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Sample records for pain mimicking appendicitis

  1. Missed Appendicitis: Mimicking Urologic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Akhavizadegan, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Appendicitis, a common disease, has different presentations. This has made its diagnosis difficult. This paper aims to present two cases of missed appendicitis with completely urologic presentation and the way that helped us to reach the correct diagnosis. The first case with symptoms fully related to kidney and the second mimicking epididymorchitis hindered prompt diagnosis. Right site of the pain, relapsing fever, frequent physical examination, and resistance to medical treatment were main clues which help us to make correct diagnosis. PMID:23326748

  2. Recurrent epiploic appendagitis mimicking appendicitis and cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hearne, Christopher B.; Taboada, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain caused by inflammation of an epiploic appendage. It has a nonspecific clinical presentation that may mimic other acute abdominal pathologies on physical exam, such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, or cholecystitis. However, EA is usually benign and self-limiting and can be treated conservatively. We present the case of a patient with two episodes of EA, the first mimicking acute appendicitis and the second mimicking acute cholecystitis. Although recurrence of EA is rare, it should be part of the differential diagnosis of acute, localized abdominal pain. A correct diagnosis of EA will prevent unnecessary hospitalization, antibiotic use, and surgical procedures. PMID:28127129

  3. Abdominal cystic lymphangioma mimicking appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

    2013-06-01

    A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.

  4. Appendicular sarcoidosis mimicking acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hunjan, Tia; Chaudery, Muzzafer; Zaidi, Ahsan; Beggs, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    Appendicular sarcoidosis is a very rare cause of acute abdominal pain, with only seven cases reported previously in the literature. A 45-year-old woman, known to have sarcoidosis, presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of epigastric and right iliac fossa abdominal pain. At diagnostic laparoscopy, an acutely inflamed appendix was found and removed as well as an omental mass which was biopsied. Subsequent histopathological examination of the appendix demonstrated appendicular sarcoidosis without acute appendicitis and chronic inflammatory changes in the omental biopsy. The patients’ symptoms completely resolved postoperatively. It is important to undertake urgent operative intervention in patients with sarcoidosis who present with right iliac fossa pain, owing to the high risk of perforation. PMID:23162022

  5. Appendicular sarcoidosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Hunjan, Tia; Chaudery, Muzzafer; Zaidi, Ahsan; Beggs, Andrew D

    2012-11-15

    Appendicular sarcoidosis is a very rare cause of acute abdominal pain, with only seven cases reported previously in the literature. A 45-year-old woman, known to have sarcoidosis, presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of epigastric and right iliac fossa abdominal pain. At diagnostic laparoscopy, an acutely inflamed appendix was found and removed as well as an omental mass which was biopsied. Subsequent histopathological examination of the appendix demonstrated appendicular sarcoidosis without acute appendicitis and chronic inflammatory changes in the omental biopsy. The patients' symptoms completely resolved postoperatively. It is important to undertake urgent operative intervention in patients with sarcoidosis who present with right iliac fossa pain, owing to the high risk of perforation.

  6. [Infestation with Enterobius vermicularis mimicking appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Levens, Afra M A; Schurink, Maarten; Koetse, Harma A; van Baren, Robertine

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infestation with the parasite Enterobius vermicularis is common in humans and is usually harmless. Anal pruritus is the most characteristic symptom, but the parasites can cause severe abdominal pain mimicking appendicitis. Early recognition can prevent an unnecessary appendectomy. A six-year-old girl reported to the accident and emergency department with pain in the lower right abdominal region. She was admitted and treated for suspected perforated appendix, following physical examination supplemented with an abdominal CT scan. After antibiotic treatment the symptoms disappeared as did the abscess, apart from a minor amount of residual infiltrate. She was then readmitted twice with recurrent abdominal pain without radiological evidence of an abdominal focus. We decided to conduct a diagnostic laparoscopy and an elective appendectomy à froid. During this procedure living worms were found in the appendix. Treatment with the anthelminthicum mebendazol was effective. Gastro-intestinal infestation with E. vermicularis is very common, especially in young children. This infestation is usually harmless, but can mimic appendicitis. This infestation is easily treatable with mebendazol.

  7. Idiopathic Renal Infarction Mimicking Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Francesco; Scarano, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Renal infarction is a rare cause of referral to the emergency department, with very low estimated incidence (0.004%–0.007%). Usually, it manifests in patients aged 60–70 with risk factors for thromboembolism, mostly related to heart disease, atrial fibrillation in particular. We report a case of idiopathic segmental renal infarction in a 38-year-old patient, presenting with acute abdominal pain with no previous known history or risk factors for thromboembolic diseases. Because of its aspecific clinical presentation, this condition can mimic more frequent pathologies including pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, or as in our case appendicitis. Here we highlight the extremely ambiguous presentation of renal infarct and the importance for clinicians to be aware of this condition, particularly in patients without clear risk factors, as it usually has a good prognosis after appropriate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:28203466

  8. Dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, M E C; Plummer, J M; Leake, P A; Powell, L; Chand, V; Chung, S; Tulloch, K

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is an acute viral disease, which usually presents as a mild febrile illness. Patients with severe disease present with dengue haemorrhagic fever or dengue toxic shock syndrome. Rarely, it presents with abdominal symptoms mimicking acute appendicitis. We present a case of a male patient presenting with right iliac fossa pain and suspected acute appendicitis that was later diagnosed with dengue fever following a negative appendicectomy. A 13-year old male patient presented with fever, localized right-sided abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound was not helpful and appendicectomy was performed due to worsening abdominal signs and an elevated temperature. A normal appendix with enlarged mesenteric nodes was found at surgery. Complete blood count showed thrombocytopenia with leucopenia. Dengue fever was now suspected and confirmed by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against dengue virus. This unusual presentation of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis should be suspected during viral outbreaks and in patients with atypical symptoms and cytopenias on blood evaluation in order to prevent unnecessary surgery. This case highlights the occurrence of abdominal symptoms and complications that may accompany dengue fever. Early recognition of dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis will avoid non-therapeutic operation and the diagnosis may be aided by blood investigations indicating a leucopenia, which is uncommon in patients with suppurative acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Giant sigmoid diverticulitis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Anderton, M; Griffiths, B; Ferguson, G

    2011-09-01

    Giant colonic diverticula are a rare manifestation of diverticular disease and there are fewer than 150 cases described in the literature. They may have an acute or chronic presentation or may remain asymptomatic and be found incidentally. As the majority (over 80%) of giant diverticula are located in the sigmoid colon, they usually present with left-sided symptoms but due to the variable location of the sigmoid loop, right-sided symptoms are possible. We describe the acute presentation of an inflamed giant sigmoid diverticulum with right iliac fossa pain. We discuss both the treatment options for this interesting condition and also the important role of computed tomography in the diagnosis and management of abdominal pain in elderly patients.

  10. [Recurrent abdominal pain and "chronic appendicitis"].

    PubMed

    Leardi, S; Delmonaco, S; Ventura, T; Chiominto, A; De Rubeis, G; Simi, M

    2000-01-01

    Chronic appendicitis may be the cause of recurrent abdominal pain. This hypothesis is the subject of controversy. The aim is to clarify the possible existence of a chronic inflammation of the appendix by a clinical and histopathologic study. The case history and the preoperative symptoms and serum findings of 269 patients with appendectomy have been studied. All the appendices have been histologically examined. Chronic appendicitis was diagnosed when at least two typical histological factors of chronic inflammation were present. The histological findings of the appendices have been correlated with preoperative clinical and serum findings of the patients. 14-46 months after the appendectomy, the patients have been examined. Histological examination revealed 187 cases (69.5%) with acute appendicitis, 44 cases (16.3%) with non disease of appendix and 38 cases (14.2%) with chronic appendicitis. Recurrent abdominal pain and normal leukocyte count were closely correlated (chi 2 = 18.3, p < 0.001; chi 2 = 21.3, p < 0.001 respectively) with diagnosis of chronic appendicitis. 81.8% of 33 patients with chronic appendicitis who underwent follow-up had relief of all the symptoms after appendectomy. Therefore, the study seems to confirm the existence of a clinico-pathological condition that can be defined as chronic appendicitis, resolvable with appendectomy.

  11. Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

    2009-10-14

    We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature.

  12. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the appendix, a finger-shaped pouch that projects from your colon on the lower right side of your abdomen. The appendix doesn't seem to have a specific purpose. Appendicitis causes pain in your lower right abdomen. ...

  13. Acute Appendicitis Presenting as Unusual Left Upper Quadrant Pain

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Tsung-Ju; Chen, Chun-Wen; Lin, Hsin-Yuan; Hsu, Wen-Hsiu; Wang, Shou-Cheng; Tu, Chuan-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Appendicitis is the most common abdominal disease that requires surgery in the emergency ward. It usually presents as right lower quadrant pain, but may rarely present as left upper quadrant (LUQ) pain due to congenital anatomical abnormalities of the intestine. We report a patient who complained of persistent LUQ abdominal pain and was finally diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) as congenital intestinal malrotation complicated with acute appendicitis. It is important to include acute appendicitis in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of LUQ abdominal pain. Abdominal CT can provide significant information that is useful in preoperative diagnosis and determination of proper treatment. PMID:24348602

  14. Laparoscopic 'sleeve' caecectomy for idiopathic solitary caecal ulcer mimicking appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sran, Harkiran; Sebastian, Joseph; Doughan, Samer

    2015-08-04

    Idiopathic ulcer of the caecum is a rare condition of unknown aetiology. Its clinical presentation may mimic various pathologies, including appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease and caecal malignancy. A definitive diagnosis is rarely established preoperatively, and is usually only confirmed histologically following surgical resection. We report a case of a young patient with caecal ulceration presenting with symptoms and signs of appendicitis, in whom laparoscopic anterior 'sleeve' caecectomy was performed to excise an inflammatory-looking mass involving the caecum. Histological examination demonstrated a deep mucosal ulcer and subsequent colonoscopy did not reveal any further pathology.

  15. [Appendicitis versus non-specific acute abdominal pain: Paediatric Appendicitis Score evaluation].

    PubMed

    Prada Arias, Marcos; Salgado Barreira, Angel; Montero Sánchez, Margarita; Fernández Eire, Pilar; García Saavedra, Silvia; Gómez Veiras, Javier; Fernández Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific acute abdominal pain is the most common process requiring differential diagnosis with appendicitis in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the Paediatric Appendicitis Score in differentiating between these two entities. All patients admitted due to suspicion of appendicitis were prospectively evaluated in our hospital over a two-year period. Cases of non-specific acute abdominal pain and appendicitis were enrolled in the study. Several variables were collected, including Score variables and C-reactive protein levels. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses and diagnostic accuracy studies (ROC curves) were performed. A total of 275 patients were studied, in which there were 143 cases of non-specific acute abdominal pain and 132 cases of appendicitis. Temperature and right iliac fossa tenderness on palpation were the variables without statistically significant differences, and with no discrimination power between groups. Pain on coughing, hopping, and/or percussion tenderness in the right lower quadrant was the variable with greater association with appendicitis. The Score correctly stratified the patients into risk groups. Substitution of temperature for C-reactive protein in the Score increased diagnostic accuracy, although with no statistically significant differences. The Paediatric Appendicitis Score helps in differential diagnosis between appendicitis and non-specific acute abdominal pain. It would be advisable to replace the temperature in the Score, since it has no discrimination power between these groups. C-reactive protein at a cut-off value of 25.5mg/L value could be used instead. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  16. Laparoscopic removal of a perforating intrauterine device mimicking chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Stefan M; Comman, Andreas; Gaetzschmann, Peter; Kipf, Bianca; Behrend, Matthias

    2008-08-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is a common form of reversible birth control. One of the rare, but serious, complications is uterine perforation. In this paper, we report a case of a patient who underwent laparoscopy for presumed chronic appendicitis. Intraoperatively, uterine perforation by the IUD was found. The IUD was removed laparoscopically. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  17. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... function. A blockage inside of the appendix causes appendicitis. The blockage leads to increased pressure, problems with ... to pass gas Low fever Not everyone with appendicitis has all these symptoms. Appendicitis is a medical ...

  18. [Diagnostic difficulties in pediatric abdominal pain with potential appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Stawarski, Andrzej; Czernik, Jerzy; Bronowickip, Krzysztof; Iwańczak, Franciszek; Pytrus, Tomasz; Klempous, Jan; Godziński, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric abdominal pain is one of the most common symptom of children brought to attention of primary care physicians and pediatric surgeons. In many children clinical symptoms may be uncharacteristic and may lead to diagnostic difficulties. Clinical analysis of children with right lower quadrant abdominal pain suspected of appendicitis or children with periappendicular mass. The histories of 14 children aged from 18 months to 17 years treated in Pediatric Clinic were analysed. All children were operated because of right lower quadrant abdominal pain or abdominal mass before admission to the Pediatric Clinic or during hospitalization in Pediatric Clinic. Intraoperatively in all children pathologies other than appendicitis were the cause of symptoms. The most often Crohn's disease were recognized (9 children), in 2 cases with concomitant other pathologies (fecal tumor of appendix in one case and with peritoneal abscess after perforation of intestinal wall). Sporadically the inflammation of the mesenterial lymph nodes caused by Yersinia infection suggested appendicitis. In one boy with ulcerative colitis, during exacerbation of the disease appendicitis complicated by rupture and peritonitis was observed. In 18-month old child with right lower quadrant abdominal mass invagination complicated by perforation of the ileum was recognized. In the case of 14-years old boy 6 months after appendectomy we observed mechanical intestinal obstruction complicated by perforation and peritonitis. Carcinoid of the appendix was the cause of abdominal pain in one child. 1. Appendicitis is the most frequent surgical etiology of the right lower quadrant pediatric abdominal pain. 2. Despite new diagnostic imagines there are no definite criteria to recognize appendicitis, in most cases physical examination and very carefull evaluation of abdominal pain are the most important. 3. All children with periappendipected of Crohn's disease. 4. All children with equivocal presentations of

  19. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be removed? What Is Appendicitis? Your appendix (say: uh-PEN-dix) is a small, finger-shaped pouch ... inflamed, or swells up, it's called appendicitis (say: uh-pen-di-SYE-tis). Both kids and adults ...

  20. Acute primary haemorrhagic omental torsion mimicking perforated appendicitis: an unorthodox surgical paradox.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Abdul

    2014-08-01

    Acute primary haemorrhagic omental torsion is an atypical and deceptive cause of acute abdomen that could closely mimic a myriad of intra-abdominal catastrophes, especially perforated appendicitis. The author reports a 30 years man who had presented with gradually worsening right-sided abdominal pain of 2 days duration. Laboratory work-up and abdominal radiographs were inconclusive. Abdominal sonography detected presence of free fluid in the pelvic cul-de-sac. Based on clinical and sonographic findings, presumptive diagnosis of perforated appendicitis was made and the patient was explored through extended Rockey-Davis incision. About 500 - 700 ml of dark-coloured blood (haemoperitoneum) was present in the peritoneal cavity and the pelvis secondary to acute haemorrhagic omental torsion. The appendix was grossly normal. Omentectomy and prophylactic appendicectomy resulted in uneventful recovery of the patient. Acute primary omental torsion is an uncommon pathology that must be kept in mind during differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially acute or perforated appendicitis.

  1. Laparoscopic treatment of lower abdominal pain related to chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Pandza, Haris; Custović, Samir; Cović, Ranko; Delibegovic, Samir

    2008-01-01

    The appendicitis is one of the most common entities that could be met at surgical department. Chronic pelvic pain of right iliac fossa is common and it causes disability and distress and results in significant costs to health services. Often, investigation by laparoscopy reveals no obvious cause for pain. There are several possible explanations for chronic pelvic pain including undetected irritable bowel syndrome, the vascular hypothesis where pain is thought to arise from dilated pelvic veins in which blood flow is markedly reduced and altered spinal cord and brain processing of stimuli in women with chronic pelvic pain. As the pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is not well understood, its treatment is often unsatisfactory and limited to symptom relief. We aimed to identify and review treatments for chronic pelvic pain related to appendicitis. Frequently ultrasound and CT scan cannot confirm the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis due to non significant swelling of vermiform appendix. The study excludes patients with a diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome, those with pain known to be caused by gynecological disorders or irritable bowel syndrome. Detailed history, clinical examination, and serological and radiological investigations failed to reveal the cause of the pain in all cases. We presumed that pain is caused by chronic appendicitis with appendicolithiasis and that removal of appendix will result in symptom relief. We performed study with 75 patients treated by laparoscopic appendectomy. Duration of symptoms ranged from 3 to 48 months, with a mean of 13.1 months. All patients included in this study had right iliac fossa pain lasting more than three months. We performed radiological contrast studies to verify appendicolithiasis of irregularity of appendicular wall. Patient with mild symptoms were excluded, only patients that have symptoms that cause disability were operated. We compared pain according to localization, duration and character. We evaluated

  2. Abdominal Pain in the Female Patient: A Case of Concurrent Acute Appendicitis and Ruptured Endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Martine A.; Lin, Elizabeth; Baek, Ji Yoon; Andoni, Alda; Wang, Xiao Hui

    2016-01-01

    General surgeons are often asked to evaluate acute abdominal pain which has an expanded differential diagnosis in women of childbearing age. Acute appendicitis accounts for many surgical emergencies as a common cause of nongynecologic pelvic pain. In some rare instances, acute appendicitis has been shown to occur simultaneously with a variety of gynecologic diseases. We report a case of concurrent acute appendicitis and ruptured ovarian endometrioma. PMID:28097032

  3. Sonography of Abdominal Pain in Children: Appendicitis and Its Common Mimics.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Corwin, Michael T; Davoodian, Andrew; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal pain is very common in the pediatric population (<18 years of age). Sonography is a safe modality that can often differentiate the frequently encountered causes of abdominal pain in children. This pictorial essay will discuss the sonographic findings of acute appendicitis, including the imaging appearance of a perforated appendicitis. It will also present the sonographic features of the relatively common mimics of appendicitis, such as mesenteric adenitis/gastroenteritis, intussusception, Meckel diverticulum, and ovarian torsion.

  4. Diagnostic errors of right lower quadrant pain in children: beyond appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Patricia T; Schooler, Gary R; Lee, Edward Y

    2015-10-01

    Right lower quadrant pain in children can result from various underlying conditions other than acute appendicitis. The common mimics of acute appendicitis are related to acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary diseases. Diagnosis of right lower quadrant pain in the pediatric population can be challenging, especially when the symptoms are often nonspecific. This article reviews the currently available imaging techniques for evaluating a child with right lower quadrant pain and the spectrum of differential diagnoses with a focus on imaging clues to a specific diagnosis.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of fibrinogen to differentiate appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain in children.

    PubMed

    Prada-Arias, Marcos; Vázquez, José Luis; Salgado-Barreira, Ángel; Gómez-Veiras, Javier; Montero-Sánchez, Margarita; Fernández-Lorenzo, José Ramón

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the biomarker fibrinogen (FB), along with the more traditional markers white blood cell count (WBC), absolute neutrophil count (ANC), and C-reactive protein (CRP), to discriminate appendicitis from nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) in children. We prospectively evaluated all children aged 5 to 15 years admitted for suspected appendicitis at an academic pediatric emergency department during 2 years. Diagnostic accuracy of FB (prothrombin time-derived method), WBC, ANC, and CRP was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve. A total of 275 patients were enrolled in the study (143 NSAP, 100 uncomplicated appendicitis, and 32 complicated appendicitis). WBC and ANC had a moderate diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis vs NSAP (WBC: AUC 0.79, ANC: AUC 0.79). FB and CPR had a poor diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis vs NSAP (FB: AUC 0.63, CRP: AUC 0.64) and a good diagnostic accuracy for complicated vs uncomplicated appendicitis (FB: AUC 0.86, CRP: AUC 0.90). All inflammatory markers had a good diagnostic accuracy for complicated appendicitis vs NSAP. WBC and ANC are useful inflammatory markers to discriminate appendicitis from NSAP. FB and CRP are not very useful to discriminate appendicitis from NSAP, but they discriminate properly complicated from uncomplicated appendicitis and NSAP, with a similar diagnostic accuracy. In a child with suspected appendicitis, a plasma FB level (prothrombin time-derived method) >520 mg/dL is associated to an increased likelihood of complicated appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... exam. The doctor will usually order some blood tests and urine studies, and may recommend X-rays, a CAT scan, or an ultrasound. The doctor will decide whether you need surgery. Ask before taking any pain medicines (such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen) because your doctor will need to ...

  7. Computed tomography findings mimicking appendicitis as a manifestation of colorectal cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Watchorn, Richard E.; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J.; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Webb, Emily M.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    The primary computed tomography (CT) signs of appendicitis can also be seen with other inflammatory or neoplastic processes. We report on two cases in which appendiceal dilatation and peri-appendiceal fluid or stranding were the dominant imaging manifestations of colorectal carcinoma in the ascending colon. This study highlights the need to closely examine the ascending colon in patients with a suspected CT diagnosis of acute appendicitis, since these findings may be secondary to an inconspicuous colorectal carcinoma. PMID:19857802

  8. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain: Utility of computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Eugene Mun Wai; Venkatesh, Sudhakar Kundapur

    2009-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical condition that is usually managed with early surgery, and is associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, some patients may have atypical symptoms and physical findings that may lead to a delay in diagnosis and increased complications. Atypical presentation may be related to the position of the appendix. Ascending retrocecal appendicitis presenting with right upper abdominal pain may be clinically indistinguishable from acute pathology in the gallbladder, liver, biliary tree, right kidney and right urinary tract. We report a series of four patients with retrocecal appendicitis who presented with acute right upper abdominal pain. The clinical diagnoses at presentation were acute cholecystitis in two patients, pyelonephritis in one, and ureteric colic in one. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen at presentation showed subhepatic collections in two patients and normal findings in the other two. Computed tomography (CT) identified correctly retrocecal appendicitis and inflammation in the retroperitoneum in all cases. In addition, abscesses in the retrocecal space (n = 2) and subhepatic collections (n = 2) were also demonstrated. Emergency appendectomy was performed in two patients, interval appendectomy in one, and hemicolectomy in another. Surgical findings confirmed the presence of appendicitis and its retroperitoneal extensions. Our case series illustrates the usefulness of CT in diagnosing ascending retrocecal appendicitis and its extension, and excluding other inflammatory conditions that mimic appendicitis. PMID:19630119

  9. Co-infection with Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Kasra H; Fakhar, Mahdi; Nematian, Javad; Ghasemi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we describe an unusual case of verminous appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia saginata in a 29-year-old woman from Iran. The histopathological examinations and parasitological descriptions of both worms found in the appendix lumen are discussed. The removed appendix exhibited the macroscopic and microscopic features of acute appendicitis. Antihelminthic therapy was initiated with single doses of praziquantel for the taeniasis and mebendazole for the enterobiasis, and the patient was discharged. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediatric Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rentea, Rebecca M; St Peter, Shawn D

    2017-02-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical pathologies in children. It can present with right lower quadrant pain. Scoring systems in combination with selective imaging and surgical examination will diagnose most children with appendicitis. Clinical pathways should be used. Most surgical interventions for appendicitis are now almost exclusively laparoscopic, with trials demonstrating better outcomes for children who undergo index hospitalization appendectomies when perforated. Nonoperative management has a role in the treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. This article discusses the workup and management, modes of treatment, and continued areas of controversy in pediatric appendicitis.

  11. Discriminative Accuracy of Novel and Traditional Biomarkers in Children with Suspected Appendicitis Adjusted for Duration of Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Dayan, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers in patients with suspected appendicitis as a function of duration of symptoms. Methods This was a prospective cohort study, conducted in a tertiary care emergency department (ED). The authors enrolled children 3 to 18 years old with acute abdominal pain of less than 96 hours, and measured serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), C - reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC), and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Trends in biomarker levels were examined based on duration of abdominal pain. The accuracy of biomarkers was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Optimal cut-points and test performance characteristics were calculated for each biomarker. Results Of 280 patients enrolled, the median age was 11.3 years (IQR 8.6 to 14.8), 57% were male, and 33% had appendicitis. Median IL-6, median CRP, mean WBC, and mean ANC differed significantly (p < 0.001) between patients with non-perforated appendicitis and those without appendicitis; median IL-8 levels did not differ between groups. In non-perforated appendicitis, median IL-6, WBC, and ANC levels were maximal at less than 24 hrs of pain, while CRP peaked between 24 and 48 hours. In perforated appendicitis, median IL-8 levels were highest by 24 hours, WBC and IL-6 by 24 to 48 hours, and CRP after 48 hours of pain. The WBC appeared to be the most useful marker to predict appendicitis in those with fewer than 24 or more than 48 hours of pain, while CRP was the most useful in those with 24 to 48 hours of pain. Conclusions In this population, the serum levels and accuracy of novel and traditional biomarkers varies in relation to duration of abdominal pain. IL-6 shows promise as a novel biomarker to identify children with appendicitis. PMID:21676053

  12. Racial Disparities in Pain Management of Children With Appendicitis in Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K.; Kuppermann, Nathan; Cleary, Sean D.; Teach, Stephen J.; Chamberlain, James M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Racial disparities in use of analgesia in emergency departments have been previously documented. Further work to understand the causes of these disparities must be undertaken, which can then help inform the development of interventions to reduce and eradicate racial disparities in health care provision. OBJECTIVE To evaluate racial differences in analgesia administration, and particularly opioid administration, among children diagnosed as having appendicitis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Repeated cross-sectional study of patients aged 21 years or younger evaluated in the emergency department who had an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis of appendicitis, using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2003 to 2010. We calculated the frequency of both opioid and nonopioid analgesia administration using complex survey weighting. We then performed multivariable logistic regression to examine racial differences in overall administration of analgesia, and specifically opioid analgesia, after adjusting for important demographic and visit covariates, including ethnicity and pain score. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Receipt of analgesia administration (any and opioid) by race. RESULTS An estimated 0.94 (95% CI, 0.78–1.10) million children were diagnosed as having appendicitis. Of those, 56.8% (95% CI, 49.8%–63.9%) received analgesia of any type; 41.3% (95% CI, 33.7%–48.9%) received opioid analgesia (20.7% [95% CI, 5.3%–36.0%] of black patients vs 43.1% [95% CI, 34.6%–51.4%] of white patients). When stratified by pain score and adjusted for ethnicity, black patients with moderate pain were less likely to receive any analgesia than white patients (adjusted odds ratio = 0.1 [95% CI, 0.02–0.8]). Among those with severe pain, black patients were less likely to receive opioids than white patients (adjusted odds ratio = 0.2 [95% CI, 0.06–0.9]). In a multivariable model, there were no significant differences

  13. Spontaneous splenic rupture and Anisakis appendicitis presenting as abdominal pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anisakidosis, human infection with nematodes of the family Anisakidae, is caused most commonly by Anisakis simplex. Acquired by the consumption of raw or undercooked marine fish or squid, anisakidosis occurs where such dietary customs are practiced, including Japan, the coastal regions of Europe and the United States. Rupture of the spleen is a relatively common complication of trauma and many systemic disorders affecting the reticuloendothelial system, including infections and neoplasias. A rare subtype of rupture occurring spontaneously and arising from a normal spleen has been recognized as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Herein we discuss the case of a woman who presented to our institution with appendicitis secondary to Anisakis and spontaneous spleen rupture. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with hemorrhagic shock and abdominal pain and was subsequently found to have spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. She underwent open surgical resection of the splenic rupture and the appendicitis without any significant postoperative complications. Histopathologic examination revealed appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex and splenic rupture of undetermined etiology. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first of a woman with the diagnosis of spontaneous spleen rupture and appendicitis secondary to Anisakis simplex. Digestive anisakiasis may present as an acute abdomen. Emergency physicians should know and consider this diagnosis in patients with ileitis or colitis, especially if an antecedent of raw or undercooked fish ingestion is present. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is an extremely rare event. Increased awareness of this condition will enhance early diagnosis and effective treatment. Further research is required to identify the possible risk factors associated with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. PMID:22524971

  14. Appendicitis by Enterobius vermicularis presenting with recurrent abdominal pain and eosinophilia A case report.

    PubMed

    Risio, Domenico; Rendine, Anna; Napolitano, Luca; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-02-29

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is the most common parasitic infection in developed countries. Enterobius vermicularis infestation of the appendix can cause symptoms of appendiceal pain, independent of microscopic evidence of acute inflammation. The diagnosis of a parasitic infestation is generally achieved only after the pathologic examination of the resected appendices. We present a case of a 23 year old female with enterobiasis of appendix presented with clinical features of acute appendicitis. The appendix was surgically removed and the specimen was pathologically. We highlight that the symptoms of appendicitis can be due to Enterobius vermicularis infestation also without any histological evidence of acute inflammation. High index of suspicion and including parasitic origin in differential diagnosis of abdominal disturbances might hopefully Appencitis, Elminth, Enterobius vermicularis (EV).

  15. Gangrenous intrathoracic appendicitis, a rare cause of right-sided chest pain: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Schellhaas, Elisabeth; Döbler, Oliver; Kroesen, Anton-J; Buhr, Heinz-J; Hotz, Hubert G

    2010-09-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias are becoming increasingly common due to radiofrequency ablation of malignant liver tumors. Most patients eventually present with symptoms caused by bowel obstruction. A 54-year-old woman with pleuritic pain and fever had a right-sided enterothorax probably caused by hemihepatectomy several years before. The patient was diagnosed with perforated gangrenous intrathoracic appendicitis during an emergency laparotomy for suspected incarceration of her diaphragmatic hernia. She was treated with an appendectomy and suturing of her right hemidiaphragm. An acquired diaphragmatic hernia should therefore be surgically repaired as soon as it is diagnosed in order to avoid complications.

  16. Diagnostic performance of a biomarker panel as a negative predictor for acute appendicitis in adult ED patients with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Huckins, David S; Copeland, Karen; Self, Wesley; Vance, Cheryl; Hendry, Phyllis; Borg, Keith; Gogain, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the APPY1TM biomarker panel, previously described for use in pediatric patients, for identifying adult ED patients with abdominal pain who are at low risk of acute appendicitis. This study prospectively enrolled subjects >18years of age presenting to seven U.S. emergency departments with <72hours of abdominal pain suggesting possible acute appendicitis. The APPY1 panel was performed on blood samples drawn from each patient at the time of initial evaluation and results were correlated with the final diagnosis either positive or negative for acute appendicitis. 431 patients were enrolled with 422 completing all aspects of the study. The APPY1 biomarker panel exhibited a sensitivity of 97.5% (95% CI, 91.3-99.3%), a negative predictive value of 98.4% (95% CI, 94.4-99.6%), a negative likelihood ratio of 0.07 (95% CI, 0.02-0.27), with a specificity of 36.5% (95% CI, 31.6-41.8%) for acute appendicitis. The panel correctly identified 125 of 342 (36.6%) patients who did not have appendicitis with 2 (2.5%) false negatives. The CT utilization rate in this population was 72.7% (307/422). Of 307 CT scans, 232 were done for patients who did not have appendicitis and 79 (34%) of these patients were correctly identified as negative with "low risk" biomarker panel results, representing 26% (79/307) of all CT scans performed. This biomarker panel exhibited high sensitivity and negative predictive value for acute appendicitis in this prospective adult cohort, thereby potentially reducing the dependence on CT for the evaluation of possible acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of diagnostic scales for appendicitis in patients with lower abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Alvaro; Domínguez, Luis Carlos; Bermúdez, Charles; Serna, Adriana

    2007-09-01

    Diagnosis of apendicitis is difficult; however several clinical scales have been developed that attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy. The operational characteristics of Alvarado and Fenyö scales were defined in patients with abdominal pain suggestive of appendicitis and were compare with clinical and pathological diagnoses. A prospective trial assessed the diagnostic tests. Sign, symptoms, and laboratory tests were included in scales selected. Surgeon decision was maintained independent from the results of the scales. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and positive and negative likelihood ratio for each scale was compared with the surgeon evaluation. The sample included 374 patients with approximately equal sexes. Of these 269 patients underwent surgery. Howeve, 16.9% of the male and 31.4% of female patients did not have appendicitis. For men, a diagnosis made by the surgeon had better sensitivity than scales (86.2% vs. 73% for Alvarado and 67.2% for Fenyö) without significant differences in specificity. For women, surgeon and Alvarado scale diagnoses were similar, and better than Fenyö scale (77.1% vs. 79.5% for Alvarado and 47% for Fenyö), but specificity was higher for Fenyö scale (92.9% vs. 71.4% for Alvarado and 75.9% for surgeon). Accuracy in diagnosis of appendicitis increases with a higher Alvarado score. For men with abdominal pain on right lower quadrant, surgeon diagnosis is more accurate than scales. For women, Fenyö scale offers a better sensitivity. Alvarado score can facilitate decision-making in patients with these abdominal symptoms.

  18. Vacation appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Redan, Jay A; Tempel, Michael B; Harrison, Shannon; Zhu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    When someone plans a vacation, one of the last things taken into consideration is the possibility of contracting an illness while away. Unfortunately, if people develop abdominal pain while planning for a vacation, they usually proceed with the vacation and do not consider getting medical attention for their pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of being on vacation and its association with ruptured appendicitis. From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008, the incidence of ruptured appendicitis cases at Florida Hospital-Celebration Health, located 5 miles from Walt Disney World, was compared with that of Florida Hospital-Orlando, approximately 30 miles away from Walt Disney World. We evaluated whether patients "on vacation" versus residents of Orlando have an increased incidence of ruptured appendicitis. Of patients treated for presumed appendicitis, 60.59% at Florida Hospital-Celebration Health had ruptured appendicitis during this time versus 20.42% at Florida Hospital-Orlando. Of those 266 patients seen at Florida Hospital-Celebration Health, 155 were on vacation versus only 21 at Florida Hospital-Orlando. Although there is not a direct cause and effect, it is clear that there is a higher incidence of ruptured appendicitis in patients on vacation versus in the regular community in the Orlando, Florida area.

  19. Vacation Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Tempel, Michael B.; Harrison, Shannon; Zhu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: When someone plans a vacation, one of the last things taken into consideration is the possibility of contracting an illness while away. Unfortunately, if people develop abdominal pain while planning for a vacation, they usually proceed with the vacation and do not consider getting medical attention for their pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of being on vacation and its association with ruptured appendicitis. Methods: From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2008, the incidence of ruptured appendicitis cases at Florida Hospital–Celebration Health, located 5 miles from Walt Disney World, was compared with that of Florida Hospital–Orlando, approximately 30 miles away from Walt Disney World. We evaluated whether patients “on vacation” versus residents of Orlando have an increased incidence of ruptured appendicitis. Results: Of patients treated for presumed appendicitis, 60.59% at Florida Hospital–Celebration Health had ruptured appendicitis during this time versus 20.42% at Florida Hospital–Orlando. Of those 266 patients seen at Florida Hospital–Celebration Health, 155 were on vacation versus only 21 at Florida Hospital–Orlando. Conclusion: Although there is not a direct cause and effect, it is clear that there is a higher incidence of ruptured appendicitis in patients on vacation versus in the regular community in the Orlando, Florida area. PMID:23743367

  20. Strongyloides appendicitis: unusual etiology in two siblings with chronic abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Komenaka, Ian K; Wu, George C H; Lazar, Eric L; Cohen, Jason A

    2003-09-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute surgical disease in children and young adults. Parasites, however, are one of the uncommon etiologies. An 8-year-old girl and her 7-year-old sister presented with more than 2 months of chronic abdominal pain that became worse over a 1-week period before presentation. The 2 sisters presented 1 month apart. Both had similar symptomatology and physical examination findings. At operation, the surgical findings included an inflamed appendix with a cross section of the parasite Strongyloides. Strongyloides appendicitis has occurred almost exclusively in areas endemic to the parasite. Its environment is more common outside the United States but occasionally is seen in the Southeast region and in institutionalized individuals. The presentation of acute exacerbation of chronic abdominal pain coupled with the pathologic finding of Strongyloides in an acutely inflamed appendix, should alert the clinician of other possible cases. This increased index of suspicion will allow more prompt diagnosis and help avoid the morbidity of delayed operation.

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Right Lower Quadrant Pain--Suspected Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Martin P; Katz, Douglas S; Lalani, Tasneem; Carucci, Laura R; Cash, Brooks D; Kim, David H; Piorkowski, Robert J; Small, William C; Spottswood, Stephanie E; Tulchinsky, Mark; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Rosen, Max P

    2015-06-01

    The most common cause of acute right lower quadrant (RLQ) pain requiring surgery is acute appendicitis (AA). This narrative's focus is on imaging procedures in the diagnosis of AA, with consideration of other diseases causing RLQ pain. In general, Computed Tomography (CT) is the most accurate imaging study for evaluating suspected AA and alternative etiologies of RLQ pain. Data favor intravenous contrast use for CT, but the need for enteric contrast when intravenous contrast is used is not strongly favored. Radiation exposure concerns from CT have led to increased investigation in minimizing CT radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and in using algorithms with ultrasound as a first imaging examination followed by CT in inconclusive cases. In children, ultrasound is the preferred initial examination, as it is nearly as accurate as CT for the diagnosis of AA in this population and without ionizing radiation exposure. In pregnant women, ultrasound is preferred initially with MRI as a second imaging examination in inconclusive cases, which is the majority.The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  2. IUD appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Peleg, D; Feldberg, D; Dicker, D; Samuel, N

    1983-07-01

    A case of uterine perforation by an IUD with acute and chronic irritation of the appendix is presented. The patient, a 30-year old gravida 4, para 4, was admitted to the hospital with severe abdominal pain, fever, and diarrhea. A Lippes loop IUD had been inserted 3 years previously. The device could not be visualized at laparoscopy. At laparotomy the IUD was palpable within a large inflammatory mass in the right lower abdomen . Dissection of the adhesions revealed the IUD twisted around the appendix, and appendectomy was performed. This is the 1st reported case of a perforated, nonmedicated IUD causing appendicitis. The 2 cases of IUD appendicitis previously described in the literature involved Copper-7 devices, which have been shown to cause considerable tissue response when placed in the peritoneal cavity. Abdominal signs and symptoms associated with a missing IUD string should alert physicians to the possibility of IUD appendicitis.

  3. Chronic appendicitis "syndrome" manifested by an appendicolith and thickened appendix presenting as chronic right lower abdominal pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Vincenzo; Giuliano, Concetta; Pinto, Fabio; Scaglione, Mariano

    2006-03-01

    In this short report, we describe a small series of adult patients with chronic appendicitis presenting with chronic right lower quadrant abdominal pain. The clinical presentation was unusual and atypical for classic appendicitis because of the absence of fever, peritoneal tenderness on focused graded compression of the abdomen, and leukocytosis. Computed tomography (CT) findings included the presence of an appendicolith and appendiceal thickening, without mesenteric infiltration, abscess, or collection. In this series, the appendicolith appeared to represent a marker rather than an actual cause of appendicitis. Focused CT scans with additional lung and bone windows proved optimal in detecting appendicoliths, which were not visible on the scout localizer scans, despite windowing modifications. Our findings suggest that chronic appendicitis may be a phenomenon unique to adults and should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic right lower quadrant pain in patients seen in the emergency room setting. Surgery is curative in such patients, although expectant management is an alternative when tolerated by the patient.

  4. Prospective validation of a biomarker panel to identify pediatric ED patients with abdominal pain who are at low risk for acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Huckins, David S; Simon, Harold K; Copeland, Karen; Milling, Truman J; Spandorfer, Philip R; Hennes, Halim; Allen, Coburn; Gogain, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study is to prospectively validate the diagnostic accuracy of a biomarker panel consisting of white blood cell, C-reactive protein, and myeloid-related protein 8/14 levels in identifying pediatric patients with abdominal pain who are at low risk for appendicitis. This prospective observational study enrolled subjects aged 2 to 20 years presenting to 29 US emergency departments with abdominal pain suggesting possible acute appendicitis. Blood samples were analyzed for white blood cell, C-reactive protein, and myeloid-related protein 8/14 levels from which the composite biomarker panel results were calculated, then correlated with the final diagnosis either positive or negative for acute appendicitis. A total of 2201 patients were enrolled, with 1887 completing all aspects of the study. Prevalence of appendicitis in this cohort was 25.3%. The biomarker panel exhibited a sensitivity of 97.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 95.1%-98.2%), negative predictive value of 97.4% (95% CI, 95.8%-98.5%), negative likelihood ratio of 0.08 (95% CI, 0.05-0.13), with a specificity of 37.9% (95% CI, 35.4%-40.4%) for appendicitis. The panel correctly identified 534 (37.8%) of 1410 patients who did not have appendicitis with 14 false negatives (2.9%). Overall, 23.7% (132/557) of computed tomographic (CT) scans were done for patients with negative biomarker panel results, including 31.2% (131/420) of patients who had CT but did not have appendicitis. This biomarker panel exhibited high sensitivity and negative predictive value for acute appendicitis in this large prospective cohort. This panel may be useful in identifying pediatric patients who are at low risk for appendicitis and might be followed clinically, potentially reducing the dependence on CT in the evaluation for acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Mimicking Orofacial Pain: A Unique Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Naveen; Mendigeri, Vijaylaxmi; Puranik, Surekha R.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic neuroma (AN), also called vestibular schwannoma, is a tumor composed of Schwann cells that most frequently involve the vestibular division of the VII cranial nerve. The most common symptoms include orofacial pain, facial paralysis, trigeminal neuralgia, tinnitus, hearing loss, and imbalance that result from compression of cranial nerves V–IX. Symptoms of acoustic neuromas can mimic and present as temporomandibular disorder. Therefore, a thorough medical and dental history, radiographic evaluation, and properly conducted diagnostic testing are essential in differentiating odontogenic pain from pain that is nonodontogenic in nature. This article reports a rare case of a young pregnant female patient diagnosed with an acoustic neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle that was originally treated for musculoskeletal temporomandibular joint disorder. PMID:28053796

  6. Effects of acupuncture on pain and inflammation in pediatric emergency department patients with acute appendicitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nager, Alan L; Kobylecka, Monika; Pham, Phung K; Johnson, Leighanne; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-05-01

    Acupuncture has been shown to treat various medical conditions, including acute and chronic pain, and there is limited evidence that acupuncture produces anti-inflammatory effects. This pilot study evaluated the use of acupuncture to treat pain and determine if acupuncture can reduce the inflammatory response in pediatric patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. This pilot study used convenience sampling and was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) of an urban tertiary care children's hospital. Patients conventionally evaluated and definitively diagnosed with appendicitis were eligible to voluntarily participate. The diagnostic homogeneity of the target population allowed for a standardized intervention protocol. A licensed acupuncturist performed a specific form of Japanese acupuncture known as the Kiiko Matsumoto Style on all study patients. Subjective pain was assessed immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes postintervention, using 3 measures: Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), colored analog scale (CAS), and visual analog scale (VAS). Evidence of inflammation was assessed using two biomarkers: white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). WBC and CRP were drawn and recorded 3 times: before the intervention, 2 minutes before removal of needles, and 30 minutes after needling. Six Latino/Hispanic patients (4 males, 2 females, median age=15 years) with no previous acupuncture experience participated in the study. Median pre/postacupuncture pain scores were as follows: FPS-R, 5 vs. 4; CAS, 6.1 vs. 4.8; VAS, 46 vs. 32. Median WBC (10(3)/μL) and CRP (mg/dL) across time were as follows: WBC, 13.2, 11.8, and 11.4; CRP, 4.5, 4.9, and 5.1. Median acupuncture duration was 28.5 minutes (range 22-32) and no complications were observed. Pilot data suggest that acupuncture may be a feasible and effective treatment modality for decreasing subjective pain and inflammation as measured by WBC. Acupuncture may be a useful

  7. Sacral perineural cyst mimicking inflammatory low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, P

    2015-02-01

    This case describes a 46-year-old woman with local pelvic and perineal pain, persisting for 2 years at presentation. The pain worsened during the night and morning and was alleviated during daily activities. Low back pain was associated with morning stiffness lasting longer than 2 h. Sometimes, she felt pain and numbness along her left S1 dermatome, without overt bladder or bowel incontinence. Lasegue's sign was negative. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were elevated (35 mm/h and 9.4, respectively) and Mennel's sign was present on both sides, indicating possible inflammation of the sacroiliac joints. However, radiographs of the lumbosacral spine and sacroiliac joints were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large spinal meningeal cyst in the sacrum (60 × 37 × 22 mm) consisting of multiple perineural cysts. The cyst eroded the surrounding sacral bone structures, narrowed several sacral foramina, and compressed neighboring nerve fibers. MRI findings on sacroiliac and hip joints were normal.

  8. The child with bone pain: malignancies and mimickers

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bone pain in children is common. The cause may be as benign as growing pains or as life-threatening as a malignancy. When a cause cannot be established by laboratory tests, physical examination or patient history, imaging of the affected body part is often obtained. Distinguishing benign from malignant processes involving the bones of children, based on imaging findings, can be challenging. The most common benign conditions that mimic pediatric bone tumors on imaging are Langerhan's cell histiocytosis and osteomyelitis. In this review, the current literature regarding the pathology and imaging of these conditions is reviewed. Benign conditions are compared with the most common pediatric bone tumors, Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma, with an emphasis on clinical and imaging features that may aid in diagnosis. PMID:19965301

  9. Adherent appendix vermiformis within an incisional hernia after kidney transplantation mimicking acute appendicitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Y; Scheuerlein, H; Götz, M; Settmacher, U

    2012-06-01

    We report a very rare case concerning a 69-year-old woman with acute onset pain in the right lower abdomen. Kidney transplantation for chronic renal insufficiency had been performed 4 years previously. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed an appendix-associated incisional hernia at the lateral edge of the inguinal scar. We performed a laparoscopic appendectomy and hernia repair with external knots. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day in a good general condition. Appendix-associated hernias are very rare but can cause severe complications in case of delayed diagnosis, particularly in patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatment.

  10. Serum, Saliva, and Urine Irisin with and Without Acute Appendicitis and Abdominal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Unal; Aydin, Suleyman; Sarac, Mehmet; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kalayci, Mehmet; Artas, Gokhan; Yardim, Meltem; Kazez, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    A 112-amino-acid protein irisin (IRI) is widely expressed in many organs, but we currently do not know whether appendix tissue and blood cells express it. If appendix tissue and neutrophil cells express IRI, measuring its concentration in biological fluids might be helpful in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), since neutrophil cells are the currently gold-standard laboratory parameters for the diagnosis of AA. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based measurements of the proposed myokine IRI for the discrimination of patients with AA from those with acute abdominal pain (AP) and healthy controls. Moreover, immunoreactivity to IRI was investigated in appendix tissues and blood cells. Samples were collected on admission (T1), 24 hours (T2), and 72 hours (T3) postoperatively from patients with suspected AA and from patients with AP corresponding to T1–T3, whereas control subject blood was once corresponding to T1. IRI was measured in serum, saliva, and urine by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas in appendix tissue and blood cells, IRI was detected by immunohistohcemistry. Appendix tissue and blood cells (except for erythrocytes) are new sources of IRI. Basal saliva, urine, and serum levels were higher in children with AA compared with postoperative levels (T2) that start to decline after surgery. This is in line with the finding that IRI levels are higher in children with AA when compared with those with AP or control subject levels, most likely due to a large infiltration of neutrophil cells in AA that release its IRI into body fluids. Measurement of IRI in children with AA parallels the increase or decrease in the neutrophil count. This new finding shows that the measurement of IRI and neutrophil count can together improve the diagnosis of AA, and it can distinguish it from AP. IRI can be a candidate marker for the diagnosis of AA and offers an additional parameter to

  11. Nanovesicle-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structures Mimicking Mammalian Pain Sensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Youngtac; Jin, Hye Jun; An, Jeong Mi; Park, Juhun; Moon, Seok Jun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    We developed a ``chemical-pain sensor'' based on a single-walled carbon nanotube-based field effect transistor (SWNT-FET) functionalized with rat pain sensory receptor, rat transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (rTRPV1) mimicking a mammalian pain sensory system. The sensor can selectively detect chemical pain stimuli such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin with a sensitivity of a 1 pM detection limit. Since this sensor allows one to quantitatively measure the concentration of chemical pain stimuli just like animal sensory systems, it can be used for various practical applications such as food screening. In addition, TRP families including rTRPV1 protein used for the sensor are now suggested as potential drug targets related to nerve and circulation disorders. Thus, the capability of measuring TRP responses using our sensor platform should open up other applications such as drug screening and basic research related with nerve and circulation systems.

  12. Chronic appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, David; Butterworth, Sonia A; Goldman, Ran D

    2016-06-01

    While the diagnosis of acute appendicitis is relatively straightforward, chronic appendicitis is an entity that can be controversial and is often misdiagnosed. How and when should clinicians be investigating chronic appendicitis as a cause of chronic and recurrent abdominal pain in the pediatric population? Chronic appendicitis is a long-standing inflammation or fibrosis of the appendix that presents clinically as prolonged or intermittent abdominal pain. It is often a challenging diagnosis and might result in complications such as intra-abdominal infections or bowel obstruction or perforation. Clinical presentation, along with imaging studies, can help the clinician rule out other conditions, and among those who are diagnosed, for many children, appendectomy results in partial or complete resolution of pain symptoms. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  13. Masturbation mimicking abdominal pain or seizures in young girls.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, D R; Morrison, A

    1990-05-01

    Five girls, 7 to 27 months of age, had masturbatory posturing that did not involve rubbing of the genitalia or copulatory movements. This activity was mistakenly attributed to abdominal pain or seizures, and prompted unnecessary diagnostic tests. The posturing began at 3 to 14 months and consisted of "leaning episodes" in which the suprapubic region was applied to a firm edge or the parent's knee in one patient, stiffening of the lower extremities in a standing or sitting position in the second patient, and stiffening of the lower extremities while lying on their sides or supine in three infant patients. The posturing was often accompanied by irregular breathing, facial flushing, and diaphoresis, and lasted less than a minute to hours at a time. Management consisted of convincing the parents of the harmless nature of the activity, which then lessened the reinforcing effect of their responses. The posturing subsided, in time, without medical or surgical treatment.

  14. Imaging of Posttraumatic Arthritis, Avascular Necrosis, Septic Arthritis, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, and Cancer Mimicking Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rupasov, Andrey; Cain, Usa; Montoya, Simone; Blickman, Johan G

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the imaging of 5 discrete entities with a common end result of disability: posttraumatic arthritis, a common form of secondary osteoarthritis that results from a prior insult to the joint; avascular necrosis, a disease of impaired osseous blood flow, leading to cellular death and subsequent osseous collapse; septic arthritis, an infectious process leading to destructive changes within the joint; complex regional pain syndrome, a chronic limb-confined painful condition arising after injury; and cases of cancer mimicking arthritis, in which the initial findings seem to represent arthritis, despite a more insidious cause. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Office evaluation of spine and limb pain: spondylotic radiculopathy and other nonstructural mimickers.

    PubMed

    Watson, James

    2011-02-01

    Low back and neck pain, with or without radiculopathy, are one of the most common reasons for referral to an outpatient neurology practice. Determining appropriate treatment relies on establishing an accurate diagnosis of the etiology of the spine or limb pain. The author reviews structural radiculopathies as a result of diskogenic and spondylotic etiologies with an emphasis on the clinical approach and evaluation of these patients (including imaging and electrodiagnostics), identifying management altering neurogenic mimickers of structural radiculopathies (such as infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic myeloradiculitis and radiculoplexopathies), and stratifying patients for treatment.

  16. A comparison between modified Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anand; Singla, Satpaul; Singh, Mohinder; Singla, Deeksha

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.

  17. [Epidemiological aspects of chronic appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Sazhin, A V; Mosin, S V; Kodzhoglian, A A; Mirzoian, A T; Laĭpanov, B K

    2011-01-01

    915 diagnostic laparoscopies for the suspicion on the acute appendicitis were analyzed. Frequency of the acute surgical disease' absence in patients with right iliac pain was defined. The frequency of the chronic appendicitis was defined, basing on the morphologic investigation of the 321 resected appendixes, ectomized on the reason of the acute appendicitis. Literature and personal experience were reviewed to set the frequency of the recurrence secondary chronic appendicitis. Clinical and morphological correlations between chronic noninflammation changes of the appendix and right iliac pain were followed.

  18. Fishbone-induced perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Bababekov, Yanik J; Stanelle, Eric J; Abujudeh, Hani H; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2015-05-20

    We review the literature and describe a case of fishbone-induced appendicitis. A 63-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Work up including a focused history and imaging revealed fishbone-induced perforated appendicitis. The patient was managed safely and successfully with laparoscopic removal of the foreign body and appendectomy.

  19. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Appendicitis in Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... breath, can exacerbate the pain. Don’t offer water, food, laxatives, aspirin or a heating pad. How Appendicitis ... lots of water (at least eight cups of water or other liquid every day). Keep physically active. Chew food slowly and thoroughly before swallowing. Use aspirin and ...

  1. [Chronic appendicitis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro José; Gómez-Conde, Eduardo; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; Romero-Briones, Carlos; Mendoza-García, Aurelio Valentín; García-Ramírez, Ulises Noel

    2008-01-01

    The term chronic appendicitis has been used to describe any type of chronic pain that originates in the appendix, with or without inflammation. This broad category can be divided more specifically into: chronic or recurrent appendicitis and appendiceal colic pain. a 41-year-old female, suffering intestinal chronic constipation, abdominal pain, nausea, hiporexia and febricula, treated with antibiotics, vermifuges, analgesics and antispasmodics, showing a slight and partial improvement. She was suffering chronic pain in lower abdomen, mostly on the right side along a year. With these symptoms, she underwent an exploratory laparotomy, that showed chronic appendicitis. Appendix had been removed. The histopathological report corresponded to chronic appendicitis. the histopathological characteristics and the clinical manifestations of the chronic appendicitis are different from those of acute appendicitis. Criteria for chronic appendicitis include: symptoms lasting longer than 4 weeks, confirmation of chronic swelling through histopathological examination, improvement of symptoms after appendectomy. The ultrasonic images, the barium enema and the computerized helicoidal tomography could be suggestive for its diagnosis.

  2. Snapshot quiz - recurrent right iliac fossa pain in the patient with a previous history of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Aris Chandran, Johan; Cobb, Will A; Keeler, Barrie D; Soin, Bob

    2015-06-01

    A low threshold for computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients with previous appendicectomy and right iliac fossa pain helps facilitate timely diagnosis and exclusion of other differential diagnoses. Here, we present a rare cause which has significant medicolegal ramifications and is accurately diagnosed with CT.

  3. [A case of stump appendicitis after appendectomy].

    PubMed

    Baek, Seong Kyu; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Yong Hoon; Chung, Woo Jin; Kwon, Jung Hyeok

    2008-01-01

    Stump appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the residual appendix and a rare complication after an appendectomy. Although the signs and symptoms do not differ from acute appendicitis, the diagnosis is often not considered because of the past surgical history. Only a small number of stump appendicitis cases have been reported, but there has been no report of stump appendicitis in Korea. Herein, we report a case of stump appendicitis. A 28-year-old female was admitted to our hospital due to right lower quadrant abdominal pain. Fifteen months ago, the patient had a laparoscopic appendectomy under the diagnosis of an acute appendicitis, but she subsequently suffered from intermittent abdominal pain and fever. Abdominal ultrasonography and CT scan showed an inflamed appendiceal stump. Laparoscopic stump appendectomy was done and the biopsy revealed stump appendicitis.

  4. Fishbone Perforated Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Beh, Joey Chan Yiing; Uppaluri, Anandswaroop Srinivas; Koh, Beatrice Fang Ju; Cheow, Peng-Chung

    2016-07-01

    Ingested foreign bodies tend to pass through the gastrointestinal tract without incidence, and vast majority of cases do not need intervention. Rarely, these foreign bodies drop into the appendix and not likely to re-enter the normal digestive tract. We describe a case of a 72-year-old male patient who presented with right iliac fossa pain of 3-day duration. Clinical examination suggested classic acute appendicitis. Blood test results revealed leukocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of acute appendicitis and a linear hyperdensity (foreign body) perforating the appendix. The patient was managed successfully with prompt laparoscopic appendectomy and removal of the foreign body which was confirmed to be a fish bone measuring about 10mm. While imaging diagnosis of fishbone in the appendix has been published, reports are few. To the best of the author's knowledge, fishbone induced perforated appendicitis has been described only in 2 cases (including this case) in the literature.

  5. Acute amebic appendicitis: report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Singh, Naorem Gopendro; Mannan, A A S Rifat; Kahvic, Mirza

    2010-01-01

    Acute appendicitis of amebic origin is considered a rare cause of acute appendicitis. We report a case of amebic appendicitis presenting with fever, severe pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen and rebound tenderness. Lab investigations revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis. The patient underwent appendectomy. Histopathological examination revealed numerous Entameba histolytica trophozoites in the mucosa of the appendix. Acute appendicitis of amebic origin does not appear frequently. Appendicular amebiasis can give the clinical features of acute appendicitis and should be treated accordingly.

  6. Routine Ultrasound and Limited Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Fraukje; Bakker, Rutger F. R.; Merkus, Jos W. S.; Breslau, Paul J.; Hamming, Jaap F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis continues to be a challenging diagnosis. Preoperative radiological imaging using ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) has gained popularity as it may offer a more accurate diagnosis than classic clinical evaluation. The optimal implementation of these diagnostic modalities has yet to be established. The aim of the present study was to investigate a diagnostic pathway that uses routine US, limited CT, and clinical re-evaluation for patients with acute appendicitis. Methods A prospective analysis was performed of all patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department from June 2005 until July 2006 using a structured diagnosis and management flowchart. Daily practice was mimicked, while ensuring a valid assessment of clinical and radiological diagnostic accuracies and the effect they had on patient management. Results A total of 802 patients were included in this analysis. Additional radiological imaging was performed in 96.3% of patients with suspected appendicitis (n = 164). Use of CT was kept to a minimum (17.9%), with a US:CT ratio of approximately 6:1. Positive and negative predictive values for the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis were 63 and 98%, respectively; for US 94 and 97%, respectively; and for CT 100 and 100%, respectively. The negative appendicitis rate was 3.3%, the perforation rate was 23.5%, and the missed perforated appendicitis rate was 3.4%. No (diagnostic) laparoscopies were performed. Conclusions A diagnostic pathway using routine US, limited CT, and clinical re-evaluation for patients with acute abdominal pain can provide excellent results for the diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis. PMID:20582544

  7. Laparoscopic treatment of perforated appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heng-Fu; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Lai, I-Rue

    2014-01-01

    The use of laparoscopy has been established in improving perioperative and postoperative outcomes for patients with simple appendicitis. Laparoscopic appendectomy is associated with less wound pain, less wound infection, a shorter hospital stay, and faster overall recovery when compared to the open appendectomy for uncomplicated cases. In the past two decades, the use of laparoscopy for the treatment of perforated appendicitis to take the advantages of minimally invasiveness has increased. This article reviewed the prevalence, approaches, safety disclaimers, perioperative and postoperative outcomes of the laparoscopic appendectomy in the treatment of patients with perforated appendicitis. Special issues including the conversion, interval appendectomy, laparoscopic approach for elderly or obese patient are also discussed to define the role of laparoscopic treatment for patients with perforated appendicitis. PMID:25339821

  8. Neonatal perforated appendicitis in incarcerated inguinal hernia in the differential diagnosis of testis torsion.

    PubMed

    Erginel, Basak; Soysal, Feryal Gun; Celik, Alaaddin; Salman, Tansu

    2017-07-01

    Appendicitis in newborns is uncommon and difficult to diagnose. Reports on neonatal appendicitis subsequent to inguinal hernia incarceration are exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 26-day-old infant with perforated appendicitis due to incarceration of a right inguinal hernia, mimicking right testicular torsion. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. [Appendicitis during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Estrada Altamirano, A; Bolaños Ancona, R; Juárez Garcia, L; Castelazo Morales, E

    1998-03-01

    Acute appendicitis es the most common cause of lapparotomy during pregnancy. The differential diagnosis in the pregnant woman becomes a challenge due to the anatomic changes that take place during the maternal adjustment to pregnancy. We have done a retrospective study between january 1989 and december 1994, at Instituto Nacional de Perinatologia. We found in that period of time 35,080 deliveries reported and 4 cases of acute appendicitis during pregnancy. The maternal age was between 16 and 42 years old, 26 years in average. Three patients were in the 3 trimester at the time of diagnosis, and the most important clinical sign was found to be diffuse abdominal pain. In 3 cases diagnosis was attributed to obstetric pathology rather than appendicitis in first place. Laparotomy and appendicectomy was done to all patients, with on block hysterectomy in only one case, having this particular patient an abscess as a postquirurgical complication. Just one case reported a healthy newborn delivered at term. It is obvious that early diagnosis and quirurgical treatment are important factors for the mother and the fetus prognosis. Appendicectomy as well as cholecystectomy are the two most common causes of laparotomy during pregnancy.

