported white-white meniscal zone.

  3. Are pain location and physical examinations useful in locating a tear site of the rotator cuff?

    PubMed

    Itoi, Eiji; Minagawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Seki, Nobutoshi; Abe, Hidekazu

    2006-02-01

    Pain is the most common symptom of patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, but little is known about the relationship between the site of pain and the site of cuff pathologic lesions. Also, accuracies of physical examinations used to locate a tear by assessing the muscle strength seem to be affected by the threshold for muscle weakness, but no studies have been reported regarding the efficacies of physical examinations in reference to their threshold. Pain location is useful in locating a tear site. Efficacies of physical examinations to evaluate the function of the cuff muscles depend on the threshold for muscle weakness. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 160 shoulders of 149 patients (mean age, 53 years) with either rotator cuff tears (140 shoulders) or cuff tendinitis (20 shoulders). The location of pain was recorded on a standardized form with 6 different areas. The diagnostic accuracies of the following tests were assessed with various thresholds for muscle weakness: supraspinatus test, the external rotation strength test, and the lift-off test. Lateral and anterior portions of the shoulder were the most common sites of pain regardless of existence of tear or tear location. The supraspinatus test was most accurate when it was assessed to have positive results with the muscle strength less than manual muscle testing grade 5, whereas the lift-off test was most accurate with a threshold less than grade 3. The external rotation strength test was most accurate with a threshold of less than grade 4+. The authors conclude that pain location is not useful in locating the site of a tear, whereas the physical examinations aiming to locate the tear site are clinically useful when assessed to have positive results with appropriate threshold for muscle weakness.

  4. Effect of Posterior Horn Medial Meniscus Root Tear on In Vivo Knee Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Chelsea A; Martin, Daniel E; Harner, Christopher D; Tashman, Scott

    2014-07-01

    Medial meniscus root tear (MMRT) is a recently recognized yet frequently missed meniscal tear pattern that biomechanically creates an environment approaching meniscal deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of MMRT on tibiofemoral kinematics and arthrokinematics during daily activities by comparing the injured knees of subjects with isolated MMRT to their uninjured contralateral knees. The hypothesis was that the injured knee will demonstrate significantly more lateral tibial translation and adduction than the uninjured knee, and that the medial compartment will exhibit significantly different arthrokinematics than the lateral compartment in the affected limb. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Seven subjects with isolated MMRT were recruited and volumetric, density-based 3-dimensional models of their distal femurs and proximal tibia were created from computed tomography scans. High-speed, biplane radiographs were obtained of both their affected and unaffected knees. Moving 3-dimensional models of tibiofemoral kinematics were calculated using model-based tracking to assess overall kinematic variables and specific measures of tibiofemoral joint contact. The affected knees of the subjects were then compared to their unaffected contralateral knees. Affected knees demonstrated significantly more lateral tibial translation than the uninjured contralateral limb in all dynamic activities. Additionally, the medial compartment displayed greater amounts of mobility than the lateral compartment in the injured limbs. This study suggests that MMRT causes significant changes in in vivo knee kinematics and arthrokinematics and that the magnitude of these changes is influenced by dynamic task difficulty. Medial meniscus root tears lead to significant changes in joint arthrokinematics, with increased lateral tibial translation and greater medial compartment excursion. With complete root tears, essentially 100% of circumferential fibers are lost

  5. Medial extrusion of the posterior segment of medial meniscus is a sensitive sign for posterior horn tears.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Banno, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Yuta; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate medial extrusion of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus in posterior horn tears. This study enrolled 72 patients without medial meniscal tears (group N), 72 patients with medial meniscal tears without posterior horn tears (group PH-), 44 patients with posterior horn tears of the medial meniscus (group PH+). All meniscal tears were confirmed by arthroscopy. Medial extrusion of the middle segment and the posterior segment was measured on coronal MRIs. Extrusions of both middle and posterior segments in groups PH- and PH+ (middle segment; 2.94±1.51 mm for group PH- and 3.75±1.69 mm for group PH+, posterior segment; 1.85±1.82 mm for group PH- and 4.59±2.74 mm for group PH+) were significantly larger than those in group N (middle segment; 2.04±1.20, posterior segment; 1.21±1.86). Both indicators of extrusion in group PH+ were larger than those in group PH-. In the early OA category, neither middle nor posterior segment in group PH- extruded more than in group N. However, only the posterior segment in group PH+ extruded significantly more than in group N. Multiple lineal regression analyses revealed that posterior segment extrusion was strongly correlated with the posterior horn tears (p<0.001) among groups PH- and PH+. The newly presented indicator for extrusion of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus is associated with posterior horn tears in comparison with the extrusion of the middle segment, especially in the early stages of osteoarthritis. Level II--Diagnostic Study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Posterior meniscus root tears: associated pathologies to assist as diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Lauren M; Ockuly, Andrew C; Steadman, J Richard; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associated pathologies identified at arthroscopy in patients with meniscus root tears. This study was Institutional Review Board approved. All patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery where a complete meniscus root tear was identified were included in this study. Concurrent ligament tears and articular cartilage changes ≥Outerbridge grade 2 were recorded and stored in a data registry. Fifty patients (28 males, 22 females) [mean age = 36.5 years (range 17.1-68.1 years)] who were diagnosed with a medial or lateral meniscus root tear at arthroscopy were included in this study out of 673 arthroscopic surgeries (prevalence 7.4 %). Twenty-three (46 %) patients had a medial meniscus root tear, 26 (52 %) patients had a lateral meniscus root tear and one (2 %) patient had both. Thirty-four per cent of patients (n = 17) underwent partial meniscectomy, while 60 % (n = 31) underwent suture repair. During arthroscopy, 60 % (n = 30) of patients were diagnosed with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. Patients with lateral meniscus root tears were 10.3 times (95 % CI 2.6-42.5) more likely to have ACL tears than patients with medial meniscus root tears (p = 0.012). Patients who had medial meniscus root tears were 5.8 times (95 % CI 1.6-20.5) more likely to have chondral defects than patients who had lateral meniscus root tears (p = 0.044). In this study, patients' preoperative functional scores and activity levels were low. Patients with lateral meniscal root tears were more likely to have an ACL tear. Patients with medial meniscal root tears were more likely to have an knee articular cartilage defect with an Outerbridge grade 2 or higher chondral defect. This study confirms the importance of comprehensive assessment of concurrent injuries to properly diagnose meniscus root tears. IV.

  7. Knee Pain and Mobility Impairments: Meniscal and Articular Cartilage Lesions Revision 2018: Using the Evidence to Guide Physical Therapist Practice.

    PubMed

    2018-02-01

    Meniscus and articular cartilage lesions are common knee injuries. The resulting knee pain and mobility impairments can be improved by physical therapists during nonoperative and operative management. Recommendations from clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) such as this revision, titled "Knee Pain and Mobility Impairments: Meniscal and Articular Cartilage Lesions," published in the February 2018 issue of JOSPT, can help physical therapists engage in evidence-informed practice and reduce unnecessary clinical variation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(2):123-124. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.0503.

  8. Posterior horn medial meniscal root repair with cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament combined injuries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian F; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-12-01

    Many meniscal root tears remain unrepaired, potentially due to under-recognition and the technical challenge of repairing them. A great effort is made to preserve the native meniscus and restore the circumferential fibers for hoop stress resistance. It has been well demonstrated in the literature that failure to repair this will lead to increased contact pressures in the medial compartment and early degenerative changes in the articular cartilage. Our technique is one that allows the meniscus to resume its important role of knee stability. A thorough understanding of meniscal root anatomy, as well as repair techniques, is important for the cruciate ligament surgeon. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the IKDC, KOOS, and WOMAC for Patients With Meniscal Injuries.

    PubMed

    van de Graaf, Victor A; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Scholtes, Vanessa A B; Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2014-06-01

    Several patient-reported outcome measurements are used to measure functional outcome after treatment of meniscal injuries. However, for comparison of study results, there is a need for a uniform and standardized approach of measuring functional outcome. Selection of the instrument should be based on the quality of its measurement properties, and only the best instrument can be justified to be used. This study aimed to determine and compare the measurement properties of the Dutch-language versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) in a homogeneous group of patients with meniscal tears. Cohort study (design); Level of evidence, 2. Patients on the waiting list for meniscal surgery and patients between 6 weeks and 6 months after meniscal surgery were included (n = 75). Patients were excluded if they received an arthroplasty or had surgery on the anterior cruciate ligament. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), measurement error (SEM), smallest detectable difference (SDD), content validity, construct validity (factor analysis and hypothesis testing), and floor and ceiling effects were determined. Results for the IKDC, KOOS dimensions, and WOMAC dimensions, respectively, were as follows: Cronbach alpha = .90, .72-.95, and .84-.95; ICC = 0.93, 0.84-0.89, and 0.77-0.89; SEM = 5.3, 7.0-12.6, and 7.3-12.2; SDD = 14.6, 19.4-35.0, and 20.2-33.9; hypotheses testing confirmation = 100%, 86%, and 85%. Floor effects within the SDD from the minimum score were found for the KOOS Sports/Recreation and Quality of Life dimensions. Ceiling effects within the SDD from the maximum score were found for the KOOS Activities of Daily Living and for all WOMAC dimensions. The IKDC showed the best performance on all measurement properties, implying that the IKDC

  10. Anatomical significance of a posterior horn of medial meniscus: the relationship between its radial tear and cartilage degradation of joint surface.

    PubMed

    Kan, Akinori; Oshida, Midori; Oshida, Shigemi; Imada, Masato; Nakagawa, Takumi; Okinaga, Shuji

    2010-01-12

    Traumatic injury and surgical meniscectomy of a medial meniscus are known to cause subsequent knee osteoarthritis. However, the difference in the prevalence of osteoarthritis caused by the individual type of the medial meniscal tear has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate what type of tear is predominantly responsible for the degradation of articular cartilage in the medial compartment of knee joints. Five hundred and forty eight cadaveric knees (290 male and 258 female) were registered in this study. The average age of cadavers at death was 78.8 years old (range: 52-103 years). The knees were macroscopically examined and their medial menisci were classified into four groups according to types of tears: "no tear", "radial tear of posterior horn", "other types of tear" and "worn-out meniscus" groups. The severity of cartilage degradation in their medial compartment of knee joints was evaluated using the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) grading system. We statistically compared the ICRS grades among the groups using Mann-Whitney U test. The knees were assigned into the four groups: 416 "no tear" knees, 51 "radial tear of posterior horn" knees, 71 "other types of tear" knees, and 10 "worn-out meniscus" knees. The knees with substantial meniscal tears showed the severer ICRS grades of cartilage degradation than those without meniscal tears. In addition, the ICRS grades were significantly severer in the "radial tear of posterior horn" group than in the "other types of tear" group, suggesting that the radial tear of posterior horn in the medial meniscus is one of the risk factors for cartilage degradation of joint surface. We have clarified the relationship between the radial tear of posterior horn in the medial meniscus and the severer grade of cartilage degradation. This study indicates that the efforts should be made to restore the anatomical role of the posterior horn in keeping the hoop strain, when patients' physical activity

  11. Evaluation of Meniscal Mechanics and Proteoglycan Content in a Modified Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

    PubMed Central

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Haverkamp, John H.; Button, Keith D.; DeCamp, Charlie; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) develops as a result of traumatic loading that causes tears of the soft tissues in the knee. A modified transection model, where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and both menisci were transected, was used on skeletally mature Flemish Giant rabbits. Gross morphological assessments, elastic moduli, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) coverage of the menisci were determined to quantify the amount of tissue damage 12 weeks post injury. This study is one of the first to monitor meniscal changes after inducing combined meniscal and ACL transections. A decrease in elastic moduli as well as a decrease in GAG coverage was seen. PMID:24749144

  12. Paradoxical phenomena of the McMurray test. An arthroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Kim, S J; Min, B H; Han, D Y

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated 200 patients who had a positive McMurray test and found atypical McMurray test results in 24 patients (12%). These patients revealed pain or clicking or both either in the medial compartment of the knee when the leg was internally rotated or in the lateral compartment of the knee when the leg was externally rotated. The authors analyzed these paradoxical findings at arthroscopic examination to identify the relationship between the type of meniscal tear and the direction of leg rotation that elicited the catching and displacement of the torn meniscal portion during the McMurray test. Contrary to conventional McMurray test findings, three different types of meniscal tears were found on the side of the knee where pain or a clicking sound occurred. The three types were 1) anteriorly based posterior oblique tears with anterior displacement of the meniscus, 2) bucket-handle tears in the posterior half of the menisci, and 3) peripheral detachment of discoid menisci in the posterior half of the torn portions.

  13. Relationship of Corneal Pain Sensitivity With Dry Eye Symptoms in Dry Eye With Short Tear Break-Up Time.

    PubMed

    Kaido, Minako; Kawashima, Motoko; Ishida, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this prospective comparative study was to investigate corneal sensitivity in subjects with unstable tear film, with and without dry eye (DE) symptoms. Forty-one eyes of 41 volunteers (mean age: 45.1 ± 9.4 years; age range, 23-57 years), with normal tear function and ocular surface except for tear stability, were studied. The eyes were divided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of DE symptoms: 21 eyes with DE symptoms (symptomatic group); and 20 eyes without DE symptoms (asymptomatic group). Three types of corneal sensitivity values were measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer: the sensitivity for perception of touch (S-touch), the sensitivity for blinking (S-blink), and the sensitivity for pain (S-pain). Mean S-blink and S-pain were significantly higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in mean S-touch between these groups (P > 0.05). Corneal sensitivity for blinking and pain evoked by increased stimuli was higher in the symptomatic group (subjects with short break-up time DE) compared with subjects who have no DE symptoms despite decreased tear stability. The presence of both tear instability and hyperesthesia, rather than tear instability alone, may contribute to DE pathogenesis.

  14. Potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in human meniscal repair: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears. This review summarizes the results of published applications of MSCs in human patients, which showed that the patients who received MSCs (autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells or culture-expanded bone marrow-derived stem cells) presented symptomatic improvements, along with magnetic resonance imaging evidences of the meniscal repair. PMID:28356779

  15. MRI of the knee.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard in noninvasive investigation of knee pain. It has a very high negative predictive value and may assist in avoiding unnecessary knee arthroscopy; its accuracy in the diagnosis of meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears is greater than 89%; it has a greater than 90% sensitivity for the detection of medial meniscal tears; and it is probably better at assessing the posterior horn than arthroscopy.

  16. Clinical Evaluation of the Root Tear of the Posterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus in Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eui-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the incidence of root tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in total knee replacement arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis and retrospectively analyze clinical results and factors associated with root tears. There were 197 knees of 140 enrolled patients who had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty between September 2010 and May 2014. The presence of a root tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was confirmed in all patients. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between root tears and the possible factors of meniscal tears including gender, age, severity of symptoms (visual analogue scale [VAS] score and medial joint line tenderness), grade of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale), body mass index (BMI), varus deformity, and mechanical axis deviation. Meniscal tears were observed in 154 knees (78.17%). The root tear had correlation with the severity of osteoarthritis (p<0.05), varus deformity (p<0.05), mechanical axis deviation (p<0.05), and BMI (p<0.05). Factors considered to represent the severity of osteoarthritis were found to be associated with root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Increased BMI seemed to be associated with the increased incidence of root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn.

  17. Clinical Evaluation of the Root Tear of the Posterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus in Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of root tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in total knee replacement arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis and retrospectively analyze clinical results and factors associated with root tears. Materials and Methods There were 197 knees of 140 enrolled patients who had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty between September 2010 and May 2014. The presence of a root tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was confirmed in all patients. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between root tears and the possible factors of meniscal tears including gender, age, severity of symptoms (visual analogue scale [VAS] score and medial joint line tenderness), grade of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale), body mass index (BMI), varus deformity, and mechanical axis deviation. Results Meniscal tears were observed in 154 knees (78.17%). The root tear had correlation with the severity of osteoarthritis (p<0.05), varus deformity (p<0.05), mechanical axis deviation (p<0.05), and BMI (p<0.05). Conclusions Factors considered to represent the severity of osteoarthritis were found to be associated with root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Increased BMI seemed to be associated with the increased incidence of root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. PMID:26060607

  18. Increased blood flow in the anterior humeral circumflex artery correlates with night pain in patients with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Terabayashi, Nobuo; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Matsumoto, Kazu; Takigami, Iori; Ito, Yoshiki; Fukuta, Masashi; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2014-09-01

    Night pain is a particularly vexing symptom in patients with rotator cuff tear. It disturbs sleep and decreases quality of life, and there is no consensus regarding its etiology. Based on arthroscopic surgical observations of synovitis around the rotator interval or capsule surface in rotator cuff tear, we hypothesized that blood flow from the artery feeding the capsule increases blood supply to the synovium. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood flow and night pain using pulse Doppler ultrasonography. A series of 47 consecutive patients with rotator cuff tear was evaluated. The peak systolic velocity and resistance index of blood flow in the ascending branch of the anterior humeral circumflex artery were evaluated using pulse Doppler ultrasonography. We also investigated 20 normal shoulders in healthy volunteers. The peak systolic velocity and resistance index were compared between affected and unaffected sides in patients and between dominant and nondominant sides in controls. Anterior humeral circumflex artery peak systolic velocity and resistance index did not differ between sides in control subjects or in patients with rotator cuff tear without night pain. However, anterior humeral circumflex artery peak systolic velocity and resistance index did differ significantly between sides in patients with rotator cuff tear with night pain. This study revealed anterior humeral circumflex artery hemodynamics in patients with rotator cuff tear and normal subjects using Doppler ultrasonography. Night pain, particularly involving aching, appears to be related to the hemodynamics. These findings suggest that investigating the hemodynamics of patients with rotator cuff tear with night pain may lead to greater understanding of the etiology of this symptom.

  19. Does simulated walking cause gapping of meniscal repairs?

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Patrick C; Jones, Hugh L; Hamilton, Kendall; Hogen, Michael G; Gold, Jonathan E; Noble, Philip C

    2016-12-01

    The objective of rehabilitation following meniscal repair is to promote healing by limiting stresses on repairs, while simultaneously preserving muscle strength and joint motion. Both protective protocols limiting weight bearing and accelerated which do not, have shown clinical success. This study assesses the effects of physiologic gait loading on the kinematic behavior of a repaired medial meniscus. The medial menisci of eight fresh cadaveric knees were implanted with arrays of six 0.8-1.0 mm beads. Pneumatic actuators delivered muscle loads and forces on the knee as each specimen was subjected to a simulated stance phase of gait. Meniscus motion was measured at loading response, mid stance, and toe-off positions. Measurements were performed using biplanar radiography and RSA, with each knee: (a) intact, (b) with posterior longitudinal tear, and (c) after inside-out repair. The tissue spanning the site of the longitudinal tear underwent compression rather than gapping open in all states (intact [I], torn [T] and repaired [R] states). Average compression at three sites along the posterior half of the meniscus was: posterior horn -0.20 ± 0.08 mm [I], -0.39 ± 0.10 mm [T], and -0.20 ± 0.06 mm [R] (p = 0.15); junction of posterior horn and body -0.11 ± 0.12 mm [I], -0.21 ± 12 mm [T], -0.17 ± 0.09 mm [R] (p = 0.87); and adjacent to the medial collateral ligament -0.07 ± 0.06 mm [I], -0.29 ± 0.13 mm [T], -0.07 ± 0.17 mm [R] (p = 0.35). The entire meniscus translated posteriorly from mid-stance to toe off. Displacement was greatest in the torn state compared to intact, but was not restored to normal levels after repair. The edges of a repaired longitudinal medial meniscal tear undergo compression, not gapping, during simulated gait.

  20. Symptomatic rotator cuff tears show higher radioisotope uptake on bone scintigraphy compared with asymptomatic tears.

    PubMed

    Koike, Yoichi; Sano, Hirotaka; Kita, Atushi; Itoi, Eiji

    2013-09-01

    Some patients with rotator cuff tears complain of pain, whereas others are asymptomatic. Previous studies have pointed out the presence of active bone metabolism in the painful shoulder, identified with increased radioisotope uptake during bone scintigraphy. Shoulders with symptomatic rotator cuff tears will demonstrate higher radioisotope uptake than shoulders with asymptomatic tears with bone scintigraphy, reflecting active bone metabolism in symptomatic tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The study consisted of 3 groups: patients with symptomatic tears (symptomatic group), patients with asymptomatic tears (asymptomatic group), and controls (no tear group). The symptomatic group consisted of 28 shoulders from 28 patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears (pain score ≤4 on the University of California, Los Angeles [UCLA] shoulder evaluation form) who underwent bone scintigraphy followed by rotator cuff repair. Of 70 volunteers who had previously undergone bone scintigraphy for diseases unrelated to their shoulder, 34 were selected for the asymptomatic group (pain score ≥8 on the UCLA shoulder form), and 32 were selected for the no tear group. The mean radioisotope uptake in the symptomatic group was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic group (P = .02) and the no tear group (P = .02). Ten of 28 shoulders (36%) in the symptomatic group showed increased radioisotope uptake exceeding 2 standard deviations from the mean of the no tear group. This percentage was significantly higher when compared with the asymptomatic group (0%) (P < .01). Shoulders with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear showed higher radioisotope uptake on bone scintigraphy than those with an asymptomatic tear. The radioisotope uptake in shoulders with an asymptomatic tear was comparable with that in shoulders without a tear. Positive radioisotope uptake may be associated with pain in a subgroup of patients with rotator cuff tears.

  1. Repair of Avascular Meniscus Tears with Electrospun Collagen Scaffolds Seeded with Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jihye; Sovani, Sujata; Glembotski, Nicholas E.; Du, Jiang; Jin, Sungho; Grogan, Shawn P.

    2016-01-01

    The self-healing capacity of an injured meniscus is limited to the vascularized regions and is especially challenging in the inner avascular regions. As such, we investigated the use of human meniscus cell-seeded electrospun (ES) collagen type I scaffolds to produce meniscal tissue and explored whether these cell-seeded scaffolds can be implanted to repair defects created in meniscal avascular tissue explants. Human meniscal cells (derived from vascular and avascular meniscal tissue) were seeded on ES scaffolds and cultured. Constructs were evaluated for cell viability, gene expression, and mechanical properties. To determine potential for repair of meniscal defects, human meniscus avascular cells were seeded and cultured on aligned ES collagen scaffolds for 4 weeks before implantation. Surgical defects resembling “longitudinal tears” were created in the avascular zone of bovine meniscus and implanted with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds and cultured for 3 weeks. Tissue regeneration and integration were evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, mechanical testing, and magentic resonance imaging. Ex vivo implantation with cell-seeded collagen scaffolds resulted in neotissue that was significantly better integrated with the native tissue than acellular collagen scaffolds or untreated defects. Human meniscal cell-seeded ES collagen scaffolds may therefore be useful in facilitating meniscal repair of avascular meniscus tears. PMID:26842062

  2. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating meniscal and cartilage injuries in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenneth Pak Leung; Han, Audrey XinYun; Wong, Jeannie Leh Ying; Lee, Dave Yee Han

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in assessing meniscal and cartilage injuries in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees as compared to arthroscopy was evaluated in the present study. The results of all preoperative MR imaging performed within 3 months prior to the ACL reconstruction were compared against intraoperative arthroscopic findings. A total of 206 patients were identified. The location and type of meniscal injuries as well as the location and grade of the cartilage injuries were studied. The negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for these 206 cases were calculated and analysed. In patients with an ACL injury, the highest incidence of concomitant injury was that of medial meniscus tears, 124 (60.2 %), followed by lateral meniscus tears, 105 (51.0 %), and cartilage injuries, 66 (32.0 %). Twenty-three (11.2 %) patients sustained injuries to all of the previously named structures. MR imaging was most accurate in detecting medial meniscus tears (85.9 %). MR imaging for medial meniscus tears also had the highest sensitivity (88.0 %) and positive predictive value (88.7 %), while MR imaging for cartilage injuries had the largest specificity (84.1 %) and negative predictive value (87.1 %). It was least accurate in evaluating lateral meniscus tears (74.3 %). The diagnostic accuracy of medial meniscus imaging is significantly influenced by age and the presence of lateral meniscus tears, while the duration between MR imaging and surgery has greater impact on the likelihood of lateral meniscus and cartilage injuries actually being present during surgery. The majority of meniscus tears missed by MR imaging affected the posterior horn and were complex in nature. Cartilage injuries affecting the medial femoral condyle or medial patella facet were also often missed by MR imaging. MR imaging remains a reliable tool for assessing meniscus tears and cartilage defects

  3. The imaging features of the meniscal roots on isotropic 3D MRI in young asymptomatic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Zhou; Zhang, Di; Liu, Quan-Yuan; Zhong, Xiao-Fei; Yin, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to describe clearly the normal imaging features of the meniscal roots on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 3-dimensional (3D) proton density-weighted (PDW) sequence at 3T. A total of 60 knees of 31 young asymptomatic volunteers were examined using a 3D MRI. The insertion patterns, constitution patterns, and MR signals of the meniscal roots were recorded. The anterior root of the medial meniscus (ARMM), the anterior root of the lateral meniscus (ARLM), and the posterior root of the medial meniscus (PRMM) had 1 insertion site, whereas the posterior root of the lateral meniscus (PRLM) can be divided into major and minor insertion sites. The ARLM and the PRMM usually consisted of multiple fiber bundles (≥3), whereas the ARMM and the PRLM often consisted of a single fiber bundle. The ARMM and the PRLM usually appeared as hypointense, whereas the ARLM and the PRMM typically exhibited mixed signals. The meniscal roots can be complex and diverse, and certain characteristics of them were observed on 3D MRI. Understanding the normal imaging features of the meniscal roots is extremely beneficial for further diagnosis of root tears.

  4. MRI versus ultrasonography to assess meniscal abnormalities in acute knees.

    PubMed

    Cook, James L; Cook, Cristi R; Stannard, James P; Vaughn, Gavin; Wilson, Nichole; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron M; Jayabalan, Prakash; Hdeib, Moses; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often considered the "gold standard" diagnostic imaging modality for detection of meniscal abnormalities, it is associated with misdiagnosis in as high as 47% of cases, is costly, and is not readily available to a large number of patients. Ultrasonographic examination of the knee has been reported to be an effective diagnostic tool for this purpose with the potential to overcome many of the shortcomings of MRI. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical usefulness of ultrasonography for diagnosis of meniscal pathology in patients with acute knee pain and compare its diagnostic accuracy to MRI in a clinical setting. With Institutional Review Board approval, patients (n = 71) with acute knee pain were prospectively enrolled with informed consent. Preoperative MRI (1.5 T) was performed on each affected knee using the hospital's standard equipment and protocols and read by faculty radiologists trained in musculoskeletal MRI. Ultrasonographic assessments of each affected knee were performed by one of two faculty members trained in musculoskeletal ultrasonography using a 10 to 14 MHz linear transducer. Arthroscopic evaluation of affected knees was performed by one of three faculty orthopedic surgeons to assess and record all joint pathology, which served as the reference standard for determining presence, type, and severity of meniscal pathology. All evaluators for each diagnostic modality were blinded to all other data. Data were collected and compared by a separate investigator to determine sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), correct classification rate (CCR), likelihood ratios (LR[+] and LR[-]), and odds ratios. Preoperative ultrasonographic assessment of meniscal pathology was associated with Sn = 91.2%, Sp = 84.2%, PPV = 94.5%, NPV = 76.2%, CCR = 89.5%, LR(+) = 5.78, and LR(-) = 0.10. Preoperative MRI assessment of

  5. Repair of Meniscal Ramp Lesions Through a Posteromedial Portal During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Outcome Study With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Jan, Nicolas; Fayard, Jean Marie; Kajetanek, Charles; Murphy, Colin G; Pupim, Barbara; Gardon, Roland; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the results of arthroscopic all-inside suture repair of medial meniscal ramp lesions through a posteromedial portal during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. All patients who underwent a suture of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus using a suture hook device through a posteromedial portal during ACL reconstruction with minimum 2 year-follow-up were included in the study. Repair was performed for longitudinal tears within the rim of less than 3 mm (capsulomeniscal junction or red-red zone) or 3 to 5 mm (red-white zone) of an unstable torn meniscus. Patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively with IKDC score and Tegner activity scale. Instrumented knee testing was performed with the Rolimeter arthrometer. Complications including reoperation for failed meniscal repair were also recorded. One hundred thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up time was 27 months (range, 24 to 29 months). The average subjective IKDC rose from 63.8 ± 13.5 (range, 27 to 92) preoperatively to 85.7 ± 12 (range, 43 to 100) at last follow-up (P < .0001). The Rolimeter test decreased from a side-to-side difference in anterior knee laxity of 7 mm (range, 5 to 14 mm) to a mean value of 0.4 mm (range, -3 to 5 mm) at last follow-up (P < .0001). The Tegner activity scale at the last follow-up (6.9 ± 1.72) was slightly lower than that before surgery (7.2 ± 1.92; P = .0017). Nine patients (6.8%) had failure of the meniscal repair. In 5 cases, recurrent tears were related to a newly formed tear located anterior to the initial tear. Our results show that arthroscopic meniscal repair of ramp lesions during ACL reconstruction through a posteromedial portal provided a high rate of meniscus healing at the level of the tear and appeared to be safe and effective in this group of patients. Level IV, therapeutic study, case series (no control group). Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc

  6. Predictive value of painful popping for a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in middle-aged to older Asian patients.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Paik, Nak Hwan; Park, Gyu-Won; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Chae, Dong-Ju; Kwon, Jae Ho; Kim, Jong In; Nha, Kyung-Wook

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of a single event of painful popping in the presence of a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in middle-aged to older Asian patients. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 936 patients who underwent arthroscopic surgeries for an isolated medial meniscus tear between January 2000 and December 2010. There were 332 men and 604 women with a mean age of 41 years (range, 25 to 66 years). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of a painful popping sensation for a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus were calculated. Arthroscopy confirmed the presence of posterior root tears of the medial menisci in 237 of 936 patients (25.3%). A single event of a painful popping sensation was present in 86 of these 936 patients (9.1%). Of these 86 patients with a painful popping sensation, 83 (96.5%) were categorized as having an isolated posterior root tear of the medial meniscus. The positive predictive value of a painful popping sensation in identifying a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus was 96.5%, the negative predictive value was 81.8%, the sensitivity was 35.0%, the specificity was 99.5%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 77.9%. A single event of painful popping can be a highly predictive clinical sign of a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in the middle-aged to older Asian population. However, it has low sensitivity for the detection of a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An allogenic cell-based implant for meniscal lesions.

    PubMed

    Weinand, Christian; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Adams, Samuel B; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Randolph, Mark A; Gill, Thomas J

    2006-11-01

    Meniscal tears in the avascular zones do not heal. Although tissue-engineering approaches using cells seeded onto scaffolds could expand the indication for meniscal repair, harvesting autologous cells could cause additional trauma to the patient. Allogenic cells, however, could provide an unlimited amount of cells. Allogenic cells from 2 anatomical sources can repair lesions in the avascular region of the meniscus. Controlled laboratory study. Both autologous and allogenic chondrocytes were seeded onto a Vicryl mesh scaffold and sutured into a bucket-handle lesion created in the medial menisci of 17 swine. Controls consisted of 3 swine knees treated with unseeded implants and controls from a previous experiment in which 4 swine were treated with suture only and 4 with no treatment. Menisci were harvested after 12 weeks and evaluated histologically for new tissue and percentage of interface healing surface; they were also evaluated statistically. The lesions were closed in 15 of 17 menisci. None of the control samples demonstrated healing. Histologic analysis of sequential cuts through the lesion showed formation of new scar-like tissue in all experimental samples. One of 8 menisci was completely healed in the allogenic group and 2 of 9 in the autologous group; the remaining samples were partially healed in both groups. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of healing were observed between the autologous and allogenic cell-based implants. Use of autologous and allogenic chondrocytes delivered via a biodegradable mesh enhanced healing of avascular meniscal lesions. This study demonstrates the potential of a tissue-engineered cellular repair of the meniscus using autologous and allogenic chondrocytes.

  8. Potential Market for New Meniscus Repair Strategies: Evaluation of the MOON Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fetzer, Gary B.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Dunn, Warren R.; Flanigan, David C.; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background An estimated 200,000 ACL reconstructions are performed each year in the United States. The presence of concomitant meniscus tears and subsequent treatment at the time of ACL reconstruction may determine long-term outcomes of these knees. The authors contend that a substantial number of these meniscal tears are treated in a fashion that reduces meniscal function and that new technologies are needed to treat meniscal tears in a fashion that preserves function. A large cohort of patients with meniscal tears is needed to demonstrate this need. The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence of meniscal tears, describe tear morphology, and selected treatment in the MOON prospective longitudinal cohort of ACL reconstruction. We also will demonstrate based on national statistics the large potential market that exists for future tissue engineering aimed at preserving meniscal function. Methods A multicenter cohort of 1014 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction between January 2002 and December 2003 were evaluated. All procedures were performed by nine fellowship trained sports medicine orthopaedic surgeons. Data on patient demographics, presence of a meniscus tear at time of ACL reconstruction, tear morphology, and meniscal treatment were collected prospectively. Meniscal tears were categorized into three potential tissue engineering treatment strategies: all-biologic repair, advanced repair, and scaffold replacement. Results 1014 ACL reconstructions were performed over the two year period. The median age at the time of surgery was 24 years. Thirty-six percent of the knees had medial meniscal tears and 44% of the knees had lateral meniscal tears. Longitudinal tears were the most common tear morphology. The most frequent treatment modality was partial meniscectomy (60%). Thirty percent of medial meniscal tears and 10% of lateral meniscal tears could be treated with all-biologic repair, 32% of medial meniscal tears and 28% of lateral meniscal tears could

  9. A lateral meniscus tear incarcerated behind the popliteus tendon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eskander, Mark S; Drew, Jacob M; Osuch, Daniel B; Metzmaker, Jeff

    2010-10-01

    A 51-year-old male, sustained an injury to his left knee after being pinned between his motorcycle and a road barrier. In the ER, the patient complained of medial knee pain, and had a significant joint effusion. MRI demonstrated an ACL injury, medial meniscal tear, bone bruising and impaction at the lateral femoral condyle and tibial plateau, and a tear of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus that was displaced behind the popliteus. Unfortunately, the patient also presented with a deep vein thrombosis and thus could not proceed to the operating room for two months. During this time, scar tissue developed around the lateral meniscus. The purpose of this report is to present an unusual variant of a common injury pattern previously unreported where the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus became incarcerated behind the popliteus tendon and was left in place. It is likely that our patient will develop osteoarthritis in the future, but considering the circumstances he received a favorable early clinical outcome. Early recognition and a mobile fragment are essential restoring a patient's original anatomical features and achieving an optimal clinical outcome. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byoung-Yoon; Kim, Sung-Jae; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Ha-Eun; Lee, Choon-Key; Hunter, David J; Jung, Kwang-Am

    2012-07-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) have a different clinical effect from other types of meniscal tears. These tears are very common among Asian people and may be related to the frequent use of postures such as the lotus position or squatting. The present study was designed to identify the risk factors for MMPRT among an Asian sample. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. An observational study was performed of 476 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic procedure on their medial meniscus from January 2010 to December 2010. One hundred four patients had MMPRT (group 1), and the other patients had other types of medial meniscal tears (group 2). Demographic characteristics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), radiographic features (mechanical axis angle, tibia vara angle, tibial slope angle, Kellgren-Lawrence grade [KLG]), and environmental factors (occupation, trauma history, sports activity level, table use or not, bed use or not-variables that are representative of the oriental lifestyle of lotus position and squatting) were surveyed. We assessed the relation of these risk factors to the type of meniscal tear (group 1 or 2). In group 1, there were 7 male and 97 female patients, with an average age of 58.2 years (range, 39-78 years) and BMI of 26.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2. In group 2, there were 136 male and 236 female patients (P < .01 compared with group 1), with an average age of 54.3 years (range, 17-77 years; P < .01) and a BMI of 24.9 ± 3.1 kg/m2 (P < .01). With regard to radiographic features, the mechanical axis angle demonstrated a significantly increased varus alignment in group 1 (4.5° ± 3.4°) compared with group 2 (2.4° ± 2.7°; P < .01), and the KLG was 1.4 ± 0.8 in group 1 and 0.9 ± 0.6 in group 2 (P < .01). Environmental factors showed no differences in occupation, table use or not, and bed use or not, except sports activity level. There were 41 patients (42.7%) in group 1 and 77 patients (20.6%) in group 2 who did not participate in any

  11. Right Lower Quadrant Pain in a Young Female: Ultrasound Diagnosis of Rectus Abdominis Tear.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Joseph; Shaver, Erica; Monseau, Aaron; Pratt, Adam; Layman, Shelley M

    2015-11-01

    Right lower quadrant pain in young females presents a frequent diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians, with a broad differential and several important diagnoses. Using an "ultrasound first" imaging strategy can help decrease the use of computed tomography scans, with associated savings in radiation exposure, cost, and other resource use. We report a case of right lower quadrant pain in a young woman. After her initial history and physical examination, appendicitis was the leading differential. A bedside ultrasound was performed, leading to the uncommon diagnosis of rectus abdominis muscle tear. The sonographic findings of a muscle tear include increase in size, loss of linear, homogeneous architecture, and decreased echogenicity. Making this diagnosis at the bedside using ultrasound obviated the need for further imaging, avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure, and decreasing emergency department length of stay and overall cost, while leading to a tailored treatment plan. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Rectus abdominis tear is a cause of right lower quadrant pain that may mimic appendicitis and should be considered in patients with this complaint. The ability to make this diagnosis with bedside ultrasound may assist in several important patient-oriented outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Arthroscopic medial meniscal repair with or without concurrent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A subgroup analysis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Erdal; Misir, Abdulhamit; Kizkapan, Turan Bilge; Ozcamdalli, Mustafa; Akkurt, Soner; Guney, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    There are few large-scale, long-term studies comparing medial meniscal repairs with or without concurrent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A total of 140 patients who underwent arthroscopic medial meniscal repair were divided into two groups: Group A, meniscus repair only and Group B, meniscus repair with concurrent ACL reconstruction. Clinical assessments in- cluded physical examination findings, Lysholm score, and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form. Barret criteria were used for the clinical assessment of healing status. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)was obtained to confirmhealing and failure. Subgroups of participants were compared in terms of suture technique, type of tear, and location of tear. KT-2000 arthrometer testing was used for objective evaluation of anterior-posterior knee movement. Mean follow-up duration was 61 (34-85) months. Clinical outcomes in both groups were significantly improved compared to baseline (P=0.001 vs. P=0.001); however, there was no significant between-group difference in postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores (P=0.830). The outcomes of three participants (seven percent) in Group A and 11 (11.3%) in Group B were considered as treatment failures (P=0.55). Red-red zone tears had higher scores. Mean postoperative KT2000 arthrometer values of failed participants in Groups A and B were 4.66mm (range, four to six) and 5.2mm (range, two to seven), respectively. Concurrentmedialmeniscus repair and ACL reconstruction did not have clinical superiority over meniscus repair alone. Repairs in the red-red zone appeared to be associated with better outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between reduced knee joint proprioception and medial meniscal abnormalities using MRI in knee osteoarthritis: results from the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Knoop, J; Hunter, D J; Klein, J-P; van der Leeden, M; Knol, D L; Reiding, D; Voorneman, R E; Gerritsen, M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; Dekker, J

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is characterized by pain and activity limitations. In knee OA, proprioceptive accuracy is reduced and might be associated with pain and activity limitations. Although causes of reduced proprioceptive accuracy are divergent, medial meniscal abnormalities, which are highly prevalent in knee OA, have been suggested to play an important role. No study has focussed on the association between proprioceptive accuracy and meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. To explore the association between reduced proprioceptive accuracy and medial meniscal abnormalities in a clinical sample of knee OA subjects. Cross-sectional study in 105 subjects with knee OA. Knee proprioceptive accuracy was assessed by determining the joint motion detection threshold in the knee extension direction. The knee was imaged with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Number of regions with medial meniscal abnormalities and the extent of abnormality in the anterior and posterior horn and body were scored according to the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) method. Multiple regression analyzes were used to examine whether reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA subjects. Mean proprioceptive accuracy was 2.9° ± 1.9°. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected medial meniscal abnormalities were found in the anterior horn (78%), body (80%) and posterior horn (90%). Reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with both the number of regions with meniscal abnormalities (P < 0.01) and the extent of abnormality (P = 0.02). These associations were not confounded by muscle strength, joint laxity, pain, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and duration of knee complaints. This is the first study showing that reduced proprioceptive accuracy is associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. The study highlights the importance of meniscal abnormalities in understanding reduced proprioceptive accuracy in

  14. Sex differences of hip morphology in young adults with hip pain and labral tears.

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Iftach; Dela Torre, Katrina; Duke, Gavin; Lyman, Stephen; Kelly, Bryan T

    2013-01-01

    To compare hip morphology between young men and women who presented with hip pain and labral tears. A retrospective review of our hip arthroscopy registry from March 2008 to June 2010 was completed. We identified 217 patients (249 hips) who were between the ages of 18 to 30 years. The inclusion criteria were (1) insidious-onset hip pain or worsening pain after low-energy sports trauma, (2) positive hip impingement sign, (3) Tönnis grades 0 to 1, (4) magnetic resonance imaging showing labral tear, and (5) primary hip arthroscopy confirming labral tear. Forty-five patients (52 hips) were excluded for the following reasons: (1) revision hip arthroscopy, (2) high-energy hip trauma, (3) history of surgery involving the femur or pelvis, (4) previous fractures of the femur or pelvis, (5) Tönnis grades 2 or above, (6) proliferative disease of the hip (i.e., synovial chondromatosis, pigmented villonodular synovitis), (7) neuromuscular disease (i.e., cerebral palsy), and (8) deformities related to Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease or developmental dysplasia of the hip. Therefore, the cohort study group included 105 (61%) men (123 [62.4%] hips) and 67 (39%) women (74 [37.6%] hips). Sex comparisons were made for the following variables measured on preoperative hip computed tomography scans: alpha angle, acetabular version, femoral version, lateral center-edge angle, and neck-shaft angle. Women had smaller alpha angles (47.8°v 63.6°, P < .001), increased acetabular version (17.3°v 13.9°, P < .001), and increased femoral anteversion (14.4°v 12.1°, P = .05). In young adults with hip pain and labral tears, women have smaller alpha angles and hips that are generally more anteverted. Therefore, in women, cam lesions may be more subtle, preoperative hip version analyses should be encouraged, and rim trimming may need to be cautiously planned to avoid increasing contact stresses at weight-bearing areas after such a procedure. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright

  15. Visibility of Anterolateral Ligament Tears in Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees With Standard 1.5-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hartigan, David E; Carroll, Kevin W; Kosarek, Frank J; Piasecki, Dana P; Fleischli, James F; D'Alessandro, Donald F

    2016-10-01

    To attempt to visualize the ligament with standard 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-torn knee, and if it is visible, attempt to characterize it as torn or intact at its femoral, meniscal, and tibial attachment sites. This was a retrospective MRI study based on arthroscopic findings of a known ACL tear in 72 patients between the years 2006 and 2010. Patients all had hamstring ACL reconstructions, no concomitant lateral collateral ligament, or posterolateral corner injury based on imaging and physical examination, and had a preoperative 1.5-tesla MRI scan with standard sequences performed within 3 weeks of the injury. Two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the preoperative MRI for visualization of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) for concomitant tears. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was calculated. Learning effect was analyzed to determine if radiologists' agreement improved as reads progressed. Both radiologists were able to visualize the ALL in 100% of the scans. Overall, ALL tears were noted in 26% by radiologist 1 and in 62% by radiologist 2. The agreement between the ligament being torn or not had a kappa of 0.54 between radiologists. The agreements in torn or not torn between radiologists in the femoral, meniscal, and tibial sites were 0.14, 0.15, and 0.31. The intraobserver reliability by radiologist 1 for femoral, meniscal, and tibial tears was 0.04, 0.57, and 0.54 respectively. For radiologist 2, they were 0.75, 0.61, and 0.55. There was no learning effect noted. ALL tears are currently unable to be reliably identified as torn or intact on standard 1.5-tesla MRI sequences. Proper imaging sequences are of crucial importance to reliably follow these tears to determine their clinical significance. Level IV, therapeutic case series study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Meniscus tear surgery and meniscus replacement

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Javier; Forriol, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective the menisci are easily injured and difficult to repair. The aim of this study was to analyze the current state of meniscal surgery aimed at preserving morphology and conserving the biomechanics of the knee to prevent joint degeneration. Methodology a search of the electronic medical literature database Medline was conducted, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. The search was not limited by language. Candidate articles were identified by searching for those that included the keywords meniscus, surgery, suture, implant, allograft. The limits were included for clinical research and clinical trials. Basic research was not included. The studies selected were evaluated and classified in three different categories: basic science, reconstruction (suture and meniscectomy) and implants (scaffolds and allograft). Results the consequences of meniscectomy performed at a young age can lead to a joint cartilage degeneration twenty years later. There are few surgical options for the repair of meniscal injuries in order both to preserve the meniscus and to ensure the long term survival of the knee joint, meniscectomy, repair, suturing the tear, or reconstruction, when a meniscal allograft or synthetic substitute is used to replace the meniscus, but the biomechanical properties of the native meniscus are not reproduced entirely by the scaffolds that exist today. Conclusion therapies that successfully repair or replace the meniscus are therefore likely to prevent or delay osteoarthritis progression. PMID:27331034

  17. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Meniscus Surgery and Future Targets for Biologic Intervention: A review of data from the MOON Group

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W.; Jones, Morgan; Wasserstein, David; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2017-01-01

