Bakshi, Sumitra G; Jain, PN; Kannan, S
Background and Aim: Under-treatment of pain is a global phenomenon and the basic knowledge of pain amongst health care providers continues to be deficient. The aim of this study was to determine the basic prevalent knowledge of pain among Indian anaesthesiologists and the impact of a pain educational programme on their existing knowledge. Methods: A nine lectures pain continuing medical education (CME) program was conducted for 114 young anaesthesiologists. All delegates were given 21-item questionnaire in a pre and post-test design. The 69 paired responses were compared for individual questions using McNemar test and the overall improvement in knowledge was analysed using paired t-test. Results: The pre-test score for correct answers was 61.9%. The post-test score was 69.8% and this improvement was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). A significant improvement in perception was detected that ‘opioids usage was less likely to cause addiction’ (correct responses increased from 4.2 to 77.4%, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The questionnaire study found that the current basic knowledge about pain amongst young anaesthesiologists is deficient. The physician's major concerns were opioid addiction and respiratory depression with opioid usage. The results of pre and post-test questionnaire survey have shown that pain education can help in improving knowledge of pain management. PMID:24963174
Peirce, Deborah; Brown, Janie; Corkish, Victoria; Lane, Marguerite; Wilson, Sally
To compare two methods of calculating interrater agreement while determining content validity of the Paediatric Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire for use with Australian nurses. Paediatric pain assessment and management documentation was found to be suboptimal revealing a need to assess paediatric nurses' knowledge and attitude to pain. The Paediatric Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire was selected as it had been reported as valid and reliable in the United Kingdom with student nurses. The questionnaire required content validity determination prior to use in the Australian context. A two phase process of expert review. Ten paediatric nurses completed a relevancy rating of all 68 questionnaire items. In phase two, five pain experts reviewed the items of the questionnaire that scored an unacceptable item level content validity. Item and scale level content validity indices and intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated. In phase one, 31 items received an item level content validity index <0·78 and the scale level content validity index average was 0·80 which were below levels required for acceptable validity. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0·47. In phase two, 10 items were amended and four items deleted. The revised questionnaire provided a scale level content validity index average >0·90 and an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0·94 demonstrating excellent agreement between raters therefore acceptable content validity. Equivalent outcomes were achieved using the content validity index and the intraclass correlation coefficient. To assess content validity the content validity index has the advantage of providing an item level score and is a simple calculation. The intraclass correlation coefficient requires statistical knowledge, or support, and has the advantage of accounting for the possibility of chance agreement. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The aim of this study was to establish if postregistration education and clinical experience influence nurses' knowledge of pain. Inadequacies in the pain management process may not be tied to myth and bias originating from general attitudes and beliefs, but reflect inadequate pain knowledge. Design. A pain knowledge survey of 20 true/false statements was used to measure the knowledge base of two groups of nurses. This was incorporated in a self-administered questionnaire that also addressed lifestyle factors of patients in pain, inferences of physical pain, general attitudes and beliefs about pain management. One hundred questionnaires were distributed; 86 nurses returned the questionnaire giving a response rate of 86%. Following selection of the sample, 72 nurses participated in the study: 35 hospice/oncology nurses (specialist) and 37 district nurses (general). Data were analysed using SPSS. The specialist nurses had a more comprehensive knowledge base than the general nurses; however, their knowledge scores did not appear to be related to their experience in terms of years within the nursing profession. Whilst educational programmes contribute to an increase in knowledge, it would appear that the working environment has an influence on the development and use of this knowledge. It is suggested that the clinical environment in which the specialist nurse works can induce feelings of reduced self-efficacy and low personal control. To ease tension, strategies are used that can result in nurses refusing to endorse their knowledge, which can increase patients' pain. Clinical supervision will serve to increase the nurses' self-awareness; however, without power and autonomy to make decisions and affect change, feelings of helplessness, reduced self-efficacy and cognitive dissonance can increase. This may explain why, despite educational efforts to increase knowledge, a concomitant change in practice has not occurred.
Cherry, Katie E.; West, Robin L.; Reese, Celinda M.; Santa Maria, Michael P.; Yassuda, Monica
The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire was tested in a group of studies with several populations: 33 mental health professionals; 85 older adults; and 110, 32, and 46 undergraduates. Older adults and professionals knew more about pathological than normal memory aging. Instruction improved undergraduates' pathological knowledge. Instrument…
Üçeyler, Nurcan; Magg, Barbara; Thomas, Phillip; Wiedmann, Silke; Heuschmann, Peter; Sommer, Claudia
Pain may be the earliest symptom in Fabry disease and presents with a distinct phenotype including triggerable pain attacks, evoked pain, pain crises, and chronic pain. Current pain questionnaires do not reflect the special phenotype of Fabry disease-associated pain, which hampers its systematic evaluation as the basis of correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A questionnaire specifically designed to assess Fabry disease-associated pain is thus urgently needed. At the Würzburg Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy (FAZIT), Germany, we developed and validated the first face-to-face Fabry Pain Questionnaire (FPQ) for adult patients. The initial version of the FPQ was tested in a pilot study with 20 consecutive Fabry disease patients. The performance of the revised FPQ was assessed in a first (n=56) and second (n=20) validation phase in consecutive Fabry disease patients. For this, patients were interviewed at baseline and 2 weeks later. We determined the test-retest reliability and validity of the FPQ in comparison to data obtained with the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory. The FPQ contains 15 questions on the 4 pain phenotypes of Fabry disease (pain attacks, pain crises, evoked pain, chronic pain) in childhood and adulthood, on pain development during life with and without enzyme replacement therapy, and on everyday life impairment due to pain. This first disease-specific questionnaire is a valuable tool for baseline and follow-up assessment of pain in Fabry disease patients and may guide treatment in this distinct pain phenotype.
Deshaies, Kathryn; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Kaasalainen, Sharon
Considering pain's subjectivity, measurement and its processes are indispensable to clinicians and researchers. Development and testing methods of recently published chronic pain questionnaires were analyzed to determine the state of measurement in chronic pain. There were 8 questionnaires analyzed against 28 criteria, which combined specific testing standards and commonly accepted reliability statistics. Only 1 questionnaire received a rating of good method quality. The 7 remaining questionnaires received a rating of poor method quality. Newly developed chronic pain self-report questionnaires revealed deficiencies in construction and testing methods. It is proposed that an adapted version of the Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing serves as a useful guide for developing and testing new health questionnaires.
Cardoso, Susana; Esculpi, Daniel; Carvalho, Ana Rita; Pereira, Diana R; Torres, Sandra; Mercado, Francisco; Barbosa, Fernando
In Portugal, it is estimated that chronic pain affects 36.7% of the population, constituting a multifactorial phenomenon with great impact at individual, family, community, and social levels. In the fear-avoidance model of pain, one of the most consistent consensual in the literature, the fear arises as one of the variables that can contribute to the development and maintenance of this condition. Thus, instruments for evaluating the fear of pain, as Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ-III), may be useful in the conceptualization of the subjective experience of pain. Accordingly, this paper aims to describe the adaptation of FPQ-III for the European Portuguese. A total of 1094 participants (795 women; mean age=25.16, SD=7.72) completed the web based questionnaire. The results pointed to a different factor solution found in the first study of the original scale (five factors: minor pain, severe pain, medical pain, injection pain, and afflicted pain), good internal consistency (.75-.85) and good correlations (between .30 and .59) between subscales and (between .68 and .85) for the total score and subscales. Given the need to meet the various dimensions of subjective experience of pain, the Fear of Pain Questionnaire is assumed as a useful tool, in combination with other, may contribute to the evaluation and intervention procedures progressively more comprehensive and adjusted to the challenges raised with the issue of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Cardoso, Susana; Esculpi, Daniel; Carvalho, Ana Rita; R Pereira, Diana; Torres, Sandra; Mercado, Francisco; Barbosa, Fernando
In Portugal, it is estimated that chronic pain affects 36.7% of the population, constituting a multifactorial phenomenon with great impact on individual, family, community, and social levels. In the fear-avoidance model of pain, one of the most consistent consensus in the literature, the fear arises as one of the variables that can contribute to the development and maintenance of this condition. Thus, instruments for evaluating the fear of pain, as Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ-III), may be useful in the conceptualization of the subjective experience of pain. Accordingly, this paper aims to describe the adaptation of FPQ-III to the European Portuguese idiom. A total of 1,094 participants (795 female; mean age=25.16, SD=7.72 years old) completed the web based questionnaire. The results point to a different factor model found in the first study of the original scale (five factors: minor pain, severe pain, medical pain, injection pain, and afflicted pain), good internal consistency (0.75 to 0.85) and good correlations (between 0.30 and 0.59) between subscales and (between 0.68 e 0.85) for the total score and subscales. Given the need to meet the various dimensions of the subjective experience of pain, the Fear of Pain Questionnaire is assumed as a useful tool that, in combination with other tools, may contribute to the evaluation and intervention procedures progressively more comprehensive and adjusted to the challenges raised with the issue of chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Lynch-Jordan, Anne M.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R.
Pain behaviors provide meaningful information about adolescents in chronic pain, enhancing their verbal report of pain intensity with information about the global pain experience. Caregivers likely consider these expressions when making judgments about their adolescents’ medical or emotional needs. Current validated measures of pain behavior target acute or procedural pain and young or non-verbal children, while observation systems may be too cumbersome for clinical practice. The objective of this research was to design and evaluate the Adolescent Pain Behavior Questionnaire (APBQ), a parent-report measure of adolescent (11–19 years) pain expressions. This paper provides preliminary results on reliability and validity of the APBQ. Parent-adolescent dyads (N = 138) seen in a multidisciplinary pain management clinic completed the APBQ and questionnaires assessing pain characteristics, quality of life, functional disability, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing. Principal components analysis of the APBQ supported a single component structure. The final APBQ scale contained 23 items with high internal consistency (α= 0.93). No relationship was found between parent-reported pain behaviors and adolescentreported pain intensity. However, significant correlations were found between parent-reported pain behaviors and parent- and adolescent-reported functional disability, pain catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life. The assessment of pain behaviors provides qualitatively different information than solely recording pain intensity and disability. It has clinical utility for use in behavioral treatments seeking to reduce disability, poor coping, and distress. PMID:20961688
Ko, Su-Hwan; Lee, Mi-Soon; Koo, Bon-Sung; Lee, Joon-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Chae, Won Seok; Jin, Hee Cheol; Lee, Jeong Seok; Kim, Yong-Ik
Background To assess the multidisciplinary aspects of pain, various self-rating questionnaires have been developed, but there have not been sufficient relevant studies on this topic in South Korea. The aim of this study was to develop a new pain sensitivity-related questionnaire in the Korean language that would be simple and would well reflect Koreans' senses. Methods A new pain assessment questionnaire was developed through a pre-survey on "geop", which is the Korean word expressing fear, anxiety, or catastrophizing. We named the new assessment questionnaire the Geop-Pain Questionnaire (GPQ). The GPQ was composed of 15 items divided into three categories and rated on a 5-point scale. As a preliminary study, internal consistency and test-retest reliability analyses were conducted. Subsequently, 109 individuals completed the GPQ along with three pain-related questionnaires translated into Korean (Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire [PSQ], Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale [PASS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS]), and the correlations were analyzed. Results All items in the GPQ showed appropriate internal consistency, and the test-retest reliability analysis showed no statistically significant differences. The correlations between the GPQ and the existing questionnaires revealed that the GPQ scores had mid-positive correlations with the PSQ scores and strong positive correlations with the PASS and PCS scores. Conclusions This study attempted to develop a questionnaire assessing pain sensitivity multidimensionally using the Korean word geop for the first time. The self-rating GPQ showed high correlations with the existing questionnaires and demonstrated potential to be utilized as a pain prediction index in clinical practice. PMID:27703631
Pau, Allan; Croucher, Ray; Marcenes, Wagner; Leung, Theresa
Dental pain, estimated to affect 12-40% of community-dwelling adults, is a symptom of a wide range of clinical conditions. A population screening instrument is needed to study their prevalence. This project aimed to develop a questionnaire for classifying a sample of dental pain patients into three groups of common dental pain conditions, i.e. Group 1 (Acute periapical periodontitis and Irreversible pulpitis), Group 2 (Reversible pulpitis and Dentine hypersensitivity) and Group 3 (Pericoronitis). Initial items were generated through a literature review, individual unstructured patient interviews and consultation with experts. Items generated were administered to a sample of dental pain patients for self-completion. Responses were subjected to a series of factor and discriminant analyses to identify questions capable of differentiating the sample into three groups, originally categorized by clinical diagnosis, with high classification rates. The selected items were administered to a further sample of dental pain patients to test for its sensitivity and specificity in classifying the sample into three groups against the gold standard of clinical diagnosis. The final 16-item Dental Pain Questionnaire (DePaQ) was capable of correctly classifying 89.7% of dental pain cases initially categorized by clinical diagnoses. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was 0.80-Group z1, 0.85-Group 2 and 0.59-Group 3. Specificity was 0.83-Group A1, 0.89-Group A2 and 0.90-Group 3. The DePaQ, which can easily be administered by non-clinical personnel, may be used to collect epidemiological data on common dental pain conditions, assess dental needs for a specified population, and triage of patients seeking treatment for dental pain.
Smith, Allison M; Sieberg, Christine B; Odell, Shannon; Randall, Edin; Simons, Laura E
Parents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses are highly influential on children's pain and functional outcomes. One important response to pediatric pain is acceptance: the degree to which an individual participates in routine daily activities in the presence of pain and is willing to let pain be a part of their life without efforts to control or avoid it. However, no tool currently exists to assess parents' own acceptance of their child's pain. The aim of this study was to validate the Parent Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (PPAQ). The PPAQ was administered to 310 parents of youth with chronic pain in an outpatient pediatric headache program and a day hospital pain rehabilitation program. An exploratory factor analysis revealed 2 factors for the PPAQ: an 11-item Activity Engagement scale and a 4-item Acceptance of Pain-related Thoughts and Feelings scale. The PPAQ total score and subscales demonstrated strong internal consistency. Greater parent pain acceptance was positively associated with child pain acceptance, and was negatively correlated with parent protective behaviors, parent minimizing behaviors, parent and child pain catastrophizing, and child fear of pain. Parent protective behaviors and child pain acceptance both served as mediators of the relationship between parent pain acceptance and child functional disability. The PPAQ is a valid measure of parent pain acceptance and may provide valuable insights into parent responses to child pain and the ways in which parent acceptance influences child outcomes. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Day, Melissa A; Ward, L Charles; Thorn, Beverly E; Lang, Cathryne P; Newton-John, Toby R O; Ehde, Dawn M; Jensen, Mark P
Cognitive processes may be characterized as how individuals think, whereas cognitive content constitutes what individuals think. Both cognitive processes and cognitive content are theorized to play important roles in chronic pain adjustment, and treatments have been developed to target both. However, the evaluation of treatments that target cognitive processes is limited because extant measures do not satisfactorily separate cognitive process from cognitive content. The current study aimed to develop a self-report inventory of potentially adaptive and presumed maladaptive attentional processes that may occur when someone is experiencing pain. Scales were derived from a large item pool by successively applying confirmatory factor analysis to item data from two undergraduate samples (N = 393 and 233). Items, which were generated to avoid confounding of cognitive content with cognitive processes, represented nine constructs: Suppression, Distraction, Enhancement, Dissociation, Reappraisal, Absorption, Rumination, Nonjudgment, and Acceptance. The resulting nine scales formed the Pain-Related Cognitive Process Questionnaire (PCPQ), and scale correlations produced four conceptually distinct composite scales: Pain Diversion, Pain Distancing, Pain Focus, and Pain Openness. Internal consistency reliabilities of the nine scales were adequate (α ≥ 0.70) to good, and the four composite scales had α values of 0.79 or higher. Correlations with pain-related criterion variables were generally consistent with putative constructs. The developed PCPQ scales offer a comprehensive assessment of important cognitive processes specific to pain. Overall, the findings suggest that the PCPQ scales may prove useful for evaluating the role of pain-related cognitive processes in studies of chronic pain.
Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R
Pain behaviors provide meaningful information about adolescents in chronic pain, enhancing their verbal report of pain intensity with information about the global pain experience. Caregivers likely consider these expressions when making judgments about their adolescents' medical or emotional needs. Current validated measures of pain behavior target acute or procedural pain and young or non-verbal children, while observation systems may be too cumbersome for clinical practice. The objective of this research was to design and evaluate the Adolescent Pain Behavior Questionnaire (APBQ), a parent-report measure of adolescent (11-19 years) pain expressions. This paper provides preliminary results on reliability and validity of the APBQ. Parent-adolescent dyads (N=138) seen in a multidisciplinary pain management clinic completed the APBQ and questionnaires assessing pain characteristics, quality of life, functional disability, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing. Principal components analysis of the APBQ supported a single component structure. The final APBQ scale contained 23 items with high internal consistency (α=0.93). No relationship was found between parent-reported pain behaviors and adolescent-reported pain intensity. However, significant correlations were found between parent-reported pain behaviors and parent- and adolescent-reported functional disability, pain catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, and poorer quality of life. The assessment of pain behaviors provides qualitatively different information than solely recording pain intensity and disability. It has clinical utility for use in behavioral treatments seeking to reduce disability, poor coping, and distress. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Arimura, Tatsuyuki; Hosoi, Masako; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Fujiwara, Daiki; Tanaka, Masanori; Tamura, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Yasunori; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Kubo, Chiharu
The present study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ-J) that focuses on cross-culturally equivalence to the original English version and to test its reliability and validity. Cross-sectional design. In study 1, SF-MPQ was translated and adapted into Japanese. It included construction of response scales equivalent to the original using a variation of the Thurstone method of equal-appearing intervals. A total of 147 undergraduate students and 44 pain patients participated in the development of the Japanese response scales. To measure the equivalence of pain descriptors, 62 pain patients in four diagnostic groups were asked to choose pain descriptors that described their pain. In study 2, chronic pain patients (N=126) completed the SF-MPQ-J, the Long-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire Japanese version (LF-MPQ-J), and the 11-point numerical rating scale of pain intensity. Correlation analysis examined the construct validity of the SF-MPQ-J. The results from study 1 were used to develop SF-MPQ-J, which is linguistically equivalent to the original questionnaire. Response scales from SF-MPQ-J represented the original scale values. All pain descriptors, except one, were used by >33% in at least one of the four diagnostic groups. Study 2 exhibited adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, with the construct validity of SF-MPQ-J comparable to the original. These findings suggested that SF-MPQ-J is reliable, valid, and cross-culturally equivalent to the original questionnaire. Researchers might consider using this scale in multicenter, multi-ethnical trials or cross-cultural studies that include Japanese-speaking patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Hopin; McAuley, James H; Hübscher, Markus; Kamper, Steven J; Traeger, Adrian C; Moseley, G Lorimer
Evidence from randomized controlled studies shows that reconceptualizing pain improves patients' knowledge of pain biology, reduces catastrophizing thoughts, and improves pain and function. However, causal relationships between these variables remain untested. It is hypothesized that reductions in catastrophizing could mediate the relationship between improvements in pain knowledge and improvements in pain and function. To test this causal mechanism, we conducted longitudinal mediation analyses on a cohort of 799 patients who were exposed to a pain education intervention. Patients provided responses to the neurophysiology of pain questionnaire, catastrophic thoughts about pain scale, visual analogue pain scale, and the patient specific functional scale, at baseline, 1-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. With adjustment for potential confounding variables, an improvement in pain biology knowledge was significantly associated with a reduction in pain intensity (total effect = -2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.96 to -1.44). However, this effect was not mediated by a reduction in catastrophizing (indirect effect = -0.16, 95% CI = -0.36 to 0.02). This might be due to a weak, nonsignificant relationship between changes in catastrophizing and pain intensity (path b = 0.19, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.41). Similar trends were found in models with function as the outcome. Our findings indicate that change in catastrophizing did not mediate the effect of pain knowledge acquisition on change in pain or function. The strength of this conclusion is moderated, however, if patient-clinician relational factors are conceptualized as a consequence of catastrophizing, rather than a cause.
Simons, Laura E; Smith, Allison; Kaczynski, Karen; Basch, Molly
Fear and avoidance have been consistently associated with poor pain-related outcomes in children. In the context of the pediatric pain experience, parent distress and behaviors can be highly influential. This study validated the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire (PFOPQ) to assess a parent's fears and avoidance behaviors associated with their child's pain. Using the PFOPQ in conjunction with measures of parent and child pain-related variables, we tested the interpersonal fear-avoidance model (IFAM). The sample comprised 321 parents and their child with chronic or new-onset pain who presented to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure for the PFOPQ consisting of Fear of Pain, Fear of Movement, Fear of School, and Avoidance. As hypothesized, Fear of Pain was most closely related to parent pain catastrophizing and child fear of pain, whereas Avoidance was most closely related to parent protective behaviors and child avoidance of activities. In testing the IFAM, parent behavior contributed directly and indirectly to child avoidance, whereas parent fear and catastrophizing contributed indirectly to child avoidance through parent behavior and child fear and catastrophizing, in turn, influencing child functional disability levels. This study provides the first measure of parent pain-related fears and avoidance behaviors and evaluates the theorized IFAM. These results underscore the important influence of parents on child pain-related outcomes and put forth a psychometrically sound measure to assess parent fear and avoidance in the context of their child's pain.
Simons, Laura E.; Smith, Allison; Kaczynski, Karen; Basch, Molly
Fear and avoidance have been consistently associated with poor pain-related outcomes in children. In the context of the pediatric pain experience, parent distress and behaviors can be highly influential. The current study validated the Parent Fear of Pain Questionnaire (PFOPQ) to assess a parent's fears and avoidance behaviors associated with their child's pain. Using the PFOPQ in conjunction with measures of parent and child pain-related variables, we tested the Interpersonal Fear Avoidance Model (IFAM). The sample comprised of 321 parents and their child with chronic or new-onset pain who presented to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain clinic. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 4-factor structure for the PFOPQ consisting of Fear of Pain, Fear of Movement, Fear of School, and Avoidance. As hypothesized, Fear of Pain was most closely related to parent pain catastrophizing and child fear of pain, while Avoidance was most closely related to parent protective behaviors and child avoidance of activities. In testing the IFAM, parent behavior contributed directly and indirectly to child avoidance while parent fear and catastrophizing contributed indirectly to child avoidance through parent behavior and child fear and catastrophizing, in turn, influencing child functional disability levels. The current study provides the first measure of parent pain-related fears and avoidance behaviors and evaluates the theorized IFAM. These results underscore the important influence of parents on child pain-related outcomes and puts forth a psychometrically sound measure to assess parent fear and avoidance in the context of their child's pain. PMID:25630026
Depenau, C; Schröder, R; Osada, N; Baron, R; Schmelz, M; Pogatzki-Zahn, E; Ständer, S
Chronic pruritus and chronic pain are frequent symptoms of a variety of underlying diseases. Painful sensations usually suppress acute itching. In chronic states, both may be present in parallel and be a part of one event. Patients with chronic pruritus should be asked for the presence of pain, which can be identified and characterized using specific and validated questionnaires. The early detection of (neuropathic) pain in patients with chronic pruritus can be done using the PainDetect questionnaire. In general, patients suffering from both itch and pain have a highly impaired quality of life, high degree of objective health burden, need a more intensive health care and a complex analgetic and antipruritic therapy.
Lee, Haejung; Nicholson, Leslie L; Adams, Roger D; Maher, Chris G; Halaki, Mark; Bae, Sung-Soo
Cohort study. To develop and establish the psychometric properties of Korean versions of 4 neck pain and disability questionnaires: the Neck Disability Index, Neck Pain and Disability Scale, Functional Rating Index, and Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ). To our knowledge, there are no published Korean language neck pain and disability measures. Versions of each questionnaire in idiomatic modern Korean were developed with a process involving initial independent translation, synthesis of the translations, independent back translation, and review by an expert committee to achieve equivalence with the original English. Psychometric testing of the questionnaires with 261 subjects was undertaken to examine test-retest reliability, internal consistency, discriminative validity, and longitudinal construct validity. Test-retest reliability of the translated versions of the 3 disability questionnaires was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient[2,1] = 0.86-0.90). High internal consistency was found in the 3 disability questionnaires (Cronbach-alpha ranged from alpha = 0.88 for the Functional Rating Index to alpha = 0.96 for the Neck Pain and Disability Scale, and 0.82 for the SFMPQ). The visual analog scale subscale of the SFMPQ was the most responsive of the subscales (effect size = 1.44, standardized response mean = 1.37). The visual analog scale was also the most responsive pain and disability index in internal responsiveness analysis, although disability indexes showed marginally better responsiveness when compared with external standards. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. We conclude that the questionnaires were successfully translated and show acceptable measurement properties, and, as such, are suitable for use in clinical and research applications.
Greenberg, R S; Billett, C; Zahurak, M; Yaster, M
Pediatric pain management often depends on parents recognition and assessment of their child's pain and their beliefs as to whether the pain should be treated. Parental misconceptions concerning pain assessment and pain management may therefore result in inadequate pain treatment, particularly in patients who are too young or too developmentally handicapped to self-report their pain. We hypothesized that viewing a concise, educational videotape would provide parents with instructive information that could correct misconceptions concerning pain and pain management in children. To do this, we evaluated the impact of an educational videotape on parental responses to a questionnaire about pediatric pain management. Parents of children scheduled for inpatient, postoperative hospital care were studied. After answering 30 questions, parents were randomly assigned to either view (Group 1) or not view (Group 2) a 19-min educational videotape. Immediately after viewing the videotape (Group 1), or 30 min after taking the first test (Group 2), parents were asked to answer the same questionnaire a second time. The effect of seeing the videotape was assessed by comparing post-pre test score differences using paired t-test. One-hundred parents were studied. Randomization was effective in assigning equitable groups. Initial scores of percent answers correct in each group were not different ([mean +/- SD] Group 1 [n = 50]: 68.7% +/- 18.8% vs Group 2 [n = 50]: 61.5% +/- 22.7%; P = 0.09). Viewing the videotape effectively increased test scores: paired t-test within groups demonstrated a significant difference in Group 1 (22.4% +/- 16.5%, P < 0.0001), whereas Group 2 scores changed to a much lesser degree (2.7% +/- 8.3%, P = 0.0271). All parents who viewed the videotape stated that it was informative regarding their understanding of their child's pain management. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of an educational videotape in changing parental knowledge concerning
Fang, Liang-Yu; Xu, Yin-Chuan; Lin, Dan-Ni; Jin, Jing-Feng; Yan, Min
Optimal pain management is a priority in effective nursing care. Lack of sufficient pain knowledge associated with inadequate pain management has been proved. However, the intention, defined as the predictor of behavior, regarding pain management remains unknown. Therefore, the study was to determine the attitude and intention regarding pain management among Chinese nursing students and investigate the underlying determinants and their interactions in terms of intention toward pain management. The Pain Management Survey Questionnaire, comprising the key determinants of the theory of planned behavior-that is, direct attitude, belief-based intention, subjective norm, direct control, and indirect control-was used to collect data from 512 nursing students who undertook clinical rotation in an affiliated hospital of a medical college in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, Pearson correlation analysis, or structural equation modeling analysis. Chinese nursing students reported negative attitudes and behavioral intentions toward pain management. Direct control, subjective norm, belief-based attitude, and indirect control independently predicted nursing students' intention to treat patients with pain. Direct control was the strongest predictor. Structural equation modeling analysis further revealed 39.84% of the variance associated with intention that could be explained by determinants of the theory of planned behavior. Additionally, educational school level and previous pain management training had great effects on pain management intention. Overall, this study identified intention as an important factor in effective pain treatment. Chinese nursing students have negative attitudes and insufficient intention to pain management. Therefore, hospitals and universities in China should manage these factors to improve nursing students' practice regarding pain management. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing
Li, Wing; Graham, Andrew D.
Purpose To utilize the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) to assess the influence of pain sensitivity on perceptions of ocular discomfort and dryness. Methods Subjects completed a battery of questionnaires, including history of ocular and general health, contact lens wear history, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, visual analog scale (VAS) 100-point rating scales to assess severity and frequency of average and end of day (EOD) discomfort and dryness, and the PSQ to assess pain sensitivity level. Masked subjects were then instructed to wear one inverted and one normally oriented soft contact lens contralaterally for 30 minutes to induce an inter-eye difference in comfort and dryness sensations. Subjects rated comfort and dryness in each eye on VAS every 5 minutes during contact lens wear. A slit lamp examination was performed to evaluate ocular surface health and to assess contact lens fit. Results One hundred and fifty-three subjects (111 females, 42 males) completed the study. In separate models, a higher PSQ score was significantly associated with higher OSDI score (p = 0.002), lower average and EOD comfort (p = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively), and greater EOD dryness (p = 0.04). The minimum (0.14) and maximum (7.14) PSQ scores observed in our subject cohort (i.e., from the subjects who were the least and most sensitive to pain, respectively) corresponded to an estimated difference of 11 points on the OSDI, 20 points on the VAS scale for average comfort, 31 points for EOD comfort and 17 points for EOD dryness. In a mixed effects model, a higher PSQ score was significantly associated with a greater inter-eye difference in comfort (p = 0.013) and dryness (p = 0.010) during CL wear. Conclusions Pain sensitivity influences perceptions of ocular discomfort and dryness, and should be taken into account when evaluating subjective assessments of these symptoms. PMID:27137908
Rothaug, Judith; Zaslansky, Ruth; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Komann, Marcus; Allvin, Renée; Backström, Ragnar; Brill, Silviu; Buchholz, Ingo; Engel, Christoph; Fletcher, Dominique; Fodor, Lucian; Funk, Peter; Gerbershagen, Hans J; Gordon, Debra B; Konrad, Christoph; Kopf, Andreas; Leykin, Yigal; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Puig, Margarita; Rawal, Narinder; Taylor, Rod S; Ullrich, Kristin; Volk, Thomas; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Meissner, Winfried
PAIN OUT is a European Commission-funded project aiming at improving postoperative pain management. It combines a registry that can be useful for quality improvement and research using treatment and patient-reported outcome measures. The core of the project is a patient questionnaire-the International Pain Outcomes questionnaire-that comprises key patient-level outcomes of postoperative pain management, including pain intensity, physical and emotional functional interference, side effects, and perceptions of care. Its psychometric quality after translation and adaptation to European patients is the subject of this validation study. The questionnaire was administered to 9,727 patients in 10 languages in 8 European countries and Israel. Construct validity was assessed using factor analysis. Discriminant validity assessment used Mann-Whitney U tests to detect mean group differences between 2 surgical disciplines. Internal consistency reliability was calculated as Cronbach's alpha. Factor analysis resulted in a 3-factor structure explaining 53.6% of variance. Cronbach's alpha at overall scale level was high (.86), and for the 3 subscales was low, moderate, or high (range, .53-.89). Significant mean group differences between general and orthopedic surgery patients confirmed discriminant validity. The psychometric quality of the International Pain Outcomes questionnaire can be regarded as satisfactory. The International Pain Outcomes questionnaire provides an instrument for postoperative pain assessment and improvement of quality of care, which demonstrated good psychometric quality when translated into a variety of languages in a large European and Israeli patient population. This measure provides the basis for the first comprehensive postoperative pain registry in Europe and other countries. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ponce-Monter, Héctor A.; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C.; O'Brien, Jessica P.; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A.
Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643
Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A
Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas.
Matthews, Elizabeth; Malcolm, Colette
Nursing a patient in pain is a challenging task requiring up-to-date knowledge, skilled interventions and attitudes that convey trust, care and an honest belief in what the patient says (Carr, 1997). This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of nurses who have completed a knowledge and competency training programme within an orthopaedic centre (Group one) against a group of nurses who were attending a pain conference who had not completed this programme (Group two). The questionnaire used was the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (Ferrell and McCaffery, 2002). Findings from the survey revealed that there was no significant difference in the total correct responses between the two groups and there was a severe deficit in knowledge relating to questions about non-pharmacological methods of treating pain and opioid use in chronic pain conditions. However Group one had a higher correct response rate (p=0.001) in the vignettes that are based on daily nursing practice.
After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method.
Reneman, Michiel F; Kleen, Marco; Trompetter, Hester R; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Köke, Albère; van Baalen, Bianca; Schreurs, Karlein M G
Psychometric research on widely used questionnaires aimed at measuring experiential avoidance of chronic pain has led to inconclusive results. To test the structural validity, internal consistency, and construct validity of a recently developed short questionnaire: the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II-pain version (AAQ-II-P). Cross-sectional validation study among 388 adult patients with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain admitted for multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation in four tertiary rehabilitation centers in the Netherlands. Cronbach's α was calculated to analyze internal consistency. Principal component analysis was performed to analyze factor structure. Construct validity was analyzed by examining the association between acceptance of pain and measures of psychological flexibility (two scales and sum), pain catastrophizing (three scales and sum), and mental and physical functioning. Interpretation was based on a-priori defined hypotheses. The compound of the seven items of the AAQ-II-P shows a Cronbach's α of 0.87. The single component explained 56.2% of the total variance. Correlations ranged from r=-0.21 to 0.73. Two of the predefined hypotheses were rejected and seven were not rejected. The AAQ-II-P measures a single component and has good internal consistency, and construct validity is not rejected. Thus, the construct validity of the AAQ-II-P sum scores as indicator of experiential avoidance of pain was supported.
Bergman, Hannah E.; Reeve, Bryce B.; Moser, Richard P.; Scholl, Sarah; Klein, William M. P.
Background: Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women in the United States, yet a comprehensive and evidence-based heart disease knowledge assessment is currently not available. Purpose: This paper describes the two-phase development of a novel heart disease knowledge questionnaire. Methods: After review and critique of the…
Rustøen, Tone; Valeberg, Berit Taraldsen; Kolstad, Eva; Wist, Erik; Paul, Steven; Miaskowski, Christine
Inadequate knowledge is one barrier to effective cancer pain management. This study's aim was to evaluate the effects of a psychoeducational intervention (the Norwegian version of the PRO-SELF(©) Pain Control Program) compared with a control group in increasing patients' knowledge of cancer pain management. Adult oncology outpatients with pain from bone metastasis of 2.5 or greater on a 0 to 10 numeric rating scale were randomized into the PRO-SELF (n=87) or control (n=92) groups. Patients completed a demographic questionnaire and the Pain Experience Scale (PES) at the beginning and end of the study to assess their knowledge and attitudes. The six-week intervention consisted of education, skills building, and nurse coaching. Mixed-model analyses with tests of a group×time interaction were done for each of the individual items and total PES scores to evaluate between-group differences in changes in knowledge over time. Except for functional status, no differences were found between the PRO-SELF and control groups on any baseline demographic, clinical, or pain characteristics. Significant group×time interactions were found for all the single item and total PES scores. Compared with the control group, patients in the PRO-SELF group had significant increases in knowledge scores. The use of a knowledge and attitude survey, like the PES, as part of a psychoeducational intervention provides an effective foundation for patient education in cancer pain management. This individualized approach to education about pain management may save staff time and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Vlaeyen, Johan W S
Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article shows how clinical questionnaires can be normed with multiple regression of raw scores on demographic and other patient variables. Compared with traditional norm tables for subgroups based on age or gender, this approach offers 2 advantages. First, multiple regression allows determination of which patient variables are relevant to the norming and which are not (validity). Second, by using information from the entire sample, multiple regression leads to continuous and more stable norms for any subgroup defined in terms of prognostic variables (reliability).
Tonelli, N; Marcolongo, R
To study the images which depict the damned's sufferings in Dante's Inferno, in their expression of the several meanings of "pain", the semantics of "pain" in the poem has been analyzed, eventually trying to determine whether the organization of punishments of Inferno may somehow mirror a disability scale. A detailed analysis of the text was carried out, which proved a valuable tool for interpreting the organization of punishments as a possible disability scale. The semantics of pain in the Divine Comedy was studied through all the forms of the pain descriptors (included the archaic terminological forms) from the Italian version of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ) by Maiani and Sanavio. In Dante's Inferno a classification of pain is provided, based on the experience of sufferings; Dante's images seem not only instrumental to investigating the sensorial but also the affective and intellectual spheres by introducing a number of characters and describing the impact of punishment onto their souls. Our research highlighted that 46 out of 78 terms from the MGPQ are present in Inferno, though with different forms; the Groups the MGPQ is divided into are also represented with the exception of Group XII, the most frequently detected being Groups XIII-which studies the fear-related sensations in the emotional sphere - XIV, XIX and XX. The great attention emerges that Dante devoted to describing simple sensorial experiences as well as the way punishments affected the soul. As a whole, the terms pertaining to the sensorial sphere are the most frequently encountered. The lack of motion which increases circle after circle in Hell, well matches the progressing physical and psychological impairment caused by some invalidating diseases. Noticeably, Dante created such a complex system centuries before the studies were released on the impact of pain and its quantitative and mostly qualitative definition. In conclusion, this interpretation suggests that the writing on the door to
Esteve, R; Ramírez-Maestre, C; López-Martínez, A E
The Spanish version of the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire has not been validated. The aims of this study were to examine the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire and present empirical evidence regarding its validity. A sample of 468 chronic back pain patients completed a battery of instruments to assess fear-avoidance beliefs, pain anxiety, pain catastrophizing, pain vigilance and awareness, pain acceptance, depression, anxiety, disability, and pain intensity. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of a nine-item version with two subscales: Active Vigilance and Passive Awareness. Both subscales and the total score were positively and significantly correlated with other fear-related constructs: fear-avoidance beliefs, pain anxiety, and pain catastrophizing. Regression analyses showed that Active Vigilance and the two subscales of the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire were significantly associated with higher anxiety and that the Acceptance Activity Engagement subscale was significantly associated with lower anxiety. The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire-Physical subscale was associated with higher disability and the Acceptance Pain Willingness subscale was associated with lower disability. The Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire-Work subscale was significantly associated with higher pain intensity and depression; the Acceptance Activity Engagement and Pain Willingness subscales were significantly associated with lower pain intensity and depression. The Spanish version of the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument. Pain Acceptance and Fear Avoidance beliefs are better predictors of adjustment to pain than pain hypervigilance.
Schroeder, S; Hechler, T; Denecke, H; Müller-Busch, M; Martin, A; Menke, A; Zernikow, B
A multidimensional assessment of chronic pain is the most important tool for diagnosis and treatment. While the German Pain Questionnaire is routinely implemented in the treatment of adults with chronic pain, similar questionnaires are scarce for children and adolescents. It was the aim of the present study to report on the development and quality of a multimodal questionnaire assessing all relevant aspects of chronic pain in children and adolescents. The quality of the questionnaire was assessed (1) by implementing the questionnaire in a sample of children and adolescents suffering from chronic pain (aged 4-18 years), (2) by analysing missing items in the child, adolescent and parent version and (3) by analysing experts' ratings of the questionnaire. The German Pain Questionnaire for Children, Adolescents and Parents (DSF-KJ) was developed on the basis of the biopsychosocial model of chronic pain in experts' meetings. The DSF-KJ entails an assessment of sociodemographic variables, pain characteristics, triggering factors, previous pain treatment, pain-related disability and cognitive and emotional factors related to the pain experience. A total of 284 children and adolescents who presented for pain treatment in our tertiary institute completed the DSF-KJ. Eleven pain experts rated the questionnaire regarding its utility for diagnosis and treatment. With the use of the DSF-KJ, a detailed sample description was derived on the basis of the biopsychosocial model. More adolescent girls than boys presented to the institute. The majority of the children and adolescents suffered from headache and were severely affected by their chronic pain. Children and adolescents displayed similar pain characteristics. However, adolescents were more disabled due to chronic pain and had already undergone a variety of pain treatments. These differences may reflect an ongoing chronification in adolescents. Children, adolescents and their parents filled in the questionnaire thoroughly with
Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Tavakol, Mohsen; Dennick, Reg
It is well documented that pain management and pain assessment is an indispensible part of the nursing care of patients. This study sought to quantify the current knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Iran about pain management. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a well-validated questionnaire entitled the 'Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain Tool', previously used to evaluate undergraduate nursing students. Results from the survey questionnaire showed that there was a severe deficit in knowledge relating to pain and its management. It is argued that there is a real need for improving the content of pain and its management in the undergraduate nursing education curriculum, which might improve the delivery of optimal nursing care of patients. The limitations of the study are discussed and some recommendations are made for reforming pain management education for future practice.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676
Roy, Tanja C; Fish, Karen L; Lopez, Heather P; Piva, Sara R
Soldiers must perform a variety of physical tasks that the civilian population does not. The Modified Oswestry Disability Index (M-ODI) is the most widely used measure of function in patients with low back pain but does not include military tasks. The Military Low Back Pain Questionnaire (MBQ) was developed by military Physical Therapists to include tasks such as wearing body armor. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary evidence for the reliability, responsiveness, and validity of the MBQ in nondeployed Soldiers. The MBQ had good reliability compared to the M-ODI. The inter-rater correlation coefficient for the M-ODI was 0.79 and 0.75 for the MBQ. Cronbach's alpha was 0.75 and 0.85 for the M-ODI and MBQ, respectively. The minimal detectable change for the M-ODI was 21.03 and 22.97 for the MBQ. Responsiveness was assessed using a global rating of change; area under the curve for the M-ODI was 0.82 and 0.90 for the MBQ. The correlation between the M-ODI and the MBQ was r = 0.80 indicating good concurrent validity. The MBQ was as reliable as the M-ODI in an Army population. There were trends in the psychometrics suggesting the MBQ may be more sensitive to change than the M-ODI in this population. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Dunn, Kelly E.; Barrett, Frederick S.; Yepez-Laubach, Claudia; Meyer, Andrew C.; Hruska, Bryce J.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Fingerhood, Michael; Bigelow, George E.
Background: Opioid overdose is a public health crisis. This study describes efforts to develop and validate the Brief Opioid Overdose Knowledge (BOOK) questionnaire to assess patient knowledge gaps related to opioid overdose risks. Methods: Two samples of illicit opioid users and a third sample of patients receiving an opioid for the treatment of chronic pain (total N = 848) completed self-report items pertaining to opioid overdose risks. Results: A 3-factor scale was established, representing Opioid Knowledge (4 items), Opioid Overdose Knowledge (4 items), and Opioid Overdose Response Knowledge (4 items). The scale had strong internal and face validity. Patients with chronic pain performed worse than illicit drug users in almost all items assessed, highlighting the need to increase knowledge of opioid overdose risk to this population. Conclusions: This study sought to develop a brief, internally valid method for quickly assessing deficits in opioid overdose risk areas within users of illicit and prescribed opioids, to provide an efficient metric for assessing and comparing educational interventions, facilitate conversations between physicians and patients about overdose risks, and help formally identify knowledge deficits in other patient populations. PMID:27504923
Main, Chris J
The McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ) and its later derivative the short form-MPQ have been used widely both in experimental and clinical pain studies. They have been of considerable importance in stimulating research into the perception of pain and now, with the publication of its latest variant, the short form-MPQ-2, it is appropriate to appraise their utility in the light of subsequent research into the nature of pain and the purpose of pain assessment. Following a description of the content and development of the questionnaires, issues of validity, reliability, and utility are addressed, not only in terms of the individual pain descriptors and the scales, but also in terms of methods of quantification. In addition, other methods of pain depiction are considered. In the second part of the review, advances in pain measurement and methodology, in the elucidation of pain mechanisms and pathways, in the psychology of pain, and in the nature of pain behavior are presented and their implications for pain assessment in general and the MPQ family of measures in particular will be addressed. It is suggested that pain assessment needs to be cast in its social context. We need to understand the influences on pain expression using a socio-communication model of pain that recognizes the function of pain and the importance of both innate pain responses and the effects of social learning. The review concludes with recommendations for future use of the MPQ and identifies a number of research challenges which lie ahead.
Jho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeol; Kong, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Nam, Eun Jeong; Choi, Jin Young; Koh, Sujin; Hwang, Kwan Ok; Baek, Sun Kyung; Park, Eun Jung
Medical professionals' practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea. A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pain management, the perceived barriers to cancer pain control, and processes perceived as the major causes of delay in opioid administration. A total of 333 questionnaires (149 physicians and 284 nurses) were analyzed. Nurses performed pain assessment and documentation more regularly than physicians did. Although physicians had better knowledge of pain management than did nurses, both groups lacked knowledge regarding the side effects and pharmacology of opioids. Physicians working in the palliative care ward and nurses who had received pain management education obtained higher scores on knowledge. Physicians perceived patients' reluctance to take opioids as a barrier to pain control, more so than did nurses, while nurses perceived patients' tendency to under-report of pain as a barrier, more so than did physicians. Physicians and nurses held different perceptions regarding major cause of delay during opioid administration. There were differences between physicians and nurses in knowledge and practices for cancer pain management. An effective educational strategy for cancer pain management is needed in order to improve medical professionals' knowledge and clinical practices.
Alzghoul, Bashar I; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew
Pain is one of the most common reasons that drive people to go to hospitals. It has been found that several factors affect the practices of pain management. In this regard, this study aimed at investigating the underlying determinants in terms of pain management practices. Based on reviewing the previous studies and the suggestions of the KAP model, it was hypothesized that the main elements of the KAP model (attitudes and knowledge) significantly predict the variation in the practices of nurses regarding pain management. A questionnaire comprising the KAP model' s constructs, i.e. knowledge and attitude towards pain management, as well as pain management practices, was used to collect data from 266 registered nurses (n=266) who are deemed competent in the management of patients' pain in the Jordanian public hospitals. The two constructs, attitude and knowledge, which are the main determinants of the KAP model were found to independently predict nurses' practices of managing patients' pain. Knowledge of pain management was found to be the strongest predictor. Additionally, it was found that about 69% of the variance in pain management could be explained by the constructs of the KAP model. Therefore, it is recommended that the Jordanian hospitals and universities focus on nurses' knowledge and attitude towards pain management in order to enhance their practices in the field of pain management.
Guadagnin, Simone C; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Dutra, Eliane S; de Carvalho, Kênia M B; Ito, Marina K
Workplace dietary intervention studies in low- and middle-income countries using psychometrically sound measures are scarce. This study aimed to validate a nutrition knowledge questionnaire (NQ) and its utility in evaluating the changes in knowledge among participants of a Nutrition Education Program (NEP) conducted at the workplace. A NQ was tested for construct validity, internal consistency and discriminant validity. It was applied in a NEP conducted at six workplaces, in order to evaluate the effect of an interactive or a lecture-based education programme on nutrition knowledge. Four knowledge domains comprising twenty-three items were extracted in the final version of the NQ. Internal consistency of each domain was significant, with Kuder-Richardson formula values>0·60. These four domains presented a good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the discriminant validity test, both the Expert and Lay groups scored>0·52, but the Expert group scores were significantly higher than those of the Lay group in all domains. When the NQ was applied in the NEP, the overall questionnaire scores increased significantly because of the NEP intervention, in both groups (P<0·001). However, the increase in NQ scores was significantly higher in the interactive group than in the lecture group, in the overall score (P=0·008) and in the healthy eating domain (P=0·009). The validated NQ is a short and useful tool to assess gain in nutrition knowledge among participants of NEP at the workplace. According to the NQ, an interactive nutrition education had a higher impact on nutrition knowledge than a lecture programme.
Holl, Rita M; Carmack, Jennifer
The complexity of pain requires nurses to conduct in-depth assessments, be knowledgeable about influential factors (ie, age, culture, health status), and treat pain with the least harmful and most beneficial interventions. The monotherapy use of analgesics, the fifth vital sign, and a 1-dimensional scale have fallen short of satisfactory results. Pain is the most frequent reason individuals seek health care and cost billions of dollars. Nurses are pivotal in the management of pain. Nurses who are knowledgeable about pain and pain management improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction scores. Research results indicate the need to advance nurses' knowledge in pain management through various educational offerings.
Jones, Anna Marie; Lamp, Cathi; Neelon, Marisa; Nicholson, Yvonne; Schneider, Connie; Wooten Swanson, Patti; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri
To determine the validity and reliability of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire for adults in California. A convenience sample of adults was recruited for cognitive interviews. A mail-based survey of 400 randomly selected addresses was used to assess internal consistency (Cronbach α). Researchers assessed content validity (Student t test) and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation) in a convenience sample of university students who had previously taken a college nutrition course, compared with students who had not. Twenty adults participated in cognitive interviews, 94 adults returned the mailed questionnaire, and 48 university students participated in validity and reliability testing. Cronbach α = .91 and test-retest r = 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. Students who had taken a college-level nutrition course scored significantly higher compared with students who had not (P < .001), demonstrating construct validity. Findings show that the questionnaire is a valid and reliable nutrition knowledge measure for use in California and may be of use in other places. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chng, Hui Yi; He, Hong-Gu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; Zhu, Lixia; Cheng, Karis Kin Fong
To examine parents' knowledge about and attitudes towards pain management, use of pain relief strategies and satisfaction with their children's postoperative pain management, as well as the relationships among these variables. Children's postoperative pain is inadequately managed worldwide. Despite increasing emphasis on parental involvement in children's postoperative pain management, few studies have examined parents' management of their child's postoperative pain in Singapore. A descriptive correlational study. A convenience sample of 60 parents having 6- to 14-year-old children undergoing inpatient elective surgery in a public hospital in Singapore was recruited. Data were collected one day after each child's surgery using the Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes questionnaire and the Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analyses. Parents displayed moderate levels of knowledge, attitudes and use of pain relief methods in relation to their children's postoperative pain and pain management. They were generally satisfied with the management of their child's postoperative pain. There was significant difference in Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies scores between parents with and without previous experience of caring for their hospitalised child. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between parents' knowledge and attitude, knowledge and satisfaction, attitude and satisfaction, knowledge and pain relief strategies, as well as attitude and pain relief strategies. This study indicates the need to provide parents with more information regarding their children's postoperative pain management. Future studies are needed to develop educational interventions for parents to improve their knowledge and attitudes, which will eventually improve their use of pain relief strategies for their children. Health
Gómez Fernández-Vegue, M; Menéndez Orenga, M
Pediatricians play a key role in the onset and duration of breastfeeding. Although it is known that they lack formal education on this subject, there are currently no validated tools available to assess pediatrician knowledge regarding breastfeeding. To develop and validate a Breastfeeding Knowledge and Skills Questionnaire for Pediatricians. Once the knowledge areas were defined, a representative sample of pediatricians was chosen to carry out the survey. After pilot testing, non-discriminating questions were removed. Content validity was assessed by 14 breastfeeding experts, who examined the test, yielding 22 scorable items (maximum score: 26 points). To approach criterion validity, it was hypothesized that a group of pediatricians with a special interest in breastfeeding (1) would obtain better results than pediatricians from a hospital without a maternity ward (2), and the latter would obtain a higher score than the medical residents of Pediatrics training in the same hospital (3). The questionnaire was also evaluated before and after a basic course in breastfeeding. Breastfeeding experts have an index of agreement of >.90 for each item. The 3 groups (n=82) were compared, finding significant differences between group (1) and the rest. Moreover, an improvement was observed in the participants who attended the breastfeeding course (n=31), especially among those with less initial knowledge. Regarding reliability, internal consistency (KR-20=.87), interobserver agreement, and temporal stability were examined, with satisfactory results. A practical and self-administered tool is presented to assess pediatrician knowledge regarding breastfeeding, with a documented validity and reliability. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Juckett, David A.; Davis, Fred N.; Gostine, Mark; Kasten, Eric P.; Reed, Philip L.; Gardiner, Joseph; Risko, Rebecca
We examined the consistency of pain reporting by patients in a community pain management practice in Michigan. We compared pain levels (range 0-10) entered by patients in questionnaires versus those provided during their face-to-face physician encounter on the same day. Both of these values were available for approximately 10,000 encounters during the study period (2010–2014). Two subpopulations of patients were identifiable. One was consistent in reporting worst or least pain levels on the questionnaire and during the provider encounter. The other was discordant. Factor analysis had previously identified severity scales for patient biopsychosocial characteristics derived from the full questionnaire. The two subpopulations differed in their factor profiles even though they had similar demographics. In general, pain reported directly to physicians was more correlated to biopsychosocial indicators. Pain self-reporting using questionnaires has often been assumed to be ground truth, but those obtained during the physician encounter may be more reliable. PMID:28269863
Gupta, Nidhi; Zidan, Marwan; Moltz, Kathleen; Adhikari, Amita; Buggs-Saxton, Colleen; Zidan, Hanaa; Abushanab, Dania; Lteif, Aida; Edwin, Chandra
Objective: While there is general agreement that patient education is essential for compliance, no objective tools exist to assess knowledge in children and parents of children with endocrine disorders. We aimed to design and validate a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire (PEKAQ) for congenital hypothyroidism, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, isolated growth hormone deficiency, Graves’ disease, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We evaluated baseline knowledge of children and parents of children with these disorders and assessed impact of educational intervention. Methods: At baseline, 77 children (12-18 years) and 162 parents of children 1-18 years participated in this prospective intervention study. Educational handouts for five targeted disorders were designed. Following one-on-one educational intervention, 55 children and 123 parents participated. Baseline and post-intervention knowledge scores were compared using McNemar’s test. Results: Adequate multi-rater Kappa measure of agreement was achieved for children’s (0.70) and parent’s (0.75) PEKAQs. Flesch Reading Ease Score for both PEKAQs (15 questions each) was 65. Post-intervention, significantly higher proportion of parents and children answered majority of questions correctly (p<0.05). Sixteen percent more parents and 22% more children knew their diagnosis correctly (p<0.05). Significant improvement was noted among all participants regarding reason for treatment, steps to take in a situation of missed dose, exercise and diet with these disorders, and long-term prognosis. Parent’s knowledge score was an independent predictor of child’s score. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first validated PEKAQ that can be used widely in pediatric endocrinology clinics. We noted significant improvement in knowledge of children and parents of children with endocrine disorders. PMID:27353948
Aboud, Frances E; Hiwot, Mismay G; Arega, Adefris; Molla, Mesfin; Samson, S; Seyoum, Nebyou; Ressom, Shewangizaw; Worku, Solomon; Mulatu, Mesfin; Egale, Tewedros
This paper presents for the first time an Amharic translation of the McGill Pain Questionnaire developed by Melzack and used in many countries around the world. It allows for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the intensity, location, and nature of experienced pain, as well as conditions that relieve pain. Data collected from one hundred patients attending the Zwai Health Center indicated that 81% reported pain at the time, one-quarter of whom were in severe pain. The most commonly chosen descriptors were: burning, stabbing, sore, gnawing, aching, and cramping. Descriptors were often associated with certain diagnoses: burning with gastrointestinal problems, stabbing with respiratory diseases, and gnawing or aching with myalgia/neuralgia. Approximately 40% of those in pain had previously sought relief from a clinic or pharmacy and were attending the center because the pain persisted. Analgesics were more likely to be prescribed for those in mild pain, while other medication without analgesics were prescribed for those in severe pain. The McGill Pain Questionnaire--Amharic (MPQ-Am) could be a useful tool for future studies of illness-specific pain, and of the effectiveness of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies for pain management.
Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Marziniak, Martin; Stumpenhorst, Frederike; Reinholz, Julia; Knecht, Stefan
Experimental determination of pain sensitivity has received increasing attention because of emerging clinical applications (including prediction of postoperative pain and treatment response) and scientific implications (e.g. it has been proposed that above-average pain sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of chronic pain disorders). However, the use of experimental pain sensitivity assessment on a broad scale is hampered by its requirements on time, equipment and human resources and the fact that it is painful for the tested subject. Alternatives to experimental pain testing are currently lacking. Here we developed a self-rating instrument for the assessment of pain sensitivity, the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) that is based on pain intensity ratings of daily life situations and takes 5-10min to complete. Adequate reliability of the PSQ was confirmed in 354 subjects. In a validation study comprising 47 healthy subjects, the results of comprehensive experimental pain testing, including different modalities (heat, cold, pressure, and pinprick) and different measures (pain thresholds, pain intensity ratings), were compared to the results of the PSQ. PSQ scores were significantly correlated to experimental pain intensity ratings (r = 0.56, p < 0.001) but not to pain thresholds (r = 0.03). Prediction of experimental pain intensity ratings by the PSQ was better than by pain-associated psychological factors (pain catastrophizing, depression, anxiety). This shows that the PSQ may be a simple alternative to experimental pain intensity rating procedures in healthy subjects and makes the PSQ a highly promising tool for clinical and experimental pain research.
Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi
Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed.
Sykioti, Panagiota; Zis, Panagiotis; Vadalouca, Athina; Siafaka, Ioanna; Argyra, Eriphili; Bouhassira, Didier; Stavropoulou, Evmorfia; Karandreas, Nikolaos
The Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire (DN4) was developed by the French Neuropathic Pain Group and is a simple and objective tool, primarily designed to screen for neuropathic pain. The aim of our study is to validate the DN4 in the Greek language. The study was set up as a prospective observational study. Two pain specialists independently examined patients and diagnosed them with neuropathic, nociceptive, or mixed pain, according to the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) definitions. A third and a fourth physician administered the DN4 questionnaire to the patients. Out of the 237 patients who met our inclusion criteria and had identical diagnoses regarding the type of pain, 123 were diagnosed with neuropathic, 59 with nociceptive, and 55 with mixed pain. Among patients with identical diagnoses of neuropathic or nociceptive pain, using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.92. A cutoff point of equal or greater than 4 resulted in a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 78%. Among patients suffering from pain with neuropathic element (neuropathic or mixed pain) or pain with no neuropathic element (nociceptive pain), using a ROC curve analysis, the AUC was 0.89. A cutoff point of equal or greater than 4 resulted in a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 78%. The Greek version of DN4 is a valid tool for discriminating between neuropathic and nociceptive pain conditions in daily practice. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.
Hunter, Judith P; Stinson, Jennifer; Campbell, Fiona; Stevens, Bonnie; Wagner, Susan J; Simmons, Brian; White, Meghan; van Wyk, Margaret
Health care trainees⁄students lack knowledge and skills for the comprehensive clinical assessment and management of pain. Moreover, most teaching has been limited to classroom settings within each profession. To develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the 'Pain-Interprofessional Education (IPE) Placement', a five-week pain IPE implemented in the clinical setting. The utility (content validity, readability, internal consistency and practical considerations) of the outcome measures was also evaluated. A convenience sample of 21 trainees from eight professions was recruited over three Pain-IPE Placement cycles. Pre- and postcurriculum assessment included: pain knowledge (Pediatric Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Survey), IPE attitudes (Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale [IEPS]) and IPE competencies (Interprofessional Care Core Competencies Global Rating Scales [IPC-GRS]), and qualitative feedback on process⁄acceptability. Recruitment and retention met expectations. Qualitative feedback was excellent. IPE measures (IEPS and IPC-GRS) exhibited satisfactory utility. Postcurriculum scores improved significantly: IEPS, P<0.05; IPC-GRS constructs, P<0.01; and competencies, P<0.001. However, the Pediatric Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Survey exhibited poor utility in professions without formal pharmacology training. Scores improved in the remaining professions (n=14; P<0.01). There was significant improvement in educational outcomes. The IEPS and IPC-GRS are useful measures of IPE-related learning. At more advanced training levels, a single pain-knowledge questionnaire may not accurately reflect learning across diverse professions. The Pain-IPE Placement is a successful collaborative learning model within a clinical context that successfully changed interprofessional competencies. The present study represents a first step at defining and assessing change in interprofessional competencies gained from Pain-IPE.
Hunter, Judith P; Stinson, Jennifer; Campbell, Fiona; Stevens, Bonnie; Wagner, Susan J; Simmons, Brian; White, Meghan; van Wyk, Margaret
BACKGROUND: Health care trainees/students lack knowledge and skills for the comprehensive clinical assessment and management of pain. Moreover, most teaching has been limited to classroom settings within each profession. OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the ‘Pain-Interprofessional Education (IPE) Placement’, a five-week pain IPE implemented in the clinical setting. The utility (content validity, readability, internal consistency and practical considerations) of the outcome measures was also evaluated. METHODS: A convenience sample of 21 trainees from eight professions was recruited over three Pain-IPE Placement cycles. Pre- and postcurriculum assessment included: pain knowledge (Pediatric Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Survey), IPE attitudes (Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale [IEPS]) and IPE competencies (Interprofessional Care Core Competencies Global Rating Scales [IPC-GRS]), and qualitative feedback on process/acceptability. RESULTS: Recruitment and retention met expectations. Qualitative feedback was excellent. IPE measures (IEPS and IPC-GRS) exhibited satisfactory utility. Postcurriculum scores improved significantly: IEPS, P<0.05; IPC-GRS constructs, P<0.01; and competencies, P<0.001. However, the Pediatric Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Survey exhibited poor utility in professions without formal pharmacology training. Scores improved in the remaining professions (n=14; P<0.01). DISCUSSION: There was significant improvement in educational outcomes. The IEPS and IPC-GRS are useful measures of IPE-related learning. At more advanced training levels, a single pain-knowledge questionnaire may not accurately reflect learning across diverse professions. CONCLUSION: The Pain-IPE Placement is a successful collaborative learning model within a clinical context that successfully changed interprofessional competencies. The present study represents a first step at defining and assessing change in interprofessional
Simons, Laura E.; Sieberg, Christine B.; Kaczynski, Karen J.
Parent perceptions of and responses to pain have been identified as important factors in understanding pain-related disability among children and adolescents with chronic pain. The ability to “accept” chronic pain rather than focus on ways to avoid or control it has been linked to positive outcomes in chronic pain research. To examine parent beliefs about child acceptance of pain, the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, parent report (CPAQ-P) was developed and administered to 195 parents of children with persistent pain evaluated in a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Analyses support the internal consistency of the CPAQ-P (α= .89) and one-month stability estimates were acceptable for the total scale score (α= .72) and results suggest some responsivity to change. Exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor model with four items removed from the original 20-item measure. Confirmatory factor analysis strongly supported the modified version. For construct validity, parent beliefs about child acceptance were negatively correlated with parent pain catastrophizing and parent fear of pain. Greater acceptance was also negatively associated protective parent responses to pain. These results support the CPAQ-P as a promising measure for assessing parent beliefs about child acceptance of pain and reinforce the importance of the social context and parental influence on child functioning. PMID:21783324
Christiansen, Peer; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg
Purpose Persistent pain is a common side effect of breast cancer treatment. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence, associated treatment-related factors, and the type of pain (neuropathic or nociceptive) in patients who had undergone a unilateral mastectomy. Methods All women who underwent a unilateral mastectomy at a University Hospital between 2009 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Women with breast reconstruction or active cancer were excluded. Participants were mailed a questionnaire evaluating the prevalence, location, intensity, and frequency of surgical site pain. Additionally, the painDETECT®, a validated instrument to evaluate neuropathic pain, was mailed to all participants. Results A total of 305 women were included, and of them, 261 (85.6%) completed the study questionnaire. After a median follow-up period of 3.0 years, 100 women (38.3%) reported experiencing pain at the surgical site. Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, radiation therapy, and axillary lymph node dissection were significantly associated with persistent pain in univariate models. However, only body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 was independently associated with persistent pain (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.27; p=0.034) in a multivariate analysis. Of the patients reporting pain, 71.0% were unlikely to have a neuropathic pain component. A moderate, but highly significant, positive correlation was observed between the pain intensity and the painDETECT® score (rs=0.47, p<0.001). Conclusion Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment continues to have a high prevalence. Our results indicate that the largest proportion of patients experiencing persistent pain after breast cancer treatment do not have a clear neuropathic pain component. PMID:28053634
Fletcher, Claire; Bradnam, Lynley; Barr, Christopher
Chronic pain is prevalent in the western world; however fear of pain often has a greater impact than the degree of initial injury. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between knowledge of the neurophysiology of pain and fear avoidance in individuals diagnosed with chronic pain. Twenty-nine people with chronic musculoskeletal pain were recruited and completed questionnaires to determine their understanding of pain neurophysiology and the degree of their fear avoidance beliefs. There was an inverse relationship between knowledge of pain neurophysiology and the level of fear avoidance. Patients with higher pain knowledge reported less fear avoidance and lower perceived disability due to pain. There was no relationship with the educational level or compensable status for either variable. The findings suggest that fear avoidance is positively influenced by neurophysiology of pain education, so that a higher level of pain knowledge is associated with less activity-related fear. The clinical implication is that reducing fear avoidance/kinesiophobia using neurophysiology of pain education in people with chronic pain may provide an effective strategy to help manage fear avoidance and related disability in the chronic pain population in order to improve treatment outcomes.
Sharp, T J; Nicholas, M K
Contemporary reviews of psychological models of chronic pain have favoured behavioural and cognitive-behavioural formulations. These have often assumed that pain behaviours are maintained by environmental reinforcers. One of the most commonly hypothesized sources of reinforcement has been patients' significant others. Further, it has often been recognized that significant others may also be affected by pain behaviours and that they may experience changes in their lifesyles and in their mood as a consequence of living with someone who has pain. Somewhat surprisingly, relatively little clinical research has been published investigating significant others and their relationships with pain patients. Among other things, one of the limiting factors has been the lack of measurement tools available for assessing the relevant variables thought to be important with regards to significant others (such as their responses to, and perceptions of, chronic pain). This study attempted to remedy this situation by developing and testing the psychometric properties of a number of questionnaires specifically designed for significant others of chronic pain patients. The questionnaires have been selected to assess both significant others' (behavioural and cognitive) responses to pain as well as the extent to which pain impacts on their lives. Although not all of the questionnaires were found to possess equally strong psychometric properties, the availability of several solid measures opens the way for more empirical analyses of significant others and their interactions with chronic pain patients.
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management.
Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen
Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…
Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen
Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…
Mich, Patrice M; Hellyer, Peter W; Kogan, Lori; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
The prevention and management of pain is fundamental to the practice of both human and veterinary medicine. The recognition and treatment of pain represents an important indicator of the quality of care delivered in human hospitals and veterinary hospitals. Yet, both human and veterinary health care professionals have cited inadequate knowledge as a significant barrier to effective pain management. The aims of this pilot study were twofold: (1) to gauge veterinary medical students' current attitudes regarding their training in pain management and (2) to assess the impact of training and practice on the use of a canine acute pain assessment teaching tool. Participants, third-year professional veterinary medical students, completed a 16-item survey questionnaire before a 30-minute training session on pain assessment using the teaching tool and completed it again after training and a one-week practice period. Questions related to canine pain, assessment of canine pain, pain management education in the professional veterinary curriculum, and an example case presentation (video) were included in the survey. The analysis of survey results indicated that professional veterinary medicine students find value in didactic and clinical training in canine pain assessment. Additionally, use of the canine acute pain teaching tool in conjunction with a training program improved students' knowledge and skill in assessment while pointing out the importance of further training. Differences with regard to gender and tracking were found and warrant further exploration.
Salvadó-Hernández, Cristina; Fuentelsaz-Gallego, Carmen; Arcay-Veira, Carmen; López-Meléndez, Concepción; Villar-Arnal, Teresa; Casas-Segala, Neus
Identify the knowledge and attitudes on pain by nurses in general surgery and oncology units in Level III hospitals, and to find out if there are any differences between groups. A multicentre, observational, analytical and cross-sectional study conducted in the general surgery and oncology units in 5 Spanish level III hospitals. Study subjects were all nurses working in these units. We collected demographic variables, as well as employment and training on the level of pain. To assess the knowledge and attitudes the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain questionnaire was used. Of the 236 questionnaires delivered, 170 were successfully completed (72%). A total of 96 nurses (58%) indicated that they had received specific training on pain. A large majority, 85% (145) felt that patients should not have pain, and 14.7% (25) said it was normal that they should have moderate or intense pain. A total of 93.8% (152) were in agreement that the person to assess the intensity of pain more accurately is the patient, 46% (74) considered that 10% of patients exaggerated the intensity of pain. The majority, 61.9% (52), did not know the equivalence between oral and intravenous morphine. The overall median of correct answers, of which there was 37 in the questionnaire, was 18 (min=0, max=28), categorized as a score of 0 to 10, the median was 5 (min=0, max=8). The level of knowledge that the nurses studied had on pain was not very high. Specific training is required and its impact evaluated.
Salantera, Sanna; Lauri, Sirkka
Finnish nursing students (n=85) specializing in child nursing had mainly positive attitudes about caring for children in pain, but lacked knowledge of medications and pain assessment. There were no knowledge differences between older and younger students or those with more or less work experience. (SK)
Rienstra, Wietske; Blikman, Tim; Mensink, Frans B; van Raay, Jos J A M; Dijkstra, Baukje; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Stevens, Martin; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
There is a growing amount of evidence that alteration in pain processing by the peripheral and central nervous system play a role in osteoarthritis pain, leading to neuropathic-like symptoms. It is essential to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile in order to offer such patients education and additional treatment options besides conventional pain treatment. The painDETECT Questionnaire is a self-report questionnaire developed to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain. This questionnaire was modified to fit patients suffering from knee osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the modified painDETECT Questionnaire to the Dutch language and to provide a modified version to fit patients with hip osteoarthritis. Reliability for internal consistency, repeatability and floor and ceiling effects were subsequently assessed. A total of 278 patients were included in the reliability study and 123 patients in the repeatability analysis. The Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire shows good internal consistency and small relative measurement errors, represented by a good intraclass correlation coefficient. Absolute measurement error, represented by the Standard Error of Measurement, was acceptable. However, a measurement bias might be present when it comes to repeatability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire to fit hip and knee osteoarthritis patients and to assess internal consistency, reliability and agreement. International guidelines were followed in the translation process and this study has ample sample size with an adequate time interval for repeatability. Based on this study, the Dutch modified painDETECT Questionnaire seems to be fit as a discriminative tool to identify knee and hip osteoarthritis patients with a neuropathic pain profile. Whether it is also suitable as an evaluative tool to record changes over time
Gordon, Debra B; Loeser, John D; Tauben, David; Rue, Tessa; Stogicza, Agnes; Doorenbos, Ardith
The purpose of this study was to develop a brief knowledge survey about chronic noncancer pain that could be used as a reliable and valid measure of a provider's pain management knowledge. This study used a cross-sectional study design. A group of pain experts used a systematic consensus approach to reduce the previously validated KnowPain-50 to 12 questions (2 items per original 6 domains). A purposive sampling of pain specialists and health professionals generated from public lists and pain societies was invited to complete the KnowPain-12 online survey. Between April 4 and September 16, 2012, 846 respondents completed the survey. Respondents included registered nurses (34%), physicians (23%), advanced practice registered nurses (14%), and other allied health professionals and students. Twenty-six percent of the total sample self-identified as "pain specialist." Pain specialists selected the most correct response to the knowledge assessment items more often than did those who did not identify as pain specialists, with the exception of 1 item. KnowPain-12 demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability (α=0.67). Total scores across all 12 items were significantly higher (P<0.0001) among pain specialists compared with respondents who did not self-identify as pain specialists. The psychometric properties of the KnowPain-12 support its potential as an instrument for measuring provider pain management knowledge. The ability to assess pain management knowledge with a brief measure will be useful for developing future research studies and specific pain management knowledge intervention approaches for health care providers.
Beck, Susan L; Brant, Jeannine M; Donohue, Rebecca; Smith, Ellen M Lavoie; Towsley, Gail; Berry, Patricia H; Guo, Jia-Wen; Al-Qaaydeh, Sharifa; Pett, Marjorie A; Donaldson, Gary
To (a) compare pain knowledge and attitudes between nurses with oncology certified nurse (OCN®) status, non-OCN®-certified nurses, and nurses ineligible for certification and (b) examine the relationships among OCN® status, nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain, patient-reported quality of nursing pain care, and pain outcomes. . Prospective, correlational survey design. Patients were nested within nurses. . Six inpatient oncology units in three hospitals. 91 nurses in three states (28 OCN®-certified nurses, 37 noncertified nurses, and 26 not eligible for certification). Certification status was validated for 105 nurses who were matched with a sample of 320 patients. . Nurses completed a survey, and matched adult patients who were experiencing pain rated their pain care quality and pain experience during the past shift. . Demographic characteristics, certification status, and responses to the Nurse Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP), Pain Care Quality Survey-Nursing, and modified Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form). . OCN®-certified nurses scored significantly higher on the NKASRP (82% correct) compared to non-OCN® eligible nurses (76%) and non-OCN® ineligible nurses (74%) (p < 0.001). Only 43% overall achieved a benchmark of 80% correct. No statistically significant relationships existed between (a) certification status and pain care quality or pain outcomes or (b) NKASRP and care quality or outcomes (p > 0.05). . OCN®-certified nurses' knowledge and attitudes related to pain management were superior to noncertified nurses. Neither knowledge and attitudes nor OCN® status were associated with pain care quality or pain outcomes. . Knowledge is necessary but insufficient to improve patient outcomes; providing optimal pain care requires action. Sustained efforts to improve cancer pain management are indicated.
Chatila, Nadwa; Pereira, Bruno; Maarrawi, Joseph; Dallel, Radhouane
The "Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) questionnaire" was developed for screening neuropathic pain. The purpose of this work was to validate the DN4 questionnaire in the standard Arabic language. First, the questionnaire was translated and semantically adapted to Arabic according to the international guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation. Second, a prospective observational study was performed to validate this questionnaire. A total of 195 patients with chronic pain (n = 99 with neuropathic pain and n = 96 without neuropathic pain) were enrolled in the study. The internal consistency Kuder-Richardson's Formula 20 for the whole DN4 questionnaire was 0.86 (P < 0.001) and the intraclass correlation coefficient 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). The test-retest reliability kappa coefficient for each item ranged from 0.92 to 1.00. Using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the areas under the curve were 0.94 and 0.97 for the 7-item DN4 and 10-item DN4, respectively. A cut-off score of 3 resulted in a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 82.3% for the 7-item DN4, while a cut-off score of 5 for the 10-item DN4 resulted in a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 95.8%. Tingling, numbness, and hypoesthesia to touch and to pricking were the most discriminating pain items. The sensitivity and specificity of the 7-item DN4 and 10-item DN4 were not influenced by either pain severity or educational level. In conclusion, this new Arabic version DN4 questionnaire is a simple, reliable, and valid tool for discriminating between neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. It represents a useful tool in clinical setting and population-based studies. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.
Burns, Julie; Magee, Kerstin T; Cooley, Hayley; Hensler, Anne; Montana, Joanne; Shumaker, Daria; Snyder, Jane; Polk, Artisha R
Patients' feedback about their perianesthesia experience at an acute care 609-bed teaching hospital in Washington, DC, indicated that pain management was an area in need of improvement. A nonexperimental descriptive study related to pain management was conducted in the perianesthesia areas to assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers. McCaffrey and Ferrell's 38-item self-report questionnaire was given to anesthesia providers, preoperative nurses, Phase I nurses, and Phase II nurses (N=138). Seventy-two participants responded, yielding a 52% response rate. Results showed a statistically significant difference between the scores of the anesthesia care providers and the preoperative area nurses and between the Phase I nurses and the preoperative nurses. No statistically significant differences were found between the anesthesia providers, and Phase I and Phase II nurses, indicating that at this hospital, nurses who provide postoperative care have similar knowledge and attitudes regarding pain as the anesthesia providers.
Evans, Angela M
Background Leg pain in children, described as growing pains, is a frequent clinical presentation seen by an array of health care professionals. Described since 1823, growing pains continues to puzzle practitioners, yet diagnostic criteria and evidence based treatment is available. Methods The medical literature has been searched exhaustively to access all articles (English language) pertaining to leg pains in children which are ascribed to being 'growing pains'. Results The literature, whilst plentiful in quantity and spanning two centuries, is generally replete with reiterated opinion and anecdote and lacking in scientific rigour. The author searched 45 articles for relevance, determined according to title, abstract and full text, resulting in a yield of 22 original studies and 23 review articles. From the original studies, one small (non-blinded) randomised controlled trial that focused on GP treatment with leg muscle stretching was found. Nine prevalence studies were found revealing disparate estimates. Ten cohort (some case-controlled) studies, which investigated pain attribute differences in affected versus unaffected groups, were found. One series of single case experiment designs and one animal model study were found. Conclusion Growing pains is prevalent in young children, presents frequently in the health care setting where it is poorly managed and is continuing to be researched. A common childhood complaint, growing pains needs to be acknowledged and better managed in the contemporary medical setting. PMID:18822152
Despite the availability of the evidence to guide pain management practices, practices are often sub-optimal with children experiencing moderate to severe pain post-operatively. Limited theoretical knowledge about managing pain has been suggested as one reason for this. Several studies have identified gaps in nurses' theoretical knowledge. However, the affect of theoretical knowledge on pain management practices has not been explored. This explored whether there is a relationship between nurses' theoretical knowledge and the quality of their practices. Nurses (n=13) on one children's surgical ward were shadowed for a five-hour period during two-four shifts. Data about post-operative pain management practices were collected using a pain management checklist and field notes. Nurses (n=12) also completed the revised pain management knowledge test. Questionnaire scores were compared to the observational data. No positive relationship was found between nurses' level of theoretical knowledge and how well they actually managed pain. Nurses did not appear to routinely apply theoretical knowledge in practice. This may explain, at least in part, why pain management practices remain poor despite the evidence to guide practice being readily available. The hypothesis, put forward in other studies, that increasing nurses' theoretical knowledge about pain will improve practices may be overly simplistic.
Öncü, Jülide; Ilişer, Reşat; Kuran, Banu
Psychosocial risk factors are very important in the development of chronicity in low back pain. And Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) is the screening instrument concerning these psychosocial and work-related risk factors in patients with low back pain. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the reliability and construct validity of Turkish version of the ÖMPQ in patients with low back pain. Turkish ÖMPQ was developed using the ``forward-backward translation'' method. It was administered to 120 working Turkish patients with acute-subacute low back pain. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Concurrent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the ÖMPQ with Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ), clinical and demographical variables and assessed with principal component analysis. The Turkish versions was re-tested for 110 patients with acute-subacute low back pain. Test-retest reliability was high with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.93. Internal consistency was 0.96. The ÖMPQ score correlated highly (r> or = 0.60) with VAS-pain, ODI and sick-leave days; moderately (0.30 < r < 0.60) with FABQ and weakly (r< 0.30) with duration of pain and Schober test. Principal-components analysis revealed 3 factors explaining 43% of the variance. ÖMPQ had moderate predictive validity (AUC: 0.66; 95% CI 0.54; 0.81) in identifying patients with spinal pain that were under risk of long-term sick leave (> 15 days). The sensitivity was 0,54 and the specificity was 0.97. Turkish version of ÖMPQ is a valid, reliable, and acceptible instrument among Turkish working population with low back pain.
Escalante, A; Lichtenstein, M J; White, K; Rios, N; Hazuda, H P
Identifying and quantifying the location of pain may be important for understanding specific functional impairments in elderly populations. The purpose of the present analysis was two-fold: first, to describe the reliability of a scoring method for the McGill Pain Map (MPM), and second, to validate the method of scoring the MPM as a tool for assessing areas of body pain in an epidemiologic study. In interviews performed at the subjects' homes, 411 community dwelling Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white subjects aged 65-74 from the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA) were asked to describe the location of their pain on the map of the human body included in the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The location of pain was scored by overlaying the survey figures with a MPM template divided into 36 anatomical areas. Inter- and intra-rater agreement among three raters was measured by calculating a kappa statistic for each of the body areas, and an intraclass correlation coefficient for the total number of painful areas (NPA). Internal validity was measured by Spearman's rho between the NPA and the Present Pain Index (PPI) and Pain Rating Index (PRI) of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and external validity by correlation between NPA and the Perceived Health (PH), Amount of Bodily Pain (APB), and Pain Interference with Work (PIW) items of the Medical Outcomes Study, and the Perceived Physical Health (PPH) question of the San Antonio Heart Study. Average inter-rater agreement for individual MPM areas was 0.92 +/- 0.01, and average agreement for NPA was 0.96 +/- 0.01. Intra-rater agreement for individual areas averaged 0.94 +/- 0.01, and for NPA = 0.99 +/- 0.001. Pain in one or more areas was present in 47.7% of the subjects. For the whole sample, correlations between NPA and the validation indices were: PPI (0.91), PRI (0.89), PH (0.25), ABP (0.64), PIW (0.49), and PPH (0.20). Among the 196 subjects with pain, correlations were: PPI (0.34), PRI (0.34), PH (0.19), ABP
The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Shriner's Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p < .0001). Pediatric nurses in Mongolia demonstrate insufficient knowledge of pediatric pain management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Czerw, Aleksandra; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej; Fronczak, Adam
Pain is one of the most prevalent unpleasant sensation in people that may significantly lower the quality of life. More than a half of cancer patients suffer from various forms of pain, which becomes more frequent and intense as disease progresses. The objective of the study was to assess the degree of pain control in patients diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer. The analysis also covered the effect of socio-economic factors on pain management in patients with the above types of cancer. The study included 902 patients treated at the Outpatient's Department of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center - Institute of Oncology in Warsaw in 2013. The patients consisted of those diagnosed with breast, lung, colorectal or prostate carcinoma. The Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique was applied. A questionnaire interview included demographic-type questions (socio-economic variables) and the Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ) test which measures the power of factors influencing pain control in patients. It was demonstrated that regarding beliefs in the source of pain control, patients attributed the highest importance to the power of doctors (mean value = 16.60) and the lowest to chance events (mean = 15.82). The internal factors are regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. With regards to the locus of pain control, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. With regards to the source of pain management, only the internal control of pain is diversified by the primary site. The external factors were regarded as having the strongest influence by respondents diagnosed with colorectal or breast cancer. The major socio-economic variables differentiating the way in which pain control is perceived are education and net income-per-household-member. The results of analyses of individual groups of patients revealled strong correlations between
Costa, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José
The present study explores whether specific subgroups of patients could be identified based on Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire scores. A battery of self-report questionnaire was used to assess acceptance of pain, self-compassion and psychopathology in 103 participants with chronic pain, from Portuguese health care units. K-Means cluster were performed and the results supported three subgroups of patients (low acceptance subgroup; high acceptance subgroup; intermediate subgroup with activity engagement near to the mean and low willingness to pain). One-way ANOVA's showed that the three subgroups identified differed significantly from each other on psychopathology and self-compassion. Results indicated that the intermediate subgroup presented less depression and stress, compared with the low acceptance subgroup. In what concerns self-compassion, the low acceptance subgroup reported higher self-judgment, isolation and over identification, compared with the intermediate subgroup. These subgroups also differed from each other in common humanity and mindfulness. Implications and clinical utility of the results were discussed, suggesting the increase of willingness to pain as an important key in chronic pain interventions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shafeei, Asrin; Mokhtarinia, Hamid Reza; Maleki-Ghahfarokhi, Azam; Piri, Leila
Observational study. To cross-culturally translate the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (OMPQ) into Persian and then evaluate its psychometric properties (reliability, validity, ceiling, and flooring effects). To the authors' knowledge, prior to this study there has been no validated instrument to screen the risk of chronicity in Persian-speaking patients with low back pain (LBP) in Iran. The OMPQ was specifically developed as a self-administered screening tool for assessing the risk of LBP chronicity. The forward-backward translation method was used for the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire. In total, 202 patients with subacute LBP completed the OMPQ and the pain disability questionnaire (PDQ), which was used to assess convergent validity. 62 patients completed the OMPQ a week later as a retest. Slight changes were made to the OMPQ during the translation/cultural adaptation process; face validity of the Persian version was obtained. The Persian OMPQ showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.89). Its internal consistency was 0.71, and its convergent validity was confirmed by good correlation coefficient between the OMPQ and PDQ total scores (r=0.72, p<0.05). No ceiling or floor effects were observed. The Persian version of the OMPQ is acceptable for the target society in terms of face validity, construct validity, reliability, and consistency. It is therefore considered a useful instrument for screening Iranian patients with LBP.
Krekmanova, Larisa; Hakeberg, Magnus; Robertson, Agneta; Klingberg, Gunilla
The aim of the study was to reduce everyday and dental treatment pain items included in the extended Children's Pain Inventory (CPI), used in a prior study on Swedish children and adolescents. Another aim was to, by means of exploratory factor analysis (EFA), expose hitherto undiscovered dimensions of the CPI pain variables and thus to improve the psychometric properties of CPI. As some pain items are relevant merely to some individuals, a new and more useful questionnaire construction would enhance the internal validity of the instrument in observational surveys. EFA was applied on the extended CPI instrument. 368 children, 8-19 years old, had answered a questionnaire comprising 10 dental and 28 everyday pain variables. These pain items were analysed using a series of sequentially implemented EFA. Interpretations and decisions on the final number of the extracted factors was based on accepted principles; Kaiser's Eigenvalue >1 criterion, inspection of the scree plot and the interpretability of the items loading. The factors were orthogonally rotated using the Varimax method to maximize the amount of variance. Of all tested EFA models in the analysis, a two, three, four, and five factor model surfaced. The interpretability of the factors and their items loading were stepwise examined; the items were modulated and the factors re-evaluated. A four factor pain model emerged as the most interpretable, explaining 79% of the total variance depicting Eigenvalues > 1.014. The factors were named indicating the profile of the content: Factor I cutting trauma to skin/mucosal pain, Factor II head/neck pain, Factor III tenderness/blunt trauma pain, Factor IV oral/dental treatment pain.
Sarallah, Shojaei; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Joan, Wagner
Study Design Psychometric evaluation design. Purpose Psychometric evaluation of a multidisciplinary work-related low back pain predictor questionnaire (MWRLBPPQ) of Iranians patient-care workers based on the social cognitive theory. Overview of Literature Healthcare is one of the professions in which work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent. The chronic low back pain experienced by patient caregivers can negatively impact their professional performance, and patient handling in a hospital is the main cause of low back pain in this population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran from July 2014 to November 2014. A MWRLBPPQ based on nine concepts of the social cognitive theory and existing literature regarding chronic low back pain was developed. Ten patient-care workers first completed the questionnaire as a pilot test, allowing the ambiguities of the instrument to be resolved. Exploratory factor analysis was used to confirm construct validity. This questionnaire was distributed among 452 patient-care workers in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Qom, Iran. Cronbach's Alpha was calculated to assess reliability. Results In all, 452 caregivers of patients with mean age of 37.71 (standard deviation=8.3) years participated in the study. An exploratory factor analysis loaded seven concepts of self-efficacy, knowledge, outcome perception, self-control, emotional coping, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments and challenges in the environment. All concepts were jointly accounted for 50.08% of variance of behavior change. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed favorable internal consistency (alpha=0.83), and test-retest of the scale with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the MWRLBPPQ. Conclusions The MWRLBPPQ is a reliable and valid theory-based instrument that can be used to predict factors influencing work-related low back pain among workers who lift and transfer patients in hospitals
Lobete Prieto, C; Rey Galán, C; Kiza, A H
To compare infant pain knowledge between a group of nurses who work in a pediatric hospital and one that works in a general hospital. Descriptive study based on the use of a validated questionnaire for assessing the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pediatric pain (Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain [PNKAS]). PNKAS questionnaire was distributed to the nursing staff of a pediatric hospital and a general hospital and the results were compared. The average score obtained in the pediatric vs. the general hospital was: mean, 51.7% vs. 47.2%, 95% confidence interval, 47.5 to 56% vs. 43.6 to 50.8% (P=.098). There were no differences between the scores in the PNKAS questionnaire between nurses working exclusively with children and nurses working with general population. Training on pediatric pain needs to be improved in nurses caring for sick children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Gudala, Kapil; Ghai, Babita; Bansal, Dipika
The contribution of neuropathic pain (NeP) in chronic pain conditions is increasingly emphasized with the development of multiple questionnaire-based measurement scales. The painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ) is a frequently used self-reported outcome measure to assess NeP in patients with chronic pain conditions in research and regular clinical practice. The aim of the study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PDQ into Hindi (Hi-PDQ) for use in India and to investigate its psychometric properties. PainDETECT questionnaire translation into the Hindi language was carried out according to standard guidelines. Patients suffering from chronic pain attending a pain clinic were recruited. Patients completed the Hi-PDQ at baseline and were retested was conducted after 3 days Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was carried out to assess the factor structure of the Hi-PDQ. Measurement properties, including floor and ceiling effects, discriminative validity, and psychometric properties, were also assessed. A total of 160 patients with chronic pain were recruited, including 80 in each NeP and non-NeP group. The retest was completed in 82 patients. Mean Hi-PDQ scores were significantly higher in the NeP group compared with the non-NeP group (20.7 [SD 5.9] vs. 9.9 [SD 5.9]; P < 0.01). EFA revealed a 2-factor structure explaining 56.9% variance. The Hi-PDQ was found to have adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.94), and excellent discriminant validity (area under the curve = 0.88), with an optimal cutoff value of > 18 (sensitivity and specificity of 82.5% and 91.2%, respectively). The PDQ was successfully translated into the Hindi language. The Hi-PDQ showed good discriminative validity and psychometric properties. The Hi-PDQ is a reliable instrument to assess NeP in chronic pain conditions. © 2017 World Institute of Pain.
Berque, Patrice; Gray, Heather; McFadyen, Angus
Many epidemiological surveys on playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) have been conducted on professional musicians, but none have evaluated or confirmed the psychometric properties of the self-report instruments that were used. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument for professional orchestra musicians to measure musculoskeletal (MSK) pain and pain interference in terms of function and psychosocial constructs. 183 professional orchestra musicians in Scotland were eligible to participate in the study, of which 101 (55% response rate) took part. Development of the Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity and Interference Questionnaire for Musicians (MPIIQM) involved the selection and modification of the most appropriate instruments measuring MSK pain, followed by psychometric evaluation of the new instrument. Face and content validity were ascertained by expert panels. 37 participants completed the questionnaire. The percentage of missing scores was very low (2.7%). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the MPIIQM had a strong and stable two-factor structure, with nine retained items explaining 71.3% of the variance in the data set. "Pain intensity" and "pain interference" were the two emerging factors. High internal consistency was achieved for each subscale (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91). Substantial test-retest reliability for the pain intensity items (range 0.78-0.82), and moderate to substantial test-retest reliability for the pain interference items (range 0.56-0.76) were obtained. The MPIIQM is a valid and reliable self-report instrument for the measurement and evaluation of MSK pain and pain interference in a population of professional orchestra musicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Catanzaro, Alice; Di Salvo, Alessandra; Steagall, Paulo V; Zampini, Danilo; Polisca, Angela; Della Rocca, Giorgia
To determine the attitudes, opinions and knowledge of Italian veterinarians regarding abdominal visceral pain in canine practice. Prospective online survey. An online questionnaire was created on a Google Form spreadsheet and the weblink was circulated to Italian veterinarians on several mailing lists. The questionnaire, which was available between November 2012 and July 2013, comprised 18 closed, semi-closed and open questions divided into five sections (aetiology, recognition and assessment, drug choices for canine visceral pain, general knowledge about pain management and desire for further education, and demographic information). A total of 527 responses to the questionnaire were completed. Pancreatitis (19%), gastroenteritis (17%) and gastrointestinal obstructions or foreign bodies (9%) were highlighted as the most frequent causes of abdominal visceral pain. Posture, gait and movement changes (32%) and physiological changes (31%) were commonly quoted for pain recognition and assessment. Most respondents (74%) did not use pain scoring systems. Pancreatitis and peritonitis were considered the most painful abdominal conditions. Opioids (40%), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (21%) and tramadol (20%) were cited as drugs for the management of visceral pain. A large percentage of respondents (97%) believed that their knowledge regarding pain management required improvement. There is practitioner interest for more continuing education in the subject. Most respondents were women (66%), aged between 25 and 40 years (57%). Internal medicine (56%), surgery (34%) and anaesthesiology (29%) were the main three speciality areas of interest in this study. This online survey represents the opinion of a small number of Italian veterinarians regarding the assessment and treatment of canine abdominal visceral pain. The results show that Italian veterinarians are aware of the main causes and clinical signs of canine visceral pain. Pain-scoring systems are not often used for
Demoulin, Christophe; Brasseur, Pauline; Roussel, Nathalie; Brereton, Clara; Humblet, Fabienne; Flynn, Daniel; Van Beveren, Julien; Osinsky, Thomas; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc; Bruyère, Olivier
Pain physiology education is an important component in the management of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The Neurophysiology of Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) was developed in English to assess pain physiology knowledge in patients. This study aimed to translate the NPQ into French (NPQ-Fr) and to investigate the main psychometric properties of the NPQ-Fr. The translation was performed using the best practice translation guidelines. One hundred and one French-speaking patients with chronic non-specific spinal pain completed the NPQ-Fr to assess its acceptability and presence of floor/ceiling effects and test its dimensionality. The construct validity was tested by comparing the patients' NPQ-Fr scores to those of 17 physiotherapists and investigating its correlation with subscales of the Short Form-36 questionnaire. The reliability (i.e., internal consistency and test-retest reliability) was also investigated. To test the test-retest reliability, 70 patients were asked to complete the NPQ-Fr twice with one week in between. Regarding the NPQ-Fr psychometric properties: 1) acceptability was good; 2) internal consistency reached a Cronbach α-coefficient of 0.44; 3) no floor and ceiling effects were observed in patients; 4) a principal factor analysis generated three major factors; 5) construct validity was good; and 6) reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.644; standard error of measurement = 1.5). The NPQ-Fr has satisfactory basic psychometric properties in patients with chronic spinal pain.
Gómez-Torres, Emilse; Batanero, Carmen; Díaz, Carmen; Contreras, José Miguel
In this paper we describe the development of a questionnaire designed to assess the probability content knowledge of prospective primary school teachers. Three components of mathematical knowledge for teaching and three different meanings of probability (classical, frequentist and subjective) are considered. The questionnaire content is based on…
Gómez-Torres, Emilse; Batanero, Carmen; Díaz, Carmen; Contreras, José Miguel
In this paper we describe the development of a questionnaire designed to assess the probability content knowledge of prospective primary school teachers. Three components of mathematical knowledge for teaching and three different meanings of probability (classical, frequentist and subjective) are considered. The questionnaire content is based on…
Soer, Remko; Vroomen, Patrick; Stewart, Roy; Coppes, Maarten; Stegeman, Patrick; Dijkstra, Pieter; Reneman, Michiel
The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) has good psychometric properties to predict return to work in patients with acute low back pain. Although it is used in patients with chronic back pain and nonworkers, there is no evidence on the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in these populations. This is deemed an important prerequisite for future prediction studies. This study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in working and nonworking patients with chronic back pain. This is a cross-sectional study in a university-based spine center. The patient sample consists two cohorts of working and nonworking adult patients (>18 years) with specific and nonspecific chronic back pain. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed in working (N=557) and nonworking (N=266) patients for three, four, five, and six factors identified in literature. A goodness of fit index was calculated by a chi-square. Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was calculated, and the number of factors identified was based on RMSEA values <.05. A Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) and a normed fit index (NFI) >0.90 are considered to indicate acceptable fit. In working patients, a five-factor solution had the best fit (RMSEA<0.05; NFI and TLI >0.90), but substantial adaptations should be made to get proper fit (removal of the work-related items). In nonworking patients, a four-factor analysis had the best fit (RMSEA<0.05). For both samples, items related to duration could not fit in the overall model. Factor structure of the ÖMPQ was not confirmed in working and nonworking patients with chronic back pain. Substantial adaptations should be made to obtain a factor structure with acceptable fit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Idoate García, V M
Three types of questionnaire are presented that are used for the study of the psycho-social conditions in cases of low back pain. By means of psychological tests such as MMPI applied in the cases of low back pain, it is possible to obtain information about the personality of the patient and some characteristics of the low back pain although these are not conclusive (differentiation between organic and functional, possibilities of its becoming chronic, result of orthopaedic treatment, possibilities of litigation, experience of the process) and the association of more than one psychological test is required. The employment of pain tests makes it possible to evaluate the affective, sensitive and intensity characteristics as a control mechanism or the forms of influencing the painful experience in the personality. The patient's work activity can be evaluated by means of overall questionnaires about the work place (such as Lest or RNUR) or by questionnaires specific to the tasks, some static (postures), others dynamic (lifting loads or repetitiveness), and they should be considered as initial factors triggering off a work-related pathology.
Love, A W
Three self-report questionnaires (the Beck Depression Inventory, the MMPI-D scale, and the depression subscale of the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire) were examined to see how accurately they could identify chronic low back pain patients who were suffering depression, as defined by DSM-III criteria. According to these criteria, 25% of a sample of 68 patients currently were depressed, a rate comparable to those reported by other studies that have used standardized criteria. On the basis of relative conditional probability ratios, the BDI was shown to be the most efficient instrument for identifying these cases and represents an excellent screening device for depression with this population. The individual items of the BDI then were examined, and the conditional probability ratios revealed that several may be helpful as indicators of possible depression among chronic low back pain patients. The relationship between depression and chronic pain is reconsidered in the light of these results.
Wagner, Julie; Lacey, Kimberly; Chyun, Deborah; Abbott, Gina
This paper describes a paper and pencil questionnaire that measures heart disease risk knowledge in people with diabetes. The Heart Disease Fact Questionnaire (HDFQ) is a 25-item questionnaire that was developed to tap into respondents' knowledge of major risk factors for the development of CHD. Approximately half of these items specifically address diabetes-related CHD risk factors. Based on extensive pilot data, the current study analyzed responses from 524 people with diabetes to assess the psychometric properties. The HDFQ is readable to an average 13-year old and imposes little burden. It shows good content and face validity. It demonstrates adequate internal consistency, with Kuder-Richardson-20 formula = 0.77 and good item-total correlations. Item analysis showed a desirable range in P-values. In discriminant function analyses, HDFQ scores differentiated respondents by knowledge of their own cardiovascular health, use of lipid lowering medications, health insurance status, and educational attainment, thus indicating good criterion related validity. This measure of heart disease risk knowledge is brief, understandable to respondents, and easy to administer and score. Its potential for use in research and practice is discussed. Future research should establish norms as well as investigate its test-retest reliability and predictive validity.
Gao, Yuan; Feng, Yuchao; Wang, Min; Su, Yiwei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Zhi; Tang, Shihao
To develop the knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups, and to provide a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect. The initial questionnaire which was evaluated by the experts was used to carry out a pre-survey in Guangzhou, China. The survey results were statistically analyzed by t test, identification index method, correlation analysis, and Cronbach's a coefficient method. And then the questionnaire was further modified, and the content of the questionnaire was determined finally. After modification, there were 18 items on knowledge, 16 items on attitude, and 12 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for enterprise managers"; there were 19 items on knowledge, 10 items on attitude, and 11 items on behavior in the "Knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for workers". The knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on the prevention and control of occupational diseases for occupational groups is developed successfully, and it is a convenient and effective tool for the survey of knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the prevention and control of occupational diseases in occupational groups and the evaluation of intervention effect.
Meulders, Ann; Vandael, Kristof; Vlaeyen, Johan W S
Increasing evidence suggests that pain-related fear is key to the transition from acute to chronic pain. Previous research has shown that perceptual similarity with a pain-associated movement fosters the generalization of fear to novel movements. Perceptual generalization of pain-related fear is adaptive as it enables individuals to extrapolate the threat value of one movement to another without the necessity to learn anew. However, excessive spreading of fear to safe movements may become maladaptive and may lead to sustained anxiety, dysfunctional avoidance behaviors, and severe disability. A hallmark of human cognition is the ability to extract conceptual knowledge from a learning episode as well. Although this conceptual pathway may be important to understand fear generalization in chronic pain, research on this topic is lacking. We investigated acquisition and generalization of concept-based pain-related fear. During acquisition, unique exemplars of one action category (CS+; e.g., opening boxes) were followed by pain, whereas exemplars of another action category (CS-; e.g., closing boxes) were not. Subsequently, spreading of pain-related fear to novel exemplars of both action categories was tested. Participants learned to expect the pain to occur and reported more pain-related fear to the exemplars of the CS+ category compared with those of the CS- category. During generalization, fear and expectancy generalized to novel exemplars of the CS+ category, but not to the CS- category. This pattern was not corroborated in the eyeblink startle measures. This is the first study that demonstrates that pain-related fear can be acquired and generalized based on conceptual knowledge. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Rezaei, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Roohollah; Shahrezaee, Hamid R; Mozaffari, Hamid R
Diagnosis and treatment of chronic orofacial pain are one of the most challenging issues in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of general dentists regarding orofacial pain in Kermanshah, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 including general dentists of Kermanshah city. A researcher-designed questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data as well as measuring knowledge of the dentists in four sections including etiology, clinical presentations, physical examination, and treatment of chronic orofacial pain. The questionnaire had acceptable validity (content validity > 0.9) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient= 0.857 for test re-test; Cronbach's alpha= 0.72 for internal consistency). The data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 18.0) using Spearman's correlation coefficient (P < 0.05). There were 121 male (72.9%) and 45 female (27.1%) dentists with mean (SD) age of 40.55 (8.03) years and mean (SD) practice history of 13.28 (8.43) years. Mean (SD) knowledge score was 10.54 (2.36) (maximum possible score= 15). 48.2% of dentists had good knowledge in overall. 48.2% about etiology, 45.2% about clinical presentations, 36.1% about physical examination, and 7.8% about treatment had good knowledge. Knowledge had direct and significant relationship with age (r = 0.179; P = 0.022) and practice history (r = 0.18; P = 0.021). The results showed that the studied dentists did not have enough knowledge about chronic orofacial pain especially in the treatment field. Therefore, it is recommended to implement educational programs to improve their knowledge.
Rezaei, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Roohollah; Shahrezaee, Hamid R.
Background and Objective: Diagnosis and treatment of chronic orofacial pain are one of the most challenging issues in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of general dentists regarding orofacial pain in Kermanshah, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2016 including general dentists of Kermanshah city. A researcher-designed questionnaire was administered to collect demographic data as well as measuring knowledge of the dentists in four sections including etiology, clinical presentations, physical examination, and treatment of chronic orofacial pain. The questionnaire had acceptable validity (content validity > 0.9) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient= 0.857 for test re-test; Cronbach’s alpha= 0.72 for internal consistency). The data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 18.0) using Spearman’s correlation coefficient (P < 0.05). Results: There were 121 male (72.9%) and 45 female (27.1%) dentists with mean (SD) age of 40.55 (8.03) years and mean (SD) practice history of 13.28 (8.43) years. Mean (SD) knowledge score was 10.54 (2.36) (maximum possible score= 15). 48.2% of dentists had good knowledge in overall. 48.2% about etiology, 45.2% about clinical presentations, 36.1% about physical examination, and 7.8% about treatment had good knowledge. Knowledge had direct and significant relationship with age (r = 0.179; P = 0.022) and practice history (r = 0.18; P = 0.021). Conclusion: The results showed that the studied dentists did not have enough knowledge about chronic orofacial pain especially in the treatment field. Therefore, it is recommended to implement educational programs to improve their knowledge. PMID:28553411
Liu, Yaqun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Yibo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xu, Tianming; Sun, Jinhai
Acceptance of chronic pain has increasingly become a significant issue in the field of pain management. Many researchers have suggested that patients with better acceptance of pain are more likely to have better functioning both in physical and psychological status. In many countries, the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) and CPAQ-8 have been validated and utilized frequently to measure the pain acceptance of patients with chronic pain. However, the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 yet have not been introduced and validated in Mainland China.In this study, we aimed to translate the English version of the CPAQ into simplified Chinese, make proper cross-cultural adaptations, and validate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8.The English version of the CPAQ was first linguistically translated and cross-culturally adapted to formulate a Chinese version. Then, we recruited 224 patients from a pain clinic and every participant was asked to finish a series of questionnaires. Finally, statistical analysis was performed to test the psychometric properties of the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8.Both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and principal component analysis (PCA) confirmed a 2-factor structure for the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8. Nine out of 10 of the hypotheses were validated for construct validity. The overall intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value for the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 were 0.92 and 0.89, respectively. In addition, the Cronbach α values for both the CPAQ and the CPAQ-8 showed excellent test-retest reliability.In conclusion, the original CPAQ was successfully developed into the Chinese version of the CPAQ and CPAQ-8 with excellent validity and reliability. The scores of the CPAQ or CPAQ-8 might be a strong predictor for the physical and psychological function of chronic pain patients. In addition, to improve the satisfaction of surgery patients, we recommend measuring patients' pain acceptance using the CPAQ or CPAQ-8 before and after the
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
To outline key statistical considerations and detailed methodologies for the development and evaluation of a valid and reliable nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Literature on questionnaire development in a range of fields was reviewed and a set of evidence-based guidelines specific to the creation of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire have been developed. The recommendations describe key qualitative methods and statistical considerations, and include relevant examples from previous papers and existing nutrition knowledge questionnaires. Where details have been omitted for the sake of brevity, the reader has been directed to suitable references. We recommend an eight-step methodology for nutrition knowledge questionnaire development as follows: (i) definition of the construct and development of a test plan; (ii) generation of the item pool; (iii) choice of the scoring system and response format; (iv) assessment of content validity; (v) assessment of face validity; (vi) purification of the scale using item analysis, including item characteristics, difficulty and discrimination; (vii) evaluation of the scale including its factor structure and internal reliability, or Rasch analysis, including assessment of dimensionality and internal reliability; and (viii) gathering of data to re-examine the questionnaire's properties, assess temporal stability and confirm construct validity. Several of these methods have previously been overlooked. The measurement of nutrition knowledge is an important consideration for individuals working in the nutrition field. Improved methods in the development of nutrition knowledge questionnaires, such as the use of factor analysis or Rasch analysis, will enable more confidence in reported measures of nutrition knowledge.
Brant, Jeannine M; Mohr, Carla; Coombs, Nicholas C; Finn, Susan; Wilmarth, Estella
Pain is a nursing sensitive indicator and yet pain is often not well managed in both hospital and ambulatory settings. Improving nurse knowledge and attitudes about pain may translate to improved patient outcomes. The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes about pain (KAP) in nurses who work in diverse settings, professional and personal characteristics that predict KAP, and whether KAP correlated with patient satisfaction according to Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers (HCAHPS). Descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational study. A large integrated health care facility in the northwest. A total of 217 registered nurses working in acute, ambulatory, and long-term care. A Pain Knowledge and Attitudes Survey was administered to registered nurses in diverse settings. Scores were examined for personal and professional predictors of KAP and correlated with HCAHPS patient satisfaction surveys. Nurses scored an average of 72%; nurses in long-term care scored the highest. Having more than 5 years of nursing experience, being a certified nurse, and receiving pain education in the last year were predictive of a higher score on the KAP survey, which explained only 9.8% of the variance. Unit mean KAP scores were highly correlated with unit-based HCAHPS scores (r = 0.917, p = .01). Certified nurses scored higher on the KAP survey, consistent with other studies. This study suggests that having more knowledge and better attitudes about pain may improve patient satisfaction of pain. Further studies are needed that link knowledge and attitudes about pain to patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zamani, Elham; Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Noorian, Negin; Memari, Amir Hossein; Shariati, Mohammad
Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent causes of disability not only in the general population but also in athletes. Despite a large number of self-reported back specific disability questionnaires, there is no specific, well documented, outcome measure for athletes suffering from back pain. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the main descriptive themes representing functional disability in athletes due to LBP. Patients and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to characterize the experiences of athletes with LBP. Twenty athletes with LBP were recruited and the main descriptive elements of their LBP related disability were extracted. Then a preliminary questionnaire using these themes was proposed. Results: The main disability indicators were pain intensity; stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, sport specific skills, back range of motion (ROM), sitting, walking, sleep patterns, self-care, and recreational activities, fear of pain and avoidance behavior, and changes in sexual activity. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that apart from non-sports items, some sport related items should be included in the assessment of LBP disability levels in athletes. Our results have also been organized as a preliminary LBP disability questionnaire for athletes. PMID:25741417
Takekawa, Karina Satiko; Gonçalves, Josiane Sotrate; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; Sato, Tatiana de Oliveira
To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings.