  10. Fishbone Perforated Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Joey Chan Yiing; Uppaluri, Anandswaroop Srinivas; Koh, Beatrice Fang Ju; Cheow, Peng-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Ingested foreign bodies tend to pass through the gastrointestinal tract without incidence, and vast majority of cases do not need intervention. Rarely, these foreign bodies drop into the appendix and not likely to re-enter the normal digestive tract. We describe a case of a 72-year-old male patient who presented with right iliac fossa pain of 3-day duration. Clinical examination suggested classic acute appendicitis. Blood test results revealed leukocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of acute appendicitis and a linear hyperdensity (foreign body) perforating the appendix. The patient was managed successfully with prompt laparoscopic appendectomy and removal of the foreign body which was confirmed to be a fish bone measuring about 10mm. While imaging diagnosis of fishbone in the appendix has been published, reports are few. To the best of the author’s knowledge, fishbone induced perforated appendicitis has been described only in 2 cases (including this case) in the literature. PMID:27761185

  11. Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Abd Jalil, Nizar; Awang, Mohammad Saufi; Omar, Mahamarowi

    2010-01-01

    Scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome wherein pain originates over the neck area and radiates down to the arm. This condition may present as primary or secondary to underlying cervical pathology. Although scalene myofascial pain syndrome is a well known medical entity, it is often misdiagnosed as being some other neck pain associated with radiculopathy, such as cervical disc prolapse, cervical spinal stenosis and thoracic outlet syndrome. Because scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimics cervical radiculopathy, this condition often leads to mismanagement, which can, in turn, result in persistent pain and suffering. In the worst-case scenarios, patients may be subjected to unjustifiable surgical intervention. Because the clinical findings in scalene myofascial pain syndrome are "pathognomonic", clinicians should be aware of ways to recognize this disorder and be able to differentiate it from other conditions that present with neck pain and rediculopathy. We present two cases of unilateral scalene myofascial pain syndrome that significantly impaired the patients' functioning and quality of life. This case report serves to create awareness about the existence of the syndrome and to highlight the potential morbidity due to clinical misdiagnosis.

  12. Traumatic appendicitis misdiagnosed as a case of haemoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Ranjan, Rajeev; Saha, Subhendu Bikas; Singh, Balbodh

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common emergencies handled by a surgeon. Various aetiologies of acute appendicitis have been proposed but none have been proved. Trauma too has been proposed as a cause of acute appendicitis. Here we present a case of blunt trauma abdomen which was explored to rule out a perforation of hollow viscous organ and haemoperitoneum, but at the time of exploration a perforated appendicitis was found. The chronological order of events points towards blunt trauma as the probable cause of this appendicitis. This case also highlights the fact that even if trauma was not the cause of acute appendicitis, acute appendicitis should still be kept in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with pain in the right lower abdomen and a history of trauma. PMID:24759158

  13. Are acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory appendicitis triggered by coprostasis and/or coproliths?

    PubMed

    Sgourakis, George; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Eibl, Charis; Bonticous, Stylianous; Moege, Jurgen; Berchtold, Christoph

    2008-05-28

    To examine the role of coprostasis and coproliths in recurrent appendicitis. We evaluated four hundred and twenty seven consecutive pathology reports of all appendectomy specimens from January 2003 to December 2004. Findings were categorised as showing acute appendicitis, acute recurrent appendicitis, subacute recurrent appendicitis, chronic appendicitis, or appendices without inflammation. All patients had presented with acute right lower quadrant pain. In 94 instances, there was a history of recurrent similar episodes in the past. Of the 427 histology reports, 294 were inter-preted as showing acute appendicitis, 56 acute recurrent appendicitis, 34 subacute recurrent appen-dicitis, 28 chronic appendicitis, and 15 non-inflamed appendices. Coprostasis was observed in 58 patients (13.58%) and the presence of coprolith in 6 (1.4%). Coprostasis, and age, were among the predictors in the final model. Coprostasis but not coproliths seems to be a contributing factor to acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory appendicitis.

  14. Inflammatory arthritis mimicking Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in a child: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Zeliha; Turgut, Selin Turan; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Bicakci, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Joint complaints in childhood are seen frequently and differential diagnosis can be difficult. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. It involves peripheral joint arthritis, chronic synovitis, and extra-articular manifestations. Accurate diagnosis can take a long time and sometimes multiple diagnoses are used while following the patient until a final diagnosis can be reached. Arthritis may be triggered by trauma and confused with other diseases like complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in which trauma plays a role in the etiology. In the present case, ankle pain in an 8-year-old girl was misdiagnosed as CRPS. PMID:28058400

  15. Inflammatory arthritis mimicking Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) in a child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Egilmez, Zeliha; Turgut, Selin Turan; Icagasioglu, Afitap; Bicakci, Irem

    2016-01-01

    Joint complaints in childhood are seen frequently and differential diagnosis can be difficult. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatological disease of childhood. It involves peripheral joint arthritis, chronic synovitis, and extra-articular manifestations. Accurate diagnosis can take a long time and sometimes multiple diagnoses are used while following the patient until a final diagnosis can be reached. Arthritis may be triggered by trauma and confused with other diseases like complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), in which trauma plays a role in the etiology. In the present case, ankle pain in an 8-year-old girl was misdiagnosed as CRPS.

  16. Long-term outcome of patients with acute non-specific abdominal pain compared to acute appendicitis: prospective symptom audit after two decades.

    PubMed

    Fagerström, A; Miettinen, P; Valtola, J; Juvonen, P; Tarvainen, R; Ilves, I; Paajanen, H

    2014-01-01

    Non-specific abdominal pain (NSAP) and acute appendicitis (AA) are the two most frequent diagnoses of acute abdomen in the emergency wards. The long-term morbidity, mortality and quality of life of the patients with NSAP compared to AA are unknown. The study group consisted of 186 patients with acute NSAP compared to 147 patients with AA initially treated during 1985-1986. Medical history, social background, quality of life and abdominal symptoms were assessed with standardized questionnaires in both groups during 2006-2009. The patients who continued to have abdominal symptoms were invited to a check-up visit. During 1985-6, the NSAP group had more previous abdominal symptoms and operations than the AA group. Some 29% of patients with NSAP and 11% of patients with AA had still abdominal symptoms at long-term check-up (p < 0.0001). Chronic abdominal pain (38 vs 17) and peptic ulcer disease (18 vs 2) occurred more often in the NSAP group than in the controls, respectively (p = 0.001). After five years of follow-up, 11 patients in the NSAP group and 6 patients in the AA group had died (ns). During the twenty years of follow-up, mortality was higher (46/22, 25/15%) in the patients with NSAP than in controls (p = 0.013). Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in both groups (18 NSAP vs 5 AA, p = 0.017). The quality of life scores were comparable in both study groups. Over 70% of NSAP- and almost 90% of AA-patients were free of symptoms after 20 years of follow-up. Mortality was higher and various alimentary track diseases were more frequent in patients with NSAP than in AA.

  17. Appendicitis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Appendicitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/appendicitis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  18. std::string Append

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 689 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-14026 STD::STRING APPEND Tom Nealis...DATES COVERED (From – To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STD::STRING APPEND 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Appending

  19. Enterobius vermicularis: a rare cause of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gialamas, Eleftherios; Papavramidis, Theodossis; Michalopoulos, Nick; Karayannopoulou, Georgia; Cheva, Angeliki; Vasilaki, Olga; Kesisoglou, Isaak; Papavramidis, Spiros

    2012-01-01

    Although appendicitis is one of the most common causes of emergency surgery, parasites are rarely found associated with inflammation of the appendix. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in surgically removed appendices, as well as to determine its possible role in the pathogenesis of appendicitis. A retrospective analysis of all the appendices removed during the last 20 years at a tertiary university hospital. Appendices removed during the course of another intra-abdominal procedure were excluded from the study. All 1085 surgical specimens removed from patients with clinical appendicitis were evaluated. Enterobius vermicularis was found in seven appendices (0.65%) with clinical symptoms of appendicitis. The parasite was most frequently identified in appendices without pathological changes (6/117). There was no case of chronic appendicitis presenting E. vermicularis infestation, while the parasite was rarely related to histological changes of acute appendicitis (1/901). The results suggest that the presence of E. vermicularis in the appendix might cause appendiceal pain (colic), but can rarely be associated with pathologic findings of acute appendicitis.

  20. The significance of urinary beta-2 microglobulin level for differential diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever and acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Ugan, Yunus; Korkmaz, Hakan; Dogru, Atalay; Koca, Yavuz Savas; Balkarlı, Ayse; Aylak, Firdevs; Tunc, Sevket Ercan

    2016-07-01

    The clinical and laboratory parameters widely used are not specific to discriminate the abdominal pain due to FMF attack from that of acute appendicitis. The present study aims to investigate the urinary beta-2 microglobulin (U-β2M) level as a potential parameter to identify these two diseases mimicking each other. A total of 51 patients with established FMF diagnosis due to Tel Hashomer criteria on colchicine treatment (1-1.5 mg/day), 15 patients with acute appendicitis who had appropriate clinical picture and were also supported pathologically after the surgery, and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Of the 51 patients with FMF, 25 were at an attack period, while remaining 26 were not. For the diagnosis of acute attack, as well as physical examination, laboratory tests including white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were performed. From urine specimens U-β2M, microalbumin, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase (U-NAG) were measured. U-β2M levels were significantly higher in acute appendicitis group compared to FMF attack, FMF non-attack, and control groups (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). U-NAG and microalbuminuria were significantly higher in acute appendicitis, FMF attack, and FMF non-attack groups compared to controls (U-NAG p < 0.001, p = 0.016, p = 0.004, microalbuminuria p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Microalbuminuria was significantly higher in acute appendicitis group compared to the FMF attack group (p = 0.004). Determination of U-β2M levels may be helpful for differential diagnosis of peritonitis attacks of FMF patients on colchicine treatment and acute appendicitis. However, this finding should be substantiated with other studies.

  1. [Chronic appendicitis as an independent clinical entity].

    PubMed

    Mussack, T; Schmidbauer, S; Nerlich, A; Schmidt, W; Hallfeldt, K K

    2002-07-01

    Chronic appendicitis is not generally accepted as an independent clinical entity. The diagnosis is often made only after histological analysis when the patient has undergone appendectomy in a case of persistent or recurrent pain. The objectives of this prospective study were to analyse the incidence of chronic appendicitis among our patients, to compare demographic and clinical data with histological results and to evaluate long-term follow-up after appendectomy. Between November 1995 and February 1998, 322 patients underwent appendectomy due to typical symptoms of appendicitis. All appendices were analysed macroscopically by the surgeon and histologically by two independent pathologists. Furthermore, demographic data, standard blood results, Alvarado score, body mass index, operation time, complications, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. In April 2001, a long-term follow-up survey evaluated the present complaints of all operated patients. A total of 112 patients showed clinical signs of non-acute appendicitis. However, 26.8% of these appendices histologically revealed an acute inflammation. In the subgroup of histologically non-acute appendicitis, 4.9% of the appendices were inconspicuous, 42.0% chronically inflamed and 50.6% fibrotic. Compared to that, the macroscopic examination by the surgeon resulted in a 93.5% specificity and a 77.8% sensitivity. The preoperative period of pain was significantly longer (7 days) compared to patients with acute appendicitis (0.5 days). White blood count (8.700 versus 13.400) and preoperative Alvarado score (4 versus 7 points) were significantly lower, the hospital stay significantly shorter (3 versus 4 days). A specificity of 89.9% and a positive likelihood ratio of 4.64 were calculated for an optimal cut-off value of 7 days for preoperative pain. At a median of 50.2 months after the operation, 93.1% of the patients were asymptomatic, and five patients reported persistent pain in the right lower quadrant. Three

  2. Gastric cancer in a pregnant woman presenting with low back pain and bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy mimicking primary inflammatory breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Pirillo, Debora; Gelli, Maria Carolina; Cavina, Maurizio; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the first case of a pregnant woman presenting low-back pain and breast pain associated with bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy, proving to be the result of metastatic disease from a gastric carcinoma. A 30-year-old pregnant woman was admitted complaining of persistent severe low back pain, breast pain and concomitant bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy, mimicking primary inflammatory breast carcinoma. During the caesarean section, widespread disease was found and finally metastatic gastric cancer was detected. Pregnant women with gastric cancer may present symptoms that are considered common during pregnancy. Common symptoms that present warning characteristics, such as the persistent severe pain observed in the presented case, should be carefully investigated as they may be the only warning signs and symptoms of rare ominous conditions such as gastric cancer.

  3. Left Sided Appendicitis: Once Burned Twice Shy

    PubMed Central

    Spyridakis, Ioannis; Patoulias, Dimitrios; Tsioulas, Paschalis; Patoulias, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical conditions that are diagnosed in children presenting with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department. An atypical presentation of symptoms is encountered in 30% of cases. Atypical localization of the appendix as in left sided appendicitis, although rare, has an increased risk of missed or delayed diagnosis. We present two consecutive cases of left sided appendicitis in order to describe how increased awareness in the second case helped us to avoid pitfalls in the management and diagnosis of this atypical and variant condition. Increased cautiousness and awareness of left sided appendicitis can assist emergency physicians to avoid pitfalls in the management and diagnosis of this atypical and variant condition. PMID:27042523

  4. Left Sided Appendicitis: Once Burned Twice Shy.

    PubMed

    Kaselas, Christos; Spyridakis, Ioannis; Patoulias, Dimitrios; Tsioulas, Paschalis; Patoulias, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical conditions that are diagnosed in children presenting with acute abdominal pain in the emergency department. An atypical presentation of symptoms is encountered in 30% of cases. Atypical localization of the appendix as in left sided appendicitis, although rare, has an increased risk of missed or delayed diagnosis. We present two consecutive cases of left sided appendicitis in order to describe how increased awareness in the second case helped us to avoid pitfalls in the management and diagnosis of this atypical and variant condition. Increased cautiousness and awareness of left sided appendicitis can assist emergency physicians to avoid pitfalls in the management and diagnosis of this atypical and variant condition.

  5. Increased incidence of perforated appendicitis in children with obesity.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Felix C; Sandler, Anthony D; Nadler, Evan P

    2012-10-01

    Based on their clinical impression, the authors hypothesized that children with obesity may more commonly present with perforated appendicitis. Therefore, the authors reviewed their experience from 2008 to 2010 to determine whether obesity affected the clinical presentation of appendicitis. Variables studied were height, weight, use of diagnostic imaging, and clinical findings of appendicitis at presentation. Outcomes assessed were length of stay and complication rate. The study identified 319 patients with appendicitis. Children with obesity were more likely (P = .026) to present with perforation (28/62, 45%) than nonobese patients (78/257, 30%). Neither length of stay nor complication rate was affected by the presence of obesity. The data suggest that children with obesity are more likely to present with perforated appendicitis. This finding suggests that the diagnosis of appendicitis may be more difficult in obese patients or their presentation may be delayed. Practitioners should have heightened awareness in children with obesity and symptoms of abdominal pain.

  6. Assessment of peritonism in appendicitis.

    PubMed Central

    Golledge, J.; Toms, A. P.; Franklin, I. J.; Scriven, M. W.; Galland, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods of demonstrating right iliac fossa peritonism in appendicitis. The methods used were cat's eye symptom (pain on going over a bump in the road), cough sign, right iliac fossa tenderness, percussion tenderness, rebound tenderness and guarding. A series of 100 consecutive patients with a median age of 25 years (range 4-81 years), presenting with right iliac fossa pain were studied prospectively; the male:female ratio was 39:61. In all, 58 patients underwent operation, 44 had appendicitis confirmed on histology. Fourteen patients had a normal appendix removed; 11 were women aged between 16 and 45 years. Cat's eye symptom and cough sign were sensitive indicators of appendicitis (sensitivity 0.80 and 0.82, respectively), but were not specific (specificity 0.52 and 0.50, respectively) and therefore inaccurate (accuracy 64%). Percussion tenderness was less sensitive (sensitivity 0.57) but more specific (specificity 0.86). Rebound tenderness proved to be sensitive (sensitivity 0.82), specific (specificity 0.89) and accurate (accuracy 86%). Thus, rebound tenderness had a positive predictive value of 86% compared with 56% and 57% for cough sign and cat's eye symptom, respectively. In the difficult diagnostic group of young women, the positive predictive value of rebound tenderness was 88% compared with 58% and 56% for cat's eye symptom and cough sign. Appendicitis remains a difficult diagnosis, particularly in young women. Rebound tenderness still has an important role to play in clinical assessment. PMID:8659965

  7. MRI evaluation of acute appendicitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Catherine; Beddy, Peter; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluation of acute abdominal pain in pregnancy. MRI offers an opportunity to identify the normal or inflamed appendix as well as a variety of other pathologic conditions that can masquerade clinically as acute appendicitis in pregnant women. Visualization of the normal appendix by MRI virtually excludes the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and may help reduce the negative laparotomy rate in this patient population. Here we discuss a comprehensive MRI protocol for evaluation of pregnant women with abdominal pain, focusing on the appearance and location of the normal and diseased appendix, and we describe an approach to diagnosing acute appendicitis and other conditions with MRI. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ultrasonography for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Shinji; Yasuda, Seiei; Oida, Yasuhisa; Mukoyama, Sayuri; Nishi, Takayuki; Mukai, Masaya; Nakasaki, Hisao; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2003-04-01

    Acute appendicitis is usually encountered clinically as acute abdomen. Typical cases are easy to diagnose, but it can sometimes be very difficult to make a diagnosis in atypical cases. We retrospectively studied patients who underwent ultrasonography for right-sided lower abdominal pain suggesting acute appendicitis, and assessed the accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis. The subjects were 202 patients (100 males and 102 females) aged 6-89 years (mean: 33.3 years). From the ultrasonic findings, appendicitis was classified as follows: 1) catarrhal: a clear layer structure of the appendiceal wall and mucosal edema; 2) phlegmonous: an ill-defined layer structure of the appendiceal wall, moderate enlargement of the apendix, and maximum transverse dimension of > or = 10 mm; and 3) gangrenous: unidentifiable layer structure of the appendiceal wall and marked enlargement to form a mass. The appendix was visualized in 142 of the 202 patients (70.3 %). When the appendix was detected, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound for making a diagnosis of appendicitis were 97.6%, 82.0 %, 91.5 %, respectively. With regard to assessment of the severity of inflammation, ultrasonic and histologic findings were concordant in 61.2 % of the patients. However, ultrasound was shown to possibly underestimate the extent of inflammation. On the other hand, 11 of the 60 patients with an undetectable appendix (18.3 %) were clinically diagnosed as having appendicitis. The pathologic diagnosis was catarrhal appendicitis in 3 patients and phlegmonous appendicitis in 8 patients. In patients with an undetectable appendix, the possibility of catarrhal or phlegmonous appendicitis should be kept in mind.

  9. Appendicitis: a rare cause.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Simha, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition in children. Parasitic infestations are ubiquitous on a worldwide basis and are seen in the United States because of increasing international travel and emigration from developing countries. These infestations may produce symptoms of acute appendicitis, although the role of parasitic infestation in relation to appendicitis is controversial. Intestinal parasites may cause significant morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with symptoms of acute appendicitis in whom intramural parasites were found during laparoscopic surgery. Histology of the appendix specimen revealed a normal appendix. The pertinent literature is also reviewed.

  10. Unde venis? Amebiasis presenting as appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dennis A; Wilson, Gerald A; Bryan, Charles S

    2013-06-01

    A returning traveler presenting with fever accompanied by abdominal "pressure" and pain proved to have amebic appendicitis, amebic liver abscess, and probable recent amebic dysentery--a rare combination of findings amply illustrating the value of asking "Unde venis--from where do you come?"

  11. Right-sided diverticulitis mimics appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Thomas; Jordan, Charlton; Edelstein, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Right-sided diverticulitis is a rare source of right lower quadrant pain in Western society; however, it is quite common in Asian societies. Right-sided diverticulitis presents very similarly to appendicitis, with right lower quadrant pain, fever, nausea, and laboratory abnormalities, and is often seen in young patients. In this report, we present a case of right-sided diverticulitis. We review right-sided diverticulitis' diagnosis and management. It is important to diagnose right-sided diverticulitis because it is a good mimic of appendicitis and ideally should be diagnosed before a patient has unnecessary surgery. A 26-year-old Asian woman presented for evaluation of right lower quadrant pain and fever. She was initially thought to have appendicitis clinically, but had right-sided diverticulitis diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan. She was admitted and received intravenous antibiotics and bowel rest. Her right-sided diverticulitis resolved in 3 days. Severe right lower quadrant pain in young patients of Asian descent can be right-sided diverticulitis. Right-sided diverticulitis is a benign condition managed medically that mimics appendicitis. CT imaging seems to be the best way to avoid unnecessary surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beyond acute appendicitis: imaging and pathologic spectrum of appendiceal pathology.

    PubMed

    Gaetke-Udager, Kara; Maturen, Katherine E; Hammer, Suntrea G

    2014-10-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common and important clinical problem, a variety of other disease processes can affect the appendix. Simple and perforated appendicitis, tip appendicitis, and stump appendicitis share a common clinical presentation including anorexia, right lower quadrant pain, and fever. By imaging, most cases of acute appendicitis exhibit luminal dilation, wall thickening, and periappendiceal inflammatory stranding. In tip appendicitis, these changes are isolated to the distal appendix, often with an obstructing appendicolith. Perforated appendicitis can exhibit mural discontinuity, periappendiceal abscess, and/or extraluminal appendicoliths. After appendectomy, the appendiceal remnant or "stump" can become inflamed, often necessitating repeat surgery. Inflammatory bowel disease can involve the terminal ileum, secondarily involving the appendix, or may primarily involve the appendix. Patient symptoms can be chronic in such cases, and mucosal hyperenhancement is a pronounced imaging feature. In asymptomatic patients without appendiceal inflammation, the appendix can be dilated by intraluminal material such as inspissated succus in cystic fibrosis or mucus from benign appendiceal mucocele. Finally, neoplasms such as typical appendiceal carcinoid tumor and mucinous adenocarcinoma can involve the appendix. Carcinoids are often small and incidentally discovered at pathologic examination, while malignant mucinous adenocarcinoma tends to present with advanced disease including pseudomyxoma peritonei. Cecal cancers can also obstruct the appendiceal lumen and cause acute appendicitis; an astute radiologist can recognize this prospectively and facilitate definitive resection (right hemicolectomy) at the time of surgery. Attention to mural features, cecal configuration, and periappendiceal inflammation is essential to the correct prospective diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and less common appendiceal pathologies.

  13. Risk stratification by the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score to guide decision-making in patients with suspected appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, A J; Mason, S E; Arunakirinathan, M; Reissis, Y; Kinross, J M; Smith, J J

    2015-04-01

    Current management of suspected appendicitis is hampered by the overadmission of patients with non-specific abdominal pain and a significant negative exploration rate. The potential benefits of risk stratification by the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score to guide clinical decision-making were assessed. During this 50-week prospective observational study at one institution, the AIR score was calculated for all patients admitted with suspected appendicitis. Appendicitis was diagnosed by histological examination, and patients were classified as having non-appendicitis pain if histological findings were negative or surgery was not performed. The diagnostic performance of the AIR score and the potential for risk stratification to reduce admissions, optimize imaging and prevent unnecessary explorations were quantified. A total of 464 patients were included, of whom 210 (63·3 per cent) with non-appendicitis pain were correctly classified as low risk. However, 13 low-risk patients had appendicitis. Low-risk patients accounted for 48·1 per cent of admissions (223 of 464), 57 per cent of negative explorations (48 of 84) and 50·7 per cent of imaging requests (149 of 294). An AIR score of 5 or more (intermediate and high risk) had high sensitivity for all severities of appendicitis (90 per cent) and also for advanced appendicitis (98 per cent). An AIR score of 9 or more (high risk) was very specific (97 per cent) for appendicitis, and the majority of patients with appendicitis in the high-risk group (21 of 30, 70 per cent) had perforation or gangrene. Ultrasound imaging could not exclude appendicitis in low-risk patients (negative likelihood ratio (LR) 1·0) but could rule-in the diagnosis in intermediate-risk patients (positive LR 10·2). CT could exclude appendicitis in low-risk patients (negative LR 0·0) and rule-in appendicitis in the intermediate group (positive LR 10·9). Risk stratification of patients with suspected appendicitis by the AIR score could

  14. CT evaluation of appendicitis and its complications: imaging techniques and key diagnostic findings.

    PubMed

    Pinto Leite, Nuno; Pereira, José M; Cunha, Rui; Pinto, Pedro; Sirlin, Claude

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews various CT protocols for appendicitis, identifies key CT findings for diagnosing appendicitis, discusses unusual manifestations such as chronic and recurrent appendicitis, and profiles imaging features that differentiate appendicitis from other inflammatory and neoplastic ileocecal conditions. Patients were studied with helical CT. CT is a highly accurate, noninvasive test for appendicitis, but the optimal CT technique is controversial. Major complications of appendicitis (perforation, abscess formation, peritonitis, bowel obstruction, septic seeding of mesenteric vessels, gangrenous appendicitis) and their management are discussed. Abdominal CT is a well-established technique in the study of acute abdominal pain and has shown high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing and differentiating appendicitis, providing an accurate diagnosis in the early stages of disease.

  15. Acute abdomen caused by both acute appendicitis and epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Hajime; Hamada, Shinichi; Okanoue, Toyotake; Kawamura, Akihiro; Inoue, Yuichiro; Yamamoto, Shinya; Chikai, Takashi; Hiroi, Makoto; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2011-08-01

    Acute appendicitis often presents as right lower quadrant (RLQ) pain, severe tenderness at the point of McBurny or Lanz, and Blumberg's sign. Scrotal events with appendicitis are very rare. In our case, a 63-year-old Japanese man presented with severe RLQ pain and high fever. Physical examination revealed severe tenderness (including both points of McBurny and Lanz) and Blumberg's sign. The scrotum was slightly swollen and showed local heat with severe testicular pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed ascites in a pelvic space and the right side of the spermatic cord was swollen. Emergency operation was performed and the final diagnosis was catarrhal appendicitis and acute epididymitis. This is the first report of acute appendicitis concomitant with acute epididymitis.

  16. Alternative diagnoses at paediatric appendicitis MRI.

    PubMed

    Moore, M M; Kulaylat, A N; Brian, J M; Khaku, A; Hulse, M A; Engbrecht, B W; Methratta, S T; Boal, D K B

    2015-08-01

    As the utilization of MRI in the assessment for paediatric appendicitis increases in clinical practice, it is important to recognize alternative diagnoses as the cause of abdominal pain. The purpose of this review is to share our institution's experience using MRI in the evaluation of 510 paediatric patients presenting with suspected appendicitis over a 30 month interval (July 2011 to December 2013). An alternative diagnosis was documented in 98/510 (19.2%) patients; adnexal pathology (6.3%, n = 32), enteritis-colitis (6.3%, n = 32), and mesenteric adenitis (2.2%, n = 11) comprised the majority of cases. These common entities and other less frequent illustrative cases obtained during our overall institutional experience with MRI for suspected appendicitis are reviewed.

  17. Pediatric appendicitis: state of the art review.

    PubMed

    Rentea, Rebecca M; Peter, Shawn D St; Snyder, Charles L

    2017-03-01

    Appendicitis is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. The diagnosis and treatment of the disease have undergone major changes in the past two decades, primarily as a result of the application of an evidence-based approach. Data from several randomized controlled trials, large database studies, and meta-analyses have fundamentally affected patient care. The best diagnostic approach is a standardized clinical pathway with a scoring system and selective imaging. Non-operative management of simple appendicitis is a reasonable option in selected cases, with the caveat that data in children remain limited. A minimally invasive (laparoscopic) appendectomy is the current standard in US and European children's hospitals. This article reviews the current 'state of the art' in the evaluation and management of pediatric appendicitis.

  18. [Chronic recurrent appendicitis: a contradiction in terms?].

    PubMed

    Kager, Liesbeth M; Bemelman, Willem A; Bastiaansen, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    For two years, every 6 weeks a 23-year-old man presented with episodes of severe abdominal pain and fever. After an extensive diagnostic workup, showing only slightly increased infectious parameters during the pain attacks and infiltration around the terminal ileum, a diagnostic laparoscopy diagnosed 'chronic recurrent appendicitis'. A 40-year-old female had severe attacks of abdominal pain and fever every 4-6 weeks for 1.5 years. Some inflammation around the appendix was seen on colonoscopy, and a diagnostic laparoscopy finally confirmed the same diagnosis 'chronic recurrent appendicitis'. Patients with recurrent abdominal pain often are a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. The appendix is rarely recognized as the causative factor and the diagnosis 'chronic recurrent appendicitis' is not widely accepted. This disease entity often has an atypical presentation and well-defined criteria are lacking. In this article we plea for a broader acceptance of this diagnosis, which, in our opinion, deserves to be included in the differential diagnosis of longstanding or recurrent abdominal pain attacks.

  19. Appendicitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the abdomen and chest, ultrasound, or a CAT scan. If the doctor suspects appendicitis, you may ... TOPIC Appendectomy Preparing Your Child for Surgery Abscess CAT Scan: Abdomen Ultrasound: Abdomen X-Ray Exam: Abdomen ...

  20. Recurrent Pelvic Infections and Salpingitis after Perforated Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Jessica; Ginsburg, Howard; Lala, Shailee; Tomita, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The effect of perforated appendicitis on the adnexa is an issue of concern and controversy. Long-term fertility studies have been conflicting. We present the case of a patient with chronic pelvic infections, salpingitis, and hydrosalpinx after perforated appendicitis. Magnetic resonance imaging was helpful in diagnosing a chronically obstructed fallopian tube, likely secondary to the dense adhesions from her previously treated perforated appendicitis. Salpingectomy relieved her symptoms of chronic pain and recurrent infections. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M; Fichna, Jakub

    2014-08-05

    The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. in vitro, BU08070 (10(-10)-10(-6) M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. in vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effects of BU08070 were observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Methyl-orvinol-Dual activity opioid receptor ligand inhibits gastrointestinal transit and alleviates abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Marta; Jarmuż, Agata; Wasilewski, Andrzej; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Husbands, Stephen; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D. In vitro, the effects of methyl-orvinol on electrical field stimulated smooth muscle contractility and epithelial ion transport were characterized in the mouse colon. In vivo, the following tests were used to determine methyl-orvinol effect on mouse GI motility: colonic bead expulsion, whole GI transit and fecal pellet output. An antinociceptive action of methyl-orvinol was assessed in the mouse model of visceral pain induced by mustard oil. Methyl-orvinol (10(-10) to 10(-6)M) inhibited colonic smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist) and β-funaltrexamine (selective MOP antagonist). Experiments with a selective KOP receptor agonist, U50488 revealed that methyl-orvinol is a KOP receptor antagonist in the GI tract. Methyl-orvinol enhanced epithelial ion transport. In vivo, methyl-orvinol inhibited colonic bead expulsion and prolonged GI transit. Methyl-orvinol improved hypermotility and reduced abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Methyl-orvinol could become a promising drug candidate in chronic therapy of functional GI diseases such as IBS-D. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M.; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Methods The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. Results In vitro, BU08070 (10−10–10−6 M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effect of BU08070 was observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Conclusion Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. PMID:24815321

  4. Amoebiasis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Imai, Jin; Mizukami, Hajime; Uda, Shuji; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Nomura, Eiji; Tajiri, Takuma; Watanabe, Norihito; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-20

    We report a case of amoebic appendicitis without colitis symptoms. Acute appendicitis is commonly encountered by gastroenterologists in their daily practice. The number of cases of amoebiasis increases annually in Japan, and is thought to be associated with an increase in sexually transmitted disease or travel to endemic areas. However, acute amoebic appendicitis is rare and the prognosis is very poor compared to nonamoebic appendicitis. In our case, appendectomy was performed immediately after onset, and the patient was discharged without complications. It is difficult to differentiate between amoebic and nonamoebic appendicitis preoperatively, and the possibility of amoebic appendicitis should be kept in mind.

  5. Acute appendicitis: What is the gold standard of treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Ruffolo, Cesare; Fiorot, Alain; Pagura, Giulia; Antoniutti, Michele; Massani, Marco; Caratozzolo, Ezio; Bonariol, Luca; Calia di Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Nicolò

    2013-01-01

    McBurney’s procedure represented the gold-standard for acute appendicitis until 1981, but nowadays the number of laparoscopic appendectomies has progressively increased since it has been demonstrated to be a safe procedure, with excellent cosmetic results and it also allows a shorter hospitalization, a quicker and less painful postoperative recovery. The aim of this editorial was to perform a review of the literature in order to address controversial issues in the treatment of acute appendicitis. PMID:24379603

  6. A Gut Feeling: An Extremely Rare Case of Missed Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Ashley; Russo, Rachel; Moulin, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    This case outlines the emergency department and surgical course of a 63-year-old male presenting with acute onset abdominal pain. Appendicitis was high on the differential for the treating physician, but after the computed tomography and laboratory evaluation were unremarkable, the patient was discharged only to return the next day. What ensued was one of the rarest cases of missed appendicitis documented in the medical literature. PMID:25493134

  7. Unusual presentation of a familiar pathology: chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sierakowski, Kyra; Pattichis, Andrew; Russell, Patrick; Wattchow, David

    2016-02-11

    We present a case of a man who experienced night sweats, abdominal pain and fever for over 3 months, with incomplete response to broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. Although CT imaging was insufficient to identify the cause for his chronic abdominal pain, the abnormality of a 'misty mesentery' was crucial in guiding further investigation. The final diagnosis of chronic appendicitis was made through laparoscopic and pathological examination. This case highlights the utility of a collaborative diagnostic effort between disciplines. Chronic appendicitis can cause lingering abdominal pain. Early recognition and appropriate referral can save patients months and even years of unnecessary suffering. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Acute Appendicitis in Patients with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Up; Kim, Jin Kyeung; Won, Jong Ho; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Hee Sook; Park, Kyeung Kyu

    1993-01-01

    The decision to operate for abdominal pain in patients with leukopenia can be exceedingly difficult. Surgical exploration may be the only effective way to differentiate acute appendicitis from other causes, but it involves considerable risk of infectious complications due to immunesuppression. Leukemic patients, who presented significant RLQ pain, had been indicated for operation, despite having advanced disease or having had received chemotherapy or steroids. Four adult leukemia patients, complicated by acute appendictis, were reviewed. Two patients were in induction chemotherapy, one receiving salvage chemotheapy due to relapse and the other was in conservative treatment. Two patients were acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), one had acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the other had aleukemic leukemia. All patients underwent appendectomy and recovered without complication. Our experience supports the theory that the surgical management of appendicitis in acute leukemia is the most effective way, in spite of leukopenia. PMID:8268146

  9. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  10. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  11. Novel orally available salvinorin A analog PR-38 inhibits gastrointestinal motility and reduces abdominal pain in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Polepally, P R; Sobczak, M; Grzywacz, D; Kamysz, W; Sibaev, A; Storr, M; Do Rego, J C; Zjawiony, J K; Fichna, J

    2014-07-01

    The opioid and cannabinoid systems play a crucial role in multiple physiological processes in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Selective opioid as well as cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists exert a potent inhibitory action on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and pain. In this study, we examined (in vitro and in vivo) whether PR-38 (2-O-cinnamoylsalvinorin B), a novel analog of salvinorin A, can interact with both systems and demonstrate therapeutic effects. We used mouse models of hypermotility, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. We also assessed the influence of PR-38 on the central nervous system by measurement of motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors in mice. Subsequently, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of PR-38 in mouse blood samples after intraperitoneal and oral administration. PR-38 significantly inhibited mouse colonic motility in vitro and in vivo. Administration of PR-38 significantly prolonged the whole GI transit time, and this effect was mediated by µ- and κ-opioid receptors and the CB1 receptor. PR-38 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. These data expand our understanding of the interactions between opioid and cannabinoid systems and their functions in the GI tract. We also provide a novel framework for the development of future potential treatments of functional GI disorders.

  12. Calcific Tendinopathy of the Gluteus Medius Mimicking Lumbar Radicular Pain Successfully Treated With Barbotage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hannae; Kim, Gowun; Baek, Sora

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of calcific tendinopathy of the gluteus medius initially misdiagnosed as a lumbar herniated intervertebral disc. It was successfully treated with barbotage under ultrasonographic guidance finally. A 56-year-old woman was referred to interventional pain clinic for right hip pain due to an L5-S1 disc herniation. Serial L5 and S1 spinal nerve root blocks and epidural steroid injections were administered. However, pain relief was sustained only for a very short period. Plain radiography of the right hip revealed a solid calcific nodule at adjacent to the insertion site of the gluteus medius tendon. Physical modalities and extracorporeal shock wave therapy failed to improve the pain. Therefore, we attempted ultrasound-guided barbotage of the calcification. Barbotage was performed twice serially and her pain was considerably improved. At 6-month follow-up, the calcification was completely resolved. PMID:27152290

  13. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis.

  14. Stump appendicitis after laparoscopic appendectomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Bu-Ali, Omaima; Al-Bashir, Mohamed; Samir, Hashim A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2011-05-01

    Stump appendicitis is a rare delayed complication of appendectomy. The delay in diagnosis is usually because of a prior history of appendectomy. We report a case of stump appendicitis diagnosed pre-operatively with a computerized tomography (CT) scan after laparoscopic appendectomy. An 18-year-old male presented with a one-week history of lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. He had a history of laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Physical examination revealed tenderness and guarding in the lower abdomen. CT scan showed free pelvic fluid with a tubular structure of about 2.5 cm in length and 0.78 cm in diameter located posterior to the ileo-cecal junction. Laparoscopic exploration confirmed the findings. A residual appendiceal stump was found and dissected from the adhesion and removed. Histopathology showed a residual appendix with transmural neutrophilic infiltration associated with multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis. The postoperative period was uneventful. The diagnosis of stump appendicitis can be challenging. CT scan has proven to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of this rare condition.

  15. Appendiceal diverticulum associated with chronic appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Zubieta-O’Farrill, Gregorio; Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Gudiño-Chávez, Andrés; Gonzalez-Alvarado, Carlos; Cornejo-López, Gilberto Bernabe; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare entity, with a global incidence between 0.004% and 2.1% of all appendectomies. It has been related with an elevated risk of perforation in comparison to acute appendicitis, as well as an increased risk for synchronic appendicular cancer in 48% of the cases, and colonic cancer in 43%. The incidence of chronic appendicitis has been reported in 1.5% of all appendicitis cases. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a 73-year-old female, with no relevant familial history, who presented due to a four-month-long oppressive, moderate pain in the lower right abdominal quadrant without irradiation or any other accompanying symptoms. DISCUSSION The documented incidence of appendiceal diverticula and chronic appendicitis by themselves is low; therefore the presence of both entities at the same time is extremely rare. CONCLUSION We present a case in which both diagnoses concurred in the same patient. The relevance of this case relies on the importance of the adequate knowledge of these pathologies, so we can approach them correctly. Although it does not represent an absolute surgical emergency, appendectomy represents the first therapeutic option. PMID:25460447

  16. Appendiceal diverticulum associated with chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Zubieta-O'Farrill, Gregorio; Guerra-Mora, José Raúl; Gudiño-Chávez, Andrés; Gonzalez-Alvarado, Carlos; Cornejo-López, Gilberto Bernabe; Villanueva-Sáenz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Appendiceal diverticulosis is a rare entity, with a global incidence between 0.004% and 2.1% of all appendectomies. It has been related with an elevated risk of perforation in comparison to acute appendicitis, as well as an increased risk for synchronic appendicular cancer in 48% of the cases, and colonic cancer in 43%. The incidence of chronic appendicitis has been reported in 1.5% of all appendicitis cases. We present a 73-year-old female, with no relevant familial history, who presented due to a four-month-long oppressive, moderate pain in the lower right abdominal quadrant without irradiation or any other accompanying symptoms. The documented incidence of appendiceal diverticula and chronic appendicitis by themselves is low; therefore the presence of both entities at the same time is extremely rare. We present a case in which both diagnoses concurred in the same patient. The relevance of this case relies on the importance of the adequate knowledge of these pathologies, so we can approach them correctly. Although it does not represent an absolute surgical emergency, appendectomy represents the first therapeutic option. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy: Case series and review

    PubMed Central

    Burcu, Busra; Ekinci, Ozgur; Atak, Tuba; Orhun, Kivilcim; Eren, Turgut Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute surgical pathology we encountered. In this study we investigated our pregnant cases of appendicitis, and reviewed literature. METHODS: A total of 21 pregnant women who underwent appendectomy with the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Istanbul Medeniyet University Clinics of General Surgery between January 2012, and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients’s ages, trimesters, complaints, abdominal examination, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings, surgical techniques, complications and hospital stay were noted. RESULTS: The patients were in their first (n=12; 57.1%), second (n=5; 23.8%), and third trimesters (n=4; 19.0%) of their pregnancies Median age was 23.9 years. All of the patients had abdominal pain. Median value of WBC count was 13.297/mm³. Ultrasound was positive in 12 patients (57.1%). In 14 (66.6%) patients McBurney incision, and in 6 (28.6%) cases right paramedian incision were used. One patient (4.8%) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Nineteen cases were acute appendicitis (90.5%), and two cases were perforated appendicitis (9.5%). Average hospital stay was 3.8 days. Two cases with perforated acute appendicitis developed wound infection and treated conservatively. There were no fetomaternal mortality. CONCLUSION: Physiologically anatomic and biochemical changes occurring during pregnancy can delay the diagnosis of acute appendicitis threaten the lives of both the mother and the fetus Therefore, rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment convey importance. PMID:28058387

  18. Acute appendicitis in pregnancy: Case series and review.

    PubMed

    Burcu, Busra; Ekinci, Ozgur; Atak, Tuba; Orhun, Kivilcim; Eren, Turgut Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute surgical pathology we encountered. In this study we investigated our pregnant cases of appendicitis, and reviewed literature. A total of 21 pregnant women who underwent appendectomy with the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Istanbul Medeniyet University Clinics of General Surgery between January 2012, and December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients's ages, trimesters, complaints, abdominal examination, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings, surgical techniques, complications and hospital stay were noted. The patients were in their first (n=12; 57.1%), second (n=5; 23.8%), and third trimesters (n=4; 19.0%) of their pregnancies Median age was 23.9 years. All of the patients had abdominal pain. Median value of WBC count was 13.297/mm³. Ultrasound was positive in 12 patients (57.1%). In 14 (66.6%) patients McBurney incision, and in 6 (28.6%) cases right paramedian incision were used. One patient (4.8%) underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Nineteen cases were acute appendicitis (90.5%), and two cases were perforated appendicitis (9.5%). Average hospital stay was 3.8 days. Two cases with perforated acute appendicitis developed wound infection and treated conservatively. There were no fetomaternal mortality. Physiologically anatomic and biochemical changes occurring during pregnancy can delay the diagnosis of acute appendicitis threaten the lives of both the mother and the fetus Therefore, rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment convey importance.

  19. [Virological research on appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Stănescu, D; Sternberg, D; Chirilă, R; Teleguţă, L; Tănase, M; Copelovici, Y

    1988-01-01

    Investigations were conducted on groups of subjects hospitalized in surgery services with a clinical diagnosis of acute or chronic appendicitis, to detect the presence of inframicrobial antibodies and antigens, as well as that of the C reactive protein in these patients as compared with a control group. The results of serological tests and of the examination of pieces of appendix are also presented. The obtained data are used as arguments for the theory of an inframicrobial infection part in some acute and chronic forms of appendicitis.

  20. Operative management of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    St Peter, Shawn D; Snyder, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    Appendectomy has been the standard of care for appendicitis since the late 1800s, and remains one of the most common operations performed in children. The advent of data-driven medicine has led to questions about every aspect of the operation-whether appendectomy is even necessary, when it should be performed (timing), how the procedure is done (laparoscopic variants versus open and irrigation versus no irrigation), length of hospital stay, and antibiotic duration. The goal of this analysis is to review the current status of, and available data regarding, the surgical management of appendicitis in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis versus chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhanlong; Ye, Yingjiang; Yin, Mujun; Wang, Shan

    2012-08-01

    The advantage or disadvantage of laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis remains unclear. Data were collected prospectively from 129 consecutive patients with appendicitis between June 2008 and December 2009. The clinical outcomes of acute appendicitis after laparoscopic and open operation were compared. Furthermore, the outcomes of laparoscopic procedure for acute and chronic appendicitis were compared. The length of hospitalization and incidence of intra-abdominal abscess were significantly decreased in patients with laparoscopic group after operation as compared to open operation. The mean operation time, the time of first anal exsufflation, and oral intake after operation were longer for acute appendicitis patients than for chronic appendicitis in laparoscopic group. The incidence of postoperative intestinal obstruction in patients with acute appendicitis was higher after laparoscopic surgery than after open procedure. Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis is feasible and safe. However, laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis might cause more postoperative complications including intra-abdominal abscess and small intestinal obstruction compared to laparoscopic appendectomy for chronic appendicitis. These complications could potentially be avoided by improving techniques in operation.

  2. Does analgesia mask diagnosis of appendicitis among children?

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Rudy; Goldman, Ran D.

    2007-01-01

    QUESTION Can analgesia be given safely to patients with suspected appendicitis prior to surgical evaluation without masking physical signs and symptoms? ANSWER Withholding analgesia from patients with acute abdominal pain and suspected appendicitis is common. This practice, however, is not supported by published literature. Although a few trials have noted some changes in abdominal examination with analgesia, this has not been associated with any changes in patient outcome. If patients are in pain, analgesia is warranted. Larger multicentre trials are needed to establish practice guidelines. PMID:17872606

  3. Diagnosis and management of pediatric appendicitis, intussusception, and Meckel diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Victoria K; Stanfill, Amy B; Pearl, Richard H

    2012-06-01

    Three of the most common causes of surgical abdominal pain in pediatric patients include appendicitis, Meckel diverticulum, and intussusception. All 3 can present with right lower quadrant pain, and can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. Although ultrasound is the preferred method of diagnosis with appendicitis and intussusception, considerable variety exists in the modalities needed in the diagnosis of Meckel diverticulum. This article discusses the pathways to diagnosis, the modes of treatment, and the continued areas of controversy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stump appendicitis is a rare delayed complication of appendectomy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Mehmet; Isgor, Adnan; Basak, Muzaffer

    2006-09-07

    Stump appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the residual appendix and one of the rare complications after appendectomy. Paying attention to the possibility of stump appendicitis in patients with right lower abdominal pain after appendectomy can prevent the delay of diagnosis and treatment. In patients with stump appendicitis, CT scan not only assists in making an accurate preoperative diagnosis but also excludes other etiologies. We report a 47-year old man with preoperatively diagnosed stump appendicitis by CT, who underwent an open appendectomy 20 years ago.

  5. [Intrathoracic acute appendicitis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Fahed, R; Menassa-Moussa, L; Sader-Ghorra, C; Haddad-Zebouni, S

    2012-12-01

    Intrathoracic appendicitis is an uncommon diagnosis. We report the case of a 6-year-old boy with elevated CRP and no fever, who complained of nonspecific abdominal pain. A diaphragmatic hernia was suspected on a chest X-ray and confirmed by an ultrasound examination. A multidetector CT scan revealed intrathoracic acute appendicitis associated with a right posterolateral Bochdalek hernia. Abdominal diseases associated with late-presenting congenital diaphragmatic hernia are often manifested by an atypical clinical presentation, which can be a source of delay or error in diagnosis. We recommend radiological exploration in the case of diaphragmatic hernia, even with subtle clinical findings in the search of associated gastrointestinal complications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute appendicitis caused by foreign body ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Heung; Lee, Dae Sup

    2015-01-01

    Foreign bodies usually do not cause complications and pass through the gastrointestinal tract spontaneously. Usually endoscopic intervention is recommended within 24 hours. Cases of acute appendicitis caused by foreign bodies are very rare. In our case, we experienced successful endoscopic and surgical treatment of a patient with ingestion of razor blade and some unrecognizable foreign bodies. A 22-year-old soldier was admitted with a small quantity of hematemesis and epigastric pain. We performed emergent endoscopy and successfully removed several foreign bodies. After 17 days, we performed appendectomy to remove the remaining foreign body and to relieve the symptoms. There is no doubt that endoscopic intervention is definitely useful method to remove foreign bodies. If there is no spontaneous drainage of the foreign body from the appendix, an appendectomy must be considered to remove the foreign body and prevent surgical complications such as appendicitis, periappendiceal abscess, and perforation. PMID:26366386

  7. Computed tomography mimics of acute appendicitis: predictors of appendiceal disease confirmed at pathology.

    PubMed

    Duda, Jeremy B; Lynch, Miranda L; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S

    2012-01-01

    Imaging and pathology findings are used to analyze the capability of computed tomography (CT) to distinguish between acute appendicitis and radiological mimickers. A retrospective review of 5861 patients undergoing abdominopelvic CT from 2000 to 2008 for suspicion of acute appendicitis was performed. Appendix diameter, surrounding inflammation, appendicolith, and location were assessed. Only those cases were included where patients underwent surgery for acute appendicitis on CT findings. Pathology specimens were examined and those indicative of acute appendicitis were identified. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate pathology and CT signs. A total of 969 of the 5681 patients were included in the study. Acute appendicitis was verified in 870/969 (89%) cases, while 99/969 (11%) demonstrated either chronic findings (i.e., fibrosis [32%], granulomatous disease [16%], lymphoid hyperplasia [11%]) or no abnormality. In regression models, appendiceal diameter >7 mm (odds ratio [OR] = 3.98, P < 0.0001) and mesenteric fat stranding (OR = 6.04, P < 0.0001) were associated with acute appendicitis. Nearly 87% (754/870) of acute appendicitis cases showed both signs on CT, compared with 53% (52/99) of those with other pathologic finding (P < 0.0001). In cases with non-appendicitis findings, 39% (39/99) had only one of these signs compared with 13% (112/870) of those with acute appendicitis (P < 0.0001). Diseases of the appendix other than acute appendicitis may manifest with isolated radiological findings and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in cases of borderline acute appendicitis.

  8. Primary Sacral Hydatid Cyst Mimicking a Neurogenic Tumor in Chronic Low Back Pain: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Trepichio, Manuel; Montoza-Nuñez, Jose Manuel; Candela-Zaplana, David; Herrero-Santacruz, Josefa; Pla-Mingorance, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by infection of Echinococcus granulosus. Bone hydatid cyst presentation without hepatic affectation is infrequent and occurs in 0,5-2% of cases. This rare condition makes clinicians not always aware of the disease, and as a result, misdiagnosis of spinal echinococcosis is common. We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient with primary sacral hydatidosis. Chronic low back pain radiating to the left buttock was the only symptom. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a neurogenic tumor versus giant cell tumor. Biopsy and pathological study revealed a hydatid cyst. Anthelmintic and surgical treatment was performed. At 12 months after surgery, the patient is free of recurrence. In patients with chronic low back pain and a MR suggestive of neurogenic tumor, spinal hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is recommended the assistance of an anesthesiologist during biopsy to avoid an anaphylactic shock. PMID:28163523

  9. Primary Sacral Hydatid Cyst Mimicking a Neurogenic Tumor in Chronic Low Back Pain: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Segura-Trepichio, Manuel; Montoza-Nuñez, Jose Manuel; Candela-Zaplana, David; Herrero-Santacruz, Josefa; Pla-Mingorance, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by infection of Echinococcus granulosus. Bone hydatid cyst presentation without hepatic affectation is infrequent and occurs in 0,5-2% of cases. This rare condition makes clinicians not always aware of the disease, and as a result, misdiagnosis of spinal echinococcosis is common. We present a case of a 48-year-old female patient with primary sacral hydatidosis. Chronic low back pain radiating to the left buttock was the only symptom. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a neurogenic tumor versus giant cell tumor. Biopsy and pathological study revealed a hydatid cyst. Anthelmintic and surgical treatment was performed. At 12 months after surgery, the patient is free of recurrence. In patients with chronic low back pain and a MR suggestive of neurogenic tumor, spinal hydatid cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis. It is recommended the assistance of an anesthesiologist during biopsy to avoid an anaphylactic shock.

  10. Missed appendicitis after self-induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Punguyire, Damien; Iserson, Victor Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Female lower abdominal pain poses diagnostic difficulties for clinicians, especially when little more than the history and physical examination are available. A girl presented with constant lower abdominal pain after taking misoprostol for pregnancy termination. She was eventually referred to a rural District Hospital, where a laparotomy demonstrated acute appendicitis. After treating herself for a self-diagnosed pregnancy with illegally provided misoprostol, this patient presented with persistent lower abdominal pain. The differential diagnosis included ectopic pregnancy and all other causes of female abdominal pain. Yet diagnosing two diseases in the same anatomical area at the same time contradicts diagnostic parsimony. System problems in resource-poor areas can limit access to healthcare services and encourage dispensing potentially dangerous medications without clinicians' authorization. It is dangerous to rely on patients' self-diagnoses while neglecting other diagnoses. More than one diagnosis may be needed to explain temporally and anatomically related symptoms.

  11. Helical computed tomography in differentiating appendicitis and acute gynecologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Feltmate, C M; Rhea, J T; Schulick, A H; Novelline, R A

    1999-03-01

    To determine the accuracy and effect of helical computed tomography (CT) in women clinically suspected of having either appendicitis or an acute gynecologic condition. One hundred consecutive nonpregnant women suspected of having appendicitis or an acute gynecologic condition prospectively had helical CT. Interpretations were correlated with surgical and pathologic findings (41 cases) and clinical follow-up for at least 2 months (59 cases). The accuracy for confirming or excluding both appendicitis and acute gynecologic conditions was determined. The effect on patient care was determined by comparing pre-CT plans with actual treatment. Thirty-two women had appendicitis, 15 had acute gynecologic conditions, 27 had other specific diagnoses, and 26 had nonspecific abdominal pain. For diagnosing appendicitis or acute gynecologic conditions, CT had 100% and 87% sensitivity, 97% and 100% specificity, 94% and 100% positive predictive value, 100% and 98% negative predictive value, and 98% and 98% accuracy, respectively. After CT was done, 36 planned hospital admissions, 25 planned hospital observations, and six planned appendectomies were deferred; six women had alternative surgical procedures on the basis of CT results. One patient had an unnecessary appendectomy on the basis of CT findings. Helical CT is an excellent imaging option for differentiating appendicitis from most acute gynecologic conditions.

  12. Diagnostic value of C-reactive protein in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Albu, E; Miller, B M; Choi, Y; Lakhanpal, S; Murthy, R N; Gerst, P H

    1994-01-01

    Serum C-reactive protein was measured in 56 patients hospitalized with a suspected diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Based on these determinations, four groups of patients were defined: Group A = 26 patients with acute appendicitis who had a C-reactive protein level higher than 2.5 mg/dl. Group B = 4 patients with a C-reactive protein level lower than 2.5 mg/dl who, after surgery based on a presumed diagnosis of acute appendicitis, were found to have a normal appendix. Group C = 22 patients with nonspecific abdominal pain, 18 (72 percent) of whom had an elevated C-reactive protein level, although in only 4 (7.1 percent) were these levels higher than 2.5 percent mg/dl. Group D = 4 patients who had diseases other than acute appendicitis. It is concluded that an increase in C-reactive protein levels to more than 2.5 mg/dl is not a definite indicator of acute appendicitis. However, if the C-reactive protein level in blood drawn 12 hours after the onset of symptoms is less than 2.5 mg/dl, acute appendicitis can be excluded.

  13. Appendicitis: changing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Pedro G R; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2013-01-01

    Neoplasms are an uncommon finding after appendectomy, with malignant tumors occurring in less than 1% of the surgical specimens, and carcinoid being the most frequent malignancy. A negative or inconclusive ultrasound is not adequate to rule out appendicitis and should be followed by CT scan. For pregnant patients, MRI is a reasonable alternative to CT scan. Nonoperative treatment with antibiotics is safe as an initial treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis, with a significant decrease in complications but a high failure rate. Open and laparoscopic appendectomies for appendicitis provide similar results overall, although the laparoscopic technique may be advantageous for obese and elderly patients but may be associated with a higher incidence of intraabdominal abscess. Preoperative diagnostic accuracy is of utmost importance during pregnancy because a negative appendectomy is associated with a significant incidence of fetal loss. The increased morbidity associated with appendectomy delay suggests that prompt surgical intervention remains the safest approach. Routine incidental appendectomy should not be performed except in selected cases. Interval appendectomy is not indicated because of considerable risks of complications and lack of any clinical benefit. Patients older than 40 years with an appendiceal mass or abscess treated nonoperatively should routinely have a colonoscopy as part of their follow-up to rule out cancer or alternative diagnosis.