    Meniscus injury and treatment occurred with the majority of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions (ACLR) in the multicenter orthopaedic outcomes (MOON) cohort. We describe the patient reported outcomes, radiographic outcomes and predictors of pain from meniscus injuries and treatment in the setting of ACLR. Patient reported outcomes improve significantly following meniscus repair with ACLR, but differences exist based on the meniscus injury laterally (medial or lateral). Patients undergoing medial meniscus repair have worse patient-reported outcomes and more pain compared to those with uninjured menisci. However, lateral meniscal tears can be repaired with similar outcomes as uninjured menisci. Medial meniscal treatment (meniscectomy or repair) results in a significant loss of joint space at 2 years compared to uninjured menisci. Menisci treated with excision had a greater degree of joint space loss compared to those treated with repair. Clinically significant knee pain is more common following injuries to the medial meniscus and increased in patients who undergo early re-operation after initial ACLR. Future research efforts aimed at improving outcomes after combined ACLR and meniscus treatment should focus on optimizing biologic and mechanical environments that promote healing of medial meniscal tears sustained during ACL injury. PMID:28282214

  18. Effects of medial meniscal posterior horn avulsion and repair on meniscal displacement.

    PubMed

    Hein, Christopher N; Deperio, Jennifer Gurske; Ehrensberger, Mark T; Marzo, John M

    2011-06-01

    Medial meniscal posterior root avulsion (MMRA) leads to deleterious alteration of medial joint compartment loading profiles and increased risk of medial degenerative changes. Surgical repair restores more normal biomechanics to the knee. Our hypothesis is that MMRA will cause medial meniscal (MM) extrusion and gap formation between the root attachment site and MM. Meniscal root repair will restore the ability of the meniscus to resist extrusion, and reduce gap formation at the defect. Seven fresh frozen human cadaveric knees were dissected and mechanically loaded using a servo-hydraulic load frame (MTS ®) with 0 and 1800 N. The knees were tested under three conditions: native, avulsed, and repaired. Four measurements were obtained: meniscal displacement anteriorly, medially, posteriorly, and gap distance between the root attachment site and MM after transection and repair. The medial displacement of the avulsed MM (3.28 mm) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the native knee (1.60mm) and repaired knee (1.46 mm). Gap formation is significantly larger in the avulsed compared to repaired state at 0 (p < 0.02) and 1800N (p < 0.02) and also larger with loading in both avulsed (p < 0.05) and repaired (p < 0.02) conditions. Therefore, MMRA results in MM extrusion from the joint and gap formation between the MM root and the MM. Subsequent surgical repair reduces meniscal displacement and gap formation at the defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The potential effect of anatomic relationship between the femur and the tibia on medial meniscus tears.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Unlu, Serhan; Cay, Nurdan; Apaydin, Nihal; Dogan, Metin

    2014-10-01

    The anatomic and the kinematical relationships between the femur and the tibia have been previously examined in both normal and diseased knees. However, less attention has been directed to the effect of these relationships on the meniscal diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of femorotibial incongruence on both lateral and medial meniscal tears. A total of 100 images obtained from MRI of 100 patients (39 males and 61 females) were included in the study. Diameters of the medial and the lateral femoral condyles, thicknesses of the menisci, and diameters of the medial and the lateral tibial articular surfaces were measured. The medial meniscus tear was detected in 40 (40 %) patients. However, no lateral meniscus tear was found. Significant relationships were found between the diameters of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial superior articular surface and between the diameters of the posterior lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial superior articular surface. The mean values for the diameter of the medial condyle of the femur, the lateral condyle of the femur, the medial superior articular surface of the tibia, and the lateral superior articular surface of the tibia were found to be significantly higher in cases with meniscus tear compared to cases without meniscus tear. However, no significant difference was present regarding the thicknesses of the medial and the lateral menisci. A positive relationship between the diameter of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the tibial medial superior articular surface was found in cases with (n = 40) (r (2) = 0.208, p = 0.003) and without tear (n = 60) (r (2) = 0.182, p = 0.001). In addition, a significant positive relationship was found between the diameter of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial superior articular surface in cases with and without tear. The impact of femorotibial incongruence on the medial meniscus tear is important for

  20. A giraffe neck sign of the medial meniscus: A characteristic finding of the medial meniscus posterior root tear on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Fujii, Masataka; Kodama, Yuya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-07-01

    The posterior root ligament of the medial meniscus (MM) has a critical role in regulating the MM movement. An accurate diagnosis of the MM posterior root tear (MMPRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for preventing sequential osteoarthritis following the MMPRT. However, diagnosis of the MMPRT is relatively difficult even after using several characteristic MRI findings. The aim of this study was to identify a useful meniscal body sign of the MMPRT for improving diagnostic MRI reading. Eighty-five patients who underwent surgical treatments for the MMPRT (39 knees) and other types of MM tears (49 knees) were included. The presence of characteristic MRI findings such as cleft sign, ghost sign, radial tear sign, medial extrusion sign, and new meniscal body shape-oriented "giraffe neck sign" was evaluated in 120 MRI examinations. Giraffe neck signs were observed in 81.7% of the MMPRTs and in 3.3% of other MM tears. Cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs were highly positive in the MMPRTs compared with other MM tears. Medial extrusion signs were frequently observed in both groups. Coexistence rates of any 2 MRI signs, except for medial extrusion sign, were 91.7% in the MMPRT group and 5% in other MM tears. This study demonstrated that a new characteristic MRI finding "giraffe neck sign" was observed in 81.7% of the MMPRT. Our results suggest that the combination of giraffe neck, cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs may be important for an accurate diagnostic MRI reading of the MMPRT. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy for evaluating meniscal allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Byeong-Sam; Lee, Chang-Rack; Lim, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of transplanted meniscal allograft with second-look arthroscopy and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI for assessing graft status. From 1996 to 2012, among 290 knees that underwent meniscal allograft transplantation and received follow-up examination for more than 1 year, those knees that underwent second-look arthroscopy were reviewed. Patients with no postoperative MRI and patients with a time gap between postoperative MRI and second-look arthroscopy of more than 3 months were excluded. Anatomically, the meniscus was divided into 3 segments: anterior one-third, mid body, and posterior one-third. Each part of the meniscus was evaluated using both methods. Grade 3 MRI signal intensity was diagnosed as a meniscal tear radiologically. By use of second-look arthroscopy as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of postoperative MRI were assessed in each segment of the grafts. Twenty knees were retrospectively enrolled. The specificity, PPV, and accuracy for the anterior one-third were lower than those for the mid body and posterior one-third (specificity of 35.3% v 91.7% and 90%, respectively; PPV of 21.4% v 87.5% and 90.9%, respectively; and accuracy of 45% v 90% and 95%, respectively). However, the sensitivity and NPV were similar among the anterior one-third, mid body, and posterior one-third (sensitivity of 100%, 87.5%, and 100%, respectively; and NPV of 100%, 91.7%, and 100%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the comparison between the diagnostic MRI values of lateral grafts and medial grafts. Of 5 cases that showed grade 3 signal at only the anterior one-third section, 60% had no clinical signs. There were no graft tears in any cases. The anterior one-third of grafts showed low specificity, PPV, and accuracy of postoperative MRI compared with the mid

  2. Implantation of Allogenic Synovial Stem Cells Promotes Meniscal Regeneration in a Rabbit Meniscal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masafumi; Driscoll, Matthew D.; Sampson, H. Wayne; Sekiya, Ichiro; Caroom, Cyrus T.; Prockop, Darwin J.; Thomas, Darryl B.

    2012-01-01

    Update This article was updated on May 16, 2012, because of a previous error. The legend for Figures 7-A and 7-B that had previously read “Representative macroscopic appearance (Fig. 7-A) and histological sections (Fig. 7-B) of the meniscal defect one day to twelve weeks after the implantation of GFP-positive green fluorescent protein under fluorescence” now reads “Representative macroscopic appearance (Fig. 7-A) and histological sections (Fig. 7-B) of the meniscal defect one day to twelve weeks after the implantation of GFP-positive synovial mesenchymal stem cells under fluorescence.” Background: Indications for surgical meniscal repair are limited, and failure rates remain high. Thus, new ways to augment repair and stimulate meniscal regeneration are needed. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells present in mature individuals and accessible from peripheral connective tissue sites, including synovium. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of implantation of synovial tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on meniscal regeneration in a rabbit model of partial meniscectomy. Methods: Synovial mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the knee of one New Zealand White rabbit, expanded in culture, and labeled with a fluorescent marker. A reproducible 1.5-mm cylindrical defect was created in the avascular portion of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus bilaterally in fifteen additional rabbits. Allogenic synovial mesenchymal stem cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solution were implanted into the right knees, and phosphate-buffered saline solution alone was placed in the left knees. Meniscal regeneration was evaluated histologically at four, twelve, and twenty-four weeks for (1) quantity and (2) quality (with use of an established three-component scoring system). A similar procedure was performed in four additional rabbits with use of green fluorescent protein-positive synovial mesenchymal stem cells for the

  3. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  4. A Novel Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Medial Meniscus: Biomechanical Comparison of Transtibial 2-Tunnel and Double Horizontal Mattress Suture Techniques Under Cyclic Loading.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Civitarese, David M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Christopher M; Nitri, Marco; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Complete radial tears of the medial meniscus have been reported to be functionally similar to a total meniscectomy. At present, there is no consensus on an ideal technique for repair of radial midbody tears of the medial meniscus. Prior attempts at repair with double horizontal mattress suture techniques have led to a reportedly high rate of incomplete healing or healing in a nonanatomic (gapped) position, which compromises the ability of the meniscus to withstand hoop stresses. A newly proposed 2-tunnel radial meniscal repair method will result in decreased gapping and increased ultimate failure loads compared with the double horizontal mattress suture repair technique under cyclic loading. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of male human cadaveric knees (average age, 58.6 years; range, 48-66 years) were used. A complete radial medial meniscal tear was made at the junction of the posterior one-third and middle third of the meniscus. One knee underwent a horizontal mattress inside-out repair, while the contralateral knee underwent a radial meniscal repair entailing the same technique with a concurrent novel 2-tunnel repair. Specimens were potted and mounted on a universal testing machine. Each specimen was cyclically loaded 1000 times with loads between 5 and 20 N before experiencing a load to failure. Gap distances at the tear site and failure load were measured. The 2-tunnel repairs exhibited a significantly stronger ultimate failure load (median, 196 N; range, 163-212 N) than did the double horizontal mattress suture repairs (median, 106 N; range, 63-229 N) (P = .004). In addition, the 2-tunnel repairs demonstrated decreased gapping at all testing states (P < .05) with a final measured gapping of 1.7 mm and 4.1 mm after 1000 cycles for the 2-tunnel and double horizontal mattress suture repairs, respectively. The 2-tunnel repairs displayed significantly less gapping distance after cyclic loading and had significantly stronger ultimate failure loads

  5. Tibiofemoral Contact Mechanics with Horizontal Cleavage Tear and Resection of the Medial Meniscus in the Human Knee.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jason L; Yi, Seung Jin; Ren, Yupeng; Zimmerman, Todd A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-11-02

    The meniscus is known to increase the contact area and decrease contact pressure in the tibiofemoral compartments of the knee. Radial tears of the meniscal root attachment along with partial resections of the torn meniscal tissue decrease the contact area and increase pressure; however, there is a lack of information on the effects of a horizontal cleavage tear (HCT) and partial leaf meniscectomy of such tears on tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area. Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were tested under 10 conditions: 5 serial conditions of posterior medial meniscectomy (intact meniscus, HCT, repaired HCT, inferior leaf resection, and resection of both inferior and superior leaves), each at 2 knee flexion angles (0° and 60°) under an 800-N axial load. Tekscan sensors (model 4000) were used to measure the contact pressure and contact area. HCT and HCT repair resulted in small changes in the contact area and an increase in contact pressure compared with the intact condition. Resection of the inferior leaf resulted in significantly decreased contact area (to a mean 82.3% of the intact condition at 0° of flexion and 81.8% at 60° of flexion; p < 0.05) and increased peak contact pressure (a mean 36.3% increase at 0° flexion and 43.2% increase at 60° flexion; p < 0.05) in the medial compartment. Further resection of the remaining superior leaf resulted in additional significant decreases in contact area (to a mean 60.1% of the intact condition at 0° of flexion and 49.7% at 60° of flexion; p < 0.05) and increases in peak contact pressure (a mean 79.2% increase at 0° of flexion and 74.9% increase at 60° of flexion; p < 0.05). Resection of meniscal tissue forming the inferior leaf of an HCT resulted in substantially decreased contact area and increased contact pressure. Additional resection of the superior leaf resulted in a further significant decrease in contact area and increase in contact pressure in the medial compartment. Repair or minimal

  6. Effect of partial meniscectomy at the medial posterior horn on tibiofemoral contact mechanics and meniscal hoop strains in human knees.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Andreas Martin; Lubomierski, Anja; Friemert, Benedikt; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2012-06-01

    We examined the influence of partial meniscectomy of 10 mm width on 10 human cadaveric knee joints, as it is performed during the treatment of radial tears in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, on maximum contact pressure, contact area (CA), and meniscal hoop strain in the lateral and medial knee compartments. In case of 0° and 30° flexion angle, 20% and 50% partial meniscectomy did not influence maximum contact pressure and area. Only in case of 60° knee flexion, 50% partial resection increased medial maximum contact pressure and decreased the medial CA statistically significant. However, 100% partial resection increased maximum contact pressure and decreased CA significantly in the meniscectomized medial knee compartment in all tested knee positions. No significant differences were noted for meniscal hoop strain. From a biomechanical point of view, our in vitro study suggests that the medial joint compartment is not in danger of accelerated cartilage degeneration up to a resection limit of 20% meniscal depth and 10 mm width. Contact mechanics are likely to be more sensitive to partial meniscectomy at higher flexion angles, which has to be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  7. Biomechanical evaluation of a transtibial pull-out meniscal root repair: challenging the bungee effect.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Anthony J; LaPrade, Christopher M; Smith, Sean D; Ellman, Michael B; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    A common treatment for posterior meniscal root tears is transtibial pull-out repair, which has been biomechanically reported to restore tibiofemoral contact mechanics to those of the intact knee. Biomechanical data suggest that there is significant displacement of the repaired meniscal root with cyclic loading, which may be responsible for the poor healing and meniscal extrusion demonstrated in some clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the time-zero displacement of the posterior meniscal root in response to cyclic loading after transtibial pull-out repair and to quantify the individual contributions to displacement of the following: (1) suture elongation, (2) button-bone interface, and (3) meniscus-suture interface. The meniscus-suture interface was hypothesized to result in significantly more displacement than the button-bone interface or suture elongation. Descriptive laboratory study. Transtibial pull-out repair of the posterior medial meniscal root was performed in 6 porcine knees, and cyclic displacement was measured using a loading protocol representative of postoperative rehabilitation. Displacement from (1) suture elongation, (2) the button-bone interface, and (3) the meniscus-suture interface was determined by cyclically loading 6 specimens for each construct using the same loading protocol to determine the contribution of each component to the overall displacement of the repair construct. After 1000 cycles, the repair construct displaced by a mean of 3.28 mm (95% CI, 2.07-4.49). The meniscus-suture component (mean, 2.52 mm; 95% CI, 2.21-2.83) displaced significantly more than the button-bone component (mean, 0.90 mm; 95% CI, 0.64-1.15; P = .006) and suture elongation component (mean, 0.71 mm; 95% CI, 0.36-1.06; P = .006) after 1000 cycles. Displacement of the button-bone and suture elongation components was not significantly different after 1000 cycles (P = .720). There was substantial displacement of the posterior medial meniscal

  8. Both Posterior Root Lateral-Medial Meniscus Tears With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: The Step-by-Step Systematic Arthroscopic Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Prasetia, Renaldi

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of posterior root tear of both the lateral and medial menisci, combined with anterior cruciate ligament rupture, is rare. Problems may be encountered such as the difficulty to access the medial meniscal root tear, the confusing circumstances about which structure to repair first, and the possibility of the tunnel for each repair to become taut inside the tibial bone. We present the arthroscopy technique step by step to overcome the difficulties in an efficient and time-preserving manner.

  9. Sex-Specific Predictors of Intra-articular Injuries Observed During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Marzo, John M.; Rauh, Michael A.; Bernas, Geoffrey A.; Bisson, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male patients tend to have more meniscal and chondral injuries at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction than females. No studies have examined sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions in ACL-injured patients. Purpose: To identify sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions, as well as meniscal tear management, in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data were collected prospectively from 689 patients (56.2% males) undergoing ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2014. Predictors of meniscal tears, meniscal tear management, and chondral injuries were determined using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex. Predictors were age, body mass index (BMI; 25-29.99 and ≥30 vs ≤24.99 kg/m2), mechanism (contact vs noncontact) and type (high-impact sports [basketball, football, soccer, and skiing] and other sports vs not sports-related) of injury, interval from injury to surgery (≤6 vs >6 weeks), and instability episodes (vs none). Odds ratios and 95% CIs were reported. Results: Males had more lateral (46% vs 27.8%; P < .0001) and medial (40.2% vs 31.5%; P = .01) meniscal tears, as well as more lateral (72.1% vs 27.9%; P < .0001) and medial (61.4% vs 38.6%; P = .01) meniscectomies than females. For males, age predicted chondral injuries and medial meniscectomy; BMI ≥30 kg/m2 predicted medial meniscal tears; high-impact and other sports predicted medial meniscal tears, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs; injuries ≤6 weeks from surgery predicted lateral meniscal repairs; and instability episodes predicted medial meniscal tears, medial tears left in situ, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs. For females, age predicted chondral injuries, BMI ≥30 kg/m2 predicted lateral meniscectomies and repairs, and instability episodes predicted medial meniscectomies. Conclusion: Sex differences were observed. For

  10. Sex-Specific Predictors of Intra-articular Injuries Observed During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kluczynski, Melissa A; Marzo, John M; Rauh, Michael A; Bernas, Geoffrey A; Bisson, Leslie J

    2015-02-01

    Male patients tend to have more meniscal and chondral injuries at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction than females. No studies have examined sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions in ACL-injured patients. To identify sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions, as well as meniscal tear management, in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected prospectively from 689 patients (56.2% males) undergoing ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2014. Predictors of meniscal tears, meniscal tear management, and chondral injuries were determined using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex. Predictors were age, body mass index (BMI; 25-29.99 and ≥30 vs ≤24.99 kg/m(2)), mechanism (contact vs noncontact) and type (high-impact sports [basketball, football, soccer, and skiing] and other sports vs not sports-related) of injury, interval from injury to surgery (≤6 vs >6 weeks), and instability episodes (vs none). Odds ratios and 95% CIs were reported. Males had more lateral (46% vs 27.8%; P < .0001) and medial (40.2% vs 31.5%; P = .01) meniscal tears, as well as more lateral (72.1% vs 27.9%; P < .0001) and medial (61.4% vs 38.6%; P = .01) meniscectomies than females. For males, age predicted chondral injuries and medial meniscectomy; BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) predicted medial meniscal tears; high-impact and other sports predicted medial meniscal tears, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs; injuries ≤6 weeks from surgery predicted lateral meniscal repairs; and instability episodes predicted medial meniscal tears, medial tears left in situ, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs. For females, age predicted chondral injuries, BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) predicted lateral meniscectomies and repairs, and instability episodes predicted medial meniscectomies. Sex differences were observed. For males, predictors included age, BMI, sports

  11. Muscle Weakness in the Empty and Full Can Tests Cannot Differentiate Rotator Cuff Tear from Cervical Spondylotic Amyotrophy: Pain Provocation is a Useful Finding.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Eiichiro; Shigematsu, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuya; Egawa, Takuya; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears and cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) are often confused as the main symptom in those with difficulty in shoulder elevation. Empty and full can tests are frequently used for the clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the empty and full can test results can help differentiate rotator cuff tears from CSA. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with rotator cuff tears and 25 with CSA were enrolled. We prospectively performed empty and full can tests in patients with rotator cuff tears and CSA. The following signs were considered positive: (a) muscle weakness during the empty can test, (b) muscle weakness during the full can test, (c) pain provocation during the empty can test, and (d) pain provocation during the full can test. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of rotator cuff tears for each positive finding. The sensitivity and specificity of each index were as follows (sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV): (a) 77.8%, 0%, 45.7%, 0%; (b) 66.7%, 4.0%, 42.9%, 10.0%; (c) 88.9%, 96.0%, 96.0%, 88.9%; and (d) 74.1%, 96.0%, 95.2%, 77.4%. There were significant differences for each index. Muscle weakness during the empty and full can tests was not useful in differentiating rotator cuff tears from CSA because of low specificity and PPV. However, pain provocation was useful in differentiating these two conditions because of high specificity and PPV.

  12. Change in patient-reported outcomes in patients with and without mechanical symptoms undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Kenneth; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Englund, Martin; Stefan Lohmander, L; Jørgensen, Uffe; Nissen, Nis; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2018-05-21

    Patients with degenerative or traumatic meniscal tears are at high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. We investigated if younger (≤40 years) and older (>40 years) patients with preoperative mechanical symptoms improved more in patient-reported outcomes after meniscal surgery than those without mechanical symptoms. Patients from Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS) undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear completed online questionnaires before surgery, and at 12 and 52 weeks follow-up. Questionnaires included self-reported presence of mechanical symptoms (i.e. sensation of catching and/or locking) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). We analyzed between-group differences in change in KOOS 4 from baseline to 52 weeks, using an adjusted mixed linear model. 150 younger patients (mean age 31 (SD 7), 67% men) and 491 older patients (mean age 54 (SD 9), 53% men) constituted the baseline cohorts. Patients with mechanical symptoms generally had worse self-reported outcomes before surgery. At 52 weeks follow-up, younger patients with preoperative mechanical symptoms had improved more in KOOS 4 scores than younger patients without preoperative mechanical symptoms (adjusted mean difference 10.5, 95%CI: 4.3, 16.6), but did not exceed the absolute postoperative KOOS 4 scores observed for those without mechanical symptoms. No difference in improvement was observed between older patients with or without mechanical symptoms (adjusted mean difference 0.7, 95%CI: -2.6, 3.9). Younger patients (≤40 years) with preoperative mechanical symptoms experienced greater improvements after arthroscopic surgery compared to younger patients without mechanical symptoms. Our observational study result needs to be confirmed in randomized trials. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 and integrative meniscal repair: influences on meniscal cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are up-regulated in injured and osteoarthritic knee joints. IL-1 and TNF-α inhibit integrative meniscal repair; however, the mechanisms by which this inhibition occurs are not fully understood. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increases meniscal cell proliferation and accumulation, and enhances integrative meniscal repair. An improved understanding of the mechanisms modulating meniscal cell proliferation and migration will help to improve approaches for enhancing intrinsic or tissue-engineered repair of the meniscus. The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that IL-1 and TNF-α suppress, while TGF-β1 enhances, cellular proliferation and migration in cell and tissue models of meniscal repair. Methods A micro-wound assay was used to assess meniscal cell migration and proliferation in response to the following treatments for 0, 24, or 48 hours: 0 to 10 ng/mL IL-1, TNF-α, or TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of 10% serum. Proliferated and total cells were fluorescently labeled and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the number of proliferated, migrated, and total cells was determined in the micro-wound and edges of each image. Meniscal cell proliferation was also assessed throughout meniscal repair model explants treated with 0 or 10 ng/mL IL-1, TNF-α, or TGF-β1 for 14 days. At the end of the culture period, biomechanical testing and histological analyses were also performed. Statistical differences were assessed using an ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc test. Results IL-1 and TNF-α decreased cell proliferation in both cell and tissue models of meniscal repair. In the presence of serum, TGF-β1 increased outer zone cell proliferation in the micro-wound and in the cross section of meniscal repair model explants. Both IL-1 and TNF-α decreased the integrative shear strength of repair and extracellular matrix deposition in the meniscal repair model system

  14. Arthroscopic Direct Repair for a Complete Radial Tear of the Posterior Root of the Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kook Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hee; Cho, Jin Ho; Changale, Sachin D.; Woo, Sung Jong

    2011-01-01

    We report here on a new arthroscopic direct repair technique for a radial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (PRMM) using a posterior trans-septal portal. Radial tears of the PRMM are commonly observed in the elderly population of Korea and Japan, and the life style of these people requires squatting and kneeling down in daily life. A radial tear of the PRMM results in the loss of hoop tension and this accelerates degenerative changes in the knee joint and causes early osteoarthritis. Several reports in the medical literature have focused on various repair techniques for these tears by using pull out sutures. These techniques result in nonanatomic fixation of the meniscus, which may lead to disturbed meniscal excursion and failure to restore hoop tension. Arthroscopic direct repair may contribute to restoring hoop tension and preventing accelerated degenerative changes in the knee joint of these patients. PMID:22162797

  15. Arthroscopic direct repair for a complete radial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kook Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hee; Cho, Jin Ho; Changale, Sachin D; Woo, Sung Jong; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    We report here on a new arthroscopic direct repair technique for a radial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (PRMM) using a posterior trans-septal portal. Radial tears of the PRMM are commonly observed in the elderly population of Korea and Japan, and the life style of these people requires squatting and kneeling down in daily life. A radial tear of the PRMM results in the loss of hoop tension and this accelerates degenerative changes in the knee joint and causes early osteoarthritis. Several reports in the medical literature have focused on various repair techniques for these tears by using pull out sutures. These techniques result in nonanatomic fixation of the meniscus, which may lead to disturbed meniscal excursion and failure to restore hoop tension. Arthroscopic direct repair may contribute to restoring hoop tension and preventing accelerated degenerative changes in the knee joint of these patients.

  16. Clinical knee findings in floor layers with focus on meniscal status.

    PubMed

    Rytter, Søren; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2008-10-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported and clinical knee morbidity among floor layers compared to a group of graphic designers, with special attention to meniscal status. We obtained information about knee complaints by questionnaire and conducted a bilateral clinical and radiographic knee examination in 134 male floor layers and 120 male graphic designers. After the exclusion of subjects with reports of earlier knee injuries the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of knee complaints and clinical findings were computed among floor layers compared to graphic designers, using logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for effects of body mass index, age and knee straining sports. Using radiographic evaluations, we conducted side-specific sensitivity analyses regarding clinical signs of meniscal lesions after the exclusion of participants with tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA). Reports of knee pain (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.6), pain during stair walking (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9) and symptoms of catching of the knee joint (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4-5.7) were more prevalent among floor layers compared to graphic designers. Additionally, significant more floor layers than graphic designers had clinical signs suggesting possible meniscal lesions: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.0) and TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.4-12.0). Excluding floor layers (n = 22) and graphic designers (n = 15) with radiographic TF OA did not alter this trend between the two study groups: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.9), TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.0-12.5). Results indicate that floor layers have a high prevalence of both self-reported and clinical knee morbidity. Clinical knee findings suggesting possible meniscal lesions were significant more prevalent among floor layers compared to a group of low-level exposed graphic designers and an association with occupational

  17. Meniscal Extrusion or Subchondral Damage Characterize Incident Accelerated Osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Driban, Jeffrey B.; Ward, Robert J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Lo, Grace H.; Price, Lori Lyn; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is typically a slowly progressive disorder; however, a subset of knees progress with dramatic rapidity. We aimed to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings that are associated with accelerated KOA. Materials and Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort. We selected participants who had no radiographic KOA at baseline with one of the following in the most severe knee: 1) accelerated KOA (progressed to end-stage KOA within 48 months), 2) common KOA, and 3) no KOA at all visits. We enriched the sample by selecting knees with a self-reported or suspected knee injury. A musculoskeletal radiologist blinded to group assignments but not to time sequence performed MRI readings for the visit before and after an injury. Results We assessed 38 participants (knees), 66% were female, mean age 61 (9) years, and mean body mass index 28.5 (4.9) kg/m2. Fifteen of 20 knees with no or common KOA, had no incident findings consistent with acute damage. Among the 18 knees with accelerated KOA most had incident findings: 13 (72%) had incident medial meniscal pathology with extrusion and 5 (28%) knees had subchondral damage. Conclusions Incident MRI findings that are associated with incident accelerated KOA are characterized by structural damage that compromises subchondral bone or the function of the meniscus. Recognizing meniscal extrusion and/or change in shape, lateral meniscal tear, or acute subchondral damage may be vital for identifying individuals at risk for accelerated KOA. PMID:26149125

  18. Posterior double PCL sign: a case report of unusual MRI finding of bucket-handle tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Hahn, Sung Ho; Yi, Seung Rim; Kim, Seong Wan

    2007-11-01

    Among the MRI signs of bucket-handle tears of medial meniscus, double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sign denotes a low signal band anterior and parallel to the PCL, which looks like another PCL in MR images. If the bucket-handle fragment subsequently tears at the anterior horn, the torn meniscal substance can be displaced to the posterosuperior region of the PCL, and looks like another PCL behind the original PCL. We propose the lesion be called the "posterior double PCL sign" in contrast to the ordinary double PCL sign. We present a case showing the posterior double PCL sign.

  19. Asymptomatic rotator cuff tears: Patient demographics and baseline shoulder function

    PubMed Central

    Keener, Jay D.; Steger-May, Karen; Stobbs, Georgia; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to characterize the demographic features and physical function of subjects with asymptomatic rotator cuff tears and to compare their shoulder function to controls with an intact rotator cuff. Materials and Methods 196 subjects with an asymptomatic rotator cuff tear and 54 subjects with an intact rotator cuff presenting with a painful rotator cuff tear in the contralateral shoulder were enrolled. Various demographic features, shoulder function (ASES score and SST score), range of motion and strength were compared. Results The demographic features of the study and control groups were similar. Hand dominance was associated with the presence of shoulder pain (p < .05). Subjects with an intact rotator cuff had greater but clinically insignificant ASES (p < .05) and SST scores (p < .05) than those with an asymptomatic tear. No differences in functional scores, range of motion or strength were seen between partial (n=61) and full-thickness tears (n=135). Of the full-thickness tears, 36 (27%) were classified as small, 85 (63%) as medium and 14 (10%) as large tears. No differences were seen in functional scores between full-thickness tears of various sizes. Conclusions When asymptomatic, a rotator cuff tear is associated with a clinically insignificant loss of shoulder function compared to those with an intact rotator cuff. Therefore, a clinically detectable decline in shoulder function may indicate an “at-risk” asymptomatic tear. The presence of pain is important in cuff deficient shoulders for creating a measurable loss of shoulder function. Hand dominance appears to be an important risk factor for pain. PMID:21030274

  20. Patient acceptability of tear collection in the primary healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Quah, Joanne Hui Min; Tong, Louis; Barbier, Sylvaine

    2014-04-01

    The primary healthcare setting is well placed for health screening. Tear fluid composition gives valuable information about the eye and systemic health, and there is now significant interest in the potential application of tears as a tool for health screening; however, the acceptability of tear collection in the primary healthcare setting as compared with other methods of human sample collection has not been previously addressed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the patient acceptability of tear collection in a primary healthcare setting. This was a cross-sectional study on 383 adult patients seeking primary healthcare, who were not diabetic and were not attending for an eye-related complaint. Tear collection was done using Schirmer strips, and an interviewer-administered questionnaire was conducted to collate information on the pain score (0-10) of the Schirmer tear collection, as well as to score the pain associated with their previous experience of antecubital venous puncture and finger prick test. The pain score for Schirmer tear collection was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than antecubital venous puncture but higher (p < 0.001) than finger prick. The pain scores for all three procedures were significantly higher in participants of younger age, female gender, and higher education level. Among the participants, 70% did not mind their tears being collected to screen for eye problems, whereas only 38% did not mind this procedure being performed for general health screening. Nevertheless, 69% of the participants preferred tear to urine collection, and 74% of participants preferred tear to blood collection. Tear collection using Schirmer strips is a highly acceptable form of investigation that has the potential for use in health screening in the primary healthcare setting. This study has implications on using tear collection as a method of ocular and systemic health screening in the primary healthcare setting.

  1. Posterior medial meniscus root ligament lesions: MRI classification and associated findings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ja-Young; Chang, Eric Y; Cunha, Guilherme M; Tafur, Monica; Statum, Sheronda; Chung, Christine B

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of altered MRI appearances of "posterior medial meniscus root ligament (PMMRL)" lesions, introduce a classification of lesion types, and report associated findings. We retrospectively reviewed 419 knee MRI studies to identify the presence of PMMRL lesions. Classification was established on the basis of lesions encountered. The medial compartment was assessed for medial meniscal tears in the meniscus proper, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous changes, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture, and cruciate ligament abnormality. PMMRL abnormalities occurred in 28.6% (120/419) of the studies: degeneration, 14.3% (60/419) and tear, 14.3% (60/419). Our classification system included degeneration and tearing. Tearing was categorized as partial or complete with delineation of the point of failure as entheseal, midsubstance, or junction to meniscus. Of all tears, 93.3% (56/60) occurred at the meniscal junction. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the knees with and without PMMRL lesions in age, medial meniscal tear, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous change, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture (p=0.017), and cruciate ligament degeneration (p<0.001). PMMRL lesions are commonly detected in symptomatic patients. We have introduced an MRI classification system. PMMRL lesions are significantly associated with age, medial meniscal tears, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous change, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture, and cruciate ligament degeneration.

  2. Tearfulness: a psychoanalytic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Wood, E C; Wood, C D

    1984-01-01

    In our view, the tearful feeling state is occasioned by the ego temporarily threatened with being inundated by complex memories and affects. For the moment, the ego cannot provide appropriate satisfying and integrated verbal expression. Words and verbal thinking are delayed. In this brief period, a controlled regression occurs during which the ego relates the current "precipitating experience" to temporally older conflictual experiences in the presence of the current object as a transference object and with a series of relationships so closely connected to that experience that they are interchanged in whole or part by the less selective, regressed, ego operations. The conscious experience may be sadness, gratitude, love, pride, or joy. But beneath these, there is the controlled regression, which interrupts verbal expression while the ego works through the earlier related conflicts,now remembered. The tearful feeling, a step in the direction of overt weeping, primitively expresses the frustration of an early wish for relief from pain, the pain of the imbalance of a complex conflict. The tearful feeling both expresses the wish for relief of pain and, at the same time, interrupts current verbal expression until the needed defense operations reduce the threat of ego disruption by working through old conflicts once again. Our thesis, then, is that within the analytic or psychotherapeutic hour the patient's feeling of tearfulness is a "too much" ego phenomenon that leads to a psychophysiological outlet.

  3. X-ray microtomography-based measurements of meniscal allografts.

    PubMed

    Mickiewicz, P; Binkowski, M; Bursig, H; Wróbel, Z

    2015-05-01

    X-ray microcomputed tomography (XMT) is a technique widely used to image hard and soft tissues. Meniscal allografts as collagen structures can be imaged and analyzed using XMT. The aim of this study was to present an XMT scanning protocol that can be used to obtain the 3D geometry of menisci. It was further applied to compare two methods of meniscal allograft measurement: traditional (based on manual measurement) and novel (based on digital measurement of 3D models of menisci obtained with use of XMT scanner). The XMT-based menisci measurement is a reliable method for assessing the geometry of a meniscal allograft by measuring the basic meniscal dimensions known from traditional protocol. Thirteen dissected menisci were measured according the same principles traditionally applied in a tissue bank. Next, the same specimens were scanned by a laboratory scanner in the XMT Lab. The images were processed to obtain a 3D mesh. 3D models of allograft geometry were then measured using a novel protocol enhanced by computer software. Then, both measurements were compared using statistical tests. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the lengths of the medial and lateral menisci measured in the tissue bank and the XMT Lab. Also, medial meniscal widths were significantly different (P<0.05). Differences in meniscal lengths may result from difficulties in dissected meniscus measurements in tissue banks, and may be related to the elastic structure of the dissected meniscus. Errors may also be caused by the lack of highlighted landmarks on the meniscal surface in this study. The XMT may be a good technique for assessing meniscal dimensions without actually touching the specimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture are associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Pieter; Clockaerts, Stefan; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Lambrecht, Valérie; Wouters, Kristien; De Smet, Eline; Gielen, Jan L; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and to analyse its associated injury patterns. Ninety patients with acute ACL rupture for which MRI was obtained within 8 weeks after the initial trauma were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists assessed the status of the ALL on MRI by consensus. The presence or absence of an ALL abnormality was compared with the existence of medial and lateral meniscal tears diagnosed during arthroscopy. Associated collateral ligament and osseous injuries were documented with MRI. Forty-one of 90 knees (46 %) demonstrated ALL abnormalities on MRI. Of 49 knees with intact ALL, 15 (31 %) had a torn lateral meniscus as compared to 25 torn lateral menisci in 41 knees (61 %) with abnormal ALL (p = 0.008). Collateral ligament (p ≤ 0.05) and osseous injuries (p = 0.0037) were more frequent and severe in ALL-injured as compared with ALL-intact knees. ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture and are statistically significantly associated with lateral meniscal, collateral ligament and osseous injuries. • ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture. • ALL injuries are highly associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries. • MRI assessment of ACL-injured knees should include evaluation of the ALL.

  5. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    PubMed

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  6. Predictors of degenerative medial meniscus extrusion: radial component and knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Jong-Min; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Cha, Eun-Jong; Park, Ji-Hun; Bin, Seong-Il

    2011-02-01

    the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a radial tear on degenerative medial meniscus posterior horn tear extrusion and to identify predictors of medial meniscus extrusion. we reviewed the records of 102 knees with medial meniscus posterior horn tears and degeneration that underwent a partial meniscectomy. Tears were classified as root (n = 17) and non-root (n = 85) tears, or as radial (n = 46) and non-radial (n = 56) tears. Groups were compared in terms of absolute and relative meniscal extrusion, and the proportion of knees with major (> 3 mm) extrusion. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of extrusion. the radial group had greater mean absolute (4 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 mm, P = 0.001) and relative (31 ± 11 vs. 23 ± 12%, P = 0.031) extrusion than the non-radial group. The radial group also had a greater proportion of major extrusions than the non-radial group (74% vs. 26%; P = 0.016). In contrast, the root tear and non-root tear groups were similar in terms of mean absolute (3 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 mm, P = n.s.) and relative (30 ± 7 vs. 26 ± 13%; P = n.s.) extrusion and in terms of proportion with major extrusions (59 vs. 55%; P = n.s.). Extrusion was found to be associated with a similar strength with both the presence of a radial component and the preoperative Kellgren-Lawrence grade. meniscal extrusion was greater and more severe in knees with a radial tear component than in knees without a radial component. The incidence and degree of major extrusion was similar in knees with root tears and non-root tears. A radial component and knee osteoarthritis severity were similarly predictive of absolute and relative extrusion. Meniscal extrusion in osteoarthritic knees was associated not only with degenerative meniscal tear but also with osteoarthritis severity. Therefore, arthroscopic meniscal procedures, especially meniscal repair, should be cautiously considered in patients with meniscal extrusion.

  7. Degenerative meniscus: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Richard; Kumar, Neil S; Patel, Nimit; Tom, James

    2014-01-01

    The symptomatic degenerative meniscus continues to be a source of discomfort for a significant number of patients. With vascular penetration of less than one-third of the adult meniscus, healing potential in the setting of chronic degeneration remains low. Continued hoop and shear stresses upon the degenerative meniscus results in gross failure, often in the form of complex tears in the posterior horn and midbody. Patient history and physical examination are critical to determine the true source of pain, particularly with the significant incidence of simultaneous articular pathology. Joint line tenderness, a positive McMurray test, and mechanical catching or locking can be highly suggestive of a meniscal source of knee pain and dysfunction. Radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging are frequently utilized to examine for osteoarthritis and to verify the presence of meniscal tears, in addition to ruling out other sources of pain. Non-operative therapy focused on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physical therapy may be able to provide pain relief as well as improve mechanical function of the knee joint. For patients refractory to conservative therapy, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy can provide short-term gains regarding pain relief, especially when combined with an effective, regular physiotherapy program. Patients with clear mechanical symptoms and meniscal pathology may benefit from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, but surgery is not a guaranteed success, especially with concomitant articular pathology. Ultimately, the long-term outcomes of either treatment arm provide similar results for most patients. Further study is needed regarding the short and long-term outcomes regarding conservative and surgical therapy, with a particular focus on the economic impact of treatment as well. PMID:25405088

  8. Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Correlate With Sleep Disturbance?

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bryan A; Hull, Brandon R; Kurth, Alexander B; Kukowski, Nathan R; Mulligan, Edward P; Khazzam, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    Many patients with rotator cuff tears suffer from nocturnal shoulder pain, resulting in sleep disturbance. To determine whether rotator cuff tear size correlated with sleep disturbance in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with a diagnosis of unilateral full-thickness rotator cuff tears (diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a visual analog scale (VAS) quantifying their shoulder pain, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire. Shoulder MRI scans were analyzed for anterior-posterior tear size (mm), tendon retraction (mm), Goutallier grade (0-4), number of tendons involved (1-4), muscle atrophy (none, mild, moderate, or severe), and humeral head rise (present or absent). Bivariate correlations were calculated between the MRI characteristics and baseline survey results. A total of 209 patients with unilateral full-thickness rotator cuff tears were included in this study: 112 (54%) female and 97 (46%) male (mean age, 64.1 years). On average, shoulder pain had been present for 24 months. The mean PSQI score was 9.8, and the mean VAS score was 5.0. No significant correlations were found between any of the rotator cuff tear characteristics and sleep quality. Only tendon retraction had a significant correlation with pain. Although rotator cuff tears are frequently associated with nocturnal pain and sleep disruption, this study demonstrated that morphological characteristics of full-thickness rotator cuff tears, such as size and tendon retraction, do not correlate with sleep disturbance and have little to no correlation with pain levels.

  9. The popliteus tendon provides a safe and reliable location for all-inside meniscal repair device placement.

    PubMed

    Ouanezar, Hervé; Blakeney, William G; Latrobe, Charles; Saithna, Adnan; Fernandes, Levi Reina; Delaloye, Jean Romain; Thaunat, Mathieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2018-03-03

    Repairs of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus can be technically challenging. In contrast to medial meniscus repairs, the capsule around the posterior segment attachment of the lateral meniscus is quite thin. This study evaluates the clinical results of an arthroscopic all-inside repair technique for unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears, using a suture repair placed directly into the popliteus tendon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the SANTI database was performed. All patients who had undergone combined ACL reconstruction with lateral meniscus all-inside repair, using sutures placed in the popliteus tendon, between 2011 and 2015, were included. Patients were reviewed clinically at 1 and 2 years' follow-up. At final follow-up, all patients were contacted to identify if they underwent further surgery or had knee pain, locking or effusion. Symptomatic patients were recalled for clinical evaluation by a physician and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the knee. Operative notes for those undergoing further surgery were reviewed and rates and type of re-operation, including for failed lateral meniscal repair were recorded. Two hundred patients (mean age 28.6 ± 10.2 years) with a mean follow-up of 45.5 ± 12.8 months (range 24.7-75.2) were included. The mean Subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) at final follow-up was 85.0 ± 11.3. The post-operative mean side-to-side laxity measured at 1 year was 0.6 ± 1.0 mm. Twenty-six patients underwent re-operation (13%) at a mean follow-up of 14.8 ± 7.8 months. The ACL graft rupture rate was 5.0%. Other causes for re-operation included medial meniscus tear (2.5%), cyclops lesion (1.5%) and septic arthritis (0.5%). The lateral meniscus repair failure rate was 3.5%. No specific complications relating to placement of sutures in the popliteus tendon were identified. Arthroscopic all-inside repair of unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears

  10. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C

    2016-10-01

    Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective case series. One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients demonstrating a positive Trendelenburg sign

  11. THE CLINICAL, FUNCTIONAL AND BIOMECHANICAL PRESENTATION OF PATIENTS WITH SYMPTOMATIC HIP ABDUCTOR TENDON TEARS

    PubMed Central

    Retheesh, Theertha; Mutreja, Rinky; Janes, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hip abductor tendon (HAT) tearing is commonly implicated in greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS), though limited information exists on the disability associated with this condition and specific presentation of these patients. Purpose To describe the clinical, functional and biomechanical presentation of patients with symptomatic HAT tears. Secondary purposes were to investigate the association between these clinical and functional measures, and to compare the pain and disability reported by HAT tear patients to those with end-stage hip osteoarthritis (OA). Study Design Prospective case series. Methods One hundred forty-nine consecutive patients with symptomatic HAT tears were evaluated using the Harris (HHS) and Oxford (OHS) Hip Scores, SF-12, an additional series of 10 questions more pertinent to those with lateral hip pain, active hip range of motion (ROM), maximal isometric hip abduction strength, six-minute walk capacity and 30-second single limb stance (SLS) test. The presence of a Trendelenburg sign and pelvis-on-femur (POF) angle were determined via 2D video analysis. An age matched comparative sample of patients with end-stage hip OA was recruited for comparison of all patient-reported outcome scores. Independent t-tests investigated group and limb differences, while analysis of variance evaluated pain changes during the functional tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients investigated the correlation between clinical measures in the HAT tear group. Results No differences existed in patient demographics and patient-reported outcome scores between HAT tear and hip OA cohorts, apart from significantly worse SF-12 mental subscale scores (p = 0.032) in the HAT tear group. Patients with HAT tears demonstrated significantly lower (p < 0.05) hip abduction strength and active ROM in all planes of motion on their affected limb. Pain significantly increased throughout the 30-second SLS test for the HAT tear group, with 57% of HAT tear patients

  12. Medial Meniscal Extrusion Relates to Cartilage Loss in Specific Femorotibial Subregions- Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Guermazi, A.; Hunter, DJ; Resch, H.; Hochreiter, J.; Eckstein, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medial meniscal extrusion is known to be related to structural progression of knee OA. However, it is unclear whether medial meniscal extrusion is more strongly associated with cartilage loss in certain medial femorotibial subregions than to others. Methods Segmentation of the medial tibial and femoral cartilage (baseline; 1-year follow-up) and the medial meniscus (baseline) was performed in 60 participants with frequent knee pain (age 61.3±9.2y, BMI 31.3±3.9 kg/m2) and with unilateral medial radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) grade 1–3, using double echo steady state MR-images. Medial meniscal extrusion distance and extrusion area (%) between the external meniscal and tibial margin at baseline, and longitudinal medial cartilage loss in eight anatomical subregions were determined. Results A significant association (Pearson correlation coefficient) was seen between medial meniscus extrusion area in JSN knees and cartilage loss over one year throughout the entire medial femorotibial compartment. The strongest correlation was with cartilage loss in the external medial tibia (r=−0.34 [p<0.01] in JSN, and r=−0.30 [p=0.02] in noJSN knees). Conclusion Medial meniscus extrusion was associated with subsequent medial cartilage loss. The external medial tibial cartilage may be particularly vulnerable to thinning once the meniscus extrudes and its surface is “exposed” to direct, non-physiological, cartilage-cartilage contact. PMID:25988986

  13. Meniscal Damage Associated with Increased Local Subchondral Bone Mineral Density: A Framingham Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo, GH; Niu, J; McLennan, CE; DP, Kiel; McLean, RR; Guermazi, A; Genant, HK; McAlindon, TE; Hunter, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Objective Because menisci and the M:L BMD are associated with loading within the knee, we postulated there to be an association between compartment-specific meniscal damage and M:L BMD. We hypothesized that knees with higher M:L BMD, consistent with increased medial subchondral BMD, would be associated with medial meniscal damage, and lower ratios with lateral meniscal damage. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating participants in the Framingham OA Cohort having MRIs, BMDs, and x-rays of the knee. Medial and lateral meniscal damage were defined on MRI. We performed a logistic regression with medial meniscal damage as the outcome testing M:L BMD groups as predictor variables. We adjusted for age and sex; we used GEE to adjust for correlation between knees. Identical analyses were performed evaluating lateral meniscal damage. Results When evaluating the relation of M:L BMD to medial meniscal damage, the odds ratios (ORs) of prevalent medial meniscal damage from lowest to highest quartile of M:L BMD were 1.0 (referent), 1.9, 2.4 and 8.9, p for trend <0.0001. When evaluating the relation of M:L BMD to lateral meniscal damage, the ORs of prevalent lateral meniscal damage from lowest to highest quartile of M:L BMD were 1.0 (referent), 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2, p for trend =0.001. Conclusions Meniscal damage is associated with higher regional tibial BMD in the same compartment. Our findings highlight the close relationship between meniscal integrity and regional tibial subchondral BMD. PMID:17825586

  14. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Harada, Takashi; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-12-27

    Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm(2) per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). After treatment, no significant differences were observed in the knee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee.