Zamani, Elham; Kordi, Ramin; Nourian, Ruhollah; Noorian, Negin; Memari, Amir Hossein; Shariati, Mohammad
Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent causes of disability not only in the general population but also in athletes. Despite a large number of self-reported back specific disability questionnaires, there is no specific, well documented, outcome measure for athletes suffering from back pain. This study aimed to identify the main descriptive themes representing functional disability in athletes due to LBP. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews to characterize the experiences of athletes with LBP. Twenty athletes with LBP were recruited and the main descriptive elements of their LBP related disability were extracted. Then a preliminary questionnaire using these themes was proposed. The main disability indicators were pain intensity; stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, sport specific skills, back range of motion (ROM), sitting, walking, sleep patterns, self-care, and recreational activities, fear of pain and avoidance behavior, and changes in sexual activity. The findings of this study suggest that apart from non-sports items, some sport related items should be included in the assessment of LBP disability levels in athletes. Our results have also been organized as a preliminary LBP disability questionnaire for athletes.
TAKEKAWA, Karina Satiko; GONÇALVES, Josiane Sotrate; MORIGUCHI, Cristiane Shinohara; COURY, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; SATO, Tatiana de Oliveira
To verify if the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and physical examination of the lumbar spine can identify workers with chronic or recurring low back pain, using health history for reference. Fifty office workers of both sexes, aged between 19 and 55 yr, were evaluated using a standardized physical examination and the NMQ, VAS and RDQ. Discriminant analysis was performed to determine the discriminant properties of these instruments. A higher success rate (94%) was observed in the model including only the NMQ and in the model including the NMQ and the physical examination. The lowest success rate (82%) was observed in the model including the NMQ, RDQ and VAS. The NMQ was able to detect subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain with 100% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The NMQ appears to be the best instrument for identifying subjects with chronic or recurring low back pain. Thus, this self-reported questionnaire is suitable for screening workers for chronic or recurring low back pain in occupational settings. PMID:25810448
Dongara, Ashish R; Shah, Shail N; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Archana S
Pain following cardiac intervention in children is a common, but complex phenomenon. Identifying and reporting pain is the responsibility of the nursing staff, who are the primary caregivers and spend the most time with the patients. Inadequately managed pain in children may lead to multiple short- and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain in children among the nursing staff at B.M. Patel Cardiac Center, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India. The study included 42 of the 45 nurses employed in the cardiac center. The nurses participating in the study were responsible for the care of the pediatric patients. A modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain and a sociodemographic questionnaire were administered after obtaining written informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee. Mean (SD) experience in years of the nursing staff was 2.32 (1.69) years (range 1 month to 5 years). Of the nurses, 67% were posted in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) score for true/false questions was 11.48 (2.95; range 7,19). The average correct response rate of the true/false questions was 45.9%. Knowledge about pain was only affected by the ward in which the nurse was posted. In first (asymptomatic) and second (symptomatic) case scenarios, 78.6% and 59.5% underestimated pain, respectively. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management is poor among nurses. Targeted training sessions and repeated reinforcement sessions are essential for holistic patient care.
Background The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Pain acceptance is the process of giving up the struggle with pain and learning to live a worthwhile life despite it. The Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ) is the questionnaire most often used to measure pain acceptance in chronic pain populations. Methods A total of 205 Spanish patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome who attended our pain clinic were asked to complete a battery of psychometric instruments: the Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS) for pain intensity, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Results Analysis of results showed that the Spanish CPAQ had good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.83) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.83). The Spanish CPAQ score significantly correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophising, health status and physical and psychosocial disability. The Scree plot and a Principal Components Factor analysis confirmed the same two-factor construct as the original English CPAQ. Conclusion The Spanish CPAQ is a reliable clinical assessment tool with valid construct validity for the acceptance measurement among a sample of Spanish fibromyalgia patients. This study will make it easier to assess pain acceptance in Spanish populations with fibromyalgia. PMID:20385016
Angle, Pamela J; Kurtz Landy, Christine; Djordjevic, Jasmine; Barrett, Jon; Kibbe, Alanna; Sriparamananthan, Saiena; Lee, Yuna; Hamata, Lydia; Zaki, Pearl; Kiss, Alex
The Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire (A-LPQ) is a new, 22-item multidimensional psychometric questionnaire that measures the 5 most important dimensions of women's childbirth pain experiences using 5 subscales: The Enormity of the Pain, Fear/Anxiety, Uterine Contraction Pain, Birthing Pain, and Back Pain/Long Haul. Previous work showed that the A-LPQ has overall good psychometric properties and performance during early active labor in women without pain relief. The current study assessed the tool's sensitivity to change during initiation of labor epidural analgesia with the standardized response mean (SRM, primary outcome). Two versions of the A-LPQ were administered once, in each of 2 test sessions, by the same trained interviewer during early active labor. The sequence of administration was randomized (ie, standard question order version [Test 1] followed by mixed version [Test 2] or vice versa). Test 1 was completed before epidural insertion; Test 2 commenced 20 to 30 minutes after the test dose. Providers assessed/treated pain independently of the study. Sensitivity to change was assessed using SRMs, Cohen's d, and paired t tests. Overall pain intensity was concurrently examined using Numeric Rating Scale and the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); coping was assessed with the Pain Mastery Scale. Changes in pain were measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity with other tools was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A total of 51 complete datasets were analyzed. Most women reported moderate (63%, 32/51) or severe (18%, 9/51) baseline pain on VRS scores during Test 1; 29% (15/51) reported mild pain, and 6% (3/51) reported moderate pain during Test 2. Approximately 90% (46/51) of women reported much or very much improved pain at the end of testing. Cronbach's α for A-LPQ summary scores was excellent (0.94) and ranged from 0.78 (acceptable) to 0.92 (excellent) for
Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Barwick, Melanie; Pinard, Marie
Inadequate pain treatment leaves hospitalized children vulnerable to immediate and long-term sequelae. A multidimensional knowledge translation intervention (ie, the Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality [EPIQ]) improved pain assessment, management, and intensity outcomes in 16 units at 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals. The sustained effectiveness of EPIQ over time is unknown, however. The goals of this study were to determine the following: (1) sustainability of the impact of EPIQ on pain assessment, management, and intensity outcomes 12, 24, and 36 months after EPIQ; (2) effectiveness of a pain practice change booster (Booster) intervention to sustain EPIQ outcomes over time; and (3) influence of context on sustainability. A prospective, repeated measures, cluster randomized controlled trial was undertaken in the 16 EPIQ units, 12 months after EPIQ completion, to determine the effectiveness of a practice change booster (Booster) to sustain EPIQ outcomes. Generalized estimating equation models examined outcomes controlling for child and unit contextual factors. Outcomes achieved during EPIQ were sustained in the use of any pain assessment measure (P = .01) and a validated pain assessment measure in the EPIQ units (P = .02) up to 36 months after EPIQ. Statistically significant improvements in pain management practices persisted in EPIQ units; results varied across time. There were no significant differences in outcomes after implementation of the Booster between the Booster and Nonbooster groups. Improved pain assessment and management practices were sustained after EPIQ; however, the Booster did not seem to provide additional impact. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cavalheiro, Luís Manuel; Gil, João António Neves; Gonçalves, Rui Soles; Pacheco, Maria Paula; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Fã, Liliana
The aim of this study was to validate the Pain Impact Questionnaire (PIQ-6) for Portuguese adults with a chronic pain condition. The Portuguese version was developed through forward-backward translations and a cognitive debriefing with chronic pain patients. A subsequent sample of patients was selected to test the validity and the obtained Portuguese measure. Patients are comprised of a sample of 104 physical therapy patients with chronic pain from four outpatient clinics. Reliability and validity were tested by administering the PIQ-6, the Medical Outcomes Study-12-Item Short Form (SF-12) questionnaire, a numerical rating pain scale, and a form to collect some of the characteristics of the patients. After obtaining the semantic and content equivalence, the Portuguese version of PIQ-6 showed good levels of reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient between 0.82 and 0.94) and good levels of internal consistency, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. The factor analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of the measure (initial eigen-value = 4.29, 71.6%). Construct validity was supported by the correlations obtained with a numerical rating pain scale (rho = 0.705), SF-12 subscales (r = -0.723 and -0.656), and the age of the patients (r = 0.274). The PIQ-6 proved to be equivalent in both cultures (American/Portuguese), and is useful, reliable, and valid for use in Portugal. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van der Sluijs, Barbara M; Knoop, Hans; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Voermans, Nicol C
Research on oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy focuses mainly on genetic and pathophysiological aspects. Clinically, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy is often considered as a disease with a relatively mild initial disease course with no or only mild functional disabilities. However the occurrence of fatigue, pain and functional impairments other than dysphagia has never been studied systematically. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the prevalence of fatigue, pain, and functional limitations, and the social participation and psychological well-being of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy patients. We performed a questionnaire study on fatigue, pain, functional impairments, social participation and psychological distress in 35 genetically confirmed oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy patients with an average disease duration of 11.6 years. We showed that 19 (54%) of the patients experienced severe fatigue and also 19 (54%) experienced pain. Limitations in daily life activities and social participation were detected in 33 (94%) of the patients. Many patients reported pelvic girdle weakness and limitations in ambulation. Fatigue severity was related to functional impairments, while pain and disease duration were not. Psychological distress was not different from healthy adults. In conclusion, fatigue and pain are present among approximately half of the patients, and almost all patients are impaired in daily life activities, social participation and ambulation. These data should be taken into account in symptomatic management of oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.
Henry, James L
One in five Canadians suffers from some form of persistent or chronic pain. The impact on individual lives, families and friends, the health services sector and the economy is huge. Reliable evidence is available that the burden of persistent pain can be markedly reduced when available knowledge is applied. Bridging the quality chasm between chronic pain and the care process will require a unique confluence of opinion from all stakeholders committed within a focused community of practice to address the impact of pain. Various levels of success in this regard have been demonstrated when there is exchange, synthesis and ethically sound application of research findings within a complex set of interactions among researchers and knowledge users. It is now critical to accelerate the capture of the benefits of research for Canadians through improved health, more effective and responsive services and products, and a strengthened health care system to bring about health reform and health care reform across Canada as it pertains to the one in five Canadians living with chronic, disabling pain. The overarching outcome of such an initiative needs to be promoted to sustain a balanced portfolio of curiosity- and needs-based research, which along with existing knowledge, can be mobilized and applied for the benefit of Canadians, the health care system and the economy.
Linkewich, Barbara; Sevean, Patricia; Habjan, Sonja; Poling, Margaret; Bailey, Susan; Kortes-Miller, Kathy
The Centre for Education and Research on Aging and Health at Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, was the lead agency in developing a pain management continuing education program for front-line nurses in a variety of settings in northwestern Ontario. A committee of experts from the centre as well as from the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre; Regional Cancer Care; the Pain and Symptom Management Team, North West Community Care Access Centre; the Victorian Order of Nurses and Lakehead University school of nursing developed the program. The program included a pre-test of knowledge and attitudes; four two-hour educational sessions focusing on total pain, acute pain, chronic pain and cancer pain; and a post self-test at the end of each session. The educational sessions were evaluated through a survey to participants. Overall, the nurses expressed high satisfaction with the workshops, and the post self-tests indicated a better understanding of patients' pain management experiences. As a result of the evaluation, the education planning committee refined the program, which is currently being delivered to nurses in rural and remote communities via telehealth.
Di Paolo, Carlo; Di Nunno, Anna; Vanacore, Nicola; Bruti, Gianluca
To evaluate the prevalence of migraine and related disability and the role of ID migraine questionnaire as a screening tool in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and craniofacial pain (CFP). TMDs patients with CFP underwent stomatognathic (RDC/TMD criteria) and neurological visits (IHS criteria, 2004). ID migraine questionnaire and MIgraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) were also administered. Out of 45 patients, 69% met diagnosis of migraine plus chronic tension-type headache (CTTH); 9% presented CTTH and 20% were migraineurs. Out of 39 migraineurs who completed MIDAS, 56% presented the highest disability grade. Out of 37 patients who completed ID migraine questionnaire, 32 resulted affected by probable migraine with a diagnostic sensibility and specificity of 94% and 100%, respectively. Our findings showed a clinical association between TMDs and migraine. We support a clinical role of ID migraine and MIDAS in TMDs patients with CFP and we underline the importance of a multidisciplinary evaluation in this group of migraineurs.
Ortner, Clemens M; Turk, Dennis C; Theodore, Brian R; Siaulys, Monica M; Bollag, Laurant A; Landau, Ruth
The incidence of chronic pain after cesarean delivery (CD) has been estimated to range between 0.3% and 18%. This wide range may be explained by differing study methodologies. Furthermore, a comprehensive characterization of pain quality is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate persistent pain in a healthy obstetric population undergoing planned CD and to provide a comprehensive description of pain quality. Three hundred eighty-one women with no pain history undergoing CD were included in this prospective, observational cohort study. Spinal anesthesia was standardized, and postoperative pain was recorded at 24 hours. In each woman, pain was assessed at 8 weeks, and 6 and 12 months using questionnaires of pain intensity and interference. Pain quality was assessed using the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-Revised. The incidence of persistent pain at 8 weeks was 11% (95% confidence interval, 8%-14%), with pain reported as being mild and interfering with common daily activities by 32% of women. At 6 and 12 months, the incidence was 3% (95% confidence interval, 2%-6%) and 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0%-2%) respectively, with pain rarely interfering with daily activities. However, 22% of women described other surgery-related symptoms at 12 months. The incidence of chronic pain at 12 months after planned CD is low (0.6%) and if present symptoms are mostly mild and not interfering with common daily activities. Using Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-Revised, this study provides a comprehensive evaluation of pain quality that can be used as a basis in future post-CD pain trials.
Grotle, Margreth; Garratt, Andrew M; Krogstad Jenssen, Hanne; Stuge, Britt
There is little evidence for the measurement properties of instruments commonly used for women with pelvic girdle pain. The aim of this study was to examine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity of instruments used for women with pelvic girdle pain. This was a cross-sectional methodology study, including test-retest reliability assessment. Women with pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy and after delivery participated in a postal survey that included the Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Disability Rating Index (DRI), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and 8-item version of the Medical Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36). Test-retest reliability was assessed with a random subsample 1 week later. Internal consistency was assessed with the Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC). Construct validity based on hypotheses was assessed by correlation analysis. Discriminant validity was assessed with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. All participants responded to the main (N=87) and test-retest (n=42) surveys. Cronbach alpha values ranged from .88 to .94, and ICCs ranged from .78 to .94. The MDC at the individual level constituted about 7% to 14% of total scores for the 8-item version of the SF-36, ODI, and PGQ activity subscale; about 18% to 22% for the DRI, PGQ symptom subscale, and PCS; and about 25% for the FABQ. Hypotheses were mostly confirmed by correlations between the instruments. The PGQ was the only instrument that significantly discriminated participants who were pregnant from participants who were not pregnant as well as pain locations. A comparison of responsiveness to change of the various instruments used in this study was not undertaken, but will be carried out in a future study. Self
Jarrett, Anna; Church, Terri; Fancher-Gonzalez, Kim; Shackelford, Jamie; Lofton, Annelle
The purpose of the study was to measure knowledge and attitudes of nursing about pain management in patients before education, immediately after, and 6 months later. The end-point measure was Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems quarterly scores and percentile rank. This longitudinal, quasi-experimental, quantitative study used survey method with pretest and posttest scores to measure immediate learning and 6 months later to measure sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes for nurses in this facility. The setting was a 360-bed acute care community hospital in the midsouth. The sample consisted of approximately 206 bedside nurses who worked in an acute care facility and 164 final posttest participants. The survey was used in a group setting immediately prior to a didactic learning experience. Immediately after the session, a posttest survey was administered. The 6-month follow-up occurred via an online module developed by the principal investigator. A repeated-measures analysis of variance, a pairwise comparison with a paired t test, and a Bonferroni correction were performed to determine if sustained knowledge and attitudes have changed. Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores on the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain immediately after a didactic education session and 6 months later (P < .017). Six months later, scores remained higher than pretest or immediate posttest scores. Nurses with a stronger knowledge base may lead to better pain management, improved outcomes, and higher patient satisfaction scores.
Context. Despite improvement in pain management and availability of clinical treatment guidelines, patients in Jordan are still suffering from pain. Negative consequences of undertreated pain are being recognized as a reason for further illnesses and poor quality of life. Healthcare providers (HCPs) are responsible for relieving pain of their patients. Objective. To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of HCPs toward pain management in Jordan. Methods. A 16-item questionnaire with agree or disagree options was given to 662 HCPs in seven hospitals in Jordan who volunteered to participate in the study. Following data collection, the responses were coded and entered into SPSS. Results. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.004) in percentage scores between physicians (36%) and pharmacists (36%) versus nurses (24%). The level of knowledge was the best among physicians, followed by pharmacists specifically in the area of cancer pain management. Nurses scored the lowest for knowledge of pain assessment and management among HCPs. However, HCPs overall scores indicated insufficient knowledge specifically in relation to pain assessment and management among children. PMID:27965524
Aggarwal, Vishal R; Joughin, Amy; Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Crawford, Fiona J; Tickle, Martin
To explore the knowledge of chronic orofacial pain within general dental practitioners (GDPs) and dental specialists. Following a recent national survey of GDPs and specialists on the diagnosis of facial pain, all those who responded were asked to answer four multiple-choice questions on chronic orofacial pain as part of a continuing professional development exercise. The questions were formulated using a review of the literature and consultation with a facial pain expert and were administered by post. Of the 380 subjects who completed the original survey, 212 (56%) returned completed multiple-choice questionnaires. Specialists correctly answered significantly more questions than GDPs (P<0.001). The majority of specialists-49/83 (59%)-obtained a score of three or more, compared to 39/129 (30%) GDPs. This was due to variation in answering one question. Significantly more specialists--50 (60%)--correctly selected trigeminal neuralgia (TN) as a condition that is not associated with COFP, whereas only 41 (32%) GDPs chose this answer. Both specialists and GDPs grossly underestimated the prevalence of COFP in secondary care clinics. The results suggest that specialists and GDPs may have sufficient knowledge to make an appropriate diagnosis of COFP, but they also highlight the knowledge gaps and perhaps the need for more extensive inclusion of COFP in the dental undergraduate curriculum.
Doshi, Ankur M; Huang, Chenchan; Ginocchio, Luke; Shanbhogue, Krishna; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B
To evaluate the impact of questionnaires completed by patients at the time of abdominopelvic CT performed for abdominal pain on the completeness of clinical information and the identification of potential causes of pain, compared with order requisitions alone. 100 outpatient CT examinations performed for the evaluation of abdominal pain were retrospectively reviewed. The specificity of the location of pain was compared between the order requisition and patient questionnaire. An abdominal imaging fellow (Reader 1) and abdominal radiologist (Reader 2) reviewed the examinations independently in two sessions 6 weeks apart (one with only the order requisition and one also with the questionnaire). Readers recorded identified causes of pain and rated their confidence in interpretation (1-5 scale; least to greatest confidence). In 30% of patients, the questionnaire provided a more specific location for pain. Among these, the pain was localized to a specific quadrant in 40%. With having access to the questionnaire, both readers identified additional causes for pain not identified in session 1 (Reader 1, 8.6% [7/81]; Reader 2 5.3% [4/75]). Additional identified causes of pain included diverticulitis, cystitis, peritoneal implants, epiploic appendagitis, osseous metastatic disease, umbilical hernia, gastritis, and SMA syndrome. Confidence in interpretation was significantly greater using the questionnaire for both readers (Reader 1: 4.8 ± 0.6 vs. 4.0 ± 0.5; Reader 2: 4.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.7 ± 0.5, p < 0.001). Patient questionnaires provide additional relevant clinical history, increased diagnostic yield, and improve radiologists' confidence. Radiology practices are encouraged to implement questionnaires and make these readily available to radiologists at the time of interpretation.
Individualized acupuncture treatment has been practiced for pain therapy. This study used acupuncture treatment for lateral elbow pain (LEP) as an example to study the diagnostic practice of individualized acupuncture treatment. A provisional version of LEP pattern questionnaire was developed based on a recent systematic review on TCM pattern diagnosis for LEP. A Delphi panel of 33 clinical experts from seven different countries was formed, and the Delphi survey was conducted in Chinese and English language for two rounds. Consensus was achieved from all 26 panelists who responded to the second round on 243 items of the instrument, which included a 72-question-long questionnaire. The mean level of expert consensus on the items of the final questionnaire was 85%. Consensus was found on four TCM patterns that could underlie LEP, namely, the wind-cold-dampness pattern, the qi stagnation and blood stasis pattern, the dual deficiency of qi and blood pattern, and the retained dampness-heat pattern. A list of signs and symptoms indicating one of the four TCM patterns and a list of preferred treatment modalities for each pattern were also generated. Our instrument shows considerable content validity. Further validity and reliability studies are under way. PMID:27525024
Gadau, Marcus; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Yeung, Wing-Fai; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Lu, Ai-Ping
Individualized acupuncture treatment has been practiced for pain therapy. This study used acupuncture treatment for lateral elbow pain (LEP) as an example to study the diagnostic practice of individualized acupuncture treatment. A provisional version of LEP pattern questionnaire was developed based on a recent systematic review on TCM pattern diagnosis for LEP. A Delphi panel of 33 clinical experts from seven different countries was formed, and the Delphi survey was conducted in Chinese and English language for two rounds. Consensus was achieved from all 26 panelists who responded to the second round on 243 items of the instrument, which included a 72-question-long questionnaire. The mean level of expert consensus on the items of the final questionnaire was 85%. Consensus was found on four TCM patterns that could underlie LEP, namely, the wind-cold-dampness pattern, the qi stagnation and blood stasis pattern, the dual deficiency of qi and blood pattern, and the retained dampness-heat pattern. A list of signs and symptoms indicating one of the four TCM patterns and a list of preferred treatment modalities for each pattern were also generated. Our instrument shows considerable content validity. Further validity and reliability studies are under way.
Gunaydin, Gurkan; Hazar Kanik, Zeynep; Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Sozlu, Ugur; Pala, Omer Osman; Alkan, Zeynep Beyza; Basar, Selda; Citaker, Seyit
Low back pain is among the most common musculoskeletal system disorders. Outcome measures are needed for the measurement of function, to establish a treatment program, and for monitoring the improvement in low back pain. There exist several questionnaires enquiring about function in low back pain. One of these is Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, whose reliability and validity were previously established. Other than the original version of the questionnaire, only its Persian version exists. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The study included 103 patients with low back pain. For reliability assessment of the questionnaire, test-retest and internal consistency analyses were performed. The results of test-retest analysis were assessed by Intraclass Correlation Coefficient method. For internal consistency, Cronbach Alpha value was used. Validity analyses of the questionnaire were performed by construct validity. For construct validity, convergent validity was tested. Convergent validity of the questionnaire was calculated via its correlation with suitable subscales of the Short Form-36 and the total score of the Oswestry Disability Index by using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient values for test-retest reliability were found to be in the range of 0.765-0.924, which indicate a sufficient level of test-retest reliability. Cronbach's Alpha value was found to be 0.804 indicating a high internal consistency. Pearson's correlation coefficient between Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire to Short Form-36 and Oswestry Disability Index values were ranged between 0.424 and -0.810, indicating a good correlation. Considering all these data, it was concluded that the Turkish version of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Tibbles, Anthony C; Waalen, Judith K; Hains, François C
Background: The Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ODQ) is a widely used 10-item paper and pencil measure of disability resulting from low back pain. However, few studies have assessed the psychometric properties of the instrument. This study evaluated the response set bias, the internal consistency, and the construct validity of the ODQ. Objectives: The original ODQ was compared to seven modified versions to examine whether a response set bias existed. The internal consistency of the ODQ was assessed using the Cronbach alpha. Finally, the relationship between scores on the ODQ and the Roland Morris Functional Disability Scal (RM) was examined. Methods: Seven modified versions of the ODQ were developed from the original. One of the eight versions was randomly allocated to 102 adult patients presenting with low lack pain. There was no attempt to select patients on the basis of pain intensity or prior treatment so as to maximize the range and diversity of low back pain sufferers. Results: Results suggest that the responses given on the eight versions of the ODQ are a function of content and not of the format in which the items are presented. The ODQ also has strong internal consisstency (alpha = 0.85) and is strongly correlated to the RM (r = .70, p = .0005). The ODQ is a significant predictor of the RM scores (T-9.45, p = .0005) and duration of symptoms (T = -2.17, p = .0325). Conclusion: The ODQ appears to possess stable psychometric properties. The use of more than one version provides practitioners with a means of repeatedly assessing the disability levels of patients suffering from low back pain over the course of treatment.
Hermann, Christiane; Hohmeister, Johanna; Zohsel, Katrin; Tuttas, Marie-Luise; Flor, Herta
Psychosocial factors are crucial for understanding and treating chronic pain in adults, but also in children. For children, very few questionnaires for a multidimensional pain assessment exist. In adults, the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI; [Kerns RD, Turk DC, Rudy TE. The West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI). Pain 1985;23:345-56]) has been widely used to determine patients' adjustment to chronic pain. Using one section of the MPI as a model, we developed and evaluated the Pain Experience Questionnaire (PEQ) - child and parent version - that assesses the psychosocial impact of chronic pain in children and adolescents. As substantiated by confirmatory factor analysis in a sample of 111 children and adolescents (7-18 years) with chronic pain, the child PEQ entails the subscales pain severity, pain-related interference, affective distress and perceived social support. The parent version contains the subscales severity of the child's pain, interference and parental affective distress. Child and parent PEQ subscales were internally consistent. Age was unrelated to PEQ subscale scores. Girls and their mothers endorsed significantly greater pain severity, interference and affective distress. Validity analyses yielded a pattern of correlations with measures of depression, trait anxiety, pain activity, child behaviors, pain-related cognitions, and parenting behavior that is consistent with psychometric data of the adult MPI and previous findings on psychosocial aspects of chronic pediatric pain. Significant differences between children depending on patient status (participants in experimental or treatment studies, outpatients, inpatients) suggest external validity of the PEQ. Despite the preliminary nature of the psychometric evaluation, the child and parent PEQ seem promising for a comprehensive assessment of pediatric pain.
Kheshti, Raziyeh; Namazi, Soha; Mehrabi, Manoosh; Firouzabadi, Dena
Background Pain can adversely affect every aspect of a patient’s daily activity, and consequently, it has a great influence on the quality of life. Studies have shown that health care professionals have little knowledge of and inadequate attitudes toward the assessment of pain and its treatment with analgesics. Objectives This cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of health care professionals regarding chronic pain management. It was carried out in six different educational hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Shiraz, Iran. Patients and Methods Participants were given a questionnaire containing 46 questions and demographic characteristics to fill out independently. In total, 213 health care professionals (114 nurses and 99 medical residents) volunteered to take part in this study. In order to ease further analysis, the questions were grouped into three categories: narcotic drugs, non-narcotic drugs, and non-drug-related questions. Results The mean correct response rate was 43.13% ± 11.10. Medical residents scored 51.23% ± 9.02% and nurses 36.10% ± 7.31% (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant relation between field of specialty and the mean scores of medical residents. Narcotic drug questions received the lowest (39.02%) and non-narcotic drug questions received the highest (57.32%) percentages of correct responses. Only 9.3% of participants believed that they had received adequate education about pain and its management. Conclusions The findings of this study support concern about inadequate knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding chronic pain management. We believe that further education and practical training will be needed for adequate pain management. PMID:27843775
Gretarsdottir, Elfa; Zoëga, Sigridur; Tomasson, Gunnar; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gunnarsdottir, Sigridur
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the primary determinants of knowledge and attitudes regarding pain among nurses in a hospital setting. All registered nurses employed at participating units at a university hospital were invited to participate. Information on work experience, education, and hospital unit was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Knowledge and Attitude Survey Regarding Pain instrument was used to assess knowledge on pain management. The difference in knowledge between nurses with different levels of education was assessed with analysis of variance. The discriminatory ability of each question was determined with item response theory, and the association between correct answers to individual items and the total score were calculated using linear regression. Participants were 235 nurses, 51% of the 459 invited. The overall pain knowledge score was 26.1 (standard deviation 5.3, range 8-38) out of a total of 40 possible. Those with an advanced degree in nursing scored on average 2.9 points higher than those who did not have an advance degree (95% confidence interval: 0.9-4.7). Responses to clinical vignette questions showed more difference between nurses with different levels of knowledge of pain management than the other questions. Participants with the correct response to the best discriminatory item had 5.35 (95% confidence interval 4.08-6.61) points higher total score than those with an incorrect answer. Higher education is associated with better knowledge on pain management. To assess pain knowledge, the ability to interpret and solve a clinical vignette leads to better results than answering direct questions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ahmad, B; Ramadas, A; Quek, K F
The study's aim was to construct and validate a diabetes mellitus knowledge questionnaire in Bahasa Malaysia for Orang Asli (OA-DKQ). The questionnaire was administered to; case (Orang Asli) and control (administrative staff) groups at baseline and retested two weeks later. The Cronbach's Alpha was used to determine internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. The OA-DKQ has an internal consistency of 0.806. These findings suggest the OA-DKQ is an acceptable instrument to assess knowledge and preventive behaviour in Orang Asli (86 words).
Swafford, Kristen L.; Miller, Lois L.; Herr, Keela; Forcucci, Chris; Kelly, Anne Marie L.; Bakerjian, Debra
Pain in older adults is a prevalent problem that affects quality of life and challenges nurses, particularly those caring for older adults living in long term care settings. Despite the national priority of pain management, insufficient knowledge of nurses about geriatric pain is a documented barrier to effective geriatric pain management in all long term care settings. To address this knowledge gap, a website (GeriatricPain.org) was developed by the National Geriatric Pain Collaborative with a grant from the MayDay Fund to provide a single site for evidenced-based, easy-to-use, downloadable resources on pain management. This paper describes the development of the most recent addition to the website, a set of evidence-based core geriatric pain management competencies and a geriatric pain knowledge assessment, and discusses their potential uses in improving pain care for older adults. Geriatric Pain Competencies and Knowledge Assessment for Nurses in Long Term Care Settings. PMID:25037079
Bukenya, Richard; Ahmed, Abhiya; Andrade, Jeanette M.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.; Muyonga, John; Andrade, Juan E.
This study sought to develop and validate a general nutrition knowledge questionnaire (GNKQ) for Ugandan adults. The initial draft consisted of 133 items on five constructs associated with nutrition knowledge; expert recommendations (16 items), food groups (70 items), selecting food (10 items), nutrition and disease relationship (23 items), and food fortification in Uganda (14 items). The questionnaire validity was evaluated in three studies. For the content validity (study 1), a panel of five content matter nutrition experts reviewed the GNKQ draft before and after face validity. For the face validity (study 2), head teachers and health workers (n = 27) completed the questionnaire before attending one of three focus groups to review the clarity of the items. For the construct and test-rest reliability (study 3), head teachers (n = 40) from private and public primary schools and nutrition (n = 52) and engineering (n = 49) students from Makerere University took the questionnaire twice (two weeks apart). Experts agreed (content validity index, CVI > 0.9; reliability, Gwet’s AC1 > 0.85) that all constructs were relevant to evaluate nutrition knowledge. After the focus groups, 29 items were identified as unclear, requiring major (n = 5) and minor (n = 24) reviews. The final questionnaire had acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach α > 0.95), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89), and differentiated (p < 0.001) nutrition knowledge scores between nutrition (67 ± 5) and engineering (39 ± 11) students. Only the construct on nutrition recommendations was unreliable (Cronbach α = 0.51, test-retest r = 0.55), which requires further optimization. The final questionnaire included topics on food groups (41 items), selecting food (2 items), nutrition and disease relationship (14 items), and food fortification in Uganda (22 items) and had good content, construct, and test-retest reliability to evaluate nutrition knowledge among Ugandan adults. PMID:28230779
Cummings, Greta G; Olivo, Susan Armijo; Biondo, Patricia D; Stiles, Carla R; Yurtseven, Ozden; Fainsinger, Robin L; Hagen, Neil A
Cancer pain is prevalent, yet patients do not receive best care despite widely available evidence. Although national cancer control policies call for education, effectiveness of such programs is unclear and best practices are not well defined. To examine existing evidence on whether knowledge translation (KT) interventions targeting health care providers, patients, and caregivers improve cancer pain outcomes. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to evaluate primary studies that examined effects of KT interventions on providers and patients. Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Five studies reported interventions targeting health care providers, four focused on patients or their families, one study examined patients and their significant others, and 16 studies examined patients only. Seven quantitative comparisons measured the statistical effects of interventions. A significant difference favoring the treatment group in least pain intensity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44, 1.42) and in usual pain/average pain (95% CI: 0.13, 0.74) was observed. No other statistical differences were observed. However, most studies were assessed as having high risk of bias and failed to report sufficient information about the intervention dose, quality of educational material, fidelity, and other key factors required to evaluate effectiveness of intervention design. Trials that used a higher dose of KT intervention (characterized by extensive follow-up, comprehensive educational program, and higher resource allocation) were significantly more likely to have positive results than trials that did not use this approach. Further attention to methodological issues to improve educational interventions and research to clarify factors that lead to better pain control are urgently needed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Denteneer, Lenie; Stassijns, Gaetane; Truijen, Steven; De Herthogh, Willem; Meirte, Jill; Deckers, Kristiaan; Van Daele, Ulrike
Cross sectional study OBJECTIVE.: The goal of this study is to translate the English version of the Modified Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (MDQ) into a Dutch version and investigate its clinimetric properties for patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Fritz et al (2001) developed a modified version of the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODI) to assess functional status and named it the MDQ. In this version, a question regarding employment and homemaking ability was substituted for the question related to sex life. Good clinimetric properties for the MDQ were identified but up until now it is not clear if the clinimetric properties of the MDQ would change if it was translated into a Dutch version. translation of the MDQ into Dutch was done in four steps. Test-retest reliability was investigated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model. Validity was calculated using Pearson correlations and a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. Finally, responsiveness was calculated with the area under the curve (AUC), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the standardized response mean (SRM). A total of 80 completed questionnaires were collected in three different hospitals and a total of 43 patients finished a 9 weeks intervention period, completing the retest. Test-retest reliability was excellent with an ICC of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74-0.95). To confirm the convergent validity, the MDQ answered all predefined hypothesises (r = -0.65-0.69 / p = 0.01-0.00) and good results for construct validity were found (p = 0.02). The MDQ had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.47-0.81), an MDC of 8.80 points and a SRM of 0.65. The Dutch version of the MDQ shows good clinimetric properties and is shown to be usable in the assessment of the functional status of Dutch speaking patients with nonspecific CLBP. 3.
Konishi, Toshiro; Sasaki, Tsuneo; Aiba, Keisuke; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kakegawa, Kimiko; Okubo, Takashi
With the objective of clarifying points that needed improvement to provide earlier and better treatment of pain by assessing the current state of cancer pain management in Japan, we conducted a questionnaire survey about pain management in patients with advanced/recurrent cancer who were suffering from pain. The results of the survey revealed that it is important for primary physician to place greater emphasis on pain management when treating cancer patients, to inform patients that the doctor should always be told if the patient has pain, and provide appropriate information about medical narcotics to their patients. The team approach to management of cancer has been increasing in importance recently. This survey suggested it is important for primary physicians, who play a central role in such teams, to listen to their patients' complaints about symptoms including pain. Furthermore, it should be remembered that patients are eager to establish a good, trusting relationship with their primary physician.
Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Aggelousis, Nicolaos; Vassiliadou, Olga
The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an instrument for measuring Greek elementary physical educators' knowledge of student assessment. A multiple-choice questionnaire comprised of items about concepts, methods, tools, and types of student assessment in physical education was designed and tested. The initial 35-item…
Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Aggelousis, Nicolaos; Vassiliadou, Olga
The purpose of this pilot study was to develop and evaluate an instrument for measuring Greek elementary physical educators' knowledge of student assessment. A multiple-choice questionnaire comprised of items about concepts, methods, tools, and types of student assessment in physical education was designed and tested. The initial 35-item…
Budzinski, Jason W.; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland M.; Repchinsky, Carol; Jovaisas, Barbara; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique
Objective. To assess the use of an electronic knowledge resource to document continuing education activities and reveal educational needs of practicing pharmacists. Methods. Over a 38-week period, 67 e-mails were sent to 6,500 Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) members. Each e-mail contained a link to an e-Therapeutics+ Highlight, a factual excerpt of selected content from an online drug and therapeutic knowledge resource. Participants were then prompted to complete a pop-up questionnaire. Results. Members completed 4,140 questionnaires. Participants attributed the information they learned in the Highlights to practice improvements (50.4%), learning (57.0%), and motivation to learn more (57.4%). Conclusions. Reading Highlight excerpts and completing Web-based questionnaires is an effective method of continuing education that could be easily documented and tracked, making it an effective tool for use with e-portfolios. PMID:22761523
Droz, Jennifer; Howard, Fred M
To estimate the usefulness of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) pain descriptors in the diagnostic evaluation of chronic pelvic pain. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-based center specializing in chronic pelvic pain. Three hundred thirty-one consecutively evaluated women with chronic pelvic pain who had data sufficient for evaluation. The relationships between MPQ pain descriptors and subsequent diagnoses were evaluated using odds ratios, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. The most common diagnoses were endometriosis, interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. Seventy-one percent of the patients had more than one diagnosis. Relative risks for pain descriptors as diagnostic tools for specific diagnoses were most significant, with "cramping" for endometriosis (4.0), "cramping" for interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome (2.0), "sickening" for irritable bowel syndrome (1.5), and "aching" for abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (4.27). Several of the MPQ descriptors had high negative predictive values but not high positive predictive values, which suggests that they have diagnostic usefulness in excluding but not predicting pelvic pain-related diagnoses. This was especially the case with cramping as an MPQ descriptor in women with endometriosis. However, overall the MPQ descriptors were not robust as diagnostic tools, which suggests that inclusion of the MPQ descriptors in the evaluation of women with chronic pelvic pain is of limited diagnostic value. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dima, Alexandra; Lewith, George T; Little, Paul; Moss-Morris, Rona; Foster, Nadine E; Hankins, Matthew; Surtees, George; Bishop, Felicity L
Choosing the most appropriate treatment for individual patients with low back pain (LBP) can be challenging, and clinical guidelines recommend taking into account patients' preferences. However, no tools exist to assess or compare patients' views about LBP treatments. We report the development and validation of the Low Back Pain Treatment Beliefs Questionnaire (LBP-TBQ) for use across different treatments in clinical practice and research. Using qualitative data, we developed a pool of items assessing perceived credibility, effectiveness, concerns about, and individual "fit" of specific treatments. These items were included in a survey completed by 429 primary care patients with LBP, of whom 115 completed it again 1 to 2 weeks later. We performed psychometric analyses using nonparametric item response theory and classical test theory. The 4 subscales of the resulting 16-item LBP-TBQ showed good homogeneity (H = 0.46-0.76), internal consistency (α = 0.73-0.94), and stability (r = 0.63-0.83), confirmed most convergent and discriminant validity hypotheses, and had acceptable structural validity for 4 guideline-recommended treatments: pain medication, exercise, manual therapy, and acupuncture. Participants with stronger positive treatment beliefs were more likely to rank that treatment as their first choice, indicating good criterion validity (t values = 3.11-9.80, all P < 0.01, except pain medication effectiveness beliefs, t(339) = 1.35; P = 0.18). A short 4-item version also displayed good homogeneity (H = 0.43-0.66), internal consistency (α = 0.70-0.86), and stability (r = 0.82-0.85) and was significantly related to treatment choice (t values = 4.33-9.25, all P < 0.01). The LBP-TBQ can be used to assess treatment beliefs in primary care patients with LBP and to investigate the effects of treatment beliefs on treatment uptake and adherence.
Warms, Catherine A; Marshall, Helen M; Hoffman, Amy J; Tyler, Erica J
This qualitative study is a secondary analysis of comments written on survey questionnaires about pain mailed to community-dwelling persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) or amputation. Narrative comments were added by 54.1% of 797 respondents. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of those who wrote comments and to understand what was being communicated in their comments. A qualitative content analysis was used to identify the major themes, subthemes, and thematic categories in the unsolicited comments. The overarching theme was desiring dialogue with the researcher. Presenting themselves as experts on living with pain because of a chronic disabling condition, respondents described personal experiences of living with pain, coping with pain, and educating others about pain. Examining comments and narratives written in the margins of quantitative survey questionnaires can add value to and extend understanding of survey findings and implications.
Bonin, Christiani Decker Batista; dos Santos, Rafaella Zulianello; Ghisi, Gabriela Lima de Melo; Vieira, Ariany Marques; Amboni, Ricardo; Benetti, Magnus
Background The lack of tools to measure heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in rehabilitation programs demonstrates the need for specific recommendations regarding the amount or content of information required. Objectives To develop and validate a questionnaire to assess heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. Methods The tool was developed based on the Coronary Artery Disease Education Questionnaire and applied to 96 patients with heart failure, with a mean age of 60.22 ± 11.6 years, 64% being men. Reproducibility was obtained via the intraclass correlation coefficient, using the test-retest method. Internal consistency was assessed by use of Cronbach's alpha, and construct validity, by use of exploratory factor analysis. Results The final version of the tool had 19 questions arranged in ten areas of importance for patient education. The proposed questionnaire had a clarity index of 8.94 ± 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.856, and Cronbach's alpha, 0.749. Factor analysis revealed five factors associated with the knowledge areas. Comparing the final scores with the characteristics of the population evidenced that low educational level and low income are significantly associated with low levels of knowledge. Conclusion The instrument has satisfactory clarity and validity indices, and can be used to assess the heart failure patients' knowledge about their syndrome when participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs. PMID:24652054
Wand, Benedict Martin; Catley, Mark Jon; Rabey, Martin Ian; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; O'Connell, Neil Edward; Smith, Anne Julia
Several lines of evidence suggest that body perception is altered in people with chronic back pain. Maladaptive perceptual awareness of the back might contribute to the pain experience as well as serve as a target for treatment. The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ) is a simple questionnaire recently developed to assess back-specific altered self-perception. The aims of this study were to present the outcomes of a comprehensive evaluation of the questionnaire's psychometric properties and explore the potential relationships between body perception, nociceptive sensitivity, distress, and beliefs about back pain and the contribution these factors might play in explaining pain and disability. Two hundred fifty-one people with chronic back pain completed the questionnaire as well as a battery of clinical tests. The Rasch model was used to explore the questionnaires' psychometric properties and correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between altered body perception and clinical status. The FreBAQ appears unidimensional with no redundant items, has minimal ceiling and floor effects, acceptable internal consistency, was functional on the category rating scale, and was not biased by demographic or clinical variables. FreBAQ scores were correlated with sensitivity, distress, and beliefs and were uniquely associated with pain and disability. Several lines of evidence suggest that body perception might be disturbed in people with chronic low back pain, possibly contributing to the condition and offering a potential target for treatment. The FreBAQ was developed as a quick and simple way of measuring back-specific body perception in people with chronic low back pain. The questionnaire appears to be a psychometrically sound way of assessing altered self-perception. The level of altered self-perception is positively correlated with pain intensity and disability as well as showing associations with psychological
Pombo, Nuno; Araújo, Pedro; Viana, Joaquim
The occurrence of pain accounts for billions of dollars in annual medical expenditures; loss of quality of life and decreased worker productivity contribute to indirect costs. As pain is highly subjective, clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) can be critical for improving the accuracy of pain assessment and offering better support for clinical decision-making. This review is focused on computer technologies for pain management that allow CDSSs to obtain knowledge from the clinical data produced by either patients or health care professionals. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in several electronic databases to identify relevant articles focused on computerised systems that constituted CDSSs and include data or results related to pain symptoms from patients with acute or chronic pain, published between 1992 and 2011 in the English language. In total, thirty-nine studies were analysed; thirty-two were selected from 1245 citations, and seven were obtained from reference tracking. The results highlighted the following clusters of computer technologies: rule-based algorithms, artificial neural networks, nonstandard set theory, and statistical learning algorithms. In addition, several methodologies were found for content processing such as terminologies, questionnaires, and scores. The median accuracy ranged from 53% to 87.5%. Computer technologies that have been applied in CDSSs are important but not determinant in improving the systems' accuracy and the clinical practice, as evidenced by the moderate correlation among the studies. However, these systems play an important role in the design of computerised systems oriented to a patient's symptoms as is required for pain management. Several limitations related to CDSSs were observed: the lack of integration with mobile devices, the reduced use of web-based interfaces, and scarce capabilities for data to be inserted by patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Astegiano, Sara; Barbaro, Antonio; Bona, Maria Cristina; Baioni, Elisa; Rubinetti, Francesca; Aliberti, Enrico; Palazzo, Carlo; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia
The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77%) recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62%) indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%). Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17) as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%). Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74%) believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15%) reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety. PMID:27800380
Traversa, Amaranta; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Astegiano, Sara; Barbaro, Antonio; Bona, Maria Cristina; Baioni, Elisa; Rubinetti, Francesca; Aliberti, Enrico; Palazzo, Carlo; Gallina, Silvia; Decastelli, Lucia
The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers' knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77%) recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62%) indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%). Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17) as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%). Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74%) believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15%) reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers' knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.
Ghadyani, Leila; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Wagner, Joan
Development and psychometric evaluation. Design and psychometric assessment of the Nursing Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire addressing nurses suffering from chronic low back pain in Iran. Low back pain is the most prevalent behavior-related health problem among nurses, and it needs to be assessed through a validated multi-factorial questionnaire, using the premises of the social cognitive theory. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Tehran, Iran from April 17, 2014 to July 16, 2014. A 50-item questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory was generated. The questionnaire was distributed among 500 nurses working in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Tehran. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factors and their related items. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess reliability. The exploratory factor analysis loaded six factors, named observational learning, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments in the working environment and emotional coping. All factors were jointly accounted for 67.12% of behavior change variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.91). Test and retest analysis with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the questionnaire (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.94). According the results, the developed questionnaire is a reliable and validated theory-based instrument, which can be used to predict the work, related factors for low back pain among nurses.
Ghadyani, Leila; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Wagner, Joan
Study Design Development and psychometric evaluation. Purpose Design and psychometric assessment of the Nursing Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire addressing nurses suffering from chronic low back pain in Iran. Overview of Literature Low back pain is the most prevalent behavior-related health problem among nurses, and it needs to be assessed through a validated multi-factorial questionnaire, using the premises of the social cognitive theory. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Tehran, Iran from April 17, 2014 to July 16, 2014. A 50-item questionnaire based on the social cognitive theory was generated. The questionnaire was distributed among 500 nurses working in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Tehran. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the factors and their related items. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess reliability. Results The exploratory factor analysis loaded six factors, named observational learning, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments in the working environment and emotional coping. All factors were jointly accounted for 67.12% of behavior change variance. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed excellent internal consistency (alpha=0.91). Test and retest analysis with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the questionnaire (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.94). Conclusions According the results, the developed questionnaire is a reliable and validated theory-based instrument, which can be used to predict the work, related factors for low back pain among nurses. PMID:27559450
Greville-Harris, Maddy; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Liossi, Christina; White, Peter; Graham, Cynthia A; Bishop, Felicity L
Despite the prevalence of acupuncture treatment in the UK, and the increasing evidence of safety and effectiveness, the information presented to patients by practitioners frequently contains inaccuracies. As knowledge of treatment affects both patient decision-making and treatment outcomes, this study aimed to establish what is known about acupuncture in a sample of people who had, and had not, previously experienced acupuncture. A 15-item questionnaire was constructed to assess knowledge of acupuncture. Online survey of people with a history of back pain. 202 participants completed the questionnaire. 66.8% of the sample was female and 33.2% male, with a mean age of 35 years (range 18-74 years). 87.6% had back pain in the past six months, 44.1% currently. 21.8% had previously received acupuncture, and 69.8% had previously read or heard information about acupuncture. On average participants answered 11.03 of 15 questions about acupuncture correctly (SD=2.64). Items relating to common concerns about acupuncture, acupuncture efficacy, and types of acupuncture were correctly answered by ≥80% of participants. Participants possessed less knowledge of accessibility, Government legislation, and methods of administration. The study identified key gaps in knowledge about acupuncture among patients. In particular, many participants were unaware that acupuncture is available from the UK National Health Service and that acupuncturists are not subject to statutory regulation in the UK. These knowledge gaps should be addressed in order to increase people's understanding of and access to acupuncture. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. Results There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19–21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Conclusions Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex). PMID:24886447
Urrutia, María Teresa; Gajardo, Macarena; Padilla, Oslando
Despite a clear association between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, knowledge in adolescent populations regarding the disease and methods for its detection and prevention is deficient. The aim of this study was to develop and test a new questionnaire concerning knowledge on cervical cancer. An instrument was developed and validated to measure knowledge in 226 Chilean adolescents between April and June 2011. Content validity, construct validity, and reliability analysis of the instrument were performed. The new, validated instrument, called CEC-61 (Conocimientos en Cancer Cérvicouterino-61 items/Knowledge in Cervical Cancer-61 items), contains nine factors and 61 items. The new questionnaire explained 81% of the variance with a reliability of 0.96. The assessment of knowledge with a valid and reliable instrument is the first step in creating interventions for a population and to encourage appropriate preventive behavior. CEC-61 is highly reliable and has a clear factorial structure to evaluate knowledge in nine domains related to cervical cancer disease, cervical cancer risk, papilloma virus infection, the Papanicolaou test, and the papilloma virus vaccine.
Salerno, Sergio; Marchese, Paola; Magistrelli, Andrea; Tomà, Paolo; Matranga, Domenica; Midiri, Massimo; Ugazio, Alberto G; Corsello, Giovanni
Analyse through a multi-choice anonymous questionnaire the knowledge's level in paediatric residents and fellows in two different main Italian hospital, looking mainly to the information to patients and relatives related to risks of ionizing radiation used in common radiological investigations in children. 65 multi choice questionnaires were distributed to paediatric residents and fellows of two different hospitals, an University Hospital (A.O.U.P. "P. Giaccone"- University of Palermo) and a national reference centre for paediatrics (Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù - Rome). The questionnaire included twelve multiple-choice questions with the aim of analyzing the knowledge about ionizing radiation related risks in infants and children who undergo common diagnostic radiology investigations. The data obtained were processed using software Stata/MP version 11.2. In order to measure the level of expertise of each interviewee a binary indicator was built. The value 1 was assigned if the percentage of correct answers exceeds the median of the distribution and 0 for values not exceeding the median. The association between the level of competence and demographic characteristics (gender, age) and training experience was measured by means of α(2) test. 51/65 questionnaires were completed, returned and analysed (87.7%). Only 18 surveyed (35%), (95% IC = [22%-48%]) can be defined as competent in radiation risk knowledge for common radiological investigations, considering the percentage of correct answers at least of 50% (sufficient knowledge was given with a minimum score of 8 correct answers out of 12). The study demonstrates an urgent need to implement the radiation protection knowledge in the training programme of paediatricians, that improve if just a short targeted training is performed.
Purpose For many patients confronted with chronic diseases, spirituality/religiosity is a relevant resource to cope. While most studies on patients' spiritual needs refer to the care of patients at the end of life, our intention was to develop an instrument to measure spiritual, existential and psychosocial need of patients with chronic diseases. Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional survey, we applied the Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ version 1.2.) to 210 patients (75% women, mean age 54 ± 12 years) with chronic pain conditions (67%), cancer (28%), other chronic conditions (5%). Patients were recruited at the Community Hospital Herdecke, the Institute for Complementary Medicine (University of Bern), and at a conference of a cancer support group in Herten. Results Factor analysis of the 19-item instrument (Cronbach's alpha = .93) pointed to 4 factors which explain 67% of variance: Religious Needs, Need for Inner Peace, Existentialistic Needs (Reflection/Meaning), and Actively Giving. Within the main sample of patients with chronic pain and cancer, Needs for Inner Peace had the highest scores, followed by Self competent Attention; Existentialistic Needs had low scores, while the Religious Needs scores indicate no interest. Patients with cancer had significantly higher SpNQ scores than patients with chronic pain conditions. There were just some weak associations between Actively Giving and life satisfaction (r = .17; p = .012), and negatively with the symptom score (r = -.29; p < .0001); Need for Inner Peace was weakly associated with satisfaction with treatment efficacy (r = .24; p < .0001). Regression analyses reveal that the underlying disease (i.e., cancer) was of outstanding relevance for the patients' spiritual needs. Conclusion The preliminary results indicate that spiritual needs are conceptually different from life satisfaction, and can be interpreted as the patients' longing for spiritual well-being. Methods how health care professionals may meet
Vollert, Jan; Kramer, Martin; Barroso, Alejandro; Freynhagen, Rainer; Haanpää, Maija; Hansson, Per; Jensen, Troels S; Kuehler, Bianca M; Maier, Christoph; Mainka, Tina; Reimer, Maren; Segerdahl, Märta; Serra, Jordi; Solà, Romà; Tölle, Thomas R; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baron, Ralf
The painDETECT Questionnaire (PDQ) is commonly used as a screening tool to discriminate between neuropathic pain (NP) and nociceptive pain, based on the self-report of symptoms, including pain qualities, numbness, and pain to touch, cold, or heat. However, there are minimal data about whether the PDQ is differentially sensitive to different sensory phenotypes in NP. The aim of the study was to analyze whether the overall PDQ score or its items reflect phenotypes of sensory loss in NP as determined by quantitative sensory testing. An exploratory analysis in the Innovative Medicines Initiative Europain and Neuropain database was performed. Data records of 336 patients identified with NP were grouped into sensory profiles characterized by (1) no loss of sensation, (2) loss of thermal sensation, (3) loss of mechanical sensation, and (4) loss of thermal and mechanical sensation. painDETECT Questionnaire profiles were analyzed in a 2-factor analysis of variance. Patients with loss of thermal sensation (2 and 4) significantly more often reported pain evoked by light touch, and patients with loss of mechanical sensation (3 and 4) significantly more often reported numbness and significantly less often burning sensations and pain evoked by light touch. Although the PDQ was not designed to assess sensory loss, single items reflect thermal and/or mechanical sensory loss at group level, but because of substantial variability, the PDQ does not allow for individual allocation of patients into sensory profiles. It will be useful to develop screening tools according to the current definition of NP.