  14. Fiber intake and childhood appendicitis.

    PubMed Central

    Brender, J D; Weiss, N S; Koepsell, T D; Marcuse, E K

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Children in the upper two quartiles of fiber intake were estimated to have a 30 per cent lower risk of appendicitis than children in the lowest quartile. Estimated risk of appendicitis decreased as monthly intake of whole-grain foods increased. Children 7 to 18 years of age who had an intake of whole-grain foods in the upper fiftieth percentile were estimated to have a 50 per cent lower risk of appendicitis. This reduction in risk was not observed in the group of children less than 7 years of age. PMID:2983577

  15. Appendicitis/diverticulitis: diagnostics and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Wolfgang; Morgenstern, Julia; Schanz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Appendicitis and diverticulitis are very common entities that show some similarities in diagnosis and course of disease. Both are widely believed to be simple clinical diagnoses, which is in contrast to scientific evidence. An accurate diagnosis has to describe not only the initial detection, but particularly the severity of the disease. It is based mainly on cross-sectional imaging by ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT). Appendectomy is the standard treatment for acute appendicitis and is mandatory in complicated cases. Antibiotic therapy is similarly effective in uncomplicated appendicitis, but long-term results are not sufficiently known. Treatment of diverticulitis is related to the disease status. Complications such as perforation and bleeding require intervention. Uncomplicated diverticulitis as graded by US or CT are subject to conservative management, in the form of outpatient or hospital care. It is an unresolved debate as to whether antibiotic treatment offers benefits. Mesalazine seems at least to improve pain. The real challenge is treatment of recurrent diverticulitis. Lifestyle measures such as nutritional habits and physical activity are found to influence diverticular disease. Besides immunosuppression, obesity is a significant risk factor for complicated diverticulitis. Whether any medication such as chronic antibiotics, probiotics or mesalazine offers benefits is unclear. The indication for sigmoid resection has changed; it is no longer given by the number of attacks, but rather by structural changes as depicted by cross-sectional imaging. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal MRI for Suspected Appendicitis: How We Do It

    PubMed Central

    Kinner, Sonja; Repplinger, Michael D.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this article is to describe our approach to contrast-enhanced abdominal MRI in patients with nontraumatic abdominal pain and suspected appendicitis. We aim to share our experience on the advantages, pearls, and pitfalls of MRI in this clinical setting, in comparison with CT and ultrasound. CONCLUSION We present some typical cases of appendicitis and alternative diagnoses in patients presenting with acute nontraumatic abdominal pain. PMID:27065072

  17. Management of acute appendicitis: an imaging strategy in children.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, David; Vainrib, Michael; Buklan, Genady; Gutermacher, Michael; Paran, Haim; Werner, Myriam; Rathause, Valeria; Zissin, Rivka; Lazar, Ludwig; Erez, Ilan

    2010-02-01

    The pre-operative diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) has markedly changed during the last couple of decades due to the advent of modern imaging technology. Nowadays, the use of imaging has dramatically changed the way we approach children admitted to emergency room for abdominal pain with suspected AA. This change is mainly manifested in our diagnostic strategy.

  18. Urinary biomarkers in pediatric appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Salö, Martin; Roth, Bodil; Stenström, Pernilla; Arnbjörnsson, Einar; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2016-08-01

    The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis is still a challenge, resulting in perforation and negative appendectomies. The aim of this study was to evaluate novel biomarkers in urine and to use the most promising biomarkers in conjunction with the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), to see whether this could improve the accuracy of diagnosing appendicitis. A prospective study of children with suspected appendicitis was conducted with assessment of PAS, routine blood tests, and measurements of four novel urinary biomarkers: leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG), calprotectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and substance P. The biomarkers were blindly determined with commercial ELISAs. Urine creatinine was used to adjust for dehydration. The diagnosis of appendicitis was based on histopathological analysis. Forty-four children with suspected appendicitis were included, of which twenty-two (50 %) had confirmed appendicitis. LRG in urine was elevated in children with appendicitis compared to children without (p < 0.001), and was higher in children with gangrenous and perforated appendicitis compared to those with phlegmonous appendicitis (p = 0.003). No statistical significances between groups were found for calprotectin, IL-6 or substance P. LRG had a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.86 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99), and a better diagnostic performance than all routine blood tests. LRG in conjunction with PAS showed 95 % sensitivity, 90 % specificity, 91 % positive predictive value, and 95 % negative predictive value. LRG, adjusted for dehydration, is a promising novel urinary biomarker for appendicitis in children. LRG in combination with PAS has a high diagnostic performance.

  19. Clinical use of MRI for the evaluation of acute appendicitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan; Fingard, Jordan; Winters, Sean; Low, Gavin

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for detecting acute appendicitis in pregnancy in a multi-institution study involving general body MR readers with no specific expertise in MR imaging of the pregnant patient. Retrospective review of MRI examinations on PACS in 42 pregnant patients was evaluated for acute right lower quadrant pain. Three fellowship-trained general body radiologists analyzed the MRI examinations in consensus and attempted to localize the appendix, assess for features of appendicitis, and exclude alternative etiologies for the right lower quadrant pain. Of the 42 MRI examinations, the readers noted 6 cases of acute appendicitis, 16 cases of a normal appendix, and 20 cases involving non-visualization of the appendix but where there were no secondary features of acute appendicitis. Based on the surgical data and clinical follow-up, there were 3 true-positive cases, 3 false-positive cases, 34 true-negative cases, and 2 false-negative cases of acute appendicitis on MRI. This yielded an accuracy of 88.1%, sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 91.9%, positive predictive value of 50%, and negative predictive value of 94.4% for the detection of acute appendicitis in the pregnant patient on MRI. Alternative etiologies for the right lower quadrant pain on MRI included torsion of an ovarian dermoid in 1 case and pyelonephritis in 1 case. MRI is an excellent modality for excluding acute appendicitis in pregnant patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain.

  20. Profiles of US and CT imaging features with a high probability of appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Laméris, W.; van Es, H. W.; ten Hove, W.; Bouma, W. H.; van Leeuwen, M. S.; van Keulen, E. M.; van der Hulst, V. P. M.; Henneman, O. D.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Boermeester, M. A.; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate profiles of US and CT features associated with acute appendicitis. Methods Consecutive patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the emergency department were invited to participate in this study. All patients underwent US and CT. Imaging features known to be associated with appendicitis, and an imaging diagnosis were prospectively recorded by two independent radiologists. A final diagnosis was assigned after 6 months. Associations between appendiceal imaging features and a final diagnosis of appendicitis were evaluated with logistic regression analysis. Results Appendicitis was assigned to 284 of 942 evaluated patients (30%). All evaluated features were associated with appendicitis. Imaging profiles were created after multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 147 patients with a thickened appendix, local transducer tenderness and peri-appendiceal fat infiltration on US, 139 (95%) had appendicitis. On CT, 119 patients in whom the appendix was completely visualised, thickened, with peri-appendiceal fat infiltration and appendiceal enhancement, 114 had a final diagnosis of appendicitis (96%). When at least two of these essential features were present on US or CT, sensitivity was 92% (95% CI 89–96%) and 96% (95% CI 93–98%), respectively. Conclusion Most patients with appendicitis can be categorised within a few imaging profiles on US and CT. When two of the essential features are present the diagnosis of appendicitis can be made accurately. PMID:20119730

  1. Intra-abdominal bleeding in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, C; Pasa-Arj, S

    1991-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman, gravida 6 with 10 weeks of gestation was admitted because of abdominal pain and fainting. On physical examination she had hypotension, was pale with abdominal tenderness and guarding. Culdocentesis yielded unclotted blood. Immediate laparotomy was performed, because a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was made. About 2,500 ml of fresh blood was found in the abdominal cavity. Appendicular artery tear caused active arterial bleeding. The torn appendicular artery was observed to be the consequence of perforated appendicitis, which, in turn, was caused by a faecalith. Appendectomy was performed and she made a good recovery.

  2. CT following US for possible appendicitis: anatomic coverage.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin E; Alharbi, Fawaz; Chawla, Tanya P; Moshonov, Hadas

    2016-02-01

    To determine superior-inferior anatomic borders for CT following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US for possible appendicitis. Ninety-nine patients with possible appendicitis and inconclusive/nondiagnostic US followed by CT were included in this retrospective study. Two radiologists reviewed CT images and determined superior-inferior anatomic borders required to diagnose or exclude appendicitis and diagnose alternative causes. This "targeted" coverage was used to estimate potential reduction in anatomic coverage compared to standard abdominal/pelvic CT. The study group included 83 women and 16 men; mean age 32 (median, 29; range 18-73) years. Final diagnoses were: nonspecific abdominal pain 50/99 (51%), appendicitis 26/99 (26%), gynaecological 12/99 (12%), gastrointestinal 9/99 (10%), and musculoskeletal 2/99 (2%). Median dose-length product for standard CT was 890.0 (range, 306.3 - 2493.9) mGy.cm. To confidently diagnose/exclude appendicitis or identify alternative diagnoses, maximum superior-inferior anatomic CT coverage was the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis, for both reviewers. Targeted CT would reduce anatomic coverage by 30-55% (mean 39%, median 40%) compared to standard CT. When CT is performed for appendicitis following inconclusive/nondiagnostic US, targeted CT from the superior border of L2-superior border of pubic symphysis can be used resulting in significant reduction in exposure to ionizing radiation compared to standard CT. • When CT is used following inconclusive/ nondiagnostic ultrasound, anatomic coverage can be reduced. • CT from L2 to pubic symphysis can be used to diagnose/exclude appendicitis. • Reduced anatomic coverage for CT results in reduced exposure to ionizing radiation.

  3. Seat Belt Compression Appendicitis following Motor Vehicle Collision

    PubMed Central

    Zia Ullah, Qazi

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis and trauma both present in emergency department commonly but their presentation together in the same patient is unusual. We present a case of a middle-aged man brought by emergency medical services (EMS) to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain after he was involved in motor vehicle collision. He was perfectly fine before the accident. His primary survey was normal. Secondary survey revealed tenderness in right iliac fossa with seat belt mark overlying it. Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed which showed 8 mm thickening of appendix with minimal adjacent fat stranding. There is also subcutaneous fat stranding of anterior lower abdominal wall possibly due to bruising. Impression of posttraumatic seat belt compression appendicitis was made. Laparoscopic appendectomy was done and patient recovered uneventfully. Histopathology showed inflamed appendix, proving it to be a case of seat belt compression appendicitis. PMID:28337350

  4. [Principles of diagnostics and treatment of chronic appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Sazhin, A V; Mosin, S V; Kodzhoglian, A A; Mirzoian, A T; Laĭpanov, B K; Iuldoshev, A R

    2011-01-01

    Treatment results of 101 patients, operated on with the diagnosis of the chronic appendicitis, were analyzed. Of them, 55 had periodic right iliac pain syndrome, the rest 46 had a history of appendicular abscess or infiltrate. 58 patients were operated on laparoscopically, the rest had traditional open appendectomy. The use of ultrasound and roentgen diagnostics proved to be non-effective. The reliable laparoscopic symptoms of chronic appendicitis were singled out. The laparoscopy provided the correct diagnosis in 93.3% of patients and allowed avoiding the groundless appendectomy in 31.2%. The intraoperative ultrasound is helpful in questionable cases. The diagnostic and treatment algorithm for chronic appendicitis, based on laparoscopic methods, was worked out.

  5. Laparoscopic appendectomy: treatment of choice for suspected appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Nowzaradan, Y; Barnes, J P; Westmoreland, J; Hojabri, M

    1993-10-01

    Results and complications in 100 patients treated over a 3-year period with the laparoscopic approach for clinically diagnosed acute appendicitis are evaluated. They are compared with results and complications in 100 patients with the same diagnosis who had been treated with the open technique performed by the same surgeon during the same 3 years. The results suggest that laparoscopy provides excellent exposure of the appendix regardless of its position. In the absence of pathology of the appendix, laparoscopy allows for a thorough examination of the entire abdomen and pelvis and good exposure and definitive treatment of most surgical conditions encountered. In the event of appendicitis, regardless of its severity, laparoscopic appendectomy results in less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, faster return to normal activities, fewer postoperative complications, and superior cosmetic results. Our experience suggests that the laparoscopic approach is the best approach to diagnosis and treatment of the conditions encountered in patients with suspected appendicitis.

  6. Seat Belt Compression Appendicitis following Motor Vehicle Collision.

    PubMed

    Khilji, Muhammad Faisal; Zia Ullah, Qazi

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis and trauma both present in emergency department commonly but their presentation together in the same patient is unusual. We present a case of a middle-aged man brought by emergency medical services (EMS) to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain after he was involved in motor vehicle collision. He was perfectly fine before the accident. His primary survey was normal. Secondary survey revealed tenderness in right iliac fossa with seat belt mark overlying it. Computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed which showed 8 mm thickening of appendix with minimal adjacent fat stranding. There is also subcutaneous fat stranding of anterior lower abdominal wall possibly due to bruising. Impression of posttraumatic seat belt compression appendicitis was made. Laparoscopic appendectomy was done and patient recovered uneventfully. Histopathology showed inflamed appendix, proving it to be a case of seat belt compression appendicitis.

  7. Acute Appendicitis Secondary to Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Lopez, Marvin A.; Valluri, Kartik; Wang, Danlu; Fischer, Andrew; Perdomo, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Myeloid sarcoma appendicitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chills • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic appendectomy, bone marrow biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The gastrointestinal tract is a rare site for extramedullary involvement in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Case Report: A 43-year-old female with no past medical history presented complaining of mild abdominal pain, fever, and chills for the past day. On examination, she was tachycardic and febrile, with mild tenderness of her right lower quadrant and without signs of peritoneal irritation. Laboratory examination revealed pancytopenia and DIC, with a fibrinogen level of 290 mg/dL. CT of the abdomen showed a thickened and hyperemic appendix without perforation or abscess, compatible with acute appendicitis. The patient was given IV broad-spectrum antibiotics and was transfused with packed red blood cells and platelets. She underwent uncomplicated laparoscopic appendectomy and bone marrow biopsy, which revealed neo-plastic cells of 90% of the total bone marrow cellularity. Flow cytometry indicated presence of 92.4% of immature myeloid cells with t (15: 17) and q (22: 12) mutations, and FISH analysis for PML-RARA demonstrated a long-form fusion transcript, positive for APL. Appendix pathology described leukemic infiltration with co-expression of myeloperoxidase and CD68, consistent with myeloid sarcoma of the appendix. The patient completed a course of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and all trans-retinoic acid. Repeat bone marrow biopsy demonstrated complete remission. She will follow up with her primary care physician and hematologist/oncologist. Conclusions: Myeloid sarcoma of the appendix in the setting of APL is very rare and it might play a role in the development of acute appendicitis. Urgent management, including bone marrow biopsy for definitive diagnosis and urgent surgical intervention

  8. Schistosomiasis presenting as acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Badmos, K B; Komolafe, A O; Rotimi, O

    2006-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic granulomatous inflammation that affects many systems in the body including the gastrointestinal tract. This study was carried out by reviewing all cases of schistosomal appendicitis, and documents any association with acute appendicitis. To review all cases of schistosomal appendicitis and document any possible asspciation with acute appendicitis. A retrospective study. Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 1991 to 2004. Eight hundred and forty three specimen of appendicectomy were reviewed. Thirty five of them were diagnosed as schistosomal appendicitis. The involvement of the vermiform appendix by schistosomiasis found in 35/843 (4.2%) cases of all the appendicectomy specimen received in our histopathology laboratory between 1991 and 2004 shows that 23 of the cases (65.7%) had histologically proven acute appendicitis while the remaining 12 cases (34.3%) were schistosomiasis without active inflammation. The appendiceal wall oviposition is associated with submucosal fibrosis, narrowing of the lumen and subsequent acute suppurative inflammation in 17 cases while there were active granulomas with tissue eosinophilia in six cases. This finding has demonstrated that though the frequency of appendix involvement is low considering the endemicity of schistosomiasis in our environment, however acute appendicitis may be caused by schistosomiasis.

  9. Stump Appendicitis: A Surgeon's Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Starker, Lee F.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Bell, Robert L.; Bokhari, Jamal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Stump appendicitis is defined by the recurrent inflammation of the residual appendix after the appendix has been only partially removed during an appendectomy for appendicitis. Forty-eight cases of stump appendicitis were identified in the English literature. Database: The institutional CPT codes were evaluated for multiple hits of the appendectomy code, yielding a total of 3 patients. After appropriate approval from an internal review board, a retrospective chart review was completed and all available data extracted. All 3 patients were diagnosed with stump appendicitis, ranging from 2 months to 20 years after the initial procedure. Two patients underwent a laparoscopic and the one an open completion appendectomy. All patients did well and were discharged home in good condition. Conclusion: Surgeons need a heightened awareness of the possibility of stump appendicitis. Correct identification and removal of the appendiceal base without leaving an appendiceal stump minimizes the risk of stump appendicitis. If a CT scan has been obtained, it enables exquisite delineation of the surrounding anatomy, including the length of the appendiceal remnant. Thus, we propose that unless there are other mitigating circumstances, the completion appendectomy in cases of stump appendicitis should also be performed laparoscopically guided by the CT findings. PMID:21985727

  10. Acute Appendicitis and Pneumatosis in a Duplicated Appendix With Schistosoma Remnants.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Bisseret, Damien; Dragoescu, Ema

    2016-02-01

    Appendiceal pneumatosis is rare, reported either in the context of acute appendicitis or enterocolitis. Here, we report the case of an elderly adult in whom the acute appendicitis was associated with pneumatosis and occurred in the context of a malformed appendix with pathogenic organism remnants. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal pain 3 weeks after posttraumatic dorsolumbar surgery. The computed tomography scan showed acute appendicitis and 2 diverticula. On microscopy, the appendix showed acute appendicitis along with a Cave-Wallbridge type A duplication. In addition, several optically clear spaces were observed in the entire appendiceal wall consistent with pneumatosis of the appendix. Focally, calcified structures suggesting pathogenic organisms such as Schistosoma were noted as well. In conclusion, we report a case of appendiceal pneumatosis occurring in the context of acute appendicitis in a duplicated appendix, with presence of calcified structures suggestive of pathogenic organisms.

  11. A 60-year literature review of stump appendicitis: the need for a critical view.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Anuradha; Liang, Mike K

    2012-04-01

    Stump appendicitis is an underreported and poorly defined condition. It is the development of obstruction and inflammation of the residual appendix after appendectomy. This is a review of the basic clinical, pathological, and surgical significance of stump appendicitis, and the "critical view" required for prevention. PubMed MEDLINE search was performed using terms "stump appendicitis" and "retained appendix" to obtain reported cases of stump appendicitis. Sixty-one cases were identified. Each case was charted based on 14 variables. Data were analyzed. Stump appendicitis warrants early detection. Patients can present with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. A prior history of appendectomy can delay the diagnosis. A diagnosis can be made with an abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography scan. If treated early, laparoscopic or open completion appendectomy can be performed. If diagnosis is delayed and perforation is found, extensive resection is often required. A "critical view," as described in this article, is key for prevention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Obstructive Uropathy Secondary to Missed Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is a rare complication of acute appendicitis. We present a case of missed appendicitis in a 52-year-old female which presented as a right-sided hydronephrosis. 2 days after admission to the Department of Urology CT revealed acute appendicitis for what open appendectomy was performed. Acute appendicitis can lead to obstructive uropathy by periappendiceal inflammation due to adjacency. Urologists, surgeons, and emergency physicians should be aware of this rare complication of atypical acute appendicitis. PMID:27818827

  13. Chronic appendicitis diagnosed preoperatively as an ovarian dermoid.

    PubMed

    Vanwinter, Jo T; Beyer, Derek A

    2004-12-01

    Recurrent right lower quadrant pain in young women can be a diagnostic dilemma. Chronic appendicitis is often mistakenly excluded from the differential diagnosis. In the present case, pelvic inflammatory disease was diagnosed in a 19-year-old woman with bilateral lower abdominal pain (greater on the right than the left), fever, and elevated white blood cell count. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics until resolution of symptoms. The pain recurred 1 month later, and the patient presented to our emergency department. At that time, she was afebrile and all laboratory results were normal or negative, aside from an elevated white blood cell count. Computed tomography suggested a right ovarian dermoid. At laparoscopy, however, the right tube and ovary were normal, and chronic appendicitis was confirmed. Although computed tomography is often accurate for delineating the cause of pelvic abnormality, it also may be misleading.

  14. Appendicitis near its centenary.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J; Malt, R A

    1984-01-01

    In an analysis of the first 72 cases treated after the formulation of the appendicitis syndrome in 1886 compared with the experience from 1929-1959 and with 307 randomly selected recent cases, the major therapeutic trend has been an emphasis on appendectomy before perforation and abscess formation occur. The rate of infection nonetheless remains approximately 17%. Although the overall mortality rate has declined from 26% overall (40% for surgery) to 0.8%, the current rate of perforation is 28%, with a diagnostic accuracy of 82%. Among 13,848 patients from several reports the perforation rate increases linearly with diagnostic accuracy; therefore, a balance must be sought. Delay awaiting a diagnosis is a major determinant of perforation, but diagnostic aids are of limited help. Clinical acuity and prudent decisiveness are the keys to proper action. Images FIGS. 1A and B. FIG. 2. PMID:6385879

  15. Massive ovarian edema, due to adjacent appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Callen, Andrew L; Illangasekare, Tushani; Poder, Liina

    2017-04-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a benign clinical entity, the imaging findings of which can mimic an adnexal mass or ovarian torsion. In the setting of acute abdominal pain, identifying massive ovarian edema is a key in avoiding potential fertility-threatening surgery in young women. In addition, it is important to consider other contributing pathology when ovarian edema is secondary to another process. We present a case of a young woman presenting with subacute abdominal pain, whose initial workup revealed marked enlarged right ovary. Further imaging, diagnostic tests, and eventually diagnostic laparoscopy revealed that the ovarian enlargement was secondary to subacute appendicitis, rather than a primary adnexal process. We review the classic ultrasound and MRI imaging findings and pitfalls that relate to this diagnosis.

  16. Surgical decision-making in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sandell, Eva; Berg, Maria; Sandblom, Gabriel; Sundman, Joar; Fränneby, Ulf; Boström, Lennart; Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2015-06-02

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute abdominal conditions. Among other parameters, the decision to perform surgical exploration in suspected appendicitis involves diagnostic accuracy, patient age and co-morbidity, patient's own wishes, the surgeon's core medical values, expected natural course of non-operative treatment and priority considerations regarding the use of limited resources. Do objective clinical findings, such as radiology and laboratory results, have greater impact on decision-making than "soft" clinical variables? In this study we investigate the parameters that surgeons consider significant in decision-making in cases of suspected appendicitis; specifically we describe the process leading to surgical intervention in real settings. The purpose of the study was to explore the process behind the decision to undertake surgery on a patient with suspected appendicitis as a model for decision-making in surgery. All appendectomy procedures (n = 201) at the Department of Surgery at Karolinska University Hospital performed in 2009 were retrospectively evaluated. Every two consecutive patients seeking for abdominal pain after each case undergoing surgery were included as controls. Signs and symptoms documented in the medical records were registered according to a standardized protocol. The outcome of this retrospective review formed the basis of a prospective registration of patients undergoing appendectomy. During a three- month period in 2011, the surgeons who made the decision to perform acute appendectomy on 117 consecutive appendectomized patients at the Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, and Södersjukhuset, were asked to answer a questionnaire about symptoms, signs and diagnostic measures considered in their treatment decision. They were also asked which three symptoms, signs and diagnostic measures had the greatest impact on their decision to perform appendectomy. In the retrospective review, tenderness in the right fossa had the

  17. Necrotizing fasciitis due to appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Groth, D; Henderson, S O

    1999-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis, although rare, is one of the more serious, life-threatening complications of missed acute appendicitis. Patients who are predisposed to developing necrotizing fasciitis, regardless of the cause, are typically immunocompromised. We present a case of a 49-year-old immunocompetent female whose diagnosis of acute appendicitis was missed and who subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and flank. She recovered 1 month after admission due to aggressive surgical and medical therapy.

  18. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jie; Yao, Le; He, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Bin; Song, Zhen-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain. Accurate diagnosis is often hindered due to various presentations that differ from the typical signs of appendicitis, especially the position of the appendix. A delay in diagnosis or treatment may result in increased risks of complications, such as perforation, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis is extremely rare. We herein report a case of 50-year-old man presenting with an appendiceal abscess in local hospital. After ten days of conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics, the patient complained about pain and swelling of the right lower limb and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a perforated appendix and gas and fluid collection extending from his retroperitoneal cavity to the subcutaneous layer of his right loin and right lower limb. He was transferred to our hospital and was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis. Emergency surgery including surgical debridement and appendectomy was performed. However, the patient died of severe sepsis and multiple organ failure two days after the operation. This case represents an unusual complication of a common disease and we should bear in mind that retroperitoneal inflammation and/or abscesses may cause necrotizing fasciitis through lumbar triangles.

  19. Are antibiotics a safe and effective treatment for acute uncomplicated appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Moraga, Felipe; Ahumada, Vanessa; Crovari, Fernando

    2016-01-26

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain and the most frequent cause of emergency abdominal surgery. In the last two decades, growing evidence has been published about the use of antibiotics as the exclusive treatment for acute appendicitis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including one pertinent randomized trial. We generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of antibiotics to treat acute uncomplicated appendicitis may be less effective than appendectomy and probably increases major complications compared with appendectomy.

  20. Clear peritoneal effluent in a child on CCPD with a phlegmonous appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Horuz, F; Sleeboom, C; Bouts, A H; Davin, J C; Groothoff, J W

    2005-10-01

    Peritonitis as a result of a perorated appendicitis is a rare but life-threatening situation in a patient on peritoneal dialysis (PD). As far as we are aware, the combination of clear dialysate effluent and phlegmonous appendicitis in a patient on PD has not previously been described. We report a 16-year-old girl with acute onset of abdominal pain and vomiting who turned out to have phlegmonous appendicitis, despite having a clear dialysate effluent with normal cell count, and who subsequently developed E coli peritonitis after surgery.

  1. Sacro-iliac osteomyelitis in a 13 year old boy following perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Whelan-Johnson, Sophie; Isaacs, John; Pullan, Rupert D

    2013-05-01

    Appendicitis is a common cause of acute abdominal pain in children and is treated by an open or laparoscopic appendicectomy. Well documented post-operative complications include wound infection, intra-abdominal collection, and adhesional bowel obstruction. We present the rare case of right sacro-iliitis and iliac bone osteomyelitis in a 13 year old boy following an open appendicectomy for a perforated appendicitis.

  2. Acute appendicitis in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Wen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Chen, Yung-Tai; Lee, Yi-Jung; Wang, Feng-Ming; Liu, Chia-Jen; Yang, Wu-Chang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Li, Szu-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Acute appendicitis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) poses a diagnostic challenge. Delayed surgery can contribute to higher morbidity and mortality rates. However, few studies have evaluated this disease among ESRD patients. Our study focused on the lack of data on the incidence and risk factors of acute appendicitis among ESRD patients and compared the outcomes in patients who underwent different dialysis modalities. This national survey was conducted between 1997 and 2005 and included ESRD patients identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. The incidence rate of acute appendicitis in ESRD patients was compared with that in randomly selected age-, sex-, and Charlson comorbidity score-matched non-dialysis controls. A Cox regression hazard model was used to identify risk factors. Among 59,781 incident ESRD patients, matched one-to-one with controls, there were 328 events of acute appendicitis. The incidence rate of 16.9 per 10,000 person-years in the ESRD cohort was higher than that in the control cohort (p = 0.003). The independent risk factors were atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08), severe liver disease (HR, 1.74), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.58), and hemodialysis (HR, 1.74). Compared with the control cohort, subsequent perforation and mortality rates of acute appendicitis were also higher in the ESRD cohorts. There was no effect of dialysis modality on the patient outcomes. ESRD patients had a higher risk for acute appendicitis and poorer outcomes than non-dialysis populations. A careful examination of ESRD patients presenting with atypical abdominal pain to avoid misdiagnosis is extremely important to prevent delayed surgery.

  3. How do you diagnose appendicitis? An international evaluation of methods.

    PubMed

    Alfraih, Yasser; Postuma, Ray; Keijzer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Considerable variability exists in the diagnostic approach to acute appendicitis (in children), affecting both quality and costs of care. Interestingly, an international evaluation of what is commonly practiced today has not been performed. We aimed to document current practice patterns in the diagnosis of appendicitis in children and to determine whether a consensus exists in the workup of these patients among Canadian, Dutch, and Saudi Arabian pediatric surgeons. We performed a cross-sectional survey using a pre-designed, self-administered, 14-item survey. We sent the survey to participants via electronic mail. In total, 83 responses were received and analyzed, yielding a response rate of 42%. The majority of respondents practiced at pediatric surgery centers with over 50 beds (58% of Canadian surgeons, 81% of Dutch surgeons, 93% of Saudi Arabian surgeons). The majority of Dutch surgeons had a preference for physical examination and radiological imaging as opposed to Canadian and Saudi Arabian surgeons who favored history and physical examination. Interestingly, only one of the surgeons surveyed used an appendicitis scoring system. Regarding history and physical examination, most respondents deemed migratory abdominal pain and localized RLQ tenderness to be most suggestive of appendicitis. Ultrasound was the most preferable imaging modality in acute appendicitis across all three countries. This study demonstrates that international pediatric surgeons vary substantially in the diagnostic workup of patients with appendicitis. Furthermore, there is a variability between common practice and the current evidence. We recommend that pediatric surgeons develop clinical practice guidelines that are based on consensus information (expert opinion) and the best available literature. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with

  5. Characteristic clinical features of Aspergillus appendicitis: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gjeorgjievski, Mihajlo; Amin, Mitual B; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2015-11-28

    This work aims to facilitate diagnosing Aspergillus appendicitis, which can be missed clinically due to its rarity, by proposing a clinical pentad for Aspergillus appendicitis based on literature review and one new case. The currently reported case of pathologically-proven Aspergillus appendicitis was identified by computerized search of pathology database at William Beaumont Hospital, 1999-2014. Prior cases were identified by computerized literature search. Among 10980 pathology reports of pathologically-proven appendicitis, one case of Aspergillus appendicitis was identified (rate = 0.01%). A young boy with profound neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute myelogenous leukemia presented with right lower quadrant pain, pyrexia, and generalized malaise. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed a thickened appendiceal wall and periappendiceal inflammation, suggesting appendicitis. Emergent laparotomy showed an inflamed, thickened appendix, which was resected. The patient did poorly postoperatively with low-grade-fevers while receiving antibacterial therapy, but rapidly improved after initiating amphotericin therapy. Microscopic examination of a silver stain of the appendectomy specimen revealed fungi with characteristic Aspergillus morphology, findings confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Primary Aspergillus appendicitis is exceptionally rare, with only 3 previously reported cases. All three cases presented with (1)-neutropenia, (2)-recent chemotherapy, (3)-acute leukemia, and (4)-suspected appendicitis; (5)-the two prior cases initially treated with antibacterial therapy, fared poorly before instituting anti-Aspergillus therapy. The current patient satisfied all these five criteria. Based on these four cases, a clinical pentad is proposed for Aspergillus appendicitis: clinically-suspected appendicitis, neutropenia, recent chemotherapy, acute leukemia, and poor clinical response if treated solely by antibacterial/anti-candidial therapy. Patients presenting with

  6. Comparison of pediatric emergency physicians' and surgeons' evaluation and diagnosis of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Anupam B; Fishman, Steven J; Bachur, Richard G

    2008-02-01

    To compare the interexaminer reliability and ability to predict appendicitis between pediatric emergency physicians (EPs) and senior surgical residents. The authors conducted a prospective cohort study of children aged 3 to 18 years of age with signs and symptoms suspicious for appendicitis. Patients were initially examined by a pediatric EP attending and then by a consulting senior surgical resident. Physicians reported the presence or absence of specific historical and physical exam findings and predicted the likelihood the patient had appendicitis. Interexaminer reliability of historical and physical exam findings was compared (kappa statistic). Distributions and median probabilities of appendicitis were calculated for pediatric EP and surgeon predictions. The authors evaluated 350 patients with acute abdominal pain. Historical questions revealed slight to very good agreement (kappa statistic range 0.33-0.82) between physician types, whereas physical examination findings exhibited poor to fair agreement (range 0.14-0.48). Physicians predicted similar median probabilities of appendicitis for patients who were ultimately diagnosed with appendicitis (75% vs. 70%; p = 0.73) and patients without appendicitis (25% vs. 30%; p = 0.59). For a subset of patients given a > or = 90% predicted probability of appendicitis, pediatric EPs and senior surgical residents had similar accuracy (80% vs. 79%; p = 0.92). Similarly, among patients with < or = 10% predicted probability, pediatric EPs were correct in 95% and senior surgical residents correct in 94% of patients (p = 0.63). Pediatric EPs and senior surgical residents elicit historical findings from patients with suspected appendicitis with a greater degree of similarity than physical examination findings, which exhibit a wide degree of variability. Pediatric EPs and senior surgical residents do not differ in their ability to clinically predict appendicitis. These findings may be helpful in developing institutional

  7. [Laparoscopic diagnosis in suspected acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Nägeli, J; Zünd, M; Lange, J

    1994-07-01

    Since introduction of laparoscopic appendectomy we have the possibility to examine the whole abdominal cavity and not only the ileocaecal region and right adnex. The aim of the study is to find out if there is an advantage in laparoscopic diagnostics compared to conventional laparotomy for suspected acute appendicities. We compared prospectively all patients who underwent laparoscopy for acute right lower abdominal pain between August 1991 and March 1993 with a comparable group retrospectively analyzed who underwent conventional appendectomy in 1989. In both groups 20% of patients had a normal appendix. In 1% of the laparoscopically operated patients we couldn't find any pathological findings, in 12% of the conventionally operated group we couldn't find an accurate diagnosis. The average operation time of laparoscopically operated patients without acute appendicities was 20 minutes shorter compared to conventionally operated patients. We found identically results for the duration of hospital stay. The median hospital stay for conventionally operated patients was 6.6 days, for laparoscopically operated patients 4.7 days. The complications were in both groups 1-2%. We conclude that in laparoscopy the diagnostics are more reliable, and with a diagnostic accuracy of almost 100% the unnecessary appendectomy with a higher morbidity would not be necessary in 12% of patients.

  8. [Chronic appendicitis due to multiple fecaliths. A case report].

    PubMed

    Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro José; Ramírez-Sánchez, Celso; García-Cano, Eugenio; González-Hernández, Nicolás; Rodríguez-Pérez, Fabiola; Alvarado-Ortega, Ivan

    2016-12-09

    The appendix inflammatory process is the most common cause of chronic abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant. The frequency of appendiceal lumen obstruction by fecalith ranges from 10 to 20%; few cases of obstruction by multiple fecaliths had been reported. Sixty-nine years old male, diabetic and hypertensive in control, he underwent bowel resection 30 years previously. He completed 6 months with intermittent, mild pain in the right lower quadrant abdomen; 14 days prior to admission with increasing pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, abdominal distension and absence of peristalsis; 12,750 leukocytes, neutrophils 90%; plain abdominal radiography without specific bowel pattern, TAC with 3 dense images in right lower quadrant; exploratory laparotomy was performed and perforated appendix with 3 free fecaliths was found. Histopathological report showed fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltrate in the muscle layer of the cecal appendix consistent with chronic appendicitis. The most common obstruction of the appendix lumen is by a single fecalith. In this case the patient had chronic appendicitis secondary to appendiceal lumen obstruction by multiple fecaliths. Reviewing the international literature any case of chronic appendicitis associated with the presence of multiple fecaliths was found. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. UNDESCENDED TESTICLE COMPLICATING ACUTE APPENDICITIS*

    PubMed Central

    Herzig, Maximilian L.

    1924-01-01

    1. Symptoms referable to compression of the spermatic cord and incarceration of right testicle, obscure the underlying pathologic changes occurring in the vermiform appendix. 2. Testicular underdevelopment and resulting subnormal cerebration. 3. Operative technique: (a) Pre-operative diagnosis: Incarceration of right testicle and possible perforative appendicitis. (b) Descent of right incarcerated testicle. Bassini closure. (c) Exploratory laparotomy: Intramuscular gridiron incision. 4. Operative findings: (a) Strangulation and incarceration of undescended right testicle and spermatic cord in inguinal canal. (b) Copious pus, free in peritoneal cavity. An adherent, sloughing, perforative, retrocecal appendix identified, left undisturbed and free drainage established. 5. Progress: (a) Eventful recovery from acute suppurative appendicitis following drainage of appendical focus. (b) Marked development following the operative descent of an incarcerated testicle in a backward boy, age twelve, who had a bilateral cryptorchism. PMID:18739377

  10. Acute appendicitis following endoscopic mucosal resection of cecal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Yukako; Tokuhisa, Junya; Shimada, Nagasato; Gomi, Tatsuya; Maetani, Iruru

    2015-07-21

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) allows the removal of flat or sessile lesions, laterally spreading tumors, and carcinoma of the colon or the rectum limited to the mucosa or the superficial submucosa. Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency requiring emergency surgery, and it is also a rare complication of diagnostic colonoscopy and therapeutic endoscopy, including EMR. In the case presented here, a 53-year-old female underwent colonoscopy due to a positive fecal occult blood test and was diagnosed with cecal adenoma. She was referred to our hospital and admitted for treatment. The patient had no other symptoms. EMR was performed, and 7 h after the surgery, the patient experienced right -lower abdominal pain. Laboratory tests performed the following day revealed a WBC count of 16000/mm(3), a neutrophil count of 14144/mm(3), and a C-reactive protein level of 2.20 mg/dL, indicating an inflammatory response. Computed tomography also revealed appendiceal wall thickening and swelling, so acute appendicitis following EMR was diagnosed. Antibiotics were initiated leading to total resolution of the symptoms, and the patient was discharged on the sixth post-operative day. Pathological analysis revealed a high-grade cecal tubular adenoma. Such acute appendicitis following EMR is extremely rare, and EMR of the cecum may be a rare cause of acute appendicitis.

  11. WSES Jerusalem guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Di Saverio, Salomone; Birindelli, Arianna; Kelly, Micheal D; Catena, Fausto; Weber, Dieter G; Sartelli, Massimo; Sugrue, Michael; De Moya, Mark; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Bhangu, Aneel; Agresta, Ferdinando; Moore, Ernest E; Soreide, Kjetil; Griffiths, Ewen; De Castro, Steve; Kashuk, Jeffry; Kluger, Yoram; Leppaniemi, Ari; Ansaloni, Luca; Andersson, Manne; Coccolini, Federico; Coimbra, Raul; Gurusamy, Kurinchi S; Campanile, Fabio Cesare; Biffl, Walter; Chiara, Osvaldo; Moore, Fred; Peitzman, Andrew B; Fraga, Gustavo P; Costa, David; Maier, Ronald V; Rizoli, Sandro; Balogh, Zsolt J; Bendinelli, Cino; Cirocchi, Roberto; Tonini, Valeria; Piccinini, Alice; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Jovine, Elio; Persiani, Roberto; Biondi, Antonio; Scalea, Thomas; Stahel, Philip; Ivatury, Rao; Velmahos, George; Andersson, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is among the most common cause of acute abdominal pain. Diagnosis of AA is challenging; a variable combination of clinical signs and symptoms has been used together with laboratory findings in several scoring systems proposed for suggesting the probability of AA and the possible subsequent management pathway. The role of imaging in the diagnosis of AA is still debated, with variable use of US, CT and MRI in different settings worldwide. Up to date, comprehensive clinical guidelines for diagnosis and management of AA have never been issued. In July 2015, during the 3rd World Congress of the WSES, held in Jerusalem (Israel), a panel of experts including an Organizational Committee and Scientific Committee and Scientific Secretariat, participated to a Consensus Conference where eight panelists presented a number of statements developed for each of the eight main questions about diagnosis and management of AA. The statements were then voted, eventually modified and finally approved by the participants to The Consensus Conference and lately by the board of co-authors. The current paper is reporting the definitive Guidelines Statements on each of the following topics: 1) Diagnostic efficiency of clinical scoring systems, 2) Role of Imaging, 3) Non-operative treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis, 4) Timing of appendectomy and in-hospital delay, 5) Surgical treatment 6) Scoring systems for intra-operative grading of appendicitis and their clinical usefulness 7) Non-surgical treatment for complicated appendicitis: abscess or phlegmon 8) Pre-operative and post-operative antibiotics.

  12. Diagnostic value of blood inflammatory markers for detection of acute appendicitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Ulrich; Biereder, Birgit; Elouahidi, Tino; Bauer, Katrin; Keller, Thomas; Tröbs, Ralf-Bodo

    2006-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical problem that is associated with an acute-phase reaction. Previous studies have shown that cytokines and acute-phase proteins are activated and may serve as indicators for the severity of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic value of different serum inflammatory markers in detection of phlegmonous or perforated appendicitis in children. Methods Data were collected prospectively on 211 consecutive children. Laparotomy was performed for suspected AA for 189 patients. Patients were subdivided into groups: nonsurgical abdominal pain, early appendicitis, phlegmonous or gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis. White blood cell count (WBC), serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), acid α1-glycoprotein (α1GP), endotoxin, and erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ESR) were estimated ad the time of admission. The diagnostic performance was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results WBC count, CRP and IL-6 correlated significantly with the severity of appendiceal inflammation. Identification of children with severe appendicitis was supported by IL-6 or CRP but not WBC. Between IL-6 and CRP, there were no significant differences in diagnostic use. Conclusion Laboratory results should be considered to be integrated within the clinical assessment. If used critically, CRP and IL-6 equally provide surgeons with complementary information in discerning the necessity for urgent operation. PMID:17132173

  13. Unusual case of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Luke Nelson; Tsai, Alice Yi-Chien

    2016-06-30

    A teenage girl was admitted to the paediatric assessment unit with non-specific abdominal pain that gradually localised to the right iliac fossa (RIF). She remained systemically well; investigations including blood tests, urine sample and abdominal ultrasound were inconclusive. Surgical opinion was sought and the decision was made to perform a diagnostic laparoscopy due to the ongoing pain. Laparoscopy showed no evidence of any significant pathology, and appendicectomy was performed following the routine practice. Numerous pinworms came out while the appendix was resected. The RIF pain resolved and the patient made a full post-operative recovery. A stat dose of mebendazole and amoxicillin were given and the immediate family was also treated. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) causes significant morbidity worldwide and has a high prevalence among children in the UK. It can be easily treated and prompt recognition based on clinical symptoms can potentially prevent unnecessary surgery.

  14. Left-sided appendicitis in a patient with situs inversus totalis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joo Suk; Kim, Ki Wook

    2012-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare inherent disease in which the thoracic and abdominal organs are transposed. Symptoms of appendicitis in situs inversus (SI) may appear in the left lower quadrant, and the diagnosis of appendicitis is very difficult. We report a case of left-sided appendicitis diagnosed preoperatively after dextrocardia that was detected by chest X-ray, although the chief complaint of the patient was left lower-quadrant pain. The patient underwent an emergent laparoscopic appendectomy under the diagnosis of appendicitis after abdominal computed tomography (CT). In patients with left lower quadrant pain, if the chest X-ray shows dextrocardia, one should suspect left-sided appendicitis. A strong suspicion of appendicitis and an emergency laparoscopic operation after confirmation of the diagnosis by imaging modalities including abdominal CT or sonography can reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosis and complications including perforation and abscess. Laparoscopic appendectomy in SI was technically more challenging because of the mirror nature of the anatomy. PMID:22977765

  15. Addison disease after appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Del-Río Camacho, G; Leal Orozco, A; Camino López, M; Pérez-Tejerizo, G; Lara Capellán, J I

    2000-03-01

    A 14-year-old boy manifested acute abdominal pain, vomiting, high temperature and diarrhea. He also underwent increasing hyponatremia and hyperkalemia after appendectomy. Further testing confirmed Addison disease. The serum adrenal antibody test was positive, and other autoimmune diseases were excluded.

  16. Intestinal Schistosomiasis as Unusual Aetiology for Acute Appendicitis, Nowadays a Rising Disease in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    López de Cenarruzabeitia, I.; Landolfi, S.; Armengol Carrasco, M.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis as unusual aetiology for acute appendicitis, nowadays a rising disease in western countries. Recent changes in global migration has led to an immigration growth in our scenario, upsurging people coming from endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Schistosomal appendicitis, seldom reported in developed countries, is now an expected incrising entity in our hospitals during the near future. Due to this circumstances, we believe that schistosomiasis should be consider as a rising source for acute appendicitis in western countries. In order to illustrate this point, we present a case of a 45-years-old black man, from Africa, was admitted via A&E because of acute abdominal pain, located in right lower quadrant. Acute appendicitis was suspected, and he underwent laparotomy and appendectomy. Pathological study by microscope revealed a gangrenous appendix with abscesses and parasitic ova into the submucosal layer of the appendix, suggesting Schistosomiasis. PMID:22792502

  17. Discovery and validation of urine markers of acute pediatric appendicitis using high accuracy mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Kentsis, Alex; Lin, Yin Yin; Kurek, Kyle; Calicchio, Monica; Wang, Yan Yan; Monigatti, Flavio; Campagne, Fabien; Lee, Richard; Horwitz, Bruce; Steen, Hanno; Bachur, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective Molecular definition of disease has been changing all aspects of medical practice, from diagnosis and screening to understanding and treatment. Acute appendicitis is among many human conditions that are complicated by the heterogeneity of clinical presentation and shortage of diagnostic markers. Here, we sought to profile the urine of patients with appendicitis with the goal of identifying new diagnostic markers. Methods Candidate markers were identified from the urine of children with histologically proven appendicitis by using high accuracy mass spectrometry proteome profiling. These systemic and local markers were used to assess the probability of appendicitis in a blinded, prospective study of children being evaluated for acute abdominal pain in our emergency department. Tests of performance of the markers were evaluated against the pathologic diagnosis and histologic grade of appendicitis. Results Test performance of 57 identified candidate markers was studied in 67 patients, with median age of 11 years, 37% of whom had appendicitis. Several exhibited favorable diagnostic performance, including calgranulin A (S100-A8), α-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (orosomucoid), and leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG), with the ROC AUC and values of 0.84 (95 % CI 0.72-0.95), 0.84 (0.72-0.95), and 0.97 (0.93-1.0), respectively. LRG was enriched in diseased appendices and its abundance correlated with severity of appendicitis. Conclusions High accuracy mass spectrometry urine proteome profiling allowed identification of diagnostic markers of acute appendicitis. Usage of LRG and other identified biomarkers may improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluations of appendicitis. PMID:19556024

  18. Atypical presentation of appendicitis in an adolescent cheerleader.

    PubMed

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M; Callahan, Lisa M

    2013-11-01

    A 15-year-old female cheerleader presented to a sports medicine physician for evaluation of a suspected hip flexor injury. Five weeks before presentation, the patient developed acute right lower quadrant (RLQ) pain. She was seen in a local emergency room where her vital signs, abdominal computed tomography, and ultrasound were normal. No definitive diagnosis was made. Her initial symptoms resolved. The patient then attended cheerleading camp where her RLQ pain recurred and she was referred to sports medicine for further evaluation. Her examination was significant for exquisite tenderness at McBurney point. She was referred for surgical evaluation for probable appendicitis.

  19. Spontaneous Extraperitoneal Bladder Rupture Because of Chronic Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Morganstern, Bradley A; Viviano, Robert; Elsamra, Sammy

    2013-12-01

    A 62-year-old man presented to the emergency department with an episode of syncope after 2-3 weeks of diffuse abdominal pain, now complaining of a severe increase in pain concurrent with >24 hours of no urine output. His workup showed an idiopathic extraperitoneal rupture of the bladder on computed tomography, which was handled conservatively with Foley insertion. Repeated follow-up and imaging showed no resolution or etiology over 2 months. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy that showed an elongated appendix with a chronic tip appendicitis that had induced bladder rupture by chronic inflammatory changes. After repair, the patient had no further complaints.

  20. Is acute appendicitis still misdiagnosed?

    PubMed Central

    Danys, Donatas; Poskus, Tomas; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Poskus, Eligijus; Jotautas, Valdemaras; Beisa, Virgilijus; Strupas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The optimal diagnostics and treatment of acute appendicitis continues to be a challenge. A false positive diagnosis of appendicitis may lead to an unnecessary operation, which has been appropriately termed negative appendectomy. The aim of our study was to identify the effectiveness of preoperative investigations in preventing negative appendectomy. Methods A retrospective study was performed on adult patients who underwent operation for suspected acute appendicitis from 2008 to 2013 at Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos. Patients were divided into two groups: group A underwent an operation, where appendix was found to be normal (non-inflamed); group B underwent an appendectomy for inflamed appendix. Groups were compared for preoperative data, investigations, treatment results and pathology findings. Results 554 patients were included in the study. Preoperative laboratory tests results of hemoglobin, hematocrit concentrations and white blood cell count were significantly higher in group B (p<0.001). Ultrasonography was performed for 78 % of patients in group A and 74 % in group B and did not provide any statistically significant results. Comparing Alvarado score results, there were more patients with Alvarado score less than 7 in group A than in group B. In our large series we could find only four independent risk factors, and they could only account for 24 % of cases. Conclusions In summary, acute appendicitis is still often misdiagnosed and the ratio of negative appendectomies remains rather high. Additional investigations such as observation and computed tomography should be used to prevent this.

  1. The utility of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging in diagnosing acute appendicitis and staging its severity

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Hamidi, Cihad; Okur, Mehmet Hanifi; İçer, Mustafa; Oğuz, Abdullah; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Çetinçakmak, Mehmet Güli; Teke, Memik

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging to diagnose acute appendicitis. METHODS Abdominal ultrasonography (US) and ARFI imaging were performed in 53 patients that presented with right lower quadrant pain, and the results were compared with those obtained in 52 healthy subjects. Qualitative evaluation of the patients was conducted by Virtual Touch™ tissue imaging (VTI), while quantitative evaluation was performed by Virtual Touch™ tissue quantification (VTQ) measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV). The severity of appendix inflammation was observed and rated using ARFI imaging in patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Alvarado scores were determined for all patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain. All patients diagnosed with appendicitis received appendectomies. The sensitivity and specificity of ARFI imaging relative to US was determined upon confirming the diagnosis of acute appendicitis via histopathological analysis. RESULTS The Alvarado score had a sensitivity and specificity of 70.8% and 20%, respectively, in detecting acute appendicitis. Abdominal US had 83.3% sensitivity and 80% specificity, while ARFI imaging had 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity, in diagnosing acute appendicitis. The median SWV value was 1.11 m/s (range, 0.6–1.56 m/s) for healthy appendix and 3.07 m/s (range, 1.37–4.78 m/s) for acute appendicitis. CONCLUSION ARFI imaging may be useful in guiding the clinical management of acute appendicitis, by helping its diagnosis and determining the severity of appendix inflammation. PMID:25323836

  2. [Current diagnostic-therapeutic trends in treatment of pediatric appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Malnati, R; Capasso, G; Stagni, S; Bua, L; Albisetti, A; Erenbourg, L; Paesano, P L

    1994-03-01

    Acute appendicitis is the first cause of emergency surgery in children. Actually, emergency abdominal sonography has evolved in differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children to differentiate it from other causes of acute abdomen as mesenteric lymphoadenitis, acute right pyelonephritis, acute diverticulitis in Meckel's diverticulum, intestinal intussusception, regional enterits, primary peritonitis, anaphylactoid purpura of Henoch-Schonlein. The aim of this study is the evaluation of the usefulness of abdominal sonography in diagnosing acute appendicitis in our current series of pediatric patients. We have operated 102 patients afflicted by appendicitis admitted to the pediatric department of Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano in a period of 5 years and operated on for appendectomy. In the last 2 years 36 patients were evaluated with abdominal sonography. This diagnostic tool showed in 34 (94.4%) a liquid effusion, sometimes thick of the right iliac fossa. In 2 patients the appendix had thickened layers, was edematous and the lumen was clearly filled with debris. Abdominal sonography has given a clear cut picture of the acute inflammatory process of the appendix. None of these patients has suffered from septic or obstructive complications. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.35 days (3-15 days). Differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be extremely variable, from simple, paradigmatic situations to the most intriguing ones. This concept is well emphasized by William Silen when he says that "differential diagnosis of acute appendicits is an encyclopedic compendium of every abdominal disease that causes pain" in the 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. [Immunotherapy for the treatment of acute appendicitis in children].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, A A; Akhanzaripov, Z A

    1994-08-01

    The immune status was studied during the development of the disease in 182 children who were operated on for acute appendicitis. T lymphocytes and their subpopulations circulating in the blood, as well as B lymphocytes, immunoglobulins A, M, G, and immune complexes were determined. The character of changes of these values before the operation and in various postoperative periods were determined. The effect of complex treatment, including T-activin, on the clinical and immunological parameters in children with acute appendicitis was appraised. Analysis of the results showed that a transitory immunodepressive state forms in children with the disease, which is more marked in the destructive form, with normalization of the main values of cell-mediated and humoral immunity by the 7th day after appendectomy. In a complicated course of acute appendicitis the state of immunodeficiency is torpid in character and does not return to normal values even after clinical recovery, i.e. before discharge from the clinic. Inclusion of the immunostimulating agent T-activin into the complex treatment of patients with appendicitis ensures a more rapid involution of the main clinical manifestations of the disease. The therapeutic effect was most pronounced in destructive appendicitis: after 3 days of treatment the pain syndrome was encountered twice less frequently and intestinal paresis more than twice less frequently in these patients, and the term of hospital stay (8.8 +/- 0.4 days) was less shorter than for children of the control group (12.2 +/- 1.9 days) who did not receive T-activin in the therapeutic complex.

  4. Stump appendicitis 5 years after laparoscopic appendicectomy.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Andrew Phillip; Ibrahim, Hany; Franz, Robert; Iswariah, Harish

    2016-10-27

    A 31-year-old healthy man presented with right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mild neutrophilia and clinical presentation consistent with appendicitis, despite undergoing a laparoscopic appendicectomy 5 years prior. CT scan demonstrated a caecal phlegmon, in the expected region of the appendiceal stump. The patient was taken for laparoscopy and a 2 cm inflamed appendiceal stump was encountered. A distal caecectomy was performed and the patient made an unremarkable recovery. Histological examination was consistent with acute inflammation of the appendiceal stump. Only a small number of case reports of stump appendicitis have been published so far. Correct identification and ligation of the appendiceal stump is crucial to prevent this complication. Although normally it is treated with completion appendicectomy, the optimal treatment approach for this condition has not been well established.

  5. Malrotated Subhepatic Caecum with Subhepatic Appendicitis: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hock Chin; Balakrishnan, Dhayal; Asilah, Siti Mohd Desa; Adila, Irene Nur Ibrahim; Syibrah, Khuzaimah Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Subhepatically located caecum and appendix is a very rare entity. It occurs due to the anomaly in fetal gut rotation that results in an incomplete rotation and fixation of the intestine. Appendicitis, which is a common surgical emergency, in combination with the abnormal subhepatic location, presents a great challenge in its diagnosis and management. Here, we describe a 42-year-old male with chronic dyspepsia who presented with sepsis and severe pain at his right hypochondriac and epigastric region. The final diagnosis was acute appendicitis of the subhepatic appendix. Our discussion focuses on the diagnostic approach and clinical and surgical management. We hope that our report will increase the awareness among the clinicians and hasten the management of such rare condition to avoid complications. PMID:27648337

  6. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocal in protein levels as an acute appendicitis biomarker in children.

    PubMed

    Bakal, Unal; Saraç, Mehmet; Ciftci, Harun; Tartar, Tugay; Kocdemir, Esra; Aydin, Suleyman; Kazez, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Appendicitis is very commonly encountered in emergency clinics. There is an urgent need for early and accurate predictive biomarkers of appendicitis in order to save lives, because currently-available biomarkers are imprecise and their delayed response impairs the ability of emergency doctors and pediatric surgeons to provide timely and potentially effective therapies. This study was performed to determine whether changes in the blood levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can help to diagnose acute appendicitis in children and distinguish acute appendicitis from abdominal pain. Sixty children were enrolled and divided into three groups, with 20 patients per group: Group 1 (patients with appendicitis), Group 2 (patients with abdominal pain) and Group 3 (control). Blood NGAL levels were determined by ELISA. The basal average serum NGAL levels were 8.2 ng/ml for Group 1, 3.9 ng/ml for Group 2, and 3.3 ng/ml for Group 3. Twenty-four and 72 h after surgery the levels were 5.1 and 2.8 ng/ml, respectively, in Group 1, 2.9 and 2.8 ng/ml in Group 2, and 2.6, 2.7 ng/ml in Group 3. Setting the cut-off point to 7 generated an area under the receiving operating curve (ROC) curve at 95 % confidence interval with 77.3 % sensitivity and 97.4 % specificity. These data indicate a significant difference in NGAL values between basal and postoperative measurements in appendicitis patients (p < 0.05). The ROC curve results showed that NGAL is a promising novel biomarker for the differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis from abdominal pain.

  7. [Clinical manifestations of Crohn's disease misdiagnosed as appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Wu, Hui; Wu, Yun; Mao, Ren; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Tang, Ruihan; Chen, Baili; Zeng, Zhirong; Chen, Minhu; He, Yao

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the clinical manifestations and identify independent diagnostic predictive factors for Crohn's disease (CD) initially diagnosed as appenicitis and treated by surgery. The medical records of patients diagnosed as acute appendicitis upon admission and treated by surgical operation in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2000 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Based on postoperative pathological examination and clinical examination results, 28 CD patients were identified (CD group), and for each CD case, 3 controls with confirmed diagnosis of appendicitis were included (appendicitis group, n=84). Clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results of the two groups were analyzed with multivariable Logistic regression to determine independent diagnostic predictive factors for CD initially misdiagnosed as appendicitis. Altogether 112 patients were enrolled, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.04:1 (57:55), and a median age of 36 years. No significant differences were found in gender, age, and body temperature between the CD group and appendicitis group (all P>0.05). In the appendicitis and CD groups, median duration (Q1-Q3) of abdominal pain was 24 (14-48) hours vs 216 (96-384) hours, proportion of patients with lower right abdominal pain was 98.8% (83/84) vs 75.0% (21/28), proportion of patients with shifting lower right abdominal pain was 98.8% (83/84) vs 7.1% (2/28), proportion of patients with local lower right peritonitis was 95.2% (80/84) vs 53.6% (15/28), proportion of patients with change of bowel emptying habit or stool consistency was 7.1% (6/84) vs 46.4% (13/28), proportion of patients with history of chronic abdominal pain or diarrhea was 10.7% (9/84) vs 75.0% (21/28), preoperative white blood cell count was (14.08±4.13)×10(9)/L vs (8.00±3.42)×10(9)/L, preoperative neutrophil count was (11.34±4.10)×10(9)/L vs (5.58±3.22)×10(9)/L, preoperative hemoglobin was (139.52±19.90) g/L vs (107.65±21

  8. A rare case of perforated "sub-hepatic appendicitis" - a challenging differential diagnosis of acute abdomen based on the combination of appendicitis and maldescent of the caecum.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Jannasch, Olof; Petersen, Manuela; Lessel, Wiebke; Bruns, Christiane; Meyer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Unusual locations of the appendix vermiformis can result in delay in appropriate diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis. So an inflamed appendix in a sub-hepatic caecum caused by caecal maldescent for example can mimic cholecystitis, the pain being localized in the right upper quadrant. Here, we present a case of perforated sub-hepatic appendicitis with peritonitis, requiring open ileocaecal resection. Review of the existing literature has demonstrated that this pathology is uncommon, yet not so rare as one might presume. In conclusion, surgeons should be aware of this possibility in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. A young man with concurrent acute appendicitis and incarcerated right indirect inguinal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Ditsatham, Chagkrit; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Watcharachan, Kirati; Wongmaneerung, Phanchaporn

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acute appendicitis and incarcerated hernia rarely present in the same episode. Our study reports patient presentation, diagnosis method, and treatment of an unusual case at the Chiang Mai University Hospital. Method Case report. Result A 20-year-old man visited the Chiang Mai University Hospital with right lower quadrant pain and a right groin mass which could not be reduced. The computerized tomography scan showed acute appendicitis and omentum in the hernia sac. Operative treatment was an appendectomy and herniorrhaphy. The treatment was successful, and the patient was discharged from our hospital without any complications. Conclusion Concurrent acute appendicitis and incarcerated hernia are very rare, but should be kept in mind if a patient presents with right lower quadrant pain and a right groin mass. Further investigation may be helpful if the diagnosis is uncertain. Operative priority treatment depends on each individual case. PMID:26834499

  10. Paradigm Shifts in the Treatment of Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Mak, Grace Zee; Loeff, Deborah S

    2016-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of emergent surgery in children. Historically, surgical dogma dictated emergent appendectomy due to concern for impending perforation. Recently, however, there has been a paradigm shift in both the understanding of its pathophysiology as well as its treatment to more nonoperative management. No longer is it considered a spectrum from uncomplicated appendicitis inevitably progressing to complicated appendicitis over time. Rather, uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis are now considered two distinct pathophysiologic entities. This change requires not only educating the patients and their families but also the general practitioners who will be managing treatment expectations and caring for patients long term. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of appendicitis, including the differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis, as well as the new treatment paradigms. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e235-e240.].