  15. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  16. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Gang; Nie, Shao-Bo; Liu, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Chuan-Long; Tian, Bo; Wang, Wen-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Zhen-An; Mao, Yuan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT) operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD), mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs) and trabecular bones (Tbs) were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) at 2 and 4 weeks) to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks). The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical properties of

  17. Meniscal repair using engineered tissue.

    PubMed

    Peretti, G M; Caruso, E M; Randolph, M A; Zaleske, D J

    2001-03-01

    In this study, devitalized meniscal tissue pre-seeded with viable cultured chondrocytes was used to repair a bucket-handle incision in meniscal tissue transplanted to nude mice. Lamb knee menisci were devitalized by cyclic freezing and thawing. Chips measuring four by two by one-half millimeters were cut from this devitalized tissue to serve as scaffolds. These chips were then cultured either with or without viable allogeneic lamb chondrocytes. From the inner third of the devitalized meniscal tissue, rectangles were also cut approximately 8 x 6 mm. A 4 mm bucket-handle type incision was made in these blocks. The previously prepared chips either with (experimental group) or without viable chondrocytes (control group) were positioned into the incisions and secured with suture. Further control groups included blocks of devitalized menisci with incisions into which no chips were positioned and either closed with suture or left open with no suture. Specimens were transplanted to subcutaneous pouches of nude mice for 14 weeks. After 14 weeks, seven of eight experimental specimens (chips with viable chondrocytes) demonstrated bridging of the incision assessed by gross inspection and manual distraction. All the control groups were markedly different from the experimental group in that the incision remained grossly visible. Histological analysis was consistent with the differences apparent at the gross level. Only the experimental specimens (chips with viable chondrocytes) with gross bridging demonstrated obliteration of the interface between incision and scaffold. None of the control specimens revealed any cells or tissue filling the incision. Tissue engineering using scaffolds and viable cells may have an application in meniscal repair in vivo.

  18. Tibiofemoral contact pressures in radial tears of the meniscus treated with all-inside repair, inside-out repair and partial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Alan L; Miller, Stephanie L; Coughlin, Dezba G; Lotz, Jeffrey C; Feeley, Brian T

    2015-10-01

    To test contact pressures in the knee after treatment of a radial meniscus tear with an all-inside meniscal repair technique and compare the results with inside-out repair and partial meniscectomy. Six non-paired cadaveric knees were analyzed with intra-compartment pressures measured at loads of 250 N, 500 N and 1000 N at 0°, eight degrees, 15°, and 30° of knee flexion. Compartmental contact pressures were measured for the intact medial meniscus, radial tear in the posterior horn, all-inside repair using the NovoStitch suture passer device (Ceterix Orthopaedics Inc., Menlo Park, CA), inside-out repair method, and partial meniscectomy. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. The greatest differences in peak pressures between treatments were observed under 1000 N load at 30° flexion (0.8± (SD) 0.1 MPa (intact meniscus), 0.8± (SD) 0.1 MPa (all-inside), 0.9± (SD) 0.1 MPa (inside-out) and 1.6± (SD) 0.2 MPa (partial meniscectomy)). Treatment with partial meniscectomy resulted in the highest peak pressures compared to all other states (p<0.0001 at each angle). Repair of the radial tear using the all-inside technique as well as the inside-out technique resulted in significantly decreased compartment pressures compared to partial meniscectomies (p<0.0001 at each angle). There were no significant differences between peak pressures in the intact state and after repair with the all-inside or inside-out techniques. An all-inside repair technique using the NovoStitch suture passer can decrease contact pressures for a radial meniscus tear similarly to the inside-out repair technique when compared to partial meniscectomy. This novel arthroscopic suture passer warrants further analysis in the clinical setting as it may be a reliable method for repair of radial meniscal tears through an arthroscopic all-inside technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nociceptive and sympathetic innervations in the abaxial part of the cranial horn of the equine medial meniscus: an immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Nemery, Elodie; Gabriel, Annick; Piret, Joëlle; Antoine, Nadine

    2016-12-01

    In athletic horses, diseases leading to lameness are of great importance due to the loss of performance and the resultant economic concerns. Although stifle lesions are frequent in the hindlimb, due to the large size and complexity of the joint, and although meniscal tears have been identified as the most common soft tissue injuries in this joint, little is known about the mechanism that causes the painful sensation and thus the lameness. The aim of our study was to highlight any peripheral fibres involved in meniscal nociception in five macroscopically sound cranial horns of the equine medial meniscus, which has been one of the most common sites reported for equine meniscal injuries. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed using antibodies against Substance P in order to identify nociceptive fibres; against tyrosine hydroxylase for detecting postganglionic sympathetic fibres; and against glial fibrillary acidic proteins in order to identify Schwann cells. Our work highlights for the first time the presence of nociceptive and sympathetic fibres in equine menisci. They were found in the abaxial part of the cranial horn of the equine medial meniscus. This study suggests that when the abaxial part is injured, the meniscus itself could be the source of pain. These findings could provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of horses with meniscal injury and contribute towards improving therapeutic strategies to alleviate pain in cases of equine meniscal injury. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  20. Pullout repair of a medial meniscus posterior root tear using a FasT-Fix® all-inside suture technique.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Y; Furumatsu, T; Fujii, M; Tanaka, T; Miyazawa, S; Ozaki, T

    2016-11-01

    A medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) may increase the tibiofemoral contact pressure by decreasing the tibiofemoral contact area. Meniscal dysfunction induced by posterior root injury may lead to the development of osteoarthritic knees. Repair of a MMPRT can restore medial meniscus (MM) function and prevent knee osteoarthritis progression. Several surgical procedures have been reported for treating a MMPRT. However, these procedures are associated with several technical difficulties. Here, we describe a technique to stabilize a torn MM posterior root using the FasT-Fix ® all-inside meniscal suture device and a new aiming device. The uncut free-end of the FasT-Fix ® suture can be used as a thread for transtibial pullout repair. Our procedure might help overcome the technical difficulties in arthroscopic treatment of a MMPRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Meniscectomy versus meniscal repair: 10 years radiological and clinical results in vertical lesions in stable knee.

    PubMed

    Lutz, C; Dalmay, F; Ehkirch, F P; Cucurulo, T; Laporte, C; Le Henaff, G; Potel, J F; Pujol, N; Rochcongar, G; Salledechou, E; Seil, R; Gunepin, F-X; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2015-12-01

    Surgical management of meniscal lesion consists of either a meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Although repair offers immediate recovery after surgery, it is also associated with higher rates of revision. A meniscectomy, on the other hand is known to be associated with an early onset of osteoarthritis. The present study compared clinical and radiological results at 10 years between meniscectomy and meniscal repair in isolated vertical lesion in an otherwise stable knee. The hypothesis was that repair shows functional and radiological benefit over meniscectomy. A multi-centric retrospective comparative study of 32 patients (24 male, 8 female). Mean follow-up was 10.6 years (range, 10-13 years). There were 10 meniscal repairs (group R) and 22 meniscectomies (group M), in 17 right and 15 left knees. Mean age at surgery was 33.45±12.3 years (range, 9-47 years). There were 28 medial and 4 lateral meniscal lesions; 26 were in the red-red zone and 6 in red-white zone. Functional score: KOOS score was significantly higher in group R than M on almost all parameters: 98±4.69 versus 77.38±21.97 for symptoms (P=0.0043), 96.89±7.20 versus 78.57±18.9 for pain (P=0.0052), 99.89±0.33 versus 80.88±19.6 for daily life activities (P=0.0002), 96.11±9.83 versus 54.05±32.85 for sport and leisure (P=0.0005), but 91±16.87 versus 68.15±37.7 for quality of life (P=0.1048). Radiology score: in group R, 7 patients had no features of osteoarthritis, and 2 had grade 1 osteoarthritis. In group M, 5 patients had grade 1 osteoarthritis, 10 grade 2, 3 grade 3 and 3 grade 4. Mean quantitative score was 0 (mean, 0.22±0.44) in-group R and 2 (mean, 2.19±0.98) in group M (P<0.0001). At more than 10year's follow-up, functional scores were significantly better with meniscal repair than meniscectomy on all parameters of the KOOS scale except quality of life. Functional and radiological scores correlated closely. These results show that meniscal repair for vertical lesions in stable knees

  2. Vertical tears of the cranial horn of the meniscus and its cranial ligament in the equine femorotibial joint: 7 cases and their treatment by arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, J P

    1995-01-01

    Five horses with a vertical tear in the cranial horn and cranial ligament of the medial meniscus and 2 horses with a similar injury in the lateral meniscus were diagnosed from a series of 126 horses which were examined arthroscopically for stifle lameness. All the lesions had similar characteristics. The tear was about 1 cm from the axial border of the meniscus and its ligament and, in all but one case in which it was incomplete, much of the torn tissue was loosely attached in the axial part of the joint from where it was removed. The remaining meniscus, abaxial to the tear, was displaced cranially and abaxially and its torn edges were debrided. Radiographically, 6 cases had proliferative new bone on the cranial aspect of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia and 3 had calcified soft tissue densities in the cranial, medial or lateral femorotibial joint. Following surgery and a 6 month period of rest and controlled exercise, 3 horses returned to full competition work, one was usable for hacking, 2 are convalescing and one is lame after one year. It is postulated that this could be a characteristic meniscal injury in horses which can benefit from arthroscopic surgery. Better techniques for accessing the body and caudal pole of the menisci are needed if a more complete diagnosis and treatment of meniscal injuries are to be achieved.

  3. Larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may trigger posterior root tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Hyung Keun; Jung, Myung Kuk; Oh, Hyeong Tak; Kim, Joon Ho; Yoon, Ji-Sang; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The major meniscal functions are load bearing, load distribution, and shock absorption by increasing the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact area and dissipating axial loads by conversion into hoop stresses. The increased hoop strain stretches the meniscus in outward direction towards radius, causing extrusion, which is associated with the root tear and resultant degenerative osteoarthritis. Since the larger contact area of medial TFJ may increase the hoop stresses, we hypothesized that the larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension would contribute to the development of medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between MMPRT and medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension. A case-control study was conducted to compare medial femoral to tibial condylar dimensions of patients with complete MMPRT (n = 59) with those of demography-matched controls (n = 59) during the period from 2010 to 2013. In each patient, MRIs were reviewed and several parameters were measured including articulation width of medial femoral condyle (MFC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, medial tibial condyle (MTC) width, degree of meniscal extrusion, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio (MFC/MTC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. Demographic and radiographic data were assessed. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension was associated with MMPRT at 0° and 30° knee angles. Patients with MFC/MTC greater than 0.9 at 0° also showed about 2.5-fold increase in the chance of MMPRT. Those with meniscal extrusion greater than 3 mm also had about 17.1 times greater chance for the presence of MMPRT accordingly. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may be considered as one of the regional contributors to the outbreak of MMPRT, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio greater than 0.9 at 0° knee angle may be considered as a significant risk factor for MMPRT. III.

  4. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  5. Gender, ethnicity and smoking affect pain and function in patients with rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Maher, Anthony; Leigh, Warren; Brick, Matt; Young, Simon; Millar, James; Walker, Cameron; Caughey, Michael

    2017-09-01

    This study is a collation of baseline demographic characteristics of those presenting for rotator cuff repair in New Zealand, and exploration of associations with preoperative function and pain. Data were obtained from the New Zealand Rotator Cuff Registry; a multicentre, nationwide prospective cohort of rotator cuff repairs undertaken from 1 March 2009 until 31 December 2010. A total of 1383 patients were included in the study. This required complete demographic information, preoperative Flex-SF (functional score) and pain scores. Following univariate analysis, a multivariate model was used. The average age was 58 years (69% males and 11% smokers). New Zealand Europeans made up 90% and Maori 5%. The average preoperative Flex-SF was significantly lower (poorer function) in those over 65 years, females, smokers and Maori, in the non-dominant patients, using a multivariate model. Average preoperative pain scores were significantly worse (higher scores) in females, Maori, Polynesians, smokers, using a multivariate model. This is the largest reported prospective cohort of patients presenting for rotator cuff surgery. Results can be used to understand the effect of rotator cuff tears on the different patients, for example Maori patients who are under-represented, present younger, with more pain and poorer function. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis and cartilage repair procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baum, T.; Joseph, G.B.; Karampinos, D.C.; Jungmann, P.M.; Link, T.M.; Bauer, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of this work was to review the current literature on cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time. Methods Electronic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant studies about T2 relaxation time measurements as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and cartilage repair procedures. Results Initial osteoarthritic changes include proteoglycan loss, deterioration of the collagen network, and increased water content within the articular cartilage and menisci. T2 relaxation time measurements are affected by these pathophysiological processes. It was demonstrated that cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time values were significantly increased in subjects with compared to those without radiographic OA and focal knee lesions, respectively. Subjects with OA risk factors such as overweight/obesity showed significantly greater cartilage T2 values than normal controls. Elevated cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation times were found in subjects with vs without knee pain. Increased cartilage T2 at baseline predicted morphologic degeneration in the cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years. Furthermore, cartilage repair tissue could be non-invasively assessed by using T2 mapping. Reproducibility errors for T2 measurements were reported to be smaller than the T2 differences in healthy and diseased cartilage indicating that T2 relaxation time may be a reliable discriminatory biomarker. Conclusions Cartilage and meniscal T2 mapping may be suitable as non-invasive biomarker to diagnose early stages of knee OA and to monitor therapy of OA. PMID:23896316

  7. Similar Prevalence of Acetabular Labral Tear in Professional Ballet Dancers and Sporting Participants.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of acetabular labral tear in male and female professional ballet dancers with age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants and to determine the relationship to clinical findings and cartilage defects. Case-control study. Clinical and radiology practices. Forty-nine (98 hips) male and female professional ballet dancers (current and retired) with median age 30 years (range: 19-64 years) and 49 (98 hips) age-matched and sex-matched sporting participants. Group (ballet or sports), sex, age, hip cartilage defects, history of hip pain, Hip and Groin Outcome Score, passive hip internal rotation (IR), and external rotation range of movement (ROM). Labral tear identified with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Labral tears were identified in 51% of all 196 hips. The prevalence did not differ significantly between the ballet and sporting participants (P = 0.41) or between sexes (P = 0.34). Labral tear was not significantly associated with clinical measures, such as pain and function scores or rotation ROM (P > 0.01 for all). Pain provocation test using IR at 90° of hip flexion had excellent specificity [96%, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), 0.77%-0.998%] but poor sensitivity (50%, 95% CI, 0.26%-0.74%) for identifying labral tear in participants reporting hip pain. Older age and cartilage defect presence were independently associated with an increased risk of labral tear (both P < 0.001). The prevalence of labral tear in male and female professional ballet dancers was similar to a sporting population. Labral tears were not associated with clinical findings but were related to cartilage defects, independent of aging. Caution is required when interpreting MRI findings as labral tear may not be the source of the ballet dancer's symptoms.

  8. Surgery or conservative treatment for rotator cuff tear: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ryösä, Anssi; Laimi, Katri; Äärimaa, Ville; Lehtimäki, Kaisa; Kukkonen, Juha; Saltychev, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    Comparative evidence on treating rotator cuff tear is inconclusive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the evidence on effectiveness of tendon repair in reducing pain and improving function of the shoulder when compared with conservative treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tear. Search on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and Pedro databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing surgery and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tear. Study selection and extraction based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of Interventions. Random effects meta-analysis. Three identified RCTs involved 252 participants (123 cases and 129 controls). The risk of bias was considered low for all three RCTs. For Constant score, statistically insignificant effect size was 5.6 (95% CI -0.41 to 11.62) points in 1-year follow up favouring surgery and below the level of minimal clinically important difference. The respective difference in pain reduction was -0.93 (95% CI -1.65 to -0.21) cm on a 0-10 pain visual analogue scale favouring surgery. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.012) in 1-year follow up but below the level of minimal clinically important difference. There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. Thus, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality. Implications for Rehabilitation There is limited evidence that surgery is not more effective in treating rotator cuff tear than conservative treatment alone. There was no clinically significant difference between surgery and active physiotherapy in 1-year follow-up in improving Constant score or reducing pain caused by rotator cuff tear. As physiotherapy is less proneness to complications and less expensive than surgery, a conservative approach is advocated as the initial treatment modality to rotator cuff tears.

  9. Clinical significance of condylar chondromalacia after arthroscopic resection of flap-tears of the medial meniscus. A prospective study of 93 cases.

    PubMed

    Aune, A K; Madsen, J E; Moen, H

    1995-01-01

    We describe the results after arthroscopic resection of flap-tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn in 93 patients with (40) or without (53) chondromalacia of the adjacent condylar cartilage at the time of operation. These were 93 consecutive patients presenting with medial flap-tears during the period 1988-1990 in our departments. The follow-up averaged 42 (range 26-50) months. There was a significant difference in the functional results at review depending on the presence or absence of condylar chondromalacia at arthroscopy. Among the 40 patients with chondromalacia, the Lysholm score was significantly lower (P < 0.004), and only about half the patients reported a satisfactory result. There was a significant increase in the presence of chondromalacia with age (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of minor degenerative changes in the articular cartilage adjacent to meniscal flap-tears correlated with a less favourable outcome.

  10. The effect of a rotator cuff tear and its size on three-dimensional shoulder motion.

    PubMed

    Kolk, Arjen; Henseler, Jan Ferdinand; de Witte, Pieter Bas; van Zwet, Erik W; van der Zwaal, Peer; Visser, Cornelis P J; Nagels, Jochem; Nelissen, Rob G H H; de Groot, Jurriaan H

    2017-06-01

    Rotator cuff-disease is associated with changes in kinematics, but the effect of a rotator cuff-tear and its size on shoulder kinematics is still unknown in-vivo. In this cross-sectional study, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic kinematics of the affected shoulder were evaluated using electromagnetic motion analysis in 109 patients with 1) subacromial pain syndrome (n=34), 2) an isolated supraspinatus tear (n=21), and 3) a massive rotator cuff tear involving the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (n=54). Mixed models were applied for the comparisons of shoulder kinematics between the three groups during abduction and forward flexion. In the massive rotator cuff-tear group, we found reduced glenohumeral elevation compared to the subacromial pain syndrome (16°, 95% CI [10.5, 21.2], p<0.001) and the isolated supraspinatus tear group (10°, 95% CI [4.0, 16.7], p=0.002) at 110° abduction. Reduced glenohumeral elevation in massive rotator cuff tears coincides with an increase in scapulothoracic lateral rotation compared to subacromial pain syndrome (11°, 95% CI [6.5, 15.2], p<0.001) and supraspinatus tears (7°, 95% CI [1.8, 12.1], p=0.012). Comparable differences were observed for forward flexion. No differences in glenohumeral elevation were found between the subacromial pain syndrome and isolated supraspinatus tear group during arm elevation. The massive posterosuperior rotator cuff-tear group had substantially less glenohumeral elevation and more scapulothoracic lateral rotation compared to the other groups. These observations suggest that the infraspinatus is essential to preserve glenohumeral elevation in the presence of a supraspinatus tear. Shoulder kinematics are associated with rotator cuff-tear size and may have diagnostic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. What Is the Optimal Minimum Penetration Depth for "All-Inside" Meniscal Repairs?

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Patrick C; Jones, Hugh L; Lue, Jeffrey; Parekh, Jesal N; Noble, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    To identify desired minimum depth setting for safe, effective placement of the all-inside meniscal suture anchors. Using 16 cadaveric knees and standard arthroscopic techniques, 3-dimensional surfaces of the meniscocapsular junction and posterior capsule were digitized. Using standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals, the distance from the meniscocapsular junction to the posterior capsule outer wall was measured for 3 locations along the posterior half of medial and lateral menisci. Multiple all-inside meniscal repairs were performed on 7 knees to determine an alternate measure of capsular thickness (X2) and compared with the digitized results. In the digitized group, the distance (X1) from the capsular junction to the posterior capsular wall was averaged in both menisci for 3 regions using anteromedial and anterolateral portals. Mean distances of 6.4 to 8.8 mm were found for the lateral meniscus and 6.5 to 9.1 mm for the medial meniscus. The actual penetration depth was determined in the repair group and labeled X2. It showed a similar pattern to the variation seen in X1 by region, although it exceeded predicted distances an average 1.7 mm in the medial and 1.5 mm in the lateral meniscus owing to visible deformation of the capsule as it pierced. Capsular thickness during arthroscopic repair measures approximately 6 to 9 mm (X1), with 1.5 to 2 mm additional depth needed to ensure penetration rather than bulging of the posterior capsule (X2), resulting in 8 to 10 mm minimum penetration depth range. Surgeons can add desired distance away from the meniscocapsular junction (L) at device implantation, finding optimal minimal setting for penetration depth (X2 + L), which for most repairable tears may be as short as 8 mm and not likely to be greater than 16 mm. Minimum depth setting for optimal placement of all-inside meniscal suture anchors when performing all-inside repair of the medial or lateral meniscus reduces risk of harming adjacent structures

  12. In vitro synthesis of tensioned synoviocyte bioscaffolds for meniscal fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Jennifer J; Baker, Lindsay; Ballard, George A; Ott, Jesse

    2013-12-03

    Meniscal injury is a common cause of lameness in the dog. Tissue engineered bioscaffolds may be a treatment option for meniscal incompetency, and ideally would possess meniscus- like extracellular matrix (ECM) and withstand meniscal tensile hoop strains. Synovium may be a useful cell source for meniscal tissue engineering because of its natural role in meniscal deficiency and its in vitro chondrogenic potential. The objective of this study is to compare meniscal -like extracellular matrix content of hyperconfluent synoviocyte cell sheets ("HCS") and hyperconfluent synoviocyte sheets which have been tensioned over wire hoops (tensioned synoviocyte bioscaffolds, "TSB") and cultured for 1 month. Long term culture with tension resulted in higher GAG concentration, higher chondrogenic index, higher collagen concentration, and type II collagen immunoreactivity in TSB versus HCS. Both HCS and TSB were immunoreactive for type I collagen, however, HCS had mild, patchy intracellular immunoreactivity while TSB had diffuse moderate immunoreactivity over the entire bisocaffold. The tissue architecture was markedly different between TSB and HCS, with TSB containing collagen organized in bands and sheets. Both HCS and TSB expressed alpha smooth muscle actin and displayed active contractile behavior. Double stranded DNA content was not different between TSB and HCS, while cell viability decreased in TSB. Long term culture of synoviocytes with tension improved meniscal- like extra cellular matrix components, specifically, the total collagen content, including type I and II collagen, and increased GAG content relative to HCS. Future research is warranted to investigate the potential of TSB for meniscal tissue engineering.

  13. The triple PCL sign: bucket handle tears of both medial and lateral menisci in a chronically ACL-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Kakel, Rafid; Russell, Robert; VanHeerden, Pieter

    2010-10-11

    Bucket handle tears of both menisci in the setting of acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears of the same knee have rarely been reported in the literature. This article presents a case of a bucket handle tear affecting both the medial and lateral menisci in a patient with chronic ACL rupture. Both bucket handle tears were displaced and locked in the intercondylar notch. A new magnetic resonance image (MRI) sign suggested on sagittal view is called the triple PCL sign, comprising the intact posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the 2 displaced fragments in the intercondylar notch from the two bucket handle tears. The precise diagnosis of this condition is of obvious importance for optimal operative planning. While finding the displaced fragment from the medial meniscus is expected to cause the double PCL sign, the torn ACL may have made it easier to visualize the bucket handle tear of the lateral meniscus in the same sagittal plane as the PCL. Only 5 other reports mention bimeniscal bucket handle tears of both the medial and lateral menisci in association with an ACL tear. None have shown the suggested triple PCL sign because of lack of overlap between the 2 bucket handle tears in the coronal plane while lying in the intercondylar notch causing them not to fall in the same sagittal plane. Our patient showed some overlap between the 2 meniscal fragments while lying in the notch to create the triple PCL sign on sagittal MRI. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Meniscal Scaffolds - Preclinical Evidence to Support their Use: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Perdisa, Francesco; Gostynska, Natalia; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic meniscal treatment is the most common procedure performed in the orthopedic practice. Current management of meniscal pathology relies on different therapeutic options, ranging from selective meniscectomy, suturing, and to meniscal replacement by using either allografts or scaffolds. The progresses made in the field of regenerative medicine and biomaterials allowed to develop several meniscal substitutes, some of those currently used in the clinical practice. Before reaching the clinical application, these devices necessarily undergo accurate testing in the animal model: the aim of the present manuscript is to systematically review the scientific evidence derived by animal model results for the use of meniscal scaffolds, in order to understand the current state of research in this particular field and to identify the trends at preclinical level that may influence in the near future the clinical practice. Thirty-four papers were included in the present analysis. In 12 cases the meniscal scaffolds were used with cells to further stimulate tissue regeneration. With the exception of some negative reports regarding dacron-based scaffolds, the majority of the trials highlighted that biomaterials and bio-engineered scaffolds are safe and could play a beneficial role in stimulating meniscal healing and in chondral protection. With regard to the benefits of cell augmentation, the evidence is limited to a small number of studies and no conclusive evidence is available. However, preclinical evidence seems to suggest that cells could enhance tissue regeneration with respect to the use of biomaterials alone, and further research should confirm the translational potential of cell-based approach. PMID:26157531

  15. Incidence and treatment of intra-articular lesions associated with anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Nistor, Dan; Buescu, Cristian; Pojar, Adina; Lucaciu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to retrospectively review the patients admitted and treated in the "Alexandru Rădulescu" Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic, Cluj-Napoca for an anterior cruciate ligament tear over a 2-year period and document the intra-articular lesions found at arthroscopy as well as the treatment used for these associated lesions. The case records of 88 patients operated for anterior cruciate ligament tear over a period of 2 years were reviewed. There were 67 males and 21 females with a mean age of 28.9 years, ranging from 14 to 49 years. After recording the patient demographics, we documented all the intra-articular lesions found during knee arthroscopy, as well as all procedures undertaken concomitant with the ACL reconstruction. 50 of the 88 patients (56.8%) had associated intra-articular lesions at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most common injury found was a meniscus tear, 48 patients (54.5%) had a meniscal pathology at the time of ligament reconstruction, medial meniscus being the most frequent injured one, found in 37 patients. Meniscectomy and meniscus suture were the procedures performed for these lesions, meniscectomy being more frequent. Chondral defects were the next associated injuries found with an incidence of 15.9% of the cases. The medial side of the knee was the most common site of chondral pathology. ACL tears are frequently associated with other intra-articular lesions, especially medial meniscus tears and chondral defects affecting the medial compartment. Such pathology most often needs surgical attention during the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  16. Dry eye symptoms align more closely to non-ocular conditions than to tear film parameters.

    PubMed

    Galor, Anat; Felix, Elizabeth R; Feuer, William; Shalabi, Nabeel; Martin, Eden R; Margolis, Todd P; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D; Levitt, Roy C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dry eye symptoms, non-ocular conditions and tear film parameters. Cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of patients who were seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. Patients filled out standardised questionnaires assessing dry eye symptoms (dry eye questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and ocular surface disease index (OSDI)), non-ocular pain, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and also underwent measurement of tear film parameters. Correlations between dry eye symptoms and non-ocular conditions as compared with tear film parameters. 136 patients with a mean age of 65 (SD 11) years participated in the study. All correlations between the dry eye questionnaire scores (DEQ5 and OSDI) and (A) self-reported non-ocular pain measures (numerical rating scale and pain history), (B) depression and (C) PTSD were significant and moderate in strength (Pearson's coefficient 0.24 to 0.60, p<0.01 for all). All correlations between the dry eye questionnaires and tear film measures were weak (Pearson's coefficient -0.10 to 0.18) and most were not significant. Multivariable linear regression analyses revealed that PTSD and non-ocular pain more closely associated with dry eye symptoms than did tear film parameters. Specifically, non-ocular pain and PTSD accounted for approximately 36% of the variability in DEQ5 scores (R=0.60) and approximately 40% of variability in OSDI scores (R=0.64). Of note, none of the tear parameters remained significantly associated with dry eye symptoms in either model. Dry eye symptoms more closely align to non-ocular pain, depression and PTSD than to tear film parameters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  18. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics following posterior root of medial meniscus tear, repair, meniscectomy, and allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Yong Seuk; Bae, Tae Soo; Ha, Jeong Ku; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Young Jae; Ra, Ho Jong

    2013-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect on tibiofemoral contact mechanics of repair of the posterior root of the medial meniscus and the effect of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) with medial collateral ligament (MCL) release at different flexion angles. Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees (five pairs) were used. A digital pressure sensor was inserted by capsulotomy, and experiments were performed serially under the following six conditions, that is, with an intact medial meniscus (normal controls), with a root tear, after root repair, after total meniscectomy, after MAT, and after MAT plus MCL release. During each experiment, knees were positioned at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion, and peak pressure (kPa) and contact area (cm2) were measured. At 0° of flexion, contact pressure did not differ among the six experimental settings. However, at 30° and 60° of flexion, contact pressure differed significantly between root tear and root repair specimens (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively), and between total meniscectomy and MAT specimens (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). On the other hand, mean contact pressures were different between normal (476.7 ± 473.1 and 573.3 ± 479.1 kPa) and root repair (575.7 ± 357.8 and 598.6 ± 415.8), and between normal and MAT (635.7 ± 437.4 and 674.3 ± 533.2). At 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion, contact areas differed significantly between normal and total meniscectomy specimens (p = 0.02, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively), and between MAT and total meniscectomy specimens (p = 0.03, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively). Contact areas differed significantly between root tear and root repair specimens at 60° of flexion (p = 0.04), and between normal control and root repair specimens at 60° and 90° of flexion (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The effects of MAT plus MCL release on contact mechanics were not different from the effects of MAT alone (n.s.). Both meniscal root repair and

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Functional Outcomes After a Polyurethane Meniscal Scaffold Implantation: Minimum 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Monllau, Joan C; Poggioli, Francesco; Erquicia, Juan; Ramírez, Eduardo; Pelfort, Xavier; Gelber, Pablo; Torres-Claramunt, Raúl

    2018-05-01

    To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcomes at a minimum 5-year follow-up in a series of patients with postmeniscectomy syndrome and treated with a polyurethane scaffold. All consecutive patients operated on from September 2008 to February 2011 for either persistent medial or lateral joint line compartmental pain receiving a polyurethane scaffold due to a previous partial meniscus resection with a minimum 5-year follow-up were included. Functional scores (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score, International Knee Documentation Committee, Lysholm, and Tegner) were assessed preoperatively and at the last follow-up. The state of the scaffold as well as postoperative scaffold extrusion and the total remaining meniscal volume was also evaluated in MRI. Thirty-two patients were included. The mean follow-up was 70.8 ± 7.5 months. The functionality of the knees improved in all the scores used (P < .001) except for the Tegner score that stayed steady. Most of meniscal implants showed extrusion of 2.4 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.7) were smaller and a hyperintensity signal was seen in the MRI. Three scaffolds were resorbed at the last follow-up. The meniscal volume, determined by MRI, was 1.14 cm 3 (95% CI, 0.96-1.31) preoperatively and 1.61 cm 3 (95% CI, 1.43-1.7) at the last follow-up. No differences were presented. The use of a polyurethane meniscal scaffold in patients with a symptomatic meniscus deficit had a good functional outcome at 5 years after surgery. However, the implanted scaffolds did not present normal meniscal tissue with MRI, and the implant volume was considerably less than expected. The fact that most of patients included received different concomitant procedures during scaffold implantation introduces a degree of performance bias into the results. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modified Pull-out Suture in Posterior Root Tear of the Medial Meniscus: Using a Posteromedial Portal.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Ho

    2012-06-01

    In cases with root tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn, the meniscus usually can be repaired by a pull out suture technique. However, there is difficulty in manipulating a suture hook via the anteromedial portal and looking through the arthroscopic camera via anterolateral portal in the narrow medial joint space at the same time. This article describes a modified simple pull out suture technique for root tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn using a posteromedial portal that provides a safe and easy handling of the suture hook. Our indications of this technique used in patients with Outerbridge 1-2 arthritic change and minimal varus axis change. Benefits of this technique are simple, less invasive, and reduced operation time by simultaneous suture with a hook via posteromedial portal and pulling of a string with grasper. It may reduce the possibility of an additional chondral or meniscal injury.

  1. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  2. Triceps tendon tear in a middle-aged weightlifter.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Joseph M; Aberle, Curtis J; Escobar, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man who was evaluated by a physical therapist for a chief complaint of posterior right elbow pain. The patient routinely participated in weightlifting activities and reported a sudden onset of triceps weakness and posterior elbow pain while performing clap push-ups 3 days prior. A physician assistant ordered radiographs, which were initially interpreted as normal, and routine magnetic resonance imaging for the right elbow. Following examination by a physical therapist, due to concern for a triceps tendon tear, the previously ordered magnetic resonance imaging was expedited, which revealed a partial triceps tendon tear with partial tendon retraction medially.

  3. Hyperosmolar tears enhance cooling sensitivity of the corneal nerves in rats: possible neural basis for cold-induced dry eye pain.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Harumitsu; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2014-08-19

    Tear hyperosmolarity is a ubiquitous feature of dry-eye disease. Although dry-eye patients' sensitivity to cooling is well known, the effects of tear hyperosmolarity on a small amount of cooling in the corneal nerves have not been quantitatively examined. Recently reported corneal afferents, high-threshold cold sensitive plus dry-sensitive (HT-CS + DS) neurons, in rats is normally excited by strong (>4°C) cooling of the cornea, which, when applied to healthy humans, evokes the sensation of discomfort. However, corneal cooling measured between blinks does not exceed 2°C normally. Thus, we sought to determine if these nociceptors could be sensitized by hyperosmolar tears such that they are now activated by small cooling of the ocular surface. Trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea were extracellularly recorded in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. The responses of single corneal neurons to cooling stimuli presented in the presence of hyperosmolar (350-800 mOsm NaCl) tears were examined. The HT-CS + DS neurons with thresholds averaging 4°C cooling responded to cooling stimuli presented after 15 minutes of hyperosmolar tears with thresholds of less than 1°C. The response magnitudes also were enhanced so that the responses to small (2°C) cooling emerged, where none was observed before. These results demonstrate that after exposure to hyperosmolar tears, these nociceptive corneal neurons now begin to respond to the slight cooling normally encountered between blinks, enabling the painful information to be carried to the brain, which could explain the cooling-evoked discomfort in dry eye patients. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Tear gas: an epidemiological and mechanistic reassessment

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Craig; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Svendsen, Erik R.

    2016-01-01

    Deployments of tear gas and pepper spray have rapidly increased worldwide. Large amounts of tear gas have been used in densely populated cities, including Cairo, Istanbul, Rio de Janeiro, Manama (Bahrain), and Hong Kong. In the United States, tear gas was used extensively during recent riots in Ferguson, Missouri. Whereas tear gas deployment systems have rapidly improved—with aerial drone systems tested and requested by law enforcement—epidemiological and mechanistic research have lagged behind and have received little attention. Case studies and recent epidemiological studies revealed that tear gas agents can cause lung, cutaneous, and ocular injuries, with individuals affected by chronic morbidities at high risk for complications. Mechanistic studies identified the ion channels TRPV1 and TRPA1 as targets of capsaicin in pepper spray, and of the tear gas agents chloroacetophenone, CS, and CR. TRPV1 and TRPA1 localize to pain‐sensing peripheral sensory neurons and have been linked to acute and chronic pain, cough, asthma, lung injury, dermatitis, itch, and neurodegeneration. In animal models, transient receptor potential inhibitors show promising effects as potential countermeasures against tear gas injuries. On the basis of the available data, a reassessment of the health risks of tear gas exposures in the civilian population is advised, and development of new countermeasures is proposed. PMID:27391380

  5. Acute Tears of the Tibialis Posterior Tendon Following Ankle Sprain.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lyle T; Dunaway, Linda J; Lundeen, Gregory A

    2017-07-01

    Traumatic tears of the tibialis posterior (TP) tendon following an ankle sprain are rare. The purpose of this study was to report our case series of TP tendon tears following an ankle sprain. Patients with persistent TP tendon pain after an ankle sprain were retrospectively identified over a 4-year period and reviewed. A comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) interpretations by a radiologist and surgeon was made. Patients failing conservative management underwent operative repair of the TP tendon tear and concomitant pathology. Failure of the index surgery was defined as TP tendinosis, which was treated with excision and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer. Outcomes were measured with the Foot Function Index (FFI) and American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot scores. Thirteen patients were found to have a TP tendon tear following an ankle sprain. The incidence for TP tears with sprains presented to our clinic was 1.04%. MRI identified TP tendon pathology in 4 patients by a radiologist review and in 11 patients by a surgeon review. The most common concomitant pathology was a talar osteochondral defect in 13 of 13 patients and ligament instability in 12 of 13 patients (5/13 lateral, 3/13 medial, 4/13 multidirectional instability). Four of 13 patients failed the index surgery. Of the 9 remaining patients, 4 had clinical follow-up at an average of 4.6 years postoperatively. The average FFI subscale scores were the following: pain, 40.4; disability, 28.9; and activity, 23.6. The average AOFAS hindfoot score was 68.8. Despite being rare, a TP tendon tear should be included in the differential diagnosis for persistent medial-sided pain following an ankle sprain. MRI findings can be subtle. Associated pathology was very common and likely confounded the diagnosis and outcomes. Patients should be counseled on the possibility of poor outcomes and long-term pain. Level IV, case series.

  6. Randomized Controlled Study to Investigate the Effect of Topical Diquafosol Tetrasodium on Corneal Sensitivity in Short Tear Break-Up Time Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Kaido, Minako; Kawashima, Motoko; Shigeno, Yuta; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-05-01

    Complex mechanisms underlie dry eye (DE) symptom provocation. In particular, corneal hypersensitivity may provoke symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT) DE characterized by tear film instability. We hypothesized that improved tear film stability may alleviate corneal sensitivity in patients with short tear BUT DE. Therefore, we investigated the effect of topical diquafosol tetrasodium (DQS) on corneal sensitivity in unstable tear film DE. This prospective, randomized study included 27 subjects (age: 39.1 ± 8.4 years; range: 25-59 years) with short tear BUT DE, defined based on the presence of DE symptoms and tear film instability. Subjects were randomly divided into DQS (3% DQS, 12 subjects) and artificial tear (AT; preservative-free AT, 15 subjects) groups. Subjects applied the medication 6 times a day for 5 weeks. The perception of touch (S-touch) and pain (S-pain) sensitivity was measured using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Tear evaluation, corneal sensitivity, and DE symptoms were compared before and after DQS or AT administration. The correlation between the improvement degrees of corneal sensitivity and DE symptoms following medication was analyzed. DQS significantly improved tear BUT and tear meniscus height (TMH) scores (p < 0.05), while AT significantly improved tear BUT (p < 0.05) but not TMH score. Mean S-pain and DE symptom scores were lower after medication use in the DQS (S-pain and DE symptoms: p  < 0.05) and AT groups (S-pain: p  = 0.05; DE symptoms: p  < 0.05). However, S-touch did not change significantly in either group. A positive correlation was observed between the improvement degrees of S-pain and DE symptoms in the overall subjects studied. Both DQS and AT alleviate corneal hypersensitivity and DE symptoms in eyes with short tear BUT DE. However, DQS seems to be more effective to adjust tear environment, leading to the normalization of corneal sensitivity and DE symptoms. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry

  7. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear Repair Using a 2-Simple-Suture Pullout Technique.

    PubMed

    Samy, Tarek Mohamed; Nassar, Wael A M; Zakaria, Zeiad Mohamed; Farrag Abdelaziz, Ahmed Khaled

    2017-06-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tear is one of the underestimated knee injuries in terms of incidence. Despite its grave sequelae, using simple but effective technique can maintain the native knee joint longevity. In the current note, a 2-simple-suture pullout technique was used to effectively reduce the meniscus posterior root to its anatomic position. The success of the technique depended on proper tool selection as well as tibial tunnel direction that allowed easier root suturing and better suture tensioning, without inducing any iatrogenic articular cartilage injury or meniscal tissue loss. Using anterior knee arthroscopy portals, anterolateral as a viewing portal and anteromedial as a working portal, a 7-mm tibial tunnel starting at Gerdy tubercle and ending at the medial meniscus posterior root bed was created. The 2 simple sutures were retrieved through the tunnel and tensioned and secured over a 12-mm-diameter washer at the tibial tunnel outer orifice. Anatomic reduction of the medial meniscus posterior root tear was confirmed arthroscopically intraoperatively and radiologically by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Current Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, Graeme; Beach, Cara J.; Nelson, Atiba A.; Woodmass, Jarret M.; Ono, Yohei; Boorman, Richard S.; Lo, Ian K. Y.; Thornton, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    Partial thickness rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain in the adult shoulder. Despite their high prevalence, the diagnosis and treatment of partial thickness rotator cuff tears remains controversial. While recent studies have helped to elucidate the anatomy and natural history of disease progression, the optimal treatment, both nonoperative and operative, is unclear. Although the advent of arthroscopy has improved the accuracy of the diagnosis of partial thickness rotator cuff tears, the number of surgical techniques used to repair these tears has also increased. While multiple repair techniques have been described, there is currently no significant clinical evidence supporting more complex surgical techniques over standard rotator cuff repair. Further research is required to determine the clinical indications for surgical and nonsurgical management, when formal rotator cuff repair is specifically indicated and when biologic adjunctive therapy may be utilized. PMID:26171251

  9. Examination and treatment of a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear: A case report.

    PubMed

    Khoo-Summers, Lynnette; Bloom, Nancy J

    2015-08-01

    Dancers are at risk for developing groin pain that is due to acetabular labral tears. Although surgical management of labral tears has been reported extensively, conservative management has been poorly described. This case report describes the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of groin pain in a professional ballet dancer with a suspected acetabular labral tear. Treatment focused on decreasing anterior hip joint stresses and improving the precision of hip motion through correction of alignment and movement impairments noted during functional activities and dance. Successful outcomes included a reduction in pain and return to professional ballet dancing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Significance of perianular enhancement associated with anular tears on magnetic resonance imagings in diagnosis of radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Byun, Woo Mok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Ahn, Myun-Whan

    2008-10-15

    Retrospective analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical findings about chemical radiculitis-associated anular tear in patients with radiculopathy. To investigate MRI findings of the chemical radiculitis caused by anular tears and to determine whether chemical radiculitis detected by MRI is the cause of radiculopathy. Many studies document that irritation of adjacent nerve roots by a chemical mediator of inflammation from the nucleus pulposus may result in radiculopathy. Computed tomography (CT) discography may be the best examination for diagnosing discogenic chemical radiculitis but is too invasive. A reliable imaging method for replacing invasive provocative CT discography and diagnosing chemical radiculitis is required. The study population consisted of 12 patients with pain referred to leg(s) with or without low back pain who underwent lumbar spine MRI. All cases of our study demonstrated perianular enhancement caused by chemical radiculitis associated with anular tears. Patterns and locations of perianular enhancement adjacent to anular tears on MRI were assessed. MRI findings were compared with clinical symptoms and/or provocative transforaminal epidural injection (n = 6). For documentation of the relationship between perianular enhancement and radiculopathy, provocative CT discography was performed in 2 cases. Perianular enhancement associated with anular tears revealed thick linear patterns (2.5-7 mm thickness) along margins of anular tears on contrast enhanced axial T1-weighted images with fat suppression. Locations of perianular enhancement adjacent to anular tears were at foraminal (n = 6) and extraforaminal portions (n = 6). CT discography showed a leak of contrast from anular tear to the perianular regions. Pain reproduction at contrast leak level during discography showed concordant pain. There was an apparent correlation between perianular enhancement on MRI and clinical symptoms or provocative epidural nerve root injection in all

  11. A review of surgical repair methods and patient outcomes for gluteal tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Jay R; Bucher, Thomas A; Ball, Simon V; Janes, Gregory C

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hip imaging and surgical findings have demonstrated that a common cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is gluteal tendon tears. Conservative measures are initially employed to treat GTPS and manage gluteal tears, though patients frequently undergo multiple courses of non-operative treatment with only temporary pain relief. Therefore, a number of surgical treatment options for recalcitrant GTPS associated with gluteal tears have been reported. These have included open trans-osseous or bone anchored suture techniques, endoscopic methods and the use of tendon augmentation for repair reinforcement. This review describes the anatomy, pathophysiology and clinical presentation of gluteal tendon tears. Surgical techniques and patient reported outcomes are presented. This review demonstrates that surgical repair can result in improved patient outcomes, irrespective of tear aetiology, and suggests that the patient with "trochanteric bursitis" should be carefully assessed as newer surgical techniques show promise for a condition that historically has been managed conservatively.