Busquets, C; Ojeda, A; Torres, F; Faulí, A; Moreno, L A; Bogdanovich, A; Giménez-Milà, M; Hernández-Cera, C; Fàbregas, N; Videla, S
To study the feasibility of a multidimensional self-administered questionnaire before the patient is seen at the first visit in a clinical Pain Treatment Unit (PTU) of a tertiary hospital, and its impact on the management of patients in the first visit. Cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaire that gathered: socio-demographic data, medical history of pain, pain perception (intensity and characteristics), comorbidity of pain and patient expectations of analgesic treatment ("What do you expect from our treatment? If we cannot resolve your pain, what level of pain would you be willing to live with?). A descriptive analysis was performed. A total of 293 consecutive patients (31% men, 69% women), mean age (SD) 62 (16) years-old, were included in 2011. All patients completed and returned the questionnaire before the first visit to the PTU. The questionnaire was completed fully and correctly by 80% (234, 95% CI: 75-84) of the patients, and the rest completed the questionnaire with some points unanswered. About 24% (70/293, 95% CI: 19-29) of the patients should not have been referred to the PTU [20% were not attended]. A small percentage (9%,26/293, 95% CI: 6-13) were evaluated as «urgent'» and visited over the following 7 days, with 19% (56/293, 95%CI: 15-24) being «preferential» (visited before 15 days) and 52% (152/293, 95% CI: 46-58) as «non-urgent/non-preferential» (visited before 60 days). Almost one third (30%, 87/293, 95% CI: 25-35) did not need a second visit to the PTU. Patient expectations: 21% expected complete pain relief and 64% would accept a lower pain intensity score of 4. The use of a multidimensional self-administered questionnaire before the first visit to a clinical Pain Treatment Unit of a tertiary hospital was a practicable and useful tool for the management of patients on the first visit. Likewise, the questionnaire provided information on the patient's perception of pain and the expectations concerning the analgesic treatment
Distinguishing fibromyalgia from rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus in clinical questionnaires: an analysis of the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and its variant, the Symptom Impact Questionnaire (SIQR), along with pain locations
Introduction The purpose of this study was to explore a data set of patients with fibromyalgia (FM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who completed the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and its variant, the Symptom Impact Questionnaire (SIQR), for discriminating features that could be used to differentiate FM from RA and SLE in clinical surveys. Methods The frequency and means of comparing FM, RA and SLE patients on all pain sites and SIQR variables were calculated. Multiple regression analysis was then conducted to identify the significant pain sites and SIQR predictors of group membership. Thereafter stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the order of variables in predicting their maximal statistical contribution to group membership. Partial correlations assessed their unique contribution, and, last, two-group discriminant analysis provided a classification table. Results The data set contained information on the SIQR and also pain locations in 202 FM, 31 RA and 20 SLE patients. As the SIQR and pain locations did not differ much between the RA and SLE patients, they were grouped together (RA/SLE) to provide a more robust analysis. The combination of eight SIQR items and seven pain sites correctly classified 99% of FM and 90% of RA/SLE patients in a two-group discriminant analysis. The largest reported SIQR differences (FM minus RA/SLE) were seen for the parameters "tenderness to touch," "difficulty cleaning floors" and "discomfort on sitting for 45 minutes." Combining the SIQR and pain locations in a stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the seven most important predictors of group membership were mid-lower back pain (29%; 79% vs. 16%), tenderness to touch (11.5%; 6.86 vs. 3.02), neck pain (6.8%; 91% vs. 39%), hand pain (5%; 64% vs. 77%), arm pain (3%; 69% vs. 18%), outer lower back pain (1.7%; 80% vs. 22%) and sitting for 45 minutes (1.4%; 5.56 vs. 1.49). Conclusions A
Shieh, Shwn-Huey; Sung, Fung-Chang; Su, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Yafang; Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong
To examine whether the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) increased in hospital nurses with high patient care workload. A structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on the prevalence of LBP and its associated factors from 788 registered nurses from a medical center in Taiwan. Among all nurses with eligible questionnaires, 567 (72.0%) had LBP. Mean daily hours of working, standing, and walking were persistently longer in the LBP group. Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that daily working for 1 hour longer is linked to a 35% (95% confidence interval (CI)=2-78%) greater risk of LBP. Compared with <2 years of service as nurse, nurses with 2-5 years of service had the highest risk (odds ratio (OR)=2.11, 95% CI=1.07-4.18). LBP risk was also higher for nurses with chore duty responsibilities (OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.12-3.53) and other back related disorders (OR=4.43, 95% CI=1.99-9.86). Our results suggest that longer daily working hours and a large number of cared patients per shift should be discouraged in order to prevent musculoskeletal problems such as LBP in registered nurses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Zamprogno, Helia; Hansen, Bernie D; Bondell, Howard D; Sumrell, Andrea Thomson; Simpson, Wendy; Robertson, Ian D; Brown, James; Pease, Anthony P; Roe, Simon C; Hardie, Elizabeth M; Wheeler, Simon J; Lascelles, B Duncan X
To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)-associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners. 100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old. Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs. 22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats. Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.
Dihle, Alfhild; Helseth, Sølvi; Christophersen, Knut-Andreas
To examine some psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the American Pain Society's Patient Outcome Questionnaire(APS-POQ-N). This study is part of an investigation of Norwegian orthopaedic surgical patients, where the overall aim is to evaluate the quality of postoperative pain management. Therefore, an adequate questionnaire on the quality of postoperative pain management was needed. The sample included 114 orthopaedic postoperative patients. The instrument consists of three main subscales, namely the modified Brief Pain Inventory(modified BPI subscale), the subscale on satisfaction with pain management(Satisfaction subscale) and the subscale on beliefs about pain management (Beliefs subscale), together with six single items about pain management. The reliability of these three main subscales was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients and the construct validity was evaluated using principal-axis factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Face and content validity of the APS-POQ-N were satisfactory, while the modified BPI and the Beliefs subscales showed acceptable internal consistency but the Satisfaction subscale did not. Factor analyses yielded a three-factor solution for the modified BPI, a one-factor solution for the Satisfaction subscale and a two-factor solution for the Beliefs subscale. The APS-POQ-N appears, in general, to be an acceptable method of evaluating postoperative pain management in orthopaedic postoperative patients.However, the alpha value of the Satisfaction subscale was low, and thus the subscale is not recommended for this purpose.
Gudala, Kapil; Ghai, Babita
Background Recently symptoms-based screening questionnaires have gained attention for screening for a neuropathic pain component (NePC) in various chronic pain conditions. The present study assessed the usefulness of four commonly used NePC screening questionnaires including the Self-completed douleur neuropathique 4 (S-DN4), the ID Pain, the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), and the Self-completed Leeds Assessment of neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) to assess the presence of NePC. Methods This is a single-center cross-sectional study where patients with CLBP, with or without leg pain, were included. Participants were initially screened for NePC presence by a physician according to the regular practice, and later assessed using screening questionnaires. The diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires was compared assuming the physician-made diagnosis as the gold standard. Results A total of 215 patients with CLBP of which 164 (76.3%, 95% CI, 70.2-81.5) had a NePC were included. S-DN4, ID Pain, and PDQ have an area under the curve (AUC) > 0.8 indicating excellent discrimination. However, S-LANSS has an AUC of 0.69 (0.62-0.75), indicating low discrimination. S-DN4 has a significantly higher AUC as compared to ID Pain (d(AUC) = 0.063, P < 0.01) and S-LANSS (d(AUC) = 0.197, P < 0.01). But the AUC of S-DN4 does not significantly differ from that of PDQ (d(AUC) = 0.013, P = 0.62). Conclusions S-DN4, ID Pain, and PDQ, but not S-LANSS, have good discriminant validity to screen for NePCs in patients with CLBP. Despite using all the tests, 20-30% of patients with an NePC were missed. Thus, these questionnaires can only be used as an initial clue in screening for NePCs, but do not replace clinical judgment. PMID:28119771
Gudala, Kapil; Ghai, Babita; Bansal, Dipika
Recently symptoms-based screening questionnaires have gained attention for screening for a neuropathic pain component (NePC) in various chronic pain conditions. The present study assessed the usefulness of four commonly used NePC screening questionnaires including the Self-completed douleur neuropathique 4 (S-DN4), the ID Pain, the painDETECT questionnaire (PDQ), and the Self-completed Leeds Assessment of neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) to assess the presence of NePC. This is a single-center cross-sectional study where patients with CLBP, with or without leg pain, were included. Participants were initially screened for NePC presence by a physician according to the regular practice, and later assessed using screening questionnaires. The diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires was compared assuming the physician-made diagnosis as the gold standard. A total of 215 patients with CLBP of which 164 (76.3%, 95% CI, 70.2-81.5) had a NePC were included. S-DN4, ID Pain, and PDQ have an area under the curve (AUC) > 0.8 indicating excellent discrimination. However, S-LANSS has an AUC of 0.69 (0.62-0.75), indicating low discrimination. S-DN4 has a significantly higher AUC as compared to ID Pain (d(AUC) = 0.063, P < 0.01) and S-LANSS (d(AUC) = 0.197, P < 0.01). But the AUC of S-DN4 does not significantly differ from that of PDQ (d(AUC) = 0.013, P = 0.62). S-DN4, ID Pain, and PDQ, but not S-LANSS, have good discriminant validity to screen for NePCs in patients with CLBP. Despite using all the tests, 20-30% of patients with an NePC were missed. Thus, these questionnaires can only be used as an initial clue in screening for NePCs, but do not replace clinical judgment.
Roque, Fátima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cristian; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa
To develop and evaluate the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes and knowledge of community pharmacists in Portugal about microbial resistance and the antibiotic dispensing process. This study was divided into the following three stages: (1) design of the questionnaire, which included a literature review and a qualitative study with focus-group sessions; (2) assessment of face and content validity, using a panel of experts and a pre-test of community pharmacists; and, (3) pilot study and reliability analysis, which included a test-retest study covering fifty practising pharmacists based at community pharmacies in five districts situated in Northern Portugal. Questionnaire reproducibility was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 95% confidence interval) computed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. The correlation coefficients were fair to good (ICC>0.4) for all statements (scale-items) regarding knowledge of and attitudes to antibiotic resistance, and ranged from fair to good to excellent for statements about situations in which pharmacists acknowledged that antibiotics were sometimes dispensed without a medical prescription (ICC>0.8). Cronbach's alpha for this section was 0.716. The questionnaire designed in this study is valid and reliable in terms of content validity, face validity and reproducibility.
Roque, Fátima; Soares, Sara; Breitenfeld, Luiza; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cristian; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa
Objective To develop and evaluate the reliability of a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes and knowledge of community pharmacists in Portugal about microbial resistance and the antibiotic dispensing process. Methods This study was divided into the following three stages: (1) design of the questionnaire, which included a literature review and a qualitative study with focus-group sessions; (2) assessment of face and content validity, using a panel of experts and a pre-test of community pharmacists; and, (3) pilot study and reliability analysis, which included a test-retest study covering fifty practising pharmacists based at community pharmacies in five districts situated in Northern Portugal. Questionnaire reproducibility was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 95% confidence interval) computed by means of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. Results The correlation coefficients were fair to good (ICC>0.4) for all statements (scale-items) regarding knowledge of and attitudes to antibiotic resistance, and ranged from fair to good to excellent for statements about situations in which pharmacists acknowledged that antibiotics were sometimes dispensed without a medical prescription (ICC>0.8). Cronbach's alpha for this section was 0.716. Conclusions The questionnaire designed in this study is valid and reliable in terms of content validity, face validity and reproducibility. PMID:24599387
Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Ferreira, Mónica; Roque, Fátima; Falcão, Amílcar; Ramalheira, Elmano; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa
Understanding physicians' antibiotic-prescribing behaviour is fundamental when it comes to improving antibiotic use and tackling the growing rates of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of the study was to develop and validate--in terms of face validity, content validity and reliability--an instrument designed to assess the attitudes and knowledge underlying physician antibiotic prescribing. The questionnaire development and validation process comprised two different steps, namely: (1) content and face validation, which included a literature review and validation both by physicians and by Portuguese language and clinical psychology experts; and (2) reliability analysis, using the test-retest method, to assess the questionnaire's internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient--ICC). The questionnaire includes 17 items assessing attitudes and knowledge about antibiotic prescribing and resistances and 9 items evaluating the importance of different sources of knowledge. The study was conducted in the catchment area covered by Portugal's Northern Regional Health Administration and used a convenience sample of 61 primary-care and 50 hospital-care physicians. Response rate was 64% (49% to retest) for primary-care physicians and 66% (60% to retest) for hospital-care physicians. Content validity resulted in 9 changes to professional concepts. Face validity assessment resulted in 19 changes to linguistic and interpretative terms. In the case of the reliability analysis, the ICC values indicated a minimum of fair to good reproducibility (ICC > 0.4), and the Cronbach alpha values were satisfactory (α > 0.70). The questionnaire developed is valid--in terms of face validity, content validity and reliability--for assessing physicians' attitudes to and knowledge of antibiotic prescribing and resistance, in both hospital and primary-care settings, and could be a very useful tool for characterising physicians' antibiotic
Kortekaas, Marlous F; Bartelink, Marie-Louise E L; de Groot, Esther; Korving, Helen; de Wit, Niek J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hoes, Arno W
Knowledge on clinical epidemiology is crucial to practice evidence-based medicine. We describe the development and validation of the Utrecht questionnaire on knowledge on Clinical epidemiology for Evidence-based Practice (U-CEP); an assessment tool to be used in the training of clinicians. The U-CEP was developed in two formats: two sets of 25 questions and a combined set of 50. The validation was performed among postgraduate general practice (GP) trainees, hospital trainees, GP supervisors, and experts. Internal consistency, internal reliability (item-total correlation), item discrimination index, item difficulty, content validity, construct validity, responsiveness, test-retest reliability, and feasibility were assessed. The questionnaire was externally validated. Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach alpha of 0.8. The median item-total correlation and mean item discrimination index were satisfactory. Both sets were perceived as relevant to clinical practice. Construct validity was good. Both sets were responsive but failed on test-retest reliability. One set took 24 minutes and the other 33 minutes to complete, on average. External GP trainees had comparable results. The U-CEP is a valid questionnaire to assess knowledge on clinical epidemiology, which is a prerequisite for practicing evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
da Vico, Letizia; Biffi, Barbara; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Masini, Maria Luisa; Fattirolli, Francesco; Mannucci, Edoardo
A series of validation studies was performed on the Moynihan questionnaire to obtain data on nutrition knowledge, translated and adapted to Italian eating habits. Higher scores mean lower knowledge. Test-retest reliability was assessed administering the questionnaire at a 15-day interval in 52 inpatients. Factor structure and correlation with demographic and anthropometric characteristics were studied on a larger sample, which included a number of health professionals. Finally, sensitivity to change induced by an educational program was verified in a sample of 11 patients with type 1 diabetes. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory; factor structure suggested one single principal component. Test scores were inversely correlated with age (r = 0.24; p = 0.02), but not with body mass index or waist circumference. Patients with higher education show a greater degree of nutrition knowledge. Among type 1 diabetic patients, an educational program induces a significant improvement of test scores (from 20.6 [18.6-22.8] to 16.6 [15.5-17.7], p = 0.003). The Italian version of the questionnaire appears to be psychometrically adequate for its use in clinical research.
Rantala, Maija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Kvist, Tarja; Kankkunen, Päivi
Registered nurses (RNs) play a pivotal role in treating pain and preventing and recognizing the adverse effects (AEs) of analgesics in patients with dementia. The purpose of this study was to determine RNs' knowledge of potentially clinically relevant AEs of analgesics. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used. In all, 267 RNs treating orthopedic patients, including patients with dementia, in 7 university hospitals and 10 central hospitals in Finland, completed a questionnaire. Analgesics were defined according to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classification as strong opioids, weak opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs), and paracetamol. Definitions of AEs were based on the literature. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze which variables predicted nurses' knowledge. The RNs had a clear understanding of the AEs of paracetamol and strong opioids. However, the AEs of NSAIDs, especially renal and cardiovascular AEs, were less well known. The median percentage of correct answers was 87% when asked about strong opioids, 73% for weak opioids, and 60% for NSAIDs. Younger RNs had better knowledge of opioid-related AEs (odds ratio [OR] per 1-year increase, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-1.00) and weak opioids (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). This study provides evidence of a deficiency in RNs' knowledge, especially regarding the adverse renal and cardiovascular effects of NSAIDs. Such lack of knowledge indicates that hospitals may need to update the knowledge of older RNs, especially those who treat vulnerable patients with dementia.
Schmidt, C O; Lindena, G; Pfingsten, M; Kohlmann, T; Chenot, J-F
Screening for risk factors for chronic low back pain (LBP) (yellow flags) is recommended by clinical guidelines. Various questionnaires to assess yellow flags have been proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic validity of two screening questionnaires. This was a prospective observational study with 241 LBP patients from 9 general practitioners, 4 orthopedic surgeons and 2 pain clinics. We compared the Örebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire (ÖMSPQ) and the Heidelberg short questionnaire (HKF-R10) which were completed by all patients at inclusion before the consultation. Primary outcomes were assessed after 3 months by mail. Clinical endpoints were pain intensity, disability and more than two follow-up consultations. The sensitivity of the HKF-R10 to predict the primary outcome ranged from 81 % to 88 %, while the specificity was much lower (37-47 %). The ÖMSPQ showed an opposite pattern with a low sensitivity ranging from 50 % to 58 % but a higher specificity (77-80 %). In patients initially classified as having chronic LBP (n = 81), using the questionnaires as a diagnostic tool, the sensitivity of both questionnaires increased but specificity decreased. Single items may perform better with regard to primary outcome than the sum scores. Both screening questionnaires for chronic LBP have insufficient diagnostic and prognostic validity for routine use in ambulatory care. Further studies are needed to improve diagnostic and prognostic validity and to elaborate criteria for a targeted use of screening questionnaires to guide therapeutic interventions.
Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Mehdian, Hossein; Montazeri, Ali; Mobini, Bahram
Cross-cultural translation and psychometric testing were performed. To cross-culturally translate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ), and Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale (QDS) into Persian, and then investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian versions produced. To the authors' knowledge, there is no validated instrument to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with low back pain (LBP) in Iran. To our knowledge, the widely used back-specific measures, the ODI, RDQ, and QDS, have not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with LBP. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaires were performed in accordance with published guidelines. A total of 100 patients with chronic LBP were asked to complete a questionnaire booklet (the Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, QDS, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and visual analog scale measure of pain). There were 31 randomly select patients with chronic LBP asked to complete the second questionnaire booklet 24 hours later. The Cronbach-alpha for the ODI, RDQ, and QDS was 0.75, 0.83, and 0.92, respectively. The ODI, RDQ, and QDS showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.91, 0.86, and 0.86, respectively) (P < 0.01). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, QDS and physical functioning scales of the SF-36 was -0.66, -0.62, and -0.69, respectively (P < 0.001). The correlation among the ODI, RDQ, and QDS and visual analog scale was 0.54, 0.36, and 0.46, respectively (P < 0.001). The Persian versions of the ODI, RDQ, and QDS are reliable and valid instruments to measure functional status in Persian-speaking patients with LBP. They are simple and fast scales, and the use of them can be recommended in a clinical setting and future outcome studies in Iran.
Soroa, Marian; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa
The lack of methodological rigor is frequent in most of instruments developed to assess the knowledge of teachers regarding Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire, namely Questionnaire for the evaluation of teachers' knowledge of ADHD (MAE-TDAH), for measuring the level of knowledge about ADHD of infant and primary school teachers. A random sample of 526 teachers from 57 schools in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country and Navarre was used for the analysis of the psychometric properties of the instrument. The participant teachers age range was between 22 and 65 (M = 42.59; SD = 10.89), and there were both generalist and specialized teachers. The measure showed a 4 factor structure (Etiology of ADHD, Symptoms/Diagnosis of ADHD, General information about ADHD and Treatment of ADHD) with adequate internal consistency (Omega values ranged between .83 and .91) and temporal stability indices (Spearman's Rho correlation values ranged between .62 and .79). Furthermore, evidence of convergent and external validity was obtained. Results suggest that the MAE-TDAH is a valid and reliable measure when it comes to evaluating teachers' level of knowledge of ADHD.
Acar, Betul; Turkel, Yakup; Kocak, Orhan M; Erdemoglu, A Kemal
The aim of this study was to adapt the "Neuropathic Pain Impact on Quality-of-Life Questionnaire" (NePIQoL) into Turkish and to test its validity and reliability in neuropathic pain patients. We enrolled 200 chronic pain patients who admitted to the Neurology Department of Kirikkale University, Faculty of Medicine, in our study. Patients were diagnosed with neuropathic or nociceptive pain based on medical history, physical examination, electromyography and nerve conduction studies, laboratory examinations, and imaging techniques. Discriminant analysis was used to diagnose the neuropathic pain regarding sensitivity and specificity. The original version of the NePIQoL was translated into Turkish by standard procedures. Total NePIQoL scores were statistically different between neuropathic and nociceptive pain patients in both the first and second NePIQoL applications (P < 0.001). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of total 12 items of the first and second applications was 0.95. These results suggest a high validity level for the Turkish version of the NePIQoL. The Turkish version of NePIQoL appears to be reliable and valid for neuropathic pain impact on quality of life in patients with neuropathic pain. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.
Cox, Terry; Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J
To determine if a 3-hour therapeutic neuroscience education session alters physical therapy student's knowledge of pain and effects their attitudes and beliefs regarding treating chronic pain. Seventy-seven entry-level doctoral physical therapy students participated in the study. Following consent, demographic data were obtained and then the subjects completed the Neuroscience of Pain Questionnaire, the Health Care Provider's Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale and an additional questionnaire designed by the researchers. The subjects then received a 3-hour educational session developed by the researchers, focusing on the neurobiology and physiology of pain. The questionnaires were re-administered immediately after the educational session and at 6 months post-education. Seventy-seven subjects (mean age = 24.7 years, 57.1% female and 81.8% white) completed the questionnaires pre- and post-educational session with 75 completing the questionnaires at 6 months. To assess the effect of the education on the scores of the questionnaires, a repeated measures ANOVA was conducted. Students demonstrated significantly higher scores on the neuroscience of pain questionnaire (p < 0.001) with no significant effect found on the attitudes and beliefs questionnaire at any of the time points. There were significant differences found on some of the individual questions that were part of the additional questionnaire. An educational session on the neuroscience of pain is beneficial for educating entry-level doctoral physical therapy students immediately post-education and at 6 months. This educational session had no effect on the student's attitudes and beliefs regarding treating the chronic pain population. There were additional significant findings regarding individual questions posed to the subjects.
Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba; Bux, Siti Halimah; Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Hadi, Hazrina
Parents are the main decision makers for their children vaccinations. This fact makes parents' immunization knowledge and practices as predictor factors for immunization uptake and timeliness. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument in Malaysian language to measure immunization knowledge and practice (KP) of Malaysian parents. A cross-sectional prospective pilot survey was conducted among 88 Malaysian parents who attended public health facilities that provide vaccinations. Translated immunization KP questionnaires (Bahasa Melayu version) were used. Descriptive statistics were applied, face and content validity were assessed, and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were determined. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the knowledge scores was 7.36 ± 2.29 and for practice scores was 7.13 ± 2.20. Good internal consistency was found for knowledge and practice items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.757 and 0.743 respectively); the test-retest reliability value was 0.740 (p = 0.014). A panel of three specialist pharmacists who are experts in this field judged the face and content validity of the final questionnaire. Parents with up-to-date immunized children had significantly better knowledge and practice scores than parents who did not (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively), suggesting a good construct validity. A significant difference was found in knowledge and practice scores among parents' age (p = 0.006 and p = 0.029 respectively) and place of living (p = 0.037 and p = 0.043). The parents' knowledge level was positively associated with their practice toward immunization (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.310, p = 0.003). The pilot study concluded that the Bahasa Melayu version of the immunization KP questionnaire has good reliability and validity for measuring the knowledge and practices of Malaysian parents and therefore this version can be used in
Szilagyi, I-S; Bornemann-Cimenti, H; Messerer, B; Vittinghoff, M; Sandner-Kiesling, A
Pain clinics provide interdisciplinary therapy to treat chronic pain patients and to increase the return-to-work rate. In recent years and due to increased economic pressure in health care, a change in the management of pain in Austrian health care centers has been observed. For the analysis of the current situation, two surveys addressing all Austrian pain clinics were performed. In total, 133 heads of Austrian Anesthesia Departments were interviewed online and personally. The data from the first interview were confirmed by an additional telephone survey that was performed by one anesthetist per Austrian state (n = 9). Currently, 44 Austrian pain clinics are active. During the last 5 years, 9 pain clinics closed. Adding the current active pain clinics together, they represent a total of 17.5 full-time-operated clinics. The most common reasons for closing the pain clinics were lack of personnel (47%), lack of time resources (26%), lack of space resources (11%), and financial difficulties (11%). A reduction of >50% of operating hours during the last 3 years was reported by 9 hospitals. The reasons for not running a pain clinic were lack of personnel (36%), lack of time (25%) and department too small (16%). Estimates between actual and required clinics indicate that 49.5 full-time-operating pain clinics are lacking in Austria, resulting in 74% of the Austrian chronic pain patients not receiving interdisciplinary pain management. Our survey confirmed the closure of 9 pain clinics during the last 5 years due to lack of personnel and time. Pain clinics appear to provide the simplest economic saving potential. This development is a major concern. Although running a pain clinic seems to be expensive at the first sight, it reduces pain, sick leave, complications, and potential legal issues against health care centers, while simultaneously increasing the hospital's competitiveness. Our results show that 74% of Austrian chronic pain patients do not have access to an
Barry, Heather E; Parsons, Carole; Peter Passmore, A; Hughes, Carmel M
The aims of this study were to explore the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that nursing home managers hold with regard to the assessment and management of pain in residents with dementia and to determine how these may be affected by the demographic characteristics of the respondents. A questionnaire comprising six sections was mailed, on two occasions during March and April 2010, to 244 nursing home managers in Northern Ireland (representing 96% of the nursing homes in Northern Ireland). The response rate was 39%. Nearly all respondents (96%) provided care to residents with dementia, yet only 60% of managers claimed to use pain treatment guidelines within their nursing home. Respondents demonstrated good knowledge about pain in residents with dementia and acknowledged the difficulties surrounding accurate pain assessment. Nursing home managers were uncertain about how to manage pain in residents with dementia, demonstrating similar concerns about the use of opioid analgesics to those reported in previous studies about pain in older people. Managers who had received recent training (p = 0.044) were less likely to have concerns about the use of opioid analgesia than those who had not received training. Respondents' beliefs about painkillers were largely ambivalent and were influenced by the country in which they had received their nursing education. The study has revealed that accurate pain assessment, training of nursing staff and a standardised approach to pain management (the use of pain management guidelines) within nursing homes all have a significant part to play in the successful management of pain in residents with dementia. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kwok, See; Pang, Jing; Adam, Safwaan; Watts, Gerald F; Soran, Handrean
Objective Early diagnosis and treatment of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HeFH) is known to be associated with reduced mortality from premature coronary artery disease, but HeFH remains underdiagnosed. This survey aims to determine knowledge and current management of HeFH in general practice. Setting An online questionnaire was administered to general practitioners’ (GPs’) in the North West of England to assess their knowledge and management of HeFH. Participants Practising GPs in the North West of England were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire. Recruitment discontinued when the target of 100 was reached. Primary outcome An assessment of the knowledge and current management of HeFH in GPs. Results 100 GP responses were analysed. Although only 39% considered themselves to have reasonable knowledge of HeFH, 89% knew that HeFH was a genetic disorder and 74% selected the correct lipid profile for diagnosing the condition. More than half (61%) were aware of current guidelines on HeFH. Gaps in knowledge were evident when only 30% correctly identified the prevalence of HeFH and half were not aware of the pattern of inheritance. Increased cardiovascular risk was underestimated by majority. 33% thought that they had HeFH patients in their practice confirming underdiagnosis of the condition. Statin therapy was recognised by 94% to be the right medication for treating HeFH. The majority (82%) regarded GPs to be the most effective healthcare professional for early recognition of HeFH. Conclusions GPs have an above-average knowledge of familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and almost universally consider that they have a key role in the early recognition of undiagnosed HeFH patients in the community. However, there are gaps in awareness that need to be addressed to further enhance the care of FH in the community. PMID:28186938
Adorno, Marta Lúcia Guimarães Resende; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim Pereira
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QL) with the use of the SF-36 Questionnaire in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP). Thirty patients with CNLBP were randomly assigned to one of three groups (Iso group (Isostretching), GPR group (Global Postural Reeducation), and the Iso+GPR group. Patients underwent physical therapy assessment with the use of the Vertebral Spine Assessment, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain (VASP), and the SF-36 life quality questionnaire before the first session (first assessment), after three months of treatment (second assessment) and reassessed two months after the final session in the follow-up (third assessment). The results indicated that both physical therapy techniques reduced pain (p<0.001); when the techniques (Iso+GPR) were combined, the reduction in pain was significantly greater; and, in the follow-up assessment, the GPR method was more efficient. As for the QL, physical therapy techniques were effective after the interventions (p<0.001), and the Iso method was more effective when patients were reassessed in the follow-up. We conclude that the physical therapy techniques used in this study were efficient to treat CNLBP in the patients since they reduced pain and increased QL according to the results of the SF-36 questionnaire. Level of Evidence II, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. PMID:24453669
Adorno, Marta Lúcia Guimarães Resende; Brasil-Neto, Joaquim Pereira
The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QL) with the use of the SF-36 Questionnaire in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CNLBP). Thirty patients with CNLBP were randomly assigned to one of three groups (Iso group (Isostretching), GPR group (Global Postural Reeducation), and the Iso+GPR group. Patients underwent physical therapy assessment with the use of the Vertebral Spine Assessment, the Visual Analog Scale of Pain (VASP), and the SF-36 life quality questionnaire before the first session (first assessment), after three months of treatment (second assessment) and reassessed two months after the final session in the follow-up (third assessment). The results indicated that both physical therapy techniques reduced pain (p<0.001); when the techniques (Iso+GPR) were combined, the reduction in pain was significantly greater; and, in the follow-up assessment, the GPR method was more efficient. As for the QL, physical therapy techniques were effective after the interventions (p<0.001), and the Iso method was more effective when patients were reassessed in the follow-up. We conclude that the physical therapy techniques used in this study were efficient to treat CNLBP in the patients since they reduced pain and increased QL according to the results of the SF-36 questionnaire. Level of Evidence II, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.
Chiu, Chung-Yi; Jochman, Joseph; Fujikawa, Mayu; Strand, David; Cheing, Gladys; Lee, Gloria; Chan, Fong
Purpose: To examine the factorial structure of the "Coping Strategy Questionnaire"-24 (CSQ-24) in a sample of Canadians with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Method: The sample included 171 workers' compensation clients (50.9% men) recruited from outpatient rehabilitation facilities in Canada. Mean age of participants was 42.45 years (SD =…
Chiu, Chung-Yi; Jochman, Joseph; Fujikawa, Mayu; Strand, David; Cheing, Gladys; Lee, Gloria; Chan, Fong
Purpose: To examine the factorial structure of the "Coping Strategy Questionnaire"-24 (CSQ-24) in a sample of Canadians with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Method: The sample included 171 workers' compensation clients (50.9% men) recruited from outpatient rehabilitation facilities in Canada. Mean age of participants was 42.45 years (SD =…
Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward
Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners’ (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Setting Primary care GPs in the UK. Participants 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley’s database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Outcome measures GPs’ attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP Results 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). Conclusions While GPs’ attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs’ use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. PMID:28624759
Casser, H R; Hüppe, M; Kohlmann, T; Korb, J; Lindena, G; Maier, C; Nagel, B; Pfingsten, M; Thoma, R
KEDOQ-Schmerz was developed by the German Pain Society (formerly DGSS) as a basic tool for documentation and quality management of pain therapy. It is planned to use KEDOQ-Schmerz as the data basis for nationwide, cross-sectional and independent scientific research in health services in Germany. With comparatively little effort, each participating institution (practices, pain clinics) will be able to provide quality control of their own diagnostic procedures and therapeutic effects by using benchmarking. In future KEDOQ-Schmerz will also be used as a method for external quality management in pain therapy in Germany.
Vatansever, Nursel Aydın; Akansel, Neriman
Determining patient satisfaction with postoperative pain management is an important intervention to improve strategies for effective pain control. The aim of this study was to validate an English version of the 14-item Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management questionnaire in Turkish language. The study included 113 patients who underwent elective surgeries at a university hospital in Bursa, Turkey. The data were collected after translation procedures and final adjustments were done on the original instrument. For the total scale, Cronbach's coefficient α was 0.81 and the main score obtained from the scale was 45.8 ± 10.8. Included were three subscales: nursing interventions, pain management, and environments. Of the patients, 40.7% reported more pain than expected in the postoperative period and their satisfaction with pain relief was 7.4 ± 2.5. This instrument is a reliable and valid instrument in Turkish language and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative pain management. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fayet, Françoise; Savel, Carine; Rodere, Malory; Pereira, Bruno; Abdi, Dihya; Mathieu, Sylvain; Tournadre, Anne; Soubrier, Martin; Dubost, Jean-Jacques
Assess knowledge concerning methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients by means of a questionnaire. Methotrexate is the standard drug for rheumatoid arthritis treatment. It has potentially serious side effects that can be largely prevented by making sure that patients are well informed and comply with prescription guidelines. Cross-sectional survey. A questionnaire on methotrexate (mode of action, administration, drug interactions), side effects, monitoring and lifestyle implications was offered to all the rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with the drug seen between March and September 2013 in a large hospital in France. One hundred and eighty-three patients (143 women), mean age 60 (13·5) years, with a median disease duration of 12 years [7-20] and treated with methotrexate for eight years [5-13] took part. Methotrexate was identified as a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug by 78% of the patients. The weekly administration method was well assimilated (97%); 67% indicated that the rationale for folic acid was to reduce treatment toxicity. Only 21% knew that trimethoprim was contraindicated. Half were aware of the haematologic risk and 36% were aware of the risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. There was knowledge concerning laboratory testing (80%), but 54% thought they were only being monitored for rheumatoid arthritis activity. Only 13% of the men, but 90% of the women, of childbearing age knew that contraception was essential, and 75% indicated that alcohol consumption should be limited. A low knowledge score correlated significantly with age and low educational level. It was independent of sex, duration of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis patient's knowledge concerning methotrexate is poor, particularly for the most serious side effects (haematologic and hypersensitivity pneumonitis), interactions with trimethoprim, and in men, the need for contraception. Patient knowledge concerning methotrexate should be regularly checked and
Background Low back pain (LBP) is a major public health problem and the identification of individuals at risk of persistent LBP poses substantial challenges to clinical management. The STarT Back questionnaire is a validated nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies patients with LBP at low, medium or high-risk of poor prognosis for persistent non-specific LBP. The objective of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the English version of the STarT Back questionnaire into French. Methods The translation was performed using best practice translation guidelines. The following phases were performed: contact with the STarT Back questionnaire developers, initial translations (English into French), synthesis, back translations, expert committee review, test of the pre-final version on 44 individuals with LBP, final version. Results The linguistic translation required minor semantic alterations. The participants interviewed indicated that all items of the questionnaire were globally clear and comprehensible. However, 6 subjects (14%) wondered if two questions were related to back pain or general health. After discussion within the expert committee and with the developer of the STarT Back tool, it was decided to modify the questionnaire and to add a reference to back pain in these two questions. Conclusions The French version of the STarT Back questionnaire has been shown to be comprehensible and adapted to the French speaking general population. Investigations are now required to test the psychometric properties (reliability, internal and external validity, responsiveness) of this translated version of the questionnaire. PMID:22958224
Simmons, Elizabeth B; Cosio, David; Lin, Erica H
Educating patients on factual information related to chronic pain and self-management improves knowledge, pain outcomes, and compliance. The current study assesses changes in pain knowledge among veterans who attended a 12-week "Pain Education School" and examines whether or not the addition of an active learning component (i.e., use of an audience response system [ARS]) leads to greater increases in pain knowledge. A sample of 102 veterans 24-84 years of age who elected to participate in the 12-week pain education program was evaluated. Only a subgroup of veterans (n=69) had access to the ARS. A 2×2 repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance was conducted to examine changes in pain knowledge, pain beliefs, stage of readiness to adopt a self-management approach, and depressive symptoms over time and to explore the impact of ARS use on pain knowledge acquisition. Participants reported a statistically significant difference between their pre- and posttest measures of pain beliefs (p=0.04), stage of readiness to adopt a self-management approach (p=0.00), and depressive symptoms (p=0.00). Veterans who used the ARS demonstrated significantly greater increases in pain knowledge acquisition after completing the pain education program than those who did not (p=0.03). Findings provide support for the incorporation of ARS in pain education programming to facilitate active learning and to increase knowledge acquisition. Findings also provide evidence for the effectiveness of pain education programs in improving veterans' attitudes about their pain, increasing readiness to engage in self-management, and decreasing depressive symptoms.
Tan, Xiaodong; Pan, Jingju; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Chunhong; Xie, Chaojun
The objective of this study was to assess students’ knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3–5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future. PMID:17911665
Pau, Allan; Viswanath, Keshav P; Croucher, Ray
To assess the validity of modified DePaQ items in correctly classifying dental pain patients into three groups of common dental conditions when compared against clinically-determined classification; generate a model of classification equations from a sub-population of the sample; and assess the validity of the model in predicting group membership of new dental pain cases. Consecutive adult hospital dental patients aged 18 years and older attending with a dental pain complaint were diagnosed by a dentist. Before treatment commenced a self-complete questionnaire was completed. The examining dentist was blinded to the questionnaire responses. The sample was randomly split into two groups (RS1 and RS2). Discriminant analysis was carried out on RS1 to develop a model for classifying new dental pain cases into three groups. This model was used to classify dental pain cases in RS2. Of the 311 questionnaires distributed, 306 (98.4%) were returned. Of the 205 Group 1 cases diagnosed clinically 186 (90.7%) were correctly predicted as belonging to that group by M-DePaQ. For 54 clinically diagnosed Group 2 cases 44 (81.5%) were correctly predicted, and for 32 Group 3 cases, 26 (81.3%) were correctly predicted. The model of classification equations derived from RS1 were capable of correctly classifying 85%, 82% and 79% of clinically-derived classification for Group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. This study has demonstrated that the M-DePaQ is valid in classifying dental pain patients into three groups of common dental conditions. Classification equations generated from a sub-group of the sample provided a valid statistical model for classifying dental pain cases from the same setting.
Yukutake, Taiki; Yamada, Minoru; Aoyama, Tomoki
With the incidence of Little League elbow increasing, pitch limit recommendations for preventing throwing injuries have been developed in both the United States and Japan. However, levels of knowledge of and compliance with these recommendations among coaches of young baseball teams in Japan remain unknown. The relationship between these levels and elbow pain among players has not been adequately studied. Knowledge of and compliance with these recommendations is similar in the United States and Japan. Greater knowledge and higher levels of compliance have a significant correlation with reduced elbow pain in Little League baseball players. Cross-sectional study. Coaches of youth baseball teams in Kyoto, Japan, completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and compliance with recommendations. Team variables and coach-related factors concerning elbow pain among young baseball players were surveyed, and the questionnaire investigated demographic data and elbow pain history in the previous 12 months. In total, 123 baseball coaches and 654 baseball players aged 6 to 12 years participated in this study; data were analyzed for 113 coaches and 339 players. Among coaches, 39.8% had accurate knowledge of the recommendations (similar to the US data) and 28.3% complied with them (lower than the US data). There was no correlation between elbow pain and knowledge of and compliance with the recommendations, but coaches' opinions on the number of games were indicated as a significant risk factor for elbow pain; the more coaches considered the number of games played, the fewer the number of players who experienced elbow pain. The level of knowledge of recommendations in Japan was similar to that in the United States, but compliance levels were far lower. There was no correlation between elbow pain and knowledge and compliance. The Little League elbow problem should be addressed at global and national levels.
Latimer, Margot A; Ritchie, Judith A; Johnston, Celeste C
Nurses are involved in many of the painful procedures performed on hospitalized children. In collaboration with physicians, nurses have an exceptional responsibility to have knowledge to manage the pain; however, the evidence indicates this is not being done. Issues may be twofold: (a) opportunities to improve knowledge of better pain care practices and/or (b) ability to use knowledge. Empirical evidence is available that if used by health care providers can reduce pain in hospitalized children. Theory-guided interventions are necessary to focus resources designated for learning and knowledge translation initiatives in the area of pain care. This article presents the Knowledge Use in Pain Care (KUPC) conceptual model that blends concepts from the fields of knowledge utilization and work life context, which are believed to influence the translation of knowledge to practice. The four main components in the KUPC model include those related to the organization, the individual nurse, the individual patient, and the sociopolitical context. The KUPC model was conceptualized to account for the complex circumstances surrounding nurse's knowledge uptake and use in the context of pain care. The model provides a framework for health care administrators, clinical leaders, and researchers to consider as they decide how to intervene to increase knowledge use to reduce painful experiences of children in the hospital. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Botti, Mari; Khaw, Damien; Jørgensen, Emmy Brandt; Rasmussen, Bodil; Hunter, Susan; Redley, Bernice
This study investigated the cross-cultural factor stability and internal consistency of the Revised American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-R), a measure of the quality of postoperative pain management used internationally. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of APS-POQ-R data from 2 point prevalence studies comprising 268 and 311 surveys of Danish and Australian medical-surgical patients, respectively. Parallel analysis indicated 4- and 3-factor solutions for Danish and Australian patients, respectively, which accounted for 58.1% and 52.9% of variance. Internal consistency was unsatisfactory among both Danish (Cronbach α = .54) and Australian (Cronbach α = .63) cohorts. There was a high degree of between-group similarity in item-factor loadings of variables coded as "pain experience," but not "pain management." This finding reflected cross-cultural differences in ratings of treatment satisfaction. For Danish patients, satisfaction was associated with the degree of pain severity and activity interference, whereas for Australian patients, satisfaction was associated with their perceived ability to participate in treatment. To facilitate further cross-cultural comparison, we compared our findings with past research conducted in the United States and Iceland. EFA supported the construct validity of the APS-POQ-R as a measure of "pain experience" but indicated that items measuring "pain management" may vary cross-culturally. Findings highlighted the need for further validation of the APS-POQ-R internationally. This study revealed the APS-POQ-R as a valid measure of postoperative pain experience for Danish and Australian patients. Measures of patients' perception of pain management were not robust to group differences in treatment expectations and demonstrated cross-cultural instability. Results highlighted the difficulties in establishing stable cross-cultural, cross-population subscales for the APS-POQ-R. Copyright © 2015
Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Estabrooks, Carole A; Stinson, Jennifer; Campbell, Fiona; Scott, Shannon D; Cummings, Greta
Hospitalized children frequently receive inadequate pain assessment and management despite substantial evidence to support effective pediatric pain practices. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a multidimensional knowledge translation intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), on procedural pain practices and clinical outcomes for children hospitalized in medical, surgical and critical care units. A prospective cohort study compared 16 interventions using EPIQ and 16 standard care (SC) units in 8 Canadian pediatric hospitals. Chart reviews at baseline (time 1) and intervention completion (time 2) determined the nature and frequency of painful procedures and of pain assessment and pain management practices. Trained pain experts evaluated pain intensity 6 months post-intervention (time 3) during routine, scheduled painful procedures. Generalized estimating equation models compared changes in outcomes between EPIQ and SC units over time. EPIQ units used significantly more validated pain assessment tools (P<0.001) and had a greater proportion of patients who received analgesics (P=0.03) and physical pain management strategies (P=0.02). Mean pain intensity scores were significantly lower in the EPIQ group (P=0.03). Comparisons of moderate (4-6/10) and severe (7-10/10) pain, controlling for child and unit level factors, indicated that the odds of having severe pain were 51% less for children in the EPIQ group (adjusted OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.26-0.83; P=0.009). EPIQ was effective in improving practice and clinical outcomes for hospitalized children. Additional exploration of the influence of contextual factors on research use in hospital settings is required to explain the variability in pain processes and clinical outcomes.
Bernardi, Matteo; Catania, Gianluca; Lambert, Annie; Tridello, Gloria; Luzzani, Massimo
The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of Italian oncology nurses concerning cancer pain management and to determine the predictors of nurses' pain management knowledge. The study was a nationwide descriptive survey and included 287 nurses in Italy from 21 oncology wards in the north, center and south of Italy. The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (Italian version) and a background information form were used to collect the data. Knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain were the main research variables. Among the 39 pain knowledge questions assessed, the mean number of correctly answered question was 21.4 (SD=5.5), with a range of 6-35. The correct answer rate for the entire scale, on average, was 55% (SD=25.9). Further analysis of items showed that more than 50% of oncology nurses underestimated the patients' pain and they did not treat it in the correct way; they also had an incorrect self-evaluation about their pain management knowledge. Results from stepwise regression showed that nurses with higher mean correct answer scores had attended more courses about pain education. There are still significant knowledge deficits and erroneous beliefs that may hamper treatment of oncology patients in pain. The results of this study could be useful to institutions involved in patient care and teaching of pain management.
Chen, Chen; Qiao, Xiaoyuan; Kang, Huijie; Ding, Ling; Bai, Lixia; Wang, Jintao
This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, conducted in Shanxi Province, China, evaluated the knowledge of community physicians of secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). A total of 1910 physicians practicing at 832 community-based clinics, hospitals and other care centers in 11 prefectures of Shanxi Province completed the questionnaires between 1 July and 30 September 2013. Over 90 % of participants were aware of the most common risk factors for stroke, but lifestyle-related factors were seen as of low or medium importance for secondary prevention. Only about 50 % of physicians were aware of the existence of commonly used stroke scales, and fewer said that they would use those scales in their clinical practice. There were slight differences in the responses to some of the questions on risk factors and stroke scales were associated with the physicians' gender, academic qualifications, practice duration and location. Less than half of the participants were aware of the secondary prevention recommendations included in the most recent guidelines. The survey revealed a huge gap in knowledge of current guidelines for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke and TIA among the physicians surveyed. Continuing education and training of community physicians, administered as a public health program, is needed to improve the healthcare of ischemic stroke and TIA patients.
Puente-Maestu, Luis; Chancafe-Morgan, Jorge; Calle, Myriam; Rodríguez-Hermosa, Juan L; Malo de Molina, Rosa; Ortega-González, Ángel; Fuster, Antonia; Márquez-Martín, Eduardo; Marcos, Pedro J; Ramírez, Laura; Ray, Shaunta'; Franks, Andrea
Although recognition of the importance of educating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients has grown in recent years, their understanding of this disease is not being measured due to a lack of specific instruments. The aim of this study was to validate the COPD-Q questionnaire, a 13-item instrument for determining COPD knowledge. The COPD-Q was translated and backtranslated, and subsequently submitted to logic and content validation by a group of COPD experts and 8 COPD patients. Reliability was studied in an independent group of 59 patients with severe COPD seen in the pulmonology ward or clinics of 6 hospitals in Spain (Andalusia, Baleares, Castilla-La Mancha, Galicia and Madrid). This sample was also used for other internal and external validations. The mean age of the group was approximately 70 years and their health awareness was low-to-medium. The number of correct answers was 8.3 (standard deviation: 1.9), median 8, range 3-13. Floor and ceiling effects were 0% and 1.5%, respectively. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was good (Cronbach's alpha=0.85) and reliability was also high, with a kappa coefficient >0.6 for all items and an intraclass correlation efficient of 0.84 for the total score. The 13-item COPD-Q is a valid, applicable and reliable instrument for determining patients' knowledge of COPD. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Beswick, Adam; Dewey, Cate; Johnson, Ron; Dowsett-Cooper, James; Niel, Lee
Appropriate management of animal pain is a critical component of optimal animal welfare in small animal veterinary clinics. An online convenience survey was used to examine the knowledge and attitudes of practicing veterinarians in Ontario about pain in dogs (n = 100) and cats (n = 139). Veterinarian participants showed strong agreement with the need for appropriate animal pain relief, and low agreement with lack of analgesic use due to cost or side effects. All of the surgical procedures included in the survey were ranked as being moderately to highly painful, but female veterinarians had higher median rankings. Importantly, 78% of veterinarians thought their knowledge about pain recognition was sufficient. Selection bias might have resulted in overestimates of attitudes about pain in comparison to the general veterinary population. However, these results suggest that knowledge and attitudes related to pain assessment and treatment in dogs and cats have improved since the last similar survey in 2001. PMID:27928175
Beswick, Adam; Dewey, Cate; Johnson, Ron; Dowsett-Cooper, James; Niel, Lee
Appropriate management of animal pain is a critical component of optimal animal welfare in small animal veterinary clinics. An online convenience survey was used to examine the knowledge and attitudes of practicing veterinarians in Ontario about pain in dogs (n = 100) and cats (n = 139). Veterinarian participants showed strong agreement with the need for appropriate animal pain relief, and low agreement with lack of analgesic use due to cost or side effects. All of the surgical procedures included in the survey were ranked as being moderately to highly painful, but female veterinarians had higher median rankings. Importantly, 78% of veterinarians thought their knowledge about pain recognition was sufficient. Selection bias might have resulted in overestimates of attitudes about pain in comparison to the general veterinary population. However, these results suggest that knowledge and attitudes related to pain assessment and treatment in dogs and cats have improved since the last similar survey in 2001.
Mukeshimana, Madeleine M; Nkosi, Zethu Z
To explore the level of knowledge and perceptions of T2DM among people in the Rwamagana district. Diabetes is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Knowledge of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can assist in early detection of the disease and reduce the incidence of complications. Therefore, a descriptive study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge and perceptions of T2DM among people in the Rwamagana district, Rwanda. The study used a cluster multistage sampling technique to obtain a representative sample. The clusters were provinces, districts, sectors, household clusters and sample units selection. The Kigabiro sector was studied, and a sample size of 355 respondents was calculated using Raosoft Sample Size Calculator (Raosoft, Inc 2004, http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html). A descriptive method, using questionnaires, was used for data collection. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, contingency tables and chi-square test. The target population comprised 4556 people (women and men aged between 15-65 years) living in a sampled sector of Kigabiro. The level of knowledge of respondents was inadequate. Few respondents got a high score on questions intended to explore the knowledge of definition, signs, causes and risk factors of diabetes. The perceptions were also poor and inadequate. The recommendations focused on education campaigns by the Kigabiro sector authorities. If people are knowledgeable on managing long-term conditions such as diabetes, there will be less expenditure on curative care. The healthcare services will have fewer burdens, and the focus will be on specific and relevant ailments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Cottrell, Elizabeth; Foster, Nadine E; Porcheret, Mark; Rathod, Trishna; Roddy, Edward
The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes, beliefs and behaviours regarding the use of exercise for patients with chronic knee pain (CKP) attributable to osteoarthritis. Primary care GPs in the UK. 5000 GPs, randomly selected from Binley's database, were mailed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. GPs' attitudes and beliefs were investigated using attitude statements, and reported behaviours were identified using vignette-based questions. GPs were invited to report barriers experienced when initiating exercise with patients with CKP RESULTS: 835 (17%) GPs responded. Overall, GPs were positive about general exercise for CKP. 729 (87%) reported using exercise, of which, 538 (74%) reported that they would use both general and local (lower limb) exercises. However, only 92 (11% of all responding) GPs reported initiating exercise in ways aligning with best-evidence recommendations. 815 (98%) GPs reported barriers in using exercise for patients with CKP, most commonly, insufficient time in consultations (n=419; 51%) and insufficient expertise (n=337; 41%). While GPs' attitudes and beliefs regarding exercise for CKP were generally positive, initiation of exercise was often poorly aligned with current recommendations, and barriers and uncertainties were reported. GPs' use of exercise may be improved by addressing the key barriers of time and expertise, by developing a pragmatic approach that supports GPs to initiate individualised exercise, and/or by other professionals taking on this role. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Moreno-Martínez, Francisco José; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús; Gómez García, Carmen Isabel; Hernández-Susarte, Ana María
To develop and validate a questionnaire on the integral assessment of the habits and knowledge in personal hygiene in children between 7 to 12 years old in the educational, social and health environment. Cross-sectional study for the validation of a questionnaire. One primary and secondary school and one children's home in the Region of Murcia, Spain. A total of 86 children were included (80 from a primary and secondary school; 6 from a children's home), as well as 7 experts. Content validation by experts; qualitative assessment; identify difficulties related to some questions, item response analysis, and test-retest reliability. After the literature search, 20 tools that included items related to child body hygiene were obtained. The researchers selected 34 items and drafted 48 additional ones. After content validity by the experts, the questionnaire (HICORIN®) was reduced to 63 items, and consisted of 7 dimensions of child personal hygiene (skin, hair, hands, oral, feet, ears, and intimate hygiene). After with the children some terms were adapted to improve their understanding. Only two items had non-response rates that exceeded 10%. The test-retest showed that 84.1% of the items had between very good and moderate reliability. HICORIN® is a reliable and valid instrument that integrally assesses the habits and knowledge in personal hygiene in children between 7-12 years old. It is applicable in educative and social and health environments and in children from different socioeconomic levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
SRISAWANG, PORNSUREE; HARUN-OR-RASHID, MD.; HIROSAWA, TOMOYA; SAKAMOTO, JUNICHI
ABSTRACT The efficacy of opioids for cancer pain has been proven and the World Health Organization (WHO) three-step ladder has been recommended for cancer pain relief. However, undertreatment of cancer pain has still been reported in Thailand. Identification of barriers to opioid use by the physicians and policy makers/regulators, and their level of knowledge and attitudes concerning its use are influential factors for cancer pain management (CPM). This study was performed to assess the knowledge and attitudes physicians and policy makers/regulators have regarding use of opioids for CPM. Barriers to opioid availability were also studied. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 300 physicians and distributed to 58 policy makers/regulators from September to October 2011. A total of 219 physicians and 47 policy makers/regulators completed the questionnaire. Of the physicians 62.1% had inadequate knowledge and 33.8% had negative attitudes. Physicians who did not know the WHO three-step ladder were more likely to have less knowledge than those having used the WHO three-step ladder (OR = 13.0, p < 0.001). Policy makers/regulators also had inadequate knowledge (74.5%) and negative attitudes (66.0%). Policy makers/regulators who never had CPM training were likely to have more negative attitudes than those having had training within less than one year (OR = 35.0, p = 0.005). Lack of training opportunities and periodic shortages of opioids were the greatest barriers to opioid availability for physicians and policy makers/regulators, respectively. The strengthening of ongoing educational programs regarding opioid use for CPM, and cooperation among key groups are needed. PMID:24640176
Nicol, Richard; Robinson Nicol, Meri; Hopfe, Maren; Newell, Dave
Understanding the content of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires can facilitate comparison and selection of the most appropriate tool in the assessment of patients with low back pain. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as part of the WHO-FIC, can be used as a standardised method for mapping and comparing HRQOL questionnaire content. The purpose of this study was to link the Bournemouth Questionnaire (BQ) to the ICF in order to assess and compare the content of the BQ to the brief ICF core sets for low back pain. The BQ was linked to the ICF following the rules described by Cieza and Stuki. Following the linking process, the results were further linked to the brief ICF core sets for low back pain. The BQ covered 21 ICF categories within the domains of body functions and activities and participation. Only five meaningful concepts could not be linked to the ICF. The brief core sets for low back pain contain 35 categories, identified as important concepts in back pain patients. The BQ covered 10 of the categories of the brief core sets. HRQOL tools provide valuable information about the health status of patients. Content comparison based on ICF provides relevant information about the concepts covered and enables selection of the appropriate clinical tools. The BQ is easy to administer and is linked to a number of important concepts contained within the ICF and to concepts considered to be important in the assessment of patients with LBP. Selecting appropriate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) tools can prove difficult, with such a variety of them available, and each with varying content. ICF provides a standardised framework for the content assessment of HRQOL tools. Understanding the content of HRQOL tools can facilitate better tool selection and assist in the accurate assessment of patients with low back pain.