  11. [Laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in patients with chronic appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng-feng; Xiao, Long-bin; Wu, Wen-hui; Zhang, Xing-wei; Long, Shuo; Tan, Jin-fu; Tan, Min

    2007-07-01

    To compare the advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic versus open appendectomy in patients with chronic appendicitis. Two hundred twenty- four patients were divided into laparoscopic group (n=98) and open appendectomy group (n=126) according to individual willing. Prospective non- randomized study was performed to compare the operative time, operative bleeding, hospitalization time, the discovery and management concerned in operation. Abdominal pain in these chronic appendicitis cases was followed up. The operative time was (54.8+/-21.8) min in open group and (51.8+/-18.0) min in laparoscopic group (t=0.80,P > 0.05). The operative bleeding was (18.6+/-23.3) ml in open group and (9.8+/-4.7) ml in laparoscopic group (t=3.13, P < 0.05). The hospitalization time was (8.9+/-5.3) d in open group and (6.8+/-3.0) d in laparoscopic group (t=2.66,P < 0.05). Twenty- five cases had abdominal adhesion in laparoscopic group, including 9 cases of adhesion around appendix, 6 cases of adhesion between ileocecum and anterior or lateral abdominal wall, 4 cases of adhesion between epiploon and abdominal wall or intestines, 6 cases of adhesion around colon and others. All adhesion had been dissected. Fourteen cases adhesion around appendix had been discovered in 126 cases of open group and dissected (chi(2) =7.95,P < 0.05). In follow- up research, 24 cases still had chronic abdominal pain in 98 case of open group, and 9 cases had chronic abdominal pain in 87 of laparoscopic group, the difference was significant (chi(2)=6.29,P < 0.05). The laparoscopic appendectomy possesses more advantages in treating chronic appendicitis and can decrease the incidence of chronic abdominal pain after operation.

  12. Evaluation of a low-dose CT protocol with oral contrast for assessment of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Platon, Alexandra; Jlassi, Helmi; Rutschmann, Olivier T; Becker, Christoph D; Verdun, Francis R; Gervaz, Pascal; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a low-dose CT with oral contrast medium (LDCT) for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare its performance with standard-dose i.v. contrast-enhanced CT (standard CT) according to patients' BMIs. Eighty-six consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute appendicitis underwent LDCT (30 mAs), followed by standard CT (180 mAs). Both examinations were reviewed by two experienced radiologists for direct and indirect signs of appendicitis. Clinical and surgical follow-up was considered as the reference standard. Appendicitis was confirmed by surgery in 37 (43%) of the 86 patients. Twenty-nine (34%) patients eventually had an alternative discharge diagnosis to explain their abdominal pain. Clinical and biological follow-up was uneventful in 20 (23%) patients. LDCT and standard CT had the same sensitivity (100%, 33/33) and specificity (98%, 45/46) to diagnose appendicitis in patients with a body mass index (BMI) >or= 18.5. In slim patients (BMI<18.5), sensitivity to diagnose appendicitis was 50% (2/4) for LDCT and 100% (4/4) for standard CT, while specificity was identical for both techniques (67%, 2/3). LDCT may play a role in the diagnostic workup of patients with a BMI >or= 18.5.

  13. Handheld device review of abdominal CT for the evaluation of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Choudhri, Asim F; Carr, Thomas M; Ho, Christopher P; Stone, James R; Gay, Spencer B; Lambert, Drew L

    2012-08-01

    Advances in handheld computing now allow review of DICOM datasets from remote locations. As the diagnostic ability of this tool is unproven, we evaluated the ability to diagnose acute appendicitis on abdominal CT using a mobile DICOM viewer. This HIPAA compliant study was IRB-approved. Twenty-five abdominal CT studies from patients with RLQ pain were interpreted on a handheld device (iPhone) using a DICOM viewer (OsiriX mobile) by five radiologists. All patients had surgical confirmation of acute appendicitis or follow-up confirming no acute appendicitis. Studies were evaluated for the ability to find the appendix, maximum appendiceal diameter, presence of an appendicolith, periappendiceal stranding and fluid, abscess, and an assessment of the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Results were compared to PACS workstation. Fifteen cases of acute appendicitis were correctly identified on 98% of interpretations, with no false-positives. Eight appendicoliths were correctly identified on 88% of interpretations. Three abscesses were correctly identified by all readers. Handheld device measurement of appendiceal diameter had a mean 8.6% larger than PACS measurements (p = 0.035). Evaluation for acute appendicitis on abdominal CT studies using a portable device DICOM viewer can be performed with good concordance to reads performed on PACS workstations.

  14. Review article: appendicitis in groin hernias.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Alan K

    2007-10-01

    To review the clinical presentation, outcome and causes of acute appendicitis presenting within a groin hernia. A comprehensive review of the past 70 years of English language surgical literature was conducted pertaining to acute appendicitis presenting within an inguinal or femoral hernia. Thirty-four reports describing 45 patients were reviewed to determine age, position, gender, pathologic stage at presentation, causal suppositions, and clinical outcomes. Hernial appendicitis presented as an inguinal abscess or a tender inguinal mass, often in the femoral position, and most commonly at the extremes of age. It was almost never recognized preoperatively, and, because of the sequestered nature of the inflammatory process, presented with few classic systemic signs or symptoms suggestive of acute appendicitis. Advanced pathologic stage and death correlated with the patient's age, delay in presentation, and delay in recognition. Evaluation of an inguinal abscess or a nonreducible tender groin hernia presenting in a patient at the extremes of age, should include computed tomography to rule out an occult acute appendicitis within the hernia, as systemic signs and symptoms of appendicitis are rarely evident. The condition appears to be caused by inflammatory adhesions caused by appendicitis occurring within an enlarged hernial orifice rather than appendicitis caused by external compression of the appendix base. Early recognition of this unique presentation of appendicitis allows trans-hernial appendectomy and immediate herniorraphy. Delayed diagnosis requires drainage of abscess with appendectomy and interval hernia repair.

  15. Validation and Refinement of a Prediction Rule to Identify Children at Low Risk for Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B; Dudley, Nanette C; Bajaj, Lalit; Stevenson, Michelle D; Macias, Charles G; Mittal, Manoj K; Bachur, Richard G; Bennett, Jonathan E; Sinclair, Kelly; Huang, Craig; Dayan, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Objective To validate and refine a clinical prediction rule to identify which children with acute abdominal pain are at low risk for appendicitis (Low Risk Appendicitis Rule). Design Prospective, multi-center cross-sectional study. Setting Ten pediatric hospital emergency departments. Participants Children 3–18 years old who presented with suspected appendicitis from May 2009 – April 2010. Main Outcome Measures The test performance of the Low Risk Appendicitis Rule. Results Among 2625 patients enrolled, 1018 (38.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 36.9% – 40.7%) had appendicitis. Validation of the rule resulted in a sensitivity of 95.5% (95% CI 93.9 – 96.7%), specificity of 36.3% (33.9 – 38.9%) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 92.7% (90.1 – 94.6%). Theoretical application would have identified 573 (24%) as low risk, misclassifying 42 patients (4.5%; 95% CI 3.4% – 6.1%) with appendicitis. We refined the prediction rule, resulting in a model that identified patients at low risk if: a) absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤ 6.75 × 103/µL and no maximal tenderness in right lower quadrant (RLQ) or b) ANC ≤ 6.75 × 103/µL, maximal tenderness in the RLQ but no abdominal pain with walking/jumping or coughing. This refined rule had a sensitivity of 98.1% (97.0 – 98.9%), specificity of 23.7% (21.7 – 25.9%) and NPV of 95.3% (92.3 – 97.0%). Conclusions We have validated and refined a simple clinical prediction rule for pediatric appendicitis. For patients identified as low risk, clinicians should consider alternative strategies such as observation or ultrasound, rather than proceed to immediate imaging with CT. PMID:22869405

  16. Abdominal CT Does Not Improve Outcome for Children with Suspected Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Miano, Danielle I.; Silvis, Renee M.; Popp, Jill M.; Culbertson, Marvin C.; Campbell, Brendan; Smith, Sharon R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute appendicitis in children is a clinical diagnosis, which often requires preoperative confirmation with either ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT) studies. CTs expose children to radiation, which may increase the lifetime risk of developing malignancy. US in the pediatric population with appropriate clinical follow up and serial exam may be an effective diagnostic modality for many children without incurring the risk of radiation. The objective of the study was to compare the rate of appendiceal rupture and negative appendectomies between children with and without abdominal CTs; and to evaluate the same outcomes for children with and without USs to determine if there were any associations between imaging modalities and outcomes. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review including emergency department (ED) and inpatient records from 1/1/2009–2/31/2010 and included patients with suspected acute appendicitis. Results 1,493 children, aged less than one year to 20 years, were identified in the ED with suspected appendicitis. These patients presented with abdominal pain who had either a surgical consult or an abdominal imaging study to evaluate for appendicitis, or were transferred from an outside hospital or primary care physician office with the stated suspicion of acute appendicitis. Of these patients, 739 were sent home following evaluation in the ED and did not return within the subsequent two weeks and were therefore presumed not to have appendicitis. A total of 754 were admitted and form the study population, of which 20% received a CT, 53% US, and 8% received both. Of these 57%, 95% CI [53.5,60.5] had pathology-proven appendicitis. Appendicitis rates were similar for children with a CT (57%, 95% CI [49.6,64.4]) compared to those without (57%, 95% CI [52.9,61.0]). Children with perforation were similar between those with a CT (18%, 95% CI [12.3,23.7]) and those without (13%, 95% CI [10.3,15.7]). The proportion of children with a

  17. Factors predictive of complicated appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Pham, Xuan-Binh D; Sullins, Veronica F; Kim, Dennis Y; Range, Blake; Kaji, Amy H; de Virgilio, Christian M; Lee, Steven L

    2016-11-01

    The ability to predict whether a child has complicated appendicitis at initial presentation may influence clinical management. However, whether complicated appendicitis is associated with prehospital or inhospital factors is not clear. We also investigate whether hyponatremia may be a novel prehospital factor associated with complicated appendicitis. A retrospective review of all pediatric patients (≤12 y) with appendicitis treated with appendectomy from 2000 to 2013 was performed. The main outcome measure was intraoperative confirmation of gangrenous or perforated appendicitis. A multivariable analysis was performed, and the main predictors of interest were age <5 y, symptom duration >24 h, leukocytosis (white blood cell count >12 × 10(3)/mL), hyponatremia (sodium ≤135 mEq/L), and time from admission to appendectomy. Of 392 patients, 179 (46%) had complicated appendicitis at the time of operation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients with complicated appendicitis were younger, had a longer duration of symptoms, higher white blood cell count, and lower sodium levels than patients with noncomplicated appendicitis. Multivariable analysis confirmed that symptom duration >24 h (odds ratio [OR] = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.5-8.9, P < 0.01), hyponatremia (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.9, P < 0.01), age <5 y (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.3-4.0, P < 0.01), and leukocytosis (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.5, P = 0.04) were independent predictors of complicated appendicitis. Increased time from admission to appendectomy was not a predictor of complicated appendicitis (OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.5-1.2, P = 0.2). Prehospital factors can predict complicated appendicitis in children with suspected appendicitis. Hyponatremia is a novel marker associated with complicated appendicitis. Delaying appendectomy does not increase the risk of complicated appendicitis once intravenous antibiotics are administered. This information may help guide

  18. [Coexistence of acute appendicitis and dengue fever: A case report].

    PubMed

    Osuna-Ramos, Juan Fidel; Silva-Gracia, Carlos; Maya-Vacio, Gerardo Joel; Romero-Utrilla, Alejandra; Ríos-Burgueño, Efrén Rafael; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador

    2017-01-03

    Dengue is the most important human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. It can be asymptomatic or it can present in any of its 3clinical forms: Dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. However, some atypical manifestations have been reported in surgical emergencies caused by acute appendicitis in patients with dengue fever. We report the case of an 18-year-old Mexican male who presented to the emergency department of the General Hospital of Culiacan, Sinaloa, with symptoms of dengue fever, accompanied by crampy abdominal pain with positive Rovsing and Dunphy signs. Dengue infection was confirmed by a positive NS1 antigen test performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An abdominal ultrasound revealed an appendicular process; as the abdominal pain in the right side kept increasing, an open appendectomy was performed. Abundant inflammatory liquid was observed during the surgery, and the pathology laboratory reported an oedematous appendix with fibrinopurulent plaques, which agreed with acute ulcerative appendicitis. The patient was discharged fully recovered without complications during the follow-up period. Acute abdominal pain can be caused in some cases by dengue infection. This can be confusing, which can lead to unnecessary surgical interventions, creating additional morbidities and costs for the patient. This unusual and coincident acute appendicitis with dengue highlights the importance of performing careful clinical studies for appropriate decision making, especially in dengue endemic regions during an outbreak of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. False-negative appendicitis at ultrasound: nature and association.

    PubMed

    Piyarom, Patwadee; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2014-07-01

    The objective was to describe nature and factors associated with false-negative ultrasound (US) for adult appendicitis. Patients with pathologically proven appendicitis and pre-operative US from January 2011 to May 2013 were included in this retrospective case-control study. They were divided into true-positive and false-negative groups, matched by age and gender. There were 112 patients (40 men, mean age = 40 y, 56 true positives) included. Two factors were found differ significantly: abdominal wall thickness and pain score. Greater abdominal wall thickness (18.6 mm vs. 14.9 mm, p = 0.001) and lower pain score (6.6 vs. 7.5, p = 0.018) were statistically associated with false negativity. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of weight, height, body mass index, symptom duration, Alvarado score, US examination time, appendix position/size, perforation rate and operator. In conclusion, lower pain score and increased abdominal wall thickness are associated with false negativity in US examinations. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis: indications and current use.

    PubMed

    Nowzaradan, Y; Westmoreland, J; McCarver, C T; Harris, R J

    1991-10-01

    Laparoscopic evaluation was performed in 43 consecutive patients with right lower abdominal pain and preoperative diagnosis of possible appendicitis. Patients with generalized peritonitis and evidence of perforation of the appendix were not considered for laparoscopy. Visualization was sufficient for making a diagnosis in 97.7% of the cases. In 95%, laparoscopic findings were compatible with the pathology report. Thirty-five patients underwent successful laparoscopic appendectomy with neither intraoperative nor postoperative complications. No further surgery was required; slightly elevated temperatures in 6 patients responded to treatment with antibiotics, and there were no wound infections. Laparoscopic appendectomy is minimally invasive and results in less postoperative pain and morbidity and fewer adhesions and other long-term sequelae than conventional laparotomy. It is associated with superior cosmetic results, a shorter hospital stay, and faster return to normal activities. This experience suggests that if there is no evidence that the appendix is perforated or that generalized peritonitis exists and if qualified physicians and adequate facilities are available, patients presenting with right lower quadrant abdominal pain and possible appendicitis are best evaluated and treated with laparoscopic technique.

  1. Distal appendicitis: CT appearance and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Rhea, J T; Novelline, R A

    1997-09-01

    To determine the appearance of appendicitis in the distal part of the organ (distal appendicitis) on computed tomographic (CT) scans and to evaluate the accuracy of diagnosis based on CT findings. CT scans and medical records in 180 consecutive patients with proved appendicitis were reviewed. Fourteen had distal appendicitis with at least a 3-cm length of normal proximal appendix. Appendiceal CT scans and initial reports were reviewed retrospectively. The proximal appendix was collapsed (n = 6) or was filled with contrast material (n = 6) or air (n = 2). Inflamed distal appendices averaged 13.2 mm in diameter and were associated with periappendiceal fat stranding (n = 14), adenopathy (n = 6), appendolith(s) (n = 4), or fluid (n = 2). Transition points consisted of a progressively narrowed appendiceal lumen and thickened wall (n = 5) or appendiceal diameter enlargement (n = 9). No cecal apical changes were seen. Scans in all 14 patients were prospectively interpreted as indicative of appendicitis, including 12 (86%) interpreted as indicative of distal appendicitis. CT findings are useful for the accurate diagnosis of distal appendicitis. Visualization of the proximal appendix alone is insufficient to exclude distal appendicitis.

  2. Cytological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Rajni; Gulati, Anchana; Vedant, Deepak; Kaushal, Vijay

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous reaction can occur in any organ but the most common sites are kidney and gallbladder. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA) is a rare clinical entity. There are a few case reports of XA diagnosed on histopathology but none on cytology. Here we report a case of a 47-year-old lady who presented with acute abdomen and was found to have a mass lesion in the right iliac fossa. She was diagnosed with XA intraoperatively on imprint cytology that was subsequently confirmed on histopathological examination. Due to the rarity of XA itself and the use of imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis the case is being presented. PMID:28182060

  3. Appendicitis, is it an emergency?

    PubMed

    Udgiri, Navalkishor; Curras, Ernesto; Kella, Venkata K; Nagpal, Kamal; Cosgrove, John

    2011-07-01

    Prompt appendectomy has always been a standard of care because of the risk of progression in pathology. This time honored practice has been recently challenged by studies, suggesting that appendicitis can be operated on electively. The aim of this study is to examine whether delayed intervention in acute appendicitis is safe by correlating the interval from presentation to operation with the operative and postoperative complications. Retrospective review of patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis in 2009 was done. The following parameters were recorded: demographics, duration from presentation to evaluation by emergency room attending, performing CT scan, surgical consult, and operation. The pathology, post operative complications, and length of stay were also recorded. Patients were divided into two groups: incision time < 10 hours (early group) and incision time > 10 hours (delayed group). The end points chosen for comparison were: 1) laparoscopic to open conversion rate, 2) complications, 3) readmissions, and 4) length of stay. Number of cases totaled 201, with 76 in the < 10 hours group and 125 in the > 10 hours group. The male to female ratio for the < 10 hours group was 54:22 and for the > 10 hours group was 59:66 (P < 0.001). Length of stay for the early group was 75.52 hours and for the delayed group, 89.15 hours (P = 0.04). There was one intra-abdominal abscess in the early group and 10 in the delayed group (P = 0.04). The early group had 0.2 (2.6%) open conversions, and the delayed group had five (4.1%) conversions (P = 0.58). There were six (4.8%) readmissions in the delayed group and none in the early group (P = 0.05). Our study reveals that the complication rate, length of stay, and readmissions are more in the delayed group. Conversion rate was more in the delayed group, but the difference was not significant. We conclude that early surgical intervention is beneficial in acute appendicitis.

  4. Malpractice in Cases of Pediatric Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sullins, Veronica F; Rouch, Joshua D; Lee, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common diagnoses in children and is frequently the focus of alleged malpractice. Causes for medical malpractice claims and outcomes of disputes in pediatric patients with appendicitis are currently unknown. A retrospective database review of all medical malpractice claims concerning the diagnosis of appendicitis from 1984 to 2013 in pediatric patients was performed. Alleged claims, causes of malpractice, and outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Of the 203 included cases, failure or delays in diagnosing appendicitis are the most common causes of malpractice lawsuits and account for the majority of the largest payments to plaintiffs outcomes. Cases that ultimately went to trial resulted in defense verdicts in 67.5%. Mortality occurred in 19.9% of included cases. Timely diagnosis of appendicitis in children should be the focus of physicians across all specialties to improve patient safety and potentially reduce medicolegal liability.

  5. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  6. Meralgia Paresthetica as a Presentation of Acute Appendicitis in a Girl With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Miho; Kodama, Yuichi; Fukano, Reiji; Okamura, Jun; Ogaki, Kippei; Sakaguchi, Yoshihisa; Migita, Masahiro; Inagaki, Jiro

    2015-04-01

    A 7-year-old girl with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed recurrent fever and meralgia paresthetica (MP) during chemotherapy, which resolved after administration of antibiotics. Five months after the onset of these symptoms, enhanced computed tomography showed a periappendiceal abscess extending into the psoas muscle. The cause of her fever and MP was thought to be appendicitis, which probably developed during induction chemotherapy but did not result in typical abdominal pain. Patients with recurrent fever and MP should be evaluated by imaging examinations including computed tomography to search for appendicitis.

  7. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  8. [Treatment of acute appendicitis: Retrospective analysis].

    PubMed

    Menclová, K; Traboulsi, E; Nikov, A; Hána, L; Rousek, M; Ryska, M

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of intra-abdominal emergency surgery worldwide. The approach to its treatment keeps changing. The number of acute appendectomies has been decreasing. Many patients are treated conservatively with success. Our study compares conservative and surgical treatment of acute appendicitis, including its complications in our department. We retrospectively analyzed the group of 117 patients hospitalized with the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We distinguished patients with complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis, and patients operated and treated conservatively. We evaluated complication rates and recurrences of the disease, respectively, in 1-year follow-up. The Student t test and Fishers exact test were used for the statistical analysis. In 2012 we hospitalized 117 patients with acute appendicitis: 83 patients (71%) for uncomplicated and 34 (29%) for complicated appendicitis. 41% of patients with complicated and 13% with uncomplicated appendicitis (p=0.02) were treated conservatively. Conservative treatment or laparoscopic surgery, respectively, were used more often in women ( p0.001). There was no failure of conservative treatment. Perioperative morbidity was 13%. No patient died. 6 patients (24%) of the conservatively treated group were hospitalized in the subsequent year for recurrent problems. 4 (16%) were reoperated. The rate of negative appendectomy (negative pathological findings) was 11%. The hospitalization time was shorter in patients treated conservatively or using laparoscopy, respectively, compared to the group of patients undergoing appendectomy. In the modern era of available complementary examinations and a broad spectrum of antibiotics the conservative approach is favoured as a treatment of complicated appendicitis. Conservative treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis is an option, but not the method of choice. Routine elective appendectomy after successful conservative treatment is groundless

  9. Left-sided appendicitis in children with congenital gastrointestinal malrotation: a diagnostic pitfall in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Taslakian, Bedros; Issa, Ghada; Hourani, Roula; Akel, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common conditions requiring emergency surgery. However, acute appendicitis presenting with left lower quadrant abdominal pain is extremely rare. Imaging, particularly CT , plays an important role in establishing an accurate and prompt diagnosis, as delay in diagnosis may occur due to lack of uniformity in the clinical signs and symptoms. We report a rare case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with persistent left lower quadrant pain of several days duration, in which the CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis was essential in establishing the correct diagnosis. The malpositioned inflamed appendix was clearly identified in the left side of the abdomen, with the characteristic CT findings of uncomplicated intestinal malrotation. Left-sided acute appendicitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young patients presenting with left lower quadrant pain, in order to avoid delay in diagnosis and guide the surgical intervention. PMID:23761499

  10. A new adult appendicitis score improves diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis - a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to construct a new scoring system for more accurate diagnostics of acute appendicitis. Applying the new score into clinical practice could reduce the need of potentially harmful diagnostic imaging. Methods This prospective study enrolled 829 adults presenting with clinical suspicion of appendicitis, including 392 (47%) patients with appendicitis. The collected data included clinical findings and symptoms together with laboratory tests (white cell count, neutrophil count and C-reactive protein), and the timing of the onset of symptoms. The score was constructed by logistic regression analysis using multiple imputations for missing values. Performance of the constructed score in patients with complete data (n = 725) was compared with Alvarado score and Appendicitis inflammatory response score. Results 343 (47%) of patients with complete data had appendicitis. 199 (58%) patients with appendicitis had score value at least 16 and were classified as high probability group with 93% specificity.Patients with score below 11 were classified as low probability of appendicitis. Only 4% of patients with appendicitis had a score below 11, and none of them had complicated appendicitis. In contrast, 207 (54%) of non-appendicitis patients had score below 11. There were no cases with complicated appendicitis in the low probability group. The area under ROC curve was significantly larger with the new score 0.882 (95% CI 0.858 – 0.906) compared with AUC of Alvarado score 0.790 (0.758 – 0.823) and Appendicitis inflammatory response score 0.810 (0.779 – 0.840). Conclusions The new diagnostic score is fast and accurate in categorizing patients with suspected appendicitis, and roughly halves the need of diagnostic imaging. PMID:24970111

  11. Diagnostic Colonoscopy Leading to Perforated Appendicitis: A Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal perforation is a known complication after colonoscopy. However, appendiceal involvement with inflammation and perforation is extremely rare and only 37 cases of postcolonoscopy appendicitis have been reported so far. We describe a case of perforated appendicitis 24 hours after colonoscopy that was treated successfully in our Department. Case Report. A 60-year-old female patient underwent a colonoscopy during the investigation of nontypical abdominal pain without pathologic findings. 24 hours after the examination she presented gradually increased right lower quadrant abdominal pain and a CT scan was performed, showing an inflammation of the appendiceal area with free peritoneal air. Through laparotomy, perforated appendicitis was diagnosed and an appendectomy was performed. The patient was discharged on the tenth postoperative day in good health condition. Discussion. The characteristics of all cases reported in the literature are described, including our case. Perforated appendicitis soon after a colonoscopy is a rare, but serious complication; therefore, it is crucial to be included in the differential diagnosis of postcolonoscopy acute abdominal pain. PMID:27980869

  12. Prospective validation of the pediatric appendicitis score in a Canadian pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Maala; Joseph, Lawrence; Ducharme, Francine M; Dougherty, Geoffrey; McGillivray, David

    2009-07-01

    Clinical scoring systems attempt to improve the diagnostic accuracy of pediatric appendicitis. The Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) was the first score created specifically for children and showed excellent performance in the derivation study when administered by pediatric surgeons. The objective was to validate the score in a nonreferred population by emergency physicians (EPs). A convenience sample of children, 4-18 years old presenting to a pediatric emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain of less than 3 days' duration and in whom the treating physician suspected appendicitis, was prospectively evaluated. Children who were nonverbal, had a previous appendectomy, or had chronic abdominal pathology were excluded. Score components (right lower quadrant and hop tenderness, anorexia, pyrexia, emesis, pain migration, leukocytosis, and neutrophilia) were collected on standardized forms by EPs who were blinded to the scoring system. Interobserver assessments were completed when possible. Appendicitis was defined as appendectomy with positive histology. Outcomes were ascertained by review of the pathology reports from the surgery specimens for children undergoing surgery and by telephone follow-up for children who were discharged home. Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. The overall performance of the score was assessed by a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve. Of the enrolled children who met inclusion criteria (n = 246), 83 (34%) had pathology-proven appendicitis. Using the single cut-point suggested in the derivation study (PAS 5) resulted in an unacceptably high number of false positives (37.6%). The score's performance improved when two cut-points were used. When children with a PAS of or=8 determined the need for appendectomy, the score's specificity was

  13. Does elevated urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid level predict acute appendicitis in children?

    PubMed

    Bosak Versic, Ana; Glavan, Nedeljka; Bukvic, Nado; Tomasic, Zlatko; Nikolic, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in children, and appendectomy is the most frequent acute abdominal operation. Prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment are required to reduce the risk of perforation and prevent complications, especially in small children. Enterochromaffin cells that contain large amounts of serotonin are mostly located in the distal appendix. Serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) could therefore be a marker for acute appendicitis. We tested urinary 5-HIAA concentrations in spot urine samples from children with acute appendicitis. We enrolled 93 patients who underwent surgery for suspicion of acute appendicitis. The diagnosis was made intraoperatively and confirmed histopathologically. Additionally, urine samples from 102 healthy children were collected as controls. Their 5-HIAA was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acute appendicitis was diagnosed in 81 patients, whereas there were other explanations for abdominal pain in the remaining 12 patients in the non-appendicitis group. The control group comprised 102 healthy children. Considering the median of all measured 5-HIAA values as the cut-off, we analysed the proportions of patients with elevated values in all the groups. Our analysis showed that statistically there was no significant difference in the distribution of percentages among the groups. The area under the curve for 5-HIAA was 0.55 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.62) with sensitivity and specificity 60.4% and 48.9%, respectively. Urine 5-HIAA concentration measured in spot samples is not a reliable method for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Single-port laparoscopic surgery in acute appendicitis: retrospective comparative analysis for 618 patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung Mo; Hwang, Ji Woong; Ryu, Byoung Yoon

    2016-11-01

    Transumbilical single-port laparoscopic appendectomy (SPLA) is a promising procedure that features less pain, faster recovery of postoperative bowel function and superior cosmetic results. We performed a retrospective comparative analysis of SPLA versus conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLA) to evaluate the safety and efficacy in acute appendicitis. From December 2008 to November 2013, laparoscopic surgery was performed on 636 patients with acute appendicitis at the Department of Surgery, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital. Under approval of Institutional Review Board, data concerning baseline characteristics, operative outcomes, postoperative complications and postoperative functional recovery were compared between both procedures. After exclusion of 18 patients, 618 patients treated for acute appendicitis were included. SPLA was performed in 375 patients and CLA in 243 patients. Complicated appendicitis was more prevalent in the CLA group (26.3 %) than in the SPLA group (17.1 %) (p = 0.005). There was no difference between groups in operation time (p = 0.235), postoperative duration of hospital stay (p = 0.672) and readmission rate (p = 0.688). The rate of postoperative complications was similar in both groups (10.7 % in SPLA vs. 11.1 % in CLA, p = 0.862). In subgroup analysis of complicated appendicitis, more patients needed conversion to open surgery in the SPLA group (15.6 vs. 1.6 %, p = 0.005). In uncomplicated appendicitis, SPLA can be performed safely and efficiently. However, more selective indication for SPLA should be applied in cases of complicated appendicitis because of the greater risk of open conversion.

  15. Association of Hospital Resources and Imaging Choice for Appendicitis in Pediatric Emergency Departments.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, Katherine; Depinet, Holly; Iyer, Sujit; Hall, Matt; Herr, Sandra; Morton, Inge; Lee, Timothy; Melzer-Lange, Marlene

    2017-04-01

    Abdominal pain and concern for appendicitis are common chief complaints in patients presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED). Although many professional organizations recommend decreasing use of computed tomography (CT) and choosing ultrasound as first-line imaging for pediatric appendicitis, significant variability persists in imaging utilization. This study investigated practice variation across children's hospitals in the diagnostic imaging evaluation of appendicitis and determined hospital-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of ultrasound as the first imaging modality. This was a multicenter (seven children's hospitals) retrospective investigation. Data from chart review of 160 consecutive patients aged 3-18 years diagnosed with appendicitis from each site were compared with a survey of site medical directors regarding hospital resource availability, usual practices, and departmental-level demographics. In the diagnostic evaluation of 1,090 children with appendicitis, CT scan was performed first for 22.4% of patients, with a range across PEDs of 3.1% to 83.8%. Ultrasound was performed for 54.0% of patients with a range of 2.5% to 96.9%. The only hospital-level factor significantly associated with ultrasound as the first imaging modality was 24-hour availability of in-house ultrasound (odds ratio = 29.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-691.8). Across children's hospitals, significant practice variation exists regarding diagnostic imaging in the evaluation of patients with appendicitis. Variation in hospital-level resources may impact the diagnostic evaluation of patients with appendicitis. Availability of 24-hour in-house ultrasound significantly increases the likelihood of ultrasound as first imaging and decreases CT scans. Hospitals aiming to increase the use of ultrasound should consider adding 24-hour in-house coverage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Determinants of appendicitis outcomes in Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Li Hsia Alicia; Emil, Sherif

    2014-05-01

    Outcomes of appendicitis may be influenced by access to healthcare. We investigated the determinants of pediatric appendicitis outcomes in the single-payer Canadian healthcare system. Children coded for urgent appendectomy by the Canadian Institute of Health Information during the period 2004-2010 were analyzed. Misdiagnosis rate, perforated appendicitis rate, and hospital stay were the outcomes studied. Analyzed variables included age, gender, domicile, socioeconomic status, surgeon's specialty, hospital type, region, and operative approach. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations, and a quintile regression model examined the effect on median hospital stay. 41,702 patients were studied. A higher rate of perforated appendicitis was associated with lower age [OR 2.66], male gender [OR 1.18], pediatric surgeon [OR 1.25], and treatment outside the Maritimes. A higher rate of misdiagnosis was associated with lower age [OR 1.53], female gender [OR 2.29], non-children's hospital [OR 1.33], and western Canada [OR 1.22]. A significantly longer hospital stay was associated with open appendectomy, pediatric surgeon, and the Territories for simple appendicitis, and open appendectomy, pediatric surgeon, children's hospital, and the Maritimes for perforated appendicitis. In Canada, outcomes of pediatric appendicitis are associated with regional and treatment-level factors. Rural domicile and socioeconomic status do not affect outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomic basis for delayed diagnosis of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Poole, G V

    1990-07-01

    Gangrene or perforation of the appendix is often caused by failure to make an early diagnosis of appendicitis. Variability in the anatomic location of the appendix can be responsible for atypical manifestations of appendicitis and diagnostic errors. Over a 52-month period, 125 appendectomies were done for suspected appendicitis at a military hospital. After excluding cases in which the location of the appendix was not provided, 106 cases were available for review. Fifteen patients (14%) did not have appendicitis. The appendix was found in the true pelvis, was behind the ileum or ileocolic mesentery, or was both retrocolic and retroperitoneal in 11 of 16 patients (69%) with gangrenous or perforative appendicitis. In contrast, the appendix was in one of these three sites in only four of 75 patients (5%) with simple appendicitis (P less than .001). Both physicians and patients were responsible for diagnostic delays, but the paucity of symptoms and signs in patients with a "hidden" appendix was the most likely cause of failure to diagnose appendicitis before perforation.

  18. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Daisuke; Hata, Shojirou; Seiichiro, Shimizu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Outside of these high-risk regions, acute amebic appendicitis is considerably rarer and the mortality rate is much higher than with non-amebic appendicitis. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 31-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower abdominal pain with no history of traveling abroad or sexual infection. Computed tomography revealed a dilated appendix and thickened cecal and ascending colon walls. She underwent an appendectomy for appendicitis. Owing to a lack of symptom resolution, we performed a pathologic examination of the appendix again that revealed multiple Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites; the serum amebic antibody was positive. She was treated postoperatively with metronidazole for amebiasis and discharged on postoperative day 12. DISCUSSION The mortality rate and frequency of severe postoperative intraabdominal complications were higher in the Japanese literature (1995–2013) (25% and 33%, respectively) than in other developed countries (3.3% and 19.4%, respectively). Japan is a low-risk area for amebiasis; many physicians fail to consider amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. It is important to conduct further examinations, including those for amebiasis, when appendectomy does not resolve acute appendicitis. CONCLUSION We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013. PMID:25460473

  19. Amebiasis presenting as acute appendicitis: Report of a case and review of Japanese literature.

    PubMed

    Ito, Daisuke; Hata, Shojirou; Seiichiro, Shimizu; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Teruya, Masanori; Kaminishi, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Outside of these high-risk regions, acute amebic appendicitis is considerably rarer and the mortality rate is much higher than with non-amebic appendicitis. A 31-year-old woman presented with fever and right lower abdominal pain with no history of traveling abroad or sexual infection. Computed tomography revealed a dilated appendix and thickened cecal and ascending colon walls. She underwent an appendectomy for appendicitis. Owing to a lack of symptom resolution, we performed a pathologic examination of the appendix again that revealed multiple Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites; the serum amebic antibody was positive. She was treated postoperatively with metronidazole for amebiasis and discharged on postoperative day 12. The mortality rate and frequency of severe postoperative intraabdominal complications were higher in the Japanese literature (1995-2013) (25% and 33%, respectively) than in other developed countries (3.3% and 19.4%, respectively). Japan is a low-risk area for amebiasis; many physicians fail to consider amebiasis in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. It is important to conduct further examinations, including those for amebiasis, when appendectomy does not resolve acute appendicitis. We report a case of acute amebic appendicitis in a 31-year-old woman and review the ages at presentation, causative factors, treatments, and outcomes of 11 cases reported in Japan between 1995 and 2013. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Berberine Improves Intestinal Motility and Visceral Pain in the Mouse Models Mimicking Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D) Symptoms in an Opioid-Receptor Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiuhui; Fichna, Jakub; Zheng, Lijun; Wang, Kesheng; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Li, Kun; Song, Aihong; Liu, Zhongchen; Song, Zhenshun; Kreis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Berberine and its derivatives display potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Here we aimed at characterizing the mechanism of action of berberine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and cortical neurons using animal models and in vitro tests. Methods The effect of berberine was characterized in murine models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) symptoms. Then the opioidantagonists were used to identify the receptors involved. Furthermore, the effect of berberineon opioid receptors expression was established in the mouse intestine and rat fetal cortical neurons. Results In mouse models, berberine prolonged GI transit and time to diarrhea in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced visceral pain. In physiological conditions the effects of berberine were mediated by mu- (MOR) and delta- (DOR) opioidreceptors; hypermotility, excessive secretion and nociception were reversed by berberine through MOR and DOR-dependent action. We also found that berberine increased the expression of MOR and DOR in the mouse bowel and rat fetal cortical neurons. Conclusion Berberine significantly improved IBS-D symptoms in animal models, possibly through mu- and delta- opioid receptors. Berberine may become a new drug candidate for the successful treatment of IBS-D in clinical conditions. PMID:26700862

  1. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 80. Smith MP, Katz DS, Lalani T, et al. ACR ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  2. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis Herpetiformis ( ... 09, 2017 More News Related Conditions & Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Crohn's Disease Ulcerative Colitis Your Digestive System & How ...

  3. Appendicitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets blocked. Blockage can be due to hard rock-like stool (also called a fecolith), inflammation of ... your doctor will ask you about your medical history and do a physical exam. The doctor will ...

  4. Helical CT of appendicitis and diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Rhea, J T; Novelline, R A

    1999-09-01

    The clinical diagnosis of appendicitis and diverticulitis remains challenging. Clinical diagnosis alone can lead to unnecessary hospitalizations and surgeries, prolonged periods of hospital observation, and delays prior to necessary medical or surgical treatment. Helical CT combined with recently reported techniques for imaging appendicitis and diverticulitis offers rapid and accurate confirmation or exclusion of these entities as well as identification of alternative conditions that can clinically mimic them. More routine use of helical CT holds great promise for improving patient care and lowering hospital resource use in patients with clinically suspected appendicitis and diverticulitis.

  5. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol.

  6. Pain.

    PubMed

    Melzack, Ronald; Katz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables. Pain processes do not begin with the stimulation of receptors. Rather, injury or disease produces neural signals that enter an active nervous system that (in the adult organism) is the substrate of past experience, culture, and a host of other environmental and personal factors. These brain processes actively participate in the selection, abstraction, and synthesis of information from the total sensory input. Pain is not simply the end product of a linear sensory transmission system; it is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. The neuromatrix theory guides us away from the Cartesian concept of pain as a sensation produced by injury, inflammation, or other tissue pathology and toward the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience produced by multiple influences. These influences range from the existing synaptic architecture of the neuromatrix-which is determined by genetic and sensory factors-to influences from within the body and from other areas in the brain. Genetic influences on synaptic architecture may determine-or predispose toward-the development of chronic pain syndromes. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:1-15. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1201 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Appendicectomy for recurrent and chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Saidi; Chavda, S K; Magoha, G A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, several reports have underlined the possible existence of chronic appendicitis. Up to 38% of spontaneously resolving acute appendicitis may recur. We studied 41 patients operated on between July 2000 and June 2001 for chronic and recurrent appendicitis at a teaching hospital in the city of Nairobi. The patients comprised 17.8% of all patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis during the study period. The majority (65.9%) were females. The faecolith rate was 51.2%. About half of appendices removed for these symptoms were normal at histology. Nearly 70% of the normal appendices contained faecoliths. Symptoms resolved in 90% of faecolith-containing appendices and 87.5% of non-faecolith-containing appendices that were normal on histology.

  8. Appendicitis and infections of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Lamps, Laura W

    2004-05-01

    The pathologic spectrum of the acutely inflamed appendix encompasses a wide range of infectious and noninfectious entities. The appendix suffers alone in some of these disorders, and in others may be involved through extension from other areas of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the appendix is the most commonly resected and examined intraabdominal organ, the pathogenesis and etiology of acute nonspecific appendicitis (the most common diagnosis made in this organ) remains enigmatic. This review encompasses the pathology, pathogenesis, and bacteriology of acute appendicitis, as well as controversial issues such as the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis and the significance of a morphologically unremarkable appendectomy specimen in the clinical context of appendicitis. In addition, the pathologic features, pertinent diagnostic techniques, and clinical significance of several specific bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections affecting the appendix are presented, including adenovirus, cytomegalovirus, Yersinia species, actinomycosis, Mycobacteria species, histoplasmosis, pinworms, schistosomiasis, and Strongyloides stercoralis.

  9. [The pediatric surgeon and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Ait Ali Slimane, M; Montupet, P

    2009-10-01

    The management of acute appendicitis in the pediatric patient has undergone radical rethinking in recent years. It has been shown that simple uncomplicated acute appendicitis can be successfully managed with antibiotic therapy and may not even require interval appendectomy. Appendicitis complicated by perforation, abscess, or inflammatory phlegmon can be successfully treated by initial antibiotic therapy (with or without percutaneous drainage) and delayed interval appendectomy. While the laparoscopic approach has proved to be well-adapted to many other pediatric surgical procedures, its utility in the treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis remains open to debate; compared to standard open appendectomy, it offers only minimal advantages with regard to post-operative care, length of hospital stay, and complications. Children can be managed either by general surgeons or pediatric surgeons depending on the organization of the emergency service; there may be a higher incidence of removal of a normal appendix in non-specialized services.

  10. Appendiceal taeniasis presenting like acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sartorelli, Alesso Cervantes; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2005-09-01

    A case of parasitic appendicitis caused by Taenia sp. in a 28-year-old woman from Brazil is reported. Histopathological data and a description of the helminthe found in the appendix lumen are presented.

  11. AIR SCORE ASSESSMENT FOR ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    PubMed Central

    VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli; BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; KRUEL, Nicolau; LUPSELO, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen. Approximately 7% of the population will be affected by this condition during full life. The development of AIR score may contribute to diagnosis associating easy clinical criteria and two simple laboratory tests. Aim: To evaluate the score AIR (Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score) as a tool for the diagnosis and prediction of severity of acute appendicitis. Method: Were evaluated all patients undergoing surgical appendectomy. From 273 patients, 126 were excluded due to exclusion criteria. All patients were submitted o AIR score. Results: The value of the C-reactive protein and the percentage of leukocytes segmented blood count showed a direct relationship with the phase of acute appendicitis. Conclusion: As for the laboratory criteria, serum C-reactive protein and assessment of the percentage of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes count were important to diagnosis and disease stratification. PMID:26537139

  12. [Synchronous acute cholecystolithiasis and perforated acute appendicitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo; de Atocha Rosado-Montero, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis are among the most common diagnoses that general surgeons operate on. However, it is rarely described in its synchronous form. A 43 year-old woman attending the clinic for right upper quadrant pain of 11 days duration. The patient refers to intermittent radiating pain in the right side, with positive Murphy, tachycardia, and fever. The laboratory results showed white cells 16,200/mm(3), glucose 345 mg/dl, abnormal liver function tests. Acute cholecystitis was reported with ultrasound. A Masson-type incision was made, noting an enlarged pyogenic gallbladder with thickened walls, sub-hepatic abscess of approximately 300 ml, greenish-yellow colour, and foetid. An anterograde subtotal cholecystectomy is performed due to difficulty in identifying elements of Calot triangle due to the inflammatory process, opening it and extracting stones. The right iliac fossa is reviewed, finding a plastron and a sub-serous retrocaecal appendix perforated in its middle third with free fecalith and an abscess in the pelvic cavity. An anterograde appendectomy was performed and the patient progressed satisfactorily, later being discharged due to improvement. In this patient, with a history of recurrent episodes of gallbladder pain and disseminated acute abdominal pain without peritoneal irritation, clinical suspicion was exacerbated cholecystitis with probable empyema of the gallbladder. Open surgery approach for this patient allowed access to both the appendix and gallbladder in order to perform a complete exploration of the abdominal cavity. The synchronous presentation of cholecystolithiasis and complicated appendicitis has not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. A serious conundrum for surgeons: Stump appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Mehmet Fatih; Bayhan, Zulfu; Zeren, Sezgin; Ucar, Bercis Imge; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Deger, Ayse Nur

    2016-01-01

    Stump appendicitis is an acute inflammation of remnant appendix, a rare complication of incomplete appendectomy. It may present as acute abdomen with history of appendectomy, which may cause delay in diagnosis. Therefore, incomplete appendectomy should be considered as a differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in patients with medical history of appendectomy. The present case is one of stump appendicitis 6 months after appendectomy. Stump appendectomy was performed and the patient was discharged 7 days after the operation without any complication.

  14. Outcomes of Nonoperative Management of Uncomplicated Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Bachur, Richard G; Lipsett, Susan C; Monuteaux, Michael C

    2017-07-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of uncomplicated pediatric appendicitis has promise but remains poorly studied. NOM may lead to an increase in resource utilization. Our objective was to investigate the trends in NOM for uncomplicated appendicitis and study the relevant clinical outcomes including subsequent appendectomy, complications, and resource utilization. Retrospective analysis of administrative data from 45 US pediatric hospitals. Patients <19 years of age presenting to the emergency department (ED) with appendicitis between 2010 and 2016 were studied. NOM was defined by an ED visit for uncomplicated appendicitis treated with antibiotics and the absence of appendectomy at the index encounter. The main outcomes included trends in NOM among children with uncomplicated appendicitis and frequency of subsequent diagnostic imaging, ED visits, hospitalizations, and appendectomy during 12-month follow-up. 99 001 children with appendicitis were identified, with a median age of 10.9 years. Sixty-six percent were diagnosed with nonperforated appendicitis, of which 4190 (6%) were managed nonoperatively. An increasing number of nonoperative cases were observed over 6 years (absolute difference, +20.4%). During the 12-month follow-up period, NOM patients were more likely to have the following: advanced imaging (+8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6% to 10.3%]), ED visits (+11.2% [95% CI 9.3% to 13.2%]), and hospitalizations (+43.7% [95% CI 41.7% to 45.8%]). Among patients managed nonoperatively, 46% had a subsequent appendectomy. A significant increase in NOM of nonperforated appendicitis was observed over 6 years. Patients with NOM had more subsequent ED visits and hospitalizations compared with those managed operatively at the index visit. A substantial proportion of patients initially managed nonoperatively eventually had an appendectomy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. A rare presentation of an acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kordzadeh, Ali; Lorenzi, Bruno; Kalyan, Jiten P.; Hanif, Muhammad A.; Charalabopoulos, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Paraumbilical hernia sac usually contains omentum, bowel loop and rarely appendicular epiploicae, metastatic deposits and vermiform appendix. Presentation of acute appendicitis in a paraumbilical hernia is rare and limited to few case reports in the literature. Herein, we would like to report a case of a successfully treated acute appendicitis presenting in a paraumbilical hernia in an 84-year-old lady with 6-month follow-up. PMID:28096326

  16. [Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

    2008-08-01

    The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications.

  17. Stump appendicitis 10 years after appendectomy, a rare, but serious complication of appendectomy, a case report.

    PubMed

    Van Paesschen, Carl; Haenen, Filip; Bestman, Raymond; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We describe a case of stump appendicitis with the formation of abdominal abscesses in a 41-year-old patient 10 years prior appendectomy. The patient consulted with fever (38.1 °C) and abdominal pain, located at the right iliac fossa. Imaging studies showed signs of abscesses, located at the right iliac fossa, without clear origin of these abscesses. The abscesses were drained through diagnostic laparoscopy, no bowel perforation or clear origin of the abscedation was found during laparoscopy. During postoperative stay, the inflammatory parameters rose and the abscesses reoccurred. Re-laparoscopy was performed, the abscesses were drained and on careful inspection and adhesiolysis, a perforated stump appendicitis was revealed, covered underneath layers of fibrous tissue. Stump appendicitis is a rare complication seen after appendectomy and is generally not considered a possible etiology in patients presenting with fever and right iliac fossa abdominal pain with a history of appendectomy. This often delays the correct diagnosis and results in an associated increased incidence of complications. We describe a case of stump appendicitis occurring 10 years after initial appendectomy.

  18. [Acute appendicitis and coinfection with enterobiasis and taeniasis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Çallı, Gülhan; Özbilgin, Mücahit; Yapar, Nur; Sarıoğlu, Sülen; Özkoç, Soykan

    2014-01-01

    Parasites are rarely associated with inflammation of the appendix. Generally, parasites cause acute abdominal pain via blocking the gut lumen. In this article, we presented a case of appendicitis where Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the surgical specimen and Taenia was detected in the stool. A 31 year old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with severe abdominal pain, which has begun two days ago. On physical examination, tenderness was positive on palpation of the right lower abdominal quadrant and the patient was operated on with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Histopathological examination of the patient's appendectomy material revealed numerous parts of parasites resembling Enterobius vermicularis and slight mucosal erosion. On parasitological examination of the patient's stool, Taenia eggs and adult forms were determined. Antiparasitic therapy was started with niclosamide for taeniasis and albendazole for enterobiasis. Parasitic infections can mimic acute appendicitis clinically. Radiological and laboratory findings do not help to distinguish the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. In the histopathological examination of the appendix, the findings of acute inflammation of the appendix wall may not be defined. For patients with normal histopathological examination, screening for parasites should be done, and anti-parasitic treatment should be started after appendectomy.

  19. Improving the Preoperative Diagnostic Accuracy of Acute Appendicitis. Can Fecal Calprotectin Be Helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Orth, Valerie; Gödde, Daniel; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Background Is the patient really suffering from acute appendicitis? Right lower quadrant pain is the most common sign of acute appendicitis. However, many other bowels pathologies might mimic acute appendicitis. Due to fear of the consequences of delayed or missed diagnosis, the indication for emergency appendectomy is liberally made. This has been shown to be associated with high rates of negative appendectomy with risk of potentially serious or lethal complications. Thus there is need for a better preoperative screening of patients with suspected appendicitis. Methods This prospective single center single-blinded pilot study was conducted in the Department of surgery at the HELIOS Universitätsklinikum Wuppertal, Germany. Calprotectin was measured in pre-therapeutic stool samples of patients presenting in the emergency department with pain to the right lower quadrant. Fecal calprotectin (FC) values were analyzed using commercially available ELISA kits. Cut-off values for FC were studied using the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve. The Area under the curve (AUC) was reported for each ROC curve. Results The mean FC value was 51.4 ± 118.8 μg/g in patients with AA, 320.9 ± 416.6 μg/g in patients with infectious enteritis and 24.8 ± 27.4 μg/g in the control group. ROC curve showed a close to 80% specificity and sensitivity of FC for AA at a cut-off value of 51 μg/g, AUC = 0.7. The sensitivity of FC at this cut-off value is zero for enteritis with a specificity of 35%. Conclusion Fecal calprotectin could be helpful in screening patients with pain to the right lower quadrant for the presence of acute appendicitis or infectious enteritis with the aim of facilitating clinical decision-making and reducing the rate of negative appendectomy. PMID:28033410

  20. Procalcitonin as the biomarker of inflammation in diagnosis of appendicitis in pediatric patients and prevention of unnecessary appendectomies.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Vishal; Batt, Sajjid Hussain; Bhat, Mohammad Younis; Kawoosa, Nadeem Ulnazeer; Yousuf, Adfar; Zargar, Babar Rashid

    2011-04-01

    Numerous diseases mimic appendicitis, and it is often difficult to rule it out on the basis of clinical presentation. Concentration of procalcitonin selectively increases in inflammatory conditions and determination of its level can help in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A prospective, single centre based observational study carried out at our tertiary care institute. Twenty eight patients were admitted with preliminary diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The control group involved around 12 healthy children. Serum Procalcitonin concentration was measured in all patients using the 'Immunoluminometric Method' (LUMI- Test PCT), besides carrying out clinical examination and other investigations. The serums PCT comes out to be a better diagnostic test than serum CRP measurement as serum PCT was able to differentiate patients who came with abdominal pain but were having normal appendix from the patients who were actual cases of acute appendicitis. In patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis the level of PCT was above the normal value of 0.5 ng/ml in most cases. The analysis of procalcitonin in different groups of patients showed the serum procalcitonin test having high sensitivity of 95.65% and a specificity of about 100% on the basis of histopathological diagnosis of the removed appendix taking as the standard. The serum procalcitonin test when combined with reliable clinical signs and symptoms is an excellent diagnostic marker of the disease and should be done in the patients of pediatric appendicitis so that proper handling of the patient can be done and we can prevent unnecessary appendectomies.

  1. The role of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio to leverage the differential diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever attack and acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Adem; Erol, Mehmet Fatih; Senel, Soner; Eroler, Emir; Yumun, Havvanur Alparslan; Uslu, Ali Ugur; Erol, Asiye Mukaddes; Tihan, Deniz; Duman, Ugur; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Solak, Yalcin

    2016-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by attacks of fever and diffuse abdominal pain. The primary concern with this presentation is to distinguish it from acute appendicitis promptly. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the role of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to leverage the differential diagnosis of acute FMF attack with histologically proven appendicitis. Twenty-three patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis and 88 patients with acute attack of FMF were included in the study. NLR, C-reactive protein and other hematologic parameters were compared between the groups. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in patients with acute appendicitis compared to the FMF attack group (8.24 ± 6.31 vs. 4.16 ± 2.44, p = 0.007). The performance of NLR in diagnosing acute appendicitis with receiver operating characteristic analysis with a cut-off value of 4.03 were; 78% sensitivity, 62% specificity, and area under the curve 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.655 to 0.8655; p < 0.001). This study showed that NLR, the simple and readily available inflammatory marker may have a useful role in distinguishing acute FMF attack from acute appendicitis.

  2. The role of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio to leverage the differential diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever attack and acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kucuk, Adem; Erol, Mehmet Fatih; Senel, Soner; Eroler, Emir; Yumun, Havvanur Alparslan; Uslu, Ali Ugur; Erol, Asiye Mukaddes; Tihan, Deniz; Duman, Ugur; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Solak, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by attacks of fever and diffuse abdominal pain. The primary concern with this presentation is to distinguish it from acute appendicitis promptly. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the role of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) to leverage the differential diagnosis of acute FMF attack with histologically proven appendicitis. Methods: Twenty-three patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis and 88 patients with acute attack of FMF were included in the study. NLR, C-reactive protein and other hematologic parameters were compared between the groups. Results: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in patients with acute appendicitis compared to the FMF attack group (8.24 ± 6.31 vs. 4.16 ± 2.44, p = 0.007). The performance of NLR in diagnosing acute appendicitis with receiver operating characteristic analysis with a cut-off value of 4.03 were; 78% sensitivity, 62% specificity, and area under the curve 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.655 to 0.8655; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed that NLR, the simple and readily available inflammatory marker may have a useful role in distinguishing acute FMF attack from acute appendicitis. PMID:26864298

  3. Should Alvarado and Ohmann scores be real indicators for diagnosis of appendicitis and severity of inflammation?

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Eyüp Murat; Kapçı, Mücahit; Çelik, Sebahattin; Manoğlu, Berke; Avcil, Mücahit; Karacan, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of abdominal pain seen in surgical clinics. Although it can be easily diagnosed, the picture may be confusing, particularly in premenopausal women and the elderly. The present study is an evaluation of 2 of the current scoring systems with respect to accurate diagnosis of the disease and indication of inflammation severity. A total of 105 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis were included in the study. Subsequent to Alvarado and Ohmann scoring, ultrasonography image was obtained and appendectomy was performed. A unique intraoperative severity scoring system was used to measure severity of inflammation and to compare Alvarado and Ohmann scoring system results to assess accuracy of predictive value for acute appendicitis. Moderate positive correlation was found between Alvarado score and Ohmann score (r=0.508; p<0.001). Rate of Alvarado score successfully predicting diagnosis of acute appendicitis based on histopathological results was statistically significant (p=0.027), while rate of Ohmann score was not statistically significant (p=0.807). Correlation between both scores and grading of inflammation performed during the operation was weak, but statistical significance was observed between Alvarado scoring system and intraoperative severity scoring (r=0.30; p=0.002). No statistical difference was observed between Ohmann scoring and intraoperative severity scoring (r=0.09; p=0.384). Alvarado score is better able to predict acute appendicitis and provide an idea of severity of inflammation. Ohmann score is more useful to provide guidance and eliminate acute appendicitis from consideration when conditions are more uncertain and obscured.

  4. Hyperbilirubinaemia in appendicitis: the diagnostic value for prediction of appendicitis and appendiceal perforation.

    PubMed

    Adams, H L; Jaunoo, S S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of pre-operative bilirubin levels in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and appendiceal perforation. A retrospective analysis of 557 patients undergoing emergency appendicectomy over a 24-month period at a large teaching hospital. Hyperbilirubinaemia was defined as >25 µmol/L. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. 484 of the 557 (86.9 %) operated cases were found histologically to be appendicitis. 116 cases of the 484 were perforated (24 %). Bilirubin levels were significantly higher in the group with appendicitis versus the group found to have a normal appendix at histology, [median (IQR) 12.0 µmol/L (9.00) vs. 8.0 µmol/L (7.00) respectively, p < 0.001], despite being within normal serum bilirubin range. Sensitivity of hyperbilirubinaemia for acute appendicitis was only 8 %, however specificity was 94 %. PPV was 85 % and NPV was 26 %. Whilst bilirubin was higher in patients with a perforated appendix versus acute appendicitis [median (IQR) 13.0 µmol/L (9.00) vs. 11.0 µmol/L (9.00), respectively], statistically, there was no significant difference in pre-operative bilirubin levels between the perforated appendicitis cases and the non-perforated appendicitis cases (p = 0.326). However, the specificity of hyperbilirubinaemia for perforated appendicitis was 93 %, sensitivity 9.4 %, PPV 24 % and NPV 82 %. Bilirubin levels may be high, but remain within normal range, in cases of appendicitis. Therefore, bilirubin levels may be a useful measurement when investigating a patient with suspected appendicitis. Hyperbilirubinaemia is highly specific with regards to perforation, a finding supported by other studies. However, possibly because of the few perforated cases in this study, we cannot recommend that hyperbilirubinaemia be used to predict perforation.