  12. Intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury on MRI.

    PubMed

    Ringler, Michael D; Shotts, Ezekiel E; Collins, Mark S; Howe, B Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture. Comparisons between PCL tear grade and location, as well as mechanism of injury when known, with the presence of various intra-articular pathologies, were made using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all, 69 % of isolated PCL tears occur in the midsubstance, 27 % proximally. Meniscal tears were seen in 25 % of knees, involving all segments of both menisci, except for the anterior horn medial meniscus. Altogether, 23 % had focal cartilage lesions, usually affecting the central third medial femoral condyle and medial trochlea, while 12.5 % of knees had fractures, and 48 % demonstrated bone bruises, usually involving the central to anterior tibiofemoral joint. The presence of a fracture (p = 0.0123) and proximal location of PCL tear (p = 0.0016) were both associated with the hyperextension mechanism of injury. There were no statistically significant associations between PCL tear grade and presence of intra-articular abnormality. Potentially treatable meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries are relatively prevalent, and demonstrable on MRI in patients with isolated acute PCL injury of the knee.

  13. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  14. Major complications of tibial tuberosity advancement in 1613 dogs.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mario; Craig, Diane; Cambridge, Tony; Sebestyen, Peter; Su, Yuhua; Fahie, Maria A

    2017-05-01

    To report major postoperative complications in 1613 dogs with tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Retrospective case series. Dogs (n = 1613) with cranial cruciate ligament deficiency treated with TTA. Medical records of TTAs performed between December 2007-2013 were reviewed for age, sex, weight, contralateral stifle surgery, surgical approach, duration of preoperative lameness, presence of meniscal damage, concurrent patellar luxation and simultaneous bilateral TTA. Major postoperative complications were defined as surgical site infection (SSI) (superficial, deep, or organ/space), implant failure, fracture, patellar luxation, and meniscal tear. Major complications were recorded in 13.4% of cases. Superficial SSI (incisional irritation) was diagnosed in 6.9% cases, requiring only antimicrobial therapy. Other complications included postliminary medial meniscal tear (2% incidence), deep SSI (incisional dehiscence, 1.1%), implant failure (1%), patellar luxation (1.2%), fracture (0.9%), and organ/space SSI (septic arthritis, 0.4%). Dogs with normal menisci were less likely to develop postliminary meniscal tears if the medial meniscus was released at the time of TTA (P < .0001). No association was detected between recorded parameters and complications, although dogs >8 years old approached significance (P = .05) in terms of predisposition to major complications. Major complications after TTA are uncommon, even in dogs with concurrent patellar luxation or bilateral simultaneous procedures. In spite of its morbidity, medial meniscal release may prevent postliminary meniscal tears. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Associations between MRI-defined structural pathology and generalized and localized knee pain - the Oulu Knee Osteoarthritis study.

    PubMed

    Kaukinen, P; Podlipská, J; Guermazi, A; Niinimäki, J; Lehenkari, P; Roemer, F W; Nieminen, M T; Koski, J M; Arokoski, J P A; Saarakkala, S

    2016-09-01

    To determine the associations between multi-feature structural pathology assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the presence of knee pain, and to determine the associations between the locations of structural changes and different knee pain patterns. Eighty symptomatic subjects with knee pain and suspicion or diagnosis of knee OA and 63 asymptomatic subjects underwent knee MRI. Severity of structural changes was graded by MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) in separate knee locations. The associations between cartilage damage, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), osteophytes, Hoffa's synovitis, effusion-synovitis, meniscal damage and structural pathologies in ligaments, tendons and bursas and both the presence of pain and the knee pain patterns were assessed. The presence of Hoffa's synovitis (adjusted RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-1.3) and osteophytes in any region (2.07, 1.19-3.60) was significantly associated with the presence of pain. Any Hoffa's synovitis was associated with patellar pain (adjusted RR 4.70, 95% CI 1.19-3.60) and moderate-to-severe Hoffa's synovitis with diffuse pain (2.25, 1.13-4.50). Medial knee pain was associated with cartilage loss in the medial tibia (adjusted RR 2.66, 95% CI 1.22-5.80), osteophytes in the medial tibia (2.66, 1.17-6.07) and medial femur (2.55, 1.07-6.09), medial meniscal maceration (2.20, 1.01-4.79) and anterior meniscal extrusions (2.78, 1.14-6.75). Hoffa's synovitis and osteophytes were strongly associated with the presence of knee pain. Medial pain was associated most often with medially located structural pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Glenohumeral Instability Related to Special Conditions: SLAP Tears, Pan-labral Tears, and Multidirectional Instability.

    PubMed

    Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Svoboda, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    Glenohumeral instability is one of the more common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians, especially in young, active athletes. The associated anatomy of the glenohumeral joint (the shallow nature of the glenoid and the increased motion it allows) make the shoulder more prone to instability events as compared with other joints. Although traumatic dislocations or instability events associated with acute labral tears (ie, Bankart lesions) are well described in the literature, there exists other special shoulder conditions that are also associated with shoulder instability: superior labrum anterior/posterior (SLAP) tears, pan-labral tears, and multidirectional instability. SLAP tears can be difficult to diagnose and arthroscopic diagnosis remains the gold standard. Surgical treatment as ranged from repair to biceps tenodesis with varying reports of success. Along the spectrum of SLAP tears, pan-labral tears consist of 360-degree injuries to the labrum. Patients can present complaining of either anterior or posterior instability alone, making the physical examination and advanced imaging a crucial component of the work up of the patients. Arthroscopic labral repair remains a good initial option for surgical treatment of these conditions. Multidirectional instability remains one of the more difficult conditions for the sports medicine physician to diagnose and treat. Symptoms may only be reported as vague pain versus frank instability making the diagnoses particularly challenging, especially in a patient with overall joint laxity. Conservative management to include physical therapy is the mainstay initial treatment in patients without an identifiable structural abnormality. Surgical management of this condition has evolved from open to arthroscopic capsular shifts with comparable results.

  17. Interactions between meniscal cells and a self assembled biomimetic surface composed of hyaluronic acid, chitosan and meniscal extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guak-Kim; Dinnes, Donna L M; Butler, Lauren N; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2010-08-01

    Menisci are one of the most commonly injured parts of the knee with a limited healing potential. This study focuses on fabrication and characterization of biomimetic surfaces for meniscal tissue engineering. To achieve this, a combination of hyaluronic acid/chitosan (HA/CH) mutilayers with covalently immobilized major extracellular matrix (ECM) components of native meniscus, namely collagen I/II (COL.I/II) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) was employed. Adsorption of the biomolecules was monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fourier transform-surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR). Immobilization of the biomolecules onto HA/CH mutilayers was achieved by sequential adsorption, with optimum binding at a molar ratio of 1.4:1 (COL.I/II: C6S). After adding COL.I/II, the layers became relatively more rigid and large aggregates were evident. The effects of the modified surfaces on cell proliferation, gene expression and proteoglycan production of rat meniscal cells were examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that primary meniscal cells dedifferentiated rapidly after one passage in monolayer culture. This process could be reversed by culturing the cells on C6S surfaces, as indicated by increases in both collagen II and aggrecan gene expression, as well as proteoglycan production. Cells with abundant lipid vacuoles were evident on all the surfaces over an extended culture period. The results demonstrate the feasibility of C6S surfaces to avoid the dedifferentiation that normally occurs during monolayer expansion of meniscal cells. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recurrent rotator cuff tear: is ultrasound imaging reliable?

    PubMed

    Gilat, Ron; Atoun, Ehud; Cohen, Ornit; Tsvieli, Oren; Rath, Ehud; Lakstein, Dror; Levy, Ofer

    2018-02-02

    The diagnostic workup of the painful shoulder after rotator cuff repair (RCR) can be quite challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of ultrasonography (US) for the detection of recurrent rotator cuff tears in patients with shoulder pain after RCR. We hypothesized that US for the diagnosis of recurrent rotator cuff tear after RCR would not prove to be reliable when compared with surgical arthroscopic confirmation (gold standard). In this cohort study (diagnosis), we retrospectively analyzed the data of 39 patients with shoulder pain after arthroscopic RCR who had subsequently undergone US, followed by revision arthroscopy. The rotator cuff was evaluated first using US for the presence of retears. Thereafter, revision arthroscopy was performed, and the diagnosis was either established or disproved. The sensitivity and specificity of US were assessed in reference to revision arthroscopy (gold standard). A rotator cuff retear was indicated by US in 21 patients (54%) and by revision arthroscopy in 26 patients (67%). US showed a sensitivity of 80.8% and specificity of 100% in the diagnosis of rotator cuff retears. Omission of partial rotator cuff retears resulted in a spike in sensitivity to 94.7%, with 100% specificity remaining. US imaging is a highly sensitive and specific test for the detection of recurrent rotator cuff tears, as confirmed by revision arthroscopy, in patients with a painful shoulder after primary RCR. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Arthroscopic Transtibial Pullout Repair for Posterior Medial Meniscus Root Tears: A Systematic Review of Clinical, Radiographic, and Second-Look Arthroscopic Results.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Kühle, Jan; Bode, Gerrit; Mehl, Julian; Schmal, Hagen; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-09-01

    To systematically review the results of arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair (ATPR) for posterior medial meniscus root tears. A systematic electronic search of the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library was performed in September 2014 to identify studies that reported clinical, radiographic, or second-look arthroscopic outcomes of ATPR for posterior medial meniscus root tears. Included studies were abstracted regarding study characteristics, patient demographic characteristics, surgical technique, rehabilitation, and outcome measures. The methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed with the modified Coleman Methodology Score. Seven studies with a total of 172 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 55.3 years, and 83% of patients were female patients. Preoperative and postoperative Lysholm scores were reported for all patients. After a mean follow-up period of 30.2 months, the Lysholm score increased from 52.4 preoperatively to 85.9 postoperatively. On conventional radiographs, 64 of 76 patients (84%) showed no progression of Kellgren-Lawrence grading. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no progression of cartilage degeneration in 84 of 103 patients (82%) and showed reduced medial meniscal extrusion in 34 of 61 patients (56%). On the basis of second-look arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging in 137 patients, the healing status was rated as complete in 62%, partial in 34%, and failed in 3%. Overall, the methodologic quality of the included studies was fair, with a mean modified Coleman Methodology Score of 63. ATPR significantly improves functional outcome scores and seems to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis in most patients, at least during a short-term follow-up. Complete healing of the repaired root and reduction of meniscal extrusion seem to be less predictable, being observed in only about 60% of patients. Conclusions about the progression of osteoarthritis and reduction of meniscal extrusion are limited by

  20. Biomechanical consequences of a posterior root tear of the lateral meniscus: stabilizing effect of the meniscofemoral ligament.

    PubMed

    Forkel, Philipp; Herbort, Mirco; Schulze, Martin; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Kirstein, Lars; Raschke, Michael; Petersen, Wolf

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of lateral meniscus root tears in terms of tibiofemoral contact stress. Ten porcine knees each underwent five different testing conditions with the menisci intact, a simulated lateral posterior root tear with and without cutting the meniscofemoral ligament and with an artificial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Biomechanical testing was performed at 30° of flexion with an axial load of 100 N. A pressure sensor (st Sensor Type S2042, Novel, Munich) was used to measure the tibiofemoral contact area and the tibiofemoral contact pressure. Data were analyzed to assess the differences in contact area and tibiofemoral peak contact pressure among the five meniscal conditions. There was no significant difference in mean contact pressure between the state with the menisci intact and an isolated posterior root tear of the lateral meniscus. In case of a root tear and a tear of the meniscofemoral ligament, the contact area decreased in comparison with the intact state of the menisci. After additional cutting of the meniscofemoral ligament, the tibiofemoral contact pressure was significantly higher in comparison with the intact state and the avulsion injury. In the medial compartment, joint compression forces were significantly increased in comparison with the intact state after cutting the posterior root of the medial meniscus (P < 0.05). The consequence of a medial meniscus root tear is well known and was verified by this analysis. The results of the present study show that the biomechanical consequences of a lateral meniscus root tear depend on the state of the meniscofemoral ligament. An increase in tibiofemoral contact pressure is only to be expected in combined injuries of the meniscus root and the meniscofemoral ligaments. Posterior lateral meniscus root tear might have a better prognosis in terms of the development of osteoarthritis when the meniscofemoral ligament is intact.

  1. Review: Modelling of meniscus of knee joint during soccer kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib, Mohd; Firdaus Jaafar, Mohd

    2013-12-01

    Knee is a part of the body that located between thigh and shank is one of the most complicated and largest joints in the human body. The common injuries that occur are ligaments, meniscus or bone fracture. During soccer games, the knee is the most critical part that will easily injure due to the shock from an external impact. Torn meniscus is one of the effects. This study will investigate the effect towards the meniscus within the knee joint during soccer ball kicking. We conduct a literary review of 14 journals that discuss the general view of meniscus and also soccer kicking. The selected topics for this review paper are meniscal function, meniscal movement, meniscal tears and also instep kick. As a finding, statistics show that most meniscal tears (73%) occurred in athletes who were soccer players, basketball players or skiers. The tear is frequently happening at the medial side rather than lateral side with a percentage of 70%.

  2. Treatment Strategy for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joo Han; Rhee, Sung Min

    2018-01-01

    Recently, patients with shoulder pain have increased rapidly. Of all shoulder disorders, rotator cuff tears (RCTs) are most prevalent in the middle-aged and older adults, which is the primary reason for shoulder surgery in the population. Some authors have reported that up to 30% of total RCTs can be classified as irreparable due to the massive tear size and severe muscle atrophy. In this review article, we provide an overview of treatment methods for irreparable massive RCTs and discuss proper surgical strategies for RCTs that require operative management. PMID:29854334

  3. Neurovascular safety and clinical outcome of outside-in repair of tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, Mohamed Hassan; AbouElsoud, Maged M Samy; Kamel, Ezzat Mohamed; Desouki, Ahmed Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and clinical outcome of a new posterior approach for the known outside-in technique for repair of tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM). First, a cadaveric study was performed on 6 cadaveric knees to assess the safety of a point just lateral to the semitendinosus tendon as an entry point for outside-in repair. Dissection was done to measure the clearance of this point to the nearby popliteal bundle and saphenous nerve. A prospective case series study was then performed to assess the clinical outcome of such an approach. We treated 41 consecutive cases with PHMM tears by the outside-in technique using a shuttle relay method through the same point. Clinical assessments, magnetic resonance imaging findings, Lysholm scores, and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective scores were recorded for all patients. After a minimum postoperative period of 2 years, all cases were re-evaluated and re-scored. The cadaveric study showed a mean clearance distance of 2.4 cm for the popliteal bundle and 4.6 cm for the saphenous nerve. The case series study was done on 41 meniscal repairs; 15 of 41 cases (37%) were performed in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. There were 22 right knees (54%) and 19 left knees (36%). After a mean follow-up period of 27 months, patients showed a clinical success rate of 88% in terms of disappearance of pain, locking, and swelling, together with improved Lysholm scores (from 34 to 88) and International Knee Documentation Committee scores (from 25 to 88). These improvements were statistically significant (P < .05). An outside-in repair technique with a posterior entry central to the semitendinosus tendon was used safely with 88% satisfactory clinical results for treatment of PHMM tears. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tear dysfunction and the cornea: LXVIII Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture.

    PubMed

    Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2011-12-01

    To describe the cause and consequence of tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Perspective on effects of tear dysfunction on the cornea. Evidence is presented on the effects of tear dysfunction on corneal morphology, function, and health, as well as efficacy of therapies for tear dysfunction-related corneal disease. Tear dysfunction is a prevalent eye disease and the most frequent cause for superficial corneal epithelial disease that results in corneal barrier disruption, an irregular optical surface, light scattering, optical aberrations, and exposure and sensitization of pain-sensing nerve endings (nociceptors). Tear dysfunction-related corneal disease causes irritation and visual symptoms such as photophobia and blurred and fluctuating vision that may decrease quality of life. Dysfunction of 1 or more components of the lacrimal functional unit results in changes in tear composition, including elevated osmolarity and increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinases, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. These tear compositional changes promote disruption of tight junctions, alter differentiation, and accelerate death of corneal epithelial cells. Corneal epithelial disease resulting from tear dysfunction causes eye irritation and decreases visual function. Clinical and basic research has improved understanding of the pathogenesis of tear dysfunction-related corneal epithelial disease, as well as treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Superior Labral Anterior-Posterior (SLAP) Tears in the Military.

    PubMed

    Rossy, William; Sanchez, George; Sanchez, Anthony; Provencher, Matthew T

    Given the notable physical demands placed on active members of the military, comprehension of recent trends in management and outcomes of superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears in this patient population is critical for successful treatment. Electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase, were reviewed for the years 1985 through 2016. Database review. Level 5. Active members of the military are at increased risk of sustaining shoulder injuries, particularly SLAP tears. Recent trends in management of SLAP lesions have shifted toward operative intervention. In the correct patient population, repairs of superior labrum tears demonstrate improved function and pain. Surgical repair of SLAP tears, especially in young and active military personnel, is supported. Military personnel are at greater risk of suffering a SLAP tear in comparison with their civilian counterparts. Surgical repair of these lesions is advocated in this subpopulation when the patient is younger than approximately 36 years of age, and if older, biceps tenodesis is likely superior.

  6. Clinical Outcomes of Conservative Treatment and Arthroscopic Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Do, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Joong Hoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Noh, Jee Hyun; Choi, Soo Hyun; Chung, Sun Gun; Lee, Shi-Uk; Choi, Ji Eun; Kim, Seihee; Kim, Min Jee; Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-04-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes following conservative treatment and arthroscopic repair in patients with a rotator cuff tear. In this retrospective study, patients aged >50 years with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear were reviewed. The rotator cuff tendons were evaluated using ultrasonography, shoulder magnetic resonance imaging or MR arthrography, and the patients with either a high-grade partial-thickness or small-to-medium-sized (≤3 cm) full-thickness tear were included in this study. The primary outcome measures were a pain assessment score and range of motion (ROM) at 1-year follow-up. The secondary outcomes were the rate of tear progression or retear along with the rate of symptom aggravation after the treatments. A total of 357 patients were enrolled, including 183 patients that received conservative treatment and 174 patients who received an arthroscopic repair. The pain assessment score (p<0.001) and the ROM in forward flexion (p<0.001) were significantly improved in both groups. The ROM in internal rotation did not significantly change after conservative treatment and arthroscopic repair. The pain assessment score and ROM were not significantly different between the two groups. Retear was observed in 9.6% of patients who had an arthroscopic repair and tear progression was found in 6.7% of those who underwent conservative treatment. The proportion of aggravation for pain and ROM did not significantly differ between the two groups. The effectiveness of conservative treatment is not inferior to arthroscopic repair for patients >50 years old with a less than medium-sized rotator cuff tear in a 1-year follow-up period. Further study is warranted to find the optimal combination of conservative treatment for a symptomatic rotator cuff tear.

  7. Symptomatic knee disorders in floor layers and graphic designers. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described an increased risk of developing tibio-femoral osteoarthritis (TF OA), meniscal tears and bursitis among those with a trade as floor layers. The purpose of this study was to analyse symptomatic knee disorders among floor layers that were highly exposed to kneeling work tasks compared to graphic designers without knee-demanding work tasks. Methods Data on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were collected by questionnaires. In total 134 floor layers and 120 graphic designers had a bilateral radiographic knee examination to detect TF OA and patella-femoral (PF) OA. A random sample of 92 floor layers and 49 graphic designers had Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of both knees to examine meniscal tears. Means of the subscales of KOOS were compared by analysis of variance. The risk ratio of symptomatic knee disorders defined as a combination of radiological detected knee OA or MRI-detected meniscal tears combined with a low KOOS score was estimated by logistic regression in floor layers with 95% confidence interval (CI) and adjusted for age, body mass index, traumas, and knee-straining sports activities. Symptomatic knee OA or meniscal tears were defined as a combination of low KOOS-scores and radiographic or MRI pathology. Results Symptomatic TF and medial meniscal tears were found in floor layers compared to graphic designers with odds ratios 2.6 (95%CI 0.99-6.9) and 2.04 (95% CI 0.77-5.5), respectively. There were no differences in PF OA. Floor layers scored significantly lower on all KOOS subscales compared to graphic designers. Significantly lower scores on the KOOS subscales were also found for radiographic TF and PF OA regardless of trade but not for meniscal tears. Conclusions The study showed an overall increased risk of developing symptomatic TF OA in a group of floor layers with a substantial amount of kneeling work positions. Prevention would be appropriate to reduce the proportion of kneeling

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Meniscal Injuries Among Active-Duty US Military Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Burks, Robert; Owens, Brett D.; Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Cameron, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Few population-based studies have examined the incidence of meniscal injuries, and limited information is available on the influence of patient's demographic and occupational factors. Objective: To examine the incidence of meniscal injuries and the influence of demographic and occupational factors among active-duty US service members between 1998 and 2006. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Using the International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) codes 836.0 (medial meniscus), 836.1 (lateral meniscus), and 836.2 (meniscus unspecified), we extracted injury data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all acute meniscal injuries among active-duty military personnel. Patients or Other Participants: Active-duty military personnel serving in all branches of military service during the study period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Incidence rate (IR) per 1000 person-years at risk and crude and adjusted rates by strata for age, sex, race, rank, and service. Results: During the study period, 100201 acute meniscal injuries and 12115606 person-years at risk for injury were documented. The overall IR was 8.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.22, 8.32) per 1000 person-years. Main effects were noted for all demographic and occupational variables (P< .001), indicating that age, sex, race, rank, and service were associated with the incidence of meniscal injuries. Men were almost 20% more likely to experience an acute meniscal injury than were women (incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.20). The rate of meniscal injury increased with age; those older than 40 years of age experienced injuries more than 4 times as often as those under 20 years of age (incidence rate ratio = 4.25,95% CI = 4.08, 4.42). Conclusions: The incidence of meniscal injury was sub-stantially higher in this study than in previously reported studies. Male sex, increasing age, and service in the Army or Marine Corps were factors associated with meniscal injuries. PMID:22488232

  9. Ultrasound and Functional Assessment of Transtendinous Repairs of Partial-Thickness Articular-Sided Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Ostrander, Roger V; Klauser, Jeffrey M; Menon, Sanjay; Hackel, Joshua G

    2017-03-01

    Partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears are a frequent source of shoulder pain. Despite conservative measures, some patients continue to be symptomatic and require surgical management. However, there is some controversy as to which surgical approach results in the best outcomes for grade 3 tears. The purpose of this study was to evaluate repair integrity and the clinical results of patients treated with transtendinous repair of high-grade partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis was that transtendinous repairs would result in reliable healing and acceptable functional outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty patients with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were included in the study. All patients underwent arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears utilizing a transtendinous technique by a single surgeon. At latest follow-up, the repair integrity was evaluated using ultrasound imaging, and functional scores were calculated. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated that 18 of 20 patients had complete healing with a normal-appearing rotator cuff. Two patients had a minor residual partial tear. Sixteen of 20 patients had no pain on visual analog scale. Four patients complained of mild intermittent residual pain. All patients were rated as "excellent" by both the University of California at Los Angeles Shoulder Score and the Simple Shoulder Test. The transtendon technique for the repair of articular-sided high-grade partial rotator cuff tears results in reliable tendon healing and excellent functional outcomes.

  10. Sartorius muscle tear presenting as acute meralgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian; Stubbs, Euan

    2018-05-29

    We present an unusual case of sartorius muscle tear presenting as acute meralgia paresthetica. A healthy 67-year old male was referred to our department with a one-week history of pain, numbness and bruising over his hip and anterolateral thigh. Extended ultrasound assessment revealed an intramuscular tear of sartorius, with acute hematoma surrounding the adjacent lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. Meralgia paresthetica from acute trauma is rare, with only three published cases relating to fractures of the anterior superior iliac spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case caused by muscular tear in the literature. The presence of features attributable to neuropraxia of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve allowed for proper localization and diagnosis of the patient's injury. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Quality and Variability of Online Physical Therapy Protocols for Isolated Meniscal Repairs.

    PubMed

    Trofa, David P; Parisien, Robert L; Noticewala, Manish S; Noback, Peter C; Ahmad, Christopher S; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C

    2018-05-31

    The ideal meniscal repair postoperative rehabilitation protocol has yet to be determined. Further, patients are attempting to access health care content online at a precipitously increasing rate given the efficiency of modern search engines. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the quality and variability of meniscal repair rehabilitation protocols published online with the hypothesis that there would be a high degree of variability found across available protocols. To this end, Web-based meniscal repair physical therapy protocols from U.S. academic orthopaedic programs as well as the first 10 protocols identified by the Google search engine for the term "meniscal repair physical therapy protocol" were reviewed and assessed via a custom scoring rubric. Twenty protocols were identified from 155 U.S. academic orthopaedic programs for a total of 30 protocols. Twenty-six protocols (86.6%) recommended immediate postoperative bracing. Twelve (40.0%) protocols permitted immediate weight-bearing as tolerated (WBAT) postoperatively, while the remaining protocols permitted WBAT at an average of 4.0 (range, 1-7) weeks. There was considerable variation in range of motion (ROM) goals, with most protocols (73.3%) initiating immediate passive ROM to 90°. The types and timing of strength, proprioception, agility, and pivoting exercises advised were extremely diverse. Only five protocols (16.7%) employed functional testing as a marker for return to athletics. The results of this study indicate that only a minority of academic orthopaedic programs publish meniscal repair physical therapy protocols online and that within the most readily available online protocols there are significant disparities in regards to brace use, ROM, weight-bearing, and strengthening and proprioception exercises. These discrepancies reflect the fact that the best rehabilitation practices after a meniscal repair have yet to be elucidated. This represents a significant area for improved patient

  12. Clinical and radiologic outcomes after a modified bone plug technique with anatomical meniscal root reinsertion for meniscal allograft transplantation and a minimum 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shiyou; Zhang, Xintao; You, Tian; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Jin, Dadi; Zhang, Wentao

    2018-04-24

    To evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) using a modified bone plug technique. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 73 patients who underwent MAT between January 2007 and December 2013. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, Tegner score, visual analogue scale (VAS), and physical examinations were retrospectively reviewed to measure clinical outcomes after MAT, and questionnaires regarding activity and factors were analyzed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess the cartilage status and meniscal extrusion. The mean follow-up was 37 months for 61 patients (65 knees), and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The mean meniscal extrusion was 3.39 ± 0.90 mm, the relative percentage of extrusion (RPE) was 34.82% ± 12.71%, and arthrosis progression was observed in 8 of 61 cases (13.1%). The mean results for VAS, IKDC, and Lysholm scores were significantly improved after MAT (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the range of motion or Tegner score (P > 0.05). Thirty-eight (62.3%) patients were able to return to their previous level of activity, and 23 (37.7%) patients reached a mean 76.7% of the previous level of activity. Of the 23 patients reporting a decrease in activity, 10 reported a fear of reinjury as the primary factor limiting activity. The patient satisfaction rate in the study was 78.7%. Our modified bone plug method with anatomical meniscal root reinsertion was an effective surgical method, and the majority of active patients with meniscal disorders returned to preinjury levels of activity.

  13. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for massive irreparable rotator cuff tears and cuff tear arthropathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Petrillo, S; Longo, U G; Papalia, R; Denaro, V

    2017-08-01

    To report the outcomes and complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) in massive irreparable rotator cuff tears (MIRCT) and cuff tear arthropathy (CTA). A systematic review of the literature contained in Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Ovid databases was conducted on May 1, 2016, according to PRISMA guidelines. The key words "reverse total shoulder arthroplasty" or "reverse total shoulder prostheses" with "rotator cuff tears"; "failed rotator cuff surgery"; "massive rotator cuff tears"; "irreparable rotator cuff tears"; "cuff tear arthropathy"; "outcomes"; "complications" were matched. All articles reporting outcomes and complications of RSA for the management of MIRCT or CTA were included. The comparison between preoperative and postoperative clinical scores, as well as range of motion (ROM), was performed using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. P values lower than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Seven articles were included in our qualitative synthesis. A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores and ROM was found comparing the preoperative value with the postoperative value. The degrees of retroversion of the humeral stem of the RSA do not influence the functional outcomes in a statistically significant fashion. There were 17.4% of complications. The most frequent was heterotopic ossification, occurring in 6.6% of patients. Revision surgery was necessary in 7.3% of patients. RSA restores pain-free ROM and improves function of the shoulder in patients with MIRCT or CTA. However, complications occur in a high percentage of patients. The lack of level I studies limits the real understanding of the potentials and limitations of RSA for the management of MIRCT and CTA.

  14. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  15. The Meniscus-Deficient Knee

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Allison J.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Yanke, Adam B.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common knee injury, and partial meniscectomies are the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure. The injured meniscus has an impaired ability to distribute load and resist tibial translation. Partial or complete loss of the meniscus promotes early development of chondromalacia and osteoarthritis. The primary goal of treatment for meniscus-deficient knees is to provide symptomatic relief, ideally to delay advanced joint space narrowing, and ultimately, joint replacement. Surgical treatments, including meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT), high tibial osteotomy (HTO), and distal femoral osteotomy (DFO), are options that attempt to decrease the loads on the articular cartilage of the meniscus-deficient compartment by replacing meniscal tissue or altering joint alignment. Clinical and biomechanical studies have reported promising outcomes for MAT, HTO, and DFO in the postmeniscectomized knee. These procedures can be performed alone or in conjunction with ligament reconstruction or chondral procedures (reparative, restorative, or reconstructive) to optimize stability and longevity of the knee. Complications can include fracture, nonunion, patella baja, compartment syndrome, infection, and deep venous thrombosis. MAT, HTO, and DFO are effective options for young patients suffering from pain and functional limitations secondary to meniscal deficiency. PMID:26779547

  16. Nonsurgical Treatment of Acetabular Labral Tears.

    PubMed

    Theige, Melissa; David, Shannon

    2018-05-04

    Clinical Scenario: Surgical treatment of acetabular labral tears has been explored in multiple studies, while there is a lack of research on the effectiveness of conservative methods. Focused Clinical Question: To what extent can nonsurgical treatment produce symptomatic or functional improvements in athletes with an acetabular labral tear? Summary of Search, Best Evidence Appraised, and Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies of patients with confirmed acetabular labral tears who participated in any level of sport. Four studies were located, all of which were included. Clinical Bottom Line: The research discussed in this review agreed that conservative management of acetabular labral tears produced measurable improvements in pain and function among the athletes studied, including their ability to participate in sport activities. Based on these findings, it appears that conservative management is effective at rehabilitating athletes with acetabular labral tears. However, this method should not be applied to every athlete based on the low strength of current research. Treatment plans should be decided upon on a case-by-case basis. Strength of Recommendation: The studies located were of low quality. The highest Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine Level of Evidence achieved was 4. Higher level studies must be conducted before the conclusions of this research can be applied clinically with assertion. Strength of recommendation is level 3.

  17. [S2k-Guideline on Meniscal Disease: Non-operative and Surgical Management].

    PubMed

    Siebert, Christian H; Becker, Roland; Buchner, Matthias; Förster, Jürgen; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Losch, Andreas; Niemeyer, Philipp; Scheffler, Sven

    2018-03-12

    A meniscal injury should not automatically lead to surgery. Even in light of all the developments in arthroscopic surgery, non-operative management still has a place in the treatment algorithms for lesions around the knee. In this second publication of the German guidelines for meniscal surgery, the authors describe the various treatment possibilities, their indications and offer critical insight into the various therapeutic options. This will allow the patient and physician alike to make the proper individual decisions. Various German speaking associations addressing topics surrounding the knee have joined forces to develop these guidelines for meniscal lesions. The hope is that these two publications on the topic will shed light on the ongoing debate and offer some guidance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Relationship of ABO Blood Type on Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Han-Dong; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with various diseases. A relationship between Achilles tendon ruptures and blood type O has been reported, although its pathogenesis was not clear. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study describing the relationship between blood type and rotator cuff tendon tears. To determine whether patients with rotator cuff tear had a greater prevalence of blood type O than those without rotator cuff tear. A cross-sectional study. Research hospital outpatient evaluation. A total of 316 subjects with shoulder pain were included and divided into "tear" and "no-tear" groups according to ultrasonographic examination. ABO blood group, gender, dominant arm, smoking history, trauma history, and age were compared between the 2 groups and the odds ratios of these factors were evaluated by logistic regression. The tear group (38.6%) had more instances of blood type O than the healthy population (27.2%; P = .002). The adjusted odds ratio for rotator cuff tear for blood type O to non-O was 2.38 (95% confidence interval 1.28-4.42). The odds ratios for rotator cuff tears for smoking, major trauma history, minor trauma history, and age were 2.08, 3.11, 2.29, and 1.06, respectively. Patients with rotator cuff tears were more likely to have blood type O. The odds ratios of factors for rotator cuff tears were high in the following order: major trauma history, blood type O, minor trauma history, and age. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Verification bias: an under-recognized source of error in assessing the efficacy of MRI of the meniscii.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Michael L; Petscavage, Jonelle M

    2011-11-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosis of meniscal tears has been studied extensively, with tears usually verified by surgery. However, surgically unverified cases are often not considered in these studies, leading to verification bias, which can falsely increase the sensitivity and decrease the specificity estimates. Our study suggests that such bias may be very common in the meniscal MRI literature, and illustrates techniques to detect and correct for such bias. PubMed was searched for articles estimating sensitivity and specificity of MRI for meniscal tears. These were assessed for verification bias, deemed potentially present if a study included any patients whose MRI findings were not surgically verified. Retrospective global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was performed when possible. Thirty-nine of the 314 studies retrieved from PubMed specifically dealt with meniscal tears. All 39 included unverified patients, and hence, potential verification bias. Only seven articles included sufficient information to perform GSA. Of these, one showed definite verification bias, two showed no bias, and four others showed bias within certain ranges of disease prevalence. Only 9 of 39 acknowledged the possibility of verification bias. Verification bias is underrecognized and potentially common in published estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for the diagnosis of meniscal tears. When possible, it should be avoided by proper study design. If unavoidable, it should be acknowledged. Investigators should tabulate unverified as well as verified data. Finally, verification bias should be estimated; if present, corrected estimates of sensitivity and specificity should be used. Our online web-based calculator makes this process relatively easy. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term evaluation of posterior lateral meniscus root tears left in situ at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shelbourne, K Donald; Roberson, Troy A; Gray, Tinker

    2011-07-01

    The long-term radiographic and subjective results of patients with posterior lateral meniscus root tears left in situ at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has not been reported. The authors hypothesized that patients who had posterior lateral meniscus root tears left in situ would have statistically significantly lower subjective scores and greater joint-space narrowing as compared with a control group. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Thirty-three patients who had isolated posterior lateral meniscus root tear and >5 years objective and subjective follow-up were evaluated and compared with a matched control group without meniscal tears based on sex, chronicity of tear, age, and follow-up time. Patients were evaluated subjectively and objectively using the International Knee Documentation Committee criteria. The mean objective follow-up time was 10.6 ± 4.5 years. The mean subjective total score was 84.6 ± 14 in the study group versus 90.5 ± 13 in the control group (P = .09). Radiographs showed lateral joint-space narrowing rated as normal in 19, mild in 10, moderate in 3, and severe in 1 versus the control group, which was normal in 28 and mild in 5 patients. The measured amount of lateral joint-space narrowing compared with the other knee was 1.0 ± 1.6 mm in the study group versus 0 ± 1.1 mm in the controls on 45° flexed posteroanterior radiographs (P < .006). At a mean of 10 years' follow-up of posterior lateral meniscus root tears left in situ, mild lateral joint-space narrowing was measured without significant differences in subjective or objective scores compared with controls. This study provides a baseline that can be used to compare the results of procedures used to treat these tears in other manners.

  1. Structure and microanalysis of tear film ferning of camel tears, human tears, and Refresh Plus.

    PubMed

    Am, Masmali; Ra, Fagehi; El-Naggar, Ahmad H; Tm, Almubrad

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the tear ferning pattern and chemical elements of the tear film of camel tears compared with human tears and Refresh Plus eye lubricant. Refresh Plus was used as a control because it provides a healthy ferning pattern, due to the presence of an optimum ratio of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sodium and electrolytes. The main research focus is elucidating the viability of camel tear film in the dry, harsh environment of the desert. The tears were collected from five camels, five male desert workers (20-25 years old) at a small village located 100 km from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and five male subjects (20-25 years old) from Riyadh. A small drop (1 μl) of tears was dried on a glass slide and observed under a light (Olympus BX1) and scanning electron microscope (Inspect S50, Field Electron and Ion Company [FEI]). Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of the tear film and Refresh Plus were investigated with a JEOL 1400 scanning transmission electron microscope. The camel tear film pattern was surrounded by thick, peripheral, homogenous layers containing small oily droplets, particles, and tiny branches in the tear ferning. The tear ferning of the camel was grade 0-1, whereas the tear ferning of human tears and Refresh Plus was grade 1-2. The mass percentage of chloride was highest in the camel tears. The mass percentage of potassium in the camel tears was greater than that in the human tears, but it was less than that in the Refresh Plus lubricant. Camel tears exhibit a better quality than human tears and Refresh Plus lubricant do. The presence of oily droplet-like structures at the periphery of tear ferning suggests that camel tear film may have a higher quality and quantity of minerals and lubricants, which may help the animal to avoid eye dryness. Future work is required to investigate the identification of the elements present in the peripheral and central part of the tear ferning.

  2. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Meniscal Healing, Clinical Outcomes, and Safety in Patients Undergoing Meniscal Repair of Unstable, Complete Vertical Meniscal Tears (Bucket Handle) Augmented with Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Rafal; Kulinski, Krzysztof; Kozar-Kaminska, Katarzyna; Wielgus, Monika; Langner, Maciej; Wasko, Marcin K; Kowalczewski, Jacek; Pomianowski, Stanislaw

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application in arthroscopic repair of complete vertical tear of meniscus located in the red-white zone. This single center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study included 37 patients with complete vertical meniscus tears. Patients received an intrarepair site injection of either PRP or sterile 0.9% saline during an index arthroscopy. The primary endpoint was the rate of meniscus healing in the two groups. The secondary endpoints were changes in the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and analog scale (VAS) in the two groups at 42 months. After 18 weeks, the meniscus healing rate was significantly higher in the PRP-treated group than in the control group (85% versus 47%, P = 0.048). Functional outcomes were significantly better 42 months after treatment than at baseline in both groups. The IKDC score, WOMAC, and KOOS were significantly better in the PRP-treated group than in the control group. No adverse events were reported during the study period. The findings of this study indicate that PRP augmentation in meniscus repair results in improvements in both meniscus healing and functional outcome.

  3. Myofascial treatment for patients with acetabular labral tears: a single-subject research design study.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Glenn E; Mortenson, W Ben; Gilbart, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Single-subject research design using 4 consecutive patients. To assess whether treatment using soft tissue therapy (ART or Active Release Technique), stretching, and strengthening of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, and tensor fascia latae muscles reduces pain and improves self-reported hip function in patients with acetabular labral tears who also have posterolateral hip pain of suspected myofascial origin. Acetabular labral tears cause pain in some but not all patients. Pain commonly presents anteriorly but may also present posteriorly and laterally. The standard of care is arthroscopic repair, which helps many but not all patients. It is possible that these patients may present with extra-articular contributions to their pain, such as myofascial pain, making their clinical presentation more complex. No previous study has assessed soft tissue therapy as a treatment option for this subset of patients. This A-B-A design used repeated measures of the Hip Outcome Score and visual analog scale for pain. Four patients were treated for 6 to 8 weeks, using a combination of soft tissue therapy, stretching, and strengthening for the hip abductors, external rotators, and tensor fascia latae. Data were assessed visually, statistically, and by comparing mean differences before and after intervention. All 4 patients experienced both statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in posterolateral hip pain and hip-related function. Three patients also experienced reduction in anteromedial hip pain. Myofascial hip pain may contribute to hip-related symptoms and disability in patients with acetabular labral tears and posterolateral hip pain. These patients may benefit from soft tissue therapy combined with stretching and strengthening exercises targeting the hip abductors, tensor fascia latae, and hip external rotator muscles. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.

  4. Articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament-deficient dogs with or without bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kathryn; Beale, Brian S; Thames, Howard D; Saunders, W Brian

    2017-01-01

    To compare articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient dogs with or without concurrent bucket handle tears (BHT) of the medial meniscus. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs treated with arthroscopy and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or extracapsular repair for complete CCL rupture (290 stifles from 264 dogs). Medical records and arthroscopic images were reviewed. Medial femoral condyle (MFC) and medial tibial plateau (MTP) cartilage was scored using the modified Outerbridge scale. Periarticular osteophytosis (PAO) and injury to the medial meniscus were recorded. Data were analyzed using Student's t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and Fisher's exact test for changes in the stifle based on meniscal condition, body weight, and duration of lameness. PAO, MFC, and MTP articular cartilage scores were not significantly different in dogs with or without BHT. There were no significant differences in MFC or MTP scores when dogs were evaluated based on bodyweight and the presence or absence of a BHT. However, PAO formation was significantly increased in dogs weighing >13.6 kg and concurrent meniscal injury vs. dogs weighing <13.6 kg and concurrent meniscal injury (P < .001). Significantly more stifles with chronic lameness (40 of 89; 44.9%) had the highest PAO score of 2 reported compared to only 42 of 182 stifles (23.1%) with acute lameness (P < .001). The presence of a BHT of the medial meniscus was not associated with more severe arthroscopic articular cartilage lesions in the medial joint compartment at the time of surgery. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  5. Selenium Reduces Early Signs of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Meniscal Tissue Degradation.

    PubMed

    Häfelein, Klaus; Preuße-Prange, Andrea; Behrendt, Peter; Kurz, Bodo

    2017-05-01

    Meniscal integrity is a prerequisite for sustained knee joint health and prevention of meniscal degeneration is a main research goal. Cartilage-protective effects of selenium have been described, but little is known about the impact on the meniscus. We therefore investigated the influence of sodium selenite on meniscal explants under tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory conditions. Meniscal explant disks (3 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were isolated from 2-year-old cattle and incubated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and sodium selenite (low dose, LoD 6.7 ng/ml as being found in Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium medium supplements, ITS; medium-dose, MeD 40 ng/ml described as physiological synovial concentration; high dose, HiD 100 ng/ml described as optimal serum concentration). After 3 days of culture glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release (DMMB assay), nitric oxide (NO) production (Griess assay), gene expression of matrix-degrading enzymes (quantitative RT-PCR), and apoptosis rate were determined. TNFα led to a significant raise of GAG release and NO production. LoD and MeD selenite significantly reduced the TNFα-induced GAG release (by 83, 55 %, respectively), NO production (by 59, 40 %, respectively), and apoptosis (by 68, 39 %, respectively). LoD and MeD selenite showed a tendency to reduce the TNFα-mediated increase of inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) levels, LoD selenite furthermore matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 transcription levels and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 levels. LoD and less pronounced MeD selenite show a substantial impact on the early meniscal inflammatory response. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the protective influence of selenium on meniscal tissue maintenance. To understand the superior potency of low-dose selenium on molecular level future studies are needed.

  6. Meniscus root repair.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dharmesh; Harner, Christopher D

    2012-06-01

    Root tears are a subset of meniscal injuries that result in significant knee joint pathology. Occurring on either the medial or lateral side, root tears are defined as radial tears or avulsions of the posterior horn attachment to bone. After a root tear, there is a significant increase in tibio-femoral contact pressure concomitant with altered knee joint kinematics. Previous cadaver studies from our institution have shown that root repair of the medial meniscus is successful in restoring joint biomechanics to within normal limits. Indications for operative management of meniscal root tears include (1) a symptomatic medial meniscus root tear with minimal arthritis and having failed non-operative treatment, and (2) a lateral root tear in associated with an ACL tear. In this review, we describe diagnosis, imaging, patient selection, and arthroscopic surgical technique of medial and lateral meniscus root injuries. In addition we highlight the pearls of repair technique, associated complications, post-operative rehabilitation regimen, and expected outcomes.