Fügener, J.; Matthes, A.; Strauß, B.
Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients “Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten” PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children “Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven” and the short version of the “Big Five Inventory” BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the
Fügener, J; Matthes, A; Strauß, B
Purpose: The aim of this study was, in the light of the increasing number of involuntarily childless couples, to investigate the state of knowledge of young people of fertile age about the risks for fertility disorders and their own risk behaviour. In addition, we wanted to check for a relationship between these aspects and the motives for wanting children, individual personality traits and psychological status. Materials and Methods: 498 women and men between the ages of 18 and 30 years participated in an anonymous survey. The sample consisted of 153 medical students, 190 students from other faculties and 155 vocational trainees. Their knowledge was tested by way of open questions on reproduction. The sum total from relevant life-style factors was used to estimate their risk-taking behaviour. Their psychic states were examined using the Health Questionnaire for Patients "Gesundheitsfragebogen für Patienten" PHQ-D, in addition the Leipzig Questionnaire on Motives for Wanting Children "Der Leipziger Fragebogen zu Kinderwunschmotiven" and the short version of the "Big Five Inventory" BFI-K were used. Results: The participants were aware of the risks for fertility disorders but did not always correctly assess their influence on fertility. Their knowledge about reproduction was rather low (on average 6.3 from 16 points). Medical students had a significantly higher state of knowledge and exhibited less risky behaviour as compared to the other two groups. Depressiveness and risky behaviour correlated positively and emotional aspects played the major role in attitudes towards having children. Risk behaviour was best predicted by the variables depressiveness, low level of knowledge and the feeling of being restricted in personal life by children. Discussion: Lack of knowledge on the topics fertility and reproduction could be a reason for risky behaviour and thus have a negative impact on lifestyle factors relating to fertility. Young people are aware of the risk factors
Hicks, Gregory E.; Manal, Tara J.
Objectives To evaluate the psychometric properties of two commonly used low back pain (LBP) disability questionnaires in a sample solely comprising community-dwelling older adults. Design Single-group repeated measures design. Setting Four continuing care retirement communities in Maryland and in Virginia. Participants Convenience sample of 107 community-dwelling men and women (71.9%) aged 62 years or older with current LBP. Outcome Measures All participants completed modified Oswestry Disability (mOSW) and Quebec Back Pain Disability (QUE) questionnaires, as well as the Medical Outcomes Survey Short-Form 36 questionnaire at baseline. At follow-up, 56 participants completed the mOSW and the QUE for reliability assessment. Results Test–retest reliability of the mOSW and QUE were excellent with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 0.95) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.97), respectively. Participants with high pain severity and high levels of functional limitation had higher scores on the mOSW (P < 0.0001) and QUE (P < 0.001) scales than other participants, which represents good construct validity for both scales. The threshold for minimum detectable change is 10.66 points for the mOSW and 11.04 points for the QUE. Both questionnaires had sufficient scale width to accurately measure changes in patient status. Conclusions It appears that both questionnaires have excellent test–retest reliability and good construct validity when used to evaluate LBP-related disability for older adults with varying degrees of LBP. Neither questionnaire appears to have superior psychometric properties; therefore, both the Oswestry and Quebec can be recommended for use among geriatric patients with LBP. PMID:19222773
Tamim, Hani; Ghandour, Lilian A; Shamsedine, Lama; Charafeddine, Lama; Nasser, Fatima; Khalil, Yvette; Nabulsi, Mona
Valid instruments that can reliably assess maternal breastfeeding knowledge in Arabic-speaking populations are nonexistent. The availability of such an instrument is essential for investigators working in this field. This study aimed to describe the adaptation and validation of the Arabic Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire (BFK-A) from the original 20-item English version. A translated version of the 20-item BFK was validated among 417 Lebanese women after pilot testing for clarity, comprehension, length, and cultural appropriateness. Exploratory factor analysis was run to examine dimensionality of the instrument and Kuder-Richardson-20 (KR-20) was used to assess its internal consistency. The BFK-A is a unidimensional scale with acceptable internal consistency reliability (KR-20 = 0.652) after the exclusion of 4 items. Higher breastfeeding knowledge levels were strongly and statistically significantly associated with higher mean scores for the validated Arabic Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale ( P < .001), thus confirming its construct validity. The Arabic 16-item BFK-A has an acceptable reliability, similar to the original instrument. Further studies are encouraged to confirm the validity of the 16-item BFK-A among other Arab populations. There is also a need to develop more reliable instruments to use in lactation research in this context.
Ogboli-Nwasor, Elizabeth O.; Adaji, Sunday E.
Background: Pain relief in labor remains a hot topic and these debates get louder by the day as more women become aware of their rights to better quality of care in labor. This study was conceived in a background where the practice of pain relief in labor is evolving and where women are seeking to fulfill their need for pain-free labor. Objective: To investigate the knowledge, utilization and preferences of methods of pain relief in labor by expectant mothers in order to design a labor analgesia program. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based descriptive study involving 124 antenatal clients in a teaching hospital over a 1 week period. Descriptive statistics were carried out using SPSS for windows version 17. Results: The mean age of clients was 28.8 years (standard deviation = 5.17) with median parity of two and mean gestational age was 31.5 weeks. Majority of the respondents (47.9%) were of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and 97.6% had primary school level education. Majority (87.3%) had heard about pain relief methods with the hospital being the source in 79% of cases. The most common method ever heard about was epidural analgesia (69.4%). Only 4% (n = 5) of respondents remembered ever using any form of pain relief agent in labor, of which three received parenteral opioids. In their current pregnancies, 45.2% consented to the use of pain relief in labor; of which, epidural analgesia was preferred by 92.9% (n = 52). Fear of adverse effects on self and infants were cited as reasons for non-consent by some respondents while others had no reason. Conclusion: The study reveals a high awareness of pain relief methods which is not matched by utilization and low knowledge about side-effects, although fear of side-effects is a factor for under-utilization. There is a need to educate adequately as well provide high quality pain relief services in labor in order to dispel with myths, misconceptions and fears associated with the use of methods of pain relief in labor. PMID
Ogboli-Nwasor, Elizabeth O; Adaji, Sunday E
Pain relief in labor remains a hot topic and these debates get louder by the day as more women become aware of their rights to better quality of care in labor. This study was conceived in a background where the practice of pain relief in labor is evolving and where women are seeking to fulfill their need for pain-free labor. To investigate the knowledge, utilization and preferences of methods of pain relief in labor by expectant mothers in order to design a labor analgesia program. A questionnaire-based descriptive study involving 124 antenatal clients in a teaching hospital over a 1 week period. Descriptive statistics were carried out using SPSS for windows version 17. The mean age of clients was 28.8 years (standard deviation = 5.17) with median parity of two and mean gestational age was 31.5 weeks. Majority of the respondents (47.9%) were of Hausa/Fulani ethnicity and 97.6% had primary school level education. Majority (87.3%) had heard about pain relief methods with the hospital being the source in 79% of cases. The most common method ever heard about was epidural analgesia (69.4%). Only 4% (n = 5) of respondents remembered ever using any form of pain relief agent in labor, of which three received parenteral opioids. In their current pregnancies, 45.2% consented to the use of pain relief in labor; of which, epidural analgesia was preferred by 92.9% (n = 52). Fear of adverse effects on self and infants were cited as reasons for non-consent by some respondents while others had no reason. The study reveals a high awareness of pain relief methods which is not matched by utilization and low knowledge about side-effects, although fear of side-effects is a factor for under-utilization. There is a need to educate adequately as well provide high quality pain relief services in labor in order to dispel with myths, misconceptions and fears associated with the use of methods of pain relief in labor.
Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…
Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette
Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…
LeResche, Linda; And Others
Adolescent mothers (n=45) completed questionnaires measuring perception of the newborn (Neonatal Perception Inventory), knowledge of influences on child development (Infant Caregiving Inventory), and emotional state (General Health Questionnaire); they were also systematically observed while interacting with their infants in a naturalistic…
Dagfinrud, H; Storheim, K; Magnussen, L H; Ødegaard, T; Hoftaniska, I; Larsen, L G; Ringstad, P O; Hatlebrekke, F; Grotle, M
The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive ability of the standardised screening tool Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) and the clinicians' prognostic assessment in identifying patients with low back pain (LBP) and neck pain at risk for persistent pain and disability at eight weeks follow-up. Patients seeking care for LBP or neck pain were recruited by 19 manual therapists in Norway. Patients completed the ÖMPQ and the low back- or neck specific Oswestry Disability Index/Neck Disability Index at baseline and 8 weeks after first consultation. The manual therapists filled in their assessment of patient's prognosis immediately after the first consultation, blinded for patient's answers to the questionnaire. A total of 157 patients (81with neck pain and 76 with LBP) were included. The best odds for predicting the outcome for LBP patients was found for the clinicians' assessment of prognosis (LR+ = 2.1 and LR- = 0.55), whereas the likelihood ratios were similar for the two tools in the neck group. For LBP patients, both the clinicians' assessment and the ÖMPQ contributed significantly in the separate regression models (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, resp), whereas none of the tools where significant contributors for neck patients (p = 0.67 and 0.07). Neither of the two methods showed high precision in their predictions of follow-up at eight weeks. However, for LBP patients, the ÖMPQ and the clinicians' prognostic assessment contributed significantly in the prediction of functional outcome 8 weeks after the initial assessment of manual therapist, whereas the prediction for neck patients was unsure.
Asenlöf, Pernilla; Siljebäck, Kim
The Patient Goal Priority Questionnaire (PGPQ) is a patient-specific measure for identification of behavioral goals and evaluation of clinically significant changes. The use of such a measure in clinical settings and research requires that identified goals be consistent over time. Self-reports of behaviors related to the goals should be reliably estimated. The purpose of this study was to estimate chance-corrected agreement and test-retest reliability of the PGPQ. Chance-corrected agreement between the PGPQ and a similar therapist-guided goal identification tool, the Patient Goal Priority List (PGPL), also was estimated. A correlative and prospective design with 3 measurement points (M1, M2, and M3) was used in the study. Fifty-four people who consulted physical therapists in primary care for persistent musculoskeletal pain were included in the study. Analyses of chance-corrected agreement and test-retest reliability of the PGPQ were done at M1 and M2. Chance-corrected agreement between procedures (PGPQ and PGPL) also was analyzed at M1 and M3. The percentage of agreement on content of the priority lists of the PGPQ at M1 and M2 was 52%. Cohen kappa values for agreement of rankings ranged between .47 and .64. Test-retest reliability coefficients for the self-report scales of the PGPQ ranged from .35 to .81. Chance-corrected agreement decreased when physical therapists were involved in the goal identification process using the PGPL (kappa = .08-.46). Varying item content and a small, heterogeneous sample possibly increased variation and the standard error of measurements. The feasibility of using traditional approaches to psychometric evaluation of patient-specific measures is questionable. Chance-corrected agreement and test-retest reliability of the PGPQ were moderate. Involving a physical therapist in the goal identification procedure possibly introduced further bias. The size of the measurement error must be taken into account when using the PGPQ for estimations
Labuz-Roszak, Beata; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Kapinos, Maciej; Machowska-Majchrzak, Agnieszka; Kapczyński, Piotr; Kapczyńska, Katarzyna; Pyka, Abba; Hatala, Piotr
Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological diseases. Social acceptance is very important for people with epilepsy and their relatives. The aim of the study was to assess public knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Silesia. We examined 419 people, inhabitants of Silesia, at the mean age of 34 ± 15 years. The study was performed using a questionnaire containing 15 questions evaluating knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes towards people with epilepsy. 43.2% of the respondents knew an epileptic person themselves. 44.7% had witnessed an epileptic seizure; 68.8% would help a person during an epileptic seizure, but most of them (73.4%) would do it incorrectly (by putting an object into the mouth to prevent biting the tongue). 94.5% of respondents had nothing against friendship with an epileptic person, but 12.1% suggested that children with epilepsy should attend special schools. 85.9% of all those examined said that people with epilepsy should inform others about their disease, 81.9% would mention the existence of an epileptic person in their family. 40.5% of respondents believe that people with epilepsy can do the same jobs as healthy people, 75.3% would employ an epileptic person themselves. The knowledge about epilepsy and first aid during epileptic seizure is still insufficient among inhabitants of Silesia. Most of the responders, especially better educated ones, declare acceptance and tolerance of people with epilepsy. More effort should be made to improve public knowledge of epilepsy by preparing wide-spread educational programmes.
de Tommaso, Marina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Defrin, Ruth; Kunz, Miriam; Pickering, Gisele; Valeriani, Massimiliano
Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed. PMID:27313396
de Tommaso, Marina; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Defrin, Ruth; Kunz, Miriam; Pickering, Gisele; Valeriani, Massimiliano
Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson's disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington's disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed.
Ahmad, Sohail; Ismail, Ahmad Izuanuddin; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Akram, Waqas; Mohd Zim, Mohd Arif; Ismail, Nahlah Elkudssiah
The stigmatisation degree, self-esteem and knowledge either directly or indirectly influence the control and self-management of asthma. To date, there is no valid and reliable instrument that can assess these key issues collectively. The main aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the newly devised and translated "Stigmatisation Degree, Self-Esteem and Knowledge Questionnaire" among adult asthma patients using the Rasch measurement model. This cross-sectional study recruited thirty adult asthma patients from two respiratory specialist clinics in Selangor, Malaysia. The newly devised self-administered questionnaire was adapted from relevant publications and translated into the Malay language using international standard translation guidelines. Content and face validation was done. The data were extracted and analysed for real item reliability and construct validation using the Rasch model. The translated "Stigmatisation Degree, Self-Esteem and Knowledge Questionnaire" showed high real item reliability values of 0.90, 0.86 and 0.89 for stigmatisation degree, self-esteem, and knowledge of asthma, respectively. Furthermore, all values of point measure correlation (PTMEA Corr) analysis were within the acceptable specified range of the Rasch model. Infit/outfit mean square values and Z standard (ZSTD) values of each item verified the construct validity and suggested retaining all the items in the questionnaire. The reliability analyses and output tables of item measures for construct validation proved the translated Malaysian version of "Stigmatisation Degree, Self-Esteem and Knowledge Questionnaire" as a valid and highly reliable questionnaire.
Ford, Jon Joseph; Story, Ian; McMeeken, Joan
Physiotherapists commonly record detailed patient information regarding subjective complaints for low back pain (LBP), particularly to assist in the process of classifying patients into specific subgroups. A self-administered Subjective Complaints Questionnaire for LBP (SCQ-LBP) measuring such information was developed for the purposes of future clinical research, particularly in the area of LBP classification. The development comprised literature review, feedback from experienced physiotherapists and pilot questionnaire testing in a patient population. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire in a self administered format as well as concurrent validity against a suitable reference standard was evaluated. The agreement between the self administered questionnaire compared to when administered by a physiotherapist was also tested as the latter method is the most common form of retrieving subjective complaints in clinical practice. Thirty participants with LBP were recruited and at least moderate test-retest reliability was demonstrated in 56 of the 57 self administered questionnaire items. Preliminary evidence was found supporting the concurrent validity of selected items. At least moderate agreement was demonstrated in 51 of the 57 items when comparing between the self administered and physiotherapist administered conditions. The questionnaire is a useful tool for collecting subjective complaints information, particularly for clinical research on the classification of LBP, however, further research regarding validity is required.
Graugaard, Christian L; Rasmussen, Bjarne; Boisen, Kirsten A
The aim of this study was to present selected key figures concerning the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour among Danish teenagers. 7355 Danish adolescents (aged 13-25) participated in a comprehensive questionnaire survey concerning sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour. The median age at coital debut was 16.8 and in all age groups > 13, girls were more experienced and active than boys. The coital frequency was increased by age, as was girls' experience with orgasm in the years following their debut. The prevalence of same-gender sex appeared to be modest, and anal sex was reported by less than 10 per cent. A significant and increasing amount of youngsters did not discuss sexual matters at home, whereas the vast majority had received sexual education in school. One fourth of the girls regarded doctors as desired sexual interlocutors. Almost one fourth of the youngsters did not use contraception at their sexual debut, and 7 per cent of the sexually experienced girls had had an induced abortion. 9 per cent of the girls and 5 per cent of the boys had been infected with chlamydia, and 17 per cent of those sexually active had taken at least one HIV test. The age at coital debut seems to be stable, whereas the prevalences of unsafe sex and STDs are still high. New didactic methods are incessantly needed, just as supplementary empirical studies are encouraged.
Åkerblom, Sophia; Perrin, Sean; Fischer, Marcelo Rivano; McCracken, Lance M
Psychological flexibility is the theoretical model that underpins Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT). There is a growing body of evidence indicating that ACT is an effective treatment for chronic pain but one component of the model, committed action, has not been sufficiently researched. The purpose of this study is to validate Swedish-language versions of the full length Committed Action Questionnaire (CAQ; CAQ-18) and the shortened CAQ (CAQ-8), to examine the generality of previous results related to committed action and to further demonstrate the relevance of this construct to the functioning of patients with chronic pain. The study includes preliminary analyses of the reliability and validity of the CAQ. Participants were 462 consecutive referrals to the Pain Rehabilitation Unit at Skåne University Hospital. The Swedish-language versions of the CAQ (CAQ-18 and CAQ-8) demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and satisfactory relationships with various indices of patient functioning and theoretically related concepts. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Swedish versions of the CAQ yielded similar two-factor models as found in the original validation studies. Hierarchical regression analyses identified the measures as significant contributors to explained variance in patient functioning. The development, translation and further validation of the CAQ is an important step forward in evaluating the utility of the psychological flexibility model to the treatment of chronic pain. The CAQ can both assist researchers interested in mediators of chronic pain treatment and further enable research on change processes within the psychological flexibility model.
Pilar Martínez, M; Miró, Elena; Sánchez, Ana I; Lami, María J; Prados, Germán; Ávila, Daniela
Excessive attention to pain is a common psychological characteristic among people who suffer from chronic pain. The Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) is an internationally accepted tool to assess this feature, although there is no validated version of this measure for Spanish people with fibromyalgia. Since this pain syndrome mainly affects women, the aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the PVAQ in Spanish women with fibromyalgia. A group of 242 women diagnosed with fibromyalgia aged between 20 and 66 years participated in the study. The goodness of fit of several structures of the PVAQ reported in previous studies was compared via confirmatory factor analysis. A two-factor solution (active vigilance and passive awareness) of the 9-item shortened version (PVAQ-9) was identified as the most appropriate (RMSEA = .08, NNFI = .96, CFI = .97, GFI = .87). It showed good reliability (internal consistency α = .82), convergent validity and divergent validity (p < .01). The optimal cutoff point for identifying fibromyalgia women with worse daily functioning was a score of 24.5, with a sensitivity of .71 and a specificity of .75. The relevance of vigilance to pain for clinical research in fibromyalgia is discussed.
López-Silvarrey Varela, Angel; Pértega Díaz, Sonia; Rueda Esteban, Santiago; Korta Murúa, Javier; Iglesias López, Bárbara; Martínez-Gimeno, Antonio
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the NewCastle Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire (NAKQ) for determining asthma knowledge in teachers. A cross-sectional observational study in educational centers of A Coruña providing preschool, primary school and/or compulsory secondary education. Centers were selected by random sampling, stratified by ownership and educational level (24centers, 864teachers). A total of 537 (62.1%) teachers responded (precision, ±4%, confidence, 95%). Age, sex, academic training, teaching experience, personal/family history of asthma, NAKQ. Evaluation of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha). Concurrent validity was determined by comparing scores of asthmatic teachers or with asthmatic relatives with teachers with no contact with asthma. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in two randomly selected centers by the kappa index, Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient. Mean score on the NAKQ was 15.7±5.3 (median 17), correctly answering 50.6% of items. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.824 (95%CI: 0.802-0.845). NAKQ score was higher in asthmatic teachers or with close asthmatic relatives (17.7±3.3) than in teachers with distant asthmatic relatives (16.1±5.4) and teachers without close contact with asthma (15.1±5.6; P<0.001). In the test-retest analysis (kappa 0.33-1), there were no differences in NAKQ score between the first and second completion (mean difference, 0.3±2.3; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.863). Scores obtained with the Spanish version of the NAKQ in teachers of Spanish school centers are reliable and valid to measure their degree of asthma knowledge. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Kliemann, N; Wardle, J; Johnson, F; Croker, H
Background/Objectives: The General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ) was developed in the 1990s and has been widely used. Since then advances in understanding of associations between diet and disease have led to changes in dietary recommendations. This study reports the validity and reliability of an updated version of the GNKQ, bringing it into line with current nutritional advice. Methods/Subjects: Following a review of current recommendations, the revised version of the GNKQ (GNKQ-R) was created, consisting of 88 items and four sections. Reliability and validity of the GNKQ-R were determined in four validation studies: (1) reliability was examined using an online sample (n=266), (2) construct validity was assessed with 96 Dietetics students and 89 english students using the ‘known-groups' method, (3) associations between nutrition knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics were examined using the previously described samples and (4) sensitivity to change was tested by measuring GNKQ-R scores pre- and post-exposure to online nutrition information in written (n=65) and video (n=41) formats. Results: The reliability was >0.7 in all sections. Dietetics students scored significantly higher than english students. As predicted, GNKQ-R scores were significantly higher among females vs males, people with a degree vs without, and people with very good vs poor or good health status. They were lower in those older than 50 years vs younger adults. GNKQ-R scores were significantly greater after the nutrition interventions in both written and video formats. Conclusions: The GNKQ-R is a valid measure of nutrition knowledge that is consistent, reliable and sensitive to change. PMID:27245211
Bernhofer, Esther I; St Marie, Barbara; Bena, James F
All nurses care for patients with pain, and pain management knowledge and attitude surveys for nurses have been around since 1987. However, no validated knowledge test exists to measure postlicensure clinicians' knowledge of the core competencies of pain management in current complex patient populations. To develop and test the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure pain management knowledge of postlicensure nurses. Psychometric instrument validation. Four large Midwestern U.S. hospitals. Registered nurses employed full time and part time August 2015 to April 2016, aged M = 43.25 years; time as RN, M = 16.13 years. Prospective survey design using e-mail to invite nurses to take an electronic multiple choice pain knowledge test. Content validity of initial 36-item test "very good" (95.1% agreement). Completed tests that met analysis criteria, N = 747. Mean initial test score, 69.4% correct (range 27.8-97.2). After revision/removal of 13 unacceptable questions, mean test score was 50.4% correct (range 8.7-82.6). Initial test item percent difficulty range was 15.2%-98.1%; discrimination values range, 0.03-0.50; final test item percent difficulty range, 17.6%-91.1%, discrimination values range, -0.04 to 1.04. Split-half reliability final test was 0.66. A high decision consistency reliability was identified, with test cut-score of 75%. The final 23-item Clinical Pain Knowledge Test has acceptable discrimination, difficulty, decision consistency, reliability, and validity in the general clinical inpatient nurse population. This instrument will be useful in assessing pain management knowledge of clinical nurses to determine gaps in education, evaluate knowledge after pain management education, and measure research outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Recently, the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) has gained increased attention as a source of persistent or new pain after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion. The underlying pathophysiology of SIJ pain may be increased mechanical load, iliac crest bone grafting, or a misdiagnosis of SIJ syndrome. Imaging studies show more frequent degeneration of the SIJ in patients with lumbar/lumbosacral fusion than in patients without such fusion. Using injection tests, it has been shown that SIJ pain is the cause of persistent symptoms in a considerable number of patients after fusion surgery. Recent articles reporting on surgical outcomes of SIJ fusion include a high percentage of patients who had lumbar/lumbosacral fusion or surgery before, although well-controlled clinical studies are necessary to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment. Taking these findings into consideration, the possibility that the SIJ is the source of pain should be considered in patients with failed back surgery syndrome after lumbar/lumbosacral fusion.
Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes; El-Hani, Charbel N
In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students' knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies.
Carver, Rebecca Bruu; Castéra, Jérémy; Gericke, Niklas; Evangelista, Neima Alice Menezes
In this paper we present the development and validation a comprehensive questionnaire to assess college students’ knowledge about modern genetics and genomics, their belief in genetic determinism, and their attitudes towards applications of modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. Written in everyday language with minimal jargon, the Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Genetics and Genomics (PUGGS) questionnaire is intended for use in research on science education and public understanding of science, as a means to investigate relationships between knowledge, determinism and attitudes about modern genetics, which are to date little understood. We developed a set of core ideas and initial items from reviewing the scientific literature on genetics and previous studies on public and student knowledge and attitudes about genetics. Seventeen international experts from different fields (e.g., genetics, education, philosophy of science) reviewed the initial items and their feedback was used to revise the questionnaire. We validated the questionnaire in two pilot tests with samples of university freshmen students. The final questionnaire contains 45 items, including both multiple choice and Likert scale response formats. Cronbach alpha showed good reliability for each section of the questionnaire. In conclusion, the PUGGS questionnaire is a reliable tool for investigating public understanding and attitudes towards modern genetics and genomic-based technologies. PMID:28114357
Geister, Thorin L; Quintanar-Solares, Manjari; Martin, Mona; Aufhammer, Stephan; Asmus, Friedrich
To develop a patient-reported outcome measure for spasticity-related pain in children/adolescents (age 2-17 years) with cerebral palsy (CP), the 'Questionnaire on Pain caused by Spasticity (QPS).' Using a semi-structured interview guide, concept elicitation interviews on spasticity-related pain in upper and lower limbs were conducted in 21 children and caregiver pairs. Data were used to modify initial QPS modules and develop six draft modules, which were subsequently refined and finalized in four consecutive cognitive interview waves (12 children and caregiver pairs). To accommodate the broad range in the children's communication skills, QPS child/adolescent modules were developed in both interviewer-administered and self-administered formats. With the additional parent modules, three QPS modules were developed for each of the upper and lower limb applications. Information gained from the parent/caregiver modules complements the child/adolescent assessment. Parents report observed signs and frequency of pain in the same situations used to capture the child/adolescent reports of pain severity (e.g., rest, usual daily activities, active mobilization, and physically difficult activities). Participating children/adolescents and parents/caregivers reported that the final QPS instruments were comprehensive, relevant to the child's spasticity-related experience, and easy to understand and complete. The QPS is a novel instrument for the assessment of spasticity-related pain in children/adolescents with CP that was developed with direct patient input. Its modules allow the use of this instrument in children/adolescents with varied levels of impairment and communication skills.
Strong, Jenny; Tooth, Leigh; Unruh, Anita
Recent occupational therapy graduates (n=35) obtained a 53% correct response rate to a 69-item test on pain knowledge and attitudes. Results indicate the need for further education, especially in the areas of pain assessment and measurement and pharmacological management. (Author/JOW)
Shibata, Keita; Ichikawa, Koichi; Kurata, Naomi
Anti-doping activities are carried out on a global scale. Based on these activities, the specialty of "sports pharmacist," which entails a deeper comprehension of doping, use of supplements, and appropriate drug use for athletes, was established in 2009 in Japan. It is difficult to say whether the education on doping is adequate for pharmacy students who will be eligible to become sports pharmacists. It is also unclear how well these students understand doping. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate pharmacy students' current knowledge of appropriate drug use, doping and use of supplements, and to explore the need for further education on these topics. A questionnaire survey was conducted from July 3rd to August 2nd in 2014 at Showa University in Japan. A total of 406 respondents (2nd- to 6th-year students) were assessed as eligible. Group comparison was used to compare those who had attended a lecture about doping and those who had not. Most of the students only knew the word doping and had not attended a lecture on the subject, but 72% of them expressed a desire to attend one. Over half did not know that the most common doping violation in Japan is unintentional doping, and were unfamiliar with certain past cases of doping. In addition, 41% did not know that over-the-counter medicines and dietary supplements might contain prohibited substances, and 87% were unaware that names of prohibited substances might not appear on the ingredient labels of dietary supplements. In contrast, attending a lecture on doping was effective in facilitating the acquisition of all these types of knowledge. It is important to provide more opportunities for appropriate education of pharmacy students on the topic of doping, given that interest exists and attending a lecture on the topic appears to be useful. More education about doping for pharmacy students would be as effective for anti-doping activities as is education of athletes.
Turner, Barbara J; Liang, Yuanyuan; Rodriguez, Natalia; Valerio, Melissa A; Rochat, Andrea; Potter, Jennifer S; Winkler, Paula
Educating the general public about chronic pain and its care is a national health priority. We evaluated knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) of a 5-state, population-based sample of Hispanic individuals aged 35 to 75 years without chronic pain, representing more than 8.8 million persons. A Web-based survey assessed KAB using an adapted version of the Survey of Pain Attitudes-Brief and self-reported knowledge about chronic pain (nothing, a little, a lot). In unweighted analyses of participants (N = 349), the mean age was 52.0 (±10.6) years, 54% were women, 53% preferred Spanish, and 39% did not graduate from high school. More participants reported knowing nothing about chronic pain (24%) than a lot (12%). In weighted logistic models with knowing nothing as the reference, knowing a lot was associated with greater KAB for chronic pain-related emotions, functioning, and cure (all P < .01) but poorer KAB about pain medications (P < .001). Associations were similar for those knowing a little. Men and women preferring Spanish had poorer KAB about pain medications than men preferring English (both P < .001). In view of Hispanic individuals' disparities in chronic pain care, these data underscore the need for effective public educational campaigns about chronic pain.
Ashok, Nipun; Rodrigues, Jean Clare; Azouni, Khalid; Darwish, Shorouk; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Alkaabba, Abdul Aziz Fahad
Introduction Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a disease caused by beta corona virus. From April 11th to 9th June 2014, World Health Organization (WHO) reported a total of 402 laboratory confirmed cases of MERS from KSA, out of which 132 cases were reported from Riyadh alone. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and apprehension of patients about MERS visiting Al Farabi College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted which consisted of 10 self-prepared questions. A total of 404 patients participated in this study. Results Three hundred and forty patients had heard about MERS. Nearly a quarter of the patients (25.74%) were apprehensive about undergoing dental treatment because of MERS. A little more than half of the patients (50.99%) knew that camel was a source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Corona virus. Most of the patients (80.72%) were aware of the infection control measures to be followed by dentist and 138 patients claimed they took some precaution when present inside the dental college. Conclusion Majority of the patients had heard about MERS and was aware of the infection control measures. However, some patients were apprehensive about undergoing dental treatment because of MERS. Further steps need to be taken to educate the patient’s about transmission of MERS and infection control measures in a dental hospital. PMID:27437361
Reneman, Michiel F; Jorritsma, Wim; Schellekens, Jan M H; Göeken, Ludwig N H
This study aimed to investigate the concurrent validity of two approaches to disability measurement in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (CLBP). It was hypothesized that if both are measuring the same construct, the instruments would lead to similar disability results and would correlate strongly (r > 0.75). The study compared the results of self-reported and performance-based measures of disability in 64 consecutive patients with CLBP. Participants mean age was 38.0 years, the mean duration of the current episode of back pain 9.9 months, and 90% were off work due to CLBP. The self-report measures used were: the Roland Disability Questionnaire (Roland); the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (Oswestry); and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (Quebec). Performance was measured using the Isernhagen Work Systems Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). The mean scores from the self-report measure are as follows: Roland 13.5 (scale 0-24), Oswestry 28.2 (scale 0-100), Quebec 37.8 (scale 0-100) consistent with moderate to severe disability. In contrast the results from the performance-based measures suggested that the subjects should be able to work at a physical intensity level of moderate to heavy. Little to moderate correlation was observed between the self-report and performance-based measures (Spearman rank correlations: Roland-FCE (-0.20), p > 0.05; Oswestry-FCE (-0.52), p < 0.01; Quebec-FCE (-0.50), p < 0.01). Results are interpreted to suggest that both performance-based and self-report measures of disability should be used in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of the disability in patients with CLBP.
Terwee, Caroline B; Schellingerhout, Jasper M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Koes, Bart W; de Vet, Henrica C W
The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the methodological quality of studies on the measurement properties of neck pain and disability questionnaires and to describe how well various aspects of the design and statistical analyses of studies on measurement properties are performed. A systematic review was performed of published studies on the measurement properties of neck pain and disability questionnaires. Two reviewers independently rated the quality of the studies using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. This checklist was developed in an international Delphi consensus study. A total of 47 articles were included on the measurement properties of 8 different questionnaires. The methodological quality of the included studies was adequate on some aspects (often, adequate statistical analyses are used for assessing reliability, measurement error, and construct validity) but can be improved on other aspects. The most important methodological aspects that need to be improved are as follows: assessing unidimensionality in internal consistency analysis, stable patients and similar test conditions in studies on reliability and measurement error, and more emphasis on the relevance and comprehensiveness of the items in content validity studies. Furthermore, it is recommended that studies on construct validity and responsiveness should be based on predefined hypotheses and that better statistical methods should be used in responsiveness studies. Considering the importance of adequate measurement properties, it is concluded that, in the field of measuring neck pain and disability, there is room for improvement in the methodological quality of studies measurement properties. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ducak, Kate; Keller, Heather
Few questionnaires to test nutrition knowledge and attitudes of older adults living independently in the community have been developed and tested to assess self-management tools such as Nutri-eSCREEN and other education programs. This study is a first step in the development of a questionnaire designed to evaluate the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of independent older adults (NAK-50+). The steps involved in this study were: (i) drafting initial questions based on the content of the Nutri-eSCREEN education material, (ii) using cognitive interviewing to determine if these questions were understandable and relevant (n = 9 adults ≥50 years of age), and (iii) completing test-retest reliability in a convenient community sample (n = 60 adults ≥50 years of age). Intra-class coefficients (ICC) and kappa were used to determine reliability. A 33-item questionnaire resulted from this development and analysis. ICC for the total score was 0.68 indicating good agreement and thus initial reliability. NAK-50+ is a face valid and reliable questionnaire that assesses nutrition knowledge and attitudes in independent adults aged ≥50 years. Further work to determine construct validity and to refine the questionnaire is warranted. Availability of the questionnaire for this age group will support rigorous evaluation of education and self-management interventions for this segment of the population.
Alanazi, Fahad; Gleeson, Peggy; Olson, Sharon; Roddey, Toni
Prospective cohort study of a cross-cultural low back pain (LBP) questionnaire OBJECTIVE.: The objectives of the present study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) to create a version in Arabic and to test its psychometric properties. The FABQ measures the effects that fear and avoidance beliefs have on work and on physical activity. An FABQ cross-culturally adapted for Arabic readers and speakers was created by forward translation, translation synthesis, and backward translation. Forty patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with LBP evaluated use of the questionnaire, and 70 patients from the same hospital participated in reliability, validity, and sensitivity studies. To determine test-retest reliability of the Arabic FABQ, patients completed it twice within 48 hours without receiving any active treatment between these two sessions. Patients completed the Arabic FABQ (and three other scales) at baseline and 14 days later to determine its validity and sensitivity. Test-retest reliability was good (FABQ-work: intraclass coefficient [ICC] = 0.74; FABQ-physical activity: ICC = 0.90; FABQ overall: ICC = 0.76). Correlations between the FABQ and three other instruments for measuring pain and disability were weak. The strongest correlation was found at the follow-up session with the Arabic Oswestry Questionnaire (r = 0.283; P ≤ 0.05). Sensitivity to change was low. The translation and adaptation of the Arabic version of the FABQ was successful. Overall, the Arabic FABQ had good test-retest reliability, acceptable construct validity, and low sensitivity to change. The Arabic version of the FABQ shows promise in the assessment of fear-avoidance beliefs among patients with LBP who speak and read Arabic. 3.
Arcanjo, Giselle Notini; da Silva, Raimunda M; Nations, Marilyn K
Analyzing and understanding people's conceptions and actions regarding back pain is relevant since they can be part of the disease's explanation and cure. The nature of this study is qualitative with an anthropological focus. It was carried out from January to February, 2005 with nine women between 45 and 58 years of age with chronic back pains who participated in a health support group for menopausal women in a teaching institution in Fortaleza, Ceará. Nine (9) in-depth ethnographic interviews were conducted with key informants exploring their problems, worries, coping strategies, their notion of quality of life and barriers to achieving this, especially as related to back pain. It was observed that back pain encompasses problems and solutions ranging from psychological, socioeconomic and political to educational aspects. Despite informants' low educational levels, they present a holistic view of health and a rich coping and cure-seeking experience. Because daily life activities can be considered as cultural risk, they need to be considered. It is, thus, necessary to consider the socio-cultural, economic, political and environmental context, in order to develop educational actions to promote health.
Daniali, Seyde Shahrbanoo; Shahnazi, Hossein; Kazemi, Samira; Marzbani, Elnaz
Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases affecting the central nervous system. The prevalence of it is increasing in our country too. The pain from disorders can affect quality of life. Several studies have pointed to the improvement of patients through educational intervention. This study attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on raising the awareness and self-efficacy for pain control among patients with multiple sclerosis during 2015 under the coverage of Isfahan MS Society (IMSS). Materials and methods: This was a quasi-experimental study involving pre-test, post-test and randomized control group conducted on 100 patients with MS referred to the Isfahan MS Society (IMSS). The educational intervention group learned the pain management self-care lesson during 4 weekly sessions. The data were collected through a self-structured questionnaire with adequate validity and reliability, containing demographic data, awareness and self-efficacy of pain control. The data were assessed through descriptive and analytical tests assisted by SPSS 17. The significant level was considered as P<0.05. Results: Concerning the questionnaire, 96% of the items were responded. Most participants were women. The frequency distribution of demographic variables was not significantly different between the two pre-test groups. After the intervention, the mean score of knowledge and efficacy among patients in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.001). Conclusions: Educational interventions can improve awareness and self-efficacy for pain control among patients with MS. Therefore, such interventions can be designed to reduce physical and psychological complications following multiple sclerosis. PMID:27698603
Rieman, Mary T; Gordon, Mary
Nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain management affect their capability to attend to children in pain. A modified version of the Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS--Manworren and Shriners Hospitals for Children Version, 2002) was used to evaluate nursing competency to manage pain at eight pediatric hospitals. A convenience sample of 295 nurses attained a mean individual test score of 74% correct. Scores were correlated with demographic data. The novice group with 0-2 years nursing experience had significantly (p<0.05) lower scores (fewer correct answers) than the other five groups with more than 2 years of nursing experience. The nurses who participated in professional nursing organizations or nursing committees had significantly higher scores than those who did not participate. Nursing education, professional activity, and years of clinical experience contribute to the knowledge necessary for competency in pain management, as evidenced by higher scores using this survey tool.
Wang, Jiang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gao, Min; Zhang, Shengfa; Tian, Dong-Hua; Chen, Jun
The present study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate and functional Standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and to assess its reliability and validity for characterizing chronic visceral pain in Chinese patients. The SF-MPQ-2 has been widely used in studies of pain epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, and even pathophysiologic mechanisms to assess the major symptoms of clinical pain. Previous reports have shown favorable reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SF-MPQ-2 in diverse samples of patients with chronic and acute pain. However, a culturally appropriate, functional Chinese version of the scale has never been developed. Beaton's guidelines were used for the translation and back-translation procedures. Patients (n=145) with chronic visceral pain were recruited to complete the Standard Mandarin Chinese version of the SF-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2-CN), of which 41 were asked to complete the SF-MPQ-2-CN a second time, 3 days after the initial visit. The test-retest reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency. Possible components were determined by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and a value of 0.4 was considered requisite for the loading of each factor. The ICC for subscales ranged from 0.909 to 0.952, and that of the total scale was 0.927, suggesting excellent reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN. Cronbach's alpha for subscales ranged from 0.896 to 0.916, and that of the total scale was 0.836 and 0.831 for primary and secondary visits, respectively. The factor loading matrix of the SF-MPQ-2-CN ranged from 0.734 to 0.901 for each of the following subscales: continuous, intermittent, neuropathic, and affective, revealing four components similar to the original scale. The reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN scale are statistically acceptable for the evaluation of
Wang, Jiang-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gao, Min; Zhang, Shengfa; Tian, Dong-Hua; Chen, Jun
Objective The present study aimed to develop a culturally appropriate and functional Standard Mandarin Chinese translation of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 (SF-MPQ-2) and to assess its reliability and validity for characterizing chronic visceral pain in Chinese patients. Background The SF-MPQ-2 has been widely used in studies of pain epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment, and even pathophysiologic mechanisms to assess the major symptoms of clinical pain. Previous reports have shown favorable reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SF-MPQ-2 in diverse samples of patients with chronic and acute pain. However, a culturally appropriate, functional Chinese version of the scale has never been developed. Methods Beaton’s guidelines were used for the translation and back-translation procedures. Patients (n=145) with chronic visceral pain were recruited to complete the Standard Mandarin Chinese version of the SF-MPQ-2 (SF-MPQ-2-CN), of which 41 were asked to complete the SF-MPQ-2-CN a second time, 3 days after the initial visit. The test–retest reliability was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency. Possible components were determined by exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, and a value of 0.4 was considered requisite for the loading of each factor. Results The ICC for subscales ranged from 0.909 to 0.952, and that of the total scale was 0.927, suggesting excellent reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN. Cronbach’s alpha for subscales ranged from 0.896 to 0.916, and that of the total scale was 0.836 and 0.831 for primary and secondary visits, respectively. The factor loading matrix of the SF-MPQ-2-CN ranged from 0.734 to 0.901 for each of the following subscales: continuous, intermittent, neuropathic, and affective, revealing four components similar to the original scale. Conclusion The reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-CN scale
Murinson, Beth B.; Nenortas, Elizabeth; Mayer, R. Sam; Mezei, Lina; Kozachik, Sharon; Nesbit, Suzanne; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Campbell, James N.
Objective Improvements in clinical pain care have not matched advances in scientific knowledge, and innovations in medical education are needed. Several streams of evidence indicate that pain education needs to address both the affective and cognitive dimensions of pain. Our aim was to design and deliver a new course in pain establishing foundation-level knowledge while comprehensively addressing the emotional development needs in this area. Setting 118 first year medical students at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Outcome measures Performance was measured by multiple choice tests of pain knowledge, attendance, reflective pain portfolios and satisfaction measures. Results Domains of competence in pain knowledge included central and peripheral pain signaling, pharmacological management of pain with standard analgesic medications, neuromodulating agents and opioids; cancer pain, musculoskeletal pain, nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic, geriatric, and pediatric pain. Socio-emotional development (portfolio) work focused on increasing awareness of pain affect in self and others and enhancing the commitment to excellence in pain care. Reflections included observations on a brief pain experience (cold pressor test), the multi-dimensionality of pain, the role of empathy and compassion in medical care, the positive characteristics of pain-care role models, the complex feelings engendered by pain and addiction including frustration and disappointment, and aspirations and commitments in clinical medicine. The students completing feedback expressed high levels of interest in pain medicine as a result of the course. Discussion We conclude that a four-day pain course incorporating sessions with pain- specialists, pain medicine knowledge, and design-built elements to strengthen emotional skills is an effective educational approach. PMID:21276187
Wang, Pu; Zhang, Junmei; Liao, Weijing; Zhao, Lei; Guo, Yi; Qiu, Zhuoying; Yue, Guanghui
To identify questionnaires and scales that measure functioning and disability in low-back pain (LBP) and determine whether the measurements are comparable with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICFDH). We searched MEDLINE, EMBase, CINAHL and PEDro in English, and CNKI and Wanfang Data in Chinese in a period from the date of the database establishment to September 2010. From the identified literature, questionnaires and scales used to assess LBP-related functioning and disability were collected and classified. Each item in each questionnaire and scale was extracted and classified according to the ICFDH categories. We have reviewed 7968 published articles and identified a total of fifteen questionnaires. A total of 219 items were analyzed and a total of 354 concepts contained in these items and 345 could be linked to ICFDH components, 138 linked to body function, 20 to body structure, 174 to activities and participation, and 13 to environmental factors, and 9 to a non-classifiable cluster. In the body functions component, only the single category "sensation of pain" was covered by most questionnaires. In the activity and participation component, "changing basic body position"; "walking" and "maintaining a body position" were covered by most questionnaires. Analyzing individual questionnaires, we found that two questionnaires (Clinical Back Pain Questionnaire and Million Disability Questionnaire) demonstrate a well-balanced distribution of items across different ICFDH components. This study may help researchers and clinicians to choose the most appropriate questionnaires for a specific purpose as well as help compare studies that have used different questionnaires for low back pain assessment and provide valuable information on the content quality of these questionnaires for them. Furthermore, based on our results, more comprehensive and balanced instruments may be developed for more accurate assessment of functioning in LBP and
Jones, W L; Rimer, B K; Levy, M H; Kinman, J L
The inadequate control of cancer-related pain is a matter of great concern. Misconceptions about pain medications on the part of professionals and the public have been implicated as causes of this problem. Another cause may be noncompliance with prescribed regimens. A study of 82 cancer patients who were prescribed pain medications was conducted to further investigate the problem of pain control in this population. Patients were interviewed twice: on the day after they received pain prescriptions (T1) and again two weeks later (T2). There was a significant decrease in patients' reported pain between T1 and T2 (P = 0.0001). By their own report, the level of patients' compliance with prescribed pain control regimens was very high. At T2 77% of the patients recalled the correct names of their pain medications and 88% had been taking them. However, an important gap in patients' knowledge was revealed by their general inability to recall any of the common side effects of pain medications (constipation, nausea, and sedation). None of the measures of pain--pain level at T1 and T2 and change in pain between T1 and T2--was related to the patients' education, age, attending physician, prescribed medication schedule, or medication strength. More women than men reported increased pain during the study period (P = 0.04). In general, the patients' concern about possible addiction or tolerance to prescribed medications were low. However, there was a positive relationship between intensity of pain and concern about tolerance to drugs (P = 0.0003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Akbaş, Meltem; Oztunç, Gürsel
Pain is a concept that goes back into distant history and is something that is faced by every person in different degrees and at different times in their lives. A definition of pain, adopted by the International Association for the Study of Pain and the American Pain Society, is: "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage." Although pain is one of the most common reasons for needing health care, it is not well understood and continues to be one of the most important health problems today. The pain experience is dynamic, and the nurse is responsible for understanding this. Nurses need to cooperate with the patient and other members of the health care team to be able to control pain. Nurses are ethically responsible for the management and easing of pain. This study was conducted to investigate what nurses know about the care of patients in pain and what nursing actions are used. There were 198 nurses working day shift at Cukurova University Balcali Hospital who were included. The data were collected using a questionnaire that described the nurses and measured the nurses' knowledge about care. The mean age of the nurses was 30.89 years, they had a mean 12.0 years of experience in the profession, 52.0% did not have experience with chronic pain, 42.4% stated that they frequently encountered patients in pain, 70.2% had received education about pain in school, 88.4% had not received education about pain outside of school and did not read about pain in journals, 88.9% used pharmacologic management, 85.4% evaluated patients' pain based on verbal statements, 96.5% knew the important points in the use of opioid analgesics, and 3% knew pain theory. As a result of this study, it is seen that nurses have inadequate knowledge about care of patients in pain and pain control methods. After evaluation of the conclusions, they will be used in education to increase the quality of the nursing
Eriksen, Astrid M. A.; Schei, Berit; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Sørlie, Tore; Fleten, Nils; Javo, Cecilie
Background Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population. Objective The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences. Design The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5%) and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%). Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence. Results Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model), and higher pain intensity. Conclusion Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity. PMID:27802844
Eriksen, Astrid M A; Schei, Berit; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Sørlie, Tore; Fleten, Nils; Javo, Cecilie
Background Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population. Objective The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences. Design The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5%) and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%). Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence. Results Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model), and higher pain intensity. Conclusion Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity.
Eriksen, Astrid M A; Schei, Berit; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Sørlie, Tore; Fleten, Nils; Javo, Cecilie
Internationally, studies have shown that childhood violence is associated with chronic pain in adulthood. However, to date, this relationship has not been examined in any indigenous population. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the association between childhood violence and reported chronic pain, number of pain sites and the intensity of pain in adulthood in indigenous Sami and non-Sami adults, and to explore ethnic differences. The study is based on the SAMINOR 2 questionnaire study, a larger population-based, cross-sectional survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Mid- and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,130 adult participants: 2,167 Sami respondents (19.5%) and 8,963 non-Sami respondents (80.5%). Chronic pain was estimated by reported pain located in various parts of the body. Childhood violence was measured by reported exposure of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence. Childhood violence was associated with adult chronic pain in several pain sites of the body regardless of ethnicity and gender. Childhood violence was also associated with increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity compared to those not exposed to childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was only significant for pain located in chest, hips/legs and back, and non-significant for increased number of chronic pain sites (adjusted model), and higher pain intensity. Respondents exposed to childhood violence reported more chronic pain in several parts of the body, increased number of chronic pain sites and more intense pain in adulthood than respondents reporting no childhood violence. However, among Sami men, this association was weaker and also not significant for increased number of chronic pain sites and higher pain intensity.
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
Roberts, Lindsay S.; Sharma, Sushma; Hudes, Mark L.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Background: African-American and Latino children living in neighborhoods with a low-socioeconomic index are more at risk of obesity-associated metabolic disease than their higher socioeconomic index and/or white peers. Currently, consistent and reliable questionnaires to evaluate nutrition and physical activity knowledge in these children are…
Background One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP) amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group. Objectives The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape. Methods The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4. Results The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest. The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP. Conclusions LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactive approach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.
Spanos, Konstantinos; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Chan, Philip; Bargiota, Alexandra; Giannoukas, Athanasios D
One of the diagnostic tools of neuropathetic pain (NP) relies on screening questionnaires including the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) questionnaire. To apply and validate the LANSS questionnaire in Greek population. To assess any correlation between LANSS score and visual analog pain scales. A prospective instrument validation study of LANSS was conducted in University Hospital of Larissa, on 70 patients (35 NP and 35 nociceptive pain), from April 2015 to June 2015. Visual analog pain scales (VAS-ADL; impact of pain on daily living activities, VAS-INT; pain intensity) were also assessed and correlated with LANSS scale. The mean age of NP and nociceptive pain group was 67.11±10.05 and 39.14±17.07years respectively. The mean LANSS score was 12.84 (±9.27) in initial test, and 12.54 (±9.41) in the retest evaluation. Cronbach's alpha was 0.895 and 0.901 at initial and retest examinations respectively, both values indicating good internal consistency. NP group had significant higher LANSS score than nocipeptive pain group (21.34 [±1.39] vs 4.34 [±4.86], p<0.01). The sensitivity of LANSS questionnaire to distinguish neuropathic and nociceptive pain was 94.29% (95% CI: 80.81-99.13%), while its specificity was 88.57% (95% CI: 73.24-96.73%). A significant correlation was noticed between total LANSS score and VAS-ADL (initial r=0.248; p<0.05 and retest evaluation r=0.288; p<0.05). The LANSS score is a reliable and valuable instrument to assess neuropathic pain in diabetic patients and to differentiate it from nociceptive pain in Greek population. In diabetic patients LANSS score is associated with impact on daily activities and potentially with quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant (p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic calibres.
Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio Ignacio; González-Sánchez, Manuel
Spanish is one of the five most spoken languages in the world. There is currently no published Spanish version of the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (OMPQ). The aim of the present study is to describe the process of translating the OMPQ into Spanish and to perform an analysis of reliability, internal structure, internal consistency and concurrent criterion-related validity. Translation and psychometric testing. Two independent translators translated the OMPQ into Spanish. From both translations a consensus version was achieved. A backward translation was made to verify and resolve any semantic or conceptual problems. A total of 104 patients (67 men/37 women) with a mean age of 53.48 (±11.63), suffering from chronic musculoskeletal disorders, twice completed a Spanish version of the OMPQ. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the reliability, the internal structure, internal consistency and concurrent criterion-related validity with reference to the gold standard questionnaire SF-12v2. All variables except "Coping" showed a rate above 0.85 on reliability. The internal structure calculation through exploratory factor analysis indicated that 75.2% of the variance can be explained with six components with an eigenvalue higher than 1 and 52.1% with only three components higher than 10% of variance explained. In the concurrent criterion-related validity, several significant correlations were seen close to 0.6, exceeding that value in the correlation between general health and total value of the OMPQ. The Spanish version of the screening questionnaire OMPQ can be used to identify Spanish patients with musculoskeletal pain at risk of developing a chronic disability.