  5. [History of surgical treatment of appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Meljnikov, Igor; Radojcić, Branka; Grebeldinger, Slobodan; Radojcić, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Most of the history of appendicitis and appendectomy has been made during the past two centuries. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi gave the first description of this structure in 1522. Gabriele Fallopio, in 1561, appears to have been the first writer to compare the appendix to a worm. In1579 Caspar Bauhin proposed the ingenious theory that the appendix served in intrauterine life as a receptacle for the faexes. Many of anatomists added more or less insignificant ideas concerning the structure of the appendix and entered upon useless controversy concerning the name, function, position of the appendix vermiformis. The first successful appendectomy was performed in 1735 by Claudius Amyand. Geillaume Dupuytren considered that acute inflammation of the right side of the abdomen arose from disease of the caecum and not the appendix. As surgeons were wary of opening the abdomen for examination, early stages of appendicitis remained unknown. John Parkinson was able to give a good description of fatal appendicitis in 1812. Surgeons began draining localised abscesses which had already formed. In 1880 Robert Lawson Tait made the first diagnosis of appendicitis and surgically removed the appendix. In 1886 Reginald Heber Fitz published a study on appendicitis and named the procedure an appendectomy. In 1889, Tait split open and drained an inflamed appendix without removing it. Charles McBurney proposed his original muscle splitting operation in 1893 and this was modified by Robert Fulton Weir in 1900. Today we have a multiplicity of signs and symptoms, helping to diagnose appendicitis, and there are a lot of techniques for operation with little essential difference throughout. Kurt Semm performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy in 1981 which became a new gold standard in surgical treatment of acute and chronic appendicitis.

  6. Minilaparoscopic Appendectomy for Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Manzelli, Antonio; Coscarella, Giorgio; Pietrantuono, Maurizio; Jarzembowski, Tomasz Marek; Fisichella, Piero Marco; Gaspari, Achille Lucio

    2006-01-01

    Background: Minilaparoscopic appendectomy for appendicitis is not a well-established procedure. This approach provides less abdominal wall trauma, fewer complications, and excellent cosmetic results. Our aim was to show the feasibility and safety of the minilaparoscopic approach. Methods: Minilaparoscopic appendectomy was performed in 37 patients. Two 2.2-mm trocars were used to manipulate a 2.2-mm, 0-degree laparoscope and for grasper access. A 5-mm trocar was used for the ultrasonic scalpel. Results: No deaths occurred. In 3 patients (8%), appendectomy was aborted due to pathology of the ovary. Conversion to the open approach occurred in 2.7% of patients. The average operating time was 34 minutes (range, 15 to 80), and the median length of hospital stay was 1.2 day (range, 1 to 5). Conclusions: The minilaparoscopic approach a) has the same advantages as the conventional laparoscopic approach in terms of better diagnostic accuracy and safety; b) a low incidence of complications; and c) yields excellent cosmetic results. PMID:16709358

  7. A rare case of subacute appendicitis, actinomycosis as the final pathology reports: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Torres, G A; Ortega-Gárcia, O S; Gutierrez-López, E G; Carballido-Murguía, C A; Flores-Rios, J A; López-Lizarraga, C R; Bautista López, C A; Ploneda-Valencia, C F

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common indication for an emergency abdominal surgery in the world, with a lifetime incidence of around 10%. Actinomycetes are the etiology of appendicitis in only 0.02%-0.06%, having as the final pathology report a chronic inflammatory response; less than 10% of the cases are diagnosed before surgery. Here, we present the case of a subacute appendicitis secondary to actinomycosis. A 39-year-old male presented with a twelve-day evolution of intermittent abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant, treated at the beginning with ciprofloxacin and urinary analgesic. The day of the admission he referred intense abdominal pain with nausea. An open appendectomy was preformed, finding a tumor-like edematous appendix with a diameter of approximately 2.5cm. Actinomyces are part of the typical flora of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and vagina. The predominant form of human disease is A. Israelii, it requires an injury to the normal mucosa to penetrate and cause disease. Abdominal actinomycosis involves the appendix and caecum in 66% of the presentations, of these, perforated appendicitis is the stimulus in 75% of the cases. A combination of antibiotic therapy and operative treatment resolves actinomycosis in 90% of cases. Abdominal actinomycosis is an uncommon disease been the common presentation a perforated appendicitis, here we present a less common presentation of it with a non-perforated appendix. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Vibhor; Chhabra, Avneesh; Samet, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Melorheostosis is an uncommon, sporadic, sclerosing bone lesion that may affect the adjacent soft tissues. It has been associated with many entities such as osteopoikilosis, soft tissue vascular malformations, bone and soft tissue tumors, nephrotic syndrome, segmental limb contractures, osteosarcoma, desmoid tumor, and mesenteric fibromatosis. Synovial osteochondromatosis is a benign neoplasia of the hyaline cartilage presenting as nodules in the subsynovial tissue of a joint or tendon sheath. The intra-articular extension of melorheostosis mimicking synovial osteochondromatosis has not been reported before. In this article, the authors describe an unusual case mimicking synovial chondromatosis arising as a result of melorheostosis and their characteristic imaging findings.

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) Findings of a Diagnostic Dilemma: Atypically Located Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Evrimler, Sehnaz; Okumuser, Irfan; Unal, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Acute appendicitis is an emergent surgically treated disease generally represented by right lower abdominal pain. The most common location of the appendix is descending intraperitoneal. However, it can also show atypical locations such as inguinal canal, femoral canal, subhepatic, retrocecal, intraperitoneal abdominal midline and left side in situs inversus or intestinal malrotation patients. Atypical location can lead to atypical clinical presentations. Ultrasonography is the first choice modality for imaging. However, it can be insufficient for demonstration of the appendix. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) is needed for further examination. We aim to review the CT findings of atypically located acute appendicitis with cases and remind the clinicians and radiologists the importance of the prompt diagnosis. Case Report We presented five atypically-located appendix cases, including four with acute appendicitis that presented to our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Two of the acute appendicitis cases had normal, the other two had elevated white blood cell count, but all of them had elevated CRP. Ultrasonography imaging was performed as a first-line imaging modality. Because of the inconclusive results of both clinical-laboratory findings and ultrasonography, CT imaging was performed. Abdominal CT demonstrated all of the atypically localised appendices successfully, which were left-sided in a malrotated patient, retrocecal, subhepatic, retrocecal ascending, intraperitoneal abdominal midline localised. Conclusıons Atypically located acute appendicitis can show atypical presentation and result in misdiagnosis. If ultrasonograpgy is inconclusive, we suggest abdominal CT in such confusing, complicated cases, because misdiagnosis or delay in the right diagnosis can result in complications and increased morbidity and mortality rates. PMID:28058072

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Methods in Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Groselj-Grenc, Mojca; Repše, Stane; Vidmar, Dubravka; Derganc, Metka

    2007-01-01

    Aim To compare the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination, white blood cell and differential count, and C-reactive protein as routine tests for acute appendicitis with that of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and ultrasonography. Methods Eighty-two children were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Surgery and Intensive Care, Ljubljana, Slovenia because of suspected acute appendicitis. Among them, 49 children underwent surgery for acute appendicitis and 33 had abdominal pain but were not treated surgically and were diagnosed with non-specific abdominal pain or mesenteric lymphadenitis on sonography. Clinical signs of acute appendicitis were determined by surgeons on admission. White blood cell count and differential and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and IL-6 were measured and abdominal ultrasonography was performed. Results Ultrasonography showed the highest diagnostic accuracy (92.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84.5%-98.0%, Bayes’ theorem), followed by serum IL-6 concentration (77.6% [67.1-86.1%] receiver-operating characteristic [ROC] curve analysis), clinical signs (69.5% [59.5-79.0%] Bayes’ theorem), white blood cell count (68.4% [57.2-78.3%] ROC curve analysis), and serum C-reactive protein concentration (63.7% [52.1-74.3%] ROC curve analysis). Ultrasonography achieved also the highest specificity (95.2%) and positive (93.8%) and negative (93.3%) predictive values, whereas clinical signs showed the highest sensitivity (93.9%). Conclusion Ultrasonography was a more accurate diagnostic method than IL-6 serum concentration, laboratory marker with the highest diagnostic accuracy in our study, and hence it should be a part of the diagnostic procedure for acute appendicitis in children. PMID:17589979

  11. [Appendicitis in puerperium--case report].

    PubMed

    Milica, Berisavac; Biljan, Kastratović Kotlica; Tosić, V; Marković, N; Ljustina, S; Zizić, V; Maricić, Z

    2011-01-01

    Acute appendicitis in puerperium is often diagnosed too late, because clinical signs can be unrelaible. Abdominal wall rigidity is rarely noticed in puerpeium because of weak abdominal wall muscles, laboratory parameters are not enough relaible and atip cal appendix presentation makes dificulties in diagnosis. Knowing clinical signs and symptoms of appendicitis, possible complications and their early detection, make a chanse for a good surgical outcome. Measuring of axillar and rectal temperature can take confusion in, and prolong time until surgical treatment. Leucocytosis in puerperium is not valid for diagnosis. We report a case of patient in puerperium with high laboratory infection parameters. Diagnosis of appendicitis is made based on clinical signs and symptoms, that is proved intraoperatively and histologicaly. Appendectomy without perforation carries less risks for mother and fetus.

  12. MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis: case interpretation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael M; Brian, James M; Methratta, Sosamma T; Hulse, Michael A; Choudhary, Arabinda K; Eggli, Kathleen D; Boal, Danielle K B

    2014-05-01

    As utilization of MRI for clinically suspected pediatric appendicitis becomes more common, there will be increased focus on case interpretation. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to share our institution's case interpretation experience. MRI findings of appendicitis include appendicoliths, tip appendicitis, intraluminal fluid-debris level, pitfalls of size measurements, and complications including abscesses. The normal appendix and inguinal appendix are also discussed.

  13. Patient perspectives on antibiotics for appendicitis at one hospital.

    PubMed

    Kadera, Samantha P; Mower, William R; Krishnadasan, Anusha; Talan, David A

    2016-04-01

    Appendicitis has long been considered a progressive inflammatory condition best treated by prompt appendectomy. Recently, several trials comparing initial treatment with antibiotics alone to appendectomy suggest that antibiotic therapy may be a safe option in select patients. However, little is known about patients' understanding of appendicitis, prioritized outcomes, and treatment preferences. We conducted a prospective, observational survey at a Los Angeles County public hospital emergency department. Trained study coordinators recorded the following data on each subject: basic knowledge of appendicitis, past surgical and antibiotic history, and medical illness outcome priorities. Participants were then educated about appendicitis and were told that studies had demonstrated that appendicitis can be treated safely with antibiotics alone. Subjects were then surveyed as to their preference for urgent surgery or antibiotics alone in a hypothetical scenario of acute uncomplicated appendicitis. Of 129 subjects interviewed, 56 (43%) correctly defined appendicitis, and 69 (53%) identified the treatment for appendicitis as surgery. When presented with a hypothetical acute appendicitis scenario, 57% chose antibiotics over surgery. Persons with previous appendectomy and parents of minors more often chose antibiotics alone, 74% and 63%, respectively. Dying was the most frequently cited and highest-ranked concern about medical illness. Our results demonstrate that, among persons at one US public hospital, understanding of appendicitis is poor. Once presented with background information about appendicitis and being informed that antibiotics can safely treat appendicitis, many people would prefer an antibiotic approach over appendectomy. Death is the most prioritized concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Amyand's hernia and complicated appendicitis; case presentation and surgical treatment choice].

    PubMed

    García-Cano, Eugenio; Martínez-Gasperin, José; Rosales-Pelaez, César; Hernández-Zamora, Valeria; Montiel-Jarquín, José Álvaro; Franco-Cravioto, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A caecal appendix within an inguinal hernia, with or without appendicitis, is defined as Amyand's hernia. In 1% of inguinal hernias an appendix without inflammation can be found, however, the prevalence of appendicitis in a hernia sac is only 0.08-0.13%. Male of 43 years old, began two days before admission with pain in the right inguinal region. He was scheduled for surgery due to a complication of a right inguinal hernia. The surgical findings were Amyand's hernia, necrotic spermatic cord, and perforated appendix. Surgical repair was performed with a favourable outcome, and he was discharged on the fourth postoperative day. Most of Amyand's hernia exhibit characteristics of incarcerated or strangulated inguinal hernia. Even acute appendicitis or perforated appendix within the hernia sac does not reflect specific symptoms or signs, therefore, a preoperative clinical diagnosis of Amyand's hernia is difficult to achieve. In our case, the patient had perforated appendicitis, developing necrosis of the spermatic cord. Orchiectomy, appendectomy, and inguinal hernia repair was performed without placing mesh. Due to the controversy on the use of mesh in contaminated abdominal wall defects, it was not indicated here, due to the high risk of wound infection and appendicular fistula. An extremely rare condition is presented, with a surgical choice that led to a favourable outcome. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyosalpinx causing acute appendicitis in a 32-year-old Cameroonian female: a case report.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Valirie Ndip; Njim, Tsi; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge

    2016-07-26

    Pyosalpinx as a cause of acute appendicitis is very rare. We report the first case of a right pyosalpinx causing an extrinsic compression of the appendiceal lumen and consequently an acute appendicitis following an obstruction. A 32 year old female from the North west region of Cameroon, presented with an acute exacerbation of a mild chronic right iliac fossa pain over a 2 day duration. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and intraoperative findings were a bilateral pyosalpinx, with the right fallopian tube adhering to the caecum and the terminal ileum, and obstructing the lumen of an inflammed appendix. A classical appendectomy and a right salpingectomy were done. The post-operative period was uneventful and she returned after 2 weeks for a follow-up visit with no further complaints. We describe to the best of our knowledge, the first case of an acute appendicitis caused by an extrinsic obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by a pyosalpinx. The close proximity of the caecum to the right fallopian tube most likely accounted for this occurrence. Although a rare entity, physicians should always keep in mind very rare causes of an acute appendicitis to guide management. This case highlights the shortcomings of pelvic ultrasonography in the diagnosis this condition. A pelvic computed tomography scanning should therefore be sought in case of a doubtful pelvic ultrasonography result. Finally, there is an urgent need to improve the awareness on sexually transmitted infections in our setting.

  16. Evaluation of Clinical Alvarado Scoring System and CT Criteria in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gunes Tatar, Idil; Yilmaz, Kerim Bora; Sahin, Alpaslan; Aydin, Hasan; Akinci, Melih; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The aim was to evaluate the clinical Alvarado scoring system and computed tomography (CT) criteria for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Material and Methods. 117 patients with acute abdominal pain who underwent abdominal CT were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patient demographics, clinical Alvarado scoring, CT images, and pathologic results of the patients were evaluated. Results. 39 of the 53 patients who were operated on had pathologically proven acute appendicitis. CT criteria of appendiceal diameter, presence of periappendiceal inflammation, fluid, appendicolith, and white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly correlated with the inflammation of the appendix. The best cut-off value for appendiceal diameter was 6.5 mm. The correlation between appendiceal diameter and WBC count was 80% (P = 0.01 < 0.05). The correlation between appendiceal diameter and Alvarado score was 78.7% (P = 0.01 < 0.05). Conclusion. Presence of CT criteria of appendiceal diameter above 6.5 mm, periappendiceal inflammation, fluid, and appendicolith should prompt the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Since patients with acute appendicitis may not always show the typical signs and symptoms, CT is a helpful imaging modality for patients with relatively low Alvarado score and leukocytosis and when physical examination is confusing.

  17. Variation in rates of hospital admission for appendicitis in Wales.

    PubMed Central

    West, R R; Carey, M J

    1978-01-01

    In a study designed to investigate the variations in rates of admission to hospital for appendicitis in Wales Hospital Activity Analysis listings were analysed according to the sex and age of the patients and the month and day of the week of admission. The incidence of hospitalisation was greatest among boys aged 10-14 and girls aged 15-19. The number of admissions was higher on weekdays than at weekends, but there were no seasonal variations. Durations of stay differed between the 17 health districts. We conclude that admission rates vary mainly because of differing hospital admission policies. Admission is not wholly governed by the sudden onset of abdominal pain; other factors include the threshold of consultation of each patient, the referral habits of general practitioners, the availability of hospital beds, and the degree to which doctors and patients expect admission. PMID:656866

  18. Fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Frazee, Richard; Abernathy, Stephen; Davis, Matthew; Isbell, Travis; Regner, Justin; Smith, Randall

    2017-04-01

    Perforated appendicitis is associated with an increased morbidity and length of stay. "Fast track" protocols have demonstrated success in shortening hospitalization without increasing morbidity for a variety of surgical processes. This study evaluates a fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis. In 2013, a treatment pathway for perforated appendicitis was adopted by the Acute Care Surgery Service for patients having surgical management of perforated appendicitis. Interval appendectomy was excluded. Patients were treated initially with intravenous antibiotics and transitioned to oral antibiotics and dismissed when medically stable and tolerating oral intake. A retrospective review of patients managed on the fast track pathway was undertaken to analyze length of stay, morbidity, and readmissions. Thirty-four males and twenty-one females with an average age of 46.8 years underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis between January 2013 and December 2014. Pre-existing comorbidities included hypertension 42%, diabetes mellitus 11%, COPD 5% and heart disease 2%. No patient had conversion to open appendectomy. Average length of stay was 2.67 days and ranged from 1 to 12 days (median 2 days). Postoperative morbidity was 20% and included abscess (6 patients), prolonged ileus (3 patients), pneumonia (1 patient), and congestive heart failure (1 patient). Five patients were readmitted for abscess (3 patients), congestive heart failure (1 patient), and pneumonia (1 patient). A fast track pathway for perforated appendicitis produced shorter length of stay and acceptable postoperative morbidity and readmission. This offers the potential for significant cost savings over current national practice patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the microbiome in children's appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Salö, Martin; Marungruang, Nittaya; Roth, Bodil; Sundberg, Tiia; Stenström, Pernilla; Arnbjörnsson, Einar; Fåk, Frida; Ohlsson, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    The role of the microbiome has been widely discussed in the etiology of appendicitis. The primary aim was to evaluate the microbiome in the normal appendix and in appendicitis specifically divided into the three clinically and histopathologically defined grades of inflammation. Secondary aims were to examine whether there were any microbiome differences between proximal and distal appendices, and relate the microbiome with histopathological findings. A prospective pilot study was conducted of children undergoing appendectomy for appendicitis. The diagnosis was based on histopathological analysis. Children with incidental appendectomy were used as controls. The proximal and distal mucosa from the appendices were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 22 children, 3 controls and 19 appendicitis patients; 11 phlegmonous, 4 gangrenous, and 4 perforated appendices, were prospectively included. The amount of Fusobacterium increased and Bacteroides decreased in phlegmonous and perforated appendicitis compared to controls, but statistical significance was not reached, and this pattern was not seen in gangrenous appendicitis. No relation could be seen between different bacteria and the grade of inflammation, and there was a wide variation of abundances at phylum, genus, and species level within every specific group of patients. Further, no significant differences could be detected when comparing the microbiome in proximal and distal mucosa, which may be because the study was underpowered. A trend with more abundance of Fusobacteria in the distal mucosa was seen in appendicitis patients with obstruction (25 and 13 %, respectively, p = 0.06). The pattern of microbiome differed not only between groups, but also within groups. However, no statistically significant differences could be found in the microbiome between groups or clinical conditions. No correlation between a specific bacteria and grade of inflammation was found. In the vast majority of cases of

  20. Intramedullary cervical neurenteric cyst mimicking an abscess.

    PubMed

    Muzumdar, D; Bhatt, Y; Sheth, J

    2008-01-01

    We describe a cervical intramedullary neurenteric cyst in a 12-year-old male patient who presented with gradual onset and progressively worsening neck pain, spastic quadriparesis and impaired sensation in the C(2) dermatome. MR imaging revealed a well-defined peripherally enhancing cystic intramedullary lesion with a posteroinferior enhancing nodule at the C(2)-C(3) level mimicking an abscess. There was no evidence of spinal dysraphism. The lesion was completely resected through a posterior approach and the patient showed radical improvement in his symptomatology. At follow-up after 3 years, he was asymptomatic and the MR imaging showed no evidence of any residual or recurrent cyst. The case presented here is unique, since a spinal neurenteric cyst showing intense peripheral contrast enhancement mimicking an abscess is unusual. The radiological features, pathogenesis and surgical considerations in cervical intramedullary neurenteric cysts are discussed and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed.

  1. Evaluation of a Computer-Assisted Diagnosis Program for Acute Abdominal Pain with Physician-Collected Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-26

    Appendicitis Nonspecific Abdominal Pain Renal Colic Perforated Duodenal Ulcer Cholecystitis Small Bowel Obstruction APPY NONSAP* RCOLIC PERFDU CHOLE...Diagnostic Category Males Females Appendicitis Nonspecific Abdominal Pain Renal Colic Perforated Duodenal Ulcer Cholecystitis Small Bowel ... Obstruction .18 • TO ■ .03 .001** .05 .03 .12 • 75 .01 .001** .11 .02 *Rounded to nearest hundredth, except for PERFDU. **This is an

  2. Role of non-operative management in pediatric appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Dani O; Deans, Katherine J; Minneci, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    Appendectomy is currently considered the standard of care for children with acute appendicitis. Although commonly performed and considered a safe procedure, appendectomy is not without complications. Non-operative management has a role in the treatment of both uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. In uncomplicated appendicitis, initial non-operative management appears to be safe, with an approximate 1-year success rate of 75%. Compared to surgery, non-operative management is associated with less disability and lower costs, with no increase in the rate of complicated appendicitis. In patients with complicated appendicitis, initial non-operative management with interval appendectomy has been shown to be safe with reported success rates between 66% and 95%. Several studies suggest that initial non-operative management with interval appendectomy may be beneficial in patients with perforated appendicitis with a well-formed abscess or inflammatory mass. Recent data suggest that interval appendectomy may not be necessary after initial non-operative management of complicated appendicitis.

  3. A ruptured infected mesenteric cyst diagnosed on laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Stephen T.; Singh, Baljinder; Jones, Terence J.; Robertson, Charles S.

    2011-01-01

    Lower abdominal pain of acute onset in young women with a negative pregnancy test is a frequent reason for referral to the general surgical team and the differential diagnoses include acute appendicitis, complicated ovarian cysts and pelvic inflammatory disease. Intestinal and mesenteric cystic disease is a rare entity and less than half of cases present acutely. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy for acute lower abdominal pain and was diagnosed with a ruptured, infected mesenteric cyst. PMID:24713757

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis: a rare complication of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Mazza, J F; Augenstein, J S; Kreis, D J

    1987-09-01

    The mortality of acute appendicitis increases sixfold if perforation occurs. We have reported a case of perforated appendix complicated by necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneum. We believe this complication has not been previously described in the English literature.

  5. Cytomegalovirus appendicitis in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Canterino, Joseph E; McCormack, Michael; Gurung, Ananta; Passarelli, James; Landry, Marie L; Golden, Marjorie

    2016-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common viral pathogen. Asymptomatic infection or a mononucleosis syndrome are the most common manifestations in otherwise healthy individuals. End-organ disease is rare in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we describe a case of CMV appendicitis in a patient without an immune-compromising condition.

  6. Acute appendicitis diagnosis using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yun; Kim, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    Artificial neural networks is one of pattern analyzer method which are rapidly applied on a bio-medical field. The aim of this research was to propose an appendicitis diagnosis system using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Data from 801 patients of the university hospital in Dongguk were used to construct artificial neural networks for diagnosing appendicitis and acute appendicitis. A radial basis function neural network structure (RBF), a multilayer neural network structure (MLNN), and a probabilistic neural network structure (PNN) were used for artificial neural network models. The Alvarado clinical scoring system was used for comparison with the ANNs. The accuracy of the RBF, PNN, MLNN, and Alvarado was 99.80%, 99.41%, 97.84%, and 72.19%, respectively. The area under ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve of RBF, PNN, MLNN, and Alvarado was 0.998, 0.993, 0.985, and 0.633, respectively. The proposed models using ANNs for diagnosing appendicitis showed good performances, and were significantly better than the Alvarado clinical scoring system (p < 0.001). With cooperation among facilities, the accuracy for diagnosing this serious health condition can be improved.

  7. Role of serum C-reactive protein and leukocyte count in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in Nepalese population.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, C S; Adhikari, S; Kumar, M

    2008-03-01

    Various diagnostic modalities have been reported to influence the negative appendicectomy. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase reactant, may improve the accuracy of diagnosing acute appendicitis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of CRP as a diagnostic tool among patients clinically suspected to have acute appendicitis. The role of total leukocyte (WBC) count was also studied. A total of 145 diagnosed cases of acute appendicitis were studied over a period of one and half years. CRP was raised in 91 cases and was normal in 54 cases. The sensitivity and specificity of CRP estimation in diagnosing appendicitis was 74.8% and 66.7% respectively and the sensitivity and specificity for total WBC count was 78.6 and 54.8% respectively. The present study suggests that we cannot rely wholly on CRP or on WBC count for operative decision. Clinical judgment is still the best modality for the diagnosis and operative management of acute appendicitis. It seems wiser to use active observation, which should identify most patients with non-specific pain and reserve operation for those who need it most.

  8. Clinical Importance of the Heel Drop Test and a New Clinical Score for Adult Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Hyeji; Choi, Wookjin; Ahn, Ryeok; Hong, Jung-Suk; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We tried to evaluate the accuracy of the heel drop test in patients with suspected appendicitis and tried to develop a new clinical score, which incorporates the heel drop test and other parameters, for the diagnosis of this condition. Methods We performed a prospective observational study on adult patients with suspected appendicitis at two academic urban emergency departments between January and August 2015. The predictive characteristics of each parameter, along with heel drop test results were calculated. A composite score was generated by logistic regression analysis. The performance of the generated score was compared to that of the Alvarado score. Results Of the 292 enrolled patients, 165 (56.5%) had acute appendicitis. The heel drop test had a higher predictive value than rebound tenderness. Variables and their points included in the new (MESH) score were pain migration (2), elevated white blood cell (WBC) >10,000/μL (3), shift to left (2), and positive heel drop test (3). The MESH score had a higher AUC than the Alvarado score (0.805 vs. 0.701). Scores of 5 and 11 were chosen as cut-off values; a MESH score ≥5 compared to an Alvarado score ≥5, and a MESH score ≥8 compared to an Alvarado score ≥7 showed better performance in diagnosing appendicitis. Conclusion MESH (migration, elevated WBC, shift to left, and heel drop test) is a simple clinical scoring system for assessing patients with suspected appendicitis and is more accurate than the Alvarado score. Further validation studies are needed. PMID:27723842

  9. Neuronal hypertrophy and mast cells in histologically negative, clinically diagnosed acute appendicitis: a quantitative immunophenotypical analysis.

    PubMed

    Amber, Safeena; Mathai, Alka Mary; Naik, Ramadas; Pai, Muktha R; Kumar, Suneet; Prasad, Keerthana

    2010-03-01

    In about 20-25% of appendicectomies performed for clinically suspected acute appendicitis, definite morphological changes are lacking on histopathological examination. The present study was done to investigate whether any changes in neurons and mast cells could be detected in patients presenting with clinical acute appendicitis but found to have normal appendix at histopathology. A descriptive study was conducted on 50 appendix specimens which were categorized as histology-positive acute appendicitis (HPAA), clinically acute appendicitis but histologically negative (HNAA), appendices resected for other causes and appendices from forensic autopsy. A morphometric and quantitative evaluation of nerve fibers and ganglion plexus and its relation to mast cell density were studied. All sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin stain, toluidine blue stain, S 100 protein and neuron specific enolase (NSE) immunostaining and a quantitative image analysis system. Mucosal and submucosal neuronal components highlighted by NSE and S100 immunostaining observed in cases of HNAA were comparable to cases of HPAA. With S 100 immunostaining in HNAA cases, the increase in number and size of myentric neuronal plexus were mild in 40% (10/25) cases, moderate in 40% (10/25) and marked in 20% (5/25) cases as compared to 66.7% (10/15) cases of HPAA showing moderate and 33.3% (5/15) cases showing marked increase (p = 0.018). The mean mast cell count was highest in the HNAA cases (2.74) in all the four layers as compared to the HPAA (1.85) and control group (2.05). There was no difference in the relationship of the size of ganglion cells and the mast cell concentration. Neuronal hypertrophy and mast cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of appendicitis-like pain in patients with histologically normal appendices.

  10. A Case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome Complicated by Appendicitis Conservatively Treated with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Itsuro; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman developed a low grade fever and increased vaginal discharge that persisted for 2 weeks. Intermittent abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant had been experienced over the previous few days. Due to her clinical manifestations and typical abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings, including hepatic capsular enhancement and hepatomegaly, a diagnosis of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome was made. The early empirical use of antibiotics, azithromycin and levofloxacin, partially improved her symptoms. However, the low grade fever persisted and additional abdominal pain developed in the right lower quadrant. Based on the radiological evidence of an enlarged appendix with wall thickening, a diagnosis of appendicitis was additionally made, which was thought to occur secondarily to the genital tract infection. Following the administration of antibiotics ceftriaxone and cefditoren pivoxil, her symptoms were completely resolved without the need for any surgical intervention. Here, we report the first case of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome complicated by appendicitis, which was conservatively managed with antibiotic treatment alone. In this case, the overgrowth of pathogens within the genital tract and their direct penetration into the appendix was thought to be responsible for the development of appendicitis. PMID:23515004

  11. Incidence of Appendicitis over Time: A Comparative Analysis of an Administrative Healthcare Database and a Pathology-Proven Appendicitis Registry.

    PubMed

    Coward, Stephanie; Kareemi, Hashim; Clement, Fiona; Zimmer, Scott; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G; Heitman, Steven J; Swain, Mark; Ghosh, Subrata; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-01-01

    At the turn of the 21st century, studies evaluating the change in incidence of appendicitis over time have reported inconsistent findings. We compared the differences in the incidence of appendicitis derived from a pathology registry versus an administrative database in order to validate coding in administrative databases and establish temporal trends in the incidence of appendicitis. We conducted a population-based comparative cohort study to identify all individuals with appendicitis from 2000 to2008. Two population-based data sources were used to identify cases of appendicitis: 1) a pathology registry (n = 8,822); and 2) a hospital discharge abstract database (n = 10,453). The administrative database was compared to the pathology registry for the following a priori analyses: 1) to calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of administrative codes; 2) to compare the annual incidence of appendicitis; and 3) to assess differences in temporal trends. Temporal trends were assessed using a generalized linear model that assumed a Poisson distribution and reported as an annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified by perforated and non-perforated appendicitis. The administrative database (PPV = 83.0%) overestimated the incidence of appendicitis (100.3 per 100,000) when compared to the pathology registry (84.2 per 100,000). Codes for perforated appendicitis were not reliable (PPV = 52.4%) leading to overestimation in the incidence of perforated appendicitis in the administrative database (34.8 per 100,000) as compared to the pathology registry (19.4 per 100,000). The incidence of appendicitis significantly increased over time in both the administrative database (APC = 2.1%; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.8) and pathology registry (APC = 4.1; 95% CI: 3.1, 5.0). The administrative database overestimated the incidence of appendicitis, particularly among perforated appendicitis. Therefore, studies utilizing administrative data to analyze

  12. Bronchogenic/foregut cyst of the ileal mesentery in a child mimicking ovarian mass.

    PubMed

    Markel, Troy A; Lin, Jingmei; Fan, Rong; Billmire, Deborah F

    2013-10-01

    Intraabdominal bronchogenic cysts, a type of foregut cyst, are very rare. We report a case in a 12-year-old female who presented with severe abdominal pain and, in radiology workup, a cystic lesion that mimicked ovarian mass.

  13. A clinical decision rule to identify children at low risk for appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kharbanda, Anupam B; Taylor, George A; Fishman, Steven J; Bachur, Richard G

    2005-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has gained widespread acceptance in the evaluation of children with suspected appendicitis. Concern has been raised regarding the long-term effects of ionizing radiation. Other means of diagnosing appendicitis, such as clinical scores, are lacking in children. We sought to develop a clinical decision rule to predict which children with acute abdominal pain do not have appendicitis. Prospective cohort study was conducted of children and adolescents who aged 3 to 18 years, had signs and symptoms suspicious for appendicitis, and presented to the emergency department between April 2003 and July 2004. Standardized data-collection forms were completed on eligible patients. Two low-risk clinical decision rules were created and validated using logistic regression and recursive partitioning. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and negative likelihood ratio of each clinical rule were compared. A total of 601 patients were enrolled. Using logistic regression, we created a 6-part score that consisted of nausea (2 points), history of focal right lower quadrant pain (2 points), migration of pain (1 point), difficulty walking (1 point), rebound tenderness/pain with percussion (2 points), and absolute neutrophil count of >6.75 x 10(3)/microL (6 points). A score < or =5 had a sensitivity of 96.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.5-99.0), NPV of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.8-99.0), and negative likelihood ratio of .102 (95% CI: 0.026-0.405) in the validation set. Using recursive partitioning, a second low-risk decision rule was developed consisting of absolute neutrophil count of <6.75 x 10(3)/microL, absence of nausea, and absence of maximal tenderness in the right lower quadrant. This rule had a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 90.1-99.9), NPV of 97.5% (95% CI: 86.8-99.9), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.058 (95% CI: 0.008-0.411) in the validation set. Theoretical application of the low-risk rules would have resulted in a 20% reduction in CT. Our low

  14. Ileocecal Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as ileocolic intussusception with appendiceal invagination and acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Mine; Huang, Fu-Chen; Wu, Chi-Hung; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Lee, Shin-Ye; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2010-06-01

    Intussusception is a common cause of abdominal pain in children. Although most cases are idiopathic, about 10% of cases have a pathologic lead point. Burkitt's lymphoma is not a common etiology. Burkitt's lymphoma might present primarily as intussusception in children but has rarely been associated with appendicitis. We report a case in which a 10-year-old obese boy who initially presented with acute appendicitis due to ileocolic intussusception with appendiceal invagination. He underwent one-trocar laparoscopy and antibiotic treatment. The symptoms recurred 10 days after discharge. Colonoscopy disclosed ileocecal Burkitt's lymphoma as the pathological lead point. This case emphasizes the importance of the age of the patient and the anatomic location of the intussusception related to possible etiology, and hence the most appropriate surgical procedure. Copyright (c) 2010 Formosan Medical Association & Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The computed tomography appearance of recurrent and chronic appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Rhea, J T; Novelline, R A; McCabe, C J

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine computed tomography (CT) appearance of recurrent and chronic appendicitis. In 100 consecutive appendiceal CT examinations of proven appendicitis, 18 patients met criteria for recurrent (multiple discrete episodes) or chronic (continuous symptoms > 3 weeks, pathological findings) appendicitis. CT findings were reviewed. Ten patients had recurrent appendicitis, 3 had chronic appendicitis, 3 had both, and 2 had pathological chronic appendicitis. CT findings in 18 recurrent/chronic cases were identical to 82 acute appendicitis cases, including pericecal stranding (both 100%), dilated (> 6 mm) appendix (88.9% versus 93.9%), apical thickening (66.7% versus 69.5%), adenopathy (66.7% versus 61.0%), appendolith(s) (50% versus 42.7%), arrowhead (27.8% versus 22.0%), abscess (11.1% versus 11.0%), phlegmon (11.1% versus 6.1%), and fluid (5.6% versus 19.5%). CT findings in recurrent and chronic appendicitis are the same as those in acute appendicitis. Appendiceal CT can be beneficial for evaluating patients with suspected recurrent or chronic appendicitis.

  16. Characterisation of the local inflammatory response in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, M; Puri, P; Reen, D J

    1993-01-01

    In this study we have characterised the local inflammatory response in acute suppurative appendicitis (S), focal appendicitis (F), and normal appendices (C). Enumeration of lymphocyte subpopulations, cells expressing IL-2 receptor, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes and plasma cell isotypes and subclasses infiltrating the lamina propria was carried out on all specimens using immunoperoxidase staining procedures. Total T cells were significantly increased in both acute suppurative appendicitis and focal appendicitis compared with controls (p < 0.001). Cells infiltrating the lamina propria expressed IL-2 receptor in all appendiceal specimens but were significantly increased in both acute and focal appendicitis (p < 0.01). IgG and IgA plasma cell isotypes were significantly increased in all S and F appendiceal specimens (p < 0.001). Monocyte and NK cell numbers, however, were only increased in acute suppurative appendiceal specimens. The increased lymphocyte and plasma cell isotypes seen in focal appendicitis occurred throughout the entire organ even through the inflammatory focus was confined to only three to seven serial sections. These results clearly show a differential pattern of cellular infiltration in focal appendicitis from that seen in acute suppurative appendicitis. The selective lymphocyte and plasma cell nature of the cellular infiltrate in the lamina propria of focal appendicitis may reflect the presence of a specific immune response to an as yet unidentified luminal antigen as a possible cause of appendicitis.

  17. A Novel Reporting System to Improve Accuracy in Appendicitis Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Benjamin D.; Drake, Frederick T.; Simianu, Vlad V.; Shriki, Jabi E.; Hippe, Daniel S.; Dighe, Manjiri; Bastawrous, Sarah; Cuevas, Carlos; Flum, David; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to ascertain if standardized radiologic reporting for appendicitis imaging increases diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS We developed a standardized appendicitis reporting system that includes objective imaging findings common in appendicitis and a certainty score ranging from 1 (definitely not appendicitis) through 5 (definitely appendicitis). Four radiologists retrospectively reviewed the preoperative CT scans of 96 appendectomy patients using our reporting system. The presence of appendicitis-specific imaging findings and certainty scores were compared with final pathology. These comparisons were summarized using odds ratios (ORs) and the AUC. RESULTS The appendix was visualized on CT in 89 patients, of whom 71 (80%) had pathologically proven appendicitis. Imaging findings associated with appendicitis included appendiceal diameter (odds ratio [OR] = 14 [> 10 vs < 6 mm]; p = 0.002), periappendiceal fat stranding (OR = 8.9; p < 0.001), and appendiceal mucosal hyperenhancement (OR = 8.7; p < 0.001). Of 35 patients whose initial clinical findings were reported as indeterminate, 28 (80%) had appendicitis. In this initially indeterminate group, using the standardized reporting system, radiologists assigned higher certainty scores (4 or 5) in 21 of the 28 patients with appendicitis (75%) and lower scores (1 or 2) in five of the seven patients without appendicitis (71%) (AUC = 0.90; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION Standardized reporting and grading of objective imaging findings correlated well with postoperative pathology and may decrease the number of CT findings reported as indeterminate for appendicitis. Prospective evaluation of this reporting system on a cohort of patients with clinically suspected appendicitis is currently under way. PMID:26001230

  18. Novel Serum and Urine Markers for Pediatric Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Rai, Alex J.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Dayan, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the association between two novel biomarkers, calprotectin and leucine-rich alpha glycoprotein-1 (LRG), and appendicitis in children. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study of children 3 to 18 years old presenting to a pediatric emergency department with possible appendicitis. Blood and urine samples were assayed for calprotectin and LRG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Biomarker levels were compared for subjects with and without appendicitis. Recursive partitioning was used to identify thresholds that predicted appendicitis. Results Of 176 subjects, mean age was 11.6 years (SD ±4.0 years) and 52% were male. Fifty-eight patients (34%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Median plasma calprotectin, serum LRG, and urine LRG levels were higher in appendicitis versus non-appendicitis (p < 0.008). When stratified by perforation status, median plasma calprotectin and serum LRG levels were higher in non-perforated appendicitis vs. non-appendicitis (p < 0.01). Median serum LRG, urine LRG, and plasma calprotectin levels were higher in perforated appendicitis as compared to non-perforated appendicitis (p < 0.05). Urine calprotectin did not differ among groups. A serum LRG < 40,150 ng/ml, a urine LRG < 42 ng/ml, and a plasma calprotectin < 159 ng/ml, each provided a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% to identify children at low risk for appendicitis, but with specificities ranging from 23% to 35%. The standard white blood cell (WBC) count achieved 100% sensitivity at a higher specificity than both novel biomarkers. Conclusions Plasma calprotectin and serum/urine LRG are elevated in pediatric appendicitis. No individual marker performed as well as the WBC. PMID:22221321

  19. Developing and evaluating an automated appendicitis risk stratification algorithm for pediatric patients in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Deleger, Louise; Brodzinski, Holly; Zhai, Haijun; Li, Qi; Lingren, Todd; Kirkendall, Eric S; Alessandrini, Evaline; Solti, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a proposed natural language processing (NLP) and machine-learning based automated method to risk stratify abdominal pain patients by analyzing the content of the electronic health record (EHR). Methods We analyzed the EHRs of a random sample of 2100 pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with abdominal pain, including all with a final diagnosis of appendicitis. We developed an automated system to extract relevant elements from ED physician notes and lab values and to automatically assign a risk category for acute appendicitis (high, equivocal, or low), based on the Pediatric Appendicitis Score. We evaluated the performance of the system against a manually created gold standard (chart reviews by ED physicians) for recall, specificity, and precision. Results The system achieved an average F-measure of 0.867 (0.869 recall and 0.863 precision) for risk classification, which was comparable to physician experts. Recall/precision were 0.897/0.952 in the low-risk category, 0.855/0.886 in the high-risk category, and 0.854/0.766 in the equivocal-risk category. The information that the system required as input to achieve high F-measure was available within the first 4 h of the ED visit. Conclusions Automated appendicitis risk categorization based on EHR content, including information from clinical notes, shows comparable performance to physician chart reviewers as measured by their inter-annotator agreement and represents a promising new approach for computerized decision support to promote application of evidence-based medicine at the point of care. PMID:24130231

  20. Intestinal Infarction Caused by Thrombophlebitis of the Portomesenteric Veins as a Complication of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis After Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed. PMID:26091450

  1. Minilaparoscopy without General Anesthesia for the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Palter, Steven F.; Rodas, Edgar B.; Prosst, Ruediger L.; Rosser, Ludie E.

    1998-01-01

    The timely diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology continues to be an elusive problem. Delays in diagnosis and therapeutic decision making are continuing dilemmas in patients who are females of childbearing age, elderly, obese or immunosuppressed. Minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia potentially can provide an accurate, cost-effective method to assist in the evaluation of patients with acute abdominal pain. Laparoscopy without general anesthesia is not a new technique, but with the combination of two emerging factors— 1) the introduction of new technology with the development of improved, smaller laparoscopes and instruments, and 2) the shifting of emphasis on healthcare to a more cost-effective managed care environment--its value and widespread utilization is being reconsidered. We report the case of a 22 year old female with an acute onset of increasing abdominal and pelvic pain. Despite evaluation by general surgery, gynecology, emergency room staff, as well as, non-invasive testing, a clear diagnosis could not be made. In view of this, minilaparoscopy without general anesthesia was performed and revealed an acute, retrocecal appendicitis. The diagnosis was made with the assistance from the conscious patient. The utilization of this technique greatly expedited the treatment of this patient. Full-sized laparoscopic equipment was then used to minimally invasively remove the diseased appendix under general anesthesia. Both procedures were well tolerated by the patient. PMID:9876717

  2. Urticaria mimickers in children.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Anubhav N; Mathes, Erin F

    2013-01-01

    Acute urticaria is a self-limited cutaneous condition marked by transient, erythematous, and pruritic wheals. It is a hypersensitivity response that is often secondary to infection, medications, or food allergies in children. In contrast, the urticarial "mimickers" described in this review article are often seen in the context of fever and extracutaneous manifestations in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign and self-limited hypersensitivity responses to multisystem inflammatory diseases. Establishing the correct diagnosis of an urticarial rash in a pediatric patient is necessary to both prevent an unnecessary work up for self-limited conditions and to appropriately recognize and evaluate multisystem inflammatory disorders. Herein, we describe two cases to illustrate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, histopathology and differential diagnoses for several mimickers of acute urticaria including: urticaria multiforme, serum sickness like reaction, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, and urticarial vasculitis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An Uncommon Case of Chronic Tubercular Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Sushna

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease that ranks as the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease worldwide, after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, primary TB of the appendix is rare and may or may not be associated with specific clinical features. Thus, diagnosis is made only after histopathological examination. It suggests that all surgically removed appendices should be subjected to histopathological examination. This reported case is an uncommon case of chronic tubercular appendicitis.

  4. Barium appendicitis: A single institution review in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Hideki; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Kubota, Tadao; Mizokami, Ken

    2016-01-01

    AIM To review clinical experience with barium appendicitis at a single institution. METHODS A retrospective review of patients admitted with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015 was performed. Age, gender, computed tomography (CT) scan findings if available, past history of barium studies, pathology, and the presence of perforation or the development of complications were reviewed. If the CT scan revealed high density material in the appendix, the maximum CT scan radiodensity of the material is measured in Hounsfield units (HU). Barium appendicitis is defined as: (1) patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis; (2) the patient has a history of a prior barium study; and (3) the CT scan shows high density material in the appendix. Patients who meet all three criteria are considered to have barium appendicitis. RESULTS In total, 396 patients were admitted with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the study period. Of these, 12 patients (3.0%) met the definition of barium appendicitis. Of these 12 patients, the median CT scan radiodensity of material in the appendix was 10000.8 HU, ranging from 3066 to 23423 HU (± 6288.2). In contrast, the median CT scan radiodensity of fecaliths in the appendix, excluding patients with barium appendicitis, was 393.1 HU, ranging from 98 to 2151 HU (± 382.0). The CT scan radiodensity of material in the appendices of patients with barium appendicitis was significantly higher than in patients with nonbarium fecaliths (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Barium appendicitis is not rare in Japan. Measurement of the CT scan radiodensity of material in the appendix may differentiate barium appendicitis from routine appendicitis. PMID:27721929

  5. Role of the faecolith in modern-day appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, JP

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevailing view on appendicitis is that the main aetiology is obstruction owing to faecoliths in adults and lymphoid hyperplasia in children. Faecoliths on imaging studies are believed to correlate well with appendicitis. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of 1,014 emergency appendicectomy patients between 2001 and 2011. Faecolith prevalence in adult and paediatric appendicectomy specimens with and without perforation was studied. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of computed tomography (CT) for identifying faecoliths in the pathology specimen were examined. Results Overall, faecoliths were found in 18.1% (178/986) of appendicitis specimens and 28.6% (8/28) of negative appendicectomies. Faecolith prevalence for positive cases was 29.9% (79/264) in paediatric patients and 13.7% (99/722) in adults (p<0.05). Faecolith prevalence was 39.4% in perforated appendicitis but only 14.6% in non-perforated appendicitis (p<0.05). In adults, faecolith prevalence was 27.5% in perforated appendicitis and 12.0% in non-perforated appendicitis (p<0.05) while in paediatric patients, it was 56.1% in perforated appendicitis and 22.7% in non-perforated appendicitis (p=0.00). Sensitivity and PPV of preoperative CT in identifying faecoliths on pathology were 53.1% (86/162) and 44.8% (86/192) respectively. Conclusions Faecolith prevalence is too low to consider the faecolith the most common cause of non-perforated appendicitis. Faecoliths are more prevalent in paediatric appendicitis than in adult appendicitis. Preoperative CT is an unreliable predictor of faecoliths in pathology specimens. PMID:23317728

  6. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The importance of timely detection and management in neonatal appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Barrak Hani; Al Omran, Yasser; Hassan, Aziz; Al Hindi, Saeed

    2014-05-22

    The clinical presentation of cute appendicitis is rarely encountered in neonatology. When it does occur, it is thought to be due to prematurity or develops secondary to coexisting diseases. We present a case of appendicitis in a 10-day-old Middle-Eastern girl, who was born at term and who had no underlying conditions that are typically associated with neonatal appendicitis. This case highlights that certain causes and clinical signs are unreliable when coming to a working diagnosis of neonatal appendicitis, and that regardless of the cause, timely detection and management are necessary in achieving surgical success. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. The importance of timely detection and management in neonatal appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Barrak Hani; Al Omran, Yasser; Hassan, Aziz; Al Hindi, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of cute appendicitis is rarely encountered in neonatology. When it does occur, it is thought to be due to prematurity or develops secondary to coexisting diseases. We present a case of appendicitis in a 10-day-old Middle-Eastern girl, who was born at term and who had no underlying conditions that are typically associated with neonatal appendicitis. This case highlights that certain causes and clinical signs are unreliable when coming to a working diagnosis of neonatal appendicitis, and that regardless of the cause, timely detection and management are necessary in achieving surgical success. PMID:24855077

  9. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis.

  10. Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as acute appendicitis: Case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Karimzada, Mohammad M; Matthews, Michele N; French, Samuel W; DeUgarte, Daniel; Kim, Dennis Y

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare syndrome characterized by unifocal, multifocal unisystem, or disseminated/multi-system disease that commonly involves the bone, skin, lymph nodes, pituitary, or sometimes lung (almost exclusively in smokers) causing a variety of symptoms from rashes and bone lesions to diabetes insipidus or pulmonary infiltrates. We present a previously unreported case of gastrointestinal LCH as well as a novel characteristic lesion affecting the colon of a young woman who presented with signs and symptoms mimicking acute on chronic appendicitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of appendectomy specimen and nodular specimens on colonoscopy demonstrated S-100, CD1a, and langerin reactivity. The patient underwent systemic chemotherapy with cytarabine and demonstrated excellent response to therapy. PMID:28360976

  11. Factors associated with failure of nonoperative treatment of complicated appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Talishinskiy, Toghrul; Limberg, Jessica; Ginsburg, Howard; Kuenzler, Keith; Fisher, Jason; Tomita, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Appendicitis remains the most common cause for emergency abdominal surgery in children. Immediate appendectomy in complicated, perforated appendicitis can be hazardous and nonoperative therapy has been gaining use as an initial therapy in children. Previous studies have reported failure rates in nonoperative therapy in such cases ranging from 10% to 41%. Factors leading to treatment failures have been studied with various and disparate results. We reviewed our institutional experience in treated complicated appendicitis, with focus on those initially managed nonoperatively. Records of all children admitted with the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis to NYU Langone Medical Center and Bellevue Hospital Center from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013 were reviewed. The diagnosis was made with ultrasound and/or computed tomography scan. Those with abscesses amenable to drainage underwent aspiration and drain placement by an interventional radiologist. Broad spectrum intravenous (IV) antibiotics were given until the patient became afebrile, pain free and tolerating a regular diet. Oral antibiotics were continued for an additional week and interval appendectomy was done eight weeks later. The primary outcome measure was treatment response with failure defined as those who did not improve or required readmission for additional IV antibiotics and/or early appendectomy. Multiple patient and treatment related variables, including those previously reported as predicting failure in nonoperative therapy, were studied. Continuous variables were reported as means ± standard error and compared using 2-tailed unpaired t tests; nonparametric variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U tests. Categorical variables were reported as medians ± interquartile ranges and compared using Chi-square testing. Statistical significance was accepted for p<.05. Sixty-four patients were identified as undergoing initial nonoperative therapy. Fifty-two (81%) were categorized as treatment successes

  12. Iliacus pyomyositis mimicking septic arthritis of the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Chen W-S; Wan Y-L

    1996-01-01

    The iliacus muscle is closely associated with the psoas muscle, femoral nerve, hip joint, pelvic and intraabdominal structures; thus, its disorders may present as lower abdominal pain, hip pain, or femoral neuropathy. Iliacus pyomyositis, a primary bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle not secondary to a contiguous skin, bone, or soft-tissue infection, presenting as hip pain, femoral neuropathy, and sympathetic effusion of the hip joint in an 8-year-old boy mimicked septic arthritis of the hip joint. Computed tomography was helpful in delineating the accurate location of the lesion. Surgical drainage and appropriate antibiotic therapy led to complete resolution and full functional recovery.

  13. [Laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis. Should an appendix that appears normal be removed?].

    PubMed

    Garlipp, B; Arlt, G

    2009-07-01

    The question whether an appendix found to be macroscopically normal at laparoscopy for suspected appendicitis should be removed remains open to debate. Potential advantages of appendicectomy in all cases include early diagnosis of neoplastic lesions that cannot be detected macroscopically, diagnosis and cure of neurogenic appendicectomy, avoidance of diagnostic confusion in later episodes of abdominal pain, and prevention of appendicitis developing later in life. Therefore, adopting a strategy of always removing the appendix even if it is found to be uninflamed at laparoscopy seems justified as long as it does not imply an increase in postoperative morbidity. We retrospectively studied all patients undergoing laparoscopic appendicectomy in which a "normal appendix" was found and all patients undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy in our hospital during a 7-year period. Our data as well as a critical review of the literature show that removal of the appendix does not increase morbidity compared to simple diagnostic laparoscopy and should always be done when performing laparoscopy for suspected acute appendicitis.

  14. [Role of the Helicobacter pylori in the aetiology of acute appendicitis. Preliminary studies].

    PubMed

    Paredes Esteban, R M; Muñoz Villanueva, J R; Velasco Sánchez, B; González Mariscal, M; Rodríguez Vargas, J; Martínez Sánchez, M; García Ruiz, M

    2007-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the upper gastrointestinal tract. It is incriminated as aetiological factor in various pathological conditions. This study was designed to determine whether H. pylori plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis. H.pylori was investigated in 40 patients divided in 2 groups. A: patients with abdominal pain and B: patients with acute appendicitis, confirmed by pathology studies. The Ag H.pylori was investigated in the faeces of both groups. In the group B, besides, appendix samples were tested for culture for H. pylori. Confirmation was made by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis. Statistical analysis was made. The positivity for H. pylori infection in the faeces was found in Group A in 15% of the patients and in the group B in 35%. In the group B, besides, the culture of the appendix cecal was positive in 71.4%. Though was observed difference between both groups, this one was not significant. It seems that H. pylori colonizes the appendix in small proportion and is unlikely to be associated in direct correlation with acute appendicitis. However, seropositive patients with acute inflammation are likely to suffer from purulent o gangrenous form.

  15. A case report describing diverticulosis of the appendix presenting as acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah L; Siddeswarappa, Madhu; Khan, Mohammad Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Diverticulosis of the appendix (DA) is a rare clinical finding which is often confused with acute or chronic appendicitis and is usually only identified during or after appendectomy. The symptoms of DA can last for up to two weeks and laboratory studies tend to reflect a more chronic inflammation. Distinguishing the two entities is important as DA has a higher risk for perforation and may be associated with an underlying malignancy. A 54--year old African--American male presented with three--days of right sided abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical exam and abdominal CT imaging were concerning for early acute appendicitis. The patient was taken emergently to the operating room for laparoscopic appendectomy. Extensive adhesions were found around the Appendix which was grossly abnormal with multiple diverticula. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Patients with DA are often misdiagnosed with chronic or acute appendicitis based on their presenting symptoms and imaging. While appendectomy is the definitive treatment, diagnosing DA before surgery is important in determining the patient's risks and potential complications. Diverticulosis of the Appendix is a rare clinical entity which is often misdiagnosed. Better imaging techniques and higher indices of clinical suspicion are needed to make the appropriate diagnoses before patients are taken for surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute appendicitis secondary to Enterobius vermicularis infection in a middle-aged man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute appendicitis due to Enterobius vermicularis is very rare, affecting mostly children. Whether pinworms cause inflammation of the appendix or just appendiceal colic has been a matter of controversy. Case presentation A Caucasian 52-year-old man was referred to our Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain in his right lower quadrant. The physical and laboratory examination revealed right iliac fossa tenderness and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. An open appendectomy was performed. The pathological examination showed the lumen containing pinworms. Two oral doses of mebendazole were administered postoperatively. The follow-up to date was without incident and he was free of symptoms one year after the operation. Conclusion The finding of E. vermicularis in appendectomy pathological specimens is infrequent. Parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, especially in adults. One should keep in mind that the clinical signs of intestinal parasite infection may mimic acute appendicitis, although rare. A careful evaluation of symptoms such as pruritus ani, or eosinophilia on laboratory examination, could prevent unnecessary appendectomies. PMID:22128765

  17. Diagnosing acute appendicitis using a nonoral contrast CT protocol in patients with a BMI of less than 25.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Vijay; Bates, David D B; Buch, Karen; Uyeda, Jennifer; Zhao, Kathy M; Storer, Lindsey A; Roberts, Marisa B; Lebedis, Christina A; Soto, Jorge A; Anderson, Stephan W

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy for the diagnosis of appendicitis in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute, nontraumatic abdominal pain and a body mass index (BMI) of less than 25 before and after the implementation of a nonoral contrast computed tomography (CT) protocol with intravenous contrast. The IRB approved this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study; informed consent was waived. This study included 736 adult patients with a BMI of less than 25 presenting to our ED with acute, nontraumatic abdominal pain over two distinct 6-month time periods. An oral and intravenous contrast-enhanced protocol was utilized in the first cohort (group A), and an intravenous contrast-enhanced protocol without oral contrast was utilized in the second cohort (group B). Three abdominal fellowship-trained readers retrospectively reviewed all CT studies and electronic medical records, including surgical/pathology reports that served as reference standards. Group A consisted of 359 patients; 41 patients had surgically proven appendicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the readers for diagnosing appendicitis in group A ranged from 95.2-100 and 98.1-99.5 %, respectively. Group B consisted of 372 patients; 39 had surgically proven appendicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of the readers in group B ranged from 92.0-100 and 98.6-100 %, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in sensitivity or specificity for CT scans performed in groups A and B. In patients with a BMI of less than 25, an intravenous contrast-enhanced CT protocol without oral contrast demonstrates similar accuracy to an intravenous contrast-enhanced protocol with oral contrast for diagnosing acute appendicitis.

  18. [Endometriosis of the appendix presenting like acute appendicitis--a case report].

    PubMed

    Černá, M; Novák, P; Třeška, V; Mukenšnabl, P; Hudec, A

    2015-05-01

    In general, pain in the lower right abdomen is the most frequent reason for hospital surgical admissions, acute appendicitis representing the most common cause of operation for acute abdomen. Timely appendectomy remains the only treatment in the early stages of inflammation and is usually uncomplicated, requiring only a short hospital stay. A differential diagnostic analysis necessitates a search for other, particularly long-term symptoms that might be driven to the background in cases of acute exacerbation. The case report presents a 38-year-old female patient who was admitted for lower right abdominal pain. Clinical examination and a blood test both suggested typical acute uncomplicated appendicitis, and therefore the patient underwent appendectomy. Haemorrhagic peritoneal fluid and nodularity of the appendix not typical for appendicitis was found. Oedema of the terminal ileum and a right adnexal tumour were a surprising finding. A more extensive surgical procedure involving ileocaecal resection and right-side adnexectomy was finally performed with regard to the intraoperative finding. The definitive diagnosis of appendiceal endometriosis, endometrial mass in the terminal intestine and ovarian endometriosis was established by histological evaluation. Long-term follow-up revealed microadenocarcinoma of cervix uteri. It is generally very difficult to confirm appendiceal endometriosis before operation, and revealing primary appendiceal endometriosis is virtually impossible. It is advisable to consider endometriosis in fertile women with chronic abdominal pain of unclear aetiology and gynaecological symptoms in their personal history. The best diagnostic and therapeutic method, respectively, is laparoscopy enabling exploration of the entire peritoneal cavity including the minor pelvis, and performing appendectomy as well as excision of suspicious endometrial lesions. The definitive diagnosis is usually established by histopathological evaluation. Gynaecological

  19. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic utility of D Dimer in acute appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Cayrol, Julie; Miguez, Maria Concepción; Guerrero, Gloria; Tomatis, Cristina; Simal, Isabel; Marañón, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to determine the uselfulness of D Dimer (DD) as a diagnostic or prognostic marker in acute appendicitis (AA) in children using a prospective observational study in the pediatric emergency department of a tertiary hospital. We enrolled 135 patients aged 1-16 years presenting with abdominal pain consistent with AA, who required laboratory studies. We analyzed clinical, analytical variables and histopathology findings (when they underwent surgery). Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS. 38.5% of the children were clinically diagnosed with AA (n = 52), confirmed by pathology in 51 patients. 55.8% were gangrenous appendicitis. Leucocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and DD were higher in the AA group and in the gangrenous appendicitis group (p < 0.05), with highest values of DD in the gangrenous group. The area under the receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve for DD in the diagnosis of AA is 0.66 (95% CI 0.56-0.75). For DD cut-off point of 230 ng/mL, sensitivity (Se) was 0.40, specificity (Sp) 0.80, positive predictive value (PPV) 0.57, and negative predictive value (NPV) 0.66. The area under the ROC curve for DD in children with gangrenous appendicitis is 0.93 (95% CI 0.87-1). A DD cut-off point of 230 ng/mL exhibited: Se = 0.69, Sp = 1, PPV = 1 and NPV = 0.72. DD levels increase in patients with AA. Although it does not constitute a useful diagnostic marker, it could be a good prognostic marker.