  7. Hydrostatic pressure modulates mRNA expressions for matrix proteins in human meniscal cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toru; Toyoda, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hisamori, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    There have been few reports describing the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolism of meniscal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on meniscal cell metabolism. Human meniscal cells were cultured in alginate beads for 3 days. They were then subjected to 4 MPa hydrostatic pressure for 4 hours in either a static or cyclic (1 Hz) mode using a specially designed and constructed system. Immediately after the pressure application, the messenger RNA levels for aggrecan, type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -1, -3, -9, -13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) -1 and -2 were measured. It was found that the application of static hydrostatic pressure caused a significant decrease in mRNA expression for MMP-1 and -13 (p<0.05). In contrast, the application of cyclic hydrostatic pressure was associated with a significant increase in type I collagen (p<0.01), TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA expression (p<0.01). These results would suggest that hydrostatic pressure in isolation can modulate mRNA expressions for matrix proteins in meniscal cells.

  8. The tear turnover and tear clearance tests - a review.

    PubMed

    Garaszczuk, Izabela K; Montes Mico, Robert; Iskander, D Robert; Expósito, Alejandro Cerviño

    2018-03-01

    The aim is to provide a summary of methods available for the assessment of tear turnover and tear clearance rates. The review defines tear clearance and tear turnover and describes their implication for ocular surface health. Additionally, it describes main types of techniques for measuring tear turnover, including fluorescein tear clearance tests, techniques utilizing electromagnetic spectrum and tracer molecule and novel experimental techniques utilizing optical coherence tomography and fluorescein profilometry. Areas covered: Internet databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar) and most frequently cited references were used as a principal resource of information on tear turnover rate and tear clearance rate, presenting methodologies and equipment, as well as their definition and implications for the anterior eye surface health and function. Keywords used for data-search were as follows: tear turnover, tear clearance, fluorescein clearance, scintigraphy, fluorophotometry, tear flow, drainage, tear meniscus dynamics, Krehbiel flow and lacrimal functional unit. Expert commentary: After decades, the topic of tear turnover assessment has been reintroduced. Recently, new techniques have been developed to propose less invasive, less time consuming and simpler methodologies for the assessment of tear dynamics that have the potential to be utilized in clinical practice.

  9. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-02-24

    A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The Importance of Correct Diagnosis of Crocodile Tears Syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Danila; Gomes-Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Silva; Carrasco, Leandro Carlos; de Deus, Ciro Borges Duailibe; Garcia-Júnior, Idelmo Rangel; Faverani, Leonardo Perez

    2016-10-01

    The excessive unilateral tearing as a result of gustatory stimuli is a characteristic of crocodile tears syndromes. The aim of this study is to report 2 cases of Frey and crocodile tears syndromes, considering diagnosis, monitoring, and selection of appropriate treatment. A 74-year-old female patient presented with a history of Bell palsy, tearing on left eye at the moment of chewing, and absence of pain. The patient opted only for periodic case monitoring because the symptoms presented by the syndrome did not bother her, which made any invasive procedure unnecessary, and with the closed diagnosis she may be reassured and really know what was happening to her. So scientific divulgations about this syndrome should be made in order to increase the knowledge of dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons, because it is a rare syndrome and easily diagnosed. Due to the low knowledge in Brazil, the patient of this report had to wait about 9 years to get a diagnosis.

  11. Suture versus FasT-Fix all-inside meniscus repair at time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Hwang Bo, Byung-Hun; Victoroff, Brian N

    2014-10-01

    To compare meniscal healing and functional outcomes after all-inside meniscal repair between sutures and meniscal fixation devices. Sixty patients with a tear within the red-red or red-white zones of the posterior horn of the medial or lateral meniscus in conjunction with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear were included in this study. Meniscal repairs were performed with sutures in 35 patients and the FasT-Fix device (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA) in 25 patients concomitantly with hamstring ACL reconstruction. Postoperative evaluations included Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity scale, Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and KT-1000 arthrometer (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA) testing. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained postoperatively for all patients to evaluate meniscal healing. The mean follow-up period was 47.2 months. In the suture group, 31 patients (86.1%) were asymptomatic and 4 (13.9%) were symptomatic. In the FasT-Fix group, 20 patients (80%) were asymptomatic and 5 (20%) were symptomatic. Postoperative functional evaluation and knee stability showed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Follow-up MRI showed that 26 menisci (74.3%) were healed, 3 menisci (8.6%) were partially healed, and 6 menisci (17.1%) were not healed in the suture group. In the FasT-Fix group, 15 menisci (64%) were healed, 7 menisci (24%) were partially healed, and 3 menisci (12%) were not healed. Follow-up MRI showed no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. In the FasT-Fix group, follow-up MRI showed a newly developed cyst posterior to the medial meniscus in 2 patients. A new tear anterior to the previous tear was found in 1 patient. In the suture group, follow-up MRI showed no cysts or new tears. All-inside meniscal repairs using either sutures or the FasT-Fix device showed satisfactory results in patients with concomitant hamstring ACL reconstruction. There was no statistically significant difference in

  12. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Meniscal Healing, Clinical Outcomes, and Safety in Patients Undergoing Meniscal Repair of Unstable, Complete Vertical Meniscal Tears (Bucket Handle) Augmented with Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Krzysztof; Kozar-Kaminska, Katarzyna; Wielgus, Monika; Langner, Maciej; Wasko, Marcin K.; Kowalczewski, Jacek; Pomianowski, Stanislaw

    2018-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application in arthroscopic repair of complete vertical tear of meniscus located in the red-white zone. Methods This single center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study included 37 patients with complete vertical meniscus tears. Patients received an intrarepair site injection of either PRP or sterile 0.9% saline during an index arthroscopy. The primary endpoint was the rate of meniscus healing in the two groups. The secondary endpoints were changes in the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and analog scale (VAS) in the two groups at 42 months. Results After 18 weeks, the meniscus healing rate was significantly higher in the PRP-treated group than in the control group (85% versus 47%, P = 0.048). Functional outcomes were significantly better 42 months after treatment than at baseline in both groups. The IKDC score, WOMAC, and KOOS were significantly better in the PRP-treated group than in the control group. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that PRP augmentation in meniscus repair results in improvements in both meniscus healing and functional outcome. PMID:29713647

  13. Incidence and Characteristics of Meniscal Injuries in Cadets at a Military School, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji Zheng; Cui, Shu Fang; Hu, Fei; Lu, Qiu Ju; Li, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Meniscal injury is common among military service members.  To examine the incidence and characteristics of meniscal injuries in cadets at a single military institution between 2013 and 2015.  Cohort study.  Meniscal-injury data were collected at the Center of Rehabilitation Training, the People's Liberation Army University of Science and Technology.  A total of 2479 cadets participating in physical activities between 2013 and 2015.  Injury rates, injury proportions by body mass index, risk ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).  The overall incidence rate was 10.08 (95% CI = 6.84, 14.84) per 1000 person-years. A multiple-comparisons test revealed differences in the relative injury rate in overweight or obese cadets versus normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (χ 2 = 8.98, P = .01). No differences were found between injured normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (P = .66, RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.32, 6.06) or between injured overweight or obese cadets and injured underweight cadets (P = .24, RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.09, 1.91). The absolute injury rate was higher for overweight and obese cadets compared with normal-weight cadets (P < .01, RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.69). The overall proportional distribution for patterns of injury was 2:1 (medial to lateral) for meniscal injuries. Grade 2 injuries were the most common.  The high frequency and level of severity of meniscal injuries may negatively affect the readiness and health of cadets. High body mass index was a risk factor for meniscal injury.

  14. Articular contact pressures of meniscal repair techniques at various knee flexion angles.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, David C; Lin, Fang; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-07-13

    Articular cartilage injury can occur after meniscal repair with biodegradable implants. Previous contact pressure analyses of the knee have been based on the tibial side of the meniscus at limited knee flexion angles. We investigated articular contact pressures on the posterior femoral condyle with different knee flexion angles and surgical repair techniques. Medial meniscus tears were repaired in 30 fresh bovine knees. Knees were mounted on a 6-degrees-of-freedom jig and statically loaded to 200 N at 45 degrees, 70 degrees, 90 degrees, and 110 degrees of knee flexion under 3 conditions: intact meniscus, torn meniscus, and meniscus after repair. For each repair, 3 sutures or biodegradable implants were used. A pressure sensor was used to determine the contact area and peak pressure. Peak pressures over each implant position were measured. Peak pressure increased significantly as knee flexion increased in normal, injured, and repaired knees. The change in peak pressure in knees with implant repairs was significantly higher than suture repairs at all knee flexion angles. Articular contact pressure on the posterior femoral condyle increased with knee flexion. Avoidance of deep knee flexion angles postoperatively may limit increases in articular contact pressures and potential chondral injury. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. A Contact Pressure Analysis Comparing an All-Inside and Inside-Out Surgical Repair Technique for Bucket-Handle Medial Meniscus Tears.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Phelps, Brian M; Dahl, Kimi D; Slette, Erik L; Mikula, Jacob D; Dornan, Grant J; Bucci, Gabriella; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Singleton, Steven B

    2017-10-01

    To directly compare effectiveness of the inside-out and all-inside medial meniscal repair techniques in restoring native contact area and contact pressure across the medial tibial plateau at multiple knee flexion angles. Twelve male, nonpaired (n = 12), fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent a series of 5 consecutive states: (1) intact medial meniscus, (2) MCL tear and repair, (3) simulated bucket-handle longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus, (4) inside-out meniscal repair, and (5) all-inside meniscal repair. Knees were loaded with a 1,000-N axial compressive force at 5 knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated using thin film pressure sensors. No significant differences were observed between the inside-out and all-inside repair techniques at any flexion angle for contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure (all P > .791). Compared with the torn meniscus state, inside-out and all-inside repair techniques resulted in increased contact area at all flexion angles (all P < .005 and all P < .037, respectively), decreased mean contact pressure at all flexion angles (all P < .007 and all P < .001, respectively) except for 0° (P = .097 and P = .39, respectively), and decreased peak contact pressure at all flexion angles (all P < .001, all P < .001, respectively) except for 0° (P = .080 and P = .544, respectively). However, there were significant differences in contact area and peak contact pressure between the intact state and inside-out technique at angles ≥45° (all P < .014 and all P < .032, respectively). Additionally, there were significant differences between the intact state and all-inside technique in contact area at 60° and 90° and peak contact pressure at 90° (both P < .005 and P = .004, respectively). Median values of intact contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure over the tested flexion angles ranged

  16. Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplant via a Medial Approach Leads to Less Extrusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Choi, Jeong-Ki; Yang, Bong-Seok; Lee, Doe-Hyun; Victoroff, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    Accurate positioning of the bony bridge is crucial to prevent extrusion of meniscal allografts after transplant. However, oblique or lateralized placement of the bony bridge of the lateral meniscal allograft may occur due to technical error or a limited visual field. The patellar tendon may be an obstacle to approaching the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus, resulting in a laterally placed allograft. Therefore, lateral meniscal transplant through a medial arthrotomy would be an alternative approach. However, no report exists regarding allograft extrusion when comparing medial and lateral arthrotomy techniques in lateral meniscal transplants. Extrusion of the midbody of the allograft is less severe and the rotation of the bony bridge is less oblique in lateral meniscal allograft transplants through the medial parapatellar approach than those through the lateral approach. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A bony bridge was used to perform 55 lateral meniscal transplants through either a medial or a lateral arthrotomy. Thirty-two allografts were transplanted through a medial arthrotomy and 23 were transplanted through a lateral arthrotomy, not randomly. Because correct positioning of the bony trough through the medial arthrotomy was easier than that through the lateral arthrotomy, the method of the arthrotomy was changed for the latter. The procedure for both groups was identical except for the arthrotomy technique, and rehabilitation was identical for both groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging was conducted for all patients to measure the postoperative extrusion and obliquity of the bony bridge of the allograft. On the coronal view, extrusion was measured as the distance between the outer edge of the articular cartilage of the lateral tibial plateau and the outer edge of the meniscal allograft. On the axial view, a line (line B) was drawn along the longitudinal axis of the bony bridge. The posterior tibial condylar tangential line was drawn between the

  17. Advanced Rotator Cuff Tear Score (ARoCuS): a multi-scaled tool for the classification and description of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Walter, S G; Stadler, T; Thomas, T S; Thomas, W

    2018-03-02

    To introduce a (semi-)quantitative surgical score for the classification of rotator cuff tears. A total of 146 consecutive patients underwent rotator cuff repair and were assessed using the previously defined Advanced Rotator Cuff Tear Score (ARoCuS) criteria: muscle tendon, size, tissue quality, pattern as well as mobilization of the tear. The data set was split into a training (125 patients) and a testing set (21 patients). The training data set fitted a nonlinear predictive model of the tear score based on the ARoCuS criteria, while the testing data served as control. Based on the scoring results, rotator cuff tears were assigned to one of four categories (ΔV I-IV) and received a stage-adapted treatment. For statistical analysis, mean values ± standard deviation, interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa values were calculated. Overall, 32 patients were classified as ΔV I, 68 as ΔV II and 37 as ΔV III. Nine patients showed ΔV IV tears. Patients of all ΔV groups improved significantly their Constant scores (p < 0.001) and profited from significant pain reduction after surgery (p < 0.001). To date, ten patients have undergone revision surgery with five of them primarily classified as ΔV IV. Kappa values for the interobserver reliability ranged between 0.69 and 0.95. ICC scores for the ΔV category were 0.95 for interobserver reliability. The ARoCuS facilitates intra-operative decision-making and enables surgeons and researches to document rotator cuff tears in a standardized and reproducible manner.

  18. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component.

  19. Features of Golf-Related Shoulder Pain in Korean Amateur Golfers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and characteristics of golf-related shoulder injuries in Korean amateur golfers. Methods Golf-related surveys were administered to, and ultrasonography were conducted on, 77 Korean amateur golfers with golf-related shoulder pain. The correlation between the golf-related surveys and ultrasonographic findings were investigated. Results The non-dominant shoulder is more likely to have golf-related pain and abnormal findings on ultrasonography than is the dominant shoulder. Supraspinatus muscle tear was the most frequent type of injury on ultrasonography, followed by subscapularis muscle tear. Investigation of the participants' golf-related habits revealed that only the amount of time spent practicing golf was correlated with supraspinatus muscle tear. No correlation was observed between the most painful swing phases and abnormal ultrasonographic findings. Participants who had not previously visited clinics were more likely to present with abnormal ultrasonographic findings, and many of the participants complained of additional upper limb pain. Conclusion Golf-related shoulder injuries and pain are most likely to be observed in the non-dominant shoulder. The supraspinatus muscle was the most susceptible muscle to damage. A correlation was observed between time spent practicing golf and supraspinatus muscle tear. PMID:28758076

  20. The effect of complete radial lateral meniscus posterior root tear on the knee contact mechanics: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Bao, H R C; Zhu, D; Gong, H; Gu, G S

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, with technological advances in arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging and improved biomechanical studies of the meniscus, there has been some progress in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the roots of the meniscus. However, the biomechanical effect of posterior lateral meniscus root tears on the knee has not yet become clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a complete radial posterior lateral meniscus root tear on the knee contact mechanics and the function of the posterior meniscofemoral ligament on the knee with tear in the posterior root of lateral meniscus. A finite element model of the knee was developed to simulate different cases for intact knee, a complete radial posterior lateral meniscus root tear, a complete radial posterior lateral meniscus root tear with posterior meniscofemoral ligament deficiency, and total meniscectomy of the lateral meniscus. A compressive load of 1000 N was applied in all cases to calculate contact areas, contact pressure, and meniscal displacements. The complete radial posterior lateral meniscus root tear decreased the contact area and increased the contact pressure on the lateral compartment under compressive load. We also found a decreased contact area and increased contact pressure in the medial compartment, but it was not obvious compared to the lateral compartment. The lateral meniscus was radially displaced by compressive load after a complete radial posterior lateral meniscus root tear, and the displacement took place mainly in the body and posterior horn of lateral meniscus. There were further decrease in contact area and increases in contact pressure and raidial displacement of the lateral meniscus in the case of the complete posterior lateral meniscus root tear in combination with posterior meniscofemoral ligament deficiency. Complete radial posterior lateral meniscus root tear is not functionally equivalent to total meniscectomy. The posterior root torn lateral

  1. A Current Review of the Meniscus Imaging: Proposition of a Useful Tool for Its Radiologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Nicolas; Naouri, Jean Francois; Herman, Serge; Gerometta, Antoine; Klouche, Shahnaz; Bohu, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to present a synthesis of the current literature in order to provide a useful tool to clinician in radiologic analysis of the meniscus. All anatomical descriptions were clearly illustrated by MRI, arthroscopy, and/or drawings. The value of standard radiography is extremely limited for the assessment of meniscal injuries but may be indicated to obtain a differential diagnosis such as osteoarthritis. Ultrasound is rarely used as a diagnostic tool for meniscal pathologies and its accuracy is operator-dependent. CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstructions can detect meniscus tears that are not visible on MRI. This technique is also useful in case of MRI contraindications, in postoperative assessment of meniscal sutures and the condition of cartilage covering the articular surfaces. MRI is the most accurate and less invasive method for diagnosing meniscal lesions. MRI allows confirming and characterizing the meniscal lesion, the type, the extension, its association with a cyst, the meniscal extrusion, and assessing cartilage and subchondral bone. New 3D-MRI in three dimensions with isotropic resolution allows the creation of multiplanar reformatted images to obtain from an acquisition in one sectional plane reconstructions in other spatial planes. 3D MRI should further improve the diagnosis of meniscal tears. PMID:27057352

  2. The prevalence of rotator cuff tears: is the contralateral shoulder at risk?

    PubMed

    Liem, Dennis; Buschmann, Vera Elisa; Schmidt, Carolin; Gosheger, Georg; Vogler, Tim; Schulte, Tobias L; Balke, Maurice

    2014-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain and disability of the shoulder. Information on the prevalence and identification of potential risk factors could help in early detection of rotator cuff tears and improve treatment outcome. Patients treated for a symptomatic rotator cuff tear on one side have a higher prevalence of rotator cuff tears and decreased shoulder function on the contralateral side compared with an age- and sex-matched group of healthy individuals. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. One group consisted of 55 patients who had been arthroscopically treated on one shoulder for rotator cuff tear (tear group). In this group, the nonoperated contralateral shoulder was examined. For comparison, the matching shoulder in a control group consisting of 55 subjectively healthy individuals matched by age (±1 year) and sex to the tear group was included. Diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear was made by ultrasound. Outcomes were measured using the Constant score. The prevalence of supraspinatus tears was significantly higher (P < .0001) in the tear group (67.3%) compared with the control group (11.0%). The Constant score for the activities of daily living subscale, however, was significantly lower (18.4) in the tear group compared with the control group (19.9; P = .012). No other subcategory score nor the overall score showed a significant difference. There was a significantly higher tear prevalence in the tear group of patients aged between 50 and 59 years (P < .001) and 60 and 69 years (P = .004). No tear was diagnosed in the control group in individuals younger than 60 years. Patients treated for partial and full-thickness rotator cuff tears have a significantly higher risk of having a tear on the contralateral side and have noticeable deficits in their shoulder function regarding activities of daily living even if the tear is otherwise asymptomatic.

  3. Incidence and Characteristics of Meniscal Injuries in Cadets at a Military School, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ji Zheng; Cui, Shu Fang; Hu, Fei; Lu, Qiu Ju; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Context: Meniscal injury is common among military service members. Objective: To examine the incidence and characteristics of meniscal injuries in cadets at a single military institution between 2013 and 2015. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Meniscal-injury data were collected at the Center of Rehabilitation Training, the People's Liberation Army University of Science and Technology. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 2479 cadets participating in physical activities between 2013 and 2015. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury rates, injury proportions by body mass index, risk ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The overall incidence rate was 10.08 (95% CI = 6.84, 14.84) per 1000 person-years. A multiple-comparisons test revealed differences in the relative injury rate in overweight or obese cadets versus normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (χ2 = 8.98, P = .01). No differences were found between injured normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (P = .66, RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.32, 6.06) or between injured overweight or obese cadets and injured underweight cadets (P = .24, RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.09, 1.91). The absolute injury rate was higher for overweight and obese cadets compared with normal-weight cadets (P < .01, RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.69). The overall proportional distribution for patterns of injury was 2:1 (medial to lateral) for meniscal injuries. Grade 2 injuries were the most common. Conclusions: The high frequency and level of severity of meniscal injuries may negatively affect the readiness and health of cadets. High body mass index was a risk factor for meniscal injury. PMID:27740851

  4. Elbow Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... tear damage than are many other joints. Seek emergency care if you have: An obvious deformity in ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/elbow-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050874 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  5. A novel remaining tendon preserving repair technique leads to improved outcomes in special rotator cuff tear patterns.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yoon Sang; Kim, Rag Gyu; Shin, Sang-Jin

    2018-05-16

    The purpose of this study was to identify the tear pattern that could be anatomically repaired by preserving the remaining tendon on footprint and evaluate clinical outcomes of patients who underwent remaining tendon preserving cuff repair. Of 523 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair, 41 (7.8%) patients had repairable rotator cuff tear while preserving the remaining tendon. Among them, 31 patients were followed-up for more than 2 years, including 26 patients with posterior L-shaped tear and 5 patients with transtendinous tear patterns. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using ASES and Constant score, SANE score for patient satisfaction, and VAS for pain. MRI was taken for tendon integrity 6 months postoperatively. Of the 31 patients, 11 (35.5%) had previous injury history before rotator cuff tear, including 7 (26.9%) of the 26 patients with posterior L-shaped tear and 4 (80%) of the 5 patients with transtendinous tear. The average size of preoperative cuff tear was 17.8 ± 6.8 mm in anterior-to-posterior direction and 15.2 ± 5.1 mm in medial-to-lateral direction. ASES and Constant score, SANE score, and VAS for pain were significantly (p < 0.001) improved after remaining tendon preserving rotator cuff repair. Rotator cuff tendons of 22(84.6%) patients with posterior L-shaped tear and 4(80%) patients with transtendinous tear patterns were healed. Patients who underwent rotator cuff repair with preservation of the remaining tendon on the footprint obtained satisfactory functional outcomes. Rotator cuff tears in patients who had posterior L-shaped tear extending between supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons or transtendinous tear pattern with substantial remaining tendon could be repaired using remaining tendon preserving repair technique. Anatomic reduction of torn cuff tendon without undue tension could be achieved using the remaining tendon preserving repair technique.

  6. Peroneus longus tears associated with pathology of the os peroneum.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Kristopher G; Brodsky, James W

    2014-04-01

    There is a range of different types of tears and pathology of the peroneal tendons. One of the least common types is the tear of the peroneus longus associated with fracture, enlargement, or entrapment at the cuboid tunnel of the os peroneum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pathologic patterns of these uncommon peroneal tendon tears, to review the treatment, and to report the patient outcomes following treatment with excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. A 5-year retrospective review of all patients with peroneal tendon tears identified 12 patients operatively treated for peroneus longus tendon tears with associated pathology of the os peroneum, and in whom there was a viable peroneus brevis. All patients were treated with an operative procedure consisting of excision of the os peroneum, debridement, and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis. Mean age was 51.5 (range, 33 to 73) years, including 7 males and 5 females. Operative and radiographic records were reviewed to characterize the nature of the peroneus longus tears and associated pathology. Preoperative and postoperative AOFAS hindfoot, SF-36 questionnaires, and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain scores were compiled and patient records were reviewed for complications. Mean follow-up after surgery was 63.3 (range, 12 to 114) months. All of the patients had an os peroneum associated with a complex, irreparable tear of the peroneus longus tendon. The peroneus longus was typically enlarged, fibrotic, and adhered to the surrounding tissues. In 8 patients, the peroneus longus tendon tear was associated with a fracture of the os peroneum, and in 4 patients with an enlarged and entrapped os peroneum which prevented movement at the cuboid tunnel. Of the 12 patients, 9 had partial tears of the peroneus brevis, which were treated with debridement and suture repair. AOFAS hindfoot scores increased from a preoperative mean of 61

  7. The association of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected structural pathology of the knee with crepitus in a population-based cohort with knee pain: the MoDEKO study.

    PubMed

    Crema, M D; Guermazi, A; Sayre, E C; Roemer, F W; Wong, H; Thorne, A; Singer, J; Esdaile, J M; Marra, M D; Kopec, J A; Nicolaou, S; Cibere, J

    2011-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthropathy of the knee joint(1). Symptoms reported by patients and signs noted during physical examination guide clinicians in identifying subjects with knee OA(2-4). Pain is one of the most important symptoms reported by subjects with knee OA(2,3). Although very common, pain is a non-specific symptom, related to pathology in several structures within the knee joint, and includes synovitis(5), subchondral bone marrow lesions(6), and joint effusion(7). Further, pain is a subjective symptom that cannot be directly measured or assessed during physical examination. Crepitus or crepitation in association with arthritis is defined as a crackling or grinding sound on joint movement with a sensation in the joint. Crepitus may occur with or without pain and is a common finding during physical examination in subjects with knee OA(2-4,8,9). It is not known whether crepitus is related to pathology in various structures within the knee. The aim of our study was to determine the cross-sectional associations of structural pathologies within the knee with crepitus in a population-based cohort with knee pain, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects with knee pain were recruited as a random population sample, with crepitus assessed in each compartment of the knee using a validated and standardized approach during physical examination(10). MRI of the knee was performed to assess cartilage morphology, meniscal morphology, osteophytes, cruciate ligaments, and collateral ligaments. For both compartment-specific and whole-knee analyses, a multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the associations of MRI-detected structural pathology with crepitus, adjusting for potential confounders. Variables were selected by backwards elimination within each compartment and in the overall knee models, and only statistically significant variables remained in the "selected" models; remaining variables in these models are adjusted for

  8. Recovery of Muscle Strength After Intact Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair According to Preoperative Rotator Cuff Tear Size.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Chung, Jaeyoon; Lee, Juyeob; Ko, Young-Won

    2016-04-01

    The recovery of muscle strength after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair based on the preoperative tear size has not yet been well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recovery period of muscle strength by a serial assessment of isometric strength after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair based on the preoperative tear size. The hypothesis was that muscle strength in patients with small and medium tears would recover faster than that in those with large-to-massive tears. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 164 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were included. Isometric strength in forward flexion (FF), internal rotation (IR), and external rotation (ER) was evaluated preoperatively and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed to evaluate the quality of the rotator cuff muscle, including fatty infiltration, occupation ratio, and tangent sign. Patient satisfaction as well as visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Constant scores were assessed at every follow-up. Muscle strength demonstrated the slowest recovery in pain relief and the restoration of shoulder function. To reach the strength of the uninjured contralateral shoulder in all 3 planes of motion, recovery took 6 months in patients with small tears and 18 months in patients with medium tears. Patients with large-to-massive tears showed continuous improvement in strength up to 18 months; however, they did not reach the strength of the contralateral shoulder at final follow-up. At final follow-up, mean strength in FF, IR, and ER was 113.0%, 118.0%, and 112.6% of the contralateral shoulder in patients with small tears, respectively; 105.0%, 112.1%, and 102.6% in patients with medium tears, respectively; and 87.6%, 89.5%, and 85.2% in patients with large-to-massive tears, respectively. Muscle strength in any direction did not significantly correlate with

  9. Predicting Rotator Cuff Tears Using Data Mining and Bayesian Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsueh-Yi; Huang, Chen-Yuan; Su, Chwen-Tzeng; Lin, Chen-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rotator cuff tear is a common cause of shoulder diseases. Correct diagnosis of rotator cuff tears can save patients from further invasive, costly and painful tests. This study used predictive data mining and Bayesian theory to improve the accuracy of diagnosing rotator cuff tears by clinical examination alone. Methods In this retrospective study, 169 patients who had a preliminary diagnosis of rotator cuff tear on the basis of clinical evaluation followed by confirmatory MRI between 2007 and 2011 were identified. MRI was used as a reference standard to classify rotator cuff tears. The predictor variable was the clinical assessment results, which consisted of 16 attributes. This study employed 2 data mining methods (ANN and the decision tree) and a statistical method (logistic regression) to classify the rotator cuff diagnosis into “tear” and “no tear” groups. Likelihood ratio and Bayesian theory were applied to estimate the probability of rotator cuff tears based on the results of the prediction models. Results Our proposed data mining procedures outperformed the classic statistical method. The correction rate, sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve of predicting a rotator cuff tear were statistical better in the ANN and decision tree models compared to logistic regression. Based on likelihood ratios derived from our prediction models, Fagan's nomogram could be constructed to assess the probability of a patient who has a rotator cuff tear using a pretest probability and a prediction result (tear or no tear). Conclusions Our predictive data mining models, combined with likelihood ratios and Bayesian theory, appear to be good tools to classify rotator cuff tears as well as determine the probability of the presence of the disease to enhance diagnostic decision making for rotator cuff tears. PMID:24733553

  10. Biological knee reconstruction for combined malalignment, meniscal deficiency, and articular cartilage disease.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Hussey, Kristen; Wilson, Hillary; Pilz, Kyle; Gupta, Anil K; Gomoll, Andreas; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes in those undergoing the triad of simultaneous osteotomy, meniscal transplantation, and articular cartilage repair. Patients undergoing simultaneous meniscal transplantation, distal femoral or proximal tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage surgery by a single surgeon (B.J.C.) were analyzed. Meniscal transplantation was performed using bone-in-slot techniques. Distal femoral and high tibial osteotomies were performed for valgus and varus malalignment, respectively. Microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and osteochondral autograft or allograft were performed for articular cartilage disease. Validated patient-reported and surgeon-measured outcomes were collected. Preoperative and postoperative outcomes and medial versus lateral disease were compared using Student t tests. Eighteen participants (mean age, 34 ± 7.8 years; symptomatic patients, 7.4 ± 5.6 years; 2.4 ± 1.0 surgical procedures before study enrollment; mean follow-up, 6.5 ± 3.2 years) were analyzed. Two thirds of participants had medial compartment pathologic conditions and one third had lateral compartment pathologic processes. At final follow-up, there were statistically significant clinically meaningful improvements in International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective classification, Lysholm score, and 4 Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscores. Postoperative 12-item short form (SF-12) physical and mental component scores were not significantly different from preoperative scores. The Kellgren-Lawrence classification grade was 1.5 ± 1.1 at 2.5 ± 3.0 years after surgery. There was a significantly higher preoperative SF-12 physical composite score (PCS) in participants with lateral compartment pathologic conditions (v medial compartment conditions) (P = .011). Although there were 13 reoperations in 10 patients (55.5% reoperation rate), only one patient was converted to knee arthroplasty (5

  11. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DIAGNOSING MENISCAL INJURIES: CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Gobbo, Ricardo da Rocha; Rangel, Victor de Oliveira; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Pires, Luiz Antônio Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2) was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered positive when one was positive. In the individual analysis, it was enough for the test to be positive. Results: The analysis showed that the set of five meniscal tests presented sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, accuracy of 75%, positive likelihood of 1.53 and negative likelihood of 0.26. Individually, the tests presented accuracy of between 48% and 53%. Conclusion: The set of maneuvers for meniscal injuries presented a good accuracy and significant value, especially for ruling out injury. Individually, the tests had less diagnostic value, although the Apley test had better specificity. PMID:27047833

  12. The diagnostic accuracy of a clinical examination in determining intra-articular hip pain for potential hip arthroscopy candidates.

    PubMed

    Martin, RobRoy L; Irrgang, James J; Sekiya, Jon K

    2008-09-01

    One purpose of this study was to determine whether signs and symptoms could identify when a majority of the hip pain was originating from intra-articular sources in potential arthroscopic surgery candidates. The second purpose was to quantify pain reduction after an anesthetic intra-articular injection in those with potential labral pathology. Subjects with hip pain being evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in hip arthroscopy were prospectively enrolled in the study. Clinical examination results were recorded. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated to determine their accuracy in identifying those who would have greater than 50% pain relief from those with 50% pain relief or less. We enrolled 105 subjects in this study. An anesthetic intra-articular injection was performed in 49 potential candidates for arthroscopic surgery (47%). The mean age in these 49 subjects was 42 years (SD, 15 years; range, 18 to 68 years), with 25 men (51%) and 24 women (49%). According to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arthrogram, 18 individuals had a definite labral tear, 29 had a possible tear, and 2 had no labral tears. In those with definite tears or possible tears, 39% (n = 7) and 45% (n = 13), respectively, did not achieve a greater than 50% reduction of pain. Groin pain, clicking, pinching pain with sitting, lateral thigh pain, flexion abduction external rotation test, flexion-internal rotation-adduction test, and trochanteric tenderness were not useful in identifying those with greater than 50% pain relief from those with 50% relief or less. The symptoms and signs investigated in this study did not accurately or consistently identify subjects with primary intra-articular pain sources. Furthermore, candidates for hip arthroscopy with a labral tear identified on MRI arthrogram had varied responses to anesthetic intra-articular injection. Therefore all labral tears identified on MRI arthrogram may not be a major contributor to patients' pain

  13. Latissimus Dorsi Transfer in Posterior Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P.; Alexiadis, George; Spyridonos, Sarantis; Fandridis, Emmanouil

    2017-01-01

    Background: Massive rotator cuff tears pose a difficult and complex challenge even for the experienced surgeon; inability to repair these tears by conventional means designates them as irreparable, while management becomes quite taxing. Several operative options have been suggested for the management of such lesions with varying degrees of success, while it is imperative to match patient demands and expectations to the predicted outcome. Methods: Research articles are examined and key concepts are discussed, in order to provide an evidence based review of the available literature. The anatomy and pathomechanics along with the indications, contraindications and surgical techniques are reported. Results: Transfer of the Latissimus dorsi has been used with success to restore shoulder function in deficits of the posterior rotator cuff. Although it can be used in a variety of settings, the ideal patient for a Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer is a young and active individual, with no glenohumeral osteoarthritis that has a severe disability and weakness related to an irreparable posterior cuff tear. Conclusion: Tendon transfers have proved to be a successful treatment option in salvaging this difficult problem, providing pain relief and restoring shoulder function. Despite the excellent functional outcomes and pain suppression following operation, a variety of factors may affect the outcome; thus making indications and preoperative assessment a valuable component. PMID:28400877

  14. Treatment of Partial Rotator Cuff Tear with Ultrasound-guided Platelet-rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Sengodan, Vetrivel Chezian; Kurian, Sajith; Ramasamy, Raghupathy

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tear has presented substantial challenge to orthopaedic surgeons as it can vary from conservative to surgical repair. Researches have established the influence of platelet rich plasma in healing damaged tissue. Currently very few data are available regarding the evidence of clinical and radiological outcome of partial rotator cuff tear treated with ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection in English literature. 20 patients with symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears were treated with ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection. Before and after the injection of platelet rich plasma scoring was done with visual analogue score, Constant shoulder score, and UCLA shoulder score at 8 weeks and third month. A review ultrasound was performed 8 weeks after platelet rich plasma injection to assess the rotator cuff status. Our study showed statistically significant improvements in 17 patients in VAS pain score, constant shoulder score and UCLA shoulder score. No significant changes in ROM were noted when matched to the contra-lateral side ( P < 0.001) at the 3 month follow-up. The study also showed good healing on radiological evaluation with ultrasonogram 8 weeks after platelet rich plasma injection. Ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection for partial rotator cuff tears is an effective procedure that leads to significant decrease in pain, improvement in shoulder functions, much cost-effective and less problematic compared to a surgical treatment.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination features for identifying large rotator cuff tears in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne; Taylor, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Rotator cuff tears are a common and disabling complaint. The early diagnosis of medium and large size rotator cuff tears can enhance the prognosis of the patient. The aim of this study was to identify clinical features with the strongest ability to accurately predict the presence of a medium, large or multitendon (MLM) rotator cuff tear in a primary care cohort. Methods: Participants were consecutively recruited from primary health care practices (n = 203). All participants underwent a standardized history and physical examination, followed by a standardized X-ray series and diagnostic ultrasound scan. Clinical features associated with the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear were identified (P<0.200), a logistic multiple regression model was derived for identifying a MLM rotator cuff tear and thereafter diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Results: A MLM rotator cuff tear was identified in 24 participants (11.8%). Constant pain and a painful arc in abduction were the strongest predictors of a MLM tear (adjusted odds ratio 3.04 and 13.97 respectively). Combinations of ten history and physical examination variables demonstrated highest levels of sensitivity when five or fewer were positive [100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86–1.00; negative likelihood ratio: 0.00, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28], and highest specificity when eight or more were positive (0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.95; positive likelihood ratio 4.66, 95% CI: 2.34–8.74). Discussion: Combinations of patient history and physical examination findings were able to accurately detect the presence of a MLM rotator cuff tear. These findings may aid the primary care clinician in more efficient and accurate identification of rotator cuff tears that may require further investigation or orthopedic consultation. PMID:24421626

  16. Prevalence of triceps tendon tears on MRI of the elbow and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Koplas, Monica C; Schneider, Erika; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-05-01

    Triceps tendon injuries are reported to be very rare. To our knowledge, there have been no studies describing its prevalence or injury patterns on MR imaging. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of triceps injuries based on a large series of consecutive MR examinations. Clinical correlation was obtained. From 801 consecutive elbow MR examinations over a 15-year period, 28 patients with 30 triceps tendon injuries were identified and graded as partial tendon tear and complete tendon tear. The patients' medical records were reviewed to determine age, gender, cause of tears, and management. The prevalence of triceps tendon injuries was 3.8%. There were 5 women and 23 men with partial or complete tears (mean age: 46.6 years; range: 2.7 to 75.1 years). The most common injury was partial tear, found in 18 patients. There were 10 patients with 12 complete tears (2 had re-torn following surgical repair). A tear was suspected in 12 out 28 (43%) patients prior to the MRI. The most common presenting symptom was pain. The most common cause was athletic injury (8 patients [29%], including weightlifting [2 patients]). Tendon tear was found to be a complication of infection in 6 patients, and in 3 patients the tears were a complication of steroid use. Thirteen tendon tears were surgically repaired (8 of these were complete tears). Triceps tendon injury is not as rare as commonly reported and may often be clinically underdiagnosed.

  17. The knee: Surface-coil MR imaging at 1. 5 T

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran, J.; Noto, A.M.; Mosure, J.C.

    1986-06-01

    Seven normal knees (in five volunteers) and seven injured knees (in seven patients) were examined by high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 1.5 T with a surface coil. Seven medial meniscal tears, three anterior cruciate ligament tears, one posterior cruciate ligament avulsion, an old osteochondral fracture, femoral condylar chondro-malacia, and one case of semimembranous tendon reinsertion were identified. MR images correlated well with recent double-contrast arthrograms or results of surgery. All tears were identified in both the sagittal and coronal planes. Because of its ability to demonstrate small meniscal lesions and ligamentous injuries readily, MR imaging with a surface coilmore » may eventually replace the more invasive arthrography.« less

  18. Conservative treatment of torn medial meniscus via mechanical force, manually assisted short lever chiropractic adjusting procedures.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorn, B S

    1994-09-01

    To present the first reported case of successful chiropractic intervention in treatment of a torn medial meniscus of the knee, the meniscal tear being documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 54-yr-old woman complaining of right knee pain of several months' duration with accompanying marked functional impairment was diagnosed as having a tear in the posterior horn of the ipsilateral medial meniscus, verified by MRI studies of the same. Independent consultation with three medical specialists resulted in the unanimous decision that surgical intervention for the purpose of meniscectomy provided the only therapeutic approach indicated for the problem. However, the patient was reticent to undergo said surgical procedure and chose, instead, to utilize chiropractic care and conservative management in an effort to resolve her condition without having to resort to surgery. The patient received chiropractic treatment to the knee via mechanical force, manually assisted short lever chiropractic adjusting procedures (MFMA) utilizing an Activator Adjusting Instrument. Auxiliary treatment included the use of homeopathic therapy as an adjunct to chiropractic care. Said treatment resulted in a complete resolution of the patient's disability, the patient recovering full function of the knee joint and achieving an asymptomatic status without having to submit to surgical intervention and its possible adverse sequelae. Conservative management of meniscal tears via chiropractic treatment may provide a therapeutically effective and financially cost containing alternative to routine meniscectomy in certain cases involving torn medial menisci of the knee.

  19. Arthroscopic all-inside repair for a tear of posterior root of the medial meniscus: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Son, Kyung-Mo; Victoroff, Brian N

    2008-09-01

    This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to repair a tear of posterior root of the medial meniscus. Cartilage at the insertion area of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) was removed using a curved curette inserted through an anteromedial portal. A metal anchor loaded with two FiberWires (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was placed at the insertion area of the PHMM through a high posteromedial portal. A PDS suture was passed the PHMM by curved suture hook through the anteromedial portal. Two limbs of the PDS were then used to pass two limbs of the FiberWire through the meniscus. The same procedure was repeated for the second FiberWire suture. The sutures were tied, achieving secure fixation of the posterior meniscal root at the anatomic insertion.

  20. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    PubMed Central

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial and lateral discoid meniscus. In magnetic resonance imaging, although the lateral discoid meniscus had no tear, the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. Arthroscopic examination of his right knee similarly revealed that the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. In addition, the discoid medial meniscus also had an anomalous insertion to the anterior cruciate ligament, and there was also mild fibrillation of the medial tibial cartilage surface. We performed arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for the torn medial discoid meniscus but not for the asymptomatic lateral discoid meniscus. The latest follow-up at 18 months indicated satisfactory results. Conclusion: We report a rare case of ipsilateral medial and lateral discoid meniscus with medial meniscus tear. The medial discoid meniscus with tear was treated with partial meniscectomy, whereas the lateral discoid meniscus without tear was only followed up. PMID:28164045

  1. Knee pain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... front of the knee can be due to bursitis, arthritis, or softening of the patella cartilage as ... knee. Overall knee pain can be due to bursitis, arthritis, tears in the ligaments, osteoarthritis of the ...

  2. Prognostic Factors Affecting Rotator Cuff Healing After Arthroscopic Repair in Small to Medium-sized Tears.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Soon; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Oh, Joo Han

    2015-10-01

    Small and medium-sized rotator cuff tears usually have good clinical and anatomic outcomes. However, healing failure still occurs in some cases. To evaluate prognostic factors for rotator cuff healing in patients with only small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were prospectively collected from 339 patients with small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears who underwent arthroscopic repair by a single surgeon between March 2004 and August 2012 and who underwent magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic arthrography at least 1 year after surgery. The mean age of the patients was 59.8 years (range, 39-80 years), and the mean follow-up time was 20.8 months (range, 12-66 months). The functional evaluation included the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant-Murley score, and Simple Shoulder Test. Postoperative VAS for pain and functional scores improved significantly compared with preoperative values (P < .001). Forty-five healing failures occurred (13.3%), and fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle, tear size (anteroposterior dimension), and age were significant factors affecting rotator cuff healing (P < .001, = .018, and = .011, respectively) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Grade II and higher infraspinatus fatty degeneration correlated with a higher failure rate. The failure rate was also significantly higher in patients with a tear >2 cm in size (34.2%) compared with patients with a tear ≤2 cm (10.6%) (P < .001). A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the predictive cut-off value for the oldest age and the largest tear size for successful healing, which were calculated as 69 years and 2 cm, respectively, with a specificity of 90%. In small to medium-sized rotator cuff tears, grade II fatty degeneration of the infraspinatus muscle according to the Goutallier classification could be a reference point for successful

  3. Capsulodesis Versus Bone Trough Technique in Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: Graft Extrusion and Functional Results.

    PubMed

    Masferrer-Pino, Angel; Monllau, Joan C; Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Erquicia, Juan I; Pelfort, Xavier; Gelber, Pablo E

    2018-06-01

    To compare the radiographic results (in terms of graft extrusion) and the functional results of lateral meniscus allograft transplantations (MAT) performed with a bony fixation technique or with a soft tissue fixation technique after capsulodesis. A prospective series of 29 consecutive lateral MAT was analyzed. The inclusion criterion for MAT was lateral joint line pain due to a previous meniscectomy. Malalignment, patients who had an Ahlback grade greater than II, and patients with a body mass index over 30 were considered as the exclusion criterion to prevent confounding results. Fifteen of the grafts were fixed with a bony fixation technique (group A). The remaining 14 cases (group B) were fixed with sutures through bone tunnels after lateral capsular fixation (capsulodesis). All patients were studied with magnetic resonance imaging to determine the degree of meniscal extrusion at an average of 18 months of surgery (range, 12-48 months). Meniscal extrusion was measured on coronal magnetic resonance imaging. To standardize the results, the percentage of meniscus extruded for each group was also calculated and compared. The functional results were analyzed by means of standard knee scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and visual analog scale). If we consider the first 4 cases of group B as the learning curve of the new technique, we observe that group A had 8 cases (53.3%) of major extrusion, whereas group B had 1 case (7.1%) (P = .02). When comparing the degree of meniscal extrusion with the type of fixation employed, an even lower percentage of extruded menisci was found in group B (P = .01). The final follow-up Lysholm score in group A was 94.33 ± 5.96 (P < .001) and 91.43 ± 6.19 (P < .001) in group B. The median follow-up Tegner score significantly improved from 4 (range, 2-5) to 7 (range, 6-9) in group A (P < .001) and from 4 (range, 3-5) to 7 (range, 6-8) in group B (P < .001). The average visual analog scale score dropped down 5.87 and 7.29 points in groups A

  4. Treatment of Refractory Filamentary Keratitis With Autologous Serum Tears.

    PubMed

    Read, Sarah P; Rodriguez, Marianeli; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L; Galor, Anat

    2017-09-01

    To report a case of filamentary keratitis (FK) successfully treated with autologous serum tears and to review the pathogenesis and management of FK. Case report including high-resolution anterior segment optical coherence tomography and filament histopathology. A 61-year-old Hispanic man presented with pain and photophobia of the right eye. He was found to have a corneal epithelial defect and a small peripheral infiltrate 4 months after Laser Assisted in situ Keratomileusis. After resolution of the epithelial defect, he developed FK. Over a 4-month period, conservative management with aggressive lubrication, lid hygiene, topical corticosteroids, topical cyclosporine, bandage contact lenses, and oral doxycycline failed to resolve the corneal filaments. Notably, treatment with 20% autologous serum tears, four times daily, led to a sustained resolution of the FK within 1 week. This case demonstrates the complexity of FK management and introduces autologous serum tears as a viable management option when conservative approaches to this condition fail.