Acharya, Dev Raj; Thomas, Malcolm; Cann, Rosemary
Background: School-based sex education has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to promote positive sexual health at the individual, family and community level. Objectives: To develop and validate a sexual health questionnaire to measure young peoples’ sexual health knowledge and understanding (SHQ) in Nepalese secondary school. Materials and Methods: Secondary school students (n = 259, male = 43.63%, female = 56.37%) and local experts (n = 9, male = 90%, female = 10%) were participated in this study. Evaluation processes were; content validity (>0.89), plausibility check (>95), item-total correlation (>0.3), factor loading (>0.4), principal component analysis (4 factors Kaiser's criterion), Chronbach's alpha (>0.65), face validity and internal consistency using test-retest reliability (P > 0.05). Results: The principal component analysis revealed four factors to be extracted; sexual health norms and beliefs, source of sexual health information, sexual health knowledge and understanding, and level of sexual awareness. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy demonstrated that the patterns of correlations are relatively compact (>0.80). Chronbach's alpha for each factors were above the cut-off point (0.65). Face validity indicated that the questions were clear to the majority of the respondent. Moreover, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the responses to the items at two time points at seven weeks later. Conclusions: The finding suggests that SHQ is a valid and reliable instrument to be used in schools to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding. Further analysis such as structured equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis could make the questionnaire more robust and applicable to the wider school population. PMID:27500171
Witkamp, Frederika E; van Zuylen, Lia; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes
The purpose of this study was the psychometric testing of a questionnaire to assess nurses' opinions, subjective norms, perceived difficulties, and knowledge related to palliative care. The 63-item MOVE2PC Questionnaire was tested among 219 nurses in groups differing in education and experience. The intra-rater agreement was moderate to good (к > .5κmax ), and internal consistency was good (alpha = .77). Construct validity was demonstrated by between-groups differences in knowledge, opinions, and perceived difficulties. Responsiveness was shown by improved scores after an education program. Time of completion was 20 minutes, and 99% skipped at most five items, demonstrating feasibility. Findings support the usefulness of the instrument for assessing nurses' knowledge and views on palliative care.
Feldman, Kira; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Senderovich, Helen; Perri, Giulia-Anna; Grossman, Daphna
Management of pain in the frail elderly presents many challenges in both assessment and treatment, due to the presence of multiple co-morbidities, polypharmacy, and cognitive impairment. At Baycrest Health Sciences, a geriatric care centre, pain in its acute care unit had been managed through consultations with the pain team on a case-by-case basis. In an intervention informed by knowledge translation (KT), the pain specialists integrated within the social network of the acute care team for 6 months to disseminate their expertise. A survey was administered to staff on the unit before and after the intervention of the pain team to understand staff perceptions of pain management. Pre- and post-comparisons of the survey responses were analysed by using t-tests. This study provided some evidence for the success of this interprofessional education initiative through changes in staff confidence with respect to pain management. It also showed that embedding the pain team into the acute care team supported the KT process as an effective method of interprofessional team building. Incorporating the pain team into the acute care unit to provide training and ongoing decision support was a feasible strategy for KT and could be replicated in other clinical settings.
Chandler, Rebecca C; Zwakhalen, Sandra Mg; Docking, Rachael; Bruneau, Benjamin; Schofield, Patricia
Under-assessment and inadequate treatment of pain is a common problem for older adults, particularly those with dementia. This may be in part attributed to knowledge deficits and negative attitudes among healthcare staff and informal caregivers towards pain, its assessment and its management in dementia. Knowledge and attitudes have a significant predictive relationship with behavior, potentially impacting pain assessment and management practices. Despite this there remains a paucity of research in the area and a lack of clarity about existing knowledge levels and attitudes among dementia caregivers. Therefore, the aims of this review were to: identify what knowledge deficits and attitudinal barriers exist amongst dementia caregivers; and identify the scales available to measure these. A search was carried out in the following electronic databases: Academic Search Premier; CINAHL; Education Research Complete; Humanities International Journals; Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection; PsychINFO; PsychArticles; Teacher Reference Center; and MEDLINE. A total of 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. A number of knowledge deficits and negative attitudes were identified, particularly in the use self-reports and pain assessment tools in dementia, and the safety of opioids. Understanding and positive attitudes were demonstrated in some areas, such as non-narcotic pain medications and identifying behavioral pain indicators. Of the 4 scales identified, positive results were found for internal consistency and content validity, however further refinement and testing is necessary. It was concluded attitudinal and knowledge barriers exist which should be addressed given their influence over practice behavior, however, there is a willingness and knowledge base from which progress can build.
Calella, Patrizia; Iacullo, Vittorio Maria; Valerio, Giuliana
Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK) in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK) was carried out in six phases as follows: (1) item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2) pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3) measurement of the internal consistency; (4) reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5) concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6) construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults. PMID:28468271
Calella, Patrizia; Iacullo, Vittorio Maria; Valerio, Giuliana
Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK) in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK) was carried out in six phases as follows: (1) item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2) pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3) measurement of the internal consistency; (4) reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5) concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6) construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults.
Saroyan, John M; Schechter, William S; Tresgallo, Mary E; Sun, Lena; Naqvi, Zoon; Graham, Mark J
This pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the hypotheses that there are differences in pediatric pain management (PPM) knowledge across resident specialties, that questions in the form of multiple-choice items could detect such differences, and that resident knowledge of analgesic-related adverse drug events (ADEs) would be greater than knowledge of PPM. Questions were based on two general categories of knowledge within acute pain management in hospitalized children: pediatric pain assessment and treatment, and identification of analgesic-related ADEs. As part of the pilot nature of this study, a convenience sample of 60 residents completed a 10-item PPM knowledge assessment prior to a PPM lecture. Twenty-six were pediatric residents (43%), 19 were orthopedic residents (32%), and 15 were anesthesiology residents (25%). All items had content validity. When controlling for resident year, performance by resident specialty was significantly different between anesthesia and orthopedics (P=0.006) and between anesthesia and pediatrics (P<0.001). Resident knowledge of analgesic-related ADEs was not greater than knowledge of PPM. The most difficult topics were opioid equianalgesia, assessment of the cognitively impaired child, and maximal acetaminophen doses. Repeated administration of the PPM knowledge assessment at multiple institutions will allow further evaluation of our initial findings, and with directed educational interventions, provide opportunity for measurement of improvement.
Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is widely used and popular among patients with primary headache or low back pain (LBP). Aim of the study was to analyze attitudes of headache and LBP patients towards the use of CAM. Methods Two questionnaire-based surveys were applied comparing 432 primary headache and 194 LBP patients. Results In total, 84.75% of all patients reported use of CAM; with significantly more LBP patients. The most frequently-used CAM therapies in headache were acupuncture (71.4%), massages (56.4%), and thermotherapy (29.2%), in LBP thermotherapy (77.4%), massages (62.7%), and acupuncture (51.4%). The most frequent attitudes towards CAM use in headache vs. LBP: "leave nothing undone" (62.5% vs. 52.1%; p = 0.006), "take action against the disease" (56.8% vs. 43.2%; p = 0.006). Nearly all patients with previous experience with CAM currently use CAM in both conditions (93.6% in headache; 100% in LBP). However, the majority of the patients had no previous experience. Conclusion Understanding motivations for CAM treatment is important, because attitudes derive from wishes for non-pharmacological treatment, to be more involved in treatment and avoid side effects. Despite higher age and more permanent pain in LBP, both groups show high use of CAM with only little specific difference in preferred methods and attitudes towards CAM use. This may reflect deficits and unfulfilled goals in conventional treatment. Maybe CAM can decrease the gap between patients' expectations about pain therapy and treatment reality, considering that both conditions are often chronic diseases, causing high burdens for daily life. PMID:21982203
Sharafi, S. Elham; Hafizi, Sina; Shahi, Mohammad Hosein Pourgharib; Kordi, Ramin; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Arbabi, Mohammad; Nejatisafa, Ali-Akbar
Background: Screening of psychosocial risk factors for chronic low back pain (LBP) is essential. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) is one of the most recognized and widely used instruments for this purpose. This study aimed to translate the ÖMPSQ into Persian, to adapt it for Iranian culture, and to investigate its psychometric properties. Methods: Using a linguistic methodology, the ÖMPSQ was translated into Persian according to the World Health Organization guideline. A total of 106 patients with LBP participated in the study. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Concurrent validity was estimated with Pearson's correlation between the ÖMPSQ and short form health survey (SF-12), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Factor analysis was used to evaluate dimensionality. Results: The content validity index was 0.80. The instrument had a good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82) and internal consistency (Cronbach's α =0.82). Factor analysis indicates that factorial structure of Persian version was similar to original questionnaire. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.252–0.639, P < 0.01) between VAS score and all the ÖMPSQ domains. Physical component summary of SF-12 was positively correlated with miscellaneous domain (r = 384, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with psychology domain of ÖMPSQ (r = −0.364, P < 0.05). A significant correlation between total score and anxiety component of HADS and psychology domain of ÖMPSQ was found (r = 0.49, P < 0.01 and r = 0.442, P < 0.05, respectively). Correlations between the ÖMPSQ and SF-12 and HADS and VAS indicate acceptable concurrent validity. Conclusions: The Persian version of ÖMPSQ was as a valid and reliable instrument and also a good cross-cultural equivalent for original English version. PMID:28348724
Prevalence of chronic pain among Libyan adults in Derna City: a pilot study to assess the reliability, linguistic validity, and feasibility of using an Arabic version of the structured telephone interviews questionnaire on chronic pain.
Elzahaf, Raga A; Tashani, Osama A; Johnson, Mark I
There are few studies estimating the prevalence of chronic pain in countries from the Middle East. We translated the Structured Telephone Interviews Questionnaire on Chronic Pain from English into Arabic and assessed its reliability and linguistic validity before using it in a telephone survey in Libya to gather preliminary prevalence data for chronic pain. Intraclass correlations for scaled items were high, and there were no differences in answers to nominal items between the first and second completions of the questionnaire. One hundred and 4 individuals participated in a telephone survey. The prevalence of chronic pain was 25.0% (95% CI, 16.7% to 33.3%) and 50.0% (95% CI: 30.8% to 69.2) of the participants with chronic pain scored ≥ 12 on the Arabic S-LANSS. Mean ± SD duration of pain was 2.8 ± 1.2 years, and pain was more frequent in women (P = 0.02). 53.8% of participants had taken prescription medication for their pain, and 76.9% had used nondrug methods of treatment including traditional Libyan methods such as Kamara, a local herbal concoction. Eighty percent believed that their doctor would rather treat their illness than their pain, and 35% reported that their doctor did not think that their pain was a problem. Some participants complained that the questionnaire was too long with a mean ± SD call duration of 20 ± 5.4 minutes. We conclude that the Arabic Structured Telephone Interviews Questionnaire on Chronic Pain was reliable and linguistically valid and could be used in a large-scale telephone survey on the Libyan population. Our preliminary estimate of prevalence should be considered with caution because of the small sample size.
Lalonde, Lyne; Leroux-Lapointe, Vincent; Choinière, Manon; Martin, Elisabeth; Lussier, David; Berbiche, Djamal; Lamarre, Diane; Thiffault, Robert; Jouini, Ghaya; Perreault, Sylvie
BACKGROUND: Primary care providers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) are a barrier to optimal management. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and identify the determinants of the KAB of primary care physicians and pharmacists, and to document clinician preferences regarding the content and format of a continuing education program (CEP). METHOD: Physicians and pharmacists of 486 CNCP patients participated. Physicians completed the original version of the KnowPain-50 questionnaire. Pharmacists completed a modified version. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to identify the determinants of their KAB. RESULTS: A total of 137 of 387 (35.4%) physicians and 110 of 278 (39.5%) pharmacists completed the survey. Compared with the physicians, the pharmacists surveyed included more women (64% versus 38%) and had less clinical experience (15 years versus 26 years). The mean KnowPain-50 score was 69.3% (95% CI 68.0% to 70.5%) for physicians and 63.8% (95% CI 62.5% to 65.1%) for pharmacists. Low scores were observed on all aspects of pain management: initial assessment (physicians, 68.3%; pharmacists, 65.4%); definition of treatment goals and expectations (76.1%; 61.6%); development of a treatment plan (66.4%; 59.0%); and reassessment and management of longitudinal care (64.3%; 53.1%). Ten hours of reported CEP sessions increased the KAB score by 0.3 points. All clinicians considered a CEP for CNCP to be essential. Physicians preferred an interactive format, while pharmacists had no clear preferences. CONCLUSION: A CEP to improve primary care providers’ knowledge and competency in managing CNCP, and to reduce false beliefs and inappropriate attitudes regarding CNCP is relevant and perceived as necessary by clinicians. PMID:25299473
González-Cabrera, Joaquín; Fernández-Prada, María; Martínez-Bellón, María Dolores; Fernández-Crehuet, Milagros; Guillén-Solvas, José; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora
Hand hygiene in the health context is a complex behaviour. There have been rarely given the role of the knowledge and attitudes as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour. The main objective of this work is the description of the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene and the analysis of their measurement properties. An instrument which was designed and validated a questionnaire. It was held in January 2009. It finally has had 50 items that assess risk behaviour intention before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge and attitudes about hand hygiene. It has been applied to 431 students of health sciences at the University of Granada. There were three factor analysis, ultimately obtaining a general convergence value that explains 46.01% of the total variance and high reliability (a = 0,843). There is correlation between knowledge and behavior intentions before and after patient contact (p < 0.01).In turn, the attitude correlates only with behavioral intention before (p < 0.05). The hand hygiene behavior refers to a higher mean after the completion of various health activities before the same (4.26 and 3.96 respectively). Both declarative knowledge and attitudes significantly predict behavioral intention, in particular the conduct before the contact with the patient (R² = 0.100, standardized Beta 0.256 for knowledge and 0.145 for attitudes). The questionnaire shows high internal consistency. We have obtained a valid tool for assessing risk behavior, knowledge and attitudes about students' hand hygiene in health sciences. The tool detects deficiencies in basic skills in students.
Background In light of its epidemic proportions in developed and developing countries, obesity is considered a serious public health issue. In order to increase knowledge concerning the ability of health care professionals in caring for obese adolescents and adopt more efficient preventive and control measures, a questionnaire was developed and validated to assess non-dietitian health professionals regarding their Knowledge of Nutrition in Obese Adolescents (KNOA). Methods The development and evaluation of a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of primary care practitioners with respect to nutrition in obese adolescents was carried out in five phases, as follows: 1) definition of study dimensions 2) development of 42 questions and preliminary evaluation of the questionnaire by a panel of experts; 3) characterization and selection of primary care practitioners (35 dietitians and 265 non-dietitians) and measurement of questionnaire criteria by contrasting the responses of dietitians and non-dietitians; 4) reliability assessment by question exclusion based on item difficulty (too easy and too difficult for non-dietitian practitioners), item discrimination, internal consistency and reproducibility index determination; and 5) scoring the completed questionnaires. Results Dietitians obtained higher scores than non-dietitians (Mann–Whitney U test, P < 0.05), confirming the validity of the questionnaire criteria. Items were discriminated by correlating the score for each item with the total score, using a minimum of 0.2 as a correlation coefficient cutoff value. Item difficulty was controlled by excluding questions answered correctly by more than 90% of the non-dietitian subjects (too easy) or by less than 10% of them (too difficult). The final questionnaire contained 26 of the original 42 questions, increasing Cronbach’s α value from 0.788 to 0.807. Test-retest agreement between respondents was classified as good to very good (Kappa test, >0.60). Conclusion The
Monfort-Pañego, M; Molina-García, J; Miñana-Signes, V; Bosch-Biviá, A H; Gómez-López, A; Munguía-Izquierdo, D
The most relevant musculoskeletal problems are related with back health. Study instruments have been designed for adult patient population but not for school-aged children. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire to assess adolescents' level of back care knowledge in daily life physical activities. Participants were 171 adolescents from secondary schools. The questionnaire was made up of 24 questions. A Delphi method was used for test validation. Cronbach's alpha, test-retest, Wilcoxon signed-rank and Bland-Altman graph were used to evaluate the instrument reliability. Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.82) showed a strong internal consistency. Test-retest was excellent for total score (0.76) and moderate to excellent (0.54-0.76) for seven score conceptual categories with good results of standard error of the mean and minimal detectable change. No differences were found between test 1 and test 2 except for the standing posture scores. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric values. Results showed that this questionnaire is a good instrument to assess adolescent's back care knowledge.
Evans, Cecile B; Mixon, Diana K
The purpose of this paper was to assess undergraduate nursing students' pain knowledge after participation in a simulation scenario. The Knowledge and Attitudes of Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) was used to assess pain knowledge. In addition, reflective questions related to the simulation were examined. Student preferences for education method and reactions to the simulation (SIM) were described. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of pain management is reported as inadequate. An emerging pedagogy used to educate undergraduate nurses in a safe, controlled environment is simulation. Literature reports of simulation to educate students' about pain management are limited. As part of the undergraduate nursing student clinical coursework, a post-operative pain management simulation, the SIM was developed. Students were required to assess pain levels and then manage the pain for a late adolescent male whose mother's fear of addiction was a barrier to pain management. The students completed an anonymous written survey that included selected questions from the KASRP and an evaluation of the SIM experience. The students' mean KASRP percent correct was 70.4% ± 8.6%. Students scored the best on items specific to pain assessment and worst on items specific to opiate equivalents and decisions on PRN orders. The students' overall KASRP score post simulation was slightly better than previous studies of nursing students. These results suggest that educators should consider simulations to educate about pain assessment and patient/family education. Future pain simulations should include more opportunities for students to choose appropriate pain medications when provided PRN orders.
Massengo, Serge A; Cisse, M; Guiziou, C; Leray, E; Rajabally, Yusuf A; Edan, G
Management of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) is of vital importance in an attempt to prevent stroke. However, suboptimal management still raise concern among general practitioners (GPs) and emergency department (ED) physicians-the first medical contact of most TIA patients. This may relate to their poorly updated knowledge about TIA. The study was designed to assess knowledge of TIA among these non-neurologists. The study was a post-mailed questionnaire survey among GPs and ED physicians. The questionnaire related to selective clinical aspects on TIA. There were a total of 85 respondents for analysis, mostly GPs (n=64; 75.3%), out of 177 mailed physicians. Response rate was 52.7%. Many of these respondents were unaware of the newly proposed TIA definition (59%), unfamiliar with TIA mimics and predictors of post-TIA early stroke recurrence and therefore with the rationales underlying the need of emergency management of TIA. More than one third (39%) were unaware of the relevant national guidelines. Guidelines-aware respondents performed better in most part of the mailed questionnaire. Our results show that poorly updated knowledge about TIA among non-neurologists represents a potential contributing factor to the persisting sub-optimal management of the disorder. Although further studies are needed to confirm this, improved continuous medical education of this group of health care professionals appears warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hughes, John; Greville-Harris, Maddy; Graham, Cynthia A; Lewith, George; White, Peter; Bishop, Felicity L
Patients require an accurate knowledge about placebos and their possible effects to ensure consent for placebo-controlled clinical trials is adequately informed. However, few previous studies have explored patients' baseline (ie, pretrial recruitment) levels of understanding and knowledge about placebos. The present online survey aimed to assess knowledge about placebos among patients with a history of back pain. A 15-item questionnaire was constructed to measure knowledge about placebos. Additional questions assessed sociodemographic characteristics, duration and severity of back pain, and previous experience of receiving placebos. Participants recruited from community settings completed the study online. 210 participants completed the questionnaire. 86.7% had back pain in the past 6 months, 44.3% currently had back pain. 4.3% had received a placebo intervention as part of a clinical trial and 68.1% had previously read or heard information about placebos. Overall knowledge of placebos was high, with participants on average answering 12.07 of 15 questions about placebos correctly (SD=2.35). However, few participants correctly answered questions about the nocebo effect (31.9% correct) and the impact of the colour of a placebo pill (55.2% correct). The findings identified key gaps in knowledge about placebos. The lack of understanding of the nocebo effect in particular has implications for the informed consent of trial participants. Research ethics committees and investigators should prioritise amending informed consent procedures to incorporate the fact that participants in the placebo arm might experience adverse side effects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Hallegraeff, Joannes M; van der Schans, Cees P; Krijnen, Wim P; de Greef, Mathieu H G
The eight-item Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is used as a screening instrument in physical therapy to assess mental defeat in patients with acute low back pain, besides patient perception might determine the course and risk for chronic low back pain. However, the psychometric properties of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in common musculoskeletal disorders like acute low back pain have not been adequately studied. Patients' perceptions vary across different populations and affect coping styles. Thus, our aim was to determine the internal consistency, test-retest reliability and validity of the Dutch language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in acute non-specific low back pain patients in primary care physical therapy. A non-experimental cross-sectional study with two measurements was performed. Eighty-four acute low back pain patients, in multidisciplinary health care center in Dutch primary care with a sample mean (SD) age of 42 (12) years, participated in the study. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest procedures (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients and limits of agreement) were evaluated at a one-week interval. The concurrent validity of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was examined by using the Mental Health Component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.67 - 0.83); and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient test-retest reliability was acceptable: 0.72 (95% CI, 0.53 - 0.82), however, the limits of agreement were large. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient measuring concurrent validity 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 - 0.80). The Dutch version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire is an appropriate instrument for measuring patients' perceptions in acute low back pain patients, showing acceptable internal consistency and reliability. Concurrent validity is adequate, however, the instrument may be unsuitable for detecting changes in low
Simon, David; Coyle, Matt; Dagenais, Simon; O'Neil, Joseph; Wai, Eugene K
Waiting times to see a spinal surgeon are among the highest in Canada. However, most patients who are referred would not benefit from surgical care. Effective triaging of surgical candidates may reduce morbidity related to prolonged waiting times and optimize use of limited resources. We administered a questionnaire consisting of 3 items identifying leg-dominant or back-dominant pain among 119 consecutive patients who presented at a community spinal pain centre or a spinal surgical unit for assessment of an elective lumbar problem. We analyzed the questionnaire under 2 different scenarios: 1 hypothesized to be more sensitive and 1 hypothesized to be more specific. For the "sensitive" scenario of clearly back-dominant pain, the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 100% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates. For the "specific" scenario of leg-dominant pain, the questionnaire had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 73% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates, which was significantly superior to findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., presence of neurocompressive lesions). When comparing the accuracy of the questionnaire in identifying appropriate surgical candidates to that of an assessment performed by a pain specialist at an acute spinal pain clinic, we found no statistically significant differences between the 2 methods. Use of the questionnaire when triaging patients may decrease the number of unnecessary referrals to spine surgeons. Adopting such a method of triaging could reduce waiting times for appropriate surgical candidates and potentially improve the outcomes of any resulting spinal surgery performed in a timely fashion.
Simon, David; Coyle, Matt; Dagenais, Simon; O’Neil, Joseph; Wai, Eugene K.
Background Waiting times to see a spinal surgeon are among the highest in Canada. However, most patients who are referred would not benefit from surgical care. Effective triaging of surgical candidates may reduce morbidity related to prolonged waiting times and optimize use of limited resources. Methods We administered a questionnaire consisting of 3 items identifying leg-dominant or back-dominant pain among 119 consecutive patients who presented at a community spinal pain centre or a spinal surgical unit for assessment of an elective lumbar problem. We analyzed the questionnaire under 2 different scenarios: 1 hypothesized to be more sensitive and 1 hypothesized to be more specific. Results For the “sensitive” scenario of clearly back-dominant pain, the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 100% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates. For the “specific” scenario of leg-dominant pain, the questionnaire had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 73% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates, which was significantly superior to findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., presence of neurocompressive lesions). When comparing the accuracy of the questionnaire in identifying appropriate surgical candidates to that of an assessment performed by a pain specialist at an acute spinal pain clinic, we found no statistically significant differences between the 2 methods. Conclusion Use of the questionnaire when triaging patients may decrease the number of unnecessary referrals to spine surgeons. Adopting such a method of triaging could reduce waiting times for appropriate surgical candidates and potentially improve the outcomes of any resulting spinal surgery performed in a timely fashion. PMID:20011183
State medical board members' attitudes about the legality of chronic prescribing to patients with noncancer pain: the influence of knowledge and beliefs about pain management, addiction, and opioid prescribing.
Gilson, Aaron M
In the United States, physicians' practice is regulated at the state level, with medical board members distinguishing legitimate medical practice from unprofessional conduct. For this process to be effective, regulators should have knowledge and beliefs that conform to current standards of practice and medical understanding. Past research has demonstrated that some board members continue to view the prolonged prescribing of opioid analgesics to treat noncancer pain as being unlawful or unacceptable medical practice, especially when the patient with pain has a history of substance abuse. This study was designed to determine whether relevant clinical or policy issues can adequately explain regulators' attitudes about the legality of opioid prescribing for patients with noncancer pain. A total of 277 questionnaires were obtained from a national sample of medical board members. Using binomial logistic regression procedures, the predictive significance of 12 factors related to four variable domains was explored: 1) beliefs about opioid addiction and diversion, 2) beliefs and knowledge about federal and state policy, 3) clinical beliefs about opioid prescribing, and 4) demographic characteristics. Separate logistic regression models were computed to determine the extent that knowledge and beliefs contribute to attitudes about the legality of chronic opioid therapy for noncancer pain and for noncancer pain with a history of substance abuse. Three variables demonstrated statistical significance in both regression models: 1) characterizing addiction in terms of physiological phenomena, 2) believing regulatory policy is useful to improve pain relief, and 3) incorrectly believing that federal law limits the amount of Schedule II medication that can be prescribed at one time. When considering the legality of prescribing opioids for patients with noncancer pain, the following additional factors had a notable influence: viewing addiction as common when treating pain with opioids
Self, M M; Williams, A E; Czyzewski, D I; Weidler, E M; Shulman, R J
In functional gastrointestinal disorders, patient recall of symptoms drives diagnostic decisions and evaluation of treatment response, and research conclusions about potential treatments. In pediatrics, parent report also impacts assessment and care. Hence, identifying methods for accurately capturing patient and parent report of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms is important. This study evaluated correspondence between retrospective questionnaire (parent and child report) and prospective diary data for children and adolescents with IBS. Participants included 50 children/adolescents with IBS per Rome III criteria. Children completed a 2-week pain and stool diary. Children and parents subsequently completed a 2-week recall questionnaire, reporting number of pain days, maximum pain, days without bowel movement, and days with diarrhea during the diary interval. Intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots assessed agreement. For pain and days without bowel movement, overall agreement between child recall questionnaire and child diary was strong, although under conditions likely to facilitate agreement and with individual variation observed. Parent recall and child diary were less concordant, and agreement about diarrhea was poor for parent and child. Age did not significantly correlate with agreement. Child questionnaire with short recall interval may be a reasonable approximation for diary data, although this varies by individual and replication/investigation of lengthier recall are needed. Relying on parent questionnaire does not appear a suitable proxy, and recall of stool form by both parent and child appears more problematic. These results combined with existing literature support use of diary data whenever possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sari, Dilek; Şahin, Melek; Yaşar, Eda; Taşkiran, Nihal; Telli, Sevil
Intramuscular injection is important in the administration of parenteral medication and is a frequently-performed nursing responsibility. The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of use of the ventrogluteal site and the level of nurses' knowledge of administering an intramuscular injection to this site. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of nurses working in four hospitals (n=362). Data collection tools included a 12 item sociodemographic questionnaire and a 24 item questionnaire on knowledge of the ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injection. 17.1% of participants reported using the VG site frequently in intramuscular injections. On the other hand, 35.9% reported that they do not use the VG site in intramuscular injections just because they are not used to giving injections on this site. Level of knowledge of ventrogluteal site was also limited with the mean score of correct answers from 24 questions being 14.37. It was found in the study that nurses' knowledge of the ventrogluteal site was limited, and they are not preferentially using the ventrogluteal site for intramuscular injections to adults even though it is recommended in recent nursing literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ravikumar, Dhanalakshmi; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G
The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge of General dentist regarding the management of dental traumatic injuries of primary teeth. A total of 100 general dentists were selected and a validated questionnaire was distributed among the dentist to assess their knowledge on treatment strategies regarding traumatized primary teeth. Data were entered into SPSS version 20.0 for percentages. The correct answers were tested in relation to the dentists' years of experience using the Chi-square test. Analyzing the questionnaire for knowledge, 49% of dentists answered accurately regarding avulsed primary teeth, 36% of dentists answered appropriately regarding crown and root fractures, and 55% of dentists gave appropriate answers regarding luxation injuries. Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference only for 2 questions in relation to the dentist's years of experience (P < 0.05). There is a lack of consistency in the knowledge among general dentist regarding traumatic dental injuries of primary teeth. There is a need to create awareness and education regarding traumatic injuries of primary teeth.
Ravikumar, Dhanalakshmi; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E. M. G.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the knowledge of General dentist regarding the management of dental traumatic injuries of primary teeth. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 general dentists were selected and a validated questionnaire was distributed among the dentist to assess their knowledge on treatment strategies regarding traumatized primary teeth. Statistical Analysis: Data were entered into SPSS version 20.0 for percentages. The correct answers were tested in relation to the dentists’ years of experience using the Chi-square test. Results: Analyzing the questionnaire for knowledge, 49% of dentists answered accurately regarding avulsed primary teeth, 36% of dentists answered appropriately regarding crown and root fractures, and 55% of dentists gave appropriate answers regarding luxation injuries. Chi-square test showed a statistically significant difference only for 2 questions in relation to the dentist's years of experience (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a lack of consistency in the knowledge among general dentist regarding traumatic dental injuries of primary teeth. There is a need to create awareness and education regarding traumatic injuries of primary teeth. PMID:28729799
Matsumoto, Mai; Ikemoto, Shinji
It is well known nutrition education for 3- to 5-y-old children is important, and it is necessary to assess their nutrition knowledge before and after nutrition education to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program. This study aimed to determine the necessary questions for inclusion in a questionnaire designed to assess the nutrition knowledge of young Japanese children in order to assess the effectiveness of the Shokuiku nutrition education program. Eighty and 124 children from 9 nursery schools in Japan participated in the intervention and control groups, respectively. A 15-item questionnaire was completed by the intervention group before and after total of 16 nutrition education lessons. The control group completed the questionnaire only once. The necessary questions for inclusion in the questionnaire were evaluated by comparing the frequency of correct answers given by the pre- and post-intervention groups using McNemar and Wilcoxon's signed rank sum tests, and by the post-intervention and control groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The frequency of correct answers given to questions in all categories except "Breakfast and life rhythm" significantly differed between the pre- and post-intervention groups (p<0.05). The frequency of correct answers given by the post-intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group only in the category of "Three colors food groups" (p<0.05). The results suggest that it is necessary to include questions about functions of food and nutrients such as the role of food groups to assess the nutrition knowledge of young Japanese children in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the Shokuiku program.
Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo; Palacios Ceña, Domingo; Fuentes, Paloma Salvadores
This study, performed in Madrid, Spain, evaluates nursing students' understanding and attitudes about bioethical dilemmas that they will likely confront as health care providers. We asked 86 juniors in the King Juan Carlos University Nursing baccalaureate program about their knowledge of and personal attitudes on five biomedical advances: eugenics, experimentation with unimplanted embryos, human cloning, abortion, and euthanasia. Students reported being most knowledgeable about abortion and euthanasia and least familiar with eugenics. Examining the data for a correlation between the two phenomenon (knowledge and position) with respect to each of these five biomedical issues, the students reported significantly Conversely, they held significantly neutral positions on eugenics, a virtually unfamiliar topic for them (r = 0.618, p < 0.0001). The data also revealed a significantly direct correlation between knowledge and position for experimentation with non-implanted embryos (correlation coefficient = 0.380, p < 0.0001), that is, little knowledge and neutral attitudes. The trend findings for abortion and cloning were not significant. Based on these data, we concluded that the nursing program would benefit from additional biomedical curriculum.
Jiang, Lin; He, Hong-Gu; Zhou, Wen-Guang; Shi, Su-Hua; Yin, Ting-Ting; Kong, Yue
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships among nurses' knowledge of, attitudes towards and level of competence in nursing practice, as well as factors influencing nurses' competence in nursing practice, in typhoon disaster relief work. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a self-developed questionnaire to obtain data from 607 nurses working in four tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals in Fujian, China, in November 2011. Our findings show that the nurses' average percentage scores on their responses to questions in the domains of knowledge, attitudes and practice were 66.33%, 68.87% and 67.60%, respectively. The findings demonstrated a significant positive relationship between nurses' attitudes and their practice. Nurses' working unit, prior training in typhoon disaster relief, current position of employment and attitudes were significant predictors of nurses' competence in practice. The results indicate that strategies need to be developed for nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practice.
Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Dubey, Lily; Barman, Lisa; Biswas, Tanmoy; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Suparna
Aims: By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs) may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. Methods: We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Results: Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, “adverse event” and “good clinical practice.” Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Conclusion: Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology. PMID:27141476
Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Dubey, Lily; Barman, Lisa; Biswas, Tanmoy; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Suparna
By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs) may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, "adverse event" and "good clinical practice." Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology.
López-Vázquez, Paula; Vázquez-Lago, Juan Manuel; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Cristian; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; López-Durán, Ana; Herdeiro, Maria Teresa; Figueiras, Adolfo
The aim of this study was to develop a novel, self-administered questionnaire to identify primary-care physicians' knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotics and resistance (KAAR). The study population comprised primary care physicians. The study was conducted in five phases. Phase I consisted of a systematic review and qualitative focus-group study (n = 33 physicians), in which items were formulated so as to be measured on a continuous, visual analogue scale (VAS); in Phase II, content validation and face validity were evaluated by a panel of experts, which reformulated, added and deleted items; Phase III consisted of a pilot study on a population possessing similar characteristics (n = 15); in Phase IV, we analysed reliability by means of a test-retest study (n = 91) and calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs); and in Phase V, we assessed construct validity by applying the known-groups technique, measuring the differences between contrasting groups of physicians formed according to antibiotic prescription quality indicators (group 1, n = 156 versus group 2, n = 191). Following Phases I and II, the questionnaire contained 16 knowledge and attitude items. Participants in the pilot study (Phase III) reported no difficulty. The test-retest study (Phase IV) showed that 11 of the 16 initial knowledge and attitude items yielded an ICC > 0.5, while analysis of known-groups validity (Phase V) showed that 13 of the 16 initial items which assessed knowledge and attitudes discriminated between physicians with good and bad indicators of antibiotics prescription. The final 11 item KAAR questionnaire appears to be valid, reliable and responsive. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Gupta, Nidhi; Mehta, Nishant; Gupta, Preety; Arora, Vikram; Setia, Priyanka
Ebola viral fever, a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease has today become a major public health concern in the developing countries worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge among dental practitioners regarding Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever (Ebola HF) in Tricity, (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali). A total of 500 private dental practitioners were randomly approached to participate in this cross-sectional survey. A self-structured, closed ended questionnaire was administered to each participant to record demographic and professional characteristics followed by their knowledge regarding Ebola HF. Knowledge section included questions related to communicability; symptomatology and diagnostics; at-risk individuals; prevention and treatment; and, virus characteristics of Ebola HF. The results were expressed in percentages. Multivariable linear regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of participants's demographic and professional characteristics with the knowledge scores. Statistically significant difference was seen when mean knowledge scores were compared based on the locality and qualification of the participants (P < 0.05). Dental practitioners from urban areas with higher qualification had better knowledge yet there were notable deficiencies regarding the virus characteristics, diagnostics, elimination and treatment.
Gupta, Nidhi; Mehta, Nishant; Gupta, Preety; Arora, Vikram; Setia, Priyanka
Background: Ebola viral fever, a highly contagious haemorrhagic disease has today become a major public health concern in the developing countries worldwide. Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge among dental practitioners regarding Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever (Ebola HF) in Tricity, (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali). Materials and Methods: A total of 500 private dental practitioners were randomly approached to participate in this cross-sectional survey. A self-structured, closed ended questionnaire was administered to each participant to record demographic and professional characteristics followed by their knowledge regarding Ebola HF. Knowledge section included questions related to communicability; symptomatology and diagnostics; at-risk individuals; prevention and treatment; and, virus characteristics of Ebola HF. Results: The results were expressed in percentages. Multivariable linear regression analysis was carried out to assess the association of participants's demographic and professional characteristics with the knowledge scores. Statistically significant difference was seen when mean knowledge scores were compared based on the locality and qualification of the participants (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dental practitioners from urban areas with higher qualification had better knowledge yet there were notable deficiencies regarding the virus characteristics, diagnostics, elimination and treatment. PMID:25838631
Nardi, Gianna Maria; Giraldi, Guglielmo; Lastella, Paola; La Torre, Giuseppe; Saugo, Emilia; Ferri, Francesca; Pacifici, Luciano; Ottolenghi, Livia; Guerra, Fabrizio; Polimeni, Antonella
Summary Aims The study is focused on the analysis of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of Italian mothers in regards to their oral health, deepening the understanding of how the initiation of habits and behaviors for a healthy lifestyle may influence the empowerment process of their children. Methods The questionnaire was composed by 14 sections and has been conducted using an online questionnaire on the mothers association’s website. Reliability analysis was tested and content validity was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha to check internal consistency with the intention to obtain no misunderstanding results. Statistical analysis was performed through SPSS 19.0. Results The total number of the compiled questionnaires was 192. The highest value of the Cronbach’s alpha is obtainable in Section 13 (Quality of Life in relation to dental health between 8–17 years old kids) with a value of 0.998 (on 5 items). The total value of the Cronbach’s alpha considering the part of questionnaire dedicated only to the mothers that have more than 18 years old children is 0.490 on 116 items. Considering all the sections of the questionnaire on 134 items and 127 questions, we get an alpha value of 0.784. Conclusions The questionnaire for the mothers showed a good reliability in the pilot study and it seems it made good results in terms of internal coherence and validity. The online administration allowed the opportunity to optimize the data collection avoiding complications with papers and it offers potentially, a tool able to rapidly gather a vast sample in which to perfect other studies. PMID:23087789
Vance, Mary E; Keele, Becky
Cervical cancer rates in Appalachia are persistently higher in Appalachia when compared to the rest of the United States. No quantitative instrument exists that examines the cervical cancer knowledge, behavior, and beliefs of Appalachian women. The purpose of this research is to develop, test, and use a new instrument that quantifies the cervical cancer knowledge, behavior, and beliefs of Appalachian women. Constructs from the Health Belief Model, Health Promotion Model, findings from the qualitative literature, and the researcher's clinical background were used to construct an initial 58-item instrument. Appalachian residence, intact uterus, age 21-64 year, and English speaking. Content and construct validity techniques decreased the initial 58-item instrument (5 demographic questions, 9 behavior questions, and 44 cervical cancer knowledge and belief questions) to a 27-item instrument consisting of 5 demographic items, 8 behavior items, and 14 knowledge and belief items. Construct validity was supported with items clustering into 4 factors explaining 53% of the variance. Pilot study testing (20 subjects) and main study testing (217 subjects) composes the sample pool. The new instrument demonstrated initial reliability and validity. Revision and retesting in other populations within Appalachia should comprise the next step to confirm reliability and validity.
Cecchetto, Fátima H; Pellanda, Lucia C
To develop and analyze the reliability and validity of a questionnaire on the knowledge of healthy habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CARDIOKID) to be used in schoolchildren. The study included 145 children aged 7 to 11 years. The measured factors were the knowledge of healthy habits and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to verify reliability, and exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the validity of the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 60% females and 40% males. In factorial analysis, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test result was measures of sampling adequacy (MSA)=0.81 and Bartlett's test of sphericity was X(2)=(66)=458.64 (p<0.001). In the factorial analysis with varimax rotation, two dimensions were defined. The "healthy habits" dimension was composed of five factors (ICC=0.87 and α=0.93) and the "cardiovascular risk factors" dimension was composed of seven factors (ICC=0.83 and α=0.91). In the individual factor analysis, Cronbach's alphas were between 0.93 and 0.91. Total variance was 46.87%. There were no significant differences between test and retest applications. The questionnaire presented satisfactory validity and reliability (internal consistency and reproducibility), allowing for its use in children. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando
The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.
Background In the UK, chronic disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) is largely managed in primary care. We developed a tool to assess practitioner confidence and knowledge in managing CKD compared to other chronic diseases. This questionnaire was part of a cluster randomised quality improvement interventions in chronic kidney disease (QICKD; ISRCTN56023731). Methods The questionnaire was developed by family physicians, primary care nurses, academics and renal specialists. We conducted three focus groups (n = 7, 6, and 8) to refine the questionnaire using groups of general practitioners, practice nurses and trainees in general practice. We used paper based versions to develop the questionnaire and online surveys to test it. Practitioners in a group of volunteer, trial practices received the questionnaire twice. We measured its reliability using Cohen’s Kappa (K). Results The practitioners in the focus groups reached a consensus as to the key elements to include in the instrument. We achieved a 73.1% (n = 57/78) initial response rate for our questionnaire; of these 57, 54 completed the questionnaire a second time. Family physicians made up the largest single group of respondents (47.4%, n = 27). Initial response showed more female (64.9%, n = 37) than male (35.1%, n = 20) respondents. The reliability results from retesting showed that there was moderate agreement (k > 0.4) on all questions; with many showing substantial agreement (k > 0.6). There was substantial agreement in the questions about loop diuretics (k = 0.608, CI 0.432-0.784, p < 0.001), confidence in managing hypertension (k = 0.628, 95%CI 0.452-0.804, p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure treatment thresholds in CKD (k = 0.608, 95%CI 0.436-0.780, p < 0.001) and the rate of decline of eGFR that would prompt referral (k = 0.764, 95%CI 0.603-0.925, p < 0.001). Conclusion The QICKD-CCQ is a reliable instrument for measuring confidence and
Askary-Ashtiani, Ahmadreza; Ebrahimi-Takamejani, Ismail; Torkaman, Giti; Amiri, Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Javad
Validation of 2 self-report questionnaires. To evaluate the internal consistency, reliability, and construct validity of the Persian versions of the fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FABQ) and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) in patients with acute and chronic neck pain. The FABQ and TSK are 2 important measures to evaluate fear of pain and fear avoidance beliefs in patients with spinal pain. To date, the psychometric properties of these questionnaires have not been demonstrated in Persian-speaking patients with neck pain in Iran. One hundred sixty-six patients with acute and chronic neck pain participated in the study. The construct validity of the questionnaires was evaluated by measuring convergent and known-groups validity. The visual analogue scale measure of pain, neck disability index, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the physical (PCS-12) and mental (MCS-12) summary scores of the Short Form health survey (SF-12) were used to test construct validity of the Persian FABQ and TSK. In addition, 50 randomly selected patients with chronic neck pain were asked to complete the questionnaires 48 hours later for the second time. Cronbach α coefficient for the FABQ and TSK in patients with acute and chronic pain was in the range from 0.77 to 0.92 and 0.77 to 0.78, respectively. The Persian FABQ and TSK showed satisfactory test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient of more than 0.80. There were moderate to strong correlations between the Persian FABQ and TSK scores and the neck disability index (r = 0.44-0.55), Depression subscales of the hospital anxiety and depression scale (r = 0.42-0.48), and PCS-12 (r =-0.34 to -0.62). The Persian FABQ and TSK have acceptable reliability and validity for measuring pain related fear and avoidance beliefs among Persian-speaking patients with acute and chronic neck pain. However, considering the study limitations, the findings should be interpreted with caution. 3.
Wolfert, Marla Z; Gilson, Aaron M; Dahl, June L; Cleary, James F
Opioid analgesics are the drugs of choice for the treatment of moderate to severe acute and cancer pain. Although their role in the management of chronic pain not related to cancer is controversial, there is increasing evidence for their benefit in certain patient populations. A 32-item survey to assess Wisconsin physicians' knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes toward opioid analgesic use was mailed to 600 randomly selected licensed physicians, resulting in a 36% response rate. Half of the respondents considered diversion a moderate or severe problem in Wisconsin. A majority considered addiction to be a combination of physiological and behavioral characteristics, rather than defining it solely as a behavioral syndrome. Most physicians felt it lawful and acceptable medical practice to prescribe opioids for chronic cancer pain, but only half held this view if the pain was not related to cancer. Fewer physicians considered such prescribing as lawful and generally accepted medical practice if the patient had a history of substance abuse. About two-thirds of physicians were not concerned about being investigated for their opioid prescribing practices, but some admitted that fear of investigation led them to lower the dose prescribed, limit the number of refills, or prescribe a Schedule III or IV rather than a Schedule II opioid. Wisconsin physicians who responded to this survey held many misconceptions about the prescribing of opioids. Such views, coupled with a lack of knowledge about laws and regulations governing the prescribing of controlled substances, may result in inadequate prescribing of opioids with resultant inadequate management of pain.
Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Soltani, Akbar; Hosseinpanah, Farhad
Knowledge in evidence-based medicine (EBM) is increasingly becoming a core competence in medical education. We evaluated the trainee doctors' attitudes and knowledge of EBM to obtain the basis required for developing appropriate teaching and learning opportunities. Trainee physicians at a Tehran University hospital were surveyed. The questionnaire included six questions evaluating knowledge of EBM, the number of correct answers yielding the knowledge score, and eight questions evaluating attitudes towards EBM. Participants were also asked to mark on a 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale their use of various information sources and tendency to participate in EBM training courses. The response rate was 80% (104/130). The mean knowledge score was 3 +/- 1.3 (SD) on a range of 0-6 for all respondents and was not significantly different between interns (2.9 +/- 1.4) and postgraduates (3.3 +/- 1.0). Forty one per cent of interns and 66% of postgraduates had a positive attitude towards EBM; the remaining respondents were neutral. Textbooks and consulting experts were the most, and Cochrane Library was the least, used sources of information among both interns and postgraduates. The knowledge score was not associated with attitude, but was higher in those with previous research experience, prior EBM training, or the postgraduates that read more articles. The postgraduates and those with prior EBM training showed a significantly more positive attitude towards EBM. The present study demonstrates that the majority of trainee physicians at a Tehran University hospital lack adequate knowledge about basic concepts of EBM. Furthermore, most of them continue to use traditional sources of knowledge rather than evidence-based sources. On the positive side, there was an overall positive attitude towards EBM and the majority had a positive tendency to take part in EBM training courses.
Ospina, Maria B; Taenzer, Paul; Rashiq, Saifee; MacDermid, Joy C; Carr, Eloise; Chojecki, Dagmara; Harstall, Christa; Henry, James L
BACKGROUND: Reliable evidence detailing effective treatments and management practices for chronic noncancer pain exists. However, little is known about which knowledge translation (KT) interventions lead to the uptake of this evidence in practice. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of KT interventions for chronic noncancer pain management. METHODS: Comprehensive searches of electronic databases, the gray literature and manual searches of journals were undertaken. Randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials and controlled before-and-after studies of KT interventions were included. Data regarding interventions and primary outcomes were categorized using a standard taxonomy; a risk-of-bias approach was adopted for study quality. A narrative synthesis of study results was conducted. RESULTS: More than 8500 titles and abstracts were screened, with 230 full-text articles reviewed for eligibility. Nineteen studies were included, of which only a small proportion were judged to be at low risk of bias. Interactive KT education for health care providers has a positive effect on patients’ function, but its benefits for other health provider- and patient-related outcomes are inconsistent. Interactive education for patients leads to improvements in knowledge and function. Little research evidence supports the effectiveness of structural changes in health systems and quality improvement processes or coordination of care. CONCLUSIONS: KT interventions incorporating interactive education in chronic noncancer pain led to positive effects on patients’ function and knowledge about pain. Future studies should provide implementation details and use consistent theoretical frameworks to better estimate the effectiveness of such interventions. PMID:24308029
Kasasbeh, M A M; McCabe, C; Payne, S
Cancer-related pain (CRP) is common and many patients continue to experience pain in spite of advances in pain management modalities. The lack of knowledge, inadequate assessment of CRP and/or organisational factors, such as lack of time due to heavy workload, can be a barrier to effective pain management of healthcare professionals. The purpose was to examine the evidence with regard to the knowledge and attitudes towards practice of healthcare professionals in relation to CRP management. A search of the literature (1999-2015) was conducted searching databases and journals including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct and Wiley-Blackwell. The initial search revealed a total of 99 articles and following removal of those that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 19 articles were included in the final review. Recognition of the widespread under treatment of CRP has prompted recent corrective efforts in terms of education from healthcare professionals, however, there is a continuing deficit in healthcare professionals' knowledge with regard to CRP management and indicated that healthcare professionals still have negative attitudes that hinder the delivery of quality care to patients suffering from CRP. Further research on how and where education on this topic should be delivered is required.
Hertrampf, Katrin; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Koller, Michael; Springer, Ingo; Jargot, Anke; Wiltfang, Jörg
Oral cancer represents a considerable health problem with more than 10,000 new cases each year in Germany. Nevertheless, little information is available on the knowledge of dentists and the public on oral cancer. This project aims at investigating the knowledge and opinions of dentists via a questionnaire. The present article describes the translation process of an internationally accepted instrument into German. The translation was carried out by the Mapi Research Institute, Lyon, France. The translation procedure followed an established linguistic validation process, consisting of the conceptual analysis of the source instrument, a forward and backward translation, the clinicians' review, proofreading, and the finalization. The institute identified nine cultural adaptations. After forward and backward translations, the clinical reviewers suggested 16 stylistic changes, four alternative wordings, two more cultural adaptations, and five changes of nomenclature. After debriefing, the translated questionnaire involved nine stylistic changes, four alternative wordings, and 11 changes for cultural adaptation. The described translation and validation procedure guarantees a high-quality standard instrument for the evaluation of dentists' knowledge and opinions on oral cancer in Germany and prevents misinterpretations due to cultural differences, which allows an international comparison of the data.
Denis, Lies; Storms, Machteld; Peremans, Lieve; Van Royen, Kathleen; Verhoeven, Veronique
The contraceptive pill is widely used. An accurate knowledge is necessary for correct use. This study sheds light on adolescents' knowledge, attitude and behavior in regard to contraceptive use, in the year 2014. The goal is to provide general practitioners (GP) with information about the potential gaps in knowledge concerning contraceptive use in order to give better counseling and prevent high-risk behavior in adolescents. A quantitative descriptive study was carried out among 14-25-year-old female and male adolescents. Data were collected through a web-based survey using the online survey software Qualtrics (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA) and was distributed via the social networking site Facebook. The survey was started by 1185 participants. The most popular contraceptive method among females is the oral contraceptive pill (63.7%). Four out of ten females (42.6%) do not know that when using an emergency pill, they must still take their regular contraceptive pill on the same day. The majority of female respondents (80.0%) go to their general practitioner for a prescription for the pill. Ninety-five percent (95.1%) of the females would feel comfortable asking their GP for extra information about the drug. The sex of the GP does not influence the likelihood of female patients seeking more information. The Internet also seems to serve as an important source of information. We defined a female subgroup, called "vulnerable". The majority of females in the non-vulnerable group (70.4%) protected themselves before their first sexual contact instead of only half of the members in the vulnerable group (51.0%). The level of knowledge among adolescents about contraception is not alarming, but there are a few blind spots. Eliminating these gaps should be the aim of the doctor and pharmacologist.
Taddio, Anna; McMurtry, C Meghan; Shah, Vibhuti; Yoon, Eugene W; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Lang, Eddy; Chambers, Christine T; Noel, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E
A knowledge synthesis was undertaken to inform the development of a revised and expanded clinical practice guideline about managing vaccination pain in children to include the management of pain across the lifespan and the management of fear in individuals with high levels of needle fear. This manuscript describes the methodological details of the knowledge synthesis and presents the list of included clinical questions, critical and important outcomes, search strategy, and search strategy results. The Grading of Assessments, Recommendations, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and Cochrane methodologies provided the general framework. The project team voted on clinical questions for inclusion and critically important and important outcomes. A broad search strategy was used to identify relevant randomized-controlled trials and quasi-randomized-controlled trials. Quality of research evidence was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and quality across studies was assessed using GRADE. Multiple measures of the same construct within studies (eg, observer-rated and parent-rated infant distress) were combined before pooling. The standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) or relative risk and 95% CI was used to express the effects of an intervention. Altogether, 55 clinical questions were selected for inclusion in the knowledge synthesis; 49 pertained to pain management during vaccine injections and 6 pertained to fear management in individuals with high levels of needle fear. Pain, fear, and distress were typically prioritized as critically important outcomes across clinical questions. The search strategy identified 136 relevant studies. This manuscript describes the methodological details of a knowledge synthesis about pain management during vaccination and fear management in individuals with high levels of needle fear. Subsequent manuscripts in this series will present the results for the included questions.
Riddle, Daniel L.
Purpose: To estimate a threshold Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) value that could be used to classify patients with low back pain (LBP) as functional or dysfunctional. Methods: In this secondary analysis of data from a study that estimated clinically important RMQ change scores, participants were adults with LBP attending one of three physical therapy clinics. Diagnostic test methodology and a reference standard of goals met were applied to estimate a threshold RMQ value that best distinguished between participants with a functional status and those whose status was dysfunctional. Results: Of 143 participants, 104 (73%) met their goals. An RMQ threshold value of 4/24 best distinguished between those who met their goals and those who did not. Sensitivity and specificity for a threshold score of 4 were 94% (95% CI, 88–98) and 69% (95% CI, 52–83), respectively. Conclusions: A threshold value of 4 RMQ points provided a reasonably accurate classification of patients. Further research is necessary to cross-validate this estimate and to examine the stability of the estimated value in people with diverse functional demands. PMID:27504045
Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems Among Professional Orchestra Musicians in Scotland: A Prevalence Study Using a Validated Instrument, the Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity and Interference Questionnaire for Musicians (MPIIQM).