  20. Hepatobiliary scan with delayed gallbladder visualization in a case of acute appendicitis

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, R.L.; Harman, P.K.; Wanebo, H.J.; Read, M.E.

    1982-05-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented with acute epigastric pain with vomiting. Within 24 hours, the pain spread to the right periumbilical region. /sup 99m/Tc disofenin hepatobiliary scan failed to demonstrate the gallbladder on a 60-minute view. The presumative diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was thought to be confirmed on this basis by the patient's physicians. However, a 75-minute view demonstrated filling of the gallbladder. In hepatobiliary scanning for acute abdominal pain, delayed views (2 to 24 hours) are recommended when the gallbladder is not visualized on the 60-minute view. If the gallbladder is visualized, cystic duct obstruction can be excluded and diagnoses such as pancreatitis, acalculous cholecystitis, and acute appendicitis should be investigated.

  1. Acute appendicitis in the elderly; Pakistan Ordnance Factories Hospital, Wah Cantt. experience.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Omer; Malik, Muzaffar Ali Nasir; Sajid, Muhammad Ali; Azhar, Muhammad; Dilawar, Omer; Salahuddin, Ayesha

    2012-09-01

    To review the clinical experience in diagnosis, management and outcome of elderly patients presenting with acute appendicitis at the Pakistan Ordnance Factories Hospital, Wah Cantt. All patients of age 60 years and above presenting with abdominal pain were prospectively reviewed. Patients who were diagnosed as acute appendicitis were included in this case series which was conducted at Pakistan Ordnance Factories Hospital, Wah Cantt, from December 2006 to May 2008. Detailed history and clinical examination, co-morbid conditions, clinical manifestations and post-operative outcome were recorded. The diagnosis was made on the basis of history and clinical examination. The diagnosis was also confirmed on histopathology. All the details were recorded on a questionnaire. Approval from our own ethical committee was taken. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. A total of 75 patients presented with acute abdominal pain. Of them 42 were admitted with tenderness in right iliac fossa and lower abdomen. Finally, 36 (48%) were diagnosed as acute appendicitis and were included in the study. There were 20(56%) men and 16(44%) women with age range of 60 to 78 years and a mean age of 65.5 +/- 4.2 years. Associated illness occurred in 25(70%) patients. Symptoms included abdominal pain in 32(90%), nausea in 17(48%), and emesis in 9(25%) patients. Signs included right lower quadrant tenderness in 26(74%) patients, leukocytosis in 17(47.2%), and fever (>99'F) in 11(30.5%). Laparoscopy was used as an important diagnostic as well as therapeutic modality. Of the patients, 9 (25%) had gangrenous appendix, while 12 (33.3%) had perforated appendix. A total of 12 (33.4%) patients developed complications. Hospital stay was considerably increased in patients with a delayed diagnosis (5-7 days), perforations (5-9 days) and postoperative complications (5-15 days). One patient, a known case of ischaemic heart disease, died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Acute appendicitis needs to be considered in

  2. De Garengeot hernia: an uncommon presentation of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Vos, Cornelis G; Mollema, Robbert; Richir, Milan C

    2017-02-01

    We present a case of a 78-year-old female patient with an uncommon presentation of acute appendicitis. She was found to have a perforated appendicitis which developed in a femoral hernia sack. An appendix present in a femoral hernia is called a De Garengeot Hernia, which is a rare form of femoral hernia. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and management are discussed.

  3. Atypical appendicitis: the impact of CT and its management.

    PubMed

    See, T C; Watson, C J E; Arends, M J; Ng, C S

    2008-04-01

    Acute appendicitis is a diagnosis that can be made on clinical symptoms and signs but can often be extremely challenging. Difficulties arise particularly when the presentation is atypical, and this can lead to untoward sequelae. In this review, we present the range of presentations of atypical appendicitis, the variety of management options and the potential value of CT.

  4. Acute appendicitis complicated by pylephlebitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Fernandes, Teresa; Oliveira, Maria I; Castro, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Pylephlebitis is defined as septic thrombophlebitis of the portal vein. It is a rare but serious complication of an intraabdominal infection, more commonly diverticulitis and appendicitis. It has an unspecific clinical presentation and the diagnosis is difficult. The authors report a case of a 21-year-old man with acute appendicitis complicated by pylephlebitis. The diagnosis was made with contrast enhanced CT.

  5. [Chronic appendicitis--vanishing or current diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Krska, Z; Sváb, J

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the literary findings and the clinical experiences of chronic appendicitis (CA) is presented. Analysis of the literary findings and study of our group of patients who were operated between years 2002 and 2004 is presented. The cohort includes 146 patients; 81% women, 19% men, aged between 14 to 72 years, average age 34 years, average age of men 46 years, women 29 years. The trend in the number of surgeries is decreasing in about 10% per year. Surgery findings: men--90% adhesions, atypical positions, findings of coprolites. Women--only 40% had macroscopical "findings". Medical history in the obscure cases (evaluable only in 50%), long-term hormonal contraception in 20%, 1-2 months after setting of hormonal contraception in 30%, intrauterine corpuscle in 10%, total negative in 40%. Effects of surgery in the group obscure surgery findings were practically always incomplete. Basic controversy in the diagnostic, in the range and in the appropriate time of surgical intervention is discussed. Surgeon also participates in the diagnostics, because the diagnosis of chronic appendicitis can come from some other medical specialists and the accuracy of indications can vary. Another aspect of the role of surgeon is the high evidence of laparoscopic methods for the diagnosis. Our results correspond with the literary sources. Chronic inflammation changes in the wall of the appendix bring about structural changes in the abdominal cavity. Clinical correlate exists only in the relation to the serious changes resulting from the inflammation of appendix for example: fixations, adhesions. That is why the chronic appendicitis as a clinical entity markedly receded. Problem is the restricted possibility, the range and level of investigation of right iliac region. From this point of view the rationality and professional opinion are essential in the indication to surgery.

  6. Complicated acute appendicitis presenting as a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall: a case report.

    PubMed

    Beerle, Corinne; Gelpke, Hans; Breitenstein, Stefan; Staerkle, Ralph F

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a rare complication of acute appendicitis with perforation through the abdominal wall. The case points out that an intraabdominal origin should be considered in patients presenting with rapidly spreading soft tissue infections of the trunk. A 58-year-old European woman presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of severe abdominal pain accompanied by rapidly spreading erythema and emphysema of the lower abdomen. On admission, the patient was in septic shock with leukocytosis and elevation of C-reactive protein. Among other diagnoses, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected. Computed tomography showed a large soft tissue infection with air-fluid levels spreading through the lower abdominal wall. During the operation, we found a perforated appendicitis breaking through the fascia and causing a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall. Appendicitis was the origin of the soft tissue infection. The abdominal wall was only secondarily involved. Even though perforated appendicitis as an etiology of a rapidly progressive soft tissue infection of the abdominal wall is very rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal wall cellulitis. The distinction between rapidly spreading subcutaneous infection with abscess formation and early onset of necrotizing fasciitis is often difficult and can be confirmed only by surgical intervention.

  7. Detection and diagnostic value of urine leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) in children with suspected acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kentsis, Alex; Ahmed, Saima; Kurek, Kyle; Brennan, Eileen; Bradwin, Gary; Steen, Hanno; Bachur, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previously, we used a proteomics approach for the discovery of new diagnostic markers of acute appendicitis (AA) and identified LRG that was elevated in the urine of children with AA and enriched in diseased appendices. Here, we sought to evaluate the diagnostic utility of enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) of urine LRG in a blinded, prospective, cohort study of children being evaluated for acute abdominal pain. Methods Urine LRG concentration was measured using a commercially available LRG ELISA, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mass spectrometry (MS). Urine LRG test performance was evaluated blindly against the pathologic diagnosis and histologic grade of appendicitis. Results Urine LRG was measured in 49 patients. Mean urine LRG concentration measured using commercial LRG ELISA was significantly elevated in patients with AA, but exhibited an interference effect. Direct measurements using SIM MS demonstrated that LRG was elevated more than 100-fold in patients with AA as compared to those without, with the receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI = 0.96-1.0). Among patients with AA, elevations of urine LRG measured using ELISA and SIM MS correlated with the histologic severity of appendicitis. Conclusion Urine LRG ELISA allows for discrimination between patients with and without AA, but exhibits limited accuracy due to immunoassay interference. Direct measurements of urine LRG using SIM MS demonstrate superior diagnostic performance. Development of a clinical-grade urine LRG assay is needed to advance the diagnostic accuracy of clinical evaluations of appendicitis. PMID:22305331

  8. Quantitative bacterial flora of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J P

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative bacteriological study of the appendix wall of 43 children admitted to this unit showed no significant differences between the flora of the histologically normal and acutely inflamed appendices. Bacteroides species, Escherichia coli, and streptococcal species were the commonest organisms isolated and were found in counts of 10(3) to 10(8) organisms per gram of tissue. Bacteroides species were most commonly the dominant flora in both normal and inflamed appendices. The lack of increased counts of organisms in acute inflammation of the appendix suggests an unfavourable environment to bacterial proliferation making primary bacterial infection an unlikely aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of appendicitis. PMID:3389871

  9. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, A R; Raviola, C A; Weber, P N; McDonald, P T; Navarro, D A; Jasko, I

    1989-10-01

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of apendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging111 In oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis.

  10. Alvarado scoring in acute appendicitis-a clinicopathological correlation.

    PubMed

    Dey, Subhajeet; Mohanta, Pradip K; Baruah, Anil K; Kharga, Bikram; Bhutia, Kincho L; Singh, Varun K

    2010-08-01

    Acute appendicitis is a clinical diagnosis, so it's impossible to have a definitive diagnosis by gold standard (histopathology) pre operatively. The treatment being surgical, negative appendicectomy rates are high. Present study was conducted to evaluate Alvarado scoring system for diagnosis of acute appendicitis and its co relation by histopathology. Retrospective study of consecutive patients admitted with suspected acute appendicitis during the period March 2005 to March 2007. The Alvarado scoring system was computed from admission notes and records and correlated with the histopathology reports. Out of 155 patients, 92 underwent appendicectomy with the intention to treat appendicitis and diagnosis was confirmed in 80 patients. Reliability of scoring system was assessed by calculating negative appendicectomy rate and positive predictive value. The normal appendicectomy frequency was 13% and positive predictive value was 86%. Alvarado scoring system is easy, simple, cheap, useful tool in pre operative diagnosis of acute appendicitis and can work effectively in routine practice.

  11. ABDX A Decision Support System for the Management of Acute Abdominal Pain. Version 3.0. Programmer’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-31

    Abdominal Pain. 8.3 TX3.DKT This is the encrypted treatment protocol for Renal Colic . 8.4 TX4.DAT This is the encrypted treatment protocol for...resplength% - 7 menuheading$ - "Your Diagnosis" ELSE "APPENDICITIS "NON-SPECIFIC ABDOMINAL PAIN" " RENAL COLIC "PERFORATED DUODENAL ULCER...5) 6) "APPENDICITIS " -NON-SPECIFIC ABDOMINAL PAIN" " RENAL COLIC "PERFORATED DUODENAL ULCER " "CHOLECYSTITIS "SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION Choices

  12. Utility of Immature Granulocyte Percentage in Pediatric Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Eleanor K.; Griffin, Russell L.; Mortellaro, Vincent; Beierle, Elizabeth A.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Chen, Mike K.; Russell, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of abdominal surgery in children. Adjuncts are utilized to help clinicians predict acute or perforated appendicitis, which may affect treatment decisions. Automated hematologic analyzers can perform more accurate automated differentials including immature granulocyte percentages (IG%). Elevated IG% has demonstrated improved accuracy for predicting sepsis in the neonatal population than traditional immature to total neutrophil count (I/T) ratios. We intended to assess the additional discriminatory ability of IG% to traditionally assessed parameters in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. Materials and Methods We identified all patients with appendicitis from July 2012 to June 2013 by ICD-9 code. Charts were reviewed for relevant demographic, clinical, and outcome data, which were compared between acute and perforated appendicitis groups using Fischer’s exact and t-test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. We utilized an adjusted logistic regression model utilizing clinical lab values to predict the odds of perforated appendicitis. Results 251 patients were included in the analysis. Those with perforated appendicitis had a higher white blood cell (WBC) count (p=0.0063), C-reactive protein (CRP) (p<0.0001), and IG% (p=0.0299). In the adjusted model, only elevated CRP (OR 3.46, 95% CI 1.40-8.54) and presence of left shift (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.09-6.46) were significant predictors of perforated appendicitis. The c-statistic of the final model was 0.70, suggesting fair discriminatory ability in predicting perforated appendicitis. Conclusions IG% did not provide any additional benefit to elevated CRP and presence of left shift in the differentiation between acute and perforated appendicitis. PMID:24793450

  13. Mimicking the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-03

    When Galileo first observed Venus displaying a crescent phase, he excitedly wrote to Kepler (in anagram) of Venus mimicking the moon-goddess. He would have been delirious with joy to see Saturn and Titan, seen in this image, doing the same thing. More than just pretty pictures, high-phase observations -- taken looking generally toward the Sun, as in this image -- are very powerful scientifically since the way atmospheres and rings transmit sunlight is often diagnostic of compositions and physical states. In this example, Titan's crescent nearly encircles its disk due to the small haze particles high in its atmosphere refracting the incoming light of the distant Sun. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 3 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in violet light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Aug. 11, 2013. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.1 million miles (1.7 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 154 degrees. Image scale is 64 miles (103 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18291

  14. Acute abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    1998-01-01

    Abdominal pain is among the most frequent ailments reported in the office setting and can account for up to 40% of ailments in the ambulatory practice. Also, it is in the top three symptoms of patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) and accounts for 5-10% of all ED primary presenting ailments. There are several common sources for acute abdominal pain and many for subacute and chronic abdominal pain. This article explores the history-taking, initial evaluation, and examination of the patient presenting with acute abdominal pain. The goal of this article is to help differentiate one source of pain from another. Discussion of acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, ectopic pregnancy, diverticulitis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis are undertaken. Additionally, there is discussion of common laboratory studies, diagnostic studies, and treatment of the patient with the above entities.

  15. Primary closure of contaminated wounds in perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Burnweit, C; Bilik, R; Shandling, B

    1991-12-01

    We studied the clinical course of 506 children consecutively admitted with appendicitis at The Hospital for Sick Children from 1985 to 1989. One hundred eighty-one children (35%), ranging in age from 1 to 17 years, presented with perforation verified by histological examination. Ninety-six of them (53%) had generalized peritonitis, 47 (26%) had localized peritonitis, and 38 (21%) had abscess formation. Usually, triple antibiotics were begun preoperatively if perforation was suspected; otherwise, cefoxitin was started. Triple antibiotics were used postoperatively for 5 to 7 days in almost all children in the perforated group. Neither abdominal nor subcutaneous drainage was routinely used even in cases of intraabdominal abscess. The skin was closed primarily with steri-strips (63%), staples (20%), subcutaneous Dexon (11%), or silk (4%). Postoperative wound infection arose in 20 children (11%). Wound infections were noted from 1 to 14 days postoperatively (mean, 5.9 days). Whereas 9 of these were treated with local therapy only, 11 delayed the child's discharge or necessitated readmission. No patient suffered major complications from wound infection in that there were no cases of necrotizing fasciitis, reoperation for debridement, sepsis, or death. The intraabdominal abscess rate in this group of 181 children was 6% (n = 11). The low rate of infective complications fully justifies the policy of primary closure in contaminated wounds. This policy eliminates the necessity for painful and time-consuming dressing changes, shortens hospitalization, and obviates the trauma of delayed suturing of wounds in children.

  16. Incidence of Appendicitis over Time: A Comparative Analysis of an Administrative Healthcare Database and a Pathology-Proven Appendicitis Registry

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Fiona; Zimmer, Scott; Dixon, Elijah; Ball, Chad G.; Heitman, Steven J.; Swain, Mark; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Importance At the turn of the 21st century, studies evaluating the change in incidence of appendicitis over time have reported inconsistent findings. Objectives We compared the differences in the incidence of appendicitis derived from a pathology registry versus an administrative database in order to validate coding in administrative databases and establish temporal trends in the incidence of appendicitis. Design We conducted a population-based comparative cohort study to identify all individuals with appendicitis from 2000 to2008. Setting & Participants Two population-based data sources were used to identify cases of appendicitis: 1) a pathology registry (n = 8,822); and 2) a hospital discharge abstract database (n = 10,453). Intervention & Main Outcome The administrative database was compared to the pathology registry for the following a priori analyses: 1) to calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of administrative codes; 2) to compare the annual incidence of appendicitis; and 3) to assess differences in temporal trends. Temporal trends were assessed using a generalized linear model that assumed a Poisson distribution and reported as an annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified by perforated and non-perforated appendicitis. Results The administrative database (PPV = 83.0%) overestimated the incidence of appendicitis (100.3 per 100,000) when compared to the pathology registry (84.2 per 100,000). Codes for perforated appendicitis were not reliable (PPV = 52.4%) leading to overestimation in the incidence of perforated appendicitis in the administrative database (34.8 per 100,000) as compared to the pathology registry (19.4 per 100,000). The incidence of appendicitis significantly increased over time in both the administrative database (APC = 2.1%; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.8) and pathology registry (APC = 4.1; 95% CI: 3.1, 5.0). Conclusion & Relevance The administrative database overestimated the incidence of appendicitis

  17. Evaluation of scoring systems in predicting acute appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Macco, Sven; Vrouenraets, Bart C; de Castro, Steve M M

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis can be difficult to diagnose, especially in children. Appendicitis scoring systems have been developed as a diagnostic tool to improve the decision-making process in patients with suspected acute appendicitis. This study evaluates the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score, Alvarado score, and Pediatric Appendicitis Score in children suspected of acute appendicitis. Data were collected retrospectively. All children younger than 18 years suspected of acute appendicitis who presented to the emergency department between January 2006 and June 2014 were included in this study. Variables were registered to evaluate 3 different appendicitis scoring systems. The diagnostic performance of the 3 scores was analyzed using the area under the receiver-operating curve and by calculating the diagnostic performances at different cut-off points. The present study included 747 consecutive children. There were 399 boys (53%) and 348 girls (47%) with a mean age of 11 years (range, 1-17 years). In total, 269 children (36%) were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The area under the receiver-operating curve of the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score was 0.90, the Alvarado score was 0.87, and the Pediatric Appendicitis Score was 0.82 (P < .05, respectively). The specificity and positive predictive value of the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score were better at predicting an acute appendicitis than that of the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score. In children with a low-risk acute appendicitis, false negative rates of 14% for the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response, 7% for the Alvarado, and 18% for the Pediatric Appendicitis Score were measured. In this study, the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response score had the highest discriminating power and outperformed the Alvarado score and Pediatric Appendicitis Score in predicting acute appendicitis in children. Excluding acute appendicitis safely in children with the scoring systems still remains

  18. Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis by Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicitis Therapy (ERAT): Combination of Colonoscopy and Endoscopic Retrograde Appendicography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingchao; Mi, Chen; Li, Weizhi; She, Junjun

    2016-11-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, but the diagnosis of appendicitis remains a challenge. Endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy (ERAT) is a new and minimally invasive procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis. To investigate the diagnostic value of ERAT for acute appendicitis by the combination of colonoscopy and endoscopic retrograde appendicography (ERA). Twenty-one patients with the diagnosis of suspected uncomplicated acute appendicitis who underwent ERAT between November 2014 and January 2015 were included in this study. The main outcomes, imaging findings of acute appendicitis including colonoscopic direct-vision imaging and fluoroscopic ERA imaging, were retrospectively reviewed. Secondary outcomes included mean operative time, mean hospital stay, rate of complication, rate of appendectomy during follow-up period, and other clinical data. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established in 20 patients by positive ERA (5 patients) or colonoscopy (1 patient) alone or both (14 patients). The main colonoscopic imaging findings included mucosal inflammation (15/20, 75 %), appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and maturation (5/20, 25 %). The key points of ERA for diagnosing acute appendicitis included radiographic changes of appendix (17/20, 85 %), intraluminal appendicoliths (14/20, 70 %), and perforation (1/20, 5 %). Mean operative time of ERAT was 49.7 min, and mean hospital stay was 3.3 days. No patient converted to emergency appendectomy. Perforation occurred in one patient after appendicoliths removal was not severe and did not require invasive procedures. During at least 1-year follow-up period, only one patient underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. ERAT is a valuable procedure of choice providing a precise yield of diagnostic information for patients with suspected acute appendicitis by combination of colonoscopy and ERA.

  19. Ovarian dermoid cyst super-infected with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus leading to the misdiagnosis of appendicitis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Ryan J; Kurek, Kyle C; Laufer, Marc R

    2011-04-01

    Mature cystic teratomas (dermoid cysts) are the most common ovarian tumor in adolescents. Super-infection of a dermoid cyst is a rare event usually associated with a concomitant infection. A 14-year-old female was transferred to our institution with five days of fevers and abdominal pain. CT of the abdomen/pelvis was read as acute appendicitis with a 7.6 cm right adnexal dermoid cyst. The patient was treated for appendicitis but later found to have an infected dermoid cyst primarily infected with methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus, which led the misdiagnosis of appendicitis. Super-infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst is an extremely rare event. We recommend that previously described evaluation, surgical management, and ovarian conservation be employed in all cases of ovarian dermoid cysts. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical and Histologic Mimickers of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Amrit K; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2017-08-17

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel, classically associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption. The diagnosis of celiac disease is made when there are compatible clinical features, supportive serologic markers, representative histology from the small bowel, and response to a gluten-free diet. Histologic findings associated with celiac disease include intraepithelial lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia, villous atrophy, and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lamina propria. It is important to recognize and diagnose celiac disease, as strict adherence to a gluten-free diet can lead to resolution of clinical and histologic manifestations of the disease. However, many other entities can present with clinical and/or histologic features of celiac disease. In this review article, we highlight key clinical and histologic mimickers of celiac disease. The evaluation of a patient with serologically negative enteropathy necessitates a carefully elicited history and detailed review by a pathologist. Medications can mimic celiac disease and should be considered in all patients with a serologically negative enteropathy. Many mimickers of celiac disease have clues to the underlying diagnosis, and many have a targeted therapy. It is necessary to provide patients with a correct diagnosis rather than subject them to a lifetime of an unnecessary gluten-free diet.

  1. Doxycycline-induced ulceration mimicking esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, Veysel; Sayrak, Hakan; Bayar, Nevzat; Erer, Burak; Tahan, Gulgun; Dane, Faysal

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Doxycycline-induced esophageal ulcer patients are mostly young persons with no history of esophageal dysfunction. Heartburn, midsternal pain and dysphagia are the most common symptoms. It has generally a benign course. The present case is the first report of doxycycline-induced extensive ulcerations, mimicking esophageal cancer in two esophageal segments alongside, in the literature. Case presentation This report describes a 16-year-old Caucasian girl who, while taking doxycycline capsules100 mg twice a day for acne vulgaris for 3 months, developed these symptoms. An upper endoscopy revealed multiple circumferential deep ulcerations surrounding fragile, irregular, hyperemic and hypertrophic mucosa at the level of the mid-esophagus and concomitantly in the lower esophageal sphincter. The lesions were biopsied to exclude esophageal carcinoma because of the suspicious appearance in the endoscopic examination. The histopathological examination, haematoxylin and eosin stained sections showed ulceration with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate. Doxycycline was discontinued and she was given sucralfate 1 g qid and omeprazole 20 mg bid orally. All symptoms of the patient were resolved on the third day of the treatment. After 4 weeks of the therapy, an upper endoscopic control examination demonstrated normal findings. Conclusion The present case has been an uncommon presentation of doxycycline-induced extensive ulcerations, mimicking esophageal cancer in two esophageal segments, concomitantly. Even the lesions were biopsied to exclude esophageal carcinoma. A modification on the behavior of taking drugs can prevent these unpleasant complications. PMID:18778470

  2. Acute appendicitis in the setting of Clostridium difficile colitis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas A; Rajappannair, Lakshmi; Dalton, Arthur B; Bandi, Ram; Myers, Joseph P; Kefalas, Costas H

    2007-08-01

    A 72-year-old man was hospitalized for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was treated with oral prednisone and 7 days of moxifloxacin. Five days after completing the antibiotic course, he developed watery diarrhea and diffuse, crampy abdominal pain. On presentation he was afebrile, and abdominal examination revealed diffuse tenderness without peritoneal signs. Stool tested positive for Clostridium difficile toxin A by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Despite starting oral metronidazole, the patient developed a fever of 101.2 degrees F 36 hours after his initial episode of diarrhea, 12 hours after admission. His abdominal pain intensified and became localized to the right and left lower quadrants. Computed tomography scan revealed both a thickened cecal wall and an edematous appendix with ileocecal stranding consistent with appendicitis. Appendectomy was performed, and the appendix was found to be suppurative in appearance and nonperforated. The cecum had mild edema and erythema, whereas the colon and rectum were grossly unaffected. Pathology examination revealed exudative material in the appendiceal lumen and a diffuse transmural inflammatory cell infiltrate. The patient had an uneventful recovery and continued to improve on oral metronidazole. Although Clostridium difficile colitis and appendicitis are each very common independently, C. difficile as an etiology of appendicitis is exceedingly rare. A review of the literature revealed 2 prior cases. We speculate that this association is underdiagnosed, because milder cases might respond to antibiotic therapy alone, and severe cases might involve the entire colon and require total colectomy. In each scenario, the involvement of the appendix might be overlooked.

  3. Evaluating conservative treatment for acute appendicitis with lump formation

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Ajaz Ahmad; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Wani, Shadab Nabi; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Irshad, Ifat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interval appendectomy after acute appendicitis with lump formation (phlegmon) remains controversial. We conducted this study to determine the risk of recurrent appendicitis following initial non-operative treatment for appendicitis, and evaluate factors associated with recurrence. Secondarily, we evaluate the efficacy of interval appendectomy versus no appendectomy. Materials and Methods: Patients who received conservative treatment for appendicitis with lump formation were prospectively studied from June 2006 to June 2008. These patients were followed for recurrence of appendicitis. Results: Of 763 patients with acute appendicitis some 220 patients had lump formation (28.8%). Median age was 28 years. Conservative treatment was successful in 213 (96.8%) patients. The rate of recurrence was 13.1%, all occurring within six months after the index admission. Mean follow-up was 26±18 months. Conclusion: Conservative treatment of appendicitis with lump formation is efficient and the recurrence rate is low. Routine interval appendectomy after initial conservative treatment for lump formation is not a cost-effective intervention and not recommended. PMID:22416152

  4. Trends in the Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura W; Dolgin, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    • On the basis of class B evidence and consensus, acute appendicitis in children can often be diagnosed clinically with only selective use of imaging. (13)(14)(15)(16) • On the basis of class B evidence and consensus, ultrasonography is the test of choice when acute appendicitis is suspected but is unclear based on history, physical examination, and laboratory results. (17)(18)(19) • On the basis of class B evidence and consensus, the use of computed tomography scan should be limited to cases of suspected complex appendicitis with abscess or when there is clinical suspicion for acute appendicitis but ultrasonography results are not helpful. (16) • On the basis of class C evidence and consensus, children with possible appendicitis ideally should be treated in medical centers that have skilled sonographic personnel. (21) • On the basis of class B evidence and consensus, simple appendicitis should be treated by appendectomy during normal operating hours. Preoperative treatment with intravenous antibiotics and fluids during the overnight hours halts disease progression and allows for the safest surgery with the benefit of a full and rested staff. (24)(25)(26) • On the basis of class B evidence and consensus, complex appendicitis with a well-defined abscess can be treated nonoperatively initially, with the option of an interval appendectomy after recovery from the acute infection. (29)(30) (31)(32)(33)

  5. Appendicitis: use of arrowhead sign for diagnosis at CT.

    PubMed

    Rao, P M; Wittenberg, J; McDowell, R K; Rhea, J T; Novelline, R A

    1997-02-01

    To determine the frequency of collection of a contrast medium in the upper portion of the cecum, which the authors call the arrowhead sign, on computed tomographic (CT) scans of the lower abdomen and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this sign for appendicitis. One hundred consecutive patients clinically suspected of having appendicitis prospectively underwent helical CT limited to the lower abdomen. Contrast media were administered orally and by means of an enema. Each scan was reviewed for the arrowhead sign, and the findings were correlated with surgical and pathologic results or clinical follow-up findings. The arrowhead sign was present in 17 of 56 cases (30%) of appendicitis and in no case of excluded appendicitis. It allowed the unequivocal diagnosis of appendicitis in four cases (7%) of otherwise non-specific right lower-quadrant inflammation and in one case (2%) of subtle appendicitis seen at CT. The arrowhead sign is an often present, highly specific sign of appendicitis that can add specificity to the diagnosis of right lower-quadrant inflammatory processes at CT.

  6. Does the Intestinal Parasite Enterobius vermicularis Cause Acute Appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Pirhan, Yavuz; Özen, Fatma Zeynep; Kılınç, Çetin; Güçkan, Rıdvan

    2017-06-01

    Although intestinal parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, they are common public health problems in undeveloped and developing countries. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and treatment procedures should be adopted according to the etiology. Herein we presented the cases of four patients with clinical findings of acute appendicitis. Patients were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the pathological examinations of specimens. Pinworm infections are common parasitic infections that may mimic appendicitis. The pathology of the four cases was noted when the file of 186 patients aged between 4 and 72 years who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in my hospital was retrospectively reviewed. When the appendectomy specimen was examined histopathologically it was understood that acute appendicitis was caused by Enterobius vermicularis parasite. In Enterobius infections, performing systemic therapy for patients and their family members is sufficient. To prevent unnecessary appendectomy, this type of infection should be made to ask in the history and clinical findings of patients.

  7. Addison's Disease Mimicking as Acute Pancreatitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Sayani; Rao, Karthik N; Patil, Navin; Ommurugan, Balaji; Varghese, George

    2017-04-01

    Over past two decades there has been significant improvement in medical field in elucidating the underlying pathophysiology and genetics of Addison's disease. Adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease) is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.8/100,000 cases. The diagnosis may be delayed if the clinical presentation mimics a gastrointestinal disorder or psychiatric illness. We report a case of Addison's disease presenting as acute pain in abdomen mimicking clinical presentation of acute pancreatitis.

  8. Parasitic Appendicitis From Past to Present in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Engin, O; Calik, S; Calik, B; Yildirim, M; Coskun, G

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the etiology of appendicitis is important for developing effective treatments the relationship between parasitic appendicitis and various socio-cultural factors were examined, particularly with respect to the incidence of literacy. The aim of the article was to research the relations between parasitic appendicitis and literacy ratio in population. Methods Cases of parasitic appendicitis resulting in surgery performed at Buca Seyfi Demirsoy Large State Hospital Surgery Clinic between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to age, sex, type of parasite, morbidity, and mortality. Studies conducted in different regions of Turkey as well as in other countries were reviewed to determine if there was a relationship between parasitic appendicitis and literacy. Results Of the 1,969 appendectomy cases reviewed, nine were classified as parasitic appendicitis (0.45%). Enterobius vermicularis was observed in seven cases and Taenia spp. in two. The average age was 26.4 yr. No morbidity or mortality was found. Conclusion The data were compared with a retrospective review of studies conducted in the same regions and a decrease in the rate of parasitic appendicitis was observed during the period between the two reviews. It was determined that a low literacy rate was associated with an increase in the incidence of parasitic appendicitis. Observations made between different countries also produced similar results. In countries where the incidence of parasitic appendiciticis was greater than 1.5%, the literacy rate was less than 88%. To avoid appendectomy resulting from parasites, it is important to increase education and literacy. In some areas, individuals with appendicitis undergo surgery due to a lack of education or poor literacy. PMID:22347256

  9. Appendicitis in children treated by pediatric versus general surgeons.

    PubMed

    Emil, Sherif G S; Taylor, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric appendicitis is treated by both pediatric and general surgeons. We investigated whether specialty-dependent differences existed in patients' characteristics and outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 465 consecutive children treated for appendicitis at a university-affiliated children's hospital during a 28-month period was performed. Characteristics and outcomes of patients treated by pediatric surgeons were compared with those treated by general surgeons. Rates of misdiagnosis, postoperative readmission, wound infection, intraabdominal infection, and duration of hospital stay were considered primary outcomes and analyzed by chi-square, Fisher's exact test, or Student's t-test where appropriate. Hospital charges were considered secondary outcomes and analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Three hundred four children (65%) were treated by pediatric surgeons and 161 (35%) by general surgeons. Pediatric-surgeon patients were younger (8.3 +/- 3.6 versus 13.2 +/- 3.1 years, p < 0.001), and more likely to have gangrenous or perforated appendicitis (54% versus 33%, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the normal appendix rate (pediatric surgeon, 4.3% versus general surgeon, 5.6%, p = 0.53). In patients with simple and complicated appendicitis, there were no significant differences between pediatric and general surgeons in readmissions, postoperative complications, or hospital stay. Median hospital charges were not significantly different for complicated appendicitis, but were lower for pediatric-surgeon patients with simple appendicitis (10,735 dollars versus 11,613 dollars, p = 0.005). Pediatric surgeons treat younger children with more severe appendicitis. There are no specialty-dependent differences in clinical outcomes for simple or complicated appendicitis. Hospital charges are lower for simple appendicitis treated by pediatric surgeons.

  10. Myositis ossificans: the mimicker

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Arunkumar; Sarawagi, Radha; Prakash, Manikka Lakshmanan

    2013-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with upper backache and a painful swelling in the right paraspinal region for 7 days. He had no history of trauma. MRI showed a non-specific ill-defined heterogeneous lesion, which showed intense postcontrast enhancement. Ultrasonogram showed a peripheral sheet of calcification around the lesion. A CT scan showed a faint rim of calcification, which increased in thickness over weeks, confirming the diagnosis as myositis ossificans. We present our approach to the case and also review the imaging features of different stages of the disease process and their differentials. PMID:24326436

  11. [Investigation of diagnostic method and treatment on acute appendicitis with acute intestinal obstruction as presenting manifestation].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Li, Zhixia; An, Dali; Liu, Jing; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Prevention of the misdiagnosis of acute appendicitis when it first manifested as acute intestinal obstruction, and to search proper way of diagnosis and treatment for such event to provide the reference. Clinical data of 33 acute appendicitis cases presented with acute intestinal obstruction in Beijing Tong Ren Hospital during January 2000 and December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. All 33 patients were admitted to the Emergency Department with symptoms of various degrees abdominal pain and abdominal distension. There was no passage of gas and feces. The mean time of onset was (62.2±25.0) hours. The imaging examination showedthat all patients had complete bowel obstruction. Twenty one patients(63.6%) had peritonitis, three of whom developed with septic shock. Abdominal CT was performed in 17 patients preoperatively, which showed retention of gas and fluid in the small intestine in all the patients and 13 were suggestive of acute appendicitis. All of these patients received surgical treatment, 12 patients underwent laparoscopic exploration, and the remaining 21 patients received exploratory laparotomy during which acute appendicitis was confirmed to be the cause of intestinal obstruction, of whom 14(42.4%) was identified as mechanical intestinal obstruction. Nine patients underwent appendectomy and lysis of adhesion, five appendectomy and partial excision of the greateromentum. Nineteenpatients(57.6%) were identified as paralytic ileus and underwent appendectomy only. Twelve patients required respiratory and circulatory support and were admitted to ICU postoperatively. The mean duration time in ICU was(8.8±5.2) days. Postoperative pathology showedgangrene accompanied with perforation in the appendix. All patients were discharged without any complication. The length of hospital stay was (15.4±4.6) days. All patients were followed up for 3 ~ 12 months. One patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease developed repeated pulmonary infection and died of

  12. Chronic inflammatory appendiceal conditions that mimic acute appendicitis on helical CT.

    PubMed

    Checkoff, Jaime L; Wechsler, Richard J; Nazarian, Levon N

    2002-09-01

    Acute appendicitis is commonly diagnosed on CT, but chronic appendiceal processes can mimic acute appendicitis. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency of these alternative conditions and their findings on helical CT. Chronic inflammatory conditions other than acute appendicitis were found in 9% of patients who underwent surgery after CT findings were interpreted as suspicious for appendicitis. These inflammatory conditions were indistinguishable from acute appendicitis when we used either primary or secondary CT signs.

  13. Magnetic resonance of acute appendicitis: pearls and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michael; Singh, Ajay; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Novelline, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical abdominal emergency. Although the clinical diagnosis can be made accurately in typical cases, imaging plays an important role in improving diagnostic accuracy of this condition, especially when the clinical diagnosis is uncertain. Magnetic resonance imaging is an emerging promising technique for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, especially in patients with nondiagnostic ultrasound and in patients where radiation is a clinical concern. In the following review, the role of magnetic resonance in the diagnosis of appendicitis will be discussed.

  14. Laboratory in complicated appendicitis prediction and predictive value of monitoring.

    PubMed

    Aydin, O U; Soylu, L; Dandin, O; Uysal Aydin, E; Karademir, S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was that monitoring, which is used in diagnosis of acute appendicitis, and laboratory values, were evaluated for verifying diagnosis of complicated appendicitis and these parameters revealed cut-off values in complicated acute/non-complicated appendicitis. 195 patients, who had had an operation for acute appendicitis between January 2012 and March 2015 and who were proved to have acute complicated/non-complicated appendicitis from the results of histopathology consideration, were included in this study. Patients' age, preoperative serum, WBC, CRP, NLR and BT with USG results were evaluated.    RESULTS: Among the groups, there were no meaningful differences in the sense of age. Meaningful difference was obtained in between (p > 0.05), WBC, NLR, CRP and appendix diameter values.Serum in WBC >13800 (AUC = 0.614, p = 0.006, %95 GA: 0.541-0.682), in NLR > 4.87 (AUC = 0.641, p = 0.001, %95 GA: 0.569-0.708), in CRP > 5.98 (AUC = 0.651, p 11 mm (AUC = 0.630, p = 0.002, %95 GA: 0.558-0.698) values were obtained. The values that were obtained, were confirmed to be descriptive in analysis of complicated appendicitis and non-complicated appendicitis.According to the obtained cut-off values, serum WBC, diameter of appendicitis, NLR and CRP values', (OR) ratios were calculated for complicated appendicitis by being classified (odds ratio respectively; 3.103 (1.713-5.621), 2.765 (1.496-5.109), 3.025 (1.665-5.494), 2.313 (1.295-4.130)). It is important that treatment options are evaluated to be able to discriminate complicated appendicitis fast and with a high accuracy. In the case that serum WBC is higher than 13800. CRP is higher than 5.98, NLR is higher than 4.87 and appendicitis diameter is longer than 11mm, inflammation of appendicitis is complex with gangrene, perforation and abscess and it emphasizes the suggestion of surgical treatment option to patients (Tab. 4, Fig. 1, Ref. 28).

  15. Overview and diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Glass, Charity C; Rangel, Shawn J

    2016-08-01

    Appendicitis represents the most common abdominal surgical emergency in the pediatric age group. Despite being a relatively common condition, the diagnosis of appendicitis in children can prove to be challenging in many cases. The goal of this article is to review the predictive utility for presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies in the diagnostic work-up of appendicitis. Furthermore, we sought to explore the predictive utility of composite measures based on multiple sources of diagnostic information, as well as the utility of clinical pathways as a means to streamline the diagnostic process.

  16. Non-surgical contraindication for acute appendicitis with secondary thrombocytopenia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Hong; Gu, Guo-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Fan, Qin; Wang, Xin-Yan; Wei, Xue-Ming

    2015-03-07

    A 26-year-old man presented with migrated right lower abdominal pain and without any history of hematological systemic diseases. Blood routine test showed a leukocyte count of 22.74 × 10(9)/L, with 91.4% neutrophils, and a platelet count of 4 × 10(9)/L before admission. The case question was whether the team should proceed with surgery. Obviously, a differential diagnosis is essential before making such a decision. Acute appendicitis was easily diagnosed based on clinical findings, including migrating abdominal pain, a leukocyte count of 22.74 × 10(9)/L and the result of abdominal computed tomography scan. However, it was not clear whether the severe thrombocytopenia was primary or secondary. So smear of peripheral blood and aspiration of bone marrow were ordered to exclude hematological diseases. Neither of the tests indicated obvious pathological hematological changes. There was no hepatosplenomegaly found by ultrasound examination of the liver and spleen. Therefore, operative intervention may be a unique clinical scenario in acute severe appendicitis patients with secondary thrombocytopenia.

  17. Does morphine change the physical examination in patients with acute appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jeannette M; Smithline, Howard A; Phipen, Sherry; Montano, Gary; Garb, Jane L; Fiallo, Viriato

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if judicious dosing of morphine sulfate can provide pain relief without changing important physical examination findings in patients with acute appendicitis. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover design. Patients scheduled for appendectomy were randomized to two groups. Group A received 0.075 mg/kg intravenous morphine sulfate and 30 minutes later received placebo. The sequence of medication was reversed in group B. Patients were examined by a surgical resident and an EM attending before and after receiving medication. Six explicit physical examination findings were documented as absent, indeterminate, or present. Physicians were also asked if they felt overall examination findings had changed after medication. Patient's visual analog scale (VAS) was recorded before each medication and at study completion. Thirty-four patients were enrolled and full data were available for 22 patients. Neither morphine nor placebo caused a significant change in individual examination findings. Three patients in both groups were judged to have a change in their examination after medication. The median change in VAS was 20 mm after morphine and 0 mm after placebo (P =.01). In this pilot study, patients with clinical signs of appendicitis were treated with morphine and had significant improvement of their pain without changes in their physical examination.

  18. Suppurative appendicitis presenting as acute scrotum confounded by a testicular appendage

    PubMed Central

    Shumon, Syed; Bennett, John; Lawson, Geoffrey; Small, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with testicular pain and swelling mandate an urgent urology review and scrotal exploration to prevent testicle loss due to torsion. Other pathology masquerading as torsion is extremely rare but can occur. We present one such case. A 14-year-old male presented with a 1-day history of right testicular swelling and tenderness. He was apyrexial and denied any other symptoms. Blood tests demonstrated raised inflammatory markers. He had lower left-sided abdominal tenderness with a swollen, erythematous right hemiscrotum. During an urgent scrotal exploration for testicular torsion, a purulent hydrocele with a patent process vaginalis was noted, but no torsion. Post-operative abdominal pain mandated a general surgical review and subsequent appendicectomy. The patient made a full recovery. Acute suppurative appendicitis presenting as a urological emergency is extremely rare. To make a correct diagnosis and prevent multiple surgeries, a joint urological and general surgical assessment with a high index of suspicion is required. PMID:26966225

  19. A hybrid decision support model to discover informative knowledge in diagnosing acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable hybrid decision support model by combining statistical analysis and decision tree algorithms to ensure high accuracy of early diagnosis in patients with suspected acute appendicitis and to identify useful decision rules. Methods We enrolled 326 patients who attended an emergency medical center complaining mainly of acute abdominal pain. Statistical analysis approaches were used as a feature selection process in the design of decision support models, including the Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, the Mann-Whitney U-test (p < 0.01), and Wald forward logistic regression (entry and removal criteria of 0.01 and 0.05, or 0.05 and 0.10, respectively). The final decision support models were constructed using the C5.0 decision tree algorithm of Clementine 12.0 after pre-processing. Results Of 55 variables, two subsets were found to be indispensable for early diagnostic knowledge discovery in acute appendicitis. The two subsets were as follows: (1) lymphocytes, urine glucose, total bilirubin, total amylase, chloride, red blood cell, neutrophils, eosinophils, white blood cell, complaints, basophils, glucose, monocytes, activated partial thromboplastin time, urine ketone, and direct bilirubin in the univariate analysis-based model; and (2) neutrophils, complaints, total bilirubin, urine glucose, and lipase in the multivariate analysis-based model. The experimental results showed that the model with univariate analysis (80.2%, 82.4%, 78.3%, 76.8%, 83.5%, and 80.3%) outperformed models using multivariate analysis (71.6%, 69.3%, 73.7%, 69.7%, 73.3%, and 71.5% with entry and removal criteria of 0.01 and 0.05; 73.5%, 66.0%, 80.0%, 74.3%, 72.9%, and 73.0% with entry and removal criteria of 0.05 and 0.10) in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under ROC curve, during a 10-fold cross validation. A statistically significant difference was

  20. New synthetic strategies for xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Milo; Darcsi, Andras; Balint, Mihaly; Benkovics, Gabor; Sohajda, Tamas; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Xanthene dyes can be appended to cyclodextrins via an ester or amide bridge in order to switch the fluorescence on or off. This is made possible through the formation of nonfluorescent lactones or lactams as the fluorophore can reversibly cyclize. In this context we report a green approach for the synthesis of switchable xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins based on the coupling agent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM). By using 6-monoamino-β-cyclodextrin and commercially available inexpensive dyes, we prepared rhodamine- and fluorescein-appended cyclodextrins. The compounds were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry, their UV-vis spectra were recorded at various pH, and their purity was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Two potential models for the supramolecular assembly of the xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins were developed based on the set of data collected by the extensive NMR characterization.

  1. Plasma D-lactate levels in diagnosis of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Cağlayan, Fatma; Cakmak, Murat; Cağlayan, Osman; Cavuşoglu, Turgut

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the possible use of D-lactate as a predictor in the diagnosis of appendicitis. C-reactive protein level (CRP) and leukocyte counts were also evaluated. Venous blood D-lactate, CRP, and leukocyte counts were measured preoperatively in 53 patients undergoing surgery for appendicitis, as well as in 20 healthy subjects. Levels of all three parameters in the surgical patients were significantly higher than in the control group (p <.05). Previous studies have shown that venous D-lactate is more specific to the intestine than CPR or leukocyte count. Based on our data, venous D-lactate, which had the lowest false-negative rate among these laboratory parameters, may be a useful diagnostic marker for appendicitis. None of these parameters were helpful in identifying the type of the appendicitis.

  2. Underestimated Amoebic Appendicitis among HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Yano, Hideaki; Murata, Yukinori; Igari, Toru; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Yagita, Kenji; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entamoeba histolytica is not a common causative agent of acute appendicitis. However, amoebic appendicitis can sometimes be severe and life threatening, mainly due to a lack of awareness. Also, its frequency, clinical features, and pathogenesis remain unclear. The study subjects were HIV-1-infected individuals who presented with acute appendicitis and later underwent appendectomy at our hospital between 1996 and 2014. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preserved appendix specimens were reexamined by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and PCR to identify undiagnosed amoebic appendicitis. Appendectomies were performed in 57 patients with acute appendicitis. The seroprevalence of E. histolytica was 33% (14/43) from the available stored sera. Based on the medical records, only 3 cases were clinically diagnosed as amoebic appendicitis, including 2 diagnosed at the time of appendectomy and 1 case diagnosed by rereview of the appendix after the development of postoperative complications. Retrospective analyses using PAS staining and PCR identified 3 and 3 more cases, respectively. Thus, E. histolytica infection was confirmed in 9 cases (15.8%) in the present study. Apart from a significantly higher leukocyte count in E. histolytica-positive patients than in negative patients (median, 13,760 versus 10,385 cells/μl, respectively, P = 0.02), there were no other differences in the clinical features of the PCR-positive and -negative groups. In conclusion, E. histolytica infection was confirmed in 9 (15.8%) of the appendicitis cases. However, only 3, including one diagnosed after intestinal perforation, were diagnosed before the present analyses. These results strongly suggest there is frequently a failure to detect trophozoites in routine examination, resulting in an underestimation of the incidence of amoebic appendicitis. PMID:27847377

  3. Stratified computed tomography findings improve diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geon; Lee, Sang Chul; Choi, Byung-Jo; Kim, Say-June

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients with symptoms and signs of appendicitis, but without confirmative computed tomography (CT) findings. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the database of 224 patients who had been operated on for the suspicion of appendicitis, but whose CT findings were negative or equivocal for appendicitis. The patient population was divided into two groups: a pathologically proven appendicitis group (n = 177) and a non-appendicitis group (n = 47). The CT images of these patients were re-evaluated according to the characteristic CT features as described in the literature. The re-evaluations and baseline characteristics of the two groups were compared. RESULTS: The two groups showed significant differences with respect to appendiceal diameter, and the presence of periappendiceal fat stranding and intraluminal air in the appendix. A larger proportion of patients in the appendicitis group showed distended appendices larger than 6.0 mm (66.3% vs 37.0%; P < 0.001), periappendiceal fat stranding (34.1% vs 8.9%; P = 0.001), and the absence of intraluminal air (67.6% vs 48.9%; P = 0.024) compared to the non-appendicitis group. Furthermore, the presence of two or more of these factors increased the odds ratio to 6.8 times higher than baseline (95%CI: 3.013-15.454; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Appendiceal diameter and wall thickening, fat stranding, and absence of intraluminal air can be used to increased diagnostic accuracy for appendicitis with equivocal CT findings. PMID:25320531

  4. Underestimated Amoebic Appendicitis among HIV-1-Infected Individuals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Watanabe, Koji; Yano, Hideaki; Murata, Yukinori; Igari, Toru; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Yagita, Kenji; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is not a common causative agent of acute appendicitis. However, amoebic appendicitis can sometimes be severe and life threatening, mainly due to a lack of awareness. Also, its frequency, clinical features, and pathogenesis remain unclear. The study subjects were HIV-1-infected individuals who presented with acute appendicitis and later underwent appendectomy at our hospital between 1996 and 2014. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded preserved appendix specimens were reexamined by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and PCR to identify undiagnosed amoebic appendicitis. Appendectomies were performed in 57 patients with acute appendicitis. The seroprevalence of E. histolytica was 33% (14/43) from the available stored sera. Based on the medical records, only 3 cases were clinically diagnosed as amoebic appendicitis, including 2 diagnosed at the time of appendectomy and 1 case diagnosed by rereview of the appendix after the development of postoperative complications. Retrospective analyses using PAS staining and PCR identified 3 and 3 more cases, respectively. Thus, E. histolytica infection was confirmed in 9 cases (15.8%) in the present study. Apart from a significantly higher leukocyte count in E. histolytica-positive patients than in negative patients (median, 13,760 versus 10,385 cells/μl, respectively, P = 0.02), there were no other differences in the clinical features of the PCR-positive and -negative groups. In conclusion, E. histolytica infection was confirmed in 9 (15.8%) of the appendicitis cases. However, only 3, including one diagnosed after intestinal perforation, were diagnosed before the present analyses. These results strongly suggest there is frequently a failure to detect trophozoites in routine examination, resulting in an underestimation of the incidence of amoebic appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Kobayashi et al.

  5. Crohn's disease and recurrent appendicitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shaoul, Ron; Rimar, Yosi; Toubi, Aurora; Mogilner, Jorge; Polak, Reuven; Jaffe, Michael

    2005-11-21

    The clinical diagnosis of classic Crohn's disease (CD) of the small bowel is based on a typical history, tender right lower quadrant fullness or mass, and characteristic radiographic findings of the terminal ileum. Appendicitis may as well present with chronic or recurrent symptoms and this presentation may be confused with CD. We herein describe the case of a young teenage girl with a presumptive diagnosis of CD, who was ultimately diagnosed as having chronic nongranulomatous appendicitis. The literature on the subject is reviewed.

  6. Intestinal Infarction Caused by Thrombophlebitis of the Portomesenteric Veins as a Complication of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis After Appendectomy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaodong; Xie, Xuehai; Yang, Yinmo

    2015-06-01

    The clinical symptoms of pylephlebitis caused by acute appendicitis are varied and atypical, which leads to delayed diagnosis and poor outcomes. Here, we report a case of intestinal necrosis caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins as a complication of acute appendicitis after appendectomy. The patient had acute abdominal pain with tenderness and melena on the 3rd day after appendectomy for the treatment of gangrenous appendicitis. He was diagnosed with intestinal infarction caused by thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins based on enhanced CT and diagnostic abdominal paracentesis. The patient was treated by bowel excision anastomosis and thrombectomy. After postoperative antibiotic and anticoagulation treatments, the patient recovered well and was discharged 22 days after the 2nd operation. A follow-up CT scan showed no recurrence of portomesenteric veins thrombosis 3 months later. Thrombophlebitis of the portomesenteric veins is a rare but fatal complication of acute appendicitis. For all the cases with acute abdominal pain, the possibility of thrombophlebitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Once pylephlebitis is suspected, enhanced CT scan is helpful for early diagnosis, and sufficient control of inflammation as well as anticoagulant therapy should be performed.

  7. Acute appendicitis in children: not only surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Anna Maria; Pane, Alessandro; Garau, Roberto; Atzori, Pietro; Podda, Marcello; Casuccio, Alessandra; Mascia, Luigi

    2017-03-01

    An accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis is important to avoid severe outcome or unnecessary surgery but management is controversial. The aim of study was to evaluate, in younger and older children, the efficacy of conservative management for uncomplicated appendicitis and the outcome of complicated forms underwent early surgery. Children with acute appendicitis were investigated by clinical, laboratory variables and abdominal ultrasound and divided in two groups: complicated and uncomplicated. Complicated appendicitis underwent early surgery; uncomplicated appendicitis started conservative treatment with antibiotic. If in the next 24-48h it was worsening, the conservative approach failed and patients underwent late surgery. A total of 362 pediatric patients were included. One hundred sixty-five underwent early appendectomy; 197 patients were at first treated conservatively: of these, 82 were operated within 24-48h for failure. The total percentage of operated patients was 68.2%. An elevated association was found between surgery and ultrasound. Conservative treatment for uncomplicated appendicitis had high percentage of success (58%). Complications in operated patients were infrequent. Our protocol was effective in order to decide which patients treat early surgically and which conservatively; specific red flags (age and onset) can identified patients at most risk of complications or conservative failure. treatment study. II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Is neopterin a diagnostic marker of acute appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Kağan; Menteş, Oner; Atak, Ayşegül; Aral, Arzu; Eryılmaz, Mehmet; Onguru, Onder; Balkan, Müjdat; Kozak, Orhan; Cetiner, Sadettin

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute appendicitis, even for experienced surgeons, can sometimes be complex. A delay in diagnosis increases the complication rate. This experimental study aimed to investigate the suitability and significance of neopterin as a marker for acute appendicitis. The levels of neopterin were measured using an acute appendicitis animal model in 35 New Zealand male rabbits. They were divided into 5 groups as Group 1= control; Group 2= sham; and Groups 3 (12-hour); 4 (24-hour); and 5 (48-hour) (based on the elapsed time period before their appendectomies). The neopterin levels of each group were measured by neopterin enzyme immunoassay kit in blood samples (taken before the appendectomies in Groups 3, 4 and 5). For the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, the optimal cut-off point was 34.475 nmol/L. The probability of acute appendicitis was found to be 4.667 times higher when the neopterin level was greater than 34.475 nmol/L. This study was an experimental animal study; however, it provides valuable clues useful in clinical assessment. Neopterin seems to have great potential as a new diagnostic marker for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

  9. Immunocytochemical analysis of cellular infiltrates in human appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kuga, T; Taniguchi, S; Inoue, T; Zempo, N; Esato, K

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the immunologic cellular composition in human appendicitis and its association with the development of perforated appendicitis. Appendiceal specimens from 27 patients with acute appendicitis were immunostained to detect lymphocyte surface markers. Moreover, the lymphocyte surface markers of peripheral blood were analyzed by laser flow cytometry in 12 patients. Helper T lymphocytes (CD4) were present in all the patients, while B lymphocytes (CD19), natural killer (NK) cells (CD56), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8) were present in 7 (70%), 10 (100%), and 9 patients (90%) with perforated appendicitis, and in 12 (63.2%), 10 (58.8%), and 6 (54.5%) patients without perforation, respectively. There were significant differences between the patients with a perforated appendix and those without perforation, in the positivity rate for CD8 and CD56 cells (P < 0.05). The number of cells positive for CD56, being NK cells, in the blood from the patients with perforation was significantly lower than that in the blood from those without perforation (P < 0.05). The infiltration of a greater number of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells was observed in the appendices from patients with perforated appendicitis than in those from patients with nonperforated appendicitis.

  10. Is Enterobius vermicularis infestation associated with acute appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Akkapulu, N; Abdullazade, S

    2016-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis might be seen in specimens of patients who underwent surgery due to acute appendicitis. There is still debate as to E. vermicularis infestation causes acute appendicitis. The primary aim of this study is to determine the incidence of E. vermicularis infestation, and the secondary aim is to determine the possible role of E. vermicularis in pathogenesis of appendicitis as well as the adequacy of demographic data and laboratory values in predicting infestation preoperatively. A retrospective investigation was conducted with all patients who underwent appendectomy due to acute appendicitis in a secondary care center. Patients with E. vermicularis were compared with 24 controls that underwent appendectomy during the same time period. Demographic data, preoperative white blood cell (WBC) count, eosinophil counts, and histopathological findings for both groups were analyzed and compared. Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the appendectomy materials in 9 of 1446 patients (0.62 %). Histopathologically, only one of nine patients had acute appendicitis while the others were diagnosed with lymphoid hyperplasia. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups except WBC count. However, the WBC count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the group which was detected E. vermicularis. Enterobius vermicularis is rarely associated with the histopathological findings of acute appendicitis. Also eosinophil count and elevation of white blood counts are inadequate for predicting preoperative E. vermicularis.