  5. Factors Predicting Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Ben; Smith, Nicholas; Asplin, Laura; Thompson, Peter; Spalding, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is performed to improve symptoms and function in patients with a meniscal-deficient compartment of the knee. Numerous studies have shown a consistent improvement in patient-reported outcomes, but high failure rates have been reported by some studies. The typical patients undergoing MAT often have multiple other pathologies that require treatment at the time of surgery. The factors that predict failure of a meniscal allograft within this complex patient group are not clearly defined. Purpose: To determine predictors of MAT failure in a large series to refine the indications for surgery and better inform future patients. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All patients undergoing MAT at a single institution between May 2005 and May 2014 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were prospectively evaluated and included in this study. Failure was defined as removal of the allograft, revision transplantation, or conversion to a joint replacement. Patients were grouped according to the articular cartilage status at the time of the index surgery: group 1, intact or partial-thickness chondral loss; group 2, full-thickness chondral loss 1 condyle; and group 3, full-thickness chondral loss both condyles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine significant predictors of failure, independently of other factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced for overall survival and significant predictors of failure in the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: There were 125 consecutive MATs performed, with 1 patient lost to follow-up. The median follow-up was 3 years (range, 1-10 years). The 5-year graft survival for the entire cohort was 82% (group 1, 97%; group 2, 82%; group 3, 62%). The probability of failure in group 1 was 85% lower (95% CI, 13%-97%) than in group 3 at any time. The probability of failure with lateral allografts was 76% lower (95% CI, 16%-89%) than medial allografts at

  6. Comparing surgical repair with conservative treatment for degenerative rotator cuff tears: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lambers Heerspink, Frederik O; van Raay, Jos J A M; Koorevaar, Rinco C T; van Eerden, Pepijn J M; Westerbeek, Robin E; van 't Riet, Esther; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Diercks, Ronald L

    2015-08-01

    Good clinical results have been reported for both surgical and conservative treatment of rotator cuff tears. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare functional and radiologic improvement after surgical and conservative treatment of degenerative rotator cuff tears. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that included 56 patients with a degenerative full-thickness rotator cuff tear between January 2009 and December 2012; 31 patients were treated conservatively, and rotator cuff repair was performed in 25 patients. Outcome measures, including the Constant-Murley score (CMS), visual analog scale (VAS) pain and VAS disability scores, were assessed preoperatively and after 6 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, the mean CMS was 81.9 (standard deviation [SD], 15.6) in the surgery group vs 73.7 (SD, 18.4) in the conservative group (P = .08). VAS pain (P = .04) and VAS disability (P = .02) were significantly lower in the surgery group at the 12-month follow-up. A subgroup analysis showed postoperative CMS results were significantly better in surgically treated patients without a retear compared with conservatively treated patients (88.5 [SD, 6.2] vs 73.7 [SD, 18.4]). In our population of patients with degenerative rotator cuff tears who were randomly treated by surgery or conservative protocol, we did not observe differences in functional outcome as measured with the CMS 1 year after treatment. However, significant differences in pain and disabilities were observed in favor of surgical treatment. The best outcomes in function and pain were seen in patients with an intact rotator cuff postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis.

    PubMed

    Simeone, F Joseph; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y; Smith, Maximilian; Gill, Thomas J; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome.

  8. Treatment of Partial Rotator Cuff Tear with Ultrasound-guided Platelet-rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Sengodan, Vetrivel Chezian; Kurian, Sajith; Ramasamy, Raghupathy

    2017-01-01

    Background: The treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tear has presented substantial challenge to orthopaedic surgeons as it can vary from conservative to surgical repair. Researches have established the influence of platelet rich plasma in healing damaged tissue. Currently very few data are available regarding the evidence of clinical and radiological outcome of partial rotator cuff tear treated with ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection in English literature. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears were treated with ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection. Before and after the injection of platelet rich plasma scoring was done with visual analogue score, Constant shoulder score, and UCLA shoulder score at 8 weeks and third month. A review ultrasound was performed 8 weeks after platelet rich plasma injection to assess the rotator cuff status. Results: Our study showed statistically significant improvements in 17 patients in VAS pain score, constant shoulder score and UCLA shoulder score. No significant changes in ROM were noted when matched to the contra-lateral side (P < 0.001) at the 3 month follow-up. The study also showed good healing on radiological evaluation with ultrasonogram 8 weeks after platelet rich plasma injection. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection for partial rotator cuff tears is an effective procedure that leads to significant decrease in pain, improvement in shoulder functions, much cost-effective and less problematic compared to a surgical treatment. PMID:28900553

  9. Mass spectrometric identification of phospholipids in human tears and tear lipocalin.

    PubMed

    Dean, Austin W; Glasgow, Ben J

    2012-04-02

    The purpose of this article was to identify by mass spectrometry phosphocholine lipids in stimulated human tears and determine the molecules bound to tear lipocalin or other proteins. Tear proteins were separated isocratically from pooled stimulated human tears by gel filtration fast performance liquid chromatography. Separation of tear lipocalin was confirmed by SDS tricine gradient PAGE. Protein fractions were extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed with electrospray ionization MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan mode for select leaving groups. For quantification, integrated ion counts were derived from standard curves of authentic compounds of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine. Linear approximation was possible from integration of the mass spectrometrically obtained ion peaks at 760 Da for the PC standard. Tears contained 194 ng/mL of the major intact PC (34:2), m/z 758.6. Ten other monoisotopic phosphocholines were found in tears. A peak at 703.3 Da was assigned as a sphingomyelin. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (m/z 490-540) accounted for about 80% of the total integrated ion count. The [M+H](+) compound, m/z 496.3, accounted for 60% of the signal intensity. Only the tear lipocalin-bearing fractions showed phosphocholines (104 ng/mL). Although the intact phospholipids bound to tear lipocalin corresponded precisely in mass and relative signal intensity to that found in tears, we did not identify phosphocholines between m/z 490 and 540 in any of the gel-filtration fractions. Phospholipids, predominantly lysophospholipids, are present in tears. The higher mass intact PCs in tears are native ligands of tear lipocalin.

  10. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Investigating Gene Expression in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury by Using Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently injured structures during high-impact sporting activities. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding ACL tears and healing failure. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluated the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, and TBP) by using ACL samples of 39 individuals with ACL tears (20 with isolated ACL tears and 19 with ACL tear and combined meniscal injury) and of 13 controls. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper DataAssist, and RefFinder software packages and the comparative ΔCt method. ACTB was the best single reference gene and ACTB+TBP was the best gene pair. The GenEx software showed that the accumulated standard deviation is reduced when a larger number of reference genes is used for gene expression normalization. However, the use of a single reference gene may not be suitable. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of FN1 and PLOD1. We observed that at least 3 reference genes should be used. ACTB+HPRT1+18S is the best trio for the analyses involving isolated ACL tears and controls. Conversely, ACTB+TBP+18S is the best trio for the analyses involving (1) injured ACL tears and controls, and (2) ACL tears of patients with meniscal tears and controls. Therefore, if the gene expression study aims to compare non-injured ACL, isolated ACL tears and ACL tears from patients with meniscal tear as three independent groups ACTB+TBP+18S+HPRT1 should be used. In conclusion, 3 or more genes should be used as reference genes for analysis of ACL samples of individuals with and without ACL tears.

  11. Mass Spectrometric Identification of Phospholipids in Human Tears and Tear Lipocalin

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Austin W.; Glasgow, Ben J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this article was to identify by mass spectrometry phosphocholine lipids in stimulated human tears and determine the molecules bound to tear lipocalin or other proteins. Methods. Tear proteins were separated isocratically from pooled stimulated human tears by gel filtration fast performance liquid chromatography. Separation of tear lipocalin was confirmed by SDS tricine gradient PAGE. Protein fractions were extracted with chloroform/methanol and analyzed with electrospray ionization MS/MS triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in precursor ion scan mode for select leaving groups. For quantification, integrated ion counts were derived from standard curves of authentic compounds of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine. Results. Linear approximation was possible from integration of the mass spectrometrically obtained ion peaks at 760 Da for the PC standard. Tears contained 194 ng/mL of the major intact PC (34:2), m/z 758.6. Ten other monoisotopic phosphocholines were found in tears. A peak at 703.3 Da was assigned as a sphingomyelin. Four lysophosphatidylcholines (m/z 490–540) accounted for about 80% of the total integrated ion count. The [M+H]+ compound, m/z 496.3, accounted for 60% of the signal intensity. Only the tear lipocalin–bearing fractions showed phosphocholines (104 ng/mL). Although the intact phospholipids bound to tear lipocalin corresponded precisely in mass and relative signal intensity to that found in tears, we did not identify phosphocholines between m/z 490 and 540 in any of the gel-filtration fractions. Conclusions. Phospholipids, predominantly lysophospholipids, are present in tears. The higher mass intact PCs in tears are native ligands of tear lipocalin. PMID:22395887

  12. Medial Meniscal Root Avulsion: A Biomechanical Comparison of 4 Different Repair Constructs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard; Pitts, Ryan; Kim, Young-Mo; Matava, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the time-zero load-to-failure strength of 4 different constructs used to repair medial meniscal root avulsions. Sixty fresh-frozen cadaveric knees with a mean age of 74 years were used for this study. Each knee was dissected to isolate the attachment of the posterior root of the medial meniscus to the tibial plateau. An Instron machine (Instron, Norwood, MA) with a custom-designed clamp was used to avulse the intact posterior meniscal root in 12 control specimens. An additional 48 specimens were tested after transection of the native meniscal root to evaluate the pullout strength of 4 different repair constructs using No. 0 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL): a single suture (n = 12), a double suture (n = 12), a loop stitch (n = 12), and a locking loop stitch (n = 12). Analysis of variance was used to compare load to failure and stiffness of all 4 groups; pair-wise, between-group differences were also assessed. Repair failure occurred most commonly by suture pullout in 94% of the specimens in the repair groups. For the controls, failure occurred most commonly at the meniscus-clamp interface. Failure load was highest for the control group (mean, 359.5 ± 168 N), followed in descending order by the locking loop stitch (191.4 ± 45.1 N), loop stitch (119.6 ± 55.0 N), double suture (96.2 ± 51.4 N), and single suture (58.2 ± 29.6 N). The control group was significantly stronger than 3 of the experimental groups (single suture [95% CI, 3.8 to 11.3], double suture [95% CI, 2.1 to 6.4], and loop stitch [95% CI, 2.0 to 4.5]; P < .0001) but not the locking loop stitch (P = .003; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.2). The locking loop stitch was significantly stronger than the single suture (P < .0001; 95% CI, 2.0 to 5.4) and double suture (P = .003; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.9). The locking loop stitch was significantly stiffer than the single suture (P < .0001; 95% CI, 3.8 to 20.3), double suture (P < .0001; 95% CI, 2.0 to 9.8), and loop stitch (P = .03; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5

  13. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Bae, Tae Soo; Kang, Ki-Ser; Kang, Soo Yong; Lee, Sang Hak

    2011-10-01

    ). In a combined rotatory load, tibial rotation after MMPH tears or a total medial meniscectomy in an ACL-deficient knee were not affected significantly at all flexion angles. This study shows that an MMPH longitudinal tear in an ACL-deficient knee alters the knee kinematics, particularly the anterior-posterior tibial translation. MMPH repair significantly improved anterior-posterior tibial translation in ACL-deficient knees. These findings may help improve the treatment of patients with ACL and MMPH longitudinal tear by suggesting that the medial meniscal repairs should be performed for greater longevity when combined with an ACL reconstruction.

  14. A Systematic Review of Outcomes after Arthroscopic Débridement for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tear.

    PubMed

    Saito, Taichi; Malay, Sunitha; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-11-01

    Evidence regarding the effectiveness of arthroscopic débridement for a triangular fibrocartilage complex tear is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of débridement for triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. The authors searched all available literature in the PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases for articles reporting on triangular fibrocartilage complex tear débridement. Data collection included arc of motion, grip strength, patient-reported outcomes, and complications. A total of 1723 unique studies were identified, of which 18 studies met the authors' criteria. The mean before and after arc of wrist extension/flexion motion values were 120 and 146 degrees (six studies). The mean before and after grip strength values were 65 percent and 91 percent of the contralateral side (10 studies). Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores (six studies) and pain visual analogue scale scores (seven studies) improved from 39 to 18, and from 7 to 3, respectively. The mean pain visual analogue scale score after débridement was 1.9 in the ulnar-positive group and 2.4 in the ulnar-neutral and ulnar-negative groups. Eighty-seven percent of patients returned to their original work. Patients reported reduced pain and improved functional and patient-reported outcomes after débridement of triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. Most patients after débridement returned to previous work, with few complications. Although some of these cases may require secondary procedures, simple débridement can be performed with suitable satisfactory outcomes for cases with any type of ulnar variance.

  15. Latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable subscapularis tendon tears.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sang Won; Kim, Ji Young; Yi, Seung Hoon; Baek, Chang Hee

    2018-06-01

    There are several tendon transfers for reconstruction of irreparable subscapularis tears. The latissimus dorsi (LD) could be used because its direction and function are similar to those of the subscapularis. We performed LD transfers for irreparable subscapularis tears and evaluated clinical outcomes. The study enrolled 24 consecutive patients who underwent LD transfers. Clinical and functional outcomes were evaluated using the Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, pain visual analog scale, and range of shoulder motion preoperatively and at last follow-up. The lift-off and belly-press tests were performed to assess subscapularis integrity and function. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed preoperatively and 1 year postoperatively to evaluate tendon integrity. Mean Constant, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, and pain scores improved from 46 ± 6 to 69 ± 5 (P < .001), from 40 ± 3 to 70 ± 5 (P < .001), and from 6 ± 1 to 2 ± 1 (P = .006), respectively. The mean range of motion for forward elevation and internal rotation increased from 135° ± 17° to 166° ± 15° (P = .016) and from L5 to L1 (P = .010), respectively. Improvement in the range of motion for external rotation was not significant (51° ± 7° to 68° ± 7°; P = .062). At final follow-up, the belly-press test results were negative for 18 of 24 patients, and the lift-off test results were negative for 16 of 20 patients. No complications related to tendon transfer, including axillary and radial nerve injuries, were found. No retearing of the transferred LD was observed. LD transfer resulted in pain relief and restoration of shoulder range of motion and function. LD transfer could be considered an effective and safe salvage treatment for irreparable subscapularis tears. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interposition Dermal Matrix Xenografts: A Successful Alternative to Traditional Treatment of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julie A; Zgonis, Miltiadis H; Rickert, Kathleen D; Bradley, Kendall E; Kremen, Thomas J; Boggess, Blake R; Toth, Alison P

    2017-05-01

    Management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis remains problematic for surgeons. Repairs of massive rotator cuff tears have failure rates of 20% to 94% at 1 to 2 years postoperatively as demonstrated with arthrography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, inconsistent outcomes have been reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears, and limitations have been seen with other current methods of operative intervention, including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The use of interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft in patients with massive rotator cuff tears will result in improved subjective outcomes, postoperative pain, function, range of motion, and strength. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixty patients (61 shoulders) were prospectively observed for a mean of 50.3 months (range, 24-63 months) after repair of massive rotator cuff tears with porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Subjective outcome data were obtained with visual analog scale for pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain) and Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (MASES) score. Active range of motion in flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation were recorded. Strength in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was assessed manually on a 10-point scale and by handheld dynamometer. Ultrasound was used to assess the integrity of the repair during latest follow-up. Mean visual analog scale pain score decreased from 4.0 preoperatively to 1.0 postoperatively ( P < .001). Mean active forward flexion improved from 140.7° to 160.4° ( P < .001), external rotation at 0° of abduction from 55.6° to 70.1° ( P = .001), and internal rotation at 90° of abduction from 52.0° to 76.2° ( P < .001). Supraspinatus manual strength increased from 7.7 to 8.8 ( P < .001) and infraspinatus manual strength from 7.7 to 9.3 ( P < .001). Mean dynamometric strength in forward flexion was 77.7 N

  17. Peroneus Brevis Attrition & Longitudinal Split Tear without Subluxation and Associated Hypertrophy of Peronal Tubercle" - Treatment of an Uncommon Lesion.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Singh, Varun; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Peroneus brevis tendinitis with its attritional longitudinal split rupture without any subluxation from peroneal groove and associated enlarged peroneal tubercle is un common presentation. A 40 year old female presented with moderate swelling and tenderness over the lateral and dorso-lateral aspect of left ankle with history of old trauma to ankle with swelling, persistant pain and difficulty in walking. On physical examination during passive eversion and inversion the excursion of the peroneal tendons was painful. Most tender point was just posterior to the tip of the fibula. During surgery we found the intact superior peroneal ligament with both peroneal tendons placed at normal site without subluxation, tendon sheath was inflamed and swollen, on further dissection we could see the attrition of inner surface of the peroneus brevis and a 2 cm longitudinal split tear of the same. Although rare but peroneus brevis tendon attrition and tear can occur without subluxation from peronal groove. Refractory ankle pain on lateral aspect presenting with on and off swelling should arise suspicion of peroneal tendon tear. Correct diagnosis and proper surgical repair can produce excellent results.

  18. Meniscal Repair with Concurrent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Operative Success and Patient Outcomes at 6-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, RW; Wright, RW; Huston, LJ; Wolf, BR

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meniscus repairs are commonly performed concurrently with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the acutely injured knee. No large-scale, prospective, multicenter studies have evaluated long-term success and patient-oriented outcomes after combined ACLR and meniscus repair. PURPOSE To define operative success and patient-oriented outcome scores 6 years after combined meniscus repair and ACLR. STUDY DESIGN Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS All ipsilateral primary ACLR and meniscus repair cases from a multicenter study group between 2002 and 2004 were selected. Validated patient-oriented outcome instruments were completed at 3 time points: preoperatively, 2 years and 6 years following the index procedure. Subsequent ipsilateral knee re-operation was confirmed by operative reports to evaluate for failure of meniscal repairs. RESULTS In total, 286 patients of 1440 primary ACLR’s underwent concurrent meniscus repair (298 meniscal repairs). 235/286 (82.2%) were available for follow-up at 6 years (154 medial, 72 lateral and 9 both lateral and medial meniscal repairs). Repaired menisci most commonly involved the peripheral 1/3 of the meniscus (84%); patterns were typically longitudinal (84%) or displaced bucket-handle (10%), with mean length of 16.5 ±5.8mm. Overall, the meniscal repair failure rate was 14% (medial, 21/154; lateral, 10/72; both 2/9) at 6 years. Medial repairs failed earlier than lateral repairs (2.1 versus 3.7 years; p=0.01). Significant improvements in outcome instruments were sustained at 6-year follow-up. No differences in suture number or type were detected between repair failures and successes. Meniscal reoperation was higher in patients who underwent repair compared to those who did have an identified meniscal injury at the time of ACLR (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Concurrent meniscal repair with ACLR is associated with failure rates approximating 14% at 6-year follow-up. Improvements in patient-oriented outcome

  19. No prosthetic management of massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Raffaele; Cesari, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    A massive rotator cuff tear is not necessarily irreparable. Number of tendons involved, muscle-tendon unit quality, and decreased acromionhumeral distance (AHD) are as important as tear size in determining reparability of lesion. Massive and irreparable rotator cuff tears cannot be anatomically repaired to the bone and are a common source of pain and disability even in middle-aged patients. In these patients when conservative management has failed, it is possible to perform different surgical techniques. A functional repair can help to restore the horizontal force couple of the cuff on the humeral head and to increase the AHD. Debridement of irreparable tears and biceps tenotomy or tenodesis can have a role in low functional demand patients but results deteriorate over time. Recently, several commercially available tissue-engineered biological and synthetic scaffolds have been developed to augment rotator cuff repairs. The aim is to provide a mechanical improvement in case of poor quality tissue at time zero and give a support to have a better cuff healing. In selected cases, the scaffold can be used also to bridge tendon defect. Patients who not have pseudoparalysis, cuff tear arthropathy and with intact deltoid function can benefit from tendon transfers with satisfactory outcomes. These different procedures should be chosen for each patient with selected criteria and after a satisfactory explanation about the really possible expectation after surgery. PMID:27582930

  20. Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?

    PubMed

    Watson, Scott; Allen, Benjamin; Robbins, Chris; Bedi, Asheesh; Gagnier, Joel J; Miller, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    Limited literature exists regarding the influence of rotator cuff tear morphology on patient outcomes. To determine the effect of rotator cuff tear pattern (crescent, U-shape, L-shape) on patient-reported outcomes after rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of known full-thickness rotator cuff tears were observed prospectively at regular intervals from baseline to 1 year. The tear pattern was classified at the time of surgery as crescent, U-shaped, or L-shaped. Primary outcome measures were the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The tear pattern was evaluated as the primary predictor while controlling for variables known to affect rotator cuff outcomes. Mixed-methods regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the effects of tear morphology on patient-reported outcomes after surgical repair from baseline to 1 year. A total of 82 patients were included in the study (53 male, 29 female; mean age, 58 years [range, 41-75 years]). A crescent shape was the most common tear pattern (54%), followed by U-shaped (25%) and L-shaped tears (21%). There were no significant differences in outcome scores between the 3 groups at baseline. All 3 groups showed statistically significant improvement from baseline to 1 year, but analysis failed to show any predictive effect in the change in outcome scores from baseline to 1 year for the WORC, ASES, or VAS when tear pattern was the primary predictor. Further ANOVA also failed to show any significant difference in the change in outcome scores from baseline to 1 year for the WORC ( P = .96), ASES ( P = .71), or VAS ( P = .86). Rotator cuff tear pattern is not a predictor of functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  1. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  2. Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach

    PubMed Central

    Sambandam, Senthil Nathan; Khanna, Vishesh; Gul, Arif; Mounasamy, Varatharaj

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rotator cuff (RC) are a common occurrence affecting millions of people across all parts of the globe. RC tears are also rampantly prevalent with an age-dependent increase in numbers. Other associated factors include a history of trauma, limb dominance, contralateral shoulder, smoking-status, hypercholesterolemia, posture and occupational dispositions. The challenge lies in early diagnosis since a high proportion of patients are asymptomatic. Pain and decreasing shoulder power and function should alert the heedful practitioner in recognizing promptly the onset or aggravation of existing RC tears. Partial-thickness tears (PTT) can be bursal-sided or articular-sided tears. Over the course of time, PTT enlarge and propagate into full-thickness tears (FTT) and develop distinct chronic pathological changes due to muscle retraction, fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy. These lead to a reduction in tendon elasticity and viability. Eventually, the glenohumeral joint experiences a series of degenerative alterations - cuff tear arthropathy. To avert this, a vigilant clinician must utilize and corroborate clinical skill and radiological findings to identify tear progression. Modern radio-diagnostic means of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide excellent visualization of structural details and are crucial in determining further course of action for these patients. Physical therapy along with activity modifications, anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications form the pillars of nonoperative treatment. Elderly patients with minimal functional demands can be managed conservatively and reassessed at frequent intervals. Regular monitoring helps in isolating patients who require surgical interventions. Early surgery should be considered in younger, active and symptomatic, healthy patients. In addition to being cost-effective, this helps in providing a functional shoulder with a stable cuff. An easily reproducible technique of maximal strength and

  3. Translation and Validation of the Dutch Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Robert J P; Heemskerk, Bastiaan T J; van Arkel, Ewoud R A; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Thomassen, Bregje J W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) into Dutch, to evaluate the content validity, construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness, and to determine the minimal important change (MIC) of the Dutch version. The WOMET was translated into Dutch according to a standardized forward-backward translation protocol. A total of 86 patients (51 males, 35 females, median age 52 years [interquartile range, 43-60 years]) with isolated meniscal pathology were included. The WOMET was completed three times; at baseline, around 2 weeks, and after 3 months from the baseline. Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form, short-form 36, and an anchor question were also answered. There were good results for content validity (floor and ceiling effects [< 15%]), construct validity (79% of the predefined hypotheses were confirmed), internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.87, 0.79, and 0.86 for each subscale score), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.78 for total WOMET score), and responsiveness (79% of the predefined hypotheses were confirmed). The smallest detectable change and MIC for the Dutch WOMET are 20.5 and 14.7, respectively. The Dutch version of the WOMET is valid and reliable for assessing health-related quality of life in patients with meniscal pathology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Effect of repair of radial tears at the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with the pullout suture technique: a biomechanical study using porcine knees.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Hee; Li, Guoan; Shetty, Gautam M; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Jo, Myoung-Lae; Kim, Jung-Sung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Nha, Kyung-Wook

    2009-11-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the result of radial tears at the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) in terms of tibiofemoral contact mechanics and the effectiveness of pullout sutures for such tears. Eleven mature pig knees each underwent 15 different testing conditions with an intact, simulated (incised) radial tear at the root of the PHMM and placement of pullout sutures in the radial tears of the medial meniscus at 5 different angles of flexion (0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees ) under a 1,500-N axial load. A K-Scan pressure sensor (Tekscan, Boston, MA) was used to measure medial tibiofemoral contact area and peak tibiofemoral contact pressure. Data were analyzed to assess the difference in medial contact area and tibiofemoral peak contact pressure among the 3 meniscal conditions at various degrees of knee flexion. The mean contact area was significantly lower, and the peak tibiofemoral contact pressure was significantly high in knees with simulated radial tears at all angles of knee flexion compared with knees with intact menisci (P < .0001). The peak tibiofemoral contact pressure after the pullout suture technique was significantly high at 0 degrees and 15 degrees of flexion (P < .0001) compared with intact knee specimens. Failure of sutures occurred in 45% of the specimens at 0 degrees of flexion. Radial tears at the root of the PHMM in a porcine model significantly increased medial tibiofemoral contact pressure and decreased contact area. Although repair of tears of the PHMM with the pullout suture technique aids in significantly reducing tibiofemoral peak contact pressure between 30 degrees and 90 degrees , it remains significantly high at 0 degrees and 15 degrees of flexion. Pullout sutures for radial tears at the root of the PHMM may lead to an increase in peak medial tibiofemoral contact pressure and may be prone to mechanical failure, especially during the stance (loading) phase of gait (mean, 15 degrees

  5. Human tear serotonin levels correlate with symptoms and signs of dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Chhadva, Priyanka; Lee, Tinthu; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Hackam, Abigail S.; McClellan, Allison L.; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Levitt, Roy C.; Galor, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Serotonin, a neurotransmitter known to be involved in nociceptor sensitization, is present in human tears. The purpose of this study was to correlate tear serotonin levels, as a marker of nociceptor sensitization, to facets of dry eye (DE) including symptoms and signs. Design Cross-sectional study Participants Sixty-two patients with normal eyelid and corneal anatomy were prospectively recruited from a Veterans Administration Ophthalmology Clinic over 11 months. Methods DE symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI]), signs (tear break-up time [TBUT], corneal staining, and Schirmer’s score), and clinical descriptors of neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) (sensitivity to light and/or sensitivity to wind) were assessed. For tear analysis, each patient’s tears were collected after instilling 50µl of sterile saline to the lower cul-de-sac of each eye and using capillary action microcaps to collect the ocular wash. Tear serotonin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Main Outcomes Measured Correlations between tear serotonin concentrations and DE symptoms and signs. Results The mean age of the population was 61±14 years and 84% (n=52) of the patients were male. Serotonin concentrations negatively correlated with Schirmer’s scores (r=−0.28; p=0.02), but did not correlate with other DE parameters, such as OSDI scores, sensitivity to light or wind, TBUT, or staining. According to our hypothesis, we divided patients into groups based on both DE symptoms and aqueous tear production; serotonin concentrations were found to be significantly higher in DE group 1 (OSDI≥6 and Schirmer’s<8) compared to both DE group 2 (OSDI≥6 and Schirmer’s≥8) and controls (OSDI<6 and Schirmer’s≥8). Patients in the DE group 2 more frequently complained of sensitivity to light (64%) and wind (67%) compared to the DE group 1 (40% and 60%, respectively) and controls (8% and 17%, respectively). Conclusion Patients with DE symptoms and aqueous tear

  6. A comparison of basal and eye-flush tears for the analysis of cat tear proteins.

    PubMed

    Petznick, Andrea; Evans, Margaret D M; Madigan, Michele C; Markoulli, Maria; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F

    2011-02-01

    To identify a rapid and effective tear collection method providing sufficient tear volume and total protein content (TPC) for analysis of individual proteins in cats. Domestic adult short-haired cats (12-37 months; 2.7-6.6 kg) were used in the study. Basal tears without stimulation and eye-flush tears after instillation of saline (10 μl) were collected using microcapillary tubes from animal eyes either unwounded control or wounded with 9-mm central epithelial debridement giving four groups with n = 3. Tear comparisons were based on total time and rate for tear collection, TPC using micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA), tear immunoglobulin A (IgA), total matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMP-9 activity. Eye-flush tears were collected significantly faster than basal tears in wounded eyes with higher rates for tear collection in unwounded control and wounded eyes. TPC was significantly lower in eye-flush tears compared to basal tears. The relative proportion of tear IgA normalized to TPC (% IgA of TPC) was not significantly different between basal and eye-flush tears. In unwounded control eyes, MMP-9 was slightly higher in eye-flush than in basal tears; activity of MMP-9 in both tear types was similar. In wounded eyes, eye-flush tears showed highest MMP-9 levels and activity on Day 1, which subsequently decreased to Day 7. MMP-9 activity in basal tears from wounded eyes did not display changes in expression. Eye-flush tears can be collected rapidly providing sufficient tear volume and TPC. This study also indicates that eye-flush tears may be more suitable than basal tears for the analysis of MMPs following corneal wounding. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  7. Comparison of osmotic swelling influences on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue mechanics in compression and shear.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An M; Levenston, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of the circumferential collagen bundles to the anisotropic tensile stiffness of meniscal tissue has been well described, the implications of interactions between tissue components for other mechanical properties have not been as widely examined. This study compared the effects of the proteoglycan-associated osmotic swelling stress on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage (AC) mechanics by manipulating the osmotic environment and tissue compressive offset. Cylindrical samples were obtained from the menisci and AC of bovine stifles, equilibrated in phosphate-buffered saline solutions ranging from 0.1× to 10×, and tested in oscillatory torsional shear and unconfined compression. Biochemical analysis indicated that treatments and testing did not substantially alter tissue composition. Mechanical testing revealed tissue-specific responses to both increasing compressive offset and decreasing bath salinity. Most notably, reduced salinity dramatically increased the shear modulus of both axially and circumferentially oriented meniscal tissue explants to a much greater extent than for cartilage samples. Combined with previous studies, these findings suggest that meniscal proteoglycans have a distinct structural role, stabilizing, and stiffening the matrix surrounding the primary circumferential collagen bundles. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  8. Achilles Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  9. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the nose (lacrimal sac). From there tears travel down a duct (the nasolacrimal duct) draining into your nose. Once in the nose, tears are reabsorbed. A blockage can occur at any point in the tear drainage system, from the puncta ...

  10. Rotator cuff crepitus: could Codman really feel a cuff tear?

    PubMed

    Ponce, Brent A; Kundukulam, Joseph A; Sheppard, Evan D; Determann, Jason R; McGwin, Gerald; Narducci, Carl A; Crowther, Marshall J

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of palpating crepitus to diagnose rotator cuff tears. Seventy consecutive consenting patients who presented with shoulder pain and no previous imaging or surgery on the affected shoulder were prospectively enrolled during a 10-month period. A standardized patient history and examination, including the crepitus test, were recorded in addition to obtaining standard radiographs. Additional imaging after initial evaluation was performed with magnetic resonance imaging and interpreted by a musculoskeletal radiologist blinded to the examination findings. Statistical analysis was used to determine sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the crepitus test in the clinical diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear. Sixty-three patients had histories, examinations, and imaging studies available for analysis. The crepitus test had a sensitivity of 67%, specificity of 80%, PPV of 91%, and NPV of 43% for all types of rotator cuff tears. The sensitivity and specificity for full-thickness or high-grade partial tears was 82% and 73%, respectively; the PPV and NPV were 77% and 79%. Increasing age improved accuracy as the presence of crepitus in patients older than 55 years had a sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 38%. The crepitus test has a favorable sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV to assess the integrity of the rotator cuff and may be a useful examination in the clinical diagnosis of a rotator cuff tear. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Special Tests for Rotator Cuff Tear: The ROW Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Luz, Jennifer; Higgins, Laurence D.; Dong, Yan; Warner, Jon J.P.; Matzkin, Elizabeth; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to assess diagnostic accuracy of 15 shoulder special tests for rotator cuff tears. Design From 02/2011 to 12/2012, 208 participants with shoulder pain were recruited in a cohort study. Results Among tests for supraspinatus tears, Jobe’s test had a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI=80% to 96%), specificity of 62% (95% CI=53% to 71%), and likelihood ratio of 2.30 (95% CI=1.79 to 2.95). The full can test had a sensitivity of 70% (95% CI=59% to 82%) and a specificity of 81% (95% CI=74% to 88%). Among tests for infraspinatus tears, external rotation lag signs at 0° had a specificity of 98% (95% CI=96% to 100%) and a likelihood ratio of 6.06 (95% CI=1.30 to 28.33), and the Hornblower’s sign had a specificity of 96% (95% CI=93% to 100%) and likelihood ratio of 4.81 (95% CI=1.60 to 14.49). Conclusions Jobe’s test and full can test had high sensitivity and specificity for supraspinatus tears and Hornblower’s sign performed well for infraspinatus tears. In general, special tests described for subscapularis tears have high specificity but low sensitivity. These data can be used in clinical practice to diagnose rotator cuff tears and may reduce the reliance on expensive imaging. PMID:27386812

  12. Cartilage morphology at 2-3 years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with or without concomitant meniscal pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Fortin, Karine; Saxby, David J; Van Ginckel, Ans; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Grigg, Nicole; Vertullo, Christopher; Feller, Julian A; Whitehead, Tim; Lloyd, David G; Bryant, Adam L

    2017-02-01

    To examine differences in cartilage morphology between young adults 2-3 years post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), with or without meniscal pathology, and control participants. Knee MRI was performed on 130 participants aged 18-40 years (62 with isolated ACLR, 38 with combined ACLR and meniscal pathology, and 30 healthy controls). Cartilage defects, cartilage volume and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) were assessed from MRI using validated methods. Cartilage defects were more prevalent in the isolated ACLR (69 %) and combined group (84 %) than in controls (10 %, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the combined group showed higher prevalence of cartilage defects on medial femoral condyle (OR 4.7, 95 % CI 1.3-16.6) and patella (OR 7.8, 95 % CI 1.5-40.7) than the isolated ACLR group. Cartilage volume was lower in both ACLR groups compared with controls (medial tibia, lateral tibia and patella, P < 0.05), whilst prevalence of BMLs was higher on lateral tibia (P < 0.001), with no significant differences between the two ACLR groups for either measure. Cartilage morphology was worse in ACLR patients compared with healthy controls. ACLR patients with associated meniscal pathology have a higher prevalence of cartilage defects than ACLR patients without meniscal pathology. The findings suggest that concomitant meniscal pathology may lead to a greater risk of future OA than isolated ACLR. III.

  13. Evidence that dry eye is a comorbid pain condition in a U.S. veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charity J.; Levitt, Roy C.; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Galor, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that dry eye (DE) may be comorbid with other chronic pain conditions. Objectives: To evaluate DE as a comorbid condition in the U.S. veteran population. Methods: Retrospective review of veterans seen in the Veterans Administration Healthcare System (Veteran Affairs) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. Dry eye and nonocular pain disorders were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Dry eye was further separated into ICD-9 codes representing tear film dysfunction or ocular pain. χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine frequency and risk of DE, ocular pain, and tear film dysfunction by pain disorders. Results: Of 3,265,894 veterans, 959,881 had a DE diagnosis (29.4%). Dry eye frequency increased with the number of pain conditions reported (P < 0.0005). Ocular pain was most strongly associated with headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.95–3.01), tension headache (OR 2.64; 95% CI 2.58–2.71), migraine (OR 2.58; 95% CI 2.54–2.61), temporomandibular joint dysfunction (OR 2.39; 95% CI 2.34–2.44), pelvic pain (OR 2.30; 95% CI 2.24–2.37), central pain syndrome (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.94–2.60), and fibromyalgia/muscle pain (OR 2.23; 95% CI 2.20–2.26), all P < 0.0005. Tear film dysfunction was most closely associated with osteoarthritis (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.96–1.98) and postherpetic neuralgia (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.90–2.00), both P < 0.0005. Conclusions: Dry eye, including both ocular pain and tear film dysfunction, is comorbid with pain conditions in this nationwide population, implying common mechanisms. PMID:29392243

  14. Tear-Film Evaporation Rate from Simultaneous Ocular-Surface Temperature and Tear-Breakup Area.

    PubMed

    Dursch, Thomas J; Li, Wing; Taraz, Baseem; Lin, Meng C; Radke, Clayton J

    2018-01-01

    A corneal heat-transfer model is presented to quantify simultaneous measurements of fluorescein tear-breakup area (TBA) and ocular-surface temperature (OST). By accounting for disruption of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL), we report evaporation rates through lipid-covered tear. The modified heat-transfer model provides new insights into evaporative dry eye. A quantitative analysis is presented to assess human aqueous tear evaporation rate (TER) through intact TFLLs from simultaneous in vivo measurement of time-dependent infrared OST and fluorescein TBA. We interpret simultaneous OST and TBA measurements using an extended heat-transfer model. We hypothesize that TBAs are ineffectively insulated by the TFLL and therefore exhibit higher TER than does that for a well-insulting TFLL-covered tear. As time proceeds, TBAs increase in number and size, thereby increasing the cornea area-averaged TER and decreasing OST. Tear-breakup areas were assessed from image analysis of fluorescein tear-film-breakup video recordings and are included in the heat-transfer description of OST. Model-predicted OSTs agree well with clinical experiments. Percent reductions in TER of lipid-covered tear range from 50 to 95% of that for pure water, in good agreement with literature. The physical picture of noninsulating or ruptured TFLL spots followed by enhanced evaporation from underlying cooler tear-film ruptures is consistent with the evaporative-driven mechanism for local tear rupture. A quantitative analysis is presented of in vivo TER from simultaneous clinical measurement of transient OST and TBA. The new heat-transfer model accounts for increased TER through expanding TBAs. Tear evaporation rate varies strongly across the cornea because lipid is effectively missing over tear-rupture troughs. The result is local faster evaporation compared with nonruptured, thick lipid-covered tear. Evaporative-driven tear-film ruptures deepen to a thickness where fluorescein quenching commences and local

  15. Implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath enhances fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in a large harvest site defect.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kondo, Eiji; Katsura, Taro; Tanabe, Yoshie; Kimura, Masashi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2010-04-01

    Concerning meniscal tissue regeneration, many investigators have studied the development of a tissue-engineered meniscus. However, the utility still remains unknown. Implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath into the donor site meniscal defect may significantly enhance fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in the defect. Controlled laboratory study. Seventy-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In each animal, an anterior one-third of the right medial meniscus was resected. Then, the animals were divided into the following 3 groups of 25 rabbits each: In group 1, no treatment was applied to the meniscal defect. In group 2, the defect was covered with a fascia sheath. In group 3, after the resected meniscus was fragmented into small pieces, the fragments were grafted into the defect. Then, the defect with the meniscal fragments was covered with a fascia sheath. In each group, 5 rabbits were used for histological evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, and 5 rabbits were used for biomechanical evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. Histologically, large round cells in group 3 were scattered in the core portion of the meniscus-shaped tissue, and the matrix around these cells was positively stained by safranin O and toluisin blue at 12 weeks. The histological score of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 and group 2. Biomechanically, the maximal load and stiffness of group 3 were significantly greater than those of groups 1 and 2. This study clearly demonstrated that implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath into the donor site meniscal defect significantly enhanced fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in the defect at 12 weeks after implantation in the rabbit. This study proposed a novel strategy to treat a large defect after a meniscectomy.

  16. Does the Rotator Cuff Tear Pattern Influence Clinical Outcomes After Surgical Repair?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Scott; Allen, Benjamin; Robbins, Chris; Bedi, Asheesh; Gagnier, Joel J.; Miller, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Background: Limited literature exists regarding the influence of rotator cuff tear morphology on patient outcomes. Purpose: To determine the effect of rotator cuff tear pattern (crescent, U-shape, L-shape) on patient-reported outcomes after rotator cuff repair. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of known full-thickness rotator cuff tears were observed prospectively at regular intervals from baseline to 1 year. The tear pattern was classified at the time of surgery as crescent, U-shaped, or L-shaped. Primary outcome measures were the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The tear pattern was evaluated as the primary predictor while controlling for variables known to affect rotator cuff outcomes. Mixed-methods regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to examine the effects of tear morphology on patient-reported outcomes after surgical repair from baseline to 1 year. Results: A total of 82 patients were included in the study (53 male, 29 female; mean age, 58 years [range, 41-75 years]). A crescent shape was the most common tear pattern (54%), followed by U-shaped (25%) and L-shaped tears (21%). There were no significant differences in outcome scores between the 3 groups at baseline. All 3 groups showed statistically significant improvement from baseline to 1 year, but analysis failed to show any predictive effect in the change in outcome scores from baseline to 1 year for the WORC, ASES, or VAS when tear pattern was the primary predictor. Further ANOVA also failed to show any significant difference in the change in outcome scores from baseline to 1 year for the WORC (P = .96), ASES (P = .71), or VAS (P = .86). Conclusion: Rotator cuff tear pattern is not a predictor of functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:29623283

  17. Acetabular labral tears in patients with sports injury.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Cha, Soo-Min

    2009-12-01

    We wanted to investigate acetabular labral tears and their correlation with femoroacetabular impingement in patients with sports injury. Among 111 patients who were diagnosed with the acetabular labral tears after arthroscopic treatment from January 2004 to December 2007, we selected 41 patients with sports injury. There were 12 cases of Taekwondo injury, 5 of golf injury, 4 of soccer injury, 3 of gymnastics injury, 2 of Hapkido injury, 2 of aerobics injury, 2 of rock-climbing injury, 2 of fitness training injury and 9 of other sports injuries. We checked the subtypes of acetabular labral tears and the accompanying femoroacetabular impingement. For the cases with accompanying femoroacetabular impingement, we investigated the subtypes according to the types of sports, gender and age. At last follow-up, we checked the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) sports scale and the percentage of patients who returned to their sports activity. The average age of symptomatic onset was 26 years (range, 12 to 65 years). The ratio of males to females was 29 : 12. An average duration of the hip pain was 17 months (range, 1 to 60 months). The degenerative type of acetabular labral tears was the most prevalent with 32 cases (78%), and there were 9 cases (22%) of the partial tear type. Thirty cases (73%) were accompanied by femoroacetabular impingement. The average age of the 23 cases (56%) of the cam-type was 23 years (range, 12 to 48 years), and it was more likely to occur in men (87%) and for people practicing martial arts such as Taekwondo or Hapkido. An average age of the 5 cases (12%) of the pincer-type was 26 (range, 16 to 43 years), it usually occurred in women (60%) and for non-martial arts such as golf and gymnastics. There were 2 cases of the mixed type (cam + pincer-type). At 27 months follow-up, the HHS was 61 to 92 points, the HOS sports scale increased 43 to 75%, and the rate of returning to sports was 71%. In spite of the early expression of symptoms

  18. Intense focused ultrasound stimulation of the rotator cuff: evaluation of the source of pain in rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Gellhorn, Alfred C; Gillenwater, Cody; Mourad, Pierre D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of individual 0.1-s long pulses of intense focused ultrasound (iFU) emitted with a carrier frequency of 2 MHz to evoke diagnostic sensations when applied to patients whose shoulders have rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy. Patients were adults with painful shoulders and clinical and imaging findings consistent with rotator cuff disease. iFU stimulation of the shoulder was performed using B-mode ultrasound coupled with a focused ultrasound transducer that allowed image-guided delivery of precisely localized pulses of energy to different anatomic areas around the rotator cuff. The main outcome measure was iFU spatial average-temporal average intensity (I_SATA), and location required to elicit sensation. In control patients, iFU produced no sensation throughout the range of stimulation intensities (≤2000 W/cm(2) I_SATA). In patients with rotator cuff disease, iFU was able to induce sensation in the tendons of the rotator cuff, the subacromial bursa, and the subchondral bone in patients with chronic shoulder pain and rotator cuff disease, with an average ± standard deviation intensity equaling 680 ± 281 W/cm(2) I_SATA. This result suggests a primary role for these tissues in the pathogenesis of shoulder pain related to rotator cuff tendinopathy. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma.