Berque, Patrice; Gray, Heather; McFadyen, Angus
Many epidemiological surveys on playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMPs) have been carried out on professional musicians, but none have evaluated or confirmed the psychometric properties of the instruments that were used. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of PRMPs among professional orchestra musicians and to gather information on pain intensity and pain interference on function and psychosocial variables, using a self-report instrument developed and validated specifically for a population of professional orchestra musicians. Out of 183 professional orchestra players, 101 took part in the study (55% response rate) and completed the Musculoskeletal Pain Intensity and Interference Questionnaire for Musicians (MPIIQM). Lifetime prevalence of PRMPs was 77.2%, 1-year prevalence was 45.5%, and point prevalence was 36.6%. Of the PRMP group, 43% reported having pain in three or more locations, most commonly the right upper limb, neck, and left forearm and elbow. However, predominant sites of PRMPs varied between instrument groups. The mean pain intensity score for the PRMP group was 12.4±7.63 (out of 40). The mean pain interference score was 15.2±12.39 (out of 50), increasing significantly with the number of reported pain locations (F=3.009, p=0.044). This study confirms that musculoskeletal complaints are common in elite professional musicians and that the use of an operational definition and a validated self-report instrument allows for more accurate and meaningful estimates of pain prevalence.
Hush, Julia M; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Sullivan, Gerard; De Souza, Lorraine; McAuley, James H
To investigate patients' views about two common outcome measures used for back pain: Numerical Rating Scales for pain and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Thirty-six working adults who had previously sought primary care for back pain and who could speak and read English. Eight focus groups were conducted to explore participants' views about the 11-point Numerical Rating Scales and the 24-item Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Each group was led by a facilitator and an interview topic guide was used. Audio recordings of focus groups were transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used to chart participants' views and an interpretive analysis performed to explain the findings. Participants reported that neither the Roland-Morris nor the Numerical Rating Scales captured the complex personal experience of pain or relevant changes in their condition. The time-frame of assessment was identified as particularly problematic and the Roland-Morris did not capture relevant functional domains. This study provides empirical data that working adults with persistent back pain consider these clinical outcome measures largely inadequate. These measures currently used for back pain may contribute to misleading conclusions about treatment efficacy and patient recovery.
Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G; Mak, Wendy; Williams, Kylie A; McLachlan, Andrew J
Pharmacists are well positioned to provide quality care to people with low back pain (LBP). Education and training can equip pharmacists with the knowledge to optimally manage LBP in primary care. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and satisfaction of pharmacists who attended a 2-h educational workshop on the evidence-based management of LBP. Case-based learning, underpinned by key adult learning principles, was one teaching method used to deliver important educational messages. Knowledge was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice, true/false questions and a written vignette based on a real-life clinical case scenario. Written feedback from pharmacists was used to gauge the success and limitations of the intervention. One hundred and ninety-three pharmacists completed the in-house assessment. Pharmacists demonstrated an accurate understanding of evidence-based pharmacological management of LBP, with all identifying paracetamol as the first-line drug choice for non-specific LBP. Ninety-nine per cent of pharmacists identified the symptoms presented in the vignette as a syndrome representing a significant clinical red flag requiring urgent referral. This educational intervention has delivered key messages on LBP management to pharmacists. There is a continued need for educational interventions addressing common conditions.
Krahé, Charlotte; Paloyelis, Yannis; Sambo, Chiara F.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini
Social support can have beneficial effects on psychological and physiological well-being. During acute bodily pain, however, the effects of social support on pain are mixed. This variability may be due to the multifaceted nature of both pain and social support, as well as individual differences. In this paper, we present the development, psychometric assessment, and initial validation of the first self-report measure designed to address this variability in the general population; the Responses and Attitudes to Support during Pain questionnaire (RASP). The RASP includes questions on social support from the romantic partner as well as healthcare professionals (HCPs) and addresses different types of social support and pain responses. The development and validation of the RASP comprised four studies. In Study 1, a preliminary RASP version was completed by 179 healthy individuals regarding any type of acute pain. In Study 2, the reduced RASP was completed by 256 women with experiences of menstrual pain. Principal component analysis indicated a 22-item solution with five underlying dimensions reflecting General Partner Support, Emotional Support from HCPs, Anxiety in the Context of HCPs, Pain Behaviors during Partner Support, and Distraction by the Partner. Construct validity was assessed using a measure of adult attachment style. The RASP showed good validity and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, the 5-factor model received initial support through confirmatory factor analysis in a new sample of 120 individuals with recent musculoskeletal pain. Study 4 provided additional validation of the RASP in a sample of 180 individuals responding in reference to acute back pain. Overall, the RASP is a valid and reliable measure for assessing individual differences in attitudes and responses to social support in relation to acute pain. PMID:25285083
Maruo, Tomoyuki; Nakae, Aya; Maeda, Lynn; Shi, Kenrin; Takahashi, Kayoko; Morris, Shayne; Hosomi, Koichi; Kanatani, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Saitoh, Youichi
The objective of this study was to define the validity, reliability, and assessment sensitivity of the Japanese version of the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ-2-J). This is a cross-sectional study. The original SF-MPQ-2 was translated into Japanese to create the SF-MPQ-2-J, and the cross-cultural equivalence of assessment tool for Japanese patients was validated. The reliability of the SF-MPQ-2-J was assessed using internal consistency, reliability coefficients (Cronbach's α), and reproducibility coefficients (intraclass correlation coefficient) obtained using 234 patients with chronic pain. SF-MPQ-2-J validity was assessed based on associations identified between total and subscale scores compared with other assessment methods. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was also performed to test the theoretical structure of the SF-MPQ-2-J. The internal consistencies calculated included continuous pain, α=0.893; intermittent pain, α=0.875; predominantly neuropathic pain, α=0.917; affective descriptors, α=0.857; and total score, α=0.907. The reproducibility coefficients calculated included continuous pain, ρ=0.81; intermittent pain, ρ=0.78; predominantly neuropathic pain, ρ=0.85; affective descriptors, ρ=0.75; and total score, ρ=0.83. The CFA showed that the model fit of the readily interpretable subscales was acceptable, and the goodness of fit index value was 0.917. In addition, the mean predominantly neuropathic pain subscale score was found to be significantly higher for patients with neuropathic pain vs non-neuropathic pain. These findings suggest that the reliability and validity of the SF-MPQ-2-J are excellent, and the SF-MPQ-2-J represents a cross-cultural equivalent to SF-MPQ-2. Consequently, the latter is suitable for research and clinical use, and for discriminating neuropathic pain from non-neuropathic pain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Functional Barometer - An analysis of a self-assessment questionnaire with ICF-coding regarding functional/activity limitations and quality of life due to pain - Differences in age gender and origin of pain.
Norrefalk, Jan-Rickard; Borg, Kristian
Long standing non-malignant pain leads to a variety of limitations which can be assessed by means of the self-assessment questionnaire Functional Barometer. It is designed to assess the extent and limitations in function, activity and decreased quality-of-life and is adapted to the International Classification of Functioning and Health. To investigate the outcome and differences in age, gender and origin of pain in patients with long-standing non-malignant pain regarding the subjective experience of functional-, activity- and quality-of-life limitations. 300 patients with a median duration of pain of 49 months referred to a Pain Management Centre filled out the Functional Barometer questionnaire, adapted to the International Classification of Functioning and Health. 66% patients were women and 34% were men. Seventy-five percent were in working age, 18-64 years. The duration before being referred to a pain specialist was over 4 years and 65% reported pain from more than three origins. Significant differences in functioning, activity and quality-of-life were found in comparing gender, age and origin of pain. Men more often reported physiological limitations while women more often reported psychological limitations of functioning, activity and quality-of-life. The most important were that men more often had difficulties in walking and climbing stairs, while women reported problems with concentration, stress and psychological demands, family relations and contact with friends. The significant differences regarding functioning, activity and quality-of-life between women and men as age and origin of pain must be taken into account when tailoring individual treatment and rehabilitation programmes. Copyright © 2017 Scandinavian Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Deniz, Melike S.
This study aimed to validate a questionnaire on dietary fibre (DF)-related knowledge in a Turkish student population. Participants (n=360) were either undergraduate students who have taken a nutrition course for 14 weeks (n=174) or those in another group who have not taken such a nutrition course (n=186). Test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the questionnaire were determined. Overall internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.90) and test-retest reliability (0.90) were high. Significant differences (p<0.001) between the scores of the two groups of students indicated that the questionnaire had satisfactory construct validity. It was found that one-fifth of the students were unsure of the correct answer for any item, and 52.5% of them were not aware that DF had to be consumed on a daily basis. Only 36.4 to 44.2% of the students were able to correctly identify the food sources of DF. PMID:24592591
Deniz, Melike S; Alsaffar, Ayten A
This study aimed to validate a questionnaire on dietary fibre (DF)-related knowledge in a Turkish student population. Participants (n=360) were either undergraduate students who have taken a nutrition course for 14 weeks (n=174) or those in another group who have not taken such a nutrition course (n=186). Test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the questionnaire were determined. Overall internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.90) and test-retest reliability (0.90) were high. Significant differences (p<0.001) between the scores of the two groups of students indicated that the questionnaire had satisfactory construct validity. It was found that one-fifth of the students were unsure of the correct answer for any item, and 52.5% of them were not aware that DF had to be consumed on a daily basis. Only 36.4 to 44.2% of the students were able to correctly identify the food sources of DF.
Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle
Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups.
Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle
Introduction: Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Methods: Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. Results: The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. Conclusion: There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups. PMID:27551407
Heuberger, Roschelle; Petty, Michael; Huntingford, Janice
The senior companion animal is the fastest growing segment of the pet population. End-of-life care, quality of life, and pain management (PM) are extremely important to pet owners. Research into PM and end-of-life care is essential due to lack of information on owner knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. A survey was developed to gather information from owners. Surveys were developed using expert focus groups, and participants were recruited through social media. Survey validation employed emergent themes and grounded theory. Data from respondents (n = 986) were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis, Jonckheere-Terpstra, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, with post hoc adjustment. Approximately 87% of respondents felt that euthanizing for unmitigated pain was appropriate. Households where there were multiple pets, both cats and dogs, and owners who were not first-time pet owners showed even greater preferences (P < .05) for euthanasia with unmitigated pain. Pain control was important to respondents, but owners lacked knowledge and had unrealistic attitudes and beliefs about treatment options, costs, and long-term feasibility. Limitations of this research included homogeneity of online survey respondents and convenience sampling. Translational research should be fostered to increase the availability and affordability of PM techniques in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsuo, Rodrigo Pires; Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Meirelles, Lia Miyamoto; Raduan Neto, Jorge; dos Santos, João Baptista Gomes; Fallopa, Flávio
Background: There are several medical questionnaires to evaluate the quality of life of carpal tunnel syndrome patients. However, most measures are only available in English. We chose to translate and culturally adapt to Portuguese the Six-Item Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale (CTS-6) questionnaire because it provides objective assessment using a small number of questions. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation were carried out according to the medical literature and consisted of five steps: (1) initial translation by two translators fluent in both languages, (2) association of initial translations, (3) back translation to Portuguese by two native speakers of English, (4) association of back translation and (5) comparison with the original version. Results: The Portuguese version was administered to patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and difficulties were noted concerning the comprehension and completion of the translated questionnaire. Patients had difficulty in understanding the horizontal layout of the response choices. Without altering the content, we changed the response choices to a vertical layout and re-administered the questionnaire to a new sample of patients followed up in the same ambulatory care service. We noted a substantial improvement in comprehension and completion of the questionnaire after the modifications. Conclusions: Availability of a Portuguese version of the Six-Item Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms Scale and Palmar Pain Scale (CTS-6) questionnaire will allow an objective evaluation of the treatment of a syndrome that is very prominent in medical practice. PMID:27390557
Jones, Salene M W; Lange, Jane; Turner, Judith; Cherkin, Dan; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hsu, Clarissa; Berthoud, Heidi; Sherman, Karen
Patient expectations may be associated with outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments for chronic pain. However, a psychometrically sound measure of such expectations is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a questionnaire to assess individuals' expectations regarding outcomes of CAM treatments for chronic low back pain (CLBP), as well as a short form of the questionnaire. An 18-item draft questionnaire was developed through literature review, cognitive interviews with individuals with CLBP, CAM practitioners, and expert consultation. Two samples completed the questionnaire: (1) a community sample (n = 141) completed it via an online survey before or soon after starting a CAM treatment for CLBP, and (2) participants (n = 181) in randomized clinical trials evaluating CAM treatments for CLBP or fibromyalgia completed it prior to or shortly after starting treatment. Factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity were examined. Based on factor analyses, 10 items reflecting expectations (used to create a total score) and three items reflecting hopes (not scored) were selected for the questionnaire. The questionnaire had high internal consistency, moderate test-retest reliability, and moderate correlations with other measures of expectations. A three-item short form also had adequate reliability and validity. The Expectations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments (EXPECT) questionnaire can be used in research to assess individuals' expectations of treatments for chronic pain. It is recommended that the three hope questions are included (but not scored) to help respondents distinguish between hopes and expectations. The short form may be appropriate for clinical settings and when expectation measurement is not a primary focus.
Tuteja, Moni; Agarwal, Meenal; Phadke, Shubha R
To assess the knowledge of the general population and the medical specialists about the purpose and utility of cord blood banking. One hundred individuals from the general population and 100 clinicians from various departments were enrolled in the study between August 2013 and November 2013. Fifty eight percent of the doctors and 82 % of the lay persons did not know any indication or were not aware of the correct indications of the use of cord blood for transplantation. Around half of the lay persons (42 %) and doctors (37 %) thought that umbilical cord blood can be used to treat any genetic disorder including Duchenne muscular dystrophy and mental retardation. Nineteen percent of the doctors thought that umbilical cord blood can be used to treat thalassemia in the same child. The propaganda done by cord blood banks that cord blood is a biological insurance for the child is misleading and should be discouraged. The obstetricians and the pediatricians should take a central role in providing the correct information to would be parents to help them in taking a correct decision.
Harrold, Leslie R; Mazor, Kathleen M; Negron, Amarie; Ogarek, Jessica; Firneno, Cassandra; Yood, Robert A
We sought to examine primary care providers' gout knowledge and reported treatment patterns in comparison with current treatment recommendations. We conducted a national survey of a random sample of US primary care physicians to assess their treatment of acute, intercritical and tophaceous gout using published European and American gout treatment recommendations and guidelines as a gold standard. There were 838 respondents (response rate of 41%), most of whom worked in private practice (63%) with >16 years experience (52%). Inappropriate dosing of medications in the setting of renal disease and lack of prophylaxis when initiating urate-lowering therapy (ULT) accounted for much of the lack of compliance with treatment recommendations. Specifically for acute podagra, 53% reported avoidance of anti-inflammatory drugs in the setting of renal insufficiency, use of colchicine at a dose of ≤2.4 mg/day and no initiation of a ULT during an acute attack. For intercritical gout in the setting of renal disease, 3% would provide care consistent with the recommendations, including initiating a ULT at the appropriate dose with dosing titration to a serum urate level of ≤6 mg/dl and providing prophylaxis. For tophaceous gout, 17% reported care consistent with the recommendations, including ULT use with dosing titration to a serum urate level of ≤6 mg/dl and prophylaxis. Only half of primary care providers reported optimal treatment practices for the management of acute gout and <20% for intercritical or tophaceous gout, suggesting that care deficiencies are common.
Blanco-Aguilera, Antonio; Biedma-Velázquez, Lourdes; Serrano-del-Rosal, Rafael; González-López, Laura; Blanco-Aguilera, Elena; Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael
Objectives: To examine whether patients who report orofacial pain (OP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a poorer perception of their oral health-related quality of life and, if so, to what extent, and to analyze the association between oral health perception, sociodemographic variables and reported pain duration. Study Design: 407 patients treated at the OP and TMD units in the Healthcare District of Cordoba, Spain, diagnosed following the standard criteria accepted by the scientific community – the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) – were administered the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between the patients’ OHIP-14 score and pain duration, pain intensity, and various sociodemographic variables. Results: The observed distribution was 89.4% women and 10.6% men. The mean OHIP-14 score was 20.57 ± 10.73 (mean ± standard deviation). A significant association (p<0.05) was found for gender, age, marital status, chronic pain grade, self-perceived oral health status and pain duration. Conclusions: The analysis of self-perceived oral health status in patients with OP and TMD, as measured by the OHIP-14, showed that oral health is perceived more negatively by women. Moreover, a one-point increase in the Chronic Pain Grade indicator increases the OHIP-14 indicator by 4.6 points, while chronic pain, defined as pain suffered by patients for one year or more, increases the OHIP-14 indicator by 3.2 points. Key words:Orofacial pain, temporomandibular disorders, Oral Health Impact Profile, sociodemographic variables, primary care, Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). PMID:24121906
Ko, Sangbong; Chae, Seungbum
Cross-sectional study. To determine the correlation between SF-36 (a measure for overall health status in patients) and Oswestry-Disability Index (ODI) or Rolland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) confined to spine according to the type of pain from the spine. Data showed moderate correlation between ODI and SF-36 Physical Component Score (PCS), Physical Functioning (PF) (r=-0.46), Physical Role Functioning (RP) (r=-0.284), Bodily Pain (BP) (r=-0.327), and Mental Component Score (MCS), Emotional Role Functioning (r=-0.250), Social Role Functioning (r=0.254), Vitality (r=0.296). Between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013, a total of 69 patients were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis and underwent decompression surgery such as laminotomy in this hospital. The 3 standardized questionnaires (ODI, RMDQ, and SF-36) were given to these patients, at least 1 year after the surgery. ODI and SF-36 had a statistically significant (P=0.001) and moderate correlation. Small correlations were also seen between Physical Functioning (r=-0.46), Physical Role Functioning (r=-0.284), and Bodily Pain (r=-0.327) of SF-36 PCS and ODI, and between Emotional Role Functioning (r=-0.250), Social Role Functioning (r=-0.254), and Vitality (r=-0.296) of SF-36 Mental Component Score and ODI. Items in ODI for the level of pain while standing and traveling were mostly related to axial back pain, while item of lifting was related to referred buttock pain. Sleeping disturbance section in the ODI was mainly caused by radiated leg pain. In addition, RMDQ was also associated to the 3 types of pain. Moderate correlation was found between ODI or RMDQ as a condition-specific outcome and the SF-36, indicating overall health status. ODI was found to be a more adequate measure to evaluate axial back pain rather than referred pain or radiating pain. RMDQ was adequate to measure the health status and to evaluate the 3 types of spine pain. These 3 instruments could
Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C.
Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC). The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24–35). Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123) at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6), 5.4 (SD = 1.9) and 6.5 (SD = 1.7), respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703–0.926). This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice. PMID:27494617
Mazor, Kathleen M.; Negron, Amarie; Ogarek, Jessica; Firneno, Cassandra; Yood, Robert A.
Objective. We sought to examine primary care providers’ gout knowledge and reported treatment patterns in comparison with current treatment recommendations. Methods. We conducted a national survey of a random sample of US primary care physicians to assess their treatment of acute, intercritical and tophaceous gout using published European and American gout treatment recommendations and guidelines as a gold standard. Results. There were 838 respondents (response rate of 41%), most of whom worked in private practice (63%) with >16 years experience (52%). Inappropriate dosing of medications in the setting of renal disease and lack of prophylaxis when initiating urate-lowering therapy (ULT) accounted for much of the lack of compliance with treatment recommendations. Specifically for acute podagra, 53% reported avoidance of anti-inflammatory drugs in the setting of renal insufficiency, use of colchicine at a dose of ≤2.4 mg/day and no initiation of a ULT during an acute attack. For intercritical gout in the setting of renal disease, 3% would provide care consistent with the recommendations, including initiating a ULT at the appropriate dose with dosing titration to a serum urate level of ≤6 mg/dl and providing prophylaxis. For tophaceous gout, 17% reported care consistent with the recommendations, including ULT use with dosing titration to a serum urate level of ≤6 mg/dl and prophylaxis. Conclusion. Only half of primary care providers reported optimal treatment practices for the management of acute gout and <20% for intercritical or tophaceous gout, suggesting that care deficiencies are common. PMID:23620554
Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76%) responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors"). The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%). Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension, hyperlipidemia and
Blanco-Aguilera, A; Blanco-Hungría, A; Biedma-Velázquez, L; Serrano-Del-Rosal, R; González-López, L; Blanco-Aguilera, E; Segura-Saint-Gerons, R
To examine whether patients who report orofacial pain (OP) and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have a poorer perception of their oral health-related quality of life and, if so, to what extent, and to analyze the association between oral health perception, sociodemographic variables and reported pain duration. 407 patients treated at the OP and TMD units in the Healthcare District of Cordoba, Spain, diagnosed following the standard criteria accepted by the scientific community - the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) - were administered the Spanish version of the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the degree of association between the patients' OHIP-14 score and pain duration, pain intensity, and various sociodemographic variables. The observed distribution was 89.4% women and 10.6% men. The mean OHIP-14 score was 20.57 ± 10.73 (mean ± standard deviation). A significant association (p<0.05) was found for gender, age, marital status, chronic pain grade, self-perceived oral health status and pain duration. The analysis of self-perceived oral health status in patients with OP and TMD, as measured by the OHIP-14, showed that oral health is perceived more negatively by women. Moreover, a one-point increase in the Chronic Pain Grade indicator increases the OHIP-14 indicator by 4.6 points, while chronic pain, defined as pain suffered by patients for one year or more, increases the OHIP-14 indicator by 3.2 points.
Carrion, Iraida V; Cagle, John G; Van Dussen, Daniel J; Culler, Krystal L; Hong, Seokho
Among Hispanics, incomplete knowledge about hospice care may explain low rates of utilization and culturally-specific beliefs about pain and pain treatments may contribute to disparities in pain management. To compare (1) knowledge and attitudes regarding hospice, (2) and beliefs about pain and pain medication between Hispanics and non-Hispanics. A cross-sectional phone-based survey of adults living in the contiguous United States was conducted using randomly selected phone numbers with over-sampling for diversity. Measures assessed knowledge (a 23-item test), attitudes (an 8-item scale), experiences, preferences related to hospice and beliefs regarding pain and pain management. 123 individuals participated in the survey, 13% of whom were Hispanic. Hispanics were less likely to have heard of hospice are (p <. 001) and, among those who had, more likely to have inaccurate information about it (p = .05). Specifically, Hispanics were more likely to report that only individuals over age 65 are eligible for hospice services, which is incorrect (44% vs. 93% of non-Hispanics; p=.001). Only 67% of Hispanics knew that hospice helps family members as well as the dying person. More Hispanics (43%) than non-Hispanics (9.3%) reported that admitting pain is a sign of weakness (p < .001). A greater proportion of Hispanic respondents agreed that a good patient does not talk about pain (p = .07): 38% vs. 18% from non-Hispanics. Despite the increasing knowledge of hospice care among Hispanics, specific information about the scope of services remains limited. Cultural beliefs about pain management, along with inadequate knowledge of the role of pain management at end of life, persist. © The Author(s) 2014.
Paloma-Castro, Olga; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Del Carmen Sánchez-Dalda, María; Rozadillas-Sanmiguel, Elena; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier
To develop and psychometrically evaluate a questionnaire based on the outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) to determine the knowledge of parents on breast-feeding. The NOC outcome "Knowledge: Breast-feeding" allows for nurses/midwives to assess the efficacy of interventions aimed to improve the knowledge on breast-feeding in parents thought the clinical interview/observation. However, the use of self-administered questionnaires by patients could facilitate its evaluation. Two-phased study: (1) Development of the questionnaire based on experts' opinions; (2) Methodological design to assess its psychometric properties. The availability of tools that enable the determination of the knowledge of patients would facilitate nurses/midwives to set objectives, individualize interventions, and measure their effectiveness. © 2015 NANDA International, Inc.
Akbarzade, Marzieh; Ghaemmaghami, Mehrnoush; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Zare, Najaf; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Azizi, Amir
Background: Perineal pain is a major morbidity in the first few days after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dry cupping therapy and acupressure at BL23 point on the intensity of postpartum perineal pain based on the short-form of McGill pain questionnaire (SMPQ). Methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 150 subjects in 3 groups of 50 cases. After at least 4–8 hr of delivery, cupping therapy was performed for 15–20 min up to 3 times a week (once a day) and acupressure was performed for 15–20 min based on clockwise model. The short-form of McGill pain questionnaire was completed both before and after the intervention. The SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data using repeated measures ANOVA. Besides, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In the cupping therapy group, mean of the perineal pain intensity reduced from 37.5±6.8 before the intervention to 11.1±6.1, 6.9±4.7, and 3.8±3.6 immediately, 24 hr, and 2 weeks after the intervention, respectively. The results of study showed that the differences between the intervention and control groups were statistically significant (p<0.01). Mean difference of the perineal pain intensity in the acupressure group reached from 35.6±8.1 before the intervention to 10.4±5.5 two weeks after the intervention, so the variation between intervention and control groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: The study findings showed that cupping therapy and acupressure reduced perineal pain. Therefore, they may be considered as effective treatments for reducing pain intensity of allowing delivery. PMID:26962482
Baradaran, Aslan; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Kachooei, Amir Reza
Prospective study. We aimed to validate the Persian version of the modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ) in patients with low back pain. Modified Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire is a well-known condition-specific outcome measure that helps quantify disability in patients with lumbar syndromes. To test the validity in a pilot study, the Persian MODQ was administered to 25 individuals with low back pain. We then enrolled 200 consecutive patients with low back pain to fill the Persian MODQ as well as the short form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Convergent validity of the MODQ was tested using the Spearman's correlation coefficient between the MODQ and SF-36 subscales. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach's α coefficient were measured to test the reliability between test and retest and internal consistency of all items, respectively. ICC for individual items ranged from 0.43 to 0.80 showing good reliability and reproducibility of each individual item. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.69 showing good internal consistency across all 10 items of the Persian MODQ. Total MODQ score showed moderate to strong correlation with the eight subscales and the two domains of the SF-36. The highest correlation was between the MODQ and the physical functioning subscale of the SF-36 (r=-0.54, p<0.001) and the physical component domain of the SF-36 (r=-0.55, p<0.001) showing that MODQ is measuring what it is supposed to measure in terms of disability and physical function. Persian version of the MODQ is a valid and reliable tool for the assessment of the disability following low back pain.
Stevens, Bonnie J; Yamada, Janet; Promislow, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer; Harrison, Denise; Victor, J Charles
Despite extensive research, institutional policies, and practice guidelines, procedural pain remains undertreated in hospitalized children. Knowledge translation (KT) strategies have been employed to bridge the research to practice gap with varying success. The most effective single or combination of KT strategies has not been found. A multifaceted KT intervention, Evidence-based Practice for Improving Quality (EPIQ), that included tailored KT strategies was effective in improving pain practices and clinical outcomes at the unit level in a prospective comparative cohort study in 32 hospital units (16 EPIQ intervention and 16 Standard Care), in eight pediatric hospitals in Canada. In a study of the 16 EPIQ units (two at each hospital) only, the objectives were to: determine the effectiveness of evidence-based KT strategies implemented to achieve unit aims; describe the KT strategies implemented and their influence on pain assessment and management across unit types; and identify facilitators and barriers to their implementation. Data were collected from each EPIQ intervention unit on targeted pain practices and KT strategies implemented, through chart review and a process evaluation checklist, following four intervention cycles over a 15-month period. Following the completion of the four cycle intervention, 78% of 23 targeted pain practice aims across units were achieved within 80% of the stated aims. A statistically significant improvement was found in the proportion of children receiving pain assessment and management, regardless of pre-determined aims (p < 0.001). The median number of KT strategies implemented was 35 and included reminders, educational outreach and materials, and audit and feedback. Units successful in achieving their aims implemented more KT strategies than units that did not. No specific type of single or combination of KT strategies was more effective in improving pain assessment and management outcomes. Tailoring KT strategies to unit
Msaouel, Pavlos; Kappos, Theocharis; Tasoulis, Athanasios; Apostolopoulos, Alexandros P.; Lekkas, Ioannis; Tripodaki, Elli-Sophia; Keramaris, Nikolaos C.
Purpose The aim of this study is to determine the perceived familiarity of medical residents with statistical concepts, assess their ability to integrate these concepts in clinical scenarios, and investigate their susceptibility to the gambler’s fallacy and the conjunction fallacy. Methods A multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey of Greek medical residents was performed. Participants were asked to indicate their familiarity with basic statistical concepts and answer clinically oriented questions designed to assess their biostatistics knowledge and cognitive biases. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical models were used for the evaluation of data. Results Out of 153 respondents (76.5% response rate), only two participants (1.3%) were able to answer all seven biostatistics knowledge questions correctly while 29 residents (19%) gave incorrect answers to all questions. The proportion of correct answers to each biostatistics knowledge question ranged from 15 to 51.6%. Residents with greater self-reported familiarity were more likely to perform better on the respective knowledge question (all p<0.01). Multivariate analysis of the effect of individual resident characteristics on questionnaire performance showed that previous education outside Greece, primarily during medical school, was associated with lower biostatistics knowledge scores (p<0.001). A little more than half of the respondents (54.2%) answered the gambler’s fallacy quiz correctly. Residents with higher performance on the biostatistics knowledge questions were less prone to the gambler’s fallacy (odds ratio 1.38, 95% confidence intervals 1.12–1.70, p=0.003). Only 48 residents (31.4%) did not violate the conjunction rule. Conclusions A large number of medical residents are unable to correctly interpret crucial statistical concepts that are commonly found in the medical literature. They are also especially prone to the gambler’s fallacy bias, which may undermine clinical judgment
Reed, Mark G; Adolf, Daniela; Werwick, Katrin; Herrmann, Marcus
Bronchial Asthma is a worldwide condition with particularly high prevalence in first world countries. The reasons are multifactorial but a neglected area is the psychological domain. It is well known that heavy emotions can trigger attacks and that depression negatively affects treatment outcomes. It is also known that personality type has a greater effect on disease prevalence than in many other conditions. However, many potential psychological treatments are hardly considered, neither in treatment guidelines nor in reviews by asthma specialists. Moreover, there is very little research concerning the beliefs and practices of doctors regarding psychological treatments. Using a questionnaire survey we ascertained that local GPs in Saxony-Anhalt have reasonably good knowledge about the psychological elements of asthma; a third consider it to be some of the influence (20-40% aetiology) and a further third consider it to be even more important than that (at least 40% total aetiology). Our GPs use psychosomatic counseling sometimes or usually in the areas of sport and smoking (circa 85% GPs), although less so regarding breathing techniques and relaxation (c40% usually or sometimes do this) However despite this knowledge they refer to the relevant clinicians very rarely (98% sometimes, usually or always refer to a respiratory physician compared with only 11% referring for psychological help).
Bronchial Asthma is a worldwide condition with particularly high prevalence in first world countries. The reasons are multifactorial but a neglected area is the psychological domain. It is well known that heavy emotions can trigger attacks and that depression negatively affects treatment outcomes. It is also known that personality type has a greater effect on disease prevalence than in many other conditions. However, many potential psychological treatments are hardly considered, neither in treatment guidelines nor in reviews by asthma specialists. Moreover, there is very little research concerning the beliefs and practices of doctors regarding psychological treatments. Using a questionnaire survey we ascertained that local GPs in Saxony-Anhalt have reasonably good knowledge about the psychological elements of asthma; a third consider it to be some of the influence (20-40% aetiology) and a further third consider it to be even more important than that (at least 40% total aetiology). Our GPs use psychosomatic counseling sometimes or usually in the areas of sport and smoking (circa 85% GPs), although less so regarding breathing techniques and relaxation (c40% usually or sometimes do this) However despite this knowledge they refer to the relevant clinicians very rarely (98% sometimes, usually or always refer to a respiratory physician compared with only 11% referring for psychological help). PMID:21171975
Nsonwu, Maura Busch; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia; Heffron, Laurie Cook; Lemke, Melinda A.; Busch-Armendariz, Noel; Sulley, Caitlin; Cook, Sharon Warren; Lewis, Mary; Watson, Elizabeth; Moore, Wayne; Li, Jilan
Objective: This study sought to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a tool designed to assess social work students' knowledge of and perceptions and attitudes toward human trafficking. To achieve this aim, the Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Human Trafficking Questionnaire (PKA-HTQ) was developed and its psychometric…
Santana, Jamilly C V; Santos, Victor S; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Santana, Julianne C V; Reis, Francisco P; Cuevas, Luis E; Feitosa, Vera L C
Neuropathic pain (NP) often occurs during the course of leprosy, and screening tools to differentiate NP from non-NP are often used. However, their performance varies in different settings. The most frequently used scales are the Douleur Neuropathique in 4 questions (DN4) and the Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANSS) questionnaires. Thus, we conducted a study to evaluate the agreement between DN4 and LANSS questionnaires to classify NP in 195 leprosy patients attending two reference centers in Sergipe, Brazil. The DN4 and LANSS classified 166 and 110 patients, respectively, as having NP. One hundred and seven (54.8%) were classified as NP by both questionnaires; 59 (30.2%) solely by the DN4 questionnaire and three (1.5%) solely by the LANSS. The agreement of the questionnaires was 66.2% (weak agreement, Kappa = 0.30). Although both questionnaires identified a high proportion of NP, the development of more robust instruments is necessary to ensure the accuracy of diagnosis of leprosy patients classified as having NP. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Wiwe Lipsker, Camilla; Kanstrup, Marie; Holmström, Linda; Kemani, Mike; Wicksell, Rikard K.
In pediatric chronic pain, research indicates a positive relation between parental psychological flexibility (i.e., the parent’s willingness to experience distress related to the child’s pain in the service of valued behavior) and level of functioning in the child. This points to the utility of targeting parental psychological flexibility in pediatric chronic pain. The Parent Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PPFQ) is currently the only instrument developed for this purpose, and two previous studies have indicated its reliability and validity. The current study sought to validate the Swedish version of the 17-item PPFQ (PPFQ-17) in a sample of parents (n = 263) of children with chronic pain. Factor structure and internal reliability were evaluated by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha. Concurrent criterion validity was examined by hierarchical multiple regression analyses with parental anxiety and depression as outcomes. The PCA supported a three-factor solution with 10 items explaining 69.5% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0.86) indicated good internal consistency. The 10-item PPFQ (PPFQ-10) further explained a significant amount of variance in anxiety (29%), and depression (35.6%), confirming concurrent validity. In conclusion, results support the reliability and validity of the PPFQ-10, and suggest its usefulness in assessing psychological flexibility in parents of children with chronic pain. PMID:27869780
Sanchez, Katherine; Papelard, Agathe; Nguyen, Christelle; Bendeddouche, Imad; Jousse, Marylène; Rannou, François; Revel, Michel; Poiraudeau, Serge
Objective To assess the sensitivity to change of the McMaster Toronto Arthritis Patient Preference Disability Questionnaire (MACTAR) in chronic low back pain (CLBP) and shifts in patients' priorities of disabling activities over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal survey of 100 patients (38 males) with CLBP in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Evaluation at baseline and 6 months by the MACTAR, Quebec Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (QUEBEC), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), and pain and handicap visual analogue scales (VASs). Patients' perceived improvement or worsening of condition was assessed at 6 months. Effect size (ES) and Standardized response mean (SRM) and effect size (ES) were used to evaluate sensitivity to change of the MACTAR. Results The MACTAR SRM and ES values (SRM = 0.25; ES = 0.37) were among the highest for the instruments evaluated. For patients considering their condition as improved, the SRM was 0.66 and the ES 1. The 3 disability domains, classified by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), most often cited as priorities at baseline remained the most cited at follow-up: mobility (40.9% of patients); community, social and civic life (22.7%); and domestic life (22.4%). At 6 months, 48 patients shifted their priorities, for a decrease in MACTAR SRM and ES values for patients considering their condition improved and an increase in these values for those considering their condition deteriorated. Conclusions Although the MACTAR has similar sensitivity to change as other outcome measures widely used in CLBP, shifts in patient priorities over time are common and influence scores and sensitivity to change. PMID:21629777
Friend, Ronald; Bennett, Robert M
To compare the relative effectiveness of the Polysymptomatic Distress Scale (PSD) with the Symptom Impact Questionnaire (SIQR), the disease-neutral revision of the updated Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), in their ability to assess disease activity in patients with rheumatic disorders both with and without fibromyalgia (FM). The study included 321 patients from 8 clinical practices with some 16 different chronic pain disorders. Disease severity was assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). Univariate analyses were used to assess the magnitude of PSD and SIQR correlations with SF-36 subscales. Hierarchical stepwise regression was used to evaluate the unique contribution of the PSD and SIQR to the SF-36. Random forest regression probed the relative importance of the SIQR and PSD components as predictors of SF-36. The correlations with the SF-36 subscales were significantly higher for the SIQR (0.48 to 0.78) than the PSD (0.29 to 0.56; p < 0.001). Stepwise regression revealed that the SIQR was contributing additional unique variance on SF-36 subscales, which was not the case for the PSD. Random forest regression showed SIQR Function, Symptoms, and Global Impact subscales were more important predictors of SF-36 than the PSD. The single SIQR pain item contributed 55% of SF-36 pain variance compared to 23% with the 19-point WPI (the Widespread Pain Index component of PSD). The SIQR, the disease-neutral revision of the updated FIQ, has several important advantages over the PSD in the evaluation of disease severity in chronic pain disorders.
Gudala, Kapil; Ghai, Babita; Bansal, Dipika
Pain with neuropathic characteristics is generally more severe and associated with a lower quality of life compared to nociceptive pain (NcP). Short form of the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (S-DN4) is one of the most used and reliable screening questionnaires and is reported to have good diagnostic properties. This study was aimed to cross-culturally validate the Hindi version of the S-DN4 in patients with various chronic pain conditions. The S-DN4 is already translated into the Hindi language by Mapi Research Trust. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hindi version of the S-DN4 including internal consistency and test-retest reliability after 3 days' post-baseline assessment. Diagnostic performance was also assessed. One hundred sixty patients with chronic pain, 80 each in the neuropathic pain (NeP) present and NeP absent groups, were recruited. Patients with NeP present reported significantly higher S-DN4 scores in comparison to patients in the NeP absent group (mean (SD), 4.7 (1.7) vs. 1.8 (1.6), P < 0.01). The S-DN4 was found to have an AUC of 0.88 with adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80) and a test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.92) with an optimal cut-off value of 3 (Youden's index = 0.66, sensitivity and specificity of 88.7% and 77.5%). The diagnostic concordance rate between clinician diagnosis and the S-DN4 questionnaire was 83.1% (kappa = 0.66). Overall, the Hindi version of the S-DN4 has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability along with good diagnostic accuracy.
Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona; Giorgi, Ines; Galandra, Caterina; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero
BACKGROUND: Increasing attention is being devoted to cognitive-behavioural measures to improve interventions for chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: To develop an Italian version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire – Revised (CSQ-R), and to validate it in a study involving 345 Italian subjects with chronic pain. METHODS: The questionnaire was developed following international recommendations. The psychometric analyses included confirmatory factor analysis; reliability, assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients); and construct validity, assessed by calculating the correlations between the subscales of the CSQ-R and measures of pain (numerical rating scale), disability (Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale) and coping (Chronic Pain Coping Inventory) (Pearson’s correlation). RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the CSQ-R model had an acceptable data-model fit (comparative fit index and normed fit index ≤0.90, root mean square error of approximation ≥0.08). Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory (CSQ-R 0.914 to 0.961), and the intraclass correlation coefficients were good/excellent (CSQ-R 0.850 to 0.918). As expected, the correlations with the numerical rating scale, Sickness Impact Profile – Roland Scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies – Depression Scale and Chronic Pain Coping Inventory highlighted the adaptive and maladaptive properties of most of the CSQ-R subscales. CONCLUSION: The CSQ-R was successfully translated into Italian. The translation proved to have good factorial structure, and its psychometric properties are similar to those of the original and other adapted versions. Its use is recommended for clinical and research purposes in Italy and abroad. PMID:24761430
“Let’s Talk about OA Pain”: A Qualitative Analysis of the Perceptions of People Suffering from OA. Towards the Development of a Specific Pain OA-Related Questionnaire, the Osteoarthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS)
Cedraschi, Christine; Delézay, Sylvie; Marty, Marc; Berenbaum, Francis; Bouhassira, Didier; Henrotin, Yves; Laroche, Françoise; Perrot, Serge
questionnaire on osteoarthritis pain quality for osteoarthritis pain phenotyping: the OsteoArthritis Symptom Inventory Scale (OASIS). PMID:24244589
Bøgh, L; Madsen, M
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and proficiency in relation to organ donation among staff members of intensive care units (ICUs) in donor hospitals, and possibly identify areas for improvement. The investigation was carried out as a collaboration between the transplant center and appointed key persons in all 17 ICUs in 15 hospitals in northern Denmark. A total of 1168 structured questionnaires were distributed to the health care professionals in the ICUs in the region; 689 were returned, giving a response rate of 59%. In general, there is a positive attitude among health care professionals toward organ donation. However, a considerable fraction of 11% declares to be against organ donation. Only 49% of the ICU health care professionals are willing to donate their own organs after death. By comparison, 74% of the general Danish population are willing to donate organs after death. Doctors are more positive toward organ donation than the nursing staff. Thus, 95% of the doctors are positive to organ donation compared to 81% of the nurses; 70% of the doctors will donate own organs after death compared to 45% of the nurses. Further, the survey demonstrates as expected a significant lack of experience in organ donation. Our data show a considerable need for more education and training, especially on how to inform and support the donor relatives and how to identify potential donors. The survey also discloses a substantial need for information regarding the results of transplantation.
Mulic, Aida; Vidnes-Kopperud, Simen; Skaare, Anne B.; Tveit, Anne Bjørg; Young, Alix
This study aimed to investigate dentists' general experience, knowledge about diagnosis, and treatment of dental erosive wear in young adults. A questionnaire was sent to 1262 Norwegian public dental health-employed dentists. The response rate was 60%. Results indicated that most dentists recorded erosive wear, half of them used a specific scoring system, and half registered lesions at the tooth surface level. Lesions were reported most often on palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth (79% of dentists), on occlusal surfaces of lower 1st molars (74%), and on upper 1st molars (32%). Half the dentists used clinical photographs for documentation and 60% made study models. While 40% reported more erosive lesions in males, 36% reported no gender differences. High intake of carbonated beverages and acidic juices were reported as the most common cause by 97% and 72% of the dentists, respectively. Only 21% of dentists recorded the patient's dietary history, and 73% never measured saliva secretion. The majority (78%) of the dentists treated patients with erosive wear themselves. In general, the survey suggests that the dentists are relatively up to date regarding the clinical recording, diagnosis, and treatment of dental erosive wear. However, dietary and salivary analyses were not given priority, and early, preventive treatment was lacking. PMID:22927855
Dedunska, Karina; Dyk, Danuta
This study evaluated the questionnaire testing nurses' knowledge about the maintenance of a central venous catheter (CVC) and assessed it with regard to age, work experience, type of ward, frequency of trainings, and postgraduate education. There were 1,180 questionnaires (N = 784; 66.4% of the total sample) distributed in several regions of Poland for a period of 7 months. The difficulty level for each question ranged from 0.22-0.88.
Baczkiewicz, Maja; Demczuk-Włodarczyk, Ewa
The first part of the series of articles is dedicated to the process and the results of reliability testing of the questionnaire designed for pupils aged 13-18, the tested questions concerning ailments of the lumbosacral region (LBP) and their characteristics. 124 persons aged 13-17 took part in the research. The "test-retest" method was used, the questionannaires being filled in twice by every pupil in no more than 7-day period. Questions were asked about LBP, the accompanying ailments, the intensity of pain, the length of the episode, the cause of the beginning, the constant pain, the activities that worsen or reduce symptoms, the necessity of therapy, the presence of functional disorders connected with LBP, height, weight and basic ,,red flags" which could indicate pain of specific origin. Results that were obtained in the process of testing indicated that reasoning was invalid when based on questions about the length of episode (60% repeatable, rank correlation 0.3) and on questions about activities that worsen or reduce pain (respectively 34 i 35% repeatable answers). The rest of questions were found acceptably reliable.
Usichenko, T. I.; Röttenbacher, I.; Kohlmann, T.; Jülich, A.; Lange, J.; Mustea, A.; Engel, G.; Wendt, M.
Background An organizational approach is proposed as an immediate solution for improving postoperative pain (POP) management. The aim was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a quality management system (QMS), based on procedure-specific, multimodal analgesic protocols, modified to meet the individual patients’ requirements. Methods Patients from the orthopaedic, gynaecological, visceral, and trauma surgery departments of the university hospital were involved in two prospective surveys. Survey 1 was performed at baseline and survey 2 was performed after the implementation of QMS within an interval of 1 year. The patients were asked to report pain intensity on the visual rating scale, incidence of analgesia-related side-effects, and incidence of pain interference with the items of life quality and their satisfaction with the treatment of POP. Results Patients from Survey 2 (n=251) reported 25–30% less pain than those from Survey 1 (n=269) (P<0.0001). Nausea was reported by 40% of the patients from Survey 1 vs 17% from Survey 2, vomiting by 25 vs 11% and fatigue by 76% in Survey 1 vs 30% in Survey 2 (P<0.0001). Life quality and patients’ satisfaction improved in Survey 2 vs Survey 1 (P<0.001). Conclusions The implementation of QMS allowed the reduction in POP intensity with a simultaneous decrease in analgesia-related side-effects. This has led to an increased quality of life and patient satisfaction. PMID:23048069
Hoving, Jan Lucas; O'Leary, Elizabeth F; Niere, Ken R; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle
The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) were developed to measure self-perceived disability from neck pain, including that which may arise from whiplash injury. However, there is little data specifically concerning their validity for whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the NDI and NPQ as measures of outcome in WAD by comparing them to a patient preference questionnaire, the problem elicitation technique (PET), which identifies problems that are of most importance to the individual patient. A cross-sectional study of 71 patients with varying severity and duration of WAD were recruited from a private physiotherapy practice. All patients completed a standardized self-administered questionnaire that included demographic and clinical details as well as self-perceived pain and severity of symptoms, NDI and NPQ. A trained interviewer administered the PET. Construct validity of the disability measures was examined by determining their correlation with each other and with pain and severity of symptoms by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficients. Content validity of the NDI and NPQ was assessed by comparing the items of both questionnaires to the problems identified by the PET. Participants' mean age was 40.1 years (SD=14.3) and 59 were women (83.1%). Most patients were in WAD category I (n=23, 32.1%), or II (n=42, 59.2%). Mean NDI, NPQ, and PET scores were 40.7 (SD=17.0), 38.7 (SD=15.8), and 160.2 (SD=92.0, range 6.0-509.5), respectively. Correlations between the NDI and PET, NPQ and PET, and NDI and NPQ were r=0.57, 0.56 and 0.88, respectively. The PET identified an average of 7.7 problems per patient (SD=4.2, range 1-17 problems). Problems most commonly identified were work for wages (52.1%), fatigued during the day (50.7%), participation in sports (47.9%), depression (43.7%), drive a car (43.7%), socialize with friends (33.8%), sleep through the night (31.0%), frustration
Bakhtadze, M A; Bolotov, D A; Kuz'minov, K O; Padun, M P; Zakharova, O B
Цель исследования. Лингвистическая адаптация русскоязычной версии Второй сокращенной формы Мак-Гилловского болевого опросника (The McGill Pain Questionnaire) (SF-MPQ-2), концептуально эквивалентной оригиналу. Материал и методы. Адаптацию русской версии SF-MPQ-2 проводили по установленным правилам в несколько этапов двумя независимыми переводчиками с выработкой общей предварительной русскоязычной версии и ее обратным переводом двумя независимыми переводчиками и выработкой общей английской версии. В итоге была выработана окончательная русскоязычная версия опросника. Результаты и заключение. Получена русскоязычная версия Второй сокращенной формы Мак-Гилловского болевого опросника — SF-MPQ-2-RU. Работа выполнена по установленным правилам, представленная русская версия официально зарегистрирована правообладателем — Институтом Mapi Research Trust и рекомендована для применения в научных исследованиях на территории Российской Федерации.
Collinge, Wesley R.; Bostick, Geoff P.; Cutforth, Greg S.; Rutten, Geert M.; Maroun, Claude; Oostendorp, Rob A.B.
ABSTRACT Purpose: To examine a process for evaluating physiotherapy (PT) students' knowledge of and adherence to the Ambassador Low Back Pain (LBP) guideline using vignettes. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. Participants were PT students who had received information related to the guideline as part of their curriculum. Primary measures were responses to questions about the management of four clinical vignettes. Adherence to guideline recommendations was measured by comparing participant scores to a “guideline-based” set of responses from a physiotherapist involved in developing the Ambassador guideline, which was considered a criterion standard. Results: A total of 74 respondents provided complete data, for a response rate of 89%; 65 (88%) reported no knowledge of the guideline. Overall consistency with the criterion standard was high (>70%). Respondents demonstrated high adherence when identifying red flags and deciding whether to refer to another provider. Conclusion: Despite known exposure, knowledge of the guideline was low in this sample of Canadian PT students. Nevertheless, in several key areas, unconscious adherence was high relative to the guideline-based criterion standard. With minor modifications, the vignettes are suitable for evaluating the Ambassador LBP guidelines in a larger study. PMID:24396169
Development of the Italian version of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire in patients with chronic low back pain: cross-cultural adaptation, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity.
Monticone, Marco; Ferrante, Simona; Ferrari, Silvano; Mugnai, Raffaele; Pillastrini, Paolo; Rocca, Barbara; Vanti, Carla; Foti, Calogero
Translating, culturally adapting and validating the Italian version of the Pain Stages of Change Questionnaire (PSOCQ-I) to allow its use with Italian-speaking patients with low back pain. The PSOCQ-I was developed by forward-backward translation, a final review by an expert committee and a test of the prefinal version to establish its correspondence with the original English version. Psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation), and construct validity by comparing PSOCQ-I with the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Roland Morris Disability Scale (RMDQ), a pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Pearson's correlation). The questionnaire was administered to 308 patients with chronic low back pain. Factor analysis confirmed a four-factor solution (namely, Precontemplation, Contemplation, Action, and Maintenance), achieving an acceptable data-model fit. Internal consistency (α=0.91-93) and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient correlation=0.74-0.81) were satisfactory. Construct validity showed moderate correlations between Precontemplation and PCS (r=0.318), TSK (r=0.385), RMDQ (r=0.320) and NRS (r=0.335); low correlations were found between the other PSOCQ subscales and PCS (r=-0.062; 0.039), TSK (r=-0.164; 0.024), RMDQ (r=-0.073; 0.004) and NRS (r=-0.170; 0.020). Low correlations were found between the PSOCQ-I subscales and anxiety (r=-0.132; 0.150) and depression (r=-0.113; 0.186). The PSOCQ was translated successfully into Italian, and proved to have a good factorial structure and psychometric properties that replicated the results of other versions. Its use is recommended for research purposes.
Simoes Loureiro, Isabelle; Lefebvre, Laurent
Lexico-semantic difficulties are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The bottom-up process theory is today well accepted: superordinate attributes tend to decline slower than subordinate ones. However, a specific issue in semantic memory investigation in AD is to determine the severity of the semantic impairment. Given that the regularity of the semantic disorder in early AD is uncertain, we argue that the constitution of experimental AD groups must consider the semantic deterioration stage. We thus propose a specific semantic knowledge questionnaire (SKQ), based on Laiacona et al.'s work (1993). SKQ was proposed to 49 AD patients and 33 healthy old people. Three experimental AD groups were created, based on the global cognitive deterioration. In a second study, we explore the possibility for early AD to display different semantic deterioration profile. Our results show a significant group effect, a significant type of question effect (superordinate vs subordinate) and a significant interaction effect. Moreover, a significant correlation between the total errors at the SKQ and the MMSE score is observed. Finally, we observe that early AD patients can show different semantic alteration, with mild or very mild semantic deterioration without any differences in the global cognitive alteration. The SKQ seems adapted to highlight the semantic deterioration and the bottom-up process in AD: superordinate information are better preserved than subordinate information. It can also distinguish different semantic deterioration in early AD. Our result clearly show that research on semantic deterioration in early stage of AD must take into account the severity of the semantic alteration.
Development of the Italian Version of the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain: Cross-cultural Adaptation, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Reliability and Validity.
Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Nava, Tiziana; Terragni, Erica; Cerri, Cesare; McCracken, Lance M
Growing attention is being given to cognitive-behavioural measures to improve interventions for spinal disorders. The Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ) has never been validated in Italian subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP). The purpose of this study is translating, culturally adapting and validating the Italian version of PVAQ (PVAQ-I). A cross-sectional evaluation of the psychometric properties of the PVAQ-I on patients with chronic LBP was conducted. The questionnaire was culturally adapted in accordance with international standards. The psychometric testing included confirmatory factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient, ICC); construct validity by comparing the PVAQ-I with the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), a Numerical Rating Scale of pain intensity (NRS) and the Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (ODI); and sensitivity to change by calculating the smallest detectable change. The PVAQ-I was administered to 131 subjects with chronic LBP (77 females, mean age of 48 ± 16 years, median symptoms duration of 12 months). Factor analysis confirmed a two-factor (passive awareness and active vigilance), 13-item solution, which led to an acceptable data-model fit. Internal consistency (α = 0.91) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.92) were good. As a priori hypothesized, construct validity showed moderate correlations between the PVAQ-I and PCS (r = 0.60), TSK (r = 0.44) and HADS-Anxiety (r = 0.53) and low correlations with HADS-Depression (r = 0.28), NRS (r = 0.28), ODI (r = 0.23) and CPAQ (r = -0.12). The smallest detectable change was 9. The PVAQ was successfully translated into Italian and proved to have satisfactory psychometric properties. Its use is recommended for
Donovan, Anna K; Wood, Gordon J; Rubio, Doris M; Day, Hollis D; Spagnoletti, Carla L
Many physicians struggle to communicate with patients with chronic, non-malignant pain (CNMP). Through the use of a Web module, the authors aimed to improve faculty participants' communication skills knowledge and confidence, use of skills in clinical practice, and actual communication skills. The module was implemented for faculty development among clinician-educators with university faculty appointments, outpatient clinical practices, and teaching roles. Participants completed the Collaborative Opioid Prescribing Education Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (COPE-REMS®) module, a free Web module designed to improve provider communication around opioid prescribing. Main study outcomes were improvements in CNMP communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Skills were assessed by comparing a subset of participants' Observed Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) performance before and after the curriculum. Sixty-two percent of eligible participants completed the curriculum in 2013. Knowledge-based test scores improved with curriculum completion (75% vs. 90%; P < 0.001). Using a 5-point Likert-type scale, participants reported improved comfort in managing patients with CNMP both immediately post-curriculum and at 6 months (3.6 pre vs. 4.0 post vs. 4.1 at 6 months; P = 0.02), as well as improvements in prescribing opioids (3.3 vs. 3.8 vs. 3.9, P = 0.01) and conducting conversations about discontinuing opioids (2.8 vs. 3.5 vs. 3.9, P < 0.001). Additionally, CNMP-specific communication skills on the OSCE improved after the curriculum (mean 67% vs. 79%, P = 0.03). Experienced clinician-educators improved their communication knowledge, attitudes, and skills in managing patients with CNMP after implementation of this curriculum. The improvements in attitudes were sustained at six months. A Web-based curriculum such as COPE-REMS® may be useful for other programs seeking improvement in faculty communication with patients who have CNMP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain
Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido
Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…
Masullo, Carlo; Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Vita, Maria Gabriella; Gaudino, Simona; Gainotti, Guido
Semantic memory was investigated in a patient (MR) affected by a severe apperceptive visual agnosia, due to an ischemic cerebral lesion, bilaterally affecting the infero-mesial parts of the temporo-occipital cortices. The study was made by means of a Semantic Knowledge Questionnaire (Laiacona, Barbarotto, Trivelli, & Capitani, 1993), which takes…
Despite scientific advances in pain management, inadequate pain relief in hospitalized patients continues to be an on-going phenomenon. Although nurses do not prescribe medication for pain, the decision to administer pharmacological or other interventions for pain relief is part of nursing practice. Nurses play a critical role in the relief of…
Despite scientific advances in pain management, inadequate pain relief in hospitalized patients continues to be an on-going phenomenon. Although nurses do not prescribe medication for pain, the decision to administer pharmacological or other interventions for pain relief is part of nursing practice. Nurses play a critical role in the relief of…
Amariles, Pedro; Pino-Marín, Daniel; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; García-Jiménez, Emilio; Roig-Sánchez, Inés; Faus, María José
To determine the test-retest reliability of a questionnaire, with a validation preliminary, to assess knowledge of cardiovascular risk (CVR) and cardiovascular disease in patients attending community pharmacies in Spain. To complement the external validity, establishing the relationship between an educational activity and the increase in knowledge about CVR and cardiovascular disease. Sub-analysis of a controlled clinical study, EMDADER-CV, in which a questionnaire about knowledge concerning CVR was applied at 4 different times. Spanish Community Pharmacies. There were 323 patients in the control group, from the 640 who completed the study. Intraclass correlation coefficient to assess the reliability in 3 comparisons (post-educational activity with week 16, post-educational activity with week 32, and week 16 with week 32); and the non-parametric Friedman test to establish the relationship between an oral and written educational activity with increasing knowledge. For the 323 patients in the 3 comparisons, the intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.624; 0.608 and 0.801, respectively (fair-good to excellent reliability). So, the Friedman test showed a statistically significant relationship between educational activity and increased knowledge (p < .0001). According to the intraclass correlation coefficient, the questionnaire aimed at assessing the knowledge on CVR and cardiovascular disease has a reliability between acceptable and excellent, which added to the previous validation, shows that the instrument meets the criteria of validity and reliability. Furthermore, the questionnaire showed the ability to relate an increase in knowledge with an educational intervention, feature that complements its external validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living.
Heitz, Carolin; Bachmann, Lucas M; Leibfried, Anne; Kissling, Rudolf; Kessels, Alfons Gh; Perez, Roberto Sgm; Marinus, Johan; Brunner, Florian
The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike.
Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel
Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables. Pain processes do not begin with the stimulation of receptors. Rather, injury or disease produces neural signals that enter an active nervous system that (in the adult organism) is the substrate of past experience, culture, and a host of other environmental and personal factors. These brain processes actively participate in the selection, abstraction, and synthesis of information from the total sensory input. Pain is not simply the end product of a linear sensory transmission system; it is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. The neuromatrix theory guides us away from the Cartesian concept of pain as a sensation produced by injury, inflammation, or other tissue pathology and toward the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience produced by multiple influences. These influences range from the existing synaptic architecture of the neuromatrix-which is determined by genetic and sensory factors-to influences from within the body and from other areas in the brain. Genetic influences on synaptic architecture may determine-or predispose toward-the development of chronic pain syndromes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1-15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Gangapersad, Janelle; Brouwer, Andrea; Kurilsky, Sasha; Willis, Elizabeth; Shaw, Lynn
Chronic pain such as arthritis has a significant impact on occupational performance in the workplace that contributes to decreased productivity, reduced rates of employment, personal and societal economic costs. In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of WORK, a scoping review was conducted to understand the knowledge base on chronic pain. The purpose of this was to examine and describe WORK's contribution to the literature relevant for rehabilitation professionals such as occupational therapists to improve work related outcomes for persons experiencing chronic pain. The method employed the use of historical, citation and dimension analyses of assessment and intervention articles. Of the 30 articles identified in WORK, the historical analysis of their scope indicated an international representation of authors and a greater emphasis on quantitative study designs. The citation analysis revealed that the articles in WORK drew heavily on medical literature to inform their studies. The dimensional analysis of the assessment and intervention articles applied an occupational lens of self-care, productivity and leisure, to draw upon the Occupational Competence Model and identified that the majority of papers focused on 2 or more dimensions of the person, environment and occupation. WORK has contributed to the knowledge base of assessment and intervention approaches that inform work rehabilitation strategies for individuals with chronic pain. To advance its knowledge base for the rehabilitation and management of chronic pain, WORK is encouraged to include more prevention and multidimensional interventions articles, as well as articles that contain multidimensional assessment tools that address both clinical and outcome assessments of chronic pain. Additionally internal dialogue should be encouraged within WORK so that new authors build on previous submissions and increase the impact and quality of research on chronic pain as it pertains to work.
Background. In order to better design awareness programs on chronic pain (CP), measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of people in the community towards this condition is most useful. Objectives. To develop and validate a French-Canadian scale that could be used for this purpose. Methods. Items of the Chronic Pain Myth Scale (CPMS) were developed based on different information sources, reviewed by pain experts, and pretested. The CPMS was administered to 1555 participants among the general Quebec population. Results. The final CPMS contained 26 items allowing the calculation of three subscales scores (knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards people suffering from CP, biopsychosocial impacts of CP, and treatment of CP) which showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.72–0.82). There were statistically significant differences in subscales scores between participants who reported suffering versus not suffering from CP, reported knowing versus not knowing someone who suffers from CP, and reported being versus not being a healthcare professional, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the psychometric qualities of the use of the CPMS for the measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards CP among French-speaking individuals of the Quebec general population. PMID:27746680
Lacasse, Anaïs; Connelly, Judy-Ann; Choinière, Manon
Background. In order to better design awareness programs on chronic pain (CP), measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of people in the community towards this condition is most useful. Objectives. To develop and validate a French-Canadian scale that could be used for this purpose. Methods. Items of the Chronic Pain Myth Scale (CPMS) were developed based on different information sources, reviewed by pain experts, and pretested. The CPMS was administered to 1555 participants among the general Quebec population. Results. The final CPMS contained 26 items allowing the calculation of three subscales scores (knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards people suffering from CP, biopsychosocial impacts of CP, and treatment of CP) which showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.72-0.82). There were statistically significant differences in subscales scores between participants who reported suffering versus not suffering from CP, reported knowing versus not knowing someone who suffers from CP, and reported being versus not being a healthcare professional, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the psychometric qualities of the use of the CPMS for the measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards CP among French-speaking individuals of the Quebec general population.
Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; Chama, Paula Patrícia de Freitas; Romão, Adriana Peterson Mariana Salata; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Rosa-E-Silva, Júlio Cesar; Candido-Dos-Reis, Francisco Jose; Nogueira, Antonio Alberto
Objectives to translate and adapt the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) to Portuguese and to assess its psychometric properties based on internal consistency, test-retest, factor analysis and divergent and convergent construct validities. Methods The study involved 218 participants and was approved by the local Research Ethics Committee. All participants gave written informed consent and their anonymity was ensured. The instrument was translated and culturally adapted for use in the Portuguese language. The internal consistency and factorial analysis were assessed by patients and physicians. Convergent and divergent validities were also assessed specifically for the patient group, as well as test-retest reliability. The Portuguese versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used for the analysis of the convergent validity. In addition, we applied a questionnaire of clinical and demographic data for the analysis of the divergent validity. Results The adapted version of the PSQ showed good Cronbach's α and test-retest values, and the results of the convergent construct validity between the PSQ and the PHQ-9 (r = 0.34; p = 0.02) and the STAI (r = 0.47; p = 0.001) were negative, significant and moderate correlations. Divergent validity showed significant correlations only with race and education. The Brazilian Portuguese version of the PSQ proved to be a valid and reliable instrument, with psychometric properties suitable for the assessment of satisfaction among patients with chronic pelvic pain and their physicians in Brazil. The questionnaire may allow the homogenization of reports on this topic in the international literature.
Janulis, Patrick; Newcomb, Michael E; Sullivan, Patrick; Mustanski, Brian
Knowledge about the transmission, prevention, and treatment of HIV remains a critical element in psychosocial models of HIV risk behavior and is commonly used as an outcome in HIV prevention interventions. However, most HIV knowledge questions have not undergone rigorous psychometric testing such as using item response theory. The current study used data from six studies of men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 3565) to (1) examine the item properties of HIV knowledge questions, (2) test for differential item functioning on commonly studied characteristics (i.e., age, race/ethnicity, and HIV risk behavior), (3) select items with the optimal item characteristics, and (4) leverage this combined dataset to examine the potential moderating effect of age on the relationship between condomless anal sex (CAS) and HIV knowledge. Findings indicated that existing questions tend to poorly differentiate those with higher levels of HIV knowledge, but items were relatively robust across diverse individuals. Furthermore, age moderated the relationship between CAS and HIV knowledge with older MSM having the strongest association. These findings suggest that additional items are required in order to capture a more nuanced understanding of HIV knowledge and that the association between CAS and HIV knowledge may vary by age.
There is limited evidence to underpin the assessment and management of pain in children with profound cognitive impairment and these children are vulnerable to poor pain assessment and management. Health professionals working with children with profound cognitive impairment from a single paediatric tertiary referral centre in England were interviewed to explore how they develop and acquire knowledge and skills to assess and manage pain in children with cognitive impairment. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nineteen health professionals representing different professional groups and different levels of experience participated in the study. A metatheme “navigating uncertainty; deficits in knowledge and skills” and two core themes “framing as different and teasing things out” and “the settling and unsettling presence of parents” were identified. Uncertainty about aspects of assessing and managing the pain of children with cognitive impairment tended to erode professional confidence and many discussed deficits in their skill and knowledge set. Uncertainty was managed through engaging with other health professionals and the child's parents. Most health professionals stated they would welcome more education and training although many felt that this input should be clinical and not classroom oriented. PMID:28096710
Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs. PMID:24885041
Farih, Manal; Khan, Khalid; Freeth, Della; Meads, Catherine
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs.
Njiru, J N; Esiromo, M A; Omari, H O
To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice of pain relief methods during labour among mothers attending antenatal clinics at Shalom Community Hospital, Athi River, Kenya. Cross Sectional study. Shalom Community Hospital, Athi River, Kenya. Two hundred and seven participants attending antenatal clinics at the facility were recruited. The median age of the participants was 28 years and a median parity of one. Most of the study participants, 89.4%, were not aware of any pain relief method during labour. Among the 10.6% patients that were of a pain relief method, 54% had gotten the knowledge from the doctors. All the patients had experienced pain in labour with 72% rating the pain as severe pain. Only 37% of the patients were offered a pain relief method and the intramuscular injectable was offered to all. Majority (88%) of those offered a form of pain relief rated the pain relief method as ineffective. A majority of the women 93% would use a pain relief method in the next labour with epidural method being the most preferred method. The level of knowledge of pain relief methods among mothers islow. There is need to integrate information on pain relief options in labour as part of antenatal services offered routinely. Epidural analgesia services should be enhanced.
Objectives. In this prospective study, we intend to establish the psychometric properties of ICOAP for its use in studies involving the Hellenic population. Methods. SF-36 Health Survey was used as a standard against ICOAP scores from a sample of 89 patients (mean age: 71.07, 69 females) with hip and knee OA pain who underwent 2 treatment cycles of 4 intra-articular injections of sodium hyaluronate, separated by a 12-week medication-free time interval. Both questionnaires were filled twice with no missing data during follow-up. Results. ROC analysis accomplished ICOAP's criterion-related validation. Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test and paired samples t-test endorsed ICOAP's responsiveness along with Effect Size values, standard response mean, and Relative Efficiency. Comparisons between the areas under curves (AUC) on ROC plots established external responsiveness. Cronbach's-alpha value favored ICOAP's internal consistency. This, along with intraclass correlation, results in both advocated reliability and content validity. Interitem discrimination was demonstrated by the ease of completion of ICOAP as well as the degree of familiarity with it. These findings inaugurated construct validity in collaboration with Spearman's and One-Way ANOVA results. Conclusions. ICOAP is a valid, reliable, and responsive QoL instrument and suitable for studies of osteoarthritic joint pain in the Greek setting. PMID:27034832
Jaussent, S; Labarère, J; Boyer, J-P; François, P
Failure of the French health care services to diagnose and manage problem drinkers has been established on many occasions. This results from a relative lack of knowledge of the basics of alcoholism and the low level of involvement of health care professionals in the management of these patients. In response to this inadequacy, the French Public Health Ministry promoted the development of managed care and coordination of care for these patients. Teams in charge of coordinating care for problem drinkers have been implanted in 96 French hospitals since 1996. These teams aim to provide support to health care providers caring for problem drinkers. For this purpose, they have delivered continuing medical education designed to prepare health care providers to identify and manage these patients in various settings. However, no formal assessment of the impact of these interventions on the knowledge, perceptions, and practices of health care professionals has been planned. The assessment of these interventions can rely on qualitative methods such as observation, focus groups, or individual interviews. However, qualitative methods require specific skills, are time-consuming, and cannot be implemented on a large scale. In contrast, quantitative methods using survey questionnaires or standardized instruments appear to be more appropriate for large scale or repeated evaluations. However, the accuracy of ratings provided by these instruments can be affected by many methodological factors, including the quality of the instrument in terms of validity, reliability, and sensitivity to changes. The aim of this paper is to describe the properties of French and English language questionnaires designed to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practices of health care professionals with regards to alcoholic patients. The instruments were retrieved by searching the Medline, Pascal, and Sudoc computerized bibliographic databases from January 1964 to December 2002. The following medical
Cooney, Marese A; Culleton-Quinn, Elizabeth; Stokes, Emma
Pain and functional compromise are reported as effects that can be expected after breast cancer treatment. The reported prevalence of pain after breast cancer treatment varies widely, ranging from 13% (n = 74) to 93% (n = 590). To date, pain after breast cancer treatment has not been the focus of a systematic review. The aim of this study was to present what is known about the prevalence, location, intensity, nature, and temporal factors of the pain experienced by patients after breast cancer treatment. Searches of the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, Amed, and Cinhal databases identified 69 articles on the topic. Studies were methodologically assessed by two independent reviewers using a checklist of 18 criteria. Twenty-six of the articles were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Findings related to research conducted on 15 patient cohorts. Pain is confirmed as a prevalent treatment-related symptom experienced by 13%-51% of women in several different anatomic locations. The onset is variable, ranging from immediate to 24 months, highlighting the need to assess for pain at every evaluation interval. Little is known about the nature of the pain, but descriptors used (tenderness, soreness) suggest that the type of pain may not be confined to neuropathic pain. Reported average numeric intensity is low, but no study measured the impact of pain on function. Incidence of posttreatment pain has yet to be established. Further exploration of the nature, temporal factors, and impact that the pain experienced after treatment has on function, activity, and participation is needed to guide intervention and test its efficacy.
Background Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs) are common in children. The cause is usually viral, but parents' attitude often contributes to inappropriate antibiotic prescribing, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective is to describe the process of developing a questionnaire to assess parents' Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics when children suffer from URIs, as well as to evaluate the response rates, the completeness and the reliability (Cronbach) of the questionnaires. Finally, to note any limitations of the study. Methods Literature review, along with pre – testing yielded a questionnaire designed to assess the parents' KAP – level. A postal survey was set, in a national sample of 200 schools stratified by geographical region. The participants consist of a multistage geographical cluster sample of 8000 parents. The influence of demographic characteristics (i.e. sex, age, education) was analyzed. Cronbach index test and factor analysis were used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Results The response rate of the parents was 69%. Islands presented the lowest response rate while in Northern Greece the response rate was the highest. Sixty – eight point nine percent of the sample returned questionnaires fully completed, while 91.5% completed 95% of the questions. Three questions out of 70 were answered in a very low rate which was associated mostly with immigrant respondents. The section describing parents' attitude toward antibiotic use was not completed as much as the sections of knowledge or practices. The questions were factor analyzed and 10 out of the 21 extracted factors were finally evaluated, reducing the number of independent variables to 46. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.55. However, only items that increased the Cronbach when added were eventually included in the final scales raising the internal consistency to 0.68. Limitations of the study, such as the vocabulary and form of
da Rocha Lopes, Sofia Manuela; Duarte, José Alberto; Mesquita, Cristina Teresa Torrão Carvalho
Knowledge is an important factor in patients with ankylosing spondylitis regarding the adoption of appropriate behaviours and education. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" for the Portuguese population with ankylosing spondylitis. The Portuguese version of "The assessment of knowledge in ankylosing spondylitis patients by a self-administered questionnaire" was administered to a sample of 180 subjects, from which 63 individuals responded. The adaptation process involved translation, back-translation and submission to a committee of experts in the area, culminating with a Portuguese version of the instrument. Next, the scale reliability and validity were assessed. There was a statistically significant decrease from test to retest, although the intra-class correlation coefficient between test and retest was 0.76 (95 % CI 0.61-0.86), which was considered good. From 180 individuals, 63 (35.0 %) subjects were available for the present study. The proportion of individuals that correctly answered each item ranged from 19 to 92 %, corresponding to items 8 and 13, respectively. The mean number of correct answers was 8.5 [mean (SD) = 2.4] in 12 questions. The proposed Portuguese version of the ankylosing spondylitis knowledge scale showed good reliability, reproducibility and construct validity.
Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Ae Lee
Background and Objectives To determine the level of knowledge of stroke and heart attack (HA) symptoms and risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural elderly people who are at risk for CVD. Subjects and Methods A total of 444 adults over the age of 60 living in a rural province of Korea with at least one CVD risk factor participated in this survey. Results A total of 72.5% of the participants had hypertension and 28.4% had diabetes, whereas approximately 40% exhibited over two CVD risk factors. The mean knowledge scores for HA symptoms (4.3/9) were lower than scores for stroke symptoms (5.8/9), and the mean knowledge score for risk factors was 7.3/11. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that old age, low level of education, and low income level were the determining factors for low knowledge levels of stroke and HA symptoms as well as CVD risk factors. A low perceived risk of stroke or HAs also predicted a low knowledge of CVD risk factors. Conclusion Community-wide public campaigns are needed, which are designed to help elderly people in rural areas with low education levels and socioeconomic status at risk for CVD to improve the awareness of stroke and HA. PMID:21731567
Background The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. Method A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia). In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. Results 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%). 133 (24.6%) Scots and 83 (15.4%) Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2%) Scots and 190 (35.2%) Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p < 0.001), level of concern (p < 0.001) and protective behaviour (p < 0.001) scores than the Scottish. Australian nationality was the strongest independent predictor of a higher knowledge score (p < 0.001), followed by a previous skin cancer diagnosis (p = 0.003), personal knowledge of someone with melanoma (p = 0.011), female gender (p = 0.005) and higher education status (p < 0.001) (R2 = 0.163). Conclusion The questionnaire detected higher levels of knowledge and skin cancer protective behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and
Ockenden, Holly; Gunnell, Katie; Giles, Audrey; Nerenberg, Kara; Goldfield, Gary; Manyanga, Taru; Adamo, Kristi
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an electronic questionnaire, the Electronic Maternal Health Survey (EMat Health Survey), related to women’s knowledge and perceptions of the current gestational weight gain guidelines (GWG), as well as pregnancy-related health behaviours. Constructs addressed within the questionnaire include self-efficacy, locus of control, perceived barriers, and facilitators of physical activity and diet, outcome expectations, social environment and health practices. Content validity was examined using an expert panel (n = 7) and pilot testing items in a small sample (n = 5) of pregnant women and recent mothers (target population). Test re-test reliability was assessed among a sample (n = 71) of the target population. Reliability scores were calculated for all constructs (r and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)), those with a score of >0.5 were considered acceptable. The content validity of the questionnaire reflects the degree to which all relevant components of excessive GWG risk in women are included. Strong test-retest reliability was found in the current study, indicating that responses to the questionnaire were reliable in this population. The EMat Health Survey adds to the growing body of literature on maternal health and gestational weight gain by providing the first comprehensive questionnaire that can be self-administered and remotely accessed. The questionnaire can be completed in 15–25 min and collects useful data on various social determinants of health and GWG as well as associated health behaviours. This online tool may assist researchers by providing them with a platform to collect useful information in developing and tailoring interventions to better support women in achieving recommended weight gain targets in pregnancy. PMID:27916921
Ockenden, Holly; Gunnell, Katie; Giles, Audrey; Nerenberg, Kara; Goldfield, Gary; Manyanga, Taru; Adamo, Kristi
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an electronic questionnaire, the Electronic Maternal Health Survey (EMat Health Survey), related to women's knowledge and perceptions of the current gestational weight gain guidelines (GWG), as well as pregnancy-related health behaviours. Constructs addressed within the questionnaire include self-efficacy, locus of control, perceived barriers, and facilitators of physical activity and diet, outcome expectations, social environment and health practices. Content validity was examined using an expert panel (n = 7) and pilot testing items in a small sample (n = 5) of pregnant women and recent mothers (target population). Test re-test reliability was assessed among a sample (n = 71) of the target population. Reliability scores were calculated for all constructs (r and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC)), those with a score of >0.5 were considered acceptable. The content validity of the questionnaire reflects the degree to which all relevant components of excessive GWG risk in women are included. Strong test-retest reliability was found in the current study, indicating that responses to the questionnaire were reliable in this population. The EMat Health Survey adds to the growing body of literature on maternal health and gestational weight gain by providing the first comprehensive questionnaire that can be self-administered and remotely accessed. The questionnaire can be completed in 15-25 min and collects useful data on various social determinants of health and GWG as well as associated health behaviours. This online tool may assist researchers by providing them with a platform to collect useful information in developing and tailoring interventions to better support women in achieving recommended weight gain targets in pregnancy.
Sánchez Socarrás, Violeida; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia; Vaqué Crusellas, Cristina; Milá Villarroel, Raimon; González Rivas, Fabián
To design and validate a questionnaire to assess the level of knowledge regarding eating disorders in college students. Observational, prospective, and longitudinal study, with the design of the questionnaire based on a conceptual review and validation by a cognitive pre-test and pilot test-retest, with analysis of the psychometric properties in each application. University Foundation of Bages, Barcelona. Marco community care. A total of 140 students from Health Sciences; 53 women and 87 men with a mean age of 21.87 years; 28 participated in the pre-test and 112 in the test-retests, 110 students completed the study. Validity and stability study using Cronbach α and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient statistics; relationship skills with sex and type of study, non-parametric statistical Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests; for demographic variables, absolute or percentage frequencies, as well as mean, central tendency and standard deviation as measures of dispersion were calculated. The statistical significance level was 95% confidence. The questionnaire was obtained that had 10 questions divided into four dimensions (classification, demographics characteristics of patients, risk factors and clinical manifestations of eating disorders). The scale showed good internal consistency in its final version (Cronbach α=0.724) and adequate stability (Pearson correlation 0.749). The designed tool can be accurately used to assess Health Sciences students' knowledge of eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Rondanelli, M; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M; Monteferrario, F; Perna, S; Viale, M; Ashorn, M; Giacosa, A
In recent decades, the American diet has emerged in our country as a reference model food, particularly among young people, to the detriment of the Mediterranean diet, an healthy eating pattern rich in fruits and vegetables, olive oil, whole grains and fish. Even in Europe, North American habits are widespread at the expense of traditional northern nutritional powers, characterized by a lot of fish, wild game meat that are much thinner than from farm animals, rye, oats, cabbage, root vegetables. Given this background, in Pavia (Italy) and Tampere (Finland) we conducted a pilot study with the objective to assess and compare the eating habits and nutrition knowledge in school-age children using 2 questionnaires entitled "what do you eat?" and "what do you know about diet and health?". The results of the first questionnaire clearly shows that, among young people of both countries, there is the loss of traditional food: the Mediterranean and the Finnish diet. All the boys wear it with a low frequency fish, fruit and vegetables, and instead a high frequency of adverse health foods, such as potato chips and sweet drinks. The answers to questions which relate to nutrients and their properties, show that children of all groups have little knowledge about these topics. The use of questionnaires, such as those administered by us, can be easily performed to investigate the dietary habits and the nutritional level of culture, due to make nutrition education interventions aimed at correcting poor eating habits.
Salathé, Cornelia Rolli; Trippolini, Maurizio Alen; Terribilini, Livio Claudio; Oliveri, Michael; Elfering, Achim
Purpose To develop a multidimensional scale to asses psychosocial beliefs-the Yellow Flag Questionnaire (YFQ)-aimed at guiding interventions for workers with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. Methods Phase 1 consisted of item selection based on literature search, item development and expert consensus rounds. In phase 2, items were reduced with calculating a quality-score per item, using structure equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis on data from 666 workers. In phase 3, Cronbach's α, and Pearson correlations coefficients were computed to compare YFQ with disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy and the YFQ score based on data from 253 injured workers. Regressions of YFQ total score on disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy were calculated. Results After phase 1, the YFQ included 116 items and 15 domains. Further reductions of items in phase 2 by applying the item quality criteria reduced the total to 48 items. Phase factor analysis with structural equation modeling confirmed 32 items in seven domains: activity, work, emotions, harm & blame, diagnosis beliefs, co-morbidity and control. Cronbach α was 0.91 for the total score, between 0.49 and 0.81 for the 7 distinct scores of each domain, respectively. Correlations between YFQ total score ranged with disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy was .58, .66, .73, -.51, respectively. After controlling for age and gender the YFQ total score explained between R2 27% and R2 53% variance of disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. Conclusions The YFQ, a multidimensional screening scale is recommended for use to assess psychosocial beliefs of workers with chronic MSK pain. Further evaluation of the measurement properties such as the test-retest reliability, responsiveness and prognostic validity is warranted.
McAllister, Sophie; Coxon, Kirstie; Murrells, T; Sandall, J
to examine healthcare professionals' attitudes, knowledge and levels of self-efficacy regarding the use of self-hypnosis in childbirth. a prospective survey. two large maternity units in London, England. healthcare professionals (n=129) involved in the care of childbearing women (anaesthetists, midwives and obstetricians). online questionnaire assessing healthcare professionals' experience, knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy relating to self-hypnosis in childbirth. attitude, self-efficacy and knowledge. over half of the participants surveyed (56%) reported they had minimal or no knowledge of hypnosis. Higher levels of knowledge were associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (p<0.001) and also with more positive attitudes (p<.001). Midwives reported significantly higher levels of knowledge, more positive attitudes (7.25, 95% CI: 4.60-9.89) and higher levels of self-efficacy (3.48, 95% CI: 1.46-5.51) than doctors. Midwives also reported more exposure to/experience of hypnosis than doctors, and more exposure was significantly associated with higher levels of self-efficacy (midwives p<.001; doctors p=.001). Professionals who would plan to use self-hypnosis in their own or partners' births had significantly higher self-efficacy scores (p<.001). if healthcare professionals are to effectively support women using self-hypnosis in childbirth, they need to be confident in their ability to facilitate this method. Previous research has established that self-efficacy is a strong indicator of performance. Professionals with more knowledge of self-hypnosis are also more confident in supporting women using this technique in childbirth. Multi-disciplinary staff training which aims to increase knowledge, and which includes exposure to hypnosis in labour, may be beneficial in assisting staff to support women choosing to use self-hypnosis in labour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fritsche, L; Greenhalgh, T; Falck-Ytter, Y; Neumayer, H-H; Kunz, R
Objective To develop and validate an instrument for measuring knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine and to investigate whether short courses in evidence based medicine lead to a meaningful increase in knowledge and skills. Design Development and validation of an assessment instrument and before and after study. Setting Various postgraduate short courses in evidence based medicine in Germany. Participants The instrument was validated with experts in evidence based medicine, postgraduate doctors, and medical students. The effect of courses was assessed by postgraduate doctors from medical and surgical backgrounds. Intervention Intensive 3 day courses in evidence based medicine delivered through tutor facilitated small groups. Main outcome measure Increase in knowledge and skills. Results The questionnaire distinguished reliably between groups with different expertise in evidence based medicine. Experts attained a threefold higher average score than students. Postgraduates who had not attended a course performed better than students but significantly worse than experts. Knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine increased after the course by 57% (mean score before course 6.3 (SD 2.9) v 9.9 (SD 2.8), P<0.001). No difference was found among experts or students in absence of an intervention. Conclusions The instrument reliably assessed knowledge and skills in evidence based medicine. An intensive 3 day course in evidence based medicine led to a significant increase in knowledge and skills. What is already known on this topicNumerous observational studies have investigated the impact of teaching evidence based medicine to healthcare professionals, with conflicting resultsMost of the studies were of poor methodological qualityWhat this study addsAn instrument assessing basic knowledge and skills required for practising evidence based medicine was developed and validatedAn intensive 3 day course on evidence based medicine for doctors from various backgrounds
Jukic, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomic Juraga, Ana
AIM. To assess physicians' knowledge and practices for obtaining patients' informed consent to medical procedures. METHODS. An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. RESULTS. Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P=0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P=0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P<0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P<0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P> or =0.05 for all questions). CONCLUSION. Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process.
Gustafsson, Markus; Borglin, Gunilla
Registered Nurses (RNs) play an important role in caring for patients suffering from cancer pain. A lack of knowledge regarding pain management and the RNs' own perception of cancer pain could act as barriers to effective pain management. Educational interventions that target RNs' knowledge and attitudes have proved promising. However, an intervention consisting of evidence-based practice is a multifaceted process and demands behavioural and cognitive changes to sustain the effects of the intervention. Therefore, our study aimed to investigate if a theory-based educational intervention could change RNs' knowledge and attitudes to cancer pain and pain management, both four and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention. A quasi-experimental design with non-equivalent control groups was used. The primary outcome was measured using a modified version of the instrument Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKAS) at baseline, four weeks and 12 weeks after the start of the intervention to evaluate its persistence. The intervention's educational curriculum was based on the principles of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and consisted of interactive learning activities conducted in workshops founded on evidence-based knowledge. The RN's own experiences from cancer pain management were used in the learning process. The theory-based educational intervention aimed at changing RNs knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management measured by primary outcome NKAS resulted in a statistical significant (p<0.05) improvement of total mean score from baseline to four weeks at the intervention ward. The findings of this study, suggest that a theory-based educational intervention focused at RNs can be effective in changing RN's knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer pain management. However, the high number of dropouts between baseline and four weeks needs to be taken into account when evaluating our findings. Finally, this kind of theory
Jukić, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomić, Ana; Juraga
Aim To assess physicians’ knowledge and practices for obtaining patients’ informed consent to medical procedures. Methods An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. Results Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P = 0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P = 0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P < 0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P < 0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P ≥ 0.05 for all questions). Conclusion Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process. PMID:20017225
Hanoch, Yaniv; Katsikopoulos, Konstantinos V; Gummerum, Michaela; Brass, Eric P
To better understand the knowledge base and perceptions involved in the decision to buy and use over-the-counter pain relievers (OTCPRs) by taking into account the environment in which these decisions are made. The authors expected that the differences in access and marketing would affect knowledge and decision making related to OTCPRs in the United States and Germany. A survey was given to 108 undergraduate university students in the United States and Germany (58 and 50 participants, respectively). The authors found that significantly more Americans than Germans take OTCPRs and that they also take significantly more OTCPRs. Americans exhibited less knowledge about side effects than their German counterparts. When asked when they consulted package labels, Americans reported they were more likely to do so before buying a product, whereas Germans reported consulting labels before taking OTCPRs for the first time. Package labels affected more Americans' decisions to purchase OTCPRs; Americans were also less likely to consult a doctor when feeling pain but more likely to take OTCPRs. Finally, Americans viewed OTCPRs as riskier after their status changed from prescription only to over the counter, whereas Germans believed they posed less risk. This study analyzed health-related behavior by looking at how environmental factors shape decision processes related to over-the-counter drug use. The results indicate that looking at environmental factors does help to explain differences in knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors among German and American students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Al-Eisa, Einas; Al-Abbad, Hani
Occupational low back pain among nurses has been the subject of research studies worldwide. However, evidence of the influence of nurses' awareness of safe handling practices and compliance with standard guidelines on low back pain remains scarce. This study examined the association between occupational low back pain and level of awareness of back care, and described the self-reported nature of low back pain in relation to organizational policies among nurses in Saudi Arabia. A total of 155 nurses working in a rehabilitation hospital participated in the study. The lack of a patient handling policy at the workplace was identified as a significant risk factor for the development of low back pain, whereas exercising regularly was a protective factor. Not only mechanical exposure but also organizational factors and level of awareness were related to the development of low back pain. This study highlights the need to develop institutional plans for injury reporting, and provides evidence of the importance of incorporating awareness as part of prevention strategies. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Dixon, Hilton; Blow, Carol; Milne, Paul; Siriwardena, Niroshan; Milne, Heather; Elfes, Christopher
The Applied Knowledge Test (AKT) of the Membership of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) examination is a computer-based assessment delivered three times a year. A computerised questionnaire, administered immediately after the test, sought candidates' views as part of the test evaluation. Of 1681 candidates taking the test 1418 (84%) responded. Most candidates believed that the test assessed their knowledge of problems relevant to general practice. Their feedback highlighted areas where improvements could be made. Candidates' views of postgraduate specialty medical examinations in the UK are rarely sought or published. We are not aware of other published evidence. The use of computer-based testing enables immediate candidate feedback and can be used routinely to evaluate the test validity and formats. The views of candidates are an important component of quality assurance in reviewing the content, format and educational experience of a high-stakes examination.
Suma Sogi, H. P.; Hugar, Shivayogi M.; Nalawade, Triveni Mohan; Sinha, Anjali; Hugar, Shweta; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa M.
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and practices of “oral health care” in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECCs) among parents of children in Belagavi city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka. Institutional Ethical Clearance was obtained. The study was conducted during the month of April 2014 to October 2014 after taking prior informed consent from the 218 parents. Inclusion criteria were parents getting their children treated for dental caries and who were willing to participate. Parents who could not read and write were excluded from the study. The self-administered, close-ended questionnaire was written in English. It was then translated in local languages, i.e. Kannada and Marathi, and a pilot study was conducted on 10 parents to check for its feasibility and any changes if required were done. Results: The response rate was 100% as all 218 parents completed the questionnaire. Of 218 parents, 116 were mothers and 102 were fathers. The overall mean knowledge score was 69.5%. The overall mean attitude score was 53.5%. The overall attitude toward prevention of ECC was not in accordance to knowledge. The overall mean of “good” practices and “bad” practices score was 33.5% and 18.5%, respectively. Good knowledge and attitude toward oral health do not necessarily produce good practices. PMID:27843829
Wachira, J; Busakhala, A; Chite, F; Naanyu, V; Kisuya, J; Otieno, G; Keter, A; Mwangi, A; Inui, T
Our study objective was to determine the validity and reliability of the breast module of a cancer awareness measure (BCAM) among adult women in western Kenya. The study was conducted between October and November 2012, following three breast cancer screening events. Purposive and systematic random sampling methods were used to identity 48 women for cognitive focus group discussions, and 1061 (594 who attended vs. 467 who did not attend screening events) for surveys, respectively. Face and psychometric validity of the BCAM survey was assessed using cognitive testing, factor analysis of survey data, and correlations. Internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Among survey participants, the overall median age was 34 (IQR: 26-44) years. Compared to those women who did not attend the screening events, women attendees were older (median: 35 vs. 32 years, p = 0.001) more often married (79% vs. 72%, p = 0.006), more educated (52% vs. 46% with more than an elementary level of education, p = 0.001), more unemployed (59% vs. 11%, p = 0.001), more likely to report doing breast self-examination (56% vs. 40%, p = 0.001) and more likely to report having felt a breast lump (16% vs. 7%, p = 0.001). For domain 1 on knowledge of breast cancer symptoms, one factor (three items) with Eigen value of 1.76 emerged for the group that did not attend screening, and 1.50 for the group that attended screening. For both groups two factors (factor 1 "internal influences" and factor 2 "external influences") emerged among domain 4 on barriers to screening, with varied item loadings and Eigen values. There were no statistically significant differences in the factor scores between attendees and non-attendees. There were significant associations between factor scores and other attributes of the surveyed population, including associations with occupation, transportation type, and training for and practice of breast self-examination. Cronbach's alpha showed an
Chatterjee, Robin; Chapman, Tim; Brannan, Mike Gt; Varney, Justin
Physical activity (PA) brief advice in health care is effective at getting individuals active. It has been suggested that one in four people would be more active if advised by a GP or nurse, but as many as 72% of GPs do not discuss the benefits of physical activity with patients. To assess the knowledge, use, and confidence in national PA and Chief Medical Officer (CMO) health guidelines and tools among GPs in England. Online questionnaire-based survey of self-selecting GPs in England that took place over a 10-day period in March 2016. The questionnaire consisted of six multiple-choice questions and was available on the Doctors.net.uk (DNUK) homepage. Quotas were used to ensure good regional representation. The final analysis included 1013 responses. Only 20% of responders were broadly or very familiar with the national PA guidelines. In all, 70% of GPs were aware of the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), but 26% were not familiar with any PA assessment tools, and 55% reported that they had not undertaken any training with respect to encouraging PA. The majority of GPs in England (80%) are unfamiliar with the national PA guidelines. Awareness of the recommended tool for assessment, GPPAQ, is higher than use by GPs. This may be because it is used by other clinical staff, for example, as part of the NHS Health Check programme. Although brief advice in isolation by GPs on PA will only be a part of the behaviour change journey, it is an important prompt, especially if repeated as part of routine practice. This study highlights the need for significant improvement in knowledge, skills, and confidence to maximise the potential for PA advice in GP consultations. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Borglin, Gunilla; Gustafsson, Markus; Krona, Hans
Pain is one of the most frequent problems among patients diagnosed with cancer. Despite the availability of effective pharmacological treatments, this group of patients often receives less than optimal treatment. Research into nurses' pain management highlights certain factors, such as lack of knowledge and attitudes and inadequate procedures for systematic pain assessment, as common barriers to effective pain management. However, educational interventions targeting nurses' pain management have shown promise. As cancer-related pain is also known to have a negative effect on vital aspects of the patient's life, as well as being commonly associated with problems such as sleep, fatigue, depression and anxiety, further development of knowledge within this area is warranted. A quasi-experimental study design will be used to investigate whether the implementation of guidelines for systematic daily pain assessments following a theory-based educational intervention will result in an improvement in knowledge and attitude among nurses. A further aim is to investigate whether the intervention that targets nurses' behaviour will improve hospital patients' perception of pain. Data regarding nurses' knowledge and attitudes to pain (primary outcome), patient perception regarding pain (secondary outcome), together with socio-demographic variables, will be collected at baseline and at four weeks and 12 weeks following the intervention. Nursing care is nowadays acknowledged as an increasingly complicated activity and "nursing complexity is such that it can be seen as the quintessential complex intervention." To be able to change and improve clinical practice thus requires multiple points of attack appropriate to meet complex challenges. Consequently, we expect the theory-based intervention used in our quasi-experimental study to improve care as well as quality of life for this group of patients and we also envisage that evidence-based guidelines targeting this patient group's pain
Fode, Mikkel; Lowenstein, Lior; Reisman, Yacov
Low-intensity extracorporeal shockwave therapy (LI-ESWT) has emerged as a treatment option for male sexual dysfunction. However, results have been contradictory. To investigate the knowledge, practice patterns, and attitudes regarding LI-ESWT among experts in sexual medicine. A study-specific questionnaire was handed out at the 18th Congress for the European Society for Sexual Medicine. Participants were queried on their knowledge about LI-ESWT and about their use of the equipment. Descriptive data on the knowledge of LI-ESWT and perception of treatment effects. One hundred ninety-two questionnaires were available for analysis. Most respondents were physicians (79.7%) and most of these specialized in urology (58.9%). Overall, 144 of 192 (75%) reported that they were familiar with LI-ESWT in sexual medicine. Twenty-seven (14.1%) had performed the treatment. Of the 117 non-users who were familiar with LI-ESWT, 37 sometimes referred patients for the treatment. Nevertheless, 103 of 144 (71.5%) stated that they considered LI-ESWT an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) and 10 of 144 (6.9%) considered it an effective treatment for Peyronie disease. Of participants who regarded LI-ESWT an effective ED treatment, 91.2% would consider the treatment specifically for vasculogenic ED and 81.6% would combine it with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Most participants (83.7%) regarded LI-ESWT as safe. A urology background (odds ratio = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.8; P = .0093) and working in a private setting (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.5-5.3; P = .0084) were significant predictors of familiarity with LI-ESWT in sexual medicine and of being an LI-ESWT user. Likewise, urologists were significantly more likely than non-urologists to consider the treatment effective (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.1-7.1; P = .033). LI-ESWT is well known among experts in sexual medicine and the treatment is perceived as safe and effective against vasculogenic ED when combined with
Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the DN4 (Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions) questionnaire for differential diagnosis of pain syndromes associated to a neuropathic or somatic component
Perez, Concepcion; Galvez, Rafael; Huelbes, Silvia; Insausti, Joaquin; Bouhassira, Didier; Diaz, Silvia; Rejas, Javier
Background This study assesses the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of DN4 questionnaire as a tool for differential diagnosis of pain syndromes associated to a neuropathic (NP) or somatic component (non-neuropathic pain, NNP). Methods A study was conducted consisting of two phases: cultural adaptation into the Spanish language by means of conceptual equivalence, including forward and backward translations in duplicate and cognitive debriefing, and testing of psychometric properties in patients with NP (peripheral, central and mixed) and NNP. The analysis of psychometric properties included reliability (internal consistency, inter-rater agreement and test-retest reliability) and validity (ROC curve analysis, agreement with the reference diagnosis and determination of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in different subsamples according to type of NP). Results A sample of 164 subjects (99 women, 60.4%; age: 60.4 ± 16.0 years), 94 (57.3%) with NP (36 with peripheral, 32 with central, and 26 with mixed pain) and 70 with NNP was enrolled. The questionnaire was reliable [Cronbach's alpha coefficient: 0.71, inter-rater agreement coefficient: 0.80 (0.71–0.89), and test-retest intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.95 (0.92–0.97)] and valid for a cut-off value ≥ 4 points, which was the best value to discriminate between NP and NNP subjects. Discussion This study, representing the first validation of the DN4 questionnaire into another language different than the original, not only supported its high discriminatory value for identification of neuropathic pain, but also provided supplemental psychometric validation (i.e. test-retest reliability, influence of educational level and pain intensity) and showed its validity in mixed pain syndromes. PMID:18053212
Zimmermann, E; Germershausen, C; Greupner, J; Schnapauff, D; Rief, M; Grigoryev, M; Wollenberg, U; Dewey, M
Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is becoming increasingly important in noninvasive imaging. To meet this demand, there are a growing number of short training courses for cardiac CT. Whether such courses improve the knowledge and skills of participants is not known. The concept of a two-day cardiac CT course consisting of introductory lectures, live patient examinations, and hands-on exercises for interpreting cardiac CT scans on workstations was analyzed using participant evaluations (scales from 1=excellent to 6=very poor). Participants rated their increase in knowledge and completed a validated questionnaire with 20 questions. A total of 102 participants attended the courses. There were significant differences in the number of correctly answered test questions between cardiac CT experts and participants at the beginning of the course (91.5+/-6.3 % vs. 62.4+/-16.1% p<0.001). The number of questions answered correctly by the participants increased significantly after completion of the course (mean increase of 4 correctly answered questions, 81.8+/-11.4%. vs. 62.4+/-16.1% p<0.001). This objective increase in knowledge was in good agreement with participant self-assessments (76.4+/-12.6% vs. 81.8+/-11.4%). The quality of the course received good to very good scores, ranging from 1.8+/-0.7 for speed of presentation to 1.4+/-0.5 for lecturer competence. The score for overall course quality was 1.4+/-0.6. A relatively short cardiac CT course can significantly improve the quantifiable knowledge of participants. The overall quality of the course was rated as very good. Copyright (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Nambiar, Devaki; Nguyen, Mai Huong; Giang, Le Minh; Hirsch, Jennifer
Stigma reduction efforts in Vietnam have been encumbered by contradictory and dynamic views of People Living With HIV (PLWH) and the epidemic over the past two decades. World AIDS Day 2010 saw the launch of Pain and Hope, a museum exhibition showcasing the lives and experiences of Vietnamese People Living with AIDS at the Vietnam Museum of Ethnology (VME). Between December 2010 and May 2011, a random sample of visitors completed exit surveys regarding attitudes towards the exhibition and Vietnamese living with HIV/AIDS. The survey sought to determine what kind of visitors the museum and exhibition attracted, and the stigma-related impacts of this kind of exposure and parasocial contact. Of 2,500 Vietnamese visitors randomly selected, 852 completed the computer surveys (response rate of 34.1%), 92.3% of whom had seen Pain and Hope. We found two sub-strata or types of visitors attending the exhibition, with varying demographic characteristics, HIV-related knowledge, some differences in stigma ideation, and clear differences in intended behaviours specifically attributable to the exhibition. Social desirability biases notwithstanding, there has emerged a diptych typology of visitors to the VME, for whom the experience of the exhibition is likely interacting with divergent prior knowledge, experiences, interests and motivations. PMID:22974183
Seixas, Daniela; Sá, Maria José; Galhardo, Vasco; Guimarães, Joana; Lima, Deolinda
Early reports often ignored pain as an important symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). Pain prevalence figures in MS from European countries other than Portugal range between 40 and 65%. To our knowledge there is no published data in English on pain in MS in Portugal. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, with an emphasis on pain, of 85 MS patients followed-up in a Portuguese hospital, contributing to pain epidemiology in MS. Patients were interviewed sequentially after their regular appointments at the MS clinic; patients with pain completed The Brief Pain Inventory and The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). The prevalence of pain found was 34%. Headache and back pain were the most common anatomical sites described, followed by upper and lower limbs. Intensity of pain in an 11-point scale was, for the maximum pain intensity 6.7 ± 1.8, for the minimum pain intensity 2.2 ± 2.0, for the mean pain intensity 4.5 ± 1.5, and for the actual pain intensity 2.4 ± 2.9. Pain interfered significantly with general activity, mood, work, social relations, and enjoyment of life. All MS patients with pain employed words from both the sensory and affective categories of the MPQ to describe it. Patient pain descriptions’ included the word “hot-burning” in 59% of the cases, common in the report of central pain, but neuropathic pain medications were only used by 10% of them. Pain is an important symptom in Portuguese patients with MS, not only because of the high prevalence found, concordant with other European countries, but also because of its interference with quality-of-life. PMID:21503136
Ross, Michael D; Childs, John D; Middel, Cory; Kujawa, Julie; Brown, Daniel; Corrigan, Molly; Parsons, Nate
The purpose of this study was to compare knowledge in managing low back pain (LBP) between physical therapists and family practice physicians. Fifty-four physical therapists and 130 family practice physicians currently serving in the U.S. Air Force completed standardized examinations assessing knowledge, attitudes, the usefulness of clinical practice guidelines, and management strategies for patients with LBP. Beliefs of physical therapists and family practice physicians about LBP were compared using relative risks and independent t tests. Scores related to knowledge, attitudes, and the usefulness of clinical practice guidelines were generally similar between the groups. However, physical therapists were more likely to recommend the correct drug treatments for patients with acute LBP compared to family practice physicians (85.2% vs. 68.5%; relative risk: 1.24 [95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.46]) and believe that patient encouragement and explanation is important (75.9% vs. 56.2%; relative risk: 1.35 [95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.67]). In addition, physical therapists showed significantly greater knowledge regarding optimal management strategies for patients with LBP compared to family practice physicians. The results of this study may have implications for health policy decisions regarding the utilization of physical therapists to provide care for patients with LBP without a referral.
Korhonen, Teija; Kylmä, Jari; Houtsonen, Jarmo; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja
This study describes Finnish university students' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour. Finnish-speaking students were randomly selected from all registered students at two universities in Finland (N = 9715, n = 950). The data were collected by using a modified version of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing AIDS Study Questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour developed by Held and Chng. The total response rate was 35% (n = 333). The data were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. Normally distributed data were analysed by t-test and one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post-hoc test. The majority of students were familiar with HIV and AIDS, including its mode of transmission. However, there were still some misconceptions concerning HIV and AIDS. The oldest students and women had a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Of patients with HIV or AIDS, intravenous drug users were perceived most negatively. Male students had more homophobic attitudes. Students who reported that religion had an important role in their lives had significantly stricter attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Students' knowledge correlated positively with general attitudes towards HIV and AIDS. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS will lead to more positive attitudes towards HIV and AIDS as a disease, towards those infected as well as homosexual people. There is a need to focus on preventive health care and sexual health promotion by educating young people and changing their attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour.
Kleinke, Chris L.
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
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Perri, Giulia-Anna; Yeung, Herman; Green, Yoel; Bezant, Abby; Lee, Carman; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Khosravani, Houman
Palliative care is often initiated late for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) with pain being a common morbidity that is under-treated throughout the disease trajectory. When admitted to a palliative care unit (PCU), nurses play a pivotal role and must be highly informed to ensure effective pain management. The aim of this study is to determine the baseline level of knowledge and attitudes of PCU nurses regarding pain management in patients with ESLD. A descriptive, cross-sectional self-administered survey design was used for this study. The sample comprised 35 PCU nurses working at a continuing chronic care facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on the knowledge and attitudes of the nurses regarding pain management in patients with ESLD, was obtained using a modified version of the "Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain" (NKASRP) tool. Thirty-one PCU nurses were included for the analysis, giving a response rate of 89%. The mean total percentage score for the nurses on the modified version of the NKASRP was 72%. Only 26% of the nurse participants obtained a passing score of 80% or greater. There were no significant differences in mean total scores by age, gender, years of nursing experience or education level. The findings of this study provide important information about the inadequate knowledge and attitude in nurses regarding pain management for patients with ESLD. It is suggested that targeted educational programs and quality improvement initiatives in pain management for patients with ESLD could improve knowledge and attitudes for PCU nurses.
Moore, Sarah J; Min, Xia; Hill, Nigel; Jones, Caroline; Zaixing, Zhang; Cameron, Mary M
Malaria control in remote, forested areas of the Mekong region relies on personal protection from mosquito bites. Uptake of these methods may be limited by knowledge of the link between mosquitoes and malaria as well as social and economic aspects. Understanding barriers to uptake will inform malaria control programmes on targets for improvement of delivery. A total 748 key respondents: health providers and village heads, from 187 villages and 25 different ethnic groups, were interviewed using structured questionnaires. Differences in use of personal protection, and knowledge of malaria between groups were analysed using chi-square; and binary logistic regression used for multivariate analysis. Malaria knowledge was poor with 19.4% of women and 37.5% of men linking mosquitoes with malaria, although 95.6% knew one or more methods of mosquito control. Virtually all respondents used personal protection at some time during the year; and understanding of malaria transmission was strongly associated with bednet use. Those working in forest agriculture were significantly more likely to know that mosquitoes transmit malaria but this did not translate into a significantly greater likelihood of using bednets. Furthermore, use of personal protection while woing outdoors was rare, and less than 3% of respondents knew about the insecticide impregnation of bednets. The use of bednets, synthetic repellents and mosquito coils varied between ethnic groups, but was significantly more frequent among those with higher income, more years of education and permanent housing. The reported use of repellents and coils was also more common among women despite their low knowledge of malaria transmission, and low likelihood of having heard information on malaria within the last year. The use of personal protection must be increased, particularly among outdoor workers that have higher malaria risk. However, personal protection is widely used and widely accepted to prevent nuisance biting
Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Lewkowicz, Rafał; Truszczyński, Olaf; Rąpała, Kazimierz; Wojtkowiak, Mieczysław
Low back pain in pilots of military helicopters is widely discussed in the world literature. Vibrations and improper seat configuration cause that cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine might be exposed to overloading. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and intensity of pain in the spine as well as to identify subjective risk factors of back pain and its effect on the pilot's actions while flying a helicopter. 112 pilots, aged 25-56 years (mean age: 34.8 ± 6.3 years), actively flying helicopters, participated in the questionnaire survey. The questionnaire containing five groups of questions, elaborated by the authors, was used. 70% of the pilots reported pain complaints. Pain was localized in different parts of the spine. Uncomfortable body posture during prolonged flights resulting from the lack of lumbar support exerted the highest effect on pain provocation. This questionnaire survey enabled to determine the prevalence of pain, its type and intensity. Knowledge on low back pain imposes the necessity to eliminate the negative environmental effect on helicopter pilotage. Elimination of risk factors is possible through appropriate physical exercises and adjustment of pilots' seats. The authors plan to conduct--in the future--detailed annual examinations among pilots with back pain and, based on the results, to elaborate a prophylactic program containing simple forms of isometric and isotonic training involving paravertebral and deep abdominal muscles designed specifically for pilots of military helicopters.
Behbahani, Bahar Morshed; Ansaripour, Lala; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Zare, Najaf; Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad
Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the common problems during reproductive ages, with prevalence rate of 60–90%. This study aimed to compare the effects of acupress