  11. Intravascular lymphoma mimicking vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Prayson, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare malignancy which is characterized by a proliferation of atypical appearing B cells, generally confined to vascular lumina. A tissue biopsy demonstrating the pathology is required to make a diagnosis. The tumor is often disseminated at the time of diagnosis and prognosis is poor, even with aggressive chemotherapy. Neurologic presentations of this neoplasm can be quite varied. This report documents the presence of intravascular lymphoma diagnosed on a brain biopsy in a 60-year-old man. He initially presented 6months before brain biopsy with chest pain and hypotension, warranting coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Four months later, he presented with signs attributed to a stroke (diaphoresis, slumped over in a chair and left hand weakness). He subsequently developed a sudden onset wide-based gait, left leg numbness, word finding difficulties and worsening confusion. A MRI study showed multiple infarcts in the brain, including cerebellum. Invasive angiogram suggested vasculitis. He was started on a course of treatment for presumed central nervous system vasculitis. He continued to develop signs suggestive of ongoing infarct development and a biopsy from the right parietal was taken. The biopsy showed atypical intravascular CD20 positive staining B cells, consistent with intravascular lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dirofilariasis Mimicking an Acute Scrotum.

    PubMed

    Bertozzi, Mirko; Rinaldi, Victoria Elisa; Prestipino, Marco; Giovenali, Paolo; Appignani, Antonino

    2015-10-01

    Human infections caused by Dirofilaria repens have been reported in many areas of the world. We describe a case of a 3-year-old child with an intrascrotal mass caused by D repens mimicking an acute scrotum. This represents the first case of scrotal dirofilariasis described in pediatric age with such an unusual presentation.

  13. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis mimicking gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ewelukwa, Ofor; Ali, Omair; Akram, Salma

    2014-05-08

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a benign, uncommon variant of chronic cholecystitis characterised by focal or diffuse destructive inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish tumour-like masses in the wall of the GB. This article reports on a 74-year-old woman with XGC mimicking GB cancer.

  14. Ruptured hepatic abscess mimicking perforated viscus.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yen-Chun; Su, Yu-Jang; Chang, Wen-Han

    2008-11-01

    In the majority of pneumoperitoneum cases we diagnose perforated viscus. We present herein a case of ruptured hepatic abscess mimicking perforated viscus. A 40-year-old man presented to the emergency room with fever and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. The fever had been on/off for a period of 1 month. On physical examination, diffuse abdominal pain with rebounding tenderness was noted. Blood tests showed leukocytosis with left shift, hyperglycemia, and elevated liver function tests. A chest X-ray showed a subdiaphragmatic region air-fluid level, indicating a hepatic abscess. Pneumoperitoneum was also seen. Owing to the status of peritonitis, computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was performed and revealed an air-containing liver abscess in the right lobe of the liver. Perforation of a hollow organ was also suspected because of the pneumoperitoneum. An emergent laparotomy was immediately performed for the suspicion of a hollow organ perforation. No perforation of the hollow viscus was found. The ruptured hepatic abscess was attributed to the pneumoperitoneum. A blood culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae four days later, and the same organism was also found in a surgical specimen culture of the abscess. For a ruptured hepatic abscess, surgical intervention with draining of the abscess and cleaning of the abdominal cavity are essential to save patient lives.

  15. A hybrid approach to appendicitis with right external iliac artery pseudo aneurysm: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Benjamin T; Ryer, Evan J; Keyser, Benjamin M; Elmore, James R

    2017-01-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common surgical problem, the simultaneous occurrence of appendicitis and an infected iliac artery pseudoaneurysm is exceedingly rare. We report the successful treatment of an infected right external iliac artery pseudo aneurysm in the 1setting of acute appendicitis. The patient is an 83-year-old male who presents with severe sepsis, right lower quadrant and right leg pain. Additional past medical history is significant for rectal cancer status post resection and radiation therapy in 1997. Computed tomography (CT) on admission revealed a right iliopsoas muscle abscess, an inflamed Appendix and a pseudo aneurysm arising from the right external iliac artery. After consultations by multiple specialties, the plan was to proceed with percutaneous drainage of the abscess, antibiotic therapy and subsequent repair of the pseudoaneurysm. CT guided drainage of the iliopsoas abscess was performed with return of hemorrhagic fluid. Due to the concern of contained pseudoaneurysm rupture, the patient was taken for expedited repair. Due to the patient's frailty and hostile abdomen, we performed embolization of the right external iliac artery pseudoaneurysm with Amplatzer I plugs (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul MN) and left common femoral to right superficial femoral bypass with cryopreserved cadaveric femoral vein. Following pseudoaneurysm exclusion, continued percutaneous drainage and antibiotic therapy, the patient has done well with no further evidence of infection. Repair of infected pseudo aneurysms can prove challenging. Ongoing infection, a hostile surgical abdomen and patient frailty further complicates the treatment of these patients. This case displays a minimally invasive approach to this rare but morbid condition. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Computed tomography-based clinical diagnostic pathway for acute appendicitis: prospective validation.

    PubMed

    Antevil, Jared L; Rivera, Louis; Langenberg, Bret J; Hahm, George; Favata, Michael A; Brown, Carlos V R

    2006-12-01

    Despite our regular use of CT for suspected appendicitis, a recent study at our institution demonstrated a negative appendectomy (NA) rate similar to our rate 15 years earlier. Based on analysis of this data, a diagnostic pathway was implemented prospectively for adult patients with possible appendicitis. Rates of CT, NA, and perforation for nonpregnant patients over 14 years of age undergoing appendectomy between August 2001 and August 2002 (PRE) were compared with prospectively collected pathway data (PATH, August 2004 to August 2005). All PATH patients were evaluated by a surgeon before CT. All females underwent CT. CT was obtained in male patients with low suspicion or pain for longer than 48 hours. After negative CT, patients were discharged from the emergency department or admitted for observation. There was a substantial decrease in NA rate after implementation of the pathway (4% PATH [8 of 183] versus 16% PRE [31 of 196], p < 0.001), without a change in the rate of perforation (11% PATH [20 of 175] versus 8% PRE [13 of 165], p = 0.28) or frequency of preoperative CT (59% PATH [108 of 183] versus 60% PRE [118 of 196], p = 0.84). Frequent appendiceal CT alone does not ensure surgical diagnostic accuracy. CT need not be used in all patients to achieve very low NA rates. An evidence-based diagnostic algorithm incorporating early surgical evaluation, objective criteria for preoperative CT, deterrence of early operation after negative CT, and use of CT to facilitate safe discharge led to substantial improvements in the care of our adult population presenting with possible appendicitis.

  17. No Circadian Variation in Surgeons' Ability to Diagnose Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Anders Bech; Amirian, Ilda; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Boel, Thomas; Gögenur, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    To examine if there were circadian variations in surgeons' ability to diagnose acute appendicitis. Retrospective database study of all patients admitted to an acute surgical procedure under the potential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a 4-year period. The day was divided into 2 time intervals, day to evening hours (08:00-23:59) and night hours (00:00-07:59). Relevant data regarding the admission and surgical procedures were categorized into these 2 time intervals. Department of Surgery at a Danish university hospital in Copenhagen. A total of 2366 patients were included. There were no age limitations or selection in sex. There was no significant difference in the ability to diagnose appendicitis in day-evening hours vs night hours (p = 0.391), nor was any significant difference found on weekdays (Monday-Thursday) vs weekends (Friday-Sunday) (p = 0.278). There were no differences in duration of the procedures, rate of conversion, or severity of postoperative surgical complications between the 2 groups. More patients underwent diagnostic imaging during day to evening hours compared with night hours (308 vs 46; p = 0.014). The use of imaging had no effect on the ability to diagnose appendicitis. Male sex showed a higher probability of the diagnosis being appendicitis compared with other or no pathology (odds ratio: 3.094; p < 0.001). Age between 40 and 80 years was significantly associated with a higher probability of the diagnosis being appendicitis compared with other or no pathology. The negative appendectomy rate was 10.5%. We found no difference in the surgeons' ability to diagnose acute appendicitis during night hours compared with day to evening hours. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute appendicitis in latino children: do health disparities exist?

    PubMed

    Boomer, Laura; Freeman, Jennifer; Landrito, Earl; Feliz, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Significant racial and socioeconomic disparities have been found in the diagnosis and treatment of acute appendicitis in children. There has been little focus on the outcomes of Latino children with appendicitis. This study evaluates whether ethnicity or insurance status are associated with differences in presentation and outcomes of children with acute appendicitis. A retrospective analysis was performed for all children between the ages of 2 and 18 y with acute appendicitis between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008 at the only teaching hospital in the region. χ(2) and regression analyses were used to evaluate the impact of ethnicity and insurance status on perforation rates and outcomes. A total of 410 children with acute appendicitis were identified, of whom 259 (63.2%) were Latino. Latino children were on public insurance in greater proportion (34.8% versus 19.9%) compared with non-Latino children (P = 0.001). The perforation rate for the entire sample was 29.6%. There were no significant differences in perforation rates with respect to ethnicity, insurance status (private, public, none), or age. Once within the medical system, there were no significant differences in radiologic studies performed, types of operations received, length of stay, or number of complications between ethnic groups. There have been multiple reports showing disparities in the rates of perforated appendicitis in children. At our institution, we observed no differences in the presentation and care of children with acute appendicitis with respect to ethnicity and insurance status. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing soft tissue infections in the elderly: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, H; Nomura, H; Yasuda, K; Kuroda, D; Kato, M; Ohyanagi, H

    1999-01-01

    A case of acute appendicitis complicated with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) in an extremely elderly woman (98 years-old) is reported. She was admitted to our hospital with a history of increasing pain localized in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed appendicolithiasis and periappendiceal fluid. An appendectomy and closure of the perforated cecum was performed. On the 5th post-operative day, the patient developed skin erythemas and crepitation in the right lower quadrant. An exploration and drainage of the recent operative incision was performed under the diagnosis of NSTIs. Despite the declining overall incidence of appendicitis, it has been increasing among the elderly. The elderly patients are associated with underlying defects in immune function. NSTIs, which are characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis of soft tissue, comprise a spectrum of disease ranging from necrosis of the skin to life-threatening infections. The most common etiology of NSTIs was post-operative infections of the abdominal wall, which primarily occurred after operations with extensive fecal contamination. NSTIs are no longer a rare post-operative complication in the elderly and initial treatment should be selected according to the condition of the patient.

  20. Non-fecalith-induced appendicitis: etiology, imaging, and pathology.

    PubMed

    Swischuk, Leonard E; Chung, Dai H; Hawkins, Hal K; Jadhav, Siddharth P; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to document the imaging and pathology findings in non-fecalith-induced appendicitis. We reviewed the imaging and pathologic findings in 40 patients with histologically proven purulent appendicitis seen over a 2-year period. Findings documented were (1) total appendiceal involvement, (2) predominant appendiceal tip involvement, (3) presence of a fecalith, and (4) presence of lymphoid hyperplasia. There were a total of 40 patients, 28 males and 12 females. The age range was 2-18 years with a mean of 11.5 years. Twenty-two (55 %) patients demonstrated classic purulent appendicitis of the whole appendix, 20 (91 %) of these appendices had a fecalith. Eighteen (45 %) patients demonstrated purulent appendicitis confined to or predominately involving the tip of the appendix, and all 18 (100 %) patients demonstrated marked lymphoid hyperplasia. Only two (11 %) of these appendices had a fecalith. Overall, a fecalith was found in only 55 % of our cases, while 45 % demonstrated no fecalith, but rather marked lymphoid hyperplasia. Lymphoid hyperplasia appeared to be the underlying predisposing cause of purulent appendicitis in these cases.

  1. Ultrasound for Appendicitis: Performance and Integration with Clinical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Löfvenberg, Fanny; Salö, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of ultrasound in pediatric appendicitis and the integration of US with the pediatric appendicitis score (PAS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Method. An institution-based, retrospective study of children who underwent abdominal US for suspected appendicitis between 2012 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric surgery center. US results were dichotomized, with a nonvisualized appendix considered as a negative examination. Results. In total, 438 children were included (mean 8.5 years, 54% boys), with an appendicitis rate of 29%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US were 82%, 97%, 92%, and 93%, respectively, without significant age or gender differences. Pediatric radiologists had significantly higher sensitivity compared to general radiologists, 88% and 71%, respectively (p < 0.01), but no differences were seen for specificity, PPV, and NPV. The sensitivity, NPV, and negative likelihood ratio for the combination of negative US, PAS < 5, and CRP < 5 mg/L were 98%, 98%, and 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.15). Conclusion. US may be a useful tool for evaluating children with suspected appendicitis, regardless of age or gender, and should be the first choice of imaging modalities. Combining US with PAS and CRP may reduce several unnecessary admissions for in-hospital observation.

  2. Parasitic Infestation in Pediatric and Adolescent Appendicitis: A Local Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ossama M.; Zakaria, Hazem M.; Daoud, Mohamed Yasser; Al Wadaani, Hamed; Al Buali, Waleed; Al-Mohammed, Hamdan; Al Mulhim, Abdulrahman S.; Zaki, Wafaa

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship between parasites and pediatric appendicitis is a highly debatable issue. This study aims to investigate the role of parasitic infestation in the etiology of acute pediatric appendicitis. Methods A retrospective study including 1600 pediatric and adolescent patients who had undergone surgical therapy for a diagnosis of acute appendicitis over a period of ten years from Jan 2001 to Dec 2010. Demographic data were retrieved including the patient's age, sex, clinical data, clinical presentations, laboratory investigations, operative data and pathological findings to identify the presence and type of parasites. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n: 88), parasitic infestation was observed, whereas in group II (n: 1502), no parasitic infestation was present. Results Parasites were present in 5.5% (88 patients), and of those 88 parasitic infestations, 45 (51.1%) were Enterobaisis, 8 (9.1%) were Schistosomiasis, 23 (26.1%) were Ascariasis, 7 (8%) Trichuriasis, and 5 (5.7%) were Teania Saginata. The percentage of patients with suppurative, gangrenous or perforated appendicitis was similar in both groups with no statistical significance, irrespective of the presence or absence of parasitic infestation. Conclusion The low prevalence of parasites among the appendectomy specimens did not support the notion that parasites were a major cause of appendicitis in pediatric patients. PMID:23599875

  3. Diagnosing perforated appendicitis in pediatric patients: a new model.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Veerle A B; Euser, Sjoerd M; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; de Korte, Niels; Sanders, Dave G M; de Winter, Derek; Vergroesen, Diederik; van Groningen, Krijn; de Winter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Studies have investigated sensitivity and specificity of symptoms and tests for diagnosing appendicitis in children. Less is known with regard to the predictive value of these symptoms and tests with respect to the severity of appendicitis. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of patient's characteristics and tests for discriminating between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis in children. Pediatric patients who underwent an appendectomy at Spaarne Hospital Hoofddorp, the Netherlands, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013, were included. Baseline patient's characteristics, history, physical examination, laboratory data and results of ultrasounds were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of perforation. In total, 375 patients were included in this study of which 97 children (25.9%) had significant signs of perforation. Univariate analysis showed that age, duration of complaints, temperature, vomiting, CRP, WBC, different findings on ultrasound and the diameter of the appendix were good predictors of a perforated appendicitis. The final multivariate prediction model included temperature, CRP, clearly visible appendix and free fluids on ultrasound and diameter of the appendix and resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91 showing sensitivity and specificity of respectively 85.2% and 81.2%. This prediction model can be used for identification of 'high-risk' children for a perforated appendicitis and might be helpful to prevent complications and longer hospitalization by bringing these children to theater earlier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Acute appendicitis. Surgical and non-surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Souza-Gallardo, Luis Manuel; Martínez-Ordaz, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis represents a common disease for the surgeon with a relative risk between 7-8%. It was thought that if more time passed between diagnosis and treatment, the risk for complications, such as perforation or abscess formation, was higher; nevertheless; the evolution is variable, making necessary the development of different strategies such as antibiotic use only, interval surgery or endoscopic treatment. The purpose of this study is to make a revision in the management of appendicitis comparing conservative and surgical treatment. It is known that traditional management of appendicitis is appendectomy with a complication rate of 2.5% to 48%. Nowadays, laparoscopy is the approach of choice by many surgeons and there have proposed new invasive techniques such as endoscopic treatment with the use of prosthesis and ambulatory surgery. Antibiotic use is essential in the management of appendicitis. Its use as the only strategy to treat this disease has the purpose of lowering costs and diminishing complications related to surgery or the resection of the organ. We conclude that the ideal management of appendicitis remains controversial and it will depend of the clinical characteristics of each patient and the resources available.

  5. Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of appendicitis in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shatrughan Prasad; Bhadani, Punam Prasad

    2006-07-01

    This study set out to determine the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in surgically removed appendices and to assess the possible relation of the parasite to acute appendicitis. All 624 surgically removed appendices received in the Department of Pathology, BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal during 2(1/2) years (August 1999-January 2002) were examined. E. vermicularis was identified in nine (1.62%) appendices from the patients with a clinical diagnosis of appendicitis. The parasite was most frequently seen in histologically normal appendices (6/71) and was rarely associated with histological change of acute appendicitis (3/539). No cases of E. vermicularis infestation occurred in appendices showing chronic inflammation or removed during the course of other surgical procedures. E. vermicularis was found more frequently in uninflamed and histologically normal appendices (8.45%) than those which were inflamed with histopathologic changes of acute appendicitis (0.56%). It may be a cause of symptoms resembling acute appendicitis although the mechanism for this does not involve mucosal invasion by the parasite.

  6. Ultrasound for Appendicitis: Performance and Integration with Clinical Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Löfvenberg, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of ultrasound in pediatric appendicitis and the integration of US with the pediatric appendicitis score (PAS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Method. An institution-based, retrospective study of children who underwent abdominal US for suspected appendicitis between 2012 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric surgery center. US results were dichotomized, with a nonvisualized appendix considered as a negative examination. Results. In total, 438 children were included (mean 8.5 years, 54% boys), with an appendicitis rate of 29%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US were 82%, 97%, 92%, and 93%, respectively, without significant age or gender differences. Pediatric radiologists had significantly higher sensitivity compared to general radiologists, 88% and 71%, respectively (p < 0.01), but no differences were seen for specificity, PPV, and NPV. The sensitivity, NPV, and negative likelihood ratio for the combination of negative US, PAS < 5, and CRP < 5 mg/L were 98%, 98%, and 0.05 (95% CI 0.03–0.15). Conclusion. US may be a useful tool for evaluating children with suspected appendicitis, regardless of age or gender, and should be the first choice of imaging modalities. Combining US with PAS and CRP may reduce several unnecessary admissions for in-hospital observation. PMID:28044133

  7. Appendicitis in pregnancy: a case report and a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Chloptsios, C; Stamatiou, K; Kavouras, N; Moustakis, E; Ilias, G; Lebrun, F

    2007-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical problem in pregnancy. Antibiotic treatment does not always improve the outcome and emergency intervention is required. We present a case of appendicitis complicated by a plastron formation occurring during pregnancy and the outcome.

  8. Prospective evaluation of the ability of clinical scoring systems and physician-determined likelihood of appendicitis to obviate the need for CT.

    PubMed

    Golden, Sean K; Harringa, John B; Pickhardt, Perry J; Ebinger, Alexander; Svenson, James E; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Li, Zhanhai; Westergaard, Ryan P; Ehlenbach, William J; Repplinger, Michael D

    2016-07-01

    To determine whether clinical scoring systems or physician gestalt can obviate the need for computed tomography (CT) in patients with possible appendicitis. Prospective, observational study of patients with abdominal pain at an academic emergency department (ED) from February 2012 to February 2014. Patients over 11 years old who had a CT ordered for possible appendicitis were eligible. All parameters needed to calculate the scores were recorded on standardised forms prior to CT. Physicians also estimated the likelihood of appendicitis. Test characteristics were calculated using clinical follow-up as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn. Of the 287 patients (mean age (range), 31 (12-88) years; 60% women), the prevalence of appendicitis was 33%. The Alvarado score had a positive likelihood ratio (LR(+)) (95% CI) of 2.2 (1.7 to 3) and a negative likelihood ratio (LR(-)) of 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7). The modified Alvarado score (MAS) had LR(+) 2.4 (1.6 to 3.4) and LR(-) 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8). The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) score had LR(+) 1.3 (1.1 to 1.5) and LR(-) 0.5 (0.4 to 0.8). Physician-determined likelihood of appendicitis had LR(+) 1.3 (1.2 to 1.5) and LR(-) 0.3 (0.2 to 0.6). When combined with physician likelihoods, LR(+) and LR(-) was 3.67 and 0.48 (Alvarado), 2.33 and 0.45 (RIPASA), and 3.87 and 0.47 (MAS). The area under the curve was highest for physician-determined likelihood (0.72), but was not statistically significantly different from the clinical scores (RIPASA 0.67, Alvarado 0.72, MAS 0.7). Clinical scoring systems performed equally well as physician gestalt in predicting appendicitis. These scores do not obviate the need for imaging for possible appendicitis when a physician deems it necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Diagnosis of Pediatric Appendicitis: Is MR Imaging More Appropriate than CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-30

    More Appropriate than CT? presented at/published to Should Non-Contrast Rapid MRE Evaluation of Clinically Suspected Pediatric Appendicitis Trump ...Appendicitis Trump CT after Equivocal Ultrasound? 6. TITLE OF MA TE RIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Electronic Poster: Diagnosis of Pediatric Appendicitis...MRI Evaluation o f C:Iinically Suspected Pediatric Appendicitis Trump CT after Equivocal Ultrasound? (Ng 181 11c. POSTER (To be demonstrated at

  10. More than one-third of successfully nonoperatively treated patients with complicated appendicitis experienced recurrent appendicitis: Is interval appendectomy necessary?

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yujiro; Uchida, Hiroo; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Fujiogi, Michimasa; Suzuki, Keisuke; Takazawa, Shinya; Deie, Kyoichi; Amano, Hizuru; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2016-12-01

    Although nonoperative treatment (non-OPT) for complicated appendicitis is performed widely, the long-term outcomes and merits of interval appendectomy (IA) need to be evaluated. Between April 2007 and December 2013, all appendicitis patients with well-circumscribed abscess or phlegmon were required to select either laparoscopic surgery (OPT) or non-OPT with optional IA on admission. Optional IA was planned at ≥3months after non-OPT. For non-OPT, intravenous injection of antibiotics was continued until the serum C-reactive protein concentration decreased to <0.5mg/dL, with occasional drainage of abscesses. Thirty-three patients chose OPT, and 55 chose non-OPT. Among non-OPT patients, 16 selected IA. The success rate of non-OPT was 98.2%. Recurrence occurred in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 non-IA group patients. Although the non-IA group patients frequently had perforated appendicitis at recurrence, they visited the hospital earlier than at the initial appendicitis and had less inflammation. Readmission rate or complications in patients undergoing IA were not different compared with those of the patients in the non-IA group, who had recurrence at ≥3months, or with those of patients in the OPT group. Although many patients experienced recurrent appendicitis after successful nonoperative treatment, IA may not be necessary after non-OPT. Prospective comparative study, level II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Medicinal and diagnostic laparoscopy in conditions of appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Efimenko, N A; Chursin, V V; Stepanov, A A; Balalykin, A S

    2007-08-01

    The article presents the results of analyze of diagnostic laparoscopy on the example of 1028 patients with clinical characters of appendicitis, diagnosis of 682 patients (66.3%) is conformed. 667 patients (99.3%) had transformation of laparoscopy from diagnostic to medicinal. Postoperative prearranged sanitational laparoscopy was conducted with 28 patients (4.5%), including 1 time--21 patients, 2 times--6 patients, 3 times--patient. 24 patients had different complications (intraperitoneal hemorrhage, commissural and paralytic terminal ileuses, abscesses and infiltrates of abdominal cavity, infiltrates of anterior abdominal wall, subcutaneous eventration of small intestinal loop). There were no lethal outcomes. Average day in a hospital in conditions of acute appendicitis is 4.2 day, in conditions of chronic appendicitis--3.1 day.

  12. Procalcitonin as a predictor of severe appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Kafetzis, D A; Velissariou, I M; Nikolaides, P; Sklavos, M; Maktabi, M; Spyridis, G; Kafetzis, D D; Androulakakis, E

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) in 212 children with appendicitis and compare it with that of the standard diagnostic modalities, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, leukocyte count, and abdominal ultrasound findings, in relation to the surgical and histological findings of the appendix. A PCT value of >0.5 ng/ml was found to be indicative of perforation or gangrene with 73.4% sensitivity and 94.6% specificity, a CRP level of >50 mg/l and a leukocyte count of >10(4)/mm3 were useful diagnostic markers for perforation, while abdominal ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 91.2% for detecting appendicitis with imaging findings. PCT measurement seems to be a useful adjunctive tool for diagnosing acute necrotizing appendicitis or perforation, and surgical exploration will probably be required in patients with PCT values >0.5 ng/ml.

  13. Relationship between Enterobius vermicularis and the incidence of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Dehghani, Mahmoud Reza

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between Enterobius vermicularis and the occurrence of acute appendicitis. Over a ten year period of time, all appendix specimens received by the department of pathology were reviewed for pathologic changes and the existence of E. vermicularis. Logistic regression was carried out to determine the odds ratio (OR) of the relationship between E. vermicularis and acute appendicitis. A total of 5048 specimens were reviewed. E. vermicularis was found in 144 (2.9%) cases. After separating by sex and adjusting for age logistic regression analysis showed the OR of E. vermicularis appendiceal infestation was 1.275 (95% CI = 0.42-3.9) for males and 1.678 (95% CI = 0.61-4.65) for females. Age was an independent risk factor for acute appendicitis in males (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.003-1.017) and females (OR = 1.012, 95% CI = 1.005-1.02).

  14. Simultaneous acute appendicitis and pseudomembranous colitis in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Vidrine, Steven R; Cortina, Chandler; Black, Marissa; Vidrine, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause for pediatric surgery, with an increasing incidence as this population ages. Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) from Clostridum difficle is being seen more frequently in pediatric patients, especially after treatment with antibiotics and in those with Hirschsprung's disease. Only three prior cases of appendicitis associated with PMC have been described in the literature, and all of them occurred in adult patients. Here, we describe the first documented pediatric case: a 16-year-old female who developed acute appendicitis while concomitantly being treated for suspected pseudomembranous colitis. We concur with previous authors that there may be an association between these two pathologies; furthermore, this association may not always be clinically apparent and may be both under-diagnosed and under-reported.

  15. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, and paraoxonase activity in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Hande; Kurban, Sevil; Doğru, Osman

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of oxidative stress including total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, and paraoxonase activity in patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Seventy-three patients who underwent surgery with a preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Group I) were included into the study. The control group (Group II) consisted of thirty otherwise healthy subjects. After histopathologic examination, the patients were categorized as follows: 1) Acute focal appendicitis, 2) Acute advanced appendicitis including acute suppurative, phlegmonous and gangrenous appendicitis, 3) Acute perforated appendicitis, 4) Sub-acute appendicitis, and 5) Negative exploration. Blood samples for paraoxonase activities, and total oxidant and antioxidant status levels were obtained preoperatively. Total oxidant and antioxidant status of the patients in the acute appendicitis group were higher than those of the control group. When paraoxonase activities of Group I was compared with Group II, no significant difference was determined. Both total oxidant and antioxidant status levels of acute perforated appendicitis were higher than those of both acute focal appendicitis and acute advanced appendicitis. The increase in the oxidative status (total oxidant and antioxidant status) was related with the progression of inflammation to the perforation in acute appendicitis.

  16. Staged imaging pathway for the evaluation of pediatric appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Chien, Ming; Habis, Arie; Glynn, Loretto; O'Connor, Ann; Smith, Tracie L; Prendergast, Francis

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant radiation exposure involved with computed tomography (CT) in evaluation of pediatric appendicitis, its use is still widespread. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a staged imaging pathway for appendicitis to significantly decrease CT use while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. Chart review was performed for patients evaluated for appendicitis over a 12-month period prior to and after pathway implementation. There was a significant decrease in CT use as initial imaging after implementation of the pathway; 87.1-13.4 % for evaluations positive for appendicitis (decrease 84.6 %, p < 0.0001) and 82.6-9.2 % for evaluations negative for appendicitis (decrease 88.9 %, p < 0.0001). Use of CT during any point in the evaluation decreased from 91.7 to 25.1 % (decrease 72.6 %, p < 0.0001). The negative appendectomy rate was similar; 5.4 % prior, 4.9 % post (p = 0.955). The missed appendicitis rate did not statistically change; 1.1 % prior, 3.7 % post (p = 0.523). The perforation rate was not statistically altered; 6.5 % prior; 9.8 % post (p = 0.421). 350 less patients underwent CT during the year following the pathway. The staged imaging pathway resulted in a marked decrease in children exposed to CT without compromising diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Comparison of laparoscopic, open, and converted appendectomy for perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Piskun, G; Kozik, D; Rajpal, S; Shaftan, G; Fogler, R

    2001-07-01

    Perforated appendicitis is associated with a significant risk of postoperative abdominal and wound infection. Only a few controversial studies evaluate the role of laparoscopy in perforated appendicitis. The significance of conversion from laparoscopy to open appendectomy for perforated appendicitis is not well defined. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. Data on 52 patients with perforated appendicitis were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Among these patients, 18 had laparoscopic appendectomies (LA); 24 had open appendectomies (OA); and 10 had converted appendectomies (CA). The indications for either method were based on the attending surgeons's philosophy. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed using a retrograde stapler technique. Operative time, hospital stay, ability to tolerate a liquid diet, and postoperative infectious complications were documented. No statistically significant difference in the operative time in minutes was found between the LA (114 +/- 29.3), CA (120.0 +/- 32.2), and OA (105.8 +/- 64.1) groups (p = NS). There was no statistically significance difference in length of stay (days) between the LA (9.2 +/- 4.1), OA (10.5 +/- 3.3), and CA (10.0 +/- 1.8) groups. The wound infection rate was less frequent in the LA group (0%) than in 0A (14%) and CA (10%) groups. The rate of intra-abdominal abscess infections (IAAs) and ileus were 22% and 28%, respectively, in LA group, 38% and 29%, respectively, in OA group, and 60% and 50%, respectively, in CA group. No difference in the rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses exists between laparoscopic and open appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. Wound infections and ileus complicate the postoperative course of patients after laparoscopic appendectomy less frequently than after open appendectomy. The conversion of laparoscopic to open appendectomy for perforated appendicitis is associated with increased postoperative morbidity.

  18. A bibliometric analysis of the citation classics of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Varzgalis, Manvydas; Bowden, Dermot J; Mc Donald, Ciaran K; Kerin, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most commonly encountered emergency surgical conditions. An understanding of the most highly cited research works in this field is key to good evidence based clinical practice. To perform a bibliometric analysis on the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field of acute appendicitis. The database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science Expanded citation index was searched to identify the 100 most frequently cited articles in the field of acute appendicitis. The web of science expanded citation index tracks article citations made since 1946. The top 100 most frequently cited articles were selected for analysis in this series. The most frequently cited article was cited 649 times and the least cited three article 93 times. The average number of citations per article was 167.74. The top 100 cited articles originated from 17 countries. Over half of the papers originated from the USA. Fifty-one of the papers concentrated on diagnostics of acute appendicitis. Thirty-six papers looked at the treatment of acute appendicitis with 30 of these dealing with the surgical management of the disease. There were 6 studies at level 1a, 20 studies at level 1b and 43,5,17 and 9 studies at levels 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Bibliometric analysis of the citation classics in a given field can provide interesting insights into the relationship between the quality of research outputs and clinical practice. The study of acute appendicitis remains an active field of research with a growing body of higher quality evidence underpinning our clinical practice.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis causing an endometrial abscess: radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Altay, Canan; Yavuz, Esra; Egeli, Tufan; Canda, Emre Aras; Sarioglu, Sulen; Secil, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Xanthogranulomatous inflammation (XGI) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition most commonly involving the kidneys and gallbladder. The condition is histopathologically characterized by the presence of foamy histiocytes, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. A few reports describing appendicitis caused by XGI have appeared in the English-language literature. However, no study has yet focused on the imaging features of xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XGA). We present a pathologically confirmed case of XGA with an endometrial abscess; the patient underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of XGA with uterine and right adnexal involvement presenting as a complicated pelvic abscess on radiological imaging.

  20. [The Alvarado score validation in diagnosing acute appendicitis in children at Braga Hospital].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Jean Pierre; Cerqueira, Arnaldo; Martins, Sofia

    2011-12-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is the leading cause of emergency abdominal surgery in children. The diagnosis is essentially clinical, but some methodologies, such as Alvarado score (AS), have been developed in order to avoid non-therapeutic laparotomy (15-30%). AS ≥ 5 or 6 is compatible with AA and is an indication for the patient to remain on observations, if AS ≥ 7 a laparotomy procedure may be indicated. To validate the AS for the AA diagnosis of children admitted at Braga Hospital. A validation study of diagnostic method (AS) using the histological examination as a gold standard. The study population consisted of 192 children (4-17 years) with abdominal pain that underwent appendectomy in the last 20 months (December 2008 to July 2010). It was determined the values of sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratio (LR) and the ROC curve for three different cut-off points (SA =5, 6 and 7). We found that as the cut-off point of AS decreases progressively the sensitivity and specificity increases and reduces the VPN and VPP. Assuming a cut-off value of 5, only 18 children would be false negatives, instead of the 67 children if the cut-off point was 7 points. The analysis of ROC curves demonstrated a greater area under the curve for a cut-off equal to or greater than 5 (AUC = 70%). We recommend using a cut-off value of 5 points, since only 18 children with AA were initially classified as appendicitis unlikely, this value would increase to 67 patients for the SA value of ≥ 7. The AS is a valuable tool in screening children with abdominal pain for the diagnosis of AA. Nonetheless the diagnosis and final decision must be based on clinical and systematic reassessment of patients.

  1. Lepra Reaction with Lucio Phenomenon Mimicking Cutaneous Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Parida, Jyoti Ranjan; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Pani, Krushna Chandra; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis. PMID:25580317

  2. Lepra reaction with lucio phenomenon mimicking cutaneous vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Parida, Jyoti Ranjan; Chowdhury, Abhra Chandra; Pani, Krushna Chandra; Kumari, Niraj; Krishnani, Narendra; Agarwal, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis.

  3. Primary oral leishmaniasis mimicking oral cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Celentano, A; Ruoppo, E; Mansueto, G; Mignogna, M D

    2015-04-01

    Primary mucosal leishmaniasis is a rare infectious disease, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present a 50-year-old patient with a 6-week history of a painful lesion of the left buccal mucosa that mimicked cancer. The exophytic lesion looked invasive, and we took an incisional biopsy specimen to exclude cancer. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was unexpected, and the patient was successfully treated with amphotericin B for five weeks. After five months the patient had a visceral recurrence. Chronic exophytic and ulcerated mucosal lesions that do not heal within 3-4 weeks should be regarded as the first signs of oral cancer, but primary oral leishmaniasis can easily mimic it.

  4. Intimal Sarcoma of the Descending Aorta Mimicking Aortitis

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Angela; De Martino, Andrea; Levantino, Maurizio; Berchiolli, Raffaella; Basolo, Fulvio; Bortolotti, Uberto

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 74-year-old male patient with an intimal sarcoma of the descending aorta mimicking aortitis. The patient presented with lower back pain, fever, and increased C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) serum levels, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis-positive blood cultures. These findings, together with evidence of a 49-mm pseudoaneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta, caused us to suspect aortitis. However, postoperative histology and immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of an intimal aortic sarcoma. At the 8-month follow-up, local recurrence of the neoplasm and lung metastases were noted. PMID:28097198

  5. Risk factors of delayed diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children: for early detection of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jea Yeon; Jo, Jeong Hyun; Hann, Tchah; Kim, Seong Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the risk factors of a delayed diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children undergoing an appendectomy. Methods This retrospective study involved children aged below 18 years, who underwent an appendectomy. After dividing them into a delayed diagnosis group and nondelayed diagnosis group according to the time interval between the initial hospital visit and final diagnosis, the risk factors of delayed diagnosis were identified using logistic regression analysis. Results Among 712 patients, 105 patients (14.7%) were classified in the delayed diagnosis group; 92 patients (12.9%) were diagnosed using ultrasonography (US), and both US and computed tomography were performed in 38 patients (5.3%). More patients in the delayed diagnosis group underwent US (P=0.03). Spring season and prior local clinic visit were significantly associated with a delayed diagnosis. Fever and diarrhea were more common in the delayed diagnosis group (fever: odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.81; diarrhea: OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.08–3.46; P<0.05). These patients showed symptoms for a longer duration (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.78–3.78; P<0.05), and the admission course (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11–1.44; P<0.05) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.19–1.82; P<0.05) were associated with the delayed diagnosis. Conclusion To decrease the rate of delayed diagnoses of acute appendicitis, symptoms such as fever and diarrhea, seasonal variations, admission course, and CRP levels should be considered and children with a longer duration of symptoms should be closely monitored. PMID:27721841

  6. Cervical spinal meningioma mimicking intramedullary spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Senem; Guzel, Aslan; Guzel, Ebru; Bayrak, Aylin Hasanefendioğlu; Sav, Aydin

    2009-01-01

    Case report. To report a very unusual spinal meningioma, mimicking an intramedullary spinal tumor. Spinal meningiomas, usually associated with signs and symptoms of cord or nerve root compression, are generally encountered in women aged over 40. Radiologic diagnosis is often established by their intradural extramedullary location on magnetic resonance images. A 60-year-old woman had a 6-month history of progressive weakness in her upper extremities, difficulty in walking, and cervical pain radiating through both arms. Neurologic examination revealed motor strength deficiency in all her extremities, with extensor reflexes, clonus, and bilateral hyper-reflexiveness. A sensory deficit was present all over her body. Magnetic resonance images revealed that the spinal cord appeared expanded with an ill-defined, homogeneously contrast-enhanced, lobulated, eccentric mass at the C1-C3 level. The patient was operated with a preliminary diagnosis of an intramedullary tumor. At surgery, the mass was found to be extramedullary, and gross total resection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed a meningioma characterized by the presence of fibrous and meningothelial components. The patient was able to ambulate with a cane, and extremity strength and sensation improved 2 months after surgery. Spinal meningiomas can mimic intramedullary tumors, and should be considered in differential diagnosis of intradural tumors with atypical appearance.

  7. Megakaryocytes mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hoda, Syed A; Resetkova, Erika; Yusuf, Yasmin; Cahan, Anthony; Rosen, Paul P

    2002-05-01

    False-positive diagnosis of lymph nodes occurs when a benign element in a lymph node, or in its capsule, is interpreted as metastatic carcinoma. This report describes a patient with breast carcinoma who had megakaryocytes in axillary sentinel lymph nodes mimicking metastatic carcinoma. The patient had no history of a hematologic disease, and we found no evidence of a concurrent hematopoietic disorder. The megakaryocytes were reactive for CD31, CD61, and von Willebrand factor, but not for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). Megakaryocytes should be added to the list of benign histologic abnormalities that may simulate metastatic carcinoma in a sentinel lymph node.

  8. Norwegian scabies mimicking rupioid psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Juliana Bastos; de Sousa, Virna Lygia Lobo Rocha; da Trindade Neto, Pedro Bezerra; Paulo Filho, Thomás de Aquino; Cabral, Virgínia Célia Dias Florêncio; Pinheiro, Patrícia Moura Rossiter

    2012-01-01

    Norwegian scabies is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by an ectoparasite, Scarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis, which mainly affects immunosuppressed individuals. Clinically, it may simulate various dermatoses such as psoriasis, Darier's disease, seborrheic dermatitis, among others. This is a case report of a 33-year-old woman, immunocompetent, diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (cancer phobia), who had erythematous, well-defined plaques, covered with rupioid crusts, on her neck, axillary folds, breast, periumbilical region, groin area, besides upper back and elbows, mimicking an extremely rare variant of psoriasis, denominated rupioid psoriasis. PMID:23197214

  9. Tinea capitis mimicking folliculitis decalvans.

    PubMed

    Tangjaturonrusamee, C; Piraccini, B M; Vincenzi, C; Starace, M; Tosti, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on an adult patient with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis, who presented with diffuse alopecia and follicular pustules, mimicking folliculitis decalvans. Examination of the scalp showed severe alopecia with prominent involvement of the frontal and vertex scalp: the skin was markedly erythematous with pustules and brownish crusts. Videodermoscopy revealed visible follicular ostia, numerous pustular lesions and several comma hairs. Fluconazole 150 mg a week for 8 weeks associated with ketoconazole shampoo cleared the inflammatory lesions and produced complete hair regrowth. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. The great mimickers of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Olazagasti, Jeannette; Lynch, Peter; Fazel, Nasim

    2014-07-01

    Although rosacea is one of the most common conditions treated by dermatologists, it also is one of the most misunderstood. It is a chronic disorder affecting the central parts of the face and is characterized by frequent flushing; persistent erythema (ie, lasting for at least 3 months); telangiectasia; and interspersed episodes of inflammation with swelling, papules, and pustules. Understanding the clinical variants and disease course of rosacea is important to differentiate this entity from other conditions that can mimic rosacea. Herein we present several mimickers of rosacea that physicians should consider when diagnosing this condition.

  11. Splenic inflammatory pseudotumor mimicking angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Chang, Hong-Tai

    2008-11-07

    Splenic tumors are rare. Differentiation of the tumors before operation is of great value regarding the outcome. A case of a 32-year-old man with a splenic inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) mimicking splenic angiosarcoma is described. The tumor was highly suspected of being splenic angiosarcoma based on radiological findings preoperatively. However, after splenectomy, histopathological examinations revealed splenic IPT. Splenic IPT and angiosarcoma are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties because the clinical and radiological findings are obscure. Due to large differences in prognosis, we briefly reviewed the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of both of the tumors.

  12. Splenic inflammatory pseudotumor mimicking angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chao-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Chang, Hong-Tai

    2008-01-01

    Splenic tumors are rare. Differentiation of the tumors before operation is of great value regarding the outcome. A case of a 32-year-old man with a splenic inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) mimicking splenic angiosarcoma is described. The tumor was highly suspected of being splenic angiosarcoma based on radiological findings preoperatively. However, after splenectomy, histopathological examinations revealed splenic IPT. Splenic IPT and angiosarcoma are rare and often pose diagnostic difficulties because the clinical and radiological findings are obscure. Due to large differences in prognosis, we briefly reviewed the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of both of the tumors. PMID:19009664

  13. Diagnostic value of red blood cell distribution width in pediatric acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Bozlu, Gulcin; Taskinlar, Hakan; Unal, Selma; Alakaya, Mehmet; Nayci, Ali; Kuyucu, Necdet

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) in children with acute appendicitis. In this retrospective study, a total of 344 children aged ≤18 years with clinically suspected acute appendicitis who underwent appendectomy between January 2007 and January 2014 were reviewed, and 200 healthy controls of the same age group were included. Based on histopathology, the patients were classified as having normal appendix, simple or perforated appendicitis, and preoperative white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP) and RDW were compared. Compared with the controls, mean WBC, CRP and RDW were significantly higher in the appendectomy group (P <0.001). The children with simple or perforated appendicitis had significantly higher WBC, CRP and RDW than did those with normal appendix (P <0.001). Mean WBC and CRP were significantly higher in the children with perforated appendicitis (P <0.001), but no statistically significant difference was found in RDW between the simple and perforated appendicitis groups (P = 0.081). Children with histologically proven acute appendicitis have higher RDW than children without appendicitis, but the diagnostic value of RDW was not superior to WBC or CRP in children with acute appendicitis. Although higher RDW may be valuable for aiding the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children, it is not a useful marker for predicting perforated appendicitis. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Impact of Age on Pain Perception for Typical Painful Diagnoses in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Daoust, Raoul; Paquet, Jean; Piette, Éric; Sanogo, Karine; Bailey, Benoit; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Age-related differences in pain perception have been demonstrated in experimental settings but have been investigated scarcely and without valid scale in the clinical framework. To examine the effect of age on pain perception for recognized painful diagnoses encountered in the emergency department (ED). A post-hoc analysis of real-time archived data was performed in a tertiary urban and a secondary regional ED. We included all consecutive adult patients (≥18 years) with the following diagnosis at discharge: renal colic, pancreatitis, appendicitis, headache/migraine, dislocation and extremities fractures, and a pain evaluation of ≥1 (0-10, verbal numerical scale) at triage. The primary outcome was to compare for each of these diagnoses the level of pain intensity between four age groups (18-44; 45-64; 65-74; 75+ years). A total of 15,670 patients (48% women) were triaged with a mean pain intensity of 7.7 (SD=2.0). Women exhibited greater pain scores than men for pancreatitis, headache/migraine, and extremity fracture. Renal colic, pancreatitis, appendicitis, and headache/migraine showed a linear decrease in pain scores with age whereas dislocation and extremity fractures did not present age differences. Mean differences in pain intensity scores between young adults (18-44 years) and patients aged ≥75 years were 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.5-1.1) for renal colic, 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) for pancreatitis, 0.70 (95% CI 0.2-1.2) for appendicitis, and 0.86 (95% CI 0.6-1.1) for headache/migraine. Older patients perceive similar pain for dislocation and extremity fractures and less for visceral and headache/migraine pain; however, these age differences may not be clinically important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review of nonoperative versus operative treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Ramon R; The, Sarah-May M L; Gorter-Stam, Marguerite A W; Eker, Hasan H; Bakx, Roel; van der Lee, Johanna H; Heij, Hugo A

    2017-08-01

    To compare the risk of complications between initial nonoperative treatment and appendectomy of uncomplicated (simple) appendicitis in children. Systematic literature search. Eligible for inclusion were both and randomized controlled trials and cohort studies including children in which the outcome of nonoperative treatment of uncomplicated appendicitis was reported with a minimum follow-up period of one year. Two authors extracted data independently and assessed quality. Primary outcome parameter was the percentage of children experiencing complications. Secondary outcomes were early failures, recurrent appendicitis and appendectomies, for all indications and on request. Five of the 2051 articles screened were eligible for inclusion, including 147 children (nonoperative treatment) and 173 children (appendectomy) with one year follow-up. Percentage of children experiencing complications ranged from 0 to 13% versus 0-17% for nonoperative and appendectomy, respectively. Nonoperative treatment avoided an appendectomy in 62-81% of the children after one year follow-up. The evidence base for initial nonoperative treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis in children is by far insufficient. It suggests that the percentage of patients experiencing complications in the initial nonoperative treatment group is comparable to the appendectomy group, and it may avoid an appendectomy in the large majority of children after one year follow-up. Systematic review. 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. New synthetic strategies for xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins

    PubMed Central

    Darcsi, Andras; Balint, Mihaly; Benkovics, Gabor; Sohajda, Tamas; Beni, Szabolcs

    2016-01-01

    Summary Xanthene dyes can be appended to cyclodextrins via an ester or amide bridge in order to switch the fluorescence on or off. This is made possible through the formation of nonfluorescent lactones or lactams as the fluorophore can reversibly cyclize. In this context we report a green approach for the synthesis of switchable xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins based on the coupling agent 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM). By using 6-monoamino-β-cyclodextrin and commercially available inexpensive dyes, we prepared rhodamine- and fluorescein-appended cyclodextrins. The compounds were characterized by NMR and IR spectroscopy and MS spectrometry, their UV–vis spectra were recorded at various pH, and their purity was determined by capillary electrophoresis. Two potential models for the supramolecular assembly of the xanthene-dye-appended cyclodextrins were developed based on the set of data collected by the extensive NMR characterization. PMID:27340446

  17. O knowledge, where art thou? Evidence and suspected appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Boehnert, Markus U; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2009-12-01

    Much effort goes into developing and publishing guidelines which physicians fail to implement. We feel that major discrepancies still exist between theory and reality and that the translational approach to this aspect of medical care has not yet established itself. We therefore decided to investigate in an exemplary audit how liberally inappropriate imaging is used in our emergency department (ED) to rule out acute appendicitis. Our electronic medical record ED database 'Qualicare' (http://www.qualidoc.ch) was searched using the 'appendicitis' sub data base. The frequency and accuracy of abdominal imaging was determined in patients with clinically suspected appendicitis on admission over a 5-year period at a university hospital emergency unit. In total, 272 (41.2%) of the 577 patients were male and 305 (46.3%) were female. The attending physicians ordered abdominal X-rays in 133 patients, abdominal ultrasounds in 319, and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scans in 93 patients. 125 patients underwent more than one imaging procedure. In all, 85/125 patients received a combination of X-rays, ultrasound and CT scanning! Physicians are often insecure about indications for surgery and therefore order useless imaging procedures. The reliability of such procedures in excluding acute appendicitis is limited, which was confirmed by our results. Although evidence-based medicine guidelines exist, they are neglected for many reasons. Future academic efforts should therefore focus more on knowledge translation and the implementation of existing knowledge by heightening awareness, rather than on simply creating new guidelines.

  18. Harms of CT scanning prior to surgery for suspected appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, William; Hoffman, Jerome; Noori, Naudereh

    2015-02-01

    In this brief analysis we compare the risks and benefits of performing a CT scan to confirm appendicitis prior to surgery instead of operating based on the surgeon's clinical diagnosis. We conclude that the benefit of universal imaging is to avoid 12 unnecessary appendectomies but the cost of those 12 avoided surgeries is one cancer death due to the imaging.

  19. Faecolith Examination for Spectrum of Parasitic Association in Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Karthika; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; R, Vinoth

    2014-01-01

    Background: The appendix is a vestigial organ which is infiltrated by faecal material, microbes and parasites. The most important aetio-pathology of appendicitis is obstruction of its lumen, by a faecolith. This results from accumulation and inspissation of faecal matter around vegetable fibres. The cause for appendicitis is numerous and one among them is parasitic infestation. Aims: To analyze the faecolith present in the appendectomy specimen for parasites and to compare the results in fresh and preserved specimens. Materials and Methods: Patients with acute/chronic appendicitis were subjected for surgery and the appendectomy specimens were collected in saline and formalin suspensions, for preservation purposes. The lumen was washed with normal saline and contents were collected and wet mount preparations were examined under low and high power microscopy. Results: Among 100 specimens 48 faecolith analyses proved to be positive for parasitic association, giving 48% positivity, which is quite high. The commonest isolate was followed by mixed infection. In our study we observed that saline preparations were easy for handling and we were also able to demonstrate the undistorted morphology of parasite better than formalin preserved specimens. Conclusion: This study reveals the importance of analyzing the appendectomy specimen for understanding the etiopathogenisis of appendicitis in spite of having a negative stool microscopy. A post surgical analysis of appendectomy specimen may surprise you with different etiological agents as confirmed by our study. PMID:24995176

  20. Faecolith examination for spectrum of parasitic association in appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Jada, Sunil Kumar; Jayakumar, Karthika; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; R, Vinoth

    2014-05-01

    The appendix is a vestigial organ which is infiltrated by faecal material, microbes and parasites. The most important aetio-pathology of appendicitis is obstruction of its lumen, by a faecolith. This results from accumulation and inspissation of faecal matter around vegetable fibres. The cause for appendicitis is numerous and one among them is parasitic infestation. To analyze the faecolith present in the appendectomy specimen for parasites and to compare the results in fresh and preserved specimens. Patients with acute/chronic appendicitis were subjected for surgery and the appendectomy specimens were collected in saline and formalin suspensions, for preservation purposes. The lumen was washed with normal saline and contents were collected and wet mount preparations were examined under low and high power microscopy. Among 100 specimens 48 faecolith analyses proved to be positive for parasitic association, giving 48% positivity, which is quite high. The commonest isolate was followed by mixed infection. In our study we observed that saline preparations were easy for handling and we were also able to demonstrate the undistorted morphology of parasite better than formalin preserved specimens. This study reveals the importance of analyzing the appendectomy specimen for understanding the etiopathogenisis of appendicitis in spite of having a negative stool microscopy. A post surgical analysis of appendectomy specimen may surprise you with different etiological agents as confirmed by our study.

  1. Antibiotic Duration After Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Acute Complicated Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    van Rossem, Charles C; Schreinemacher, Marc H F; van Geloven, Anna A W; Bemelman, Willem A

    2016-04-01

    Optimal duration of antibiotic treatment to reduce infectious complications after an appendectomy for acute complicated appendicitis remains unclear. To investigate the effect of antibiotic duration on infectious complications after laparoscopic appendectomy for acute complicated appendicitis. National multicenter prospective, observational, surgical resident-led cohort study conducted in June and July 2014. This study involved academic teaching hospitals (n = 8), community teaching hospitals (n = 38), and community nonteaching hospitals (n = 16), and all consecutive patients (n = 1975) who underwent surgery for suspected acute appendicitis. Patients treated laparoscopically for whom the antibiotic regimens were prolonged postoperatively because of complicated appendicitis. Receiving either 3 or 5 days of antibiotic treatment as planned and additional variables were explored as risk factors for infectious complications using regression analyses. A total of 1975 patients were included in 62 participating Dutch hospitals; 1901 (96.3%) of these underwent an appendectomy for acute appendicitis and laparoscopy was used in 74.4% of these patients (n = 1415). In 415 laparoscopically treated patients, antibiotic treatment was continued for more than 24 hours because of acute complicated appendicitis (29.3%). The prescribed antibiotic duration varied between 2 and 6 days in all of these patients. In 123 patients (29.6%), the length of treatment was adjusted. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment (3 days instead of 5) had no significant effect on any infectious complication (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.38-2.32; P = .88) or on intra-abdominal abscess development (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.34-2.35; P = .81). Perforation of the appendix was the only independent risk factor for the development of an infectious complication (OR, 4.90; 95% CI, 1.41-17.06; P = .01) and intra-abdominal abscess (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 1.65-33.66; P = .009) in multivariable regression analysis

  2. Effect of ambient air pollution on the incidence of appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Gilaad G.; Dixon, Elijah; Panaccione, Remo; Fong, Andrew; Chen, Li; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Wheeler, Amanda; MacLean, Anthony; Buie, W. Donald; Leung, Terry; Heitman, Steven J.; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of appendicitis is unclear. We evaluated whether exposure to air pollution was associated with an increased incidence of appendicitis. Methods We identified 5191 adults who had been admitted to hospital with appendicitis between Apr. 1, 1999, and Dec. 31, 2006. The air pollutants studied were ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and suspended particulate matter of less than 10 μ and less than 2.5 μ in diameter. We estimated the odds of appendicitis relative to short-term increases in concentrations of selected pollutants, alone and in combination, after controlling for temperature and relative humidity as well as the effects of age, sex and season. Results An increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average of ozone was associated with appendicitis (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–1.25). In summer (July–August), the effects were most pronounced for ozone (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.57), sulfur dioxide (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03–1.63), nitrogen dioxide (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.20–2.58), carbon monoxide (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01–1.80) and particulate matter less than 10 μ in diameter (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05–1.38). We observed a significant effect of the air pollutants in the summer months among men but not among women (e.g., OR for increase in the 5-day average of nitrogen dioxide 2.05, 95% CI 1.21–3.47, among men and 1.48, 95% CI 0.85–2.59, among women). The double-pollutant model of exposure to ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the summer months was associated with attenuation of the effects of ozone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.48) and nitrogen dioxide (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.97–2.24). Interpretation Our findings suggest that some cases of appendicitis may be triggered by short-term exposure to air pollution. If these findings are confirmed, measures to improve air quality may help to decrease rates of appendicitis. PMID:19805497

  3. What patients and surgeons should know about the consequences of appendectomy for acute appendicitis after long-term follow-up: factors influencing the incidence of chronic abdominal complaints.

    PubMed

    Ditzel, M; van Ginhoven, T M; van der Wal, J B C; Hop, W; Coene, P P L O; Lange, J F; van der Harst, E

    2013-08-01

    Abscess formation and perforation are complications of acute appendicitis that lead to localized or generalized peritonitis. The long-term implications of complicated appendectomy remain largely unknown. In the present study, it was investigated whether patients with complicated appendicitis experienced more abdominal complaints after long-term follow-up when compared to uncomplicated cases. In addition, the influence of operation technique (open versus laparoscopic) was studied. A retrospective analysis of 1,481 appendectomies for acute appendicitis was performed in two centers from January 2000 until January 2006. Demographic data, operative reports, intraoperatively adhesions and complications, abdominal pain, and satisfaction were monitored. In total, 1,433 patients were invited to fill out a questionnaire with a median follow-up of 7.1 years. Questionnaires of 526 (37 %) patients were suitable for analysis. Perforation, abdominal abscesses, or adhesions at initial operation did not result in more abdominal complaints when compared to appendectomy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. Additionally, no significant differences in abdominal complaints were seen between laparoscopic and open techniques. In conclusion, the results of our study show that after follow-up of 7 years, the incidence of abdominal complaints was not influenced by operative technique or whether acute appendicitis was complicated or not. This finding does not support a causative role for adhesions with regard to chronic abdominal complaints. Our data enables surgeons to inform their patients about the long-term results of appendectomy, whether it was complicated or not.