    PubMed

    Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  20. Outcome Comparison Between in Situ Repair Versus Tear Completion Repair for Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Bae, Sung-Ho; Jin, Hyonki; Song, Hyun Seok

    2015-11-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of arthroscopic in situ repair with the tear completion repair technique for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PT-RCTs). We prospectively enrolled 100 cases with articular-sided and bursal-sided PT-RCTs exceeding 50% of tendon thickness and allocated them randomly. An in situ repair was performed in group 1 (n = 50). Completion of the remaining cuff tissue and repair were performed in group 2 (n = 50). The medial row was knotted as transosseous repair (suture-bridge technique) in all cases. American Shoulder Elbow Society (ASES) score, Constant shoulder (CS) score, Simple shoulder (SS) score, and Korean shoulder (KS) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and range of motion were assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months and at the last visit. Repaired tendon integrity was determined at 6 to 12 months by magnetic resonance imaging. Eight cases were lost to follow-up. Ultimately, 92 cases were analyzed. The average follow-up was 19.1 months (range, 12 to 42 months). Significant improvements in the VAS for pain and functional outcomes were observed in both groups postoperatively (P = .001 for VAS; P < .001 for ASES score; P < .001 for CS score; P = .001 for SS score; P<.001 for KS score). No significant difference in the clinical results was observed at any time between the groups. No difference of retear rate on articular-sided PT-RCT was observed between the groups (P = .34). Retears on the bursal-sided PT-RCT were more frequent in group 2 (P = .02). Arthroscopic repair of PT-RCT exceeding 50% of the thickness provided functional improvements and pain relief regardless of the repair technique. The retear rate for bursal-sided PT-RCT was higher in group 2, although the retear rate for the articular-sided PT-RCT was not different. Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arthroscopic Assessment and Treatment of Dancers' Knee Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Daniel M.; Campbell, Pat

    1985-01-01

    Arthroscopic examination of 16 dancers with dance-related knee injuries which defied conservative treatment showed 15 meniscal tears and 4 cases of chondromalacia patellae. Partial arthroscopic meniscectomy was used to treat the tears. The results were excellent, with 13 of the 16 returning to preoperative levels of dance activity. (MT)

  2. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem/progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing, meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...changes that occur after injury. As a result, meniscal injuries are a common underlying cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis . This is particularly

  3. Divalent cations in tears, and their influence on tear film stability in humans and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojia Eric; Markoulli, Maria; Millar, Thomas J; Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun

    2012-06-05

    Reduced tear film stability is reported to contribute to dry eye. Rabbits are known to have a more stable tear film than humans. Thus, we sought to examine the tears of rabbits and humans for metal cations, and to test how they influence tear film stability. Tears were collected from 10 healthy humans and 6 rabbits. Tear osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometer, and metals analyzed using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry or ICP atomic emission spectroscopy. The influence of divalent cations on tears was analyzed by measuring surface tension using the Langmuir trough in vitro, using different concentrations of cations in the subphase, and grading the tear break-up in rabbits in vivo after instillation of chelating agents. Rabbit tears had a higher osmolality compared to humans. Major metals did not differ between species; however, rabbits had higher levels of Mg(2+) (1.13 vs. 0.39 mM) and Ca(2+) (0.75 vs. 0.36 mM). In rabbit tears in vitro, diminishing divalent cations resulted in a decrease in the maximum surface pressure from 37 to 30 mN/m. In vivo, an increase in the amount of tear film that was broken-up was found. In contrast, when changing divalent cation concentrations in human tears, the maximum surface pressure remained at 26 mN/m. The normal osmolality of rabbit tears is significantly higher than that in humans. While divalent cations had little influence on human tears, they appear to have an important role in maintaining tear film stability in rabbits.

  4. Radial tears associated with cleavage tears of the medial meniscus in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Amos; Thein, Rafael

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the significance of a small radial tear in the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in an otherwise normal-looking meniscus in individuals who play vigorous sports. Retrospective review. Arthroscopy was performed in 1,270 patients; 11 patients (0.86%) had a small radial tear in the root of the medial meniscus. Trimming of the tear revealed a large horizontal cleavage tear of the posterior horn and body of the meniscus. The average age of the affected patients was 29.6 years (range, 21 to 45 years), and all were active in sports. Magnetic resonance imaging was of dubious diagnostic value. Three patients had undergone previous arthroscopy at which time the small radial root tear had been noted but was not thought to warrant treatment. All 11 patients returned to their former levels of activity after adequate surgery. When a radial root tear in the medial meniscus is found in an athletic patient, the edges of the tear should be trimmed, the root of the medial meniscus examined, and any additional torn cartilage resected.

  5. Partial repair in irreparable rotator cuff tear: our experience in long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, E D; Di Benedetto, Paolo; Fiocchi, Andrea; Beltrame, Alessandro; Causero, Araldo

    2017-10-18

    Massive rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and dysfunction, especially in middle age patient; these lesions represent about 20% of all rotator cuff tears and 80% of recurrent tears. Some lesions are not repairable or should not be repaired: in this case, a rotator cuff partial repair should be recommended. The aim of the study is to evaluate the outcome of rotator cuff partial repair in irreparable rotator cuff massive tear at medium and long-term follow-up. We have evaluated 74 consecutive patients treated with functional repair of rotator cuff by the same surgeon between 2006 and 2014. We divided patients into 2 groups, obtaining 2 average follow-up: at about 6,5 (group A) and 3 years (group B). In December 2015, we evaluated in every patient ROM and Constant Score. We analyzed difference between pre-operatory data and the 2 groups.  Results: We found statistical significant difference in ROM and in Constant Score between pre-operatory data and group A and group B. Between group A and group B there is relevant difference in Constant Score but not in ROM. Partial repair can give good results in a medium follow-up, in terms of pain relief and improvement of ROM, as well as in quality of life. Difference in ROM and Constant Score between group A and group B may indicate the begin of partial repair failure; according to our data, 6-7 years may be the time limit for this surgery technique.

  6. Sleep disturbance associated with rotator cuff tear: correction with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Austin, Luke; Pepe, Matthew; Tucker, Bradford; Ong, Alvin; Nugent, Robert; Eck, Brandon; Tjoumakaris, Fotios

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common complaint of patients with a rotator cuff tear. Inadequate and restless sleep, along with pain, is often a driving symptom for patients to proceed with rotator cuff repair. To date, no studies have examined sleep disturbance in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair, and there is no evidence that surgery improves sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance is prevalent in patients with a symptomatic rotator cuff tear, and sleep disturbance improves after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 56 patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for full-thickness tears were enrolled in a prospective study. Patients were surveyed preoperatively and postoperatively at intervals of 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks. Patient outcomes were scored using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale for pain (VAS), and single assessment numeric evaluation (SANE). Demographic and surgical factors were also collected for analysis. Preoperative PSQI scores indicative of sleep disturbance were reported in 89% of patients. After surgery, a statistically significant improvement in PSQI was achieved at 3 months (P = .0012; 91% follow-up) and continued through 6 months (P = .0179; 93% follow-up). Six months after surgery, only 38% of patients continued to have sleep disturbance. Multivariable linear regression of all surgical and demographic factors versus PSQI was performed and demonstrated that preoperative and prolonged postoperative narcotic use negatively affected sleep. Sleep disturbance is common in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair. After surgery, sleep disturbance improves to levels comparable with those of the general public. Preoperative and prolonged postoperative use of narcotic pain medication negatively affects sleep. © 2015 The Author(s).

  7. Risk Factors for Tear Progression in Symptomatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Prospective Study of 174 Shoulders.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Kawakami, Jun; Sano, Hirotaka; Itoi, Eiji

    2017-09-01

    The risk factors for tear progression in symptomatic rotator cuff tears have not been clarified yet. It is important for orthopaedic surgeons to know the natural course of tear progression when nonoperative management is to be chosen. Tears in younger patients, high-activity patients, or heavy laborers would progress in size more than those in older patients, low-activity patients, or light laborers. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears visited our institute between 2009 and 2015. Of these, 174 shoulders of 171 patients (mean age, 66.9 years) who underwent at least 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were prospectively enrolled. The mean follow-up was 19 months. Tear progression was defined as positive when the tear size increased by ≥2 mm. The demographic factors that were analyzed by multivariate analysis included age, sex, hand dominance, smoking, alcohol drinking, hypercholesterolemia, sports participation, job type, tear size, and tear type (full or partial thickness). Of the 174 shoulders, 82 shoulders (47%) showed tear progression. The mean (±SD) tear length and width in the progression group on final MRI were 23.1 ± 12.5 mm and 17.3 ± 9.6 mm, respectively; the tear size progressed by a mean 5.8 ± 5.6 mm in length and 3.1 ± 5.2 mm in width. The mean propagation speed was 3.8 mm/y in length and 2.0 mm/y in width. The size of full-thickness tears significantly increased compared with that of articular-sided partial-thickness tears ( P = .0215). The size of medium tears significantly increased compared with that of other tears ( P < .0001). According to the logistic regression analysis, smoking was significantly correlated with tear progression ( P = .026). Subgroup analyses showed that male sex, hand dominance, and trauma were correlated with tear progression. Age, alcohol drinking, hypercholesterolemia, sports participation, and job type did not show any

  8. Tensile strength of the pullout repair technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear: a porcine study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masataka; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Xue, Haowei; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Kodama, Yuya; Hino, Tomohito; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the load-to-failure of different common suturing techniques with a new technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thirty porcine medial menisci were randomly assigned to three suturing techniques used for transtibial pullout repair of the MMPRT (n = 10 per group). Three different meniscal suture configurations were studied: the two simple suture (TSS) technique, the conventional modified Mason-Allen suture (MMA) technique, and the new MMA technique using the FasT-Fix combined with the Ultrabraid (F-MMA). The ultimate failure load was tested using a tensile testing machine. The MMA and F-MMA groups demonstrated significantly higher failure loads than the TSS group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0005, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the MMA and F-MMA groups (P = 0.734). The ultimate failure load was significantly greater in the F-MMA than the TSS group and similar to the conventional MMA technique.

  9. The reverse Segond fracture: not associated with knee dislocation and rarely with posterior cruciate ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Erno K; Lindahl, Jan; Koskinen, Seppo K

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the incidence of reverse Segond fracture, to examine the associated ligamentous injuries, and to examine how often reverse Segond fracture coexists with a knee dislocation. At a level 1 trauma center, an 11-year period of emergency department multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) examinations for knee trauma was evaluated for reverse Segond and Segond fractures. Surgical findings served as the reference standard for intra-articular injuries. The hospital discharge register was searched for the diagnosis of knee dislocation from August 2000 through the end of August 2011. A total of 1,553 knee MDCT examinations were evaluated. Ten patients with a reverse Segond fracture were found, comprising 0.64 % of emergency room acute knee trauma MDCT examinations. Seven patients who had a reverse Segond fracture were operated: Three had an avulsion fracture of the anterior cruciate ligament, one had an avulsion fracture of posterior cruciate ligament, two had a lateral meniscal tear, and two had a medial collateral ligament tear. The ratio of reverse Segond fractures to Segond fractures was 1:4. None of the 71 knee dislocation patients had a reverse Segond fracture. Reverse Segond fracture is a rare finding even in a level 1 trauma center. Cruciate ligament injuries appear to be associated with avulsion fracture, but every patient does not have PCL injury, as previously reported. Our results do not support the association of knee dislocation with reverse Segond fracture.

  10. Progression of cartilage damage and meniscal pathology over 30 months is associated with an increase in radiographic tibiofemoral joint space narrowing in persons with knee OA--the MOST study.

    PubMed

    Crema, M D; Nevitt, M C; Guermazi, A; Felson, D T; Wang, K; Lynch, J A; Marra, M D; Torner, J; Lewis, C E; Roemer, F W

    2014-10-01

    To determine the association of MRI-assessed worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage, meniscal damage, meniscal extrusion, separately and together, with progression of radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN). The Multicenter Osteoarthitis Study (MOST) Study is a cohort study of subjects with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Knees with radiographic OA Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 at baseline and with baseline and 30-month 1.0 T MRIs were selected for reading using the WORMS system for cartilage damage, meniscal damage, and meniscal extrusion. The association of worsening of cartilage damage, meniscal damage, and/or meniscal extrusion with increases in the JSN was performed using logistic regression. A total of 276 knees (one per subject) were included (women 68.5%, mean age 62.9 ± 7.8, mean body mass index (BMI) 30.2 ± 5.0). Worsening of each MRI feature was associated with any increase in JSN (P < 0.01). Worsening of cartilage damage was more frequently observed than worsening of meniscal damage and extrusion, and was significantly associated with both slow and fast progression of JSN. An increasing risk of JSN worsening was associated with increasing number of worsening MRI features (P for trend < 0.0001). Worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage, meniscal damage, and meniscal extrusion are independent predictors of JSN progression in the same compartment. Worsening of cartilage damage is more frequently observed in JSN when compared to meniscal worsening. A strong cumulative effect on JSN progression is observed for worsening of more than one MRI feature. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hidden lesions of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus: a systematic arthroscopic exploration of the concealed portion of the knee.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Conteduca, Jacopo; Thaunat, Mathieu; Gunepin, François Xavier; Seil, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are frequently associated with meniscal lesions. Despite improvements in meniscal repair techniques, failure rates remain significant, especially for the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. To determine whether a systematic arthroscopic exploration of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with an additional posteromedial portal is useful to identify otherwise unrecognized lesions. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In a consecutive series of 302 ACL reconstructions, a systematic arthroscopic exploration of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was performed. The first stage of the exploration was achieved through anterior visualization via a standard anterolateral portal. In the second stage, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was visualized posteriorly via the anterolateral portal with the scope positioned deep in the notch. In the third stage, the posterior horn was probed through an additional posteromedial portal. A χ2 test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine if the time from injury to surgery was associated with the meniscal tear pattern. A medial meniscal tear was diagnosed in 125 of the 302 patients (41.4%). Seventy-five lesions (60%) located in the meniscal body were diagnosed at the first stage of the arthroscopic exploration. Fifty lesions located in the ramp area were diagnosed: 29 (23.2%) at the second stage and 21 lesions (16.8%) at the third stage after minimal debridement of the superficial soft tissue layer. The latter type of lesion is called a "hidden lesion." Altogether, the prevalence of ramp lesions in this population was 40%. Meniscal body lesions (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-5.18; P < .02) were found to be significantly correlated with a longer delay between injury and surgery. Posterior visualization and posteromedial probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can help in discovering a higher rate of lesions that could be easily

  12. Rehabilitation after a grade III latissimus dorsi tear of a soccer player: A case report.

    PubMed

    Fysentzou, Christodoulos

    2016-11-21

    Latissimus dorsi, grade III tendon tears are an uncommon injury. There are very few cases reported in the literature, but most importantly, no cases could be found that relate to soccer. To present a successful, non-operative rehabilitation program for a professional athlete, after a grade III latissimus dorsi tear. A 37 year old healthy, elite professional soccer goalkeeper was injured during a championship game. The athlete fell on his left side with an outstretched and externally rotated upper extremity in order to catch a ball that was going very close to the left pole of his goal-post. After on-field and off-field clinical examinations, the diagnosis was a left latissimus dorsi tendon tear which was later confirmed by MRI as a grade III tear. During the first two weeks, intervention consisted of anti-inflammatory treatment and light therapeutic exercises. As the pain was subsiding and the strength was returning, the treatment shifted to purely strengthening and functional training. Four weeks after the injury, the athlete presented with pain 0/10 in all functional activities and full ROM in both active and passive movements. Before discharge, the athlete underwent a sport specific training program, without any complains, that cleared him to participate in normal training with the rest of the team. Three months after the injury the strength of the player's left shoulder was 5/5 in all movements. The protocol used yielded an accelerated return to sport (soccer) and function compared with other published research after a grade III latissimus dorsi tendon tear. One year later, the goalkeeper was still playing in the same competitive level without any re-injuries or complains, which means that this treatment protocol withstood the test of time.

  13. [Rotator cuff tear athropathy prevalence].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Soriano, F; Encalada-Díaz, M I; Ruiz-Suárez, M; Valero-González, F S

    2017-01-01

    Glenohumeral arthritis secondary to massive rotator cuff tear presents with a superior displacement and femoralization of the humeral head with coracoacromial arch acetabularization. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of rotator cuff tear artropathy (CTA) at our institution. Four hundred electronic records were reviewed from which we identified 136 patients with rotator cuff tears. A second group was composed with patients with massive cuff tears that were analized and staged by the Seebauer cuff tear arthropathy classification. Thirty four patients with massive rotator cuff tears were identified, 8 male and 26 female (age 60.1 ± 10.26 years). Massive rotator cuff tear prevalence was 25%. CTA prevalence found in the rotator cuff group was 19 and 76% in the massive cuff tears group. Patients were staged according to the classification with 32% in stage 1a, 11% 1b, 32% 2a and 0% 2b. CTA prevalence in patients with rotator cuff tears and massive cuff tears is higher than the one reported in American population. We consider that a revision of the Seebauer classification to be appropriate to determine its reliability.

  14. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  15. Non-operative management of medial meniscus posterior horn root tears is associated with worsening arthritis and poor clinical outcome at 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Krych, Aaron J; Reardon, Patrick J; Johnson, Nick R; Mohan, Rohith; Peter, Logan; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) are a significant source of pain and dysfunction, but little is known about the natural history and outcome and for non-operative management of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of non-operative treatment of MMPRTs and (2) risk factors for worse outcomes. A retrospective review was performed for patients with symptomatic, unrepaired MMPRTs and a minimum 2-year follow-up for IKDC and Tegner outcome scores. Baseline and final radiographs were reviewed and graded according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores. Baseline MRIs were reviewed for the presence of meniscal extrusion, subchondral oedema, and insufficiency fractures. Failure was defined as conversion to arthroplasty or severely abnormal patient subjective IKDC score. Fifty-two patients (21M:31F) with a mean age of 58 ± 10 years were diagnosed with symptomatic MMPRTs clinically and confirmed by MRI and followed for a mean of 62 ± 30 months. Sixteen patients (31 %) underwent total knee arthroplasty at a mean of 30 ± 32 months after diagnosis with higher Kellgren-Lawrence grades associated with increased rates of arthroplasty (p = 0.01). Mean IKDC scores for the remaining patients were 61.2 ± 21 with significantly lower scores in females compared to males (75 ± 12 vs. 49 ± 20; p = 0.03). Mean Kellgren-Lawrence grades and rates of arthritis progressed over time on radiographs (1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 2.4 ± 1.0; p < 0.001 and 78 % vs. 51 %; p = 0.01). Overall, 87 % of patients failed non-operative treatment. Non-operative treatment of medial meniscus posterior horn root tears is associated with poor clinical outcome, worsening arthritis, and a relatively high rate of arthroplasty at 5-year follow-up. Female gender was associated with lower subjective scores and higher rate of arthroplasty. The current study provides a natural history benchmark for clinical outcomes that can be

  16. Malnutrition is independently associated with skin tears in hospital inpatient setting-Findings of a 6-year point prevalence audit.

    PubMed

    Munro, Emma L; Hickling, Donna F; Williams, Damian M; Bell, Jack J

    2018-05-24

    Skin tears cause pain, increased length of stay, increased costs, and reduced quality of life. Minimal research reports the association between skin tears, and malnutrition using robust measures of nutritional status. This study aimed to articulate the association between malnutrition and skin tears in hospital inpatients using a yearly point prevalence of inpatients included in the Queensland Patient Safety Bedside Audit, malnutrition audits and skin tear audits conducted at a metropolitan tertiary hospital between 2010 and 2015. Patients were excluded if admitted to mental health wards or were <18 years. A total of 2197 inpatients were included, with a median age of 71 years. The overall prevalence of skin tears was 8.1%. Malnutrition prevalence was 33.5%. Univariate analysis demonstrated associations between age (P ˂ .001), body mass index (BMI) (P < .001) and malnutrition (P ˂ .001) but not gender (P = .319). Binomial logistic regression analysis modelling demonstrated that malnutrition diagnosed using the Subjective Global Assessment was independently associated with skin tear incidence (odds ratio, OR: 1.63; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.13-2.36) and multiple skin tears (OR 2.48 [95% CI 1.37-4.50]). BMI was not independently associated with skin tears or multiple skin tears. This study demonstrated independent associations between malnutrition and skin tear prevalence and multiple skin tears. It also demonstrated the limitations of BMI as a nutritional assessment measure. © 2018 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Conventional En Masse Repair Versus Separate Double-Layer Double-Row Repair for the Treatment of Delaminated Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jin, Hong-Ki; Kim, Sung-Eun; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2016-05-01

    The rotator cuff tendon is known to exert a shear force between the superficial and deep layers. Owing to this characteristic, separate repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears has been introduced for the restoration of the physiological biomechanics of the rotator cuff. However, whether conventional en masse repair or separate repair is superior is controversial in terms of outcomes. To compare clinical outcomes between conventional en masse repair and separate double-layer double-row repair for the treatment of delaminated rotator cuff tears. Randomized controlled study; Level of evidence, 2. Between August 2007 and March 2014, a total of 82 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of a delaminated tear were enrolled and randomized into 2 groups. In group 1 (n = 48), arthroscopic conventional en masse repair was performed. In group 2 (n = 34), separate double-layer double-row repair was performed. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Constant score, Simple Shoulder Test score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain and range of motion (ROM) were assessed before surgery; at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery; and at the last follow-up visit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 12 months postoperatively to examine the retear rate and pattern. There was no significant difference between groups in the preoperative demographic data, including patient age, sex, symptom duration, tear size, and functional scores (P > .05). The mean follow-up period was 25.9 ± 1.2 months. Significant improvements in functional and pain scores were observed in both groups at the last follow-up visit. However, no significant differences in functional scores and ROM were found between the 2 groups at each time point, except that group 2 had significantly lower VAS pain scores (P < .05) at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Eight (17%) of 48 patients in group 1 and 6 (18%) of 34 patients in group 2 showed retears on MRI at 12-month follow-up (P

  18. Tear progression of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears as measured by repeated MRI.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Kim, Sung-Eun; Bae, Sung-Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Chang Kyun

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the natural course of symptomatic full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears treated non-operatively and to identify risk factors affecting tear enlargement. One hundred and twenty-two patients who received non-surgical treatment for a partial- or full-thickness supraspinatus tear were included in this study. All rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the same modality was used for follow-up studies. Follow-up MRI was performed after at least a 6-month interval. We evaluated the correlation between tear enlargement and follow-up duration. Eleven risk factors were analysed by both univariate and multivariate analyses to identify factors that affect enlargement of rotator cuff tears. The mean follow-up period was 24.4 ± 19.5 months. Out of 122 patients, 34 (27.9%) patients had an initial full-thickness tear and 88 (72.1%) patients had a partial-thickness tear. Considering all patients together, tear size increased in 51/122 (41.8%) patients, was unchanged in 65/122 (53.3%) patients, and decreased in 6/122 (4.9%) patients. Tear size increased for 28/34 (82.4%) patients with full-thickness tears and 23/88 (26.1%) patients with partial-thickness tears. From the two groups which were followed over 12 months, a higher rate of enlargement was observed in full-thickness tears than in partial-thickness tears (6-12 months, n.s.; 12-24 months, P = 0.002; over 24 months, P < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed that having a full-thickness tear was the most reliable risk factor for tear progression (P < 0.001). This study found that 28/34 (82.4%) of symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff tears and 23/88 (26.1%) of symptomatic partial-thickness tears increased in size over a follow-up period of 6-100 months. Full-thickness tears showed a higher rate of enlargement than partial-thickness tears regardless of the follow-up duration. Univariate and multivariate analyses

  19. Human tears contain a chemosignal.

    PubMed

    Gelstein, Shani; Yeshurun, Yaara; Rozenkrantz, Liron; Shushan, Sagit; Frumin, Idan; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2011-01-14

    Emotional tearing is a poorly understood behavior that is considered uniquely human. In mice, tears serve as a chemosignal. We therefore hypothesized that human tears may similarly serve a chemosignaling function. We found that merely sniffing negative-emotion-related odorless tears obtained from women donors induced reductions in sexual appeal attributed by men to pictures of women's faces. Moreover, after sniffing such tears, men experienced reduced self-rated sexual arousal, reduced physiological measures of arousal, and reduced levels of testosterone. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that sniffing women's tears selectively reduced activity in brain substrates of sexual arousal in men.

  20. Subscapularis tendon tears

    PubMed Central

    Lenart, Brett A.; Ticker, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    Tears of the subscapularis tendon have been under-recognised until recently. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is essential for diagnosis. A directed physical examination, including the lift-off, belly-press and increased passive external rotation can help identify tears of the subscapularis. All planes on MR imaging should be carefully evaluated to identify tears of the subscapularis, retraction, atrophy and biceps pathology. Due to the tendency of the tendon to retract medially, acute and traumatic full-thickness tears should be repaired. Chronic tears without significant degeneration should be considered for repair if no contraindication exists. Arthroscopic repair can be performed using a 30-degree arthroscope and a laterally-based single row repair; one anchor for full thickness tears ⩽ 50% of tendon length and two anchors for those ⩾ 50% of tendon length. Biceps pathology, which is invariably present, should be addressed by tenotomy or tenodesis. Timing of post-operative rehabilitation is dictated by the size of the repair and the security of the repair construct. The stages of rehabilitation typically involve a period of immobilisation followed by range of movement exercises, with a delay in active internal rotation (IR) and strengthening in IR. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:484–495. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.170015 PMID:29387471

  1. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    pluripotent stem cells for osteoarthritis drug screening . Arthritis Rheumatol. 66, 3062–3072. Xia, Y., Zheng, S., Bidthanapally, A., 2008. Depth-dependent...the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem /progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...biology to develop a profile of repair cells in the adult meniscus, track meniscal stem /progenitor cell (MSPC) behavior within meniscus as function of

  3. Functional evaluation of patient after arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Jadhav, Umesh

    2014-06-01

    Rotator cuff tear is a common problem either after trauma or after degenerative tear in old age group. Arthroscopic repair is the current concept of rotator cuff repair. Here, we are trying to evaluate the functional outcome after arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear (single row) in Indian population. Twenty five patients (14 males and 11 females) who underwent arthroscopic repair of full thickness rotator cuff tear at a single institution were included in the study. Postoperatively patient's shoulder was rated according to UCLA score, pain was graded according to the visual analog score. The range of motion was analysed and documented. The mean age of the patients were 50.48 years. The preoperative VAS score mode was 7 and post operative VAS was 1 (p value <0.001). The UCLA grading was good in 80% (n = 20), fair in 12% (n = 3), excellent in 8% (n = 2) and poor results were seen in none of the patients. The mean UCLA improved from a score of 15.84 to 30.28 with a p value <0.001. Mean postoperative forward flexion was 161.6°, mean abduction was 147.6° and mean external rotation was 45.4°. Arthroscopic repair is a good procedure for full thickness rotator cuff tear with minimal complications. The newer double row repair claims to be biomechanically superior with faster healing rates without functional advantages, hence we used a single row repair considering the Indian population and the cost effectiveness of the surgery with good to excellent results.

  4. Atraumatic tears of the ligamentum teres are more frequent in professional ballet dancers than a sporting population.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan; Ferris, April-Rose; Smith, Peter; Garnham, Andrew; Cook, Jill

    2016-07-01

    To compare the frequency of atraumatic ligamentum teres (LT) tear in professional ballet dancers with that of athletes, and to determine the relationship with clinical and imaging findings. Forty-nine male and female professional ballet dancers (98 hips) and 49 age and sex-matched non-dancing athletes (98 hips) completed questionnaires on hip symptoms and physical activity levels, underwent hip rotation range of movement (ROM) and hypermobility testing, and 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3 T MRI) on both hips to detect LT tears, acetabular labral tears, and articular cartilage defects, and to measure the lateral centre edge angles (LCE). A higher frequency of LT tear was found in dancers (55 %) compared with athletes (22 %, P = 0.001). The frequency and severity of LT tears in dancers increased with older age (P = 0.004, P = 0.006, respectively). The Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) pain scores or hip rotation ROM did not differ significantly among participants with normal, partial, or complete tears of LT (P > 0.01 for all). Neither the frequency of generalised joint hypermobility (P = 0.09) nor the LCE angles (P = 0.32, P = 0.16, left and right hips respectively) differed between those with and those without LT tear. In most hips, LT tear co-existed with either a labral tear or a cartilage defect, or both. The higher frequency of atraumatic LT tears in professional ballet dancers suggests that the LT might be abnormally loaded in ballet, and caution is required when evaluating MRI, as LT tears may be asymptomatic. A longitudinal study of this cohort is required to determine if LT tear predisposes the hip joint to osteoarthritis.

  5. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Repair Using a Transtibial Technique.

    PubMed

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Mohan, Rohith; Stuart, Michael J; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-06-01

    The meniscal roots are critical in maintaining the normal shock absorbing function of the meniscus. If a meniscal root tear is left untreated, meniscal extrusion can occur rendering the meniscus nonfunctional resulting in degenerative arthritis. Two main repair techniques are described: (1) suture anchors (direct fixation) and (2) sutures pulled through a tibial tunnel (indirect fixation). Meniscal root repair using a suture anchor technique is technically challenging requiring a posterior portal and a curved suture passing device that can be difficult to manipulate within the knee. We present a technique for posterior medial meniscus root repair using 3 sutures (1 leader, 2 cinch), standard arthroscopy portals, and transtibial fixation. Overall, this technique simplifies a challenging procedure and allows for familiarity and efficiency.

  6. Cell Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    to rapid joint degeneration (i.e., osteoarthritis). Tissue engineering approaches, including the combination of cells, scaffolds, and bioactive...nano/microfibers comprising engineered scaffolds can mimic the ultrastructure of the native meniscal extracellular matrix (ECM); when seeded with adult...explant and in vivo goat model. 2. KEYWORDS: Provide a brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Meniscus tissue engineering , electrospun

  7. Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Arthroscopic Repair of Small- to Medium-Sized Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Holtby, Richard; Christakis, Monique; Maman, Eran; MacDermid, Joy C.; Dwyer, Tim; Athwal, George S.; Faber, Kenneth; Theodoropoulos, John; Woodhouse, Linda J.; Razmjou, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an augment to rotator cuff repair warrants further investigation, particularly in smaller rotator cuff tears. Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of PRP application in improving perioperative pain and function and promoting healing at 6 months after arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Methods: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears of up to 3 cm who were observed for 6 months. Patients were randomized to either repair and PRP application (study group) or repair only (control group) groups. The patient-oriented outcome measures utilized were the visual analog scale (VAS), the Short Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) form, and the Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Range of motion (ROM) and inflammatory and coagulation markers were measured before and after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging was used at 6 months to assess retear and fatty infiltration rate. Results: Eighty-two patients (41 males) with a mean age of 59 ± 8 years were enrolled; 41 patients were included in each group. Both the PRP and control groups showed a significant improvement in their pain level based on the VAS within the first 30 days (P < .0001), with the PRP group reporting less pain than the control group (P = .012), which was clinically significantly different from days 8 through 11. The PRP group reported taking less painkillers (P = .026) than the control group within the first 30 days. All outcome measure scores and ROM improved significantly after surgery (P < .0001), with no between-group differences. No differences were observed between groups in inflammatory or coagulation marker test results (P > .05), retear (14% vs 18% full retear; P = .44), or fatty

  8. [Treatment of triangular fibrocartilage complex tear under wrist arthroscopy].

    PubMed

    Mi, Kun; Liu, Wu; Liu, Pengfei; Feng, Zhibin; Li, Yuwen; Hui, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment and effects of wrist arthroscopy in tear of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC). Between January 2006 and December 2008, 16 patients with tear of TFCC were treated. Of 16 patients, 11 were male and 5 were female with an average age of 32.5 years (range, 25-51 years). Injury was caused by sprain in 12 cases, and by falling in 4 cases. The locations were the left side in 10 cases and the right side in 6 cases. The mean injury duration was 3 months to 6 years and 2 months. The main clinical symptoms included wrist powerlessness and ulnar-sided wrist pain which was aggravated with clench fist and lifting heavy things. The results of the ulnar-sided wrist stress test were positive in 14 cases and negative in 2 cases. The preoperative values of wrist range of motion (ROM) were (45.58 +/- 5.18) degrees at volar flexion, (41.22 +/- 3.83) degrees at dorsal extension, (17.82 +/- 2.48) degrees at radial deviation, (21.35 +/- 4.61) degrees at ulnar deviation, (69.85 +/- 8.36) degrees at pronation, and (70.13 +/- 6.34) degrees at supination. According to Palmer standard, 10 cases of IA were treated with debridement; 3 cases of IB with suture and 1 of them failed and was partially excised; 2 cases of IC with debridement on triangular fibrocartilage disc, ulnolunate ligament, and ulnotriguetrum ligament; and 1 case of ID with trimming plastic operation. All incisions healed by first intention, and no complications of joint infection or neurovascular injury was found. All patients were followed up 14-38 months (mean, 18.5 months). Fifteen patients were restored to normal life and work without ulnar-sided wrist pain. One patient had no pain, but he had wrist powerless. The values of ROM at last follow-up were (50.16 +/- 6.21) degrees at volar flexion, (45.37 +/- 4.65) degrees at dorsal extension, (18.95 +/- 3.56) degrees at radial deviation, (26.28 +/- 5.09) degrees at ulnar deviation, (78.87 +/- 7.69) degrees at pronation, and (76.46 +/- 8

  9. A Controlled Study on the Correlation between Tear Film Volume and Tear Film Stability in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Iman M; Khalil, Noha M; El-Gendy, Heba A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the tear film quantity and correlate it with the quality and stability of the tear film in diabetics and compare them to age matched controls. Introduction. Diabetes affects tear film parameters in multiple ways. Poor metabolic control and neuropathy are postulated factors. To further understand how diabetes affects tear film parameters this study was conducted. Subjects and Methods. Tear meniscus height was measured by anterior segment OCT, along with tear thinning time, a subtype of noninvasive tear break-up time, and blinking rate per minute which were all recorded for 22 diabetic patients. Correlations between these tear film parameters were studied and then compared to 16 age matched controls. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in blinking rate between the diabetic and the control group (P = 0.002), with higher blinking rate among diabetics. All tear film parameters were negatively correlated with duration of diabetes. A positive correlation was found between tear film volume and stability. Conclusion. Diabetes affects the tear film in various ways. Diabetics should be examined for dry eye signs even in absence of symptoms which may be masked by associated neuropathy. Duration of diabetes has an impact on tear film status.

  10. TFOS DEWS II Tear Film Report.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Mark D P; Argüeso, Pablo; Georgiev, Georgi A; Holopainen, Juha M; Laurie, Gordon W; Millar, Tom J; Papas, Eric B; Rolland, Jannick P; Schmidt, Tannin A; Stahl, Ulrike; Suarez, Tatiana; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Uçakhan, Omür Ö; Jones, Lyndon

    2017-07-01

    The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic review of the concurrent and predictive validity of MRI biomarkers in OA

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, D.J.; Zhang, W.; Conaghan, Philip G.; Hirko, K.; Menashe, L.; Li, L.; Reichmann, W.M.; Losina, E.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To summarize literature on the concurrent and predictive validity of MRI-based measures of osteoarthritis (OA) structural change. Methods An online literature search was conducted of the OVID, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychInfo and Cochrane databases of articles published up to the time of the search, April 2009. 1338 abstracts obtained with this search were preliminarily screened for relevance by two reviewers. Of these, 243 were selected for data extraction for this analysis on validity as well as separate reviews on discriminate validity and diagnostic performance. Of these 142 manuscripts included data pertinent to concurrent validity and 61 manuscripts for the predictive validity review. For this analysis we extracted data on criterion (concurrent and predictive) validity from both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies for all synovial joint tissues as it relates to MRI measurement in OA. Results Concurrent validity of MRI in OA has been examined compared to symptoms, radiography, histology/pathology, arthroscopy, CT, and alignment. The relation of bone marrow lesions, synovitis and effusion to pain was moderate to strong. There was a weak or no relation of cartilage morphology or meniscal tears to pain. The relation of cartilage morphology to radiographic OA and radiographic joint space was inconsistent. There was a higher frequency of meniscal tears, synovitis and other features in persons with radiographic OA. The relation of cartilage to other constructs including histology and arthroscopy was stronger. Predictive validity of MRI in OA has been examined for ability to predict total knee replacement (TKR), change in symptoms, radiographic progression as well as MRI progression. Quantitative cartilage volume change and presence of cartilage defects or bone marrow lesions are potential predictors of TKR. Conclusion MRI has inherent strengths and unique advantages in its ability to visualize multiple individual tissue pathologies relating to pain

  12. Comparison of conventional MRI and MR arthrography in the evaluation of wrist ligament tears: A preliminary experience

    PubMed Central

    Pahwa, Shivani; Srivastava, Deep N; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Kotwal, Prakash P; Sharma, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To compare conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography in the evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and intrinsic wrist ligament tears. Materials and Methods: T1-weighted, fat suppressed (FS) proton density plus T2-weighted (FS PD/T2), 3D multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC) sequences and direct MR arthrography were performed in 53 patients with wrist pain. Images were evaluated for the presence and location of TFCC, scapholunate ligament (SLL) and lunatotriquetral ligament (LTL) tears, and imaging findings were compared with operative findings in 16 patients who underwent arthroscopy or open surgery (gold standard). Results: Sixteen patients underwent arthroscopy/open surgery: 12 TFCC tears were detected arthroscopically out of which 9 were detected on FS PD/T2 sequence, 10 on MEDIC sequence, and all 12 were detected on MR arthrography. The sensitivities of FS PD/T2, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in the detection of TFCC tears were 75%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. Out of the eight arthroscopically confirmed SLL tears, three tears were detected on FS PD/T2 sequence, five on MEDIC sequence, and all eight were visualized on MR arthrography. The sensitivities of FS PD/T2, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in detecting SLL tears were 37.5%, 62.5%, and 100%, respectively. One arthroscopically confirmed LTL tear was diagnosed on FS PD/T2 sequence, three on MEDIC sequence, and all five arthroscopically confirmed LTL tears were detected with MR arthrography. The sensitivities of PD, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in detecting LTL tears were 20%, 40%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: MR arthrography is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for the evaluation of wrist ligament tears. PMID:25114389

  13. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  14. Tear analysis in contact lens wearers.

    PubMed Central

    Farris, R L

    1985-01-01

    Tear analysis in contact lens wearers was compared with tear analysis in aphakics without contact lens wear and normal phakic patients. Subjects were divided into five groups: group 1, aphakic without contact lens; group 2, phakic with daily-wear hard contact lens; group 3, phakic with daily-wear soft contact lens; group 4, phakic with extended-wear soft contact lens; and group 5, aphakic with extended-wear soft contact lens. The experimental groups were compared with age- and sex-matched control groups for statistical analysis of tear variables by means of the Student's t-test. The variables measured were tear osmolarity, tear albumin, and lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations in basal and reflex tears. Highly significant elevations of tear osmolarity were found in aphakic subjects without contact lenses. Less significant differences in tear osmolarity were found in phakic subjects with hard daily-wear lenses or with extended-wear soft lenses. Tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin in basal and reflex tears were not significantly different in the different groups of contact lens wearers or in the group of aphakic subjects without contact lenses compared with their control groups. Individual variations in tear albumin, lysozyme, and lactoferrin appeared to be responsible for the inability to demonstrate significant differences in tear composition in association with the wearing of different types of contact lenses. Older and aphakic patients demonstrated a tendency to have increased concentrations of proteins in the tears compared with younger, phakic contact lens wearers and normal controls without contact lenses. PMID:3914131

  15. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  16. Quantitative analysis of tear film fluorescence and discomfort during tear film instability and thinning.

    PubMed

    Begley, Carolyn; Simpson, Trefford; Liu, Haixia; Salvo, Eliza; Wu, Ziwei; Bradley, Arthur; Situ, Ping

    2013-04-12

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between tear film fluorescence changes during tear break-up (TBU) or thinning and the concurrent ocular sensory response. Sixteen subjects kept one eye open as long as possible (MBI), indicated their discomfort level continuously, and rated ocular sensations of irritation, stinging, burning, pricking, and cooling using visual analog scales (VAS). Fluorescence of the tear film was quantified by a pixel-based analysis of the median pixel intensity (PI), TBU, and percentage of dark pixels (DarkPix) over time. A cutoff of 5% TBU was used to divide subjects into either break-up (BU) or minimal break-up (BUmin) groups. Tear film fluorescence decreased (median PI) and the percentage of TBU and DarkPix increased in all trials, with the rate significantly greater in the BU than the BUmin group (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05). The rate of increasing discomfort during trials was highly correlated with the rate of decrease in median PI and developing TBU (Spearman's, r ≥ 0.70). Significant correlations were found between corneal fluorescence, MBI, and sensory measures. Concentration quenching of fluorescein dye with tear film thinning best explains decreasing tear film fluorescence during trials. This was highly correlated with increasing ocular discomfort, suggesting that both tear film thinning and TBU stimulate underlying corneal nerves, although TBU produced more rapid stimulation. Slow increases in tear film hyperosmolarity may cause the gradual increase in discomfort during slow tear film thinning, whereas the sharp increases in discomfort during TBU suggest a more complex stimulus.

  17. Classification of ulnar triangular fibrocartilage complex tears. A treatment algorithm for Palmer type IB tears.

    PubMed

    Atzei, A; Luchetti, R; Garagnani, L

    2017-05-01

    The classical definition of 'Palmer Type IB' triangular fibrocartilage complex tear, includes a spectrum of clinical conditions. This review highlights the clinical and arthroscopic criteria that enable us to categorize five classes on a treatment-oriented classification system of triangular fibrocartilage complex peripheral tears. Class 1 lesions represent isolated tears of the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex without distal radio-ulnar joint instability and are amenable to arthroscopic suture. Class 2 tears include rupture of both the distal triangular fibrocartilage complex and proximal attachments of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea. Class 3 tears constitute isolated ruptures of the proximal attachment of the triangular fibrocartilage complex to the fovea; they are not visible at radio-carpal arthroscopy. Both Class 2 and Class 3 tears are diagnosed with a positive hook test and are typically associated with distal radio-ulnar joint instability. If required, treatment is through reattachment of the distal radio-ulnar ligament insertions to the fovea. Class 4 lesions are irreparable tears due to the size of the defect or to poor tissue quality and, if required, treatment is through distal radio-ulnar ligament reconstruction with tendon graft. Class 5 tears are associated with distal radio-ulnar joint arthritis and can only be treated with salvage procedures. This subdivision of type IB triangular fibrocartilage complex tear provides more insights in the pathomechanics and treatment strategies. II.

  18. Partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears: in situ repair versus tear completion prior to repair.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Paul M; Rajaram, Arun; Obopilwe, Elifho; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainty exists over the ideal surgical treatment method for partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears, with options ranging from debridement to in situ repair to tear completion prior to repair. The purpose of this study was to determine whether in situ repair was a viable biomechanical treatment option compared with tear completion prior to repair of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. Fourteen fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were dissected. Partial articular-sided tears were created and repaired using in situ repair or tear completion prior to the repair. Strain and displacement were measured at 45°, 60°, and 90° of glenohumeral abduction. Testing was performed with a load of 100 N applied for 30 cycles. Data from the biomechanical testing displayed 4 conditions that showed improved characteristics of in situ repair over completion and repair: bursal-sided strain anteriorly at 45°, bursal-sided strain anteriorly at 90°, bursal-sided displacement anteriorly at 45°, and bursal-sided displacement anteriorly at 90°. The data indicate that in situ repair is a viable biomechanical treatment option compared with tear completion prior to repair of partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. When clinically appropriate, the in situ repair may offer some biomechanical advantages, with lower strain and displacement observed on the bursal side compared with tear completion prior to repair. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases.

    PubMed

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Caceres, Ana I; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-04-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.

  20. Risk factors for anal sphincter tears in vacuum-assisted delivery.

    PubMed

    Ryman, P; Ahlberg, M; Ekéus, C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of anal sphincter tears (AST) in relation to obstetric management and technique during vacuum extraction deliveries (VE) (re: indications, the station of the fetal head at application of the cup, number of tractions, the length for the extraction, cup detachments, pain relief, episiotomy, fetal presentation, and experience of the operator) as well as maternal and infant anthropometrics. Descriptive study. Data on six hundred vacuum extraction deliveries were consecutively collected from six different delivery units in Sweden. Each unit contributed with data on 100 deliveries. The final study population included 596 women who delivered by vacuum extraction. There was no correlation between the management of the vacuum extraction and risk for anal sphincter tear. Women from Africa had nearly a fourfold risk for anal sphincter tear during vacuum-assisted delivery compared with Swedish-born women (OR 3.82 CI 1.47-9.89). Compared with infants with birth weight less than 4000 g, birth weight above 4000 g was associated with increased risk of AST (OR 1.87 CI 1.06-3.28). In this study, the obstetric management in VE-assisted deliveries did not impact the risk of AST. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery KidsHealth / For Parents / Tear- ... year old with little or no treatment. About Tear Ducts Our eyes are continually exposed to dust, ...

  2. Development of a Chinese version of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tong, W W; Wang, W; Xu, W D

    2016-08-15

    The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with meniscal pathology. Our study aims to culturally adapt and validate the WOMET into a Chinese version. We translated the WOMET into Chinese. Then, a total of 121 patients with meniscal pathology were invited to participate in this study. To assess the test-retest reliability, the Chinese version WOMET was completed twice at 7-day intervals by the participants. The construct validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient or Spearman's correlation to test for correlations among the Chinese version WOMET and the eight domains of Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Responsiveness was tested by comparison of the preoperative and postoperative scores of the Chinese version WOMET. The test-retest reliability of the overall scale and different domains were all found to be excellent. The Cronbach's α was 0.90. The Chinese version WOMET correlated well with other questionnaires which suggested good construct validity. We observed no ceiling and floor effects of the Chinese version WOMET. We also found good responsiveness for the effect size, and the standardized response mean values were 0.86 and 1.11. The Chinese version of the WOMET appears to be reliable and valid in evaluating patients with meniscal pathology.

  3. Does partial tear repair of adjacent tendons improve the outcome of supraspinatus tendonfull-thickness tear reinsertion?

    PubMed

    Nich, C; Dhiaf, N; Di Schino, M; Augereau, B

    2014-11-01

    Partial tearing of the infraspinatus and/or subscapularis tendon(s) is frequently associated with supraspinatus full-thickness tears. However, limited data regarding its influence on supraspinatus surgical repair is available. Our aim was to assess the functional and anatomical outcomes of open repair of supraspinatus full-thickness tears combined with adjacent partial tearing, comparatively to a control. We retrospectively identified 22 patients (22 shoulders) with a partial tear, most of them being a delamination tear, of the infraspinatus and/or subscapularis tendons associated with a complete detachment of the supraspinatus tendon. Twenty-seven patients (27 shoulders) treated for an isolated complete detachment of the supraspinatus tendon by open repair served as controls. The mean age was 58 years. A proximalized trans-osseous reinsertion of the supraspinatus tendon was combined with a curettage-closure of the delamination tear. Patients were evaluated with standardized MRI at last follow-up. At a mean of 75-month follow-up, the presence of a partial tear of either infraspinatus or subscapularis, or both, did not influence function and healing rates of supraspinatus tendon repair. Conversely to the control, when a retear occurred, the functional score tended to worsen. Preoperatively, fatty muscular degeneration was more pronounced when a partial tear was present. Fatty degeneration worsened regardless of repair healing. Open reinsertion of a supraspinatus full-thickness tear associated with a thorough treatment of partial tear of adjacent tendons led to optimal functional and anatomical mid term outcomes. Our results suggest the presence of a partial tear of adjacent tendons could be associated with poorer function in case of supraspinatus tendon re-rupture. Level III case-control study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Partial anterior cruciate ligament tears treated with intraligamentary plasma rich in growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Cuscó, Xavier; Álvarez, Pedro; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Cugat, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of the application of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF)-Endoret to the remaining intact bundle in partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. METHODS: A retrospective review of the rate of return to play in football players treated with the application of PRGF-Endoret in the remaining intact bundle in partial ACL injuries that underwent surgery for knee instability. Patients with knee instability requiring revision surgery for remnant ACL were selected. PRGF was applied in the wider part of posterolateral bundle and the time it took patients to return to their full sporting activities at the same level before the injury was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients were reviewed. Three had a Tegner activity level of 10 and the remaining 16 level 9. The time between the injury and the time of surgery was 5.78 wk (SD 1.57). In total, 81.75% (16/19) returned to the same pre-injury level of sport activity (Tegner 9-10). 17 males and 2 females were treated. The rate of associated injury was 68.42% meniscal lesions and 26.31% cartilage lesions. The KT-1000 values were normalized in all operated cases. One patient was not able to return to sport due to the extent of their cartilage lesions. The 15 patients with Tegner activity level 9 returned to play at an average of 16.20 wk (SD 1.44) while the 3 patients with Tegner activity level 10 did so in 12.33 wk (SD 1.11). CONCLUSION: With one remaining intact bundle the application of PRGF-Endoret in instability cases due to partial ACL tear showed high return to sport rates at pre- injury level in professional football players. PMID:25035842

  5. Arthroscopic suture anchor repair versus pullout suture repair in posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: a prospective comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwa; Chung, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Ryu, Keun-Jung

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate functional and radiographic results of arthroscopic suture anchor repair for posterior root tear of the medial meniscus (PRTMM) and compare with pullout suture repair. From December 2006 to August 2008, 51 consecutive patients underwent arthroscopic repair of PRTMM at our hospital. The repair technique was switched over time from pullout suture repair (group 1) to suture anchor repair (group 2). Of the patients, 6 were lost to follow-up, leaving a study population of 45 patients, with 22 menisci (48.9%) in group 1 and 23 (51.1%) menisci in group 2. The mean follow-up duration was 25.9 months (range, 24 to 27 months) in group 1 and 26.8 months (range, 24 to 28 months) in group 2. Compared variables included International Knee Documentation Committee criteria, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, gap distance at PRTMM, structural healing, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage degeneration of the medial femoral condyle. At 2 years postoperatively, both groups showed significant improvements in function (P < .05) and did not show significant differences in Kellgren-Lawrence grade (P > .05) compared with preoperatively. On magnetic resonance imaging, the gap distance at PRTMM was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm in group 1 and 2.9 ± 0.9 mm in group 2 preoperatively (P > .05). Complete structural healing was seen in 11 cases in group 1 and 12 cases in group 2 (P > .05). Mean meniscal extrusion of 4.3 ± 0.9 mm (group 1) and 4.1 ± 1.0 mm (group 2) preoperatively was significantly decreased to 2.1 ± 1.0 mm (group 1) and 2.2 ± 0.8 mm (group 2) postoperatively (P < .05). Regardless of repair technique, incompletely healed cases showed progression of cartilage degeneration (4 cases in group 1 and 2 cases in group 2). For PRTMM, our results show significant functional improvement in both the suture anchor repair and pullout suture repair groups. Reduction of meniscal extrusion seems to be appropriate to preserve its protective role against progression of cartilage degeneration after complete

  6. [A case of short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing triggered by mumps meningitis in a patient with recurrent primary stabbing headache].

    PubMed

    Unai, Yuki; Sato, Kenta

    2018-03-28

    A 32-year-old man with a 16-year history of recurrent primary stabbing headache was admitted to our hospital, owing to mumps meningitis. On day 2 of admission, he began experiencing episodes of unbearable intermittent stabbing pain, each lasting few seconds, with conjunctival injection and tearing, on the temporal side of the left orbit. We suspected trigeminal autonomic cephalgias, and administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oxygen, and sumatriptan; however, the pain episodes persisted. Subsequently, after the start of intravenous lidocaine administration, the pain episodes stopped. We diagnosed a short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT), triggered by mumps meningitis. This is a valuable case report, involving a patient with a history of primary stabbing headache who was diagnosed with SUNCT triggered by mumps meningitis.

  7. Simultaneous acute rotator cuff tear and distal biceps rupture in a strongman competitor.

    PubMed

    George, Michael S

    2010-04-01

    Acute rotator cuff tear is commonly associated with tearing of the proximal biceps tendon, but has never been reported to occur simultaneously with a distal biceps tendon rupture. A 38-year-old right-hand-dominant strongman competitor attempted a 300-pound overhead axle press and experienced immediate pain in the right shoulder and elbow. He had no known systemic risk factors for tendon ruptures including hyperparathyroidism, hemodialysis, alcoholism, rheumatoid arthritis, statin medications, fluoroquinolones, and steroid use.Right shoulder magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a full-thickness supraspinatus tear with 3 cm of retraction. There was minimal fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus on the sagittal cuts consistent with acute rupture. The subscapularis was intact. The long head of the biceps tendon had mild medial subluxation but was completely within the bicipital groove. Right elbow MRI showed a complete distal biceps tendon rupture. Thirteen days after his injury, the patient underwent arthroscopic supraspinatus repair and proximal biceps tenodesis. Distal biceps tendon repair was performed using the modified 2-incision muscle-splitting technique. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was pain free and had returned to full activity including weightlifting but had not returned to strongman competition.This is the first report of simultaneous acute full thickness ruptures of the rotator cuff and distal biceps tendon. This case report underscores the importance of a complete physical examination and a high index of suspicion for additional concomitant injuries, particularly in athletes with unusually high stresses to the body. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment With Physical Therapy in Chronic Partial Supraspinatus Tears.

    PubMed

    Ilhanli, Ilker; Guder, Necip; Gul, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Despite the insufficient evidence, due to potential contribution to the improvement, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is emerging as a promising method. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of PRP injection in partial supraspinatus tears by comparing with physical therapy (PT). Seventy patients with chronic partial supraspinatus tears in magnetic resonance imaging were randomized into two groups; PRP (n = 35) and PT (n = 35). Before the treatment, at the end of the treatment and at the 12th month after the end of the treatment, range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH), Neer's, Hawkins' and drop arm tests and Beck Depression Inventory were investigated. Statistical analysis was made for 62 subjects (PRP group, n = 30; PT group, n = 32). There were no differences between the groups according to demographic data. At the 12th month after the end of the treatment, significant improvement in ROM was detected in both groups, pain was reduced significantly in both groups and improvement of the DASH score was observed in both groups. At all the evaluation steps, increases in ROM degrees were significantly higher in the PT group than the PRP group. For VAS in activity and in rest, after the treatment, improvement was higher in the PT group than the PRP group. However, improvement of the DASH score of the PRP group was significantly better than the PT group. When we compared with PT, PRP seemed to be a well-tolerated application which showed promising results in patients with chronic partial supraspinatus tears.

  9. Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment With Physical Therapy in Chronic Partial Supraspinatus Tears

    PubMed Central

    Ilhanli, Ilker; Guder, Necip; Gul, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the insufficient evidence, due to potential contribution to the improvement, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is emerging as a promising method. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of PRP injection in partial supraspinatus tears by comparing with physical therapy (PT). Patients and Methods: Seventy patients with chronic partial supraspinatus tears in magnetic resonance imaging were randomized into two groups; PRP (n = 35) and PT (n = 35). Before the treatment, at the end of the treatment and at the 12th month after the end of the treatment, range of motion (ROM), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH), Neer’s, Hawkins’ and drop arm tests and Beck Depression Inventory were investigated. Results: Statistical analysis was made for 62 subjects (PRP group, n = 30; PT group, n = 32). There were no differences between the groups according to demographic data. At the 12th month after the end of the treatment, significant improvement in ROM was detected in both groups, pain was reduced significantly in both groups and improvement of the DASH score was observed in both groups. At all the evaluation steps, increases in ROM degrees were significantly higher in the PT group than the PRP group. For VAS in activity and in rest, after the treatment, improvement was higher in the PT group than the PRP group. However, improvement of the DASH score of the PRP group was significantly better than the PT group. Conclusions: When we compared with PT, PRP seemed to be a well-tolerated application which showed promising results in patients with chronic partial supraspinatus tears. PMID:26473076

  10. Artificial tears potpourri: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Moshirfar, Majid; Pierson, Kasey; Hanamaikai, Kamalani; Santiago-Caban, Luis; Muthappan, Valliammai; Passi, Samuel F

    2014-01-01

    Numerous brands and types of artificial tears are available on the market for the treatment of dysfunctional tear syndrome. Past literature has focused on comparing the components of these products on patient’s clinical improvement. The wide array of products on the market presents challenges to both clinicians and patients when trying to choose between available tear replacement therapies. Different formulations affect patients based on etiology and severity of disease. In order to provide an unbiased comparison between available tear replacement therapies, we conducted a literature review of existing studies and National Institutes of Health clinical trials on commercially available, brand name artificial tears. Outcomes evaluated in each study, as well as the percent of patients showing clinical and symptomatic improvement, were analyzed. Fifty-one studies evaluating different brands of artificial tears, and their efficacy were identified. Out of the 51 studies, 18 were comparison studies testing brand name artificial tears directly against each other. Nearly all formulations of artificial tears provided significant benefit to patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome, but some proved superior to others. From the study data, a recommended treatment flowchart was derived. PMID:25114502

  11. Financial impact of radiological reports on medical-legal evaluation of compensation for meniscal lesions.

    PubMed

    Lelario, M; Ciuffreda, P; Lupo, P; Bristogiannis, C; Vinci, R; Stoppino, L P; De Filippo, M; Macarini, L

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate any discrepancy between radiological reports for clinical purposes and for medicolegal purposes and to quantify its economic impact on repayments made by private insurance companies for meniscal injuries of the knee. The medical records obtained pertaining to 108 knee injury patients (mean age 43.3 years) assessed over a period of 12 months were analysed. Clinical medical reports, aimed at assessing the lesion, and medicolegal reports, drawn up with a view to quantifying compensation, were compared. Unlike reports for clinical purposes in reports for medicolegal purposes, in the evaluation of meniscal lesions, in addition to morphological features of lesions, chronological, topographical, severity and exclusion criteria were applied. To estimate the economic impact resulting from the biological damage, we consulted an actuarial table based on the 9-point minor incapacity classification system. Meniscal lesions not compatible with a traumatic event and therefore not eligible for an insurance payout were found in 56 patients. Of these, 37 failed exclusion criteria, while 19 failed to meet chronological criteria. This difference resulted in a reduction in compensation made by private insurance companies with savings estimated with a saving between euro 203,715.41 and euro 622,315.39. The use of a clinical report for medicolegal purposes can be a source of valuation error, as chronological and/or dynamic information regarding the trauma mechanism may be lacking. Therefore, the use of a full radiological appraisal allows a better damage's assessment and an adequate compensation for injuries.

  12. Subacromial injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid for the treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Shams, Ahmed; El-Sayed, Mohamed; Gamal, Osama; Ewes, Waled

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of chronic shoulder pain and disability. They significantly affect the quality of life. Reduced pain and improved function are the goals of conventional therapy, which includes relative rest, pain therapy, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections and surgical intervention. Tendons have a relative avascular nature; hence, their regenerative potential is limited. There is some clinical evidence that the application of autologous platelets may help to revascularize the area of injury in rotator cuff pathologies. This prospective randomized controlled study was done to evaluate the results of subacromial injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) versus corticosteroid injection therapy in 40 patients with symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears. All patients were assessed before injection, 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months after injection, using the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), the Constant-Murley Score (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain. An MRI was performed before and 6 months after the injection for all the included patients and was graded on 0-5 scale. Both injection groups showed statistically significantly better clinical outcomes over time compared with those before injection. There was a statistically significant difference between RPP group and corticosteroid group 12 weeks after injection, regarding VAS, ASES, CMS and SST in favor of the RPP group. MRI showed an overall slight nonsignificant improvement in grades of tendinopathy/tear in both groups, however, without statistically significant differences between the two groups. PRP injections showed earlier better results as compared to corticosteroid injections, although statistically significant better results after 6 months could not be found. Therefore, subacromial RPP injection could be considered as a good alternative to corticosteroid injection, especially in

  13. 49 CFR 178.1070 - Tear test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tear test. 178.1070 Section 178.1070... Containers § 178.1070 Tear test. (a) General. The tear test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Flexible Bulk Containers design types. (b) Special preparation for the tear test. Flexible Bulk Container...

  14. What factors are predictors of emotional health in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears?

    PubMed

    Barlow, Jonathan D; Bishop, Julie Y; Dunn, Warren R; Kuhn, John E

    2016-11-01

    The importance of emotional and psychological factors in treatment of patients with rotator cuff disease has been recently emphasized. Our goal was to establish factors most predictive of poor emotional health in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears (FTRCTs). In 2007, we began to prospectively collect data on patients with symptomatic, atraumatic FTRCTs. All patients completed a questionnaire collecting data on demographics, symptom characteristics, comorbidities, willingness to undergo surgery, and patient-related outcomes (12-Item Short Form Health Survey, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index [WORC], Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation score, Shoulder Activity Scale). Physicians recorded physical examination and imaging data. To evaluate the predictors of lower WORC emotion scores, a linear multiple regression model was fit. Baseline data for 452 patients were used for analysis. In patients with symptomatic FTRCTs, the factors most predictive of worse WORC emotion scores were higher levels of pain (interquartile range odds ratio, -18.9; 95% confidence interval, -20.2 to -11.6; P < .0001) and lower Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores (rating of percentage normal that patients perceive their shoulder to be; interquartile range odds ratio, 6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-9.95; P = .0012). Higher education (P = .006) and unemployment status (P = .0025) were associated with higher WORC emotion scores. Education level, employment status, pain levels, and patient perception of percentage of shoulder normalcy were most predictive of emotional health in patients with FTRCTs. Structural data, such astendon tear size, were not. Those with poor emotional health may perceive their shoulder to be worse than others and experience more pain. This may allow us to better optimize patient outcomes with nonoperative and operative treatment of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder

  15. Effects of Menthol-Containing Artificial Tears on Tear Stimulation and Ocular Surface Integrity in Normal and Dry Eye Rat Models.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Somin; Eom, Youngsub; Kang, Boram; Park, Jungboung; Lee, Hyung Keun; Kim, Hyo Myung; Song, Jong Suk

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of menthol-containing artificial tears on tear stimulation and ocular surface integrity in normal and dry eye rat models. A total of 54 male Lewis rats were used. The levels of tear secretion and tear MUC5AC concentrations were compared between the menthol-containing artificial tear-treated group (menthol group) and the vehicle-treated group (vehicle group). The groups were compared after a single instillation to evaluate the immediate effects, and after repeated instillation (five times a day for 5 days) to evaluate the longer-term effects. Tear lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured to evaluate eye drop instillation-induced ocular surface damage. The effects of menthol-containing artificial tears were also evaluated in a dry eye rat model. After a single instillation of menthol-containing artificial tears, tear secretion increased from 4.37 (±0.75) mm at baseline to 7.37 (±1.60) mm. However, after repeated instillations, the effects of tear stimulation decreased. The tear MUC5AC concentration was significantly lower in the menthol group than in the vehicle group after a single instillation, but not after repeated instillation. However, the tear LDH concentration was significantly increased in the menthol group after repeated instillation. In the dry eye rat model, the extent of menthol-induced tear stimulation was reduced. Menthol-containing artificial tears increased tear secretion, but lowered the tear MUC5AC concentration. Menthol-induced tear stimulation was reduced after repeated instillation for 5 days and in the dry eye rat model. Conversely, repeated instillation of menthol-induced ocular surface damage, resulting in increased tear LDH activity.

  16. 49 CFR 178.818 - Tear test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tear test. 178.818 Section 178.818 Transportation... Tear test. (a) General. The tear test must be conducted for the qualification of all flexible IBC design types. (b) Special preparation for the tear test. The flexible IBC must be filled to not less than...

  17. 49 CFR 178.818 - Tear test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tear test. 178.818 Section 178.818 Transportation... § 178.818 Tear test. (a) General. The tear test must be conducted for the qualification of all flexible IBC design types. (b) Special preparation for the tear test. The flexible IBC must be filled to not...

  18. Effects of topical cyclosporine a plus artificial tears versus artificial tears treatment on conjunctival goblet cell density in dysfunctional tear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Demiryay, Elvan; Yaylali, Volkan; Cetin, Ebru Nevin; Yildirim, Cem

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to compare the effects of topical cyclosporine A and artificial tears combination with artificial tears alone in patients with dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS). Forty-two eyes of 42 patients with DTS were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria for the study were Schirmer I (without anesthesia) scores below 10 mm/5 min and tear film break-up time (BUT) below 10 sec. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The study group (22 patients) underwent 0.05% cyclosporine A treatment twice a day and preservative-free artificial tears for four times a day for 4 months. The control group (20 patients) was administered only preservative-free artificial tears four times a day for 4 months. The BUT, Schirmer test scores, corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival lissamine green staining, and goblet cell density derived by impression cytology were recorded before and after treatment in each group. In the study group, all parameters improved statistically significantly after treatment at the 4-month follow-up compared with the pretreatment values (P<0.001 for all). In the control group, corneal fluorescein staining (P<0.001) and conjunctival lissamine green staining (P=0.014) improved, but BUT and Schirmer scores did not change significantly after treatment. At the end of the 4-month follow-up, the study group demonstrated statistically significantly better BUT (P=0.020), Schirmer scores (P=0.002), goblet cell density (P=0.006), corneal fluorescein staining (P=0.003), and conjunctival lissamine green staining (P=0.017) scores than did the control group. Topical cyclosporine A and artificial tears treatment significantly increases goblet cell density, decreases the signs of DTS, and improves ocular surface health.

  19. [Risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears in individuals with paraplegia : A cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Pepke, W; Brunner, M; Abel, R; Almansour, H; Gerner, H J; Hug, A; Zeifang, F; Kentar, Y; Bruckner, T; Akbar, M

    2018-02-27

    Shoulder pain and rotator cuff tears are highly prevalent among wheelchair dependent individuals with paraplegia. The purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors associated with the development of rotator cuff tears in this population. A total of 217 wheelchair dependent individuals with paraplegia were included in this cross-sectional study (level of evidence III). The mean age of this population was 47.9 years and the mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 24.1 years. Each individual was asked to complete a questionnaire designed to identify risk factors for rotator cuff tears and underwent a standardized clinical examination with the documentation of the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of both shoulder joints. MRI analysis revealed at least one rotator cuff tear in 93 patients (43%). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the following factors to be associated with the presence of rotator cuff tear: patient age, duration of spinal cord injury/wheelchair dependence, gender, and wheelchair athletic activity. Neither BMI nor the level of spinal cord injury was found to pose a risk factor in the population studied. With respect to patient age, the risk of developing a rotator cuff tear increased by 11% per annum. In terms of duration of spinal cord injury, the analysis revealed a 6% increased risk per year of wheelchair dependence (OR = 1.06). Females had a 2.6-fold higher risk of developing rotator cuff tears than males and wheelchair sport activity increased the risk 2.3-fold. There is a high prevalence of rotator cuff tears in wheel-chair dependent persons with paraplegia. Risk factors such as age, gender, duration of paraplegia, and wheel chair sport activity seem to play an important role in the development of rotator cuff tears.

  20. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  1. Hot tearing studies in AA5182

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haaften, W. M.; Kool, W. H.; Katgerman, L.

    2002-10-01

    One of the major problems during direct chill (DC) casting is hot tearing. These tears initiate during solidification of the alloy and may run through the entire ingot. To study the hot tearing mechanism, tensile tests were carried out in semisolid state and at low strain rates, and crack propagation was studied in situ by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These experimentally induced cracks were compared with hot tears developed in an AA5182 ingot during a casting trial in an industrial research facility. Similarities in the microstructure of the tensile test specimens and the hot tears indicate that hot tearing can be simulated by performing tensile tests at semisolid temperatures. The experimental data were compared with existing hot tearing models and it was concluded that the latter are restricted to relatively high liquid fractions because they do not take into account the existence of solid bridges in the crack.

  2. Comparison of Clinical and Structural Outcomes by Subscapularis Tendon Status in Massive Rotator Cuff Tear.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Nam, Dae Jin; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2017-09-01

    The subscapularis tendon is essential in maintaining normal glenohumeral biomechanics. However, few studies have addressed the outcomes of tears extending to the subscapularis tendon in massive rotator cuff tears. To assess the clinical and structural outcomes of arthroscopic repair of massive rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 122 consecutive patients with massive rotator cuff tear underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Overall, 122 patients were enrolled (mean age, 66 years; mean follow-up period, 39.5 months). Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on subscapularis tendon status: intact subscapularis tendon (I group; n = 45), tear involving less than the superior one-third (P group; n = 35), and tear involving more than one-third of the subscapularis tendon (C group; n = 42). All rotator cuff tears were repaired; however, subscapularis tendon tears involving less than the superior one-third in P group were only debrided. Pain visual analog scale, Constant, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores and passive range of motion were measured preoperatively and at the final follow-up. Rotator cuff integrity, global fatty degeneration index, and occupation ratio were determined via magnetic resonance imaging preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. We identified 37 retears (31.1%) based on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Retear rate in patients in the C group (47.6%) was higher than that in the I group (22.9%) or P group (20.0%) ( P = .011). Retear subclassification based on the involved tendons showed that subsequent subscapularis tendon retears were noted in only the C group. The improvement in clinical scores after repair was statistically significant in all groups but not different among the groups. Between-group comparison showed significant differences in preoperative external rotation ( P = .021). However, no statistically

  3. Ultrasound determination of rotator cuff tear repairability

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Andrew K; Lam, Patrick H; Walton, Judie R; Hackett, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair aims to reattach the torn tendon to the greater tuberosity footprint with suture anchors. The present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability and to assess which sonographic and pre-operative features are strongest in predicting repairability. Methods The study was a retrospective analysis of measurements made prospectively in a cohort of 373 patients who had ultrasounds of their shoulder and underwent rotator cuff repair. Measurements of rotator cuff tear size and muscle atrophy were made pre-operatively by ultrasound to enable prediction of rotator cuff repairability. Tears were classified following ultrasound as repairable or irreparable, and were correlated with intra-operative repairability. Results Ultrasound assessment of rotator cuff tear repairability has a sensitivity of 86% (p < 0.0001) and a specificity of 67% (p < 0.0001). The strongest predictors of rotator cuff repairability were tear size (p < 0.001) and age (p = 0.004). Sonographic assessments of tear size ≥4 cm2 or anteroposterior tear length ≥25 mm indicated an irreparable rotator cuff tear. Conclusions Ultrasound assessment is accurate in predicting rotator cuff tear repairability. Tear size or anteroposterior tear length and age were the best predictors of repairability. PMID:27582996

  4. Plasminogen activator activity in tears of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Csutak, Adrienne; Steiber, Zita; Tőzsér, József; Jakab, Attila; Berta, András; Silver, David M

    2017-01-01

    Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) in tears of pregnant women was investigated at various gestation times to assess the availability of plasminogen activator for aiding potential corneal wound healing processes during pregnancy. PAA was measured by a spectrophotometric method. The analysis used 91 tear samples from pregnant and non-pregnant women, supplemented with 10 additional tear PAA measurements from non-pregnant women obtained in a previous study. Tear levels of PAA in pregnant women formed a bimodal distribution. Either the tear PAA level was zero or non-zero during pregnancy. When non-zero, the tear PAA level was dissociated from gestation time and not different than non-pregnant and post-pregnant levels. The frequency of occurrence of zero level tear PAA increased with gestation: 16%, 17% and 46% had zero tear PAA in samples taken from women in the first, second and third trimester, respectively. Overall, of the tear samples taken from women during pregnancy, a total of 26% were at zero tear PAA. The remaining tear samples had non-zero tear PAA values throughout gestation equivalent to non-pregnant tear PAA values, suggesting local control of the source of PAA in tears. Given the importance of the plasminogen activator system in tears to wound healing in the cornea, and the high occurrence of zero tear PAA in our sample of pregnant women, elective corneal surgery would be contraindicated. If corneal surgery is nevertheless necessary, the tear PAA level would be worth checking and patients with low level should be closely observed during the postoperative period.

  5. Biological Strategies to Enhance Healing of the Avascular Area of the Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Campi, Stefano; Romeo, Giovanni; Spiezia, Filippo; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Meniscal injuries in the vascularized peripheral part of the meniscus have a better healing potential than tears in the central avascular zone because meniscal healing principally depends on its vascular supply. Several biological strategies have been proposed to enhance healing of the avascular area of the meniscus: abrasion therapy, fibrin clot, organ culture, cell therapy, and applications of growth factors. However, data are too heterogeneous to achieve definitive conclusions on the use of these techniques for routine management of meniscal lesions. Although most preclinical and clinical studies are very promising, they are still at an experimental stage. More prospective randomised controlled trials are needed to compare the different techniques for clinical results, applicability, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:22220179

  6. Arthroscopic pullout suture repair of posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: radiographic and clinical results with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hong; Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Ki Bum; Kim, Kyu Hyung; Song, Ji Hun

    2009-09-01

    This study was undertaken to document the short-term clinical efficacy of arthroscopic pullout suture repair in treating posterior root tears of the medial meniscus. From March 2004 to August 2006, 26 patients (27 knees) with posterior root tears of the medial meniscus were treated with arthroscopic pullout suture repair surgery by the senior author. Of these, 20 consecutive patients (21 knees) with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up treated by arthroscopic pullout suture repair were analyzed. Clinical results by use of the Lysholm knee and Hospital for Special Surgery scores and radiographic grade were evaluated, both preoperatively and at final follow-up. In addition, the second-look arthroscopic findings for 10 knees were analyzed. A radiographic evaluation using the criteria of Kellgren and Lawrence at final follow-up showed an increase in radiographic grade by 1 grade in only 1 knee. On the second-look arthroscopies performed in 10 knees (47.6%), all repaired menisci had healed completely without additional chondral lesions in the knee. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery scores improved from 61.1 preoperatively to 93.8 at final follow-up (P < .0001), and the mean preoperative Lysholm knee scores improved from 57.0 to 93.1 at final follow-up (P < .0001). Retear was found in 1 knee at the 6-month follow-up, and reoperation was performed with the same procedure used for the index surgery. Arthroscopic pullout suture repair is an effective treatment for alleviating meniscal symptoms in patients with a symptomatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus with degenerated articular cartilage of less than grade III. In addition, no discernable degenerative arthritic changes were found in terms of radiographic features with our limited short-term follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  7. [The correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyan; Sun, Xiyu; Yu, Ye; Xiong, Yan; Cui, Yuxin; Wang, Qinmei; Hu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between corneal sensation, tear meniscus volume, and tear film osmolarity after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK (FS-LASIK) surgery. In this prospective clinical study, 31 patients undergoing FS-LASIK for myopia were recruited. The upper and lower tear meniscus volumes (UTMV and LTMV) were measured by customized anterior segment optical coherence tomography, tear film osmolarity was measured by a TearLab Osmolarity test device, central corneal sensation was measured by a Cochet-Bonner esthesiometer preoperatively, at 1 week, 1 and 3 months postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate whether the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation were changed after surgery. The correlations between these variables were analyzed by the Pearson correlation analysis. The tear film osmolarity was (310.03 ± 16.48) mOsms/L preoperatively, (323.51 ± 15.92) mOsms/L at 1 week, (319.93 ± 14.27) mOsms/L at 1 month, and (314.97±12.91) mOsms/L at 3 months. The UTMV was (0.42±0.15), (0.25± 0.09), (0.30±0.11), and (0.35±0.09) μL, respectively; the LTMV was (0.60±0.21),(0.37±0.08), (0.44± 0.14), and (0.52±0.17) μL, respectively. The tear film osmolarity was significantly higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with the baseline (P=0.001, 0.004), and reduced to the preoperative level at 3 months (P=0.573). The UTMV, LTMV, and corneal sensation values presented significant decreases at all postoperative time points (all P<0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis showed the postoperative UTMV had a weak relationship with corneal sensation at 1 week after surgery (r=0.356,P=0.005). There were significant correlations between the preoperative LTMV and corneal sensation at 1 week, 1 and 3 months (respectively, r=0.422, 0.366, 0.352;P=0.001, 0.004, 0.006). No significant correlations were found between the tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus volume, and corneal sensation after surgery

  8. Sleep quality and disturbances in patients with different-sized rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Gumina, S; Candela, V; Passaretti, D; Venditto, T; Mariani, L; Giannicola, G

    2016-12-01

    The literature is unanimous in saying that shoulder pain, due to rotator cuff tear (RCT), may be mostly at night; to our knowledge, this statement is not supported by scientific evidence. Our aim was to investigate sleep quality and disturbances in patient with RCT and in a control group. A case-control design study was used. We enrolled 324 consecutive patients (Group A) (156M-168F, mean age ± SD: 64.94 ± 6.97; range 47-74) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group (Group B) included 184 subjects (80M-104F, mean age ± SD = 63.34 ± 6.26; range 44-75) with no RCT. All participants were submitted to two standardized self-reported questionnaires evaluating sleep quality and disturbances: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Data were submitted to statistics. We found no significant differences between the two groups according to both PSQI (Group A: 5.22 ± 2.59; Group B: 5.21 ± 2.39) and ESS (Group A: 2.59 ± 2.54; Group B: 5.76 ± 2.63), p > 0.05. Patients with small tears had average PSQI and ESS higher than patients with large and massive lesions (p < 0.005). Pearson's test showed that tear severity was negatively correlated with both sleep latency (r 2  = -0.35, β = 0.069, p < 0.005) and sleep disturbances (r 2  = -0.65, β = 0.053, p < 0.001). RCT is only one of the responsible causes for sleep disturbance in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Patients with small tears have a poorer sleep quality with respect to those with a more severe tear; particularly, they not only take more time to fall asleep, but also have a more disturbed sleep compared to patients with large and massive tears. III.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of continuous passive motion on meniscal fibrocartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Mario; Srinivasan, Abiraman; Deschner, James; Gassner, Robert; Baliko, Frank; Piesco, Nicholas; Salter, Robert; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Motion-based therapies have been applied to promote healing of arthritic joints. The goal of the current study was to determine the early molecular events that are responsible for the beneficial actions of motion-based therapies on meniscal fibrocartilage. Rabbit knees with Antigen-Induced-Arthritis (AIA) were exposed to continuous passive motion (CPM) for 24 or 48 h and compared to immobilized knees. The menisci were harvested and glycosaminoglycans (GAG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were determined by histochemical analysis. Within 24 h, immobilized knees exhibited marked GAG degradation. The expression of proinflammatory mediators MMP-1, COX-2, and IL-1β was notably increased within 24 h and continued to increase during the next 24 h in immobilized knees. Knees subjected to CPM revealed a rapid and sustained decrease in GAG degradation and the expression of all proinflammatory mediators during the entire period of CPM treatment. More importantly, CPM induced synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The results demonstrate that mechanical signals generated by CPM exert potent anti-inflammatory signals on meniscal fibrochondrocytes. Furthermore, these studies explain the molecular basis of the beneficial effects of CPM observed on articular cartilage and suggest that CPM suppresses the inflammatory process of arthritis more efficiently than immobilization. PMID:16140197

  10. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width-Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort.

    PubMed

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-02-01

    To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0±7.6; BMI 24.4±3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54≤r≤0.67) than for meniscal (-0.31≤r≤0.50) or demographic measures (-0.15≤r≤0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r≥0.68 medially; r≥0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r≤|0.32| medially; r≤|0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 =58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 =60/51%, respectively). In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between cartilage and JSW in the medial than lateral femorotibial compartment. The

  11. Long-term follow-up after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    El-Azab, Hossam Mahmoud; Rott, Olaf; Irlenbusch, Ulrich

    2015-03-18

    Irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tears are treated in several ways. Transfer of the latissimus dorsi is an alternative with acceptable mid-term results, but long-term results have rarely been published. The cases of 108 consecutive patients with 115 shoulders treated with latissimus dorsi transfer between 2000 and 2005 were reviewed clinically and radiographically. Ninety-three shoulders in eighty-six patients were included in the follow-up analysis. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 6.6 to 11.7 years), and the mean age at the operation was fifty-six years (range, forty to seventy-two years). Outcome measures included the Constant-Murley score (Constant score), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) index, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. The progress of cuff tear arthropathy was determined with radiographic evaluation according to the system described by Hamada et al. The mean relative Constant score improved from 44% preoperatively to 71% at the time of follow-up (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.6), excluding the clinical failures. Similarly, the mean ASES index improved from 30 to 70 (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.7), and the mean VAS score decreased from 7.8 to 2.4 (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.8). A pain-free outcome was reported in only eighteen shoulders (19%). Active shoulder movement improved significantly (p < 0.05). The mean Hamada radiographic grade of cuff tear arthropathy increased from 1.7 (range, 0 to 2) preoperatively to 2.2 (range, 1 to 5) (p < 0.0001, effect size = 0.2). The rate of clinical failure of latissimus dorsi transfer was 10%, and the rate of shoulder prosthetic replacement after latissimus dorsi transfer was 4%. Pain relief and improvement of shoulder function were maintained a mean of 9.3 years after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable posterosuperior cuff defects. The younger the patient, the better the outcome. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  12. Isolated Subscapularis Repair in Irreparable Posterosuperior Massive Rotator Cuff Tears Involving the Subscapularis Tendon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Choi, Yun-Rak; Jung, Min; Lee, Won-Yong; Chun, Yong-Min

    2017-05-01

    No previous study has examined whether isolated subscapularis tendon repair in irreparable posterosuperior massive rotator tears involving the subscapularis tendon in relatively young patients without arthritis can yield satisfactory outcomes. We hypothesized that this procedure would produce favorable outcomes in patients who might otherwise be candidates for reverse arthroplasty. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. This retrospective study included 24 patients in their 50s and 60s, without shoulder arthritis, who underwent arthroscopic isolated subscapularis repair for an irreparable massive rotator cuff tear involving the subscapularis tendon. Preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, subjective shoulder values (SSVs), University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, subscapularis strength (modified bell-press test; maximum of 5), and shoulder active range of motion (ROM) were assessed. Postoperative magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) was performed 6 months postoperatively to assess structural integrity of the repaired subscapularis. At a mean 34.8 months (range, 24-49 months) of follow-up, VAS pain scores (improved from 7.1 to 2.5), SSVs (33.3 to 75.2), ASES scores (35.9 to 76.0), UCLA shoulder scores (11.6 to 24.8), subscapularis strength, and ROM were significantly improved compared with preoperative measurements ( P < .001). Subscapularis muscle strength improved from 3.7 to 4.2 ( P < .001). For active ROM, forward flexion and internal rotation improved significantly ( P < .001); however, external rotation exhibited no significant improvement. Follow-up MRA was performed in 22 patients (92%) and showed retear of the repaired subscapularis in 6 (27% of the 22). Isolated repair of the subscapularis tendon in irreparable massive rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis tendon yielded satisfactory short-term outcomes and structural integrity in patients in

  13. Tears of Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Prerana; Sharma, Vivek

    `Tears of wine' refer to the rows of wine-drops that spontaneously emerge within a glass of strong wine. Evaporation-driven Marangoni flows near the meniscus of water-alcohol mixtures drive liquid upward forming a thin liquid film, and a rim or ridge forms near the moving contact line. Eventually the rim undergoes an instability forming drops, that roll back into bulk reservoir forming so called tears or legs of wine. Most studies in literature argue the evaporation of more volatile, lower surface tension component (alcohol) results in a concentration-dependent surface tension gradient that drives the climbing flow within the thin film. Though it is well-known that evaporative cooling can create temperature gradients that could provide additional contribution to the climbing flows, the role of thermocapillary flows is less well-understood. Furthermore, the patterns, flows and instabilities that occur near the rim, and determine the size and periodicity of tears, are not well-studied. Using experiments and theory, we visualize and analyze the formation and growth of tears of wine. The sliding drops, released from the rim towards the bulk reservoir, show oscillations and a cascade of fascinating flows that are analyzed for the first time.

  14. Tear exchange and contact lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N.; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. PMID:25575892

  15. Outcome of lower trapezius transfer to reconstruct massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem T; Wagner, Eric R; Werthel, Jean-David

    2016-08-01

    Management of massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear can be very challenging. This study reports the outcome of the lower trapezius transfer to reconstruct massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear. Included were 33 patients with an average age of 53 years (range, 31-66 years). All patients had symptomatic massive irreparable rotator cuff tear that failed conservative or prior surgical treatment and underwent reconstruction with lower trapezius transfer prolonged by Achilles tendon allograft. The tear was considered irreparable based on the magnetic resonance imaging finding of ≥2 full-thickness rotator cuff tears associated with shortening and retraction of the tendon to the level of the glenoid and a high grade of fatty infiltration of the muscles. This was confirmed at the time of the surgery. At an average follow-up of 47 months, 32 patients had significant improvement in pain, subjective shoulder value, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score and shoulder range of motion, including flexion, 120°; abduction, 90°; and external rotation 50°. One patient, with a body mass index of 36 kg/m(2), required débridement for an infection and then later underwent shoulder fusion. Patients with >60° of preoperative flexion had more significant gains in their range of motion. Shoulder external rotation improved in all patients regardless of the extent of the preoperative loss of motion. Transfer of the lower trapezius prolonged with Achilles tendon allograft to reconstruct massive irreparable posterior-superior rotator cuff tear may lead to good outcome in most patients, specifically for those who have preoperative flexion of >60°. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electronic enhancement of tear secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinton, Mark; Lim Chung, Jae; Kossler, Andrea; Kook, Koung Hoon; Loudin, Jim; Franke, Manfred; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Objective. To study electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves for enhanced tear secretion, as a potential treatment for dry eye disease. We investigate the response pathways and electrical parameters to safely maximize tear secretion. Approach. We evaluated the tear response to electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland and afferent nerves in isofluorane-anesthetized rabbits. In acute studies, electrical stimulation was performed using bipolar platinum foil electrodes, implanted beneath the inferior lacrimal gland, and a monopolar electrode placed near the afferent ethmoid nerve. Wireless microstimulators with bipolar electrodes were implanted beneath the lacrimal gland for chronic studies. To identify the response pathways, we applied various pharmacological inhibitors. To optimize the stimulus, we measured tear secretion rate (Schirmer test) as a function of pulse amplitude (1.5-12 mA), duration (0.1-1 ms) and repetition rate (10-100 Hz). Main results. Stimulation of the lacrimal gland increased tear secretion by engaging efferent parasympathetic nerves. Tearing increased with stimulation amplitude, pulse duration and repetition rate, up to 70 Hz. Stimulation with 3 mA, 500 μs pulses at 70 Hz provided a 4.5 mm (125%) increase in Schirmer score. Modulating duty cycle further increased tearing up to 57%, compared to continuous stimulation in chronically implanted animals (36%). Ethmoid (afferent) nerve stimulation increased tearing similar to gland stimulation (3.6 mm) via a reflex pathway. In animals with chronically implanted stimulators, a nearly 6 mm increase (57%) was achieved with 12-fold less charge density per pulse (0.06-0.3 μC mm-2 with 170-680 μs pulses) than the damage threshold (3.5 μC mm-2 with 1 ms pulses). Significance. Electrical stimulation of the lacrimal gland or afferent nerves may be used as a treatment for dry eye disease. Clinical trials should validate this approach in patients with aqueous tear deficiency, and

  17. The meniscal ossicle revisited: etiology and an arthroscopic technique for treatment.

    PubMed

    Raustol, Ole A; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Chhabra, Annikar; Diduch, David R

    2006-06-01

    We describe a new arthroscopic technique for repair of meniscal ossicles in support of the theory that meniscal ossicles are traumatic in nature. Using a standard inferolateral portal, the arthroscope is passed under the posterior cruciate ligament to permit visualization of the "root" of the medial meniscus with a matching donor lesion on the tibia. A limited debridement should be performed of the donor site as well as the posterior horn of the meniscus if it has healed over with fibrocartilage to allow bone-to-bone healing. A posteromedial working portal is made at an angle amenable to the repair and a 6-mm cannula is placed. A Beath passing pin commonly used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is used to pass suture for the outside-inside-out repair. The pin is passed through the cannula in the posterior medial portal. The root of the medial meniscus and the avulsed ossicle are pierced with the Beath pin and tensioned, after which the pin is drilled into the matching donor site and out through the tibia. Two passes are used to create a mattress suture through the ossicle, and the suture is tied over a bone bridge on the anterolateral tibia.

  18. Impact of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Arthroscopic Repair of Small- to Medium-Sized Rotator Cuff Tears: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Holtby, Richard; Christakis, Monique; Maman, Eran; MacDermid, Joy C; Dwyer, Tim; Athwal, George S; Faber, Kenneth; Theodoropoulos, John; Woodhouse, Linda J; Razmjou, Helen

    2016-09-01

    Increased interest in using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an augment to rotator cuff repair warrants further investigation, particularly in smaller rotator cuff tears. To examine the effectiveness of PRP application in improving perioperative pain and function and promoting healing at 6 months after arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears of up to 3 cm who were observed for 6 months. Patients were randomized to either repair and PRP application (study group) or repair only (control group) groups. The patient-oriented outcome measures utilized were the visual analog scale (VAS), the Short Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (ShortWORC), the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) form, and the Constant-Murley Score (CMS). Range of motion (ROM) and inflammatory and coagulation markers were measured before and after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging was used at 6 months to assess retear and fatty infiltration rate. Eighty-two patients (41 males) with a mean age of 59 ± 8 years were enrolled; 41 patients were included in each group. Both the PRP and control groups showed a significant improvement in their pain level based on the VAS within the first 30 days (P < .0001), with the PRP group reporting less pain than the control group (P = .012), which was clinically significantly different from days 8 through 11. The PRP group reported taking less painkillers (P = .026) than the control group within the first 30 days. All outcome measure scores and ROM improved significantly after surgery (P < .0001), with no between-group differences. No differences were observed between groups in inflammatory or coagulation marker test results (P > .05), retear (14% vs 18% full retear; P = .44), or fatty infiltration rate (P = .08). The PRP biological

  19. Dynamic interfacial properties of human tear-lipid films and their interactions with model-tear proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Svitova, Tatyana F; Lin, Meng C

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding interfacial properties of very complex biological colloids, specifically, human meibum and tear lipids, and their interactions with proteins similar to the proteins found in aqueous part of human tears. Tear lipids spread as thin films over the surface of tear-film aqueous and play crucial roles in tear-film stability and overall ocular-surface health. The vast majority of papers published to date report interfacial properties of meibum-lipid monolayers spread on various aqueous sub-phases, often containing model proteins, in Langmuir trough. However, it is well established that natural human ocular tear lipids exist as multilayered films with a thickness between 30 and 100nm, that is very much disparate from 1 to 2nm thick meibum monolayers. We employed sessile-bubble tensiometry to study the dynamic interfacial and rheological properties of reconstituted multilayered human tear-lipid films. Small amounts (0.5-1μg) of human tear lipids were deposited on an air-bubble surface to produce tear-lipid films in thickness range 30-100nm corresponding to ocular lipid films. Thus, we were able to overcome major Langmuir-trough method limitations because ocular tear lipids can be safely harvested only in minute, sub-milligram quantities, insufficient for Langmuir through studies. Sessile-bubble method is demonstrated to be a versatile tool for assessing conventional synthetic surfactants adsorption/desorption dynamics at an air-aqueous solution interface. (Svitova T., Weatherbee M., Radke C.J. Dynamics of surfactant sorption at the air/water interface: continuous-flow tensiometry. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 2003;261:1170-179). The augmented flow-sessile-bubble setup, with step-strain relaxation module for dynamic interfacial rheological properties and high-precision syringe pump to generate larger and slow interfacial area expansions-contractions, was developed and employed in our studies. We established that

  20. Painful Joints? Early Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis Is Key