  4. Neutral vs positive oral contrast in diagnosing acute appendicitis with contrast-enhanced CT: sensitivity, specificity, reader confidence and interpretation time

    PubMed Central

    Naeger, D M; Chang, S D; Kolli, P; Shah, V; Huang, W; Thoeni, R F

    2011-01-01

    Objective The study compared the sensitivity, specificity, confidence and interpretation time of readers of differing experience in diagnosing acute appendicitis with contrast-enhanced CT using neutral vs positive oral contrast agents. Methods Contrast-enhanced CT for right lower quadrant or right flank pain was performed in 200 patients with neutral and 200 with positive oral contrast including 199 with proven acute appendicitis and 201 with other diagnoses. Test set disease prevalence was 50%. Two experienced gastrointestinal radiologists, one fellow and two first-year residents blindly assessed all studies for appendicitis (2000 readings) and assigned confidence scores (1=poor to 4=excellent). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Total interpretation time was recorded. Each reader's interpretation with the two agents was compared using standard statistical methods. Results Average reader sensitivity was found to be 96% (range 91–99%) with positive and 95% (89–98%) with neutral oral contrast; specificity was 96% (92–98%) and 94% (90–97%). For each reader, no statistically significant difference was found between the two agents (sensitivities p-values >0.6; specificities p-values>0.08), in the area under the ROC curve (range 0.95–0.99) or in average interpretation times. In cases without appendicitis, positive oral contrast demonstrated improved appendix identification (average 90% vs 78%) and higher confidence scores for three readers. Average interpretation times showed no statistically significant differences between the agents. Conclusion Neutral vs positive oral contrast does not affect the accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT for diagnosing acute appendicitis. Although positive oral contrast might help to identify normal appendices, we continue to use neutral oral contrast given its other potential benefits. PMID:20959365

  5. An evaluation of the relationship between Enterobius vermicularis infestation and acute appendicitis in a paediatric population--A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, C A; Kearney, D E; Moriarty, P; Redmond, H P; Andrews, E J

    2015-06-01

    Enterobius vermicularis is an often unexpected finding in appendectomy specimen, most commonly seen in paediatric cases. Predicting the presence of E. vermicularis in the setting of appendectomy is important to avoid unnecessary appendectomy and associated morbidity. We sought to identify the incidence of E. vermicularis in a paediatric population undergoing appendectomy for clinically suspected acute appendicitis and identify predictive factors for E. vermicularis. This study was performed in an 800-bed University Teaching Hospital, in the Republic of Ireland. We identified all paediatric appendectomies performed at our institute from January to December 2012 using prospectively maintained operating theatre logbooks. In-hospital Histopathology database, medical notes and operative findings were reviewed for each patient and relevant data recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS, version 21. In total 182 paediatric appendectomies were performed during the year 2012 for clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Demographics included: Mean age 11.14 years (3-16), gender 1M: 1F. 58.8% of procedures were completed laparoscopically, 39% open and 2.2% were converted. The negative appendectomy rate was 22.5%. The annual incidence of E. vermicularis in acute appendicitis specimen from a paediatric cohort at our institute was 7% (1 in 14). In specimen containing E. vermicularis, 69% had no evidence of appendicitis and of those that had, no gangrene or perforation was seen. The presence of E. vermicularis in paediatric patients with RIF pain may be predicted by Eosinophilia (p = 0.016), normal WCC (p = 0.034) and normal Neutrophil count (p = 0.014). E. vermicularis is responsible for 7% of acute appendicitis. It is responsible for a significantly higher negative appendectomy rate which if predicted may avoid unnecessary appendectomy and associated morbidity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The RIPASA score is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in a western population.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Usman; Connelly, Tara M; Awan, Faisal; Pretorius, Frederik; Fiuza-Castineira, Constantino; El Faedy, Osama; Balfe, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The definitive diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) requires histopathological examination. Various clinical diagnostic scoring systems attempt to reduce negative appendectomy rates. The most commonly used in Western Europe and the USA is the Alvarado score. The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha appendicitis (RIPASA) score achieves better sensitivity and specificity in Asian and Middle Eastern populations. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the RIPASA score in Irish patients with AA. All patients who presented to our institution with right iliac fossa pain and clinically suspected AA between January 1 and December 31, 2015, were indentified from our hospital inpatient enquiry database and retrospectively studied. Operating theatre records and histology reports confirmed those who underwent a non-elective operative procedure and the presence or absence of AA. SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis. Standard deviation is provided where appropriate. Two hundred eight patients were included in the study (106/51% male, mean age 22.7 ± 9.2 years). One hundred thirty-five (64.9%) had histologically confirmed AA (mean symptom duration = 36.19 ± 15.90 h). At a score ≥7.5, the previously determined score most likely associated with AA in Eastern populations, the RIPASA scoring system demonstrated a sensitivity of 85.39%, specificity of 69.86%, positive predictive value of 84.06%, negative predictive value of 72.86% and diagnostic accuracy of 80% in our cohort. The RIPASA score is a useful tool to aid in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the Irish population. A score of ≥7.5 provides sensitivity and specificity exceeding that previously documented for the Alvarado score in Western populations. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO THE LITERATURE?: This is the first study evaluating the utility of the RIPASA score in predicting acute appendicitis in a Western population. At a value of 7.5, a cut-off score suggestive of appendicitis in the

  7. Association between climatic elements and acute appendicitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuto; Kojimahara, Noriko; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Endo, Motoki; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2017-05-01

    In Japan, it has been reported that an increase in atmospheric pressure is associated with a higher incidence of acute appendicitis. The aim of this epidemiologic study was to investigate the association between climatic elements and the incidence of acute appendicitis. A case-crossover design was used in the present study. Two wk before diagnosis was used for the target period. The same 2-wk period, but 1, 2, and 3 y before diagnosis, was used for the control period. The study participants were patients with acute appendicitis (10-29 y) from 14 facilities in the Greater Tokyo Area. Mean of the observed values for atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and hours of sunshine calculated for each target and control period were used as climatic elements to investigate trends 1 and 2 wk before diagnosis. The year of diagnosis, a statistically significant moderate upward trend in atmospheric pressure was observed during the 2-wk period before diagnosis of acute appendicitis (tau = 0.47; P = 0.0213), whereas a weak nonsignificant downward trend was observed 1 y before diagnosis (tau = -0.29; P = 0.1596), and weak nonsignificant upward trends were observed 2 (tau = 0.24; P = 0.2505) and 3 y (tau = 0.28; P = 0.1634) before diagnosis. An association was found between atmospheric pressure and the incidence of acute appendicitis. However, no significant differences were found in relation to sex or age. These findings suggest that changes in atmospheric pressure are associated with the likelihood of patients visiting the hospital. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Alvarado score for predicting acute appendicitis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Alvarado score can be used to stratify patients with symptoms of suspected appendicitis; the validity of the score in certain patient groups and at different cut points is still unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the discrimination (diagnostic accuracy) and calibration performance of the Alvarado score. Methods A systematic search of validation studies in Medline, Embase, DARE and The Cochrane library was performed up to April 2011. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the score at the two cut-off points: score of 5 (1 to 4 vs. 5 to 10) and score of 7 (1 to 6 vs. 7 to 10). Calibration was analysed across low (1 to 4), intermediate (5 to 6) and high (7 to 10) risk strata. The analysis focused on three sub-groups: men, women and children. Results Forty-two studies were included in the review. In terms of diagnostic accuracy, the cut-point of 5 was good at 'ruling out' admission for appendicitis (sensitivity 99% overall, 96% men, 99% woman, 99% children). At the cut-point of 7, recommended for 'ruling in' appendicitis and progression to surgery, the score performed poorly in each subgroup (specificity overall 81%, men 57%, woman 73%, children 76%). The Alvarado score is well calibrated in men across all risk strata (low RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.28; intermediate 1.09, 0.86 to 1.37 and high 1.02, 0.97 to 1.08). The score over-predicts the probability of appendicitis in children in the intermediate and high risk groups and in women across all risk strata. Conclusions The Alvarado score is a useful diagnostic 'rule out' score at a cut point of 5 for all patient groups. The score is well calibrated in men, inconsistent in children and over-predicts the probability of appendicitis in women across all strata of risk. PMID:22204638

  9. Giant cystic sacral schwannoma mimicking tarlov cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Attiah, Mark A; Syre, Peter P; Pierce, John; Belyaeva, Elizaveta; Welch, William C

    2016-05-01

    To present a rare case of a giant schwannoma of the sacrum mimicking a Tarlov cyst. A 58-year-old woman had a 1-year history of low back pain. MRI revealed a large cystic mass in the sacral canal with bony erosion. Radiological diagnosis of Tarlov cyst was made. The patient underwent surgical treatment for the lesion, which revealed a solid mass. Histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has had significant improvement in her pain 1 month postoperatively. Giant cystic schwannoma of the sacrum is a very rare diagnosis overlooked by practitioners for more common cystic etiologies, but its treatment is significantly different. Care should be taken to include this diagnosis in a differential for a cystic sacral mass.

  10. Extensive retroperitoneal and right thigh abscess in a patient with ruptured retrocecal appendicitis: an extremely fulminant form of a common disease.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Horng-Ren; Chung, Ping-Kuei; Jeng, Long-Bin; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2006-01-21

    As a disease commonly encountered in daily practice, acute appendicitis is usually diagnosed and managed easily with a low mortality and morbidity rate. However, acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening. A 56-year-old man, healthy prior to this admission, was brought to the hospital due to spiking high fever, poor appetite, dysuria, progressive right flank and painful swelling of the thigh for 3 d. Significant inflammatory change of soft tissue was noted, involving the entire right trunk from the subcostal margin to the knee joint. Painful disability of the right lower extremity and apparent signs of peritonitis at the right lower abdomen were disclosed. Laboratory results revealed leukocytosis and an elevated C-reactive protein level. Abdominal CT revealed several communicated gas-containing abscesses at the right retroperitoneal region with mass effect, pushing the duodenum and the pancreatic head upward, compressing and encasing inferior vena cava, destroying psoas muscle and dissecting downward into the right thigh. Laparotomy and right thigh exploration were performed immediately and about 500 mL of frank pus was drained. A ruptured retrocecal appendix was the cause of the abscess. The patient fully recovered at the end of the third post-operation week. This case reminds us that acute appendicitis should be treated carefully on an emergency basis to avoid serious complications. CT scan is the diagnostic tool of choice, with rapid evaluation followed by adequate drainage as the key to the survival of the patient.

  11. Inverse heat mimicking of given objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwakil, Ahmed; Zerrad, Myriam; Bellieud, Michel; Amra, Claude

    2017-03-01

    We address a general inverse mimicking problem in heat conduction. The objects to cloak and mimic are chosen beforehand; these objects identify a specific set of space transformations. The shapes that can be mimicked are derived from the conductivity matrices. Numerical calculation confirms all of the analytical predictions. The technique provides key advantages for applications and can be extended to the field of waves.

  12. Challenging mimickers of primary systemic vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Miloslavsky, Eli M; Stone, John H; Unizony, Sebastian H

    2015-01-01

    The need to distinguish true primary systemic vasculitis from its multiple potential mimickers is one of the most challenging diagnostic conundrums in clinical medicine. This article reviews 9 challenging vasculitis mimickers: fibromuscular dysplasia, calciphylaxis, segmental arterial mediolysis, antiphospholipid syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndrome, lymphomatoid granulomatosis, malignant atrophic papulosis, livedoid vasculopathy, and immunoglobulin G4-related disease.

  13. Health Outcomes in US Children with Abdominal Pain at Major Emergency Departments Associated with Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Methods Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children’s hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Results Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 – 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 – 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Conclusions Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery. PMID:26267816

  14. Health outcomes in US children with abdominal pain at major emergency departments associated with race and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Louise; Haberland, Corinna; Thurm, Cary; Bhattacharya, Jay; Park, K T

    2015-01-01

    Over 9.6 million ED visits occur annually for abdominal pain in the US, but little is known about the medical outcomes of these patients based on demographics. We aimed to identify disparities in outcomes among children presenting to the ED with abdominal pain linked to race and SES. Data from 4.2 million pediatric encounters of abdominal pain were analyzed from 43 tertiary US children's hospitals, including 2.0 million encounters in the emergency department during 2004-2011. Abdominal pain was categorized as functional or organic abdominal pain. Appendicitis (with and without perforation) was used as a surrogate for abdominal pain requiring emergent care. Multivariate analysis estimated likelihood of hospitalizations, radiologic imaging, ICU admissions, appendicitis, appendicitis with perforation, and time to surgery and hospital discharge. Black and low income children had increased odds of perforated appendicitis (aOR, 1.42, 95% CI, 1.32- 1.53; aOR, 1.20, 95% CI 1.14 - 1.25). Blacks had increased odds of an ICU admission (aOR, 1.92, 95% CI 1.53 - 2.42) and longer lengths of stay (aHR, 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 - 0.96) than Whites. Minorities and low income also had lower rates of imaging for their appendicitis, including CT scans. The combined effect of race and income on perforated appendicitis, hospitalization, and time to surgery was greater than either separately. Based on race and SES, disparity of health outcomes exists in the acute ED setting among children presenting with abdominal pain, with differences in appendicitis with perforation, length of stay, and time until surgery.

  15. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    PubMed

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis.

  16. A Review of the Predictive Role of Plasma D-Lactate Level in Acute Appendicitis: A Myth or Truth?

    PubMed Central

    Unverir, Pinar; Karcioglu, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common condition which warrants emergency surgery. Detailed history, physical exam, and laboratory findings are often nonspecific in suspected patients. There is substantial evidence to indicate that plasma levels of D-lactate were useful to establish a diagnosis of AA in the medical literature. It has been suggested that it is useful for patients with abdominal pain, especially patients with perforated AA. This paper is designed to highlight the value of D-lactate biomarker in establishing a diagnosis of AA. Based on the literature, it is not helpful for a decision of operation in patients with AA. According to the results of the studies, laboratory involvement was observed between plasma D-lactate level and the final diagnosis of AA, particularly in perforated appendices. It can be considered for routine use in patients with undifferentiated abdominal pain in the emergency department setting. PMID:23724288

  17. Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2008-07-15

    Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to

  18. Pediatric myositis ossificans mimicking osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Yamaga, Kensaku; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Kubota, Daisuke; Setsu, Nokitaka; Tanaka, Yuya; Minami, Yusuke; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Kawai, Akira; Chuman, Hirokazu

    2015-10-01

    Myositis ossificans (MO) is a rare benign cause of heterotopic bone formation in soft tissue that most commonly affects young adults, typically following trauma. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who developed MO mimicking osteosarcoma in her right shoulder. Plain radiography and computed tomography showed poorly defined flocculated densities in the soft tissue and a periosteal reaction along the proximal humerus. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass displayed an ill-defined margin and inhomogeneous signal change. Histologically, the mass had a pseudosarcomatous appearance. Based on these findings, the patient was initially misdiagnosed with osteosarcoma at another hospital. The diagnosis was difficult because the patient was 11 years old and had no trauma history, with atypical radiographic changes and a predilection for the site of origin for osteosarcomas. We finally made the correct diagnosis of MO by carefully reviewing and reflecting on the pathological differences between stages. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Mimicry of Appendicitis Symptomatology in Congenital Anomalies and Diseases of the Genitourinary System and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dalpiaz, Amanda; Gandhi, Jason; Smith, Noel L.; Dagur, Gautam; Schwamb, Richard; Weissbart, Steven J.; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Appendicitis is a prevailing cause of acute abdomen, but is often difficult to diagnose due to its wide range of symptoms, anatomical variations, and developmental abnormalities. Urological disorders of the genitourinary tract may be closely related to appendicitis due to the close proximity of the appendix to the genitourinary tract. This review provides a summary of the urological complications and simulations of appendicitis. Both typical and urological symptoms of appendicitis are discussed, as well as recommended diagnostic and treatment methods. Methods Medline searches were conducted via PubMed in order to incorporate data from the recent and early literature. Results Urological manifestations of appendicitis affect the adrenal glands, kidney, retroperitoneum, ureter, bladder, prostate, scrotum, and penis. Appendicitis in pregnancy is difficult to diagnose due to variations in appendiceal position and trimester-specific symptoms. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are used in diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Treatment of appendicitis may be done via open appendectomy or laparoscopic appendectomy. In some cases, other surgeries are required to treat urological complications, though surgery may be avoided completely in other cases. Conclusion Clinical presentation and complications of appendicitis vary among patients, especially when the genitourinary tract is involved. Appendicitis may mimic urological disorders and vice versa. Awareness of differential diagnosis and proper diagnostic techniques is important in preventing delayed diagnosis and possible complications. MRI is recommended for diagnosis of pregnant patients. Ultrasound is preferred in patients exhibiting typical symptoms. PMID:28413377

  20. Composition of the cellular infiltrate in patients with simple and complex appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Ramon R; Wassenaar, Emma C E; de Boer, Onno J; Bakx, Roel; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Bunders, Madeleine J; van Heurn, L W Ernst; Heij, Hugo A

    2017-06-15

    It is now well established that there are two types of appendicitis: simple (nonperforating) and complex (perforating). This study evaluates differences in the composition of the immune cellular infiltrate in children with simple and complex appendicitis. A total of 47 consecutive children undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis between January 2011 and December 2012 were included. Intraoperative criteria were used to identify patients with either simple or complex appendicitis and were confirmed histopathologically. Immune histochemical techniques were used to identify immune cell markers in the appendiceal specimens. Digital imaging analysis was performed using Image J. In the specimens of patients with complex appendicitis, significantly more myeloperoxidase positive cells (neutrophils) (8.7% versus 1.2%, P < 0.001) were detected compared to patients with a simple appendicitis. In contrast, fewer CD8+ T cells (0.4% versus 1.3%, P = 0.016), CD20 + cells (2.9% versus 9.0%, P = 0.027), and CD21 + cells (0.2% versus 0.6%, P = 0.028) were present in tissue from patients with complex compared to simple appendicitis. The increase in proinflammatory innate cells and decrease of adaptive cells in patients with complex appendicitis suggest potential aggravating processes in complex appendicitis. Further research into the underlying mechanisms may identify novel biomarkers to be able to differentiate simple and complex appendicitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fecal loading in the cecum as a new radiological sign of acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Petroianu, Andy; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Zac, Renata Indelicato

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Although the radiological features of acute appendicitis have been well documented, the value of plain radiography has not been fully appreciated. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the association of acute appendicitis with images of fecal loading in the cecum. METHODS: Plain abdominal radiographs of 400 patients operated upon for acute appendicitis (n = 100), acute cholecystitis (n = 100), right acute pelvic inflammatory disease (n = 100) and right nephrolithiasis (n = 100) were assessed. The presence of fecal loading was recorded and the sensitivity and specificity of this sign for acute appendicitis were calculated. RESULTS: The presence of fecal loading in the cecum occurred in 97 patients with acute appendicitis, 13 patients with acute cholecystitis, 12 patients with acute inflammatory pelvic disease and 19 patients with nephrolithiasis. The sensitivity of this sign for appendicitis was 97% and its specificity to this disease was 85.3%. Its positive predictive value for appendicitis was 68.7%; however, its negative predictive value for appendicitis was 98.8%. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that the presence of radiological images of fecal loading in the cecum may be a useful sign of acute appendicitis, and the absence of this sign probably excludes this disease. This is the first description of fecal loading as a radiological sign for acute appendicitis. PMID:16015695

  2. Diseases mimicking intussusception: diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Ozokutan, Bulent Hayri; Ceylan, Haluk

    2014-10-01

    Intussusception is a common abdominal emergency in early childhood. The aim of this study was to describe the diseases mimicking intussusception and to discuss the causes and management of these conditions. Seven patients who were initially diagnosed as having intussusception on abdominal ultrasonography but who had a final diagnosis of diseases other than intussusception were reviewed retrospectively. Two patients with ileocolic intussusception underwent ultrasonography-guided reduction with a hydrostatic method but the ultrasonographic findings persisted. At surgery, only edematous ileocecal valve and mesenteric lymphadenopathy were observed. In three patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura, initial abdominal ultrasonography showed intussusception. The patients with no sign of obstructive symptoms were managed conservatively with a diagnosis of intramural hemorrhage and on follow up the ultrasonographic findings of intussusception was resolved. One patient with the target sign on computed tomography and ultrasonography of the abdomen underwent ileocolic resection and end-to-end anastomosis due to a tumor in the cecum. There was no evidence of intussusception. One patient with a cyst in the right lower quadrant accompanying intussusception on ultrasonography of the abdomen underwent ultrasonography-guided reduction but the ultrasonographic findings persisted. On exploration, only cecal duplication cyst without intussusception was detected. Cecal resection including the cyst and end-to-end ileocolic anastomosis were performed. Ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, barium or hydrostatic enema and computed tomography are helpful in diagnosing intussusception, but patients with radiologic findings of intussusception should be evaluated on symptoms and clinical findings before surgical intervention. Also, other diseases mimicking intussusception should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Acute appendicitis: clinical outcome in patients with an initial false-positive CT diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Joseph W; Webb, Emily M; Poder, Liina; Yeh, Benjamin M; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Coakley, Fergus V

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the clinical outcome in patients with a diagnosis of appendicitis at computed tomography (CT) in whom treatment is deemed unnecessary after clinical evaluation. After institutional review board approval, 2283 patients (856 men, 1427 women; mean age, 46 years; age range, 18-99 years) who underwent CT because they were suspected of having appendicitis between 2002 and 2007 were retrospectively identified. CT reports were reviewed, and the likelihood of appendicitis was assigned a score on a five-point scale: score 1, definitely absent; score 2, nonvisualized appendix with no secondary signs of inflammation; score 3, equivocal; score 4, probable; and score 5, definitely present. Diagnosis of appendicitis at CT was considered a false-positive result if the CT report was classified as probable or definite appendicitis but the patient was not treated within 4 days. Cases with false-positive results were reviewed by two readers blinded to patient outcome, supporting clinical data, and prospective scan interpretation, and a grade was assigned by using the same scale. Medical records were reviewed to determine outcomes. Descriptional statistics were used. Overall, 516 (23%) of 2283 patients had CT findings of probable or definite appendicitis. Thirteen (3%) of 516 patients did not receive immediate treatment for appendicitis. Of these, five (38%; 95% confidence interval: 18%, 65%) underwent later appendectomy with proved appendicitis after a mean interval of 118 days (range, 5-443 days). Seven (54%) of 13 patients never developed appendicitis across a mean follow-up of 583 days (range, 14-1460 days). One (8%) of 13 had a normal appendix at eventual surgery. Five of 13 patients with CT findings of appendicitis and reassuring clinical evaluation results in whom immediate treatment was deferred ultimately returned with appendicitis. In patients with CT results positive for appendicitis and benign or atypical clinical findings, a diagnosis of chronic or recurrent

  4. Acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    REN, MANYI; ZHANG, CHUNSHENG; ZHANG, XIAOJUAN; ZHONG, JINGQUAN

    2016-01-01

    A number of cases of acute myopericarditis mimicking acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have previously been reported in the literature. However, to the best of our knowledge, such a case resulting from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection has not previously been described. The present study reports the case of a 21-year-old male patient presenting with acute chest pain, in whom focal ST-segment elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes mimicked a diagnosis of AMI. However, acute tuberculous myopericarditis was diagnosed on the basis of a variety of imaging examinations, laboratory tests, as well as the changes observed in electrocardiograms (ECGs) and in the cardiac enzyme levels. The case highlights the importance of a detailed collection of medical history, comprehensive explanations of serial ECGs, thoracic computed tomography, echocardiogram and coronary angiography in the diagnosis and differentiation of acute tuberculous myopericarditis mimicking AMI. PMID:27284323

  5. Ischaemic diverticular disease may mimic acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kara Lee

    2013-01-01

    An 81-year-old man with a medical history significant for diverticulosis and irritable bowel syndrome presented to the emergency department with a 1-day history of periumbilical pain that woke him from sleep and ultimately localised to his right lower quadrant. He reported nausea, anorexia and chills but denied vomiting, diarrhoea, melena, hematochezia or fever. His physical exam was notable for focal tenderness at McBurney's point. Diagnostic information included a normal white blood cell count and an abdominal CT scan that demonstrated a normal appendix with no other pathology noted. The patient opted to proceed with laparoscopy where a normal appendix was found. The caecum, however, contained a large ischaemic diverticulum not noted on CT scan. Following laparoscopic ileocecectomy, pathology demonstrated haemorrhage, inflammation, oedema and full thickness necrosis of the caecal wall. Recovery was uneventful; the patient was discharged from the hospital 3 days following surgery. PMID:23893271

  6. [Surgical management of acute abdominal pain in children].

    PubMed

    Scheye, T

    1999-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most frequent causes of admission to an emergency department of a children's hospital. It continues to be a clinical challenge and the diagnosis viewed with the most apprehension is acute appendicitis. The clinical examination must be meticulous and repeated in order to assess the evolution of the abdominal syndrome and to adapt the paraclinic examinations. All the abdominal pains are not surgical but justify an admission for observation in pediatric surgical department.

  7. Abdominal Pain Caused by a Potentially Fatal Attraction.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Danielle Claire; Scace, Candace; Shah, Bhairav; Weiner, Evan; Prasad, Rajeev

    2016-11-19

    Abdominal pain is a challenging presentation in children. Examination findings and etiology vary greatly, spanning a vast spectrum from flatulence to frank peritonitis with septic shock. Here, we discuss a 10-year-old boy with 24 hours of progressively worsening lower abdominal pain, nausea, and subjective fevers. History and physical examination findings were consistent with appendicitis. However, physicians were surprised when the single-view abdominal radiograph showed an unanticipated, somewhat perplexing discovery.

  8. Bone tumor mimickers: A pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Mhuircheartaigh, Jennifer Ni; Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Jim S

    2014-01-01

    Focal lesions in bone are very common and many of these lesions are not bone tumors. These bone tumor mimickers can include numerous normal anatomic variants and non-neoplastic processes. Many of these tumor mimickers can be left alone, while others can be due to a significant disease process. It is important for the radiologist and clinician to be aware of these bone tumor mimickers and understand the characteristic features which allow discrimination between them and true neoplasms in order to avoid unnecessary additional workup. Knowing which lesions to leave alone or which ones require workup can prevent misdiagnosis and reduce patient anxiety. PMID:25114385

  9. Conservative treatment in uncomplicated acute appendicitis: reassessment of practice safety.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Zvi; Buklan, Genady; Stackievicz, Rodica; Gutermacher, Michael; Litmanovitz, Ita; Golani, Guy; Arnon, Shmuel

    2017-04-01

    The success rate of conservative treatment for children with uncomplicated appendicitis was prospectively evaluated among 197 children. All who received intravenous antibiotics for 3-5 days, and if symptoms resolved, were discharged home on oral antibiotics for 5 days. Failure rate, symptoms, laboratory signs, and sonographic findings were evaluated for prognostic markers of treatment failure. Children were followed for 18 months. The success rate of conservative treatment was 87%, with shorter hospital stays compared to children who eventually needed surgery (72 [60-84] vs. 84 h [72-126], P = 0.001). Vomiting and/or nausea and intraluminal fluid on sonography were the only prognostic signs of failed treatment (P = 0.028 and P = 0.0001, respectively). After multi-regression analysis, intraluminal fluid was the only prognostic sign for failed treatment (odds ratio = 10.2; 95% CI 3.3-31.8, P = 0.001). Patients who failed conservative treatment were successfully operated without significant morbidity. Pathology findings were compatible with acute or subacute inflammation in 94% of operated AA, with no perforated appendices. When applying rigorous criteria for children with uncomplicated appendicitis, a high success rate can be achieved with conservative treatment. Those who fail conservative treatment have a benign medical course without serious complications. Intraluminal fluid may increase risk for conservative treatment failure. What is Known: • Conservative treatment in uncomplicated acute appendicitis is a reasonable alternative to appendectomy. What is New: • Using rigorous criteria for conservative treatment in uncomplicated acute appendicitis is safe and feasible. • Intraluminal fluid should be considered a contraindication to conservative treatment.

  10. Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictive factor in acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Eren, T; Tombalak, E; Ozemir, I A; Leblebici, M; Ziyade, S; Ekinci, O; Alimoglu, O

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to establish the role of hyperbilirubinemia as a predictive parameter for the prediction of either acute, or gangrenous/perforated appendicitis as well as to compare other parameters in a similar role. Medical files of the patients who underwent appendectomies between September 2013 and September 2014 were evaluated. Age, gender, preoperative white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), neutrophil percentage (NEU%), C-reactive protein (CRP), total/direct/indirect bilirubin levels, and the postoperative histopathological findings were recorded. The Fisher's exact, Pearson's χ (2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests while logistic regression for multivariate analysis was performed. p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. The study group of 162 patients consisted of 97 (60 %) men and 65 (40 %) women with a median age of 36 (18-90). Histopathological examinations revealed normal appendix in 21 (13 %) patients, non-complicated acute appendicitis in 100 (62 %), and appendiceal gangrene/perforation in 41 (25 %) patients. WBC, NEU, NEU%, and CRP levels were significantly higher in cases of acute and gangrenous/perforated appendicitis (p < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin levels were also significantly elevated in patients with acute and gangrenous/perforated appendicitis (p < 0.01). According to multivariate analysis, elevated CRP levels were associated with 14 times, elevated total bilirubin levels were associated with five times, and elevated direct bilirubin levels were associated with 36 times greater risk for appendiceal gangrene/perforation (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Hyperbilirubinemia, especially with elevated direct bilirubin levels, may be considered as an important marker for the prediction of appendiceal gangrene/perforation.

  11. Morbidity of Peripherally Inserted Central Catheters in Pediatric Complicated Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Sulkowski, Jason P.; Asti, Lindsey; Cooper, Jennifer N.; Kenney, Brian D.; Raval, Mehul V.; Rangel, Shawn J.; Deans, Katherine J.; Minneci, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes of pediatric patients with complicated appendicitis managed with or without a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). Methods Patients ≤18 years old in the Pediatric Health Information System database with complicated appendicitis that underwent appendectomy during their index admission in 2000–2012 were grouped by whether they had a PICC placed using relevant procedure and billing codes. Rates of subsequent encounters within 30 days of discharge along with associated diagnoses and procedures were determined. A propensity score matched (PSM) analysis was performed to account for differences in baseline exposures and severity of illness. Results We included 33,482 patients with complicated appendicitis, of whom 6,620 (19.8%) received a PICC and 26,862 (80.2%) did not. The PICC group had a longer post-operative length of stay (median 7 vs. 5 days, p<0.001), and were more likely to undergo intra-abdominal abscess drainage during the index admission (14.4% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001), and have a re-encounter (17.5% vs. 11.4%, p<0.001) within 30 days of discharge. However, in the PSM cohort (n=4,428 in each group), outcomes did not differ between treatment groups, although the PICC group did have increased odds for development of other post-operative complications (odds ratio=3.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.45, 10.71). Conclusions After accounting for differences in severity of illness by propensity score matching, patients managed with PICCs had a similar risk for nearly all post-operative complications, including re-encounters. Post-operative management of pediatric complicated appendicitis with a PICC is not clearly associated with improved outcomes. PMID:24721604

  12. A decade of laparoscopic appendectomy: presentation of 1,026 patients with suspected appendicitis treated in a single surgical department.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos M; Anastasakou, Kornilia A; Vorias, Michael N; Sambalis, George H; Georgiou, Michael K; Xiarchos, Anastasios G

    2008-04-01

    The laparoscopic approach for suspected appendicitis is increasingly gaining acceptance. Nevertheless, the discussion on its safety, efficacy, indications, and diagnostic accuracy remains open. During the decade 1993-2003, 1026 patients with suspected appendicitis were approached by laparoscopy. Sixty-three patients (6.1%) had chronic recurrent symptoms. Data were collected retrospectively and analyzed. There were 587 female and 439 male patients. Fertile women were compared to all other patients with respect to the diagnostic accuracy of laparoscopy. Conversion rate was 0.55%. Median operating time was 26 minutes. Overall complication rate was 5.7%, consisting mostly of minor complications. There were no major intraoperative complications. Wound infections and intra-abdominal abscesses were reviewed separately and were 1.1% and 0%, respectively. Diagnosis could be established via laparoscopy in 89% of all patients, 85.4% of fertile women, and 93.1% of patients except fertile women. A median of 4 minor analgesics and 2 narcotics were required after surgery. The median time until bowel movements, intake of solid food, and the median length of hospital stay were 24, 48, and 30 hours, respectively. Patients returned to normal activity after a median of 7 days. There was no mortality. There was 1 reoperation. Follow-up lasted 4 weeks. Laparoscopic appendectomy is a well-justified procedure in the treatment of acute and chronic appendicitis. If there is enough experience, patients can profit from a higher diagnostic accuracy, quicker return of bowel habits, less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay, and a faster return to normal activities than is reported for the open procedure. Especially, fertile women can profit from these advantages. This abstract has been presented as a poster in the SAGES Conference 2004.

  13. Stump appendicitis: surgical background, CT appearance, and imaging mimics.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jennifer; Myers, Daniel T; Williams, Todd R

    2015-02-01

    Stump appendicitis, also known as remnant appendicitis, is an uncommon entity with little radiologic literature. It is the result of unintentional incomplete appendectomy with subsequent inflammatory changes in the appendiceal remnant. A retrospective review of the radiology and pathology archives at our institution over an 8-year period yielded six surgically/pathologically confirmed cases. Imaging findings at presentation were evaluated, including appendiceal stump length, appendiceal stump diameter, presence or absence of surrounding stranding in the periappendiceal fat, and presence or absence of complication (perforation or abscess). The CT findings of the six cases had an average surgical specimen appendiceal stump length of 3.5 cm (range 2.0-5 cm) and an average appendiceal diameter of 12.3 mm (range 10-16 mm). All six cases demonstrated the presence of periappendiceal inflammatory fat stranding on the CT scan. Range of imaging presentation is reviewed with pictorial examples as well as examples of potential false-positive cases (mimics) including Crohn's disease, residual surgical drain tract, and epiploic appendagitis. Familiarity with stump appendicitis as well as its imaging mimics may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment and prevent unnecessary complications.

  14. Ceftriaxone-induced pseudolithiasis in children treated for perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Alemayehu, Hanna; Desai, Amita A; Thomas, Priscilla; Sharp, Susan W; St Peter, Shawn D

    2014-03-01

    Ceftriaxone has been associated with development of pseudolithiasis. In our institution, it is used for treatment of perforated appendicitis in children. This study evaluated the occurrence of ceftriaxone-related pseudolithiasis in this population. After obtaining IRB approval, we performed a retrospective chart review over 51 months. We included patients undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis. All patients were treated with ceftriaxone post-operatively. Patients without initial or post-treatment gallbladder imaging available for review were excluded. There were 71 patients who met inclusion criteria with a mean (±SD) age of 10.8 ± 3.8 years. Of these, 14 % (n = 10) developed stones or sludge in the gallbladder. The mean duration of ceftriaxone therapy was 8.7 ± 3.8 days. The average time to post-antibiotic imaging was 11.5 ± 10.3 days from initiation of antibiotics. There was no significant difference in duration of ceftriaxone therapy in the children that developed pseudolithiasis or sludge (10.0 ± 4.9 days) compared to those that did not (8.5 ± 3.6, p = 0.26). One child (10 %) with pseudolithiasis went on to become symptomatic, requiring a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In our experience, ceftriaxone use for perforated appendicitis is associated with a significant incidence of biliary pseudolithiasis, and is unrelated to duration of ceftriaxone therapy.

  15. Benchmarking the value of ultrasound for acute appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Cundy, Thomas P; Gent, Roger; Frauenfelder, Claire; Lukic, Laura; Linke, Rebecca J; Goh, Day Way

    2016-12-01

    This study appraises the diagnostic quality of ultrasound for acute appendicitis in children and consequently challenges the perception of inferior accuracy and suitability compared to computed tomography (CT). Radiologist reports for consecutive "query appendicitis" ultrasound studies were retrieved from a hospital database for the study period 2009-2014. Children who subsequently underwent appendicectomy were identified. Corresponding operative and histopathology findings were evaluated. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound was determined by analyzing overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, predictivity, and likelihood ratios. A total of 3799 ultrasound examinations were evaluated. Mean age was 11.5±3.8years. The proportion of patients investigated with preoperative ultrasound was 59.9% (1103/1840). Appendix visualization rate was 91.7%. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 95.5%. Sensitivity and specificity values were 97.1% (95.9-98.1; 95% CI) and 94.8% (93.9-95.6; 95% CI), respectively. Separate analysis of only ultrasound positive and negative examinations (i.e., excluding nondiagnostic examinations) confirmed sensitivity and specificity values of 98.8% and 98.3%. In this largest reported single institution series of ultrasound examinations for appendicitis, we report benchmark standard quality of diagnostic accuracy and visualization rates. Given the radiation and cost implications of CT, there is a strong argument to recommend ultrasound as the primary imaging modality. Diagnostic Study-Level II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Acute appendicitis: clinico-diagnostic and therapeutic considerations].

    PubMed

    Carditello, A; Bartolotta, M; Bonavita, G; Lentini, B; Sturniolo, G

    1985-04-01

    Since january 1970-december 1982, 58 patients underwent emergently appendectomy for acute appendicitis. 31 (53,4 percent) where males; the average age was 21 +/- 2,3 years (M +/- SEM). The duration of symptoms ranged from 1-6 hours (10,3 percent of cases) to over 48 hours, before the hospital admission (15,4 percent of cases). 27 patients (46,5 percent) had a clinical examination at home by a physician. 21 patients (36,4 percent) came to hospital emergency unit without previous physical examination; 10 (17,2 percent) were transferred from other departments. In 6,9 percent of cases was present a perforated appendicitis with peritonitis. During operation, in 50 percent of patients was performed a therapeutic peritoneal lavage. In 63,7 percent of cases multiple drains were placed in peritoneal cavity. In all patients was effected postoperative antibiotic profilaxis. The mortality rate was 3,4 percent. General complications were observed more in patients with perforated appendicitis. This review suggests the following remarcable data: morbidity of this disease is still high; the physical examination is more important than laboratory work (especially in the elderly patients, which are often immunodepressed and in children, with leucocitosis-lack at hospital admission); early surgery is the most important factor to the improvement of prognosis in these cases and the results of surgical treatment are improved by large vertical incisions, peritoneal lavage and application of multiple intracavitary drains.

  17. Routine interval appendectomy is not justified after initial nonoperative treatment of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Anna; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Applebaum, Harry; Lee, Steven L; Haigh, Philip I

    2005-09-01

    The role of interval appendectomy (IA) after an episode of acute appendicitis is debated. Patients treated nonoperatively for acute appendicitis do not require routine IA. Retrospective cohort study using discharge abstract data. Twelve regional Kaiser Permanente hospitals in Southern California. A total of 32 938 patients were hospitalized with acute appendicitis. Appendectomy or nonoperative treatment with or without abscess drainage. Hospitalization for recurrent appendicitis or IA. The type of appendicitis was abscess in 7% of patients, peritonitis in 18%, and no peritonitis or abscess in 75%. Emergency appendectomy was performed in 31 926 (97%) patients. Nonoperative treatment was used initially in 1012 patients (3%). Of these, 148 (15%) had an IA and the remaining 864 (85%) did not. Thirty-nine patients (5%) recurred after a median follow-up of 4 years. Using Cox regression, sex had a slight influence on recurrent appendicitis (hazard ratio males vs females = 0.52, 95% CI, 0.27-0.99, P = .05). Age, Charlson comorbidity index, type of appendicitis, or percutaneous abscess drainage had no influence on recurrence. Median length of hospital stay was 4 days for the admission for recurrent appendicitis compared with 6 days for the IA admission (P = .006). Most patients with acute appendicitis undergo appendectomy initially. For those treated nonoperatively, the recurrence rate is low. Routine IA after initial successful nonoperative treatment is not justified and should be abandoned.

  18. Prospective Evaluation of a Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnosis of Appendicitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Santillanes, Genevieve; Simms, Sonia; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Diament, Michael; Putnam, Brant; Renslo, Richard; Lee, Jumie; Tinger, Elga; Lewis, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to assess the performance of a clinical practice guideline for evaluation of possible appendicitis in children. The guideline incorporated risk stratification, staged imaging, and early surgical involvement in high-risk cases. Methods The authors prospectively evaluated the clinical guideline in one pediatric emergency department (ED) in a general teaching hospital. Patients were risk-stratified based on history, physical examination findings, and laboratory results. Imaging was ordered selectively based on risk category, with ultrasound (US) as the initial imaging modality. Computed tomography (CT) was ordered if the US was negative or indeterminate. Surgery was consulted before imaging in high-risk patients. Results A total of 475 patients were enrolled. Of those, 193 (41%) had appendicitis. No low-risk patient had appendicitis. Medium-risk patients had a 19% rate of appendicitis, and 83% of high-risk patients had appendicitis. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of appendicitis included decreased bowel sounds; rebound tenderness; and presence of psoas, obturator, or Rovsing’s signs. Of the 475 patients, 276 (58%) were managed without a CT scan. Seventy-one of the 193 (37%) patients with appendicitis went to the operating room without any imaging. The rate of missed appendicitis was 2%, and the rate of negative appendectomy was 1%. Conclusions The clinical practice guideline performed well in a general teaching hospital. Rates of negative appendectomy and missed appendicitis were low and 58% of patients were managed without a CT scan. PMID:22849662

  19. Simultaneous idiopathic segmental infarction of the great omentum and acute appendicitis: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Luigi; Belli, Filiberto; Vannelli, Alberto; Bonfanti, Giuliano; Gallino, Gianfrancesco; Poiasina, Elia; Rampa, Mario; Vitellaro, Marco; Leo, Ermanno

    2008-10-29

    Idiopathic segmental infarction of the greater omentum is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen. The etiology is still unclear and the symptoms mimic acute appendicitis. Its presentation simultaneously with acute appendicitis is still more infrequent. We present a case of a 47-year old woman without significant previous medical history, admitted with an acute abdomen, in which the clinical diagnosis was acute appendicitis and in whom an infarcted segment of right side of the greater omentum was also found at laparotomy. As the etiology is unknown, we highlighted some of the possible theories, and emphasize the importance of omental infarction even in the presence of acute appendicitis as a coincident intraperitoneal pathological condition.

  20. Accuracy of the new radiographic sign of fecal loading in the cecum for differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis in comparison with other inflammatory diseases of right abdomen: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Petroianu, A; Alberti, LR

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: To assess the importance of the new radiographic sign of faecal loading in the cecum for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, in comparison with other inflammatory diseases, and to verify the maintenance of this radiographic sign after surgical treatment of appendicitis. Methods: 470 consecutive patients admitted to the hospital due to acute abdomen were prospectively studied: Group 1 [n=170] – diagnosed with acute appendicitis, subdivided into: Subgroup 1A – [n=100] – submitted to an abdominal radiographic study before surgical treatment, Subgroup 1B – [n=70] – patients who had plain abdominal X-rays done before the surgical procedure and also the following day; Group 2 [n=100] – right nephrolithiasis; Group 3 [n=100] – right acute inflammatory pelvic disease; Group 4 [n=100] – acute cholecystitis. The patients of Groups 2,3 and 4 were submitted to abdominal radiography during the pain episode. Results: The sign of faecal loading in the cecum, characterized by hypo transparency interspersed with multiple small foci of hyper transparent images, was present in 97 patients of Subgroup 1A, in 68 patients of Subgroup 1B, in 19 patients of Group 2, in 12 patients of Group 3 and in 13 patients of Group 4. During the postoperative period the radiographic sign disappeared in 66 of the 68 cases that had presented with the sign. The sensitivity of the radiographic sign for acute appendicitis was 97.05% and its specificity was 85.33%. The positive predictive value for acute appendicitis was 78.94% and its negative predictive value was 98. 08%. Discussion: The radiographic image of faecal loading in the cecum is associated with acute appendicitis and disappears after appendectomy. This sign is uncommon in other acute inflammatory diseases of the right side of the abdomen. PMID:22574093

  1. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  2. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Tanrıverdi, Elif; Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Gül, Şule; Çörtük, Mustafa; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important.

  3. Tracheobronchial Amyloidosis Mimicking Tracheal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Özgül, Mehmet Akif; Uzun, Oğuz; Yaşar, Zehra; Acat, Murat; Arda, Naciye; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial amyloidosis is a rare presentation and accounts for about 1% of benign tumors in this area. The diagnosis of disease is delayed due to nonspecific pulmonary symptoms. Therapeutic approaches are required to control progressive pulmonary symptoms for most of the patients. Herein, we report a case of a 68-year-old man admitted with progressive dyspnea to our institution for further evaluation and management. He was initially diagnosed with and underwent management for bronchial asthma for two years but had persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Pulmonary computed tomography scan revealed severe endotracheal stenosis. Bronchoscopy was performed and showed endotracheal mass obstructing 70% of the distal trachea and mimicking a neoplastic lesion. The mass was successfully resected by mechanical resection, argon plasma coagulation (APC), and Nd-YAG laser during rigid bronchoscopy. Biopsy materials showed deposits of amorphous material by hematoxylin and eosin staining and these deposits were selectively stained with Congo Red. Although this is a rare clinical condition, this case indicated that carrying out a bronchoscopy in any patient complaining of atypical bronchial symptoms or with uncontrolled asthma is very important. PMID:27594885

  4. Humanlike Robots - Synthetically Mimicking Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Nature inspired many inventions and the field of technology that is based on the mimicking or inspiration of nature is widely known as Biomimetics and it is increasingly leading to many new capabilities. There are numerous examples of biomimetic successes including the copying of fins for swimming, and the inspiration of the insects and birds flight. More and more commercial implementations of biomimetics are appearing and behaving lifelike and applications are emerging that are important to our daily life. Making humanlike robots is the ultimate challenge to biomimetics and, for many years, it was considered science fiction, but such robots are becoming an engineering reality. Advances in producing such robot are allowing them to perform impressive functions and tasks. The development of such robots involves addressing many challenges and is raising concerns that are related to fear of their application implications and potential ethical issues. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of humanlike robots, potential applications and challenges will be reviewed.

  5. Fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bayiz, Hulya; Mutluay, Neslihan; Koyuncu, Adem; Demirag, Funda; Dagli, Gulfidan; Berktas, Bahadir; Berkoglu, Mine

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosing mediastinitis is a rare but benign disorder characterized by an excessive fibrotic reaction in the mediastinum which can result in compromise of airways, great vessels, and other mediastinal structures. In this paper we presented a patient with fibrosing mediastinitis mimicking bronchogenic carcinoma. The patient was a 32-year-old diabetic male admitting with cough and hemoptysis. There was a right hilar mass and multiple mediastinal conglomerated lymph nodes on chest computed tomography. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) scan demonstrated increased fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at the right hilar mass lesion and mediastinal lymph nodes. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed mucosal distortion of right upper lobe. Pathologic examination of the mucosal biopsy revealed inflammation. Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle and cervical mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies were undiagnostic. Diagnostic thoracotomy confirmed the diagnosis fibrosing mediastinitis. Administration of six months of systemic corticosteroid and antituberculous therapy was not beneficial. In conclusion, despite being a rare clinical entity, fibrosing mediastinitis should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass lesions of unknown etiology. The diagnosis is exceptionally difficult in the presence of atypical radiological findings. The treatment is particularly challenging without any proven effective therapy. PMID:23372962

  6. Inverse heat mimicking of given objects

    PubMed Central

    Alwakil, Ahmed; Zerrad, Myriam; Bellieud, Michel; Amra, Claude

    2017-01-01

    We address a general inverse mimicking problem in heat conduction. The objects to cloak and mimic are chosen beforehand; these objects identify a specific set of space transformations. The shapes that can be mimicked are derived from the conductivity matrices. Numerical calculation confirms all of the analytical predictions. The technique provides key advantages for applications and can be extended to the field of waves. PMID:28252031

  7. Mesenteric cystic lymphangioma mimicking malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hureibi, Khalid; Sunidar, Osama A

    2014-09-01

    Mesenteric cystic lymphangiomas are benign tumours arising from the mesentery, and have no known aetiology. Patients might be discovered incidentally to have asymptomatic mesenteric cysts, or they can present with symptoms such as pain, nausea and vomiting. A 27-year-old man presented with vague abdominal pain, loss of appetite, postprandial fullness and significant weight loss. There was no lymphadenopathy, and abdominal examination was unremarkable. CT showed a mesenteric mass and a diagnosis of abdominal lymphoma was suggested. There was no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis on chest X-ray and the purified protein derivative test was negative. On laparotomy, a 5×9×7 cm sessile cyst containing thick white fluid and arising from the ileal mesentery was found and completely removed. Histopathology proved a diagnosis of mesenteric cystic lymphangioma. The patient made uneventful recovery, and was asymptomatic on clinical follow-up after 6 weeks. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Intestinal angioedema mimicking Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, A; Prather, C M

    1999-10-18

    Angioedema usually presents as episodic attacks of swelling of the face, airway and extremities, but it may also involve visceral tissues. A 58-year-old woman with repeated episodes of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting had two laparotomies and was treated for Crohn's disease for two years before a diagnosis of acquired intestinal angioedema was made. This case provides important insights into the presentation of intestinal angioedema.

  9. Clinical outcome of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome mimicking acute biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seong Yong; Kim, Jin Il; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Se Hyun; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Joon-Yeol; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2008-12-07

    To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. The clinical courses of patients that visited St. Mary's Hospital with abdominal pain from January 2005 to December 2006 and were diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome were examined. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome was identified in 22 female patients of childbearing age; their mean age was 31.0+/-8.1 years. Fourteen of these cases presented with pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, and six patients presented with pain only in the lower abdomen. The first impression at the time of visit was acute cholecystitis or cholangitis in 10 patients and acute appendicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease in eight patients. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed by abdominal computer tomography (CT), and the results of abdominal sonography were normal for 10 of these patients. Chlamydia trichomatis was isolated from 18 patients. Two patients underwent laparoscopic adhesiotomy and 20 patients were completely cured by antibiotic treatment. For women of childbearing age with acute pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome should be considered during differential diagnosis. Moreover, in cases suspected to be Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, abdominal CT, rather than abdominal sonography, assists in the diagnosis.

  10. Clinical outcome of Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome mimicking acute biliary disease

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seong Yong; Kim, Jin Il; Cheung, Dae Young; Cho, Se Hyun; Park, Soo-Heon; Han, Joon-Yeol; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. METHODS: The clinical courses of patients that visited St. Mary’s Hospital with abdominal pain from January 2005 to December 2006 and were diagnosed with Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome were examined. RESULTS: Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome was identified in 22 female patients of childbearing age; their mean age was 31.0 ± 8.1 years. Fourteen of these cases presented with pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, and six patients presented with pain only in the lower abdomen. The first impression at the time of visit was acute cholecystitis or cholangitis in 10 patients and acute appendicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease in eight patients. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed by abdominal computer tomography (CT), and the results of abdominal sonography were normal for 10 of these patients. Chlamydia trichomatis was isolated from 18 patients. Two patients underwent laparoscopic adhesiotomy and 20 patients were completely cured by antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSION: For women of childbearing age with acute pain in the upper right abdomen alone or together with pain in the lower abdomen, Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome should be considered during differential diagnosis. Moreover, in cases suspected to be Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome, abdominal CT, rather than abdominal sonography, assists in the diagnosis. PMID:19058334

  11. Sonographic Differentiation of Complicated From Uncomplicated Appendicitis: Implications for Antibiotics-First Therapy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingding; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Chang, Stephanie T; DiMaio, Michael A; Olcott, Eric W

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate sonographic findings as indicators of complicated versus uncomplicated appendicitis in the setting of known appendicitis, a necessary distinction in deciding whether to proceed with antibiotic therapy or with appendectomy. With Institutional Review Board approval and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance, appendiceal sonograms of 119 patients with histopathologically proven appendicitis were retrospectively blindly reviewed to determine the presence or absence of the normally echogenic submucosal layer, the presence of mural hyperemia, periappendiceal fluid, appendicoliths, and hyperechoic periappendiceal fat and to determine the maximum outside diameter. Results were compared with the presence of complicated versus uncomplicated appendicitis on histopathologic examination and assessed by both univariate and mulitvariate logistic regression; confidence intervals (CIs) of proportions were assessed by the exact binomial test. Thirty-two (26.9%) of the 119 patients had complicated appendicitis, including 11 with gangrenous appendicitis without perforation and 21 with gangrenous appendicitis and perforation. Loss of the submucosal layer was the only independent significant indicator of complicated appendicitis in multivariate regression (P < .001) and provided sensitivity and specificity values of 100.0% (95% CI, 89.1%-100.0%) and 92.0% (95% CI, 84.1%-96.7%), respectively. Loss of the normally echogenic submucosal layer was the most useful sonographic finding for discriminating complicated from uncomplicated appendicitis, being the only finding independently and significantly associated with complicated appendicitis and, additionally, providing both high sensitivity and high specificity. This information may help a physician decide whether to proceed with antibiotic therapy or with appendectomy when treating a patient with appendicitis. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Mollie; Quan, Samuel; Kaplan, Belle S; Molodecky, Natalie; Ball, Chad G; Chernoff, Greg W; Bhala, Nij; Ghosh, Subrata; Dixon, Elijah; Ng, Siew; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2017-08-01

    We compared the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy across the world and evaluated temporal trends. Population-based studies reported the incidence of appendicitis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for population-based studies reporting the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. Time trends were explored using Poisson regression and reported as annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). APC were stratified by time periods and pooled using random effects models. Incidence since 2000 was pooled for regions in the Western world. The search retrieved 10,247 citations with 120 studies reporting on the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. During the 21st century the pooled incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy (in per 100,000 person-years) was 100 (95% CI: 91, 110) in Northern America, and the estimated number of cases in 2015 was 378,614. The pooled incidence ranged from 105 in Eastern Europe to 151 in Western Europe. In Western countries, the incidence of appendectomy steadily decreased since 1990 (APC after 1989=-1.54; 95% CI: -2.22, -0.86), whereas the incidence of appendicitis stabilized (APC=-0.36; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.26) for both perforated (APC=0.95; 95% CI: -0.25, 2.17) and nonperforated appendicitis (APC=0.44; 95% CI: -0.84, 1.73). In the 21st century, the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy is high in newly industrialized countries in Asia (South Korea pooled: 206), the Middle East (Turkey pooled: 160), and Southern America (Chile: 202). Appendicitis is a global disease. The incidence of appendicitis is stable in most Western countries. Data from newly industrialized countries is sparse, but suggests that appendicitis is rising rapidly.

  13. Can platelet indices be used as predictors of complication in subjects with appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Bahadır; Aslan, Turan; Çınar, Ahmet; Ruhkar Kurt, Ayşe; Akkoyunlu, Yasemin

    2016-12-01

    We examined the changes of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW) in subjects with appendicitis and whether MPV and PDW could be used to predict the development of complication due to appendicitis. The healthy control group, the cases of appendicitis with perforation, and the cases of appendicitis without perforation were compared with regard to MPV and PDW. We determined whether MPV and PDW were independent variables predictive of the development of complication in subjects with appendicitis. This retrospective case-control study included a total of 362 patients (249 of which were male (68.8 %) and 113 were female (31.2 %); median age, 30 [range, 18-84 years]). One hundred and ninety-two subjects (53 %) presented with appendicitis and 170 (47 %) comprised the healthy control group. Sixty-six (18.2 %) of the subjects with appendicitis developed complication. MPVs were lower in subjects of appendicitis without complication compared to the subjects of appendicitis with complication and the control group (MPV, 9.78 ± 0.99 vs. 10.20 ± 1.21 and 10.14 ± 1.03, respectively [p = 0.005]). The PDW levels were not different between the three groups. Independent variables predictive of the presence of complication included increased MPV and time from onset of symptoms to hospital presentation (odds ratio[confidence interval], p-value: 1.507[1.064-2.133], 0.021 and 18.887[5.139-69.410], 0.0001, respectively). Our findings suggested these, MPV values in cases of appendicitis without complication were lower than the cases with complication and healthy control and MPV is a predictor of the development of complication in subjects with appendicitis.

  14. The Epidemiology of Appendicitis and Appendectomy in South Korea: National Registry Data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Young Sun; Choi, Joong Sub

    2010-01-01

    Background Appendicitis is one of the most frequent acute surgical conditions of the abdomen, and appendectomy is one of the most commonly performed operations in the world. However, epidemiological data on appendicitis have not been reported for South Korean or East Asian populations. Methods We analyzed the epidemiological features and lifetime risk of appendicitis and appendectomy in South Korea using data collected for the national health insurance database from 2005 through 2007. Results Appendectomy was performed in 59.70% of inpatients diagnosed with appendicitis. The overall incidences of appendicitis, total appendectomy, and perforated appendectomy were 22.71, 13.56, and 2.91 per 10 000 population per year, respectively. The incidence of appendicitis and appendectomy showed clear seasonality, with a peak in summer. The standardized lifetime risks of appendicitis and appendectomy were constant from 2005 through 2007. A life table model suggests that the lifetime risk of appendicitis is 16.33% for males and 16.34% for females, and that the lifetime risk of appendectomy is 9.89% for males and 9.61% for females. Conclusions As compared to results obtained in research on Western populations, appendicitis and appendectomy had a similar perforation rate and seasonality, but a higher overall incidence, in South Koreans. Between 2005 and 2007, the incidence of appendicitis and appendectomy was constant. Overall, an estimated 15 incidental appendectomies are performed to prevent 1 inpatient with suspected appendicitis, and 26 incidental appendectomies are performed to prevent 1 appendectomy. Incidental appendectomy may have greater preventive value in Koreans. PMID:20023368

  15. The clinical value of pathology tests and imaging study in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ko-Chin; Arad, Alon; Chen, Ko-Chien; Storrar, Jonathan; Christy, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    To explore the diagnostic accuracy of acute appendicitis among different patient groups and evaluate the statistical diagnostic values of common pathology and imaging tests for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Proportions of histology-proven appendicitis in different patient groups. Statistical parameters including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (-LR) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) between the histology-proven appendicitis and abnormal results of U/S, CT, WCC, CRP, bilirubin, pancreatic, and combined test results of WCC and CRP. Our data showed that up to 25.7% of patients underwent appendectomy has normal appendix. Appendicitis is often accurately diagnosed among male patients, up to 90.3% of the time, while misdiagnosis of appendicitis among young females (<40 years old) is significantly high, up to 30.9%. CT has high diagnostic performance index for appendicitis, sensitivity > 90%, and no individual pathology test out of those examined can rival the sensitivity of CT. Nevertheless, by examining the combined results of WCC and CRP, we found that abnormal results in one or both these yields sensitivity similar to CT scans in detecting acute appendicitis, up to 95%. Young female patients have highest risk of being falsely diagnosed with acute appendicitis and hence unnecessary surgery. Bilirubin and lipase exhibit no correlations with acute appendicitis. Combined interpretation of WCC or CRP abnormal results yields competitive sensitivity as CT. Hencewe would suggest that, under the appropriate clinical context, one can use both WCC and CRP as a simple tool to support the diagnosis of appendicitis. If both tests show normal results, we would highly recommend considering alternative diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Huge uterine-cervical diverticulum mimicking as a cyst.

    PubMed

    Chufal, S; Thapliyal, Naveen; Gupta, Manoj; Pangtey, Nirmal

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an incidental huge uterine-cervical diverticulum from a total abdominal hysterectomy specimen in a perimenopausal woman who presented with acute abdominal pain. The diverticulum was mimicking with various cysts present in the lateral side of the female genital tract. Histopathological examination confirmed this to be a cervical diverticulum with communication to uterine cavity through two different openings. They can attain huge size if left ignored for long duration and present a diagnostic challenge to clinicians, radiologists, as well as pathologists because of its extreme rarity. Therefore, diverticula should also be included as a differential diagnosis. Its histopathological confirmation also highlights that diverticula can present as an acute abdomen, requiring early diagnosis with appropriate timely intervention. Immunohistochemistry CD 10 has also been used to differentiate it from a mesonephric cyst.

  17. Restless legs syndrome mimicking S1 radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Th; Wolgamuth, B R; Papoutsi, S N; Economou, N T

    2016-01-01

    Α case of a chronic idiopathic form of a severe type of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS), which developed during pregnancy and persisted after this, misdiagnosed for 34 years as radiculopathy S1, is reported. In spite of the thorough clinical and laboratory investigation, in addition to constant changes of the therapeutic approach, the diagnosis of S1 radiculopathy could not be confirmed, resulting in a chronic clinical course; the latter was characterized by relapses and remissions not attributed or linked in any way to the treatment (various types of). In fact, it was due to a routine workup in a sleep clinic, where the patient was referred because of a coincident chronic insomnia (Restless Legs Syndrome is a known and important cause of insomnia/chronic insomnia), which resulted in a proper diagnosis and treatment of this case. With the use of Restless Legs Syndrome appropriate treatment (Pramipexole 0.18 mg taken at bedtime, a dopaminergic agent and Level A recommended drug for Restless Legs Syndrome) an excellent response and immediate elimination of symptoms was achieved. Restless Legs Syndrome may present with a variety of symptoms (with the most prominent shortly being reported with the acronym URGE: Urge to move the legs usually associated with unpleasant leg sensations, Rest induces symptoms, Getting active brings relief, Evening and night deteriorate symptoms); given the fact that Restless Legs Syndrome presents with a great variety and heterogeneity of symptoms (mostly pain, dysesthesia and paresthesia), which may occur in several other diseases (the so called "RLS mimics"), proper diagnosis of Restless Legs Syndrome usually fails. Restless Legs Syndrome misinterpreted as S1 radiculopathy, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the literature. Here, case history, clinical course and common RLS mimics are presented. Different forms of Restless Legs Syndrome manifestations, which are commonly -as in this case- misinterpreted due to their

  18. An unusual cause of acute abdomen–epiploic appendicitis: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Burcu, Busra; Ekinci, Ozgur; Inan, Ibrahim; Ozyalvac, Ferman Tevfik; Eren, Turgut Tunc; Alimoglu, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Epiploic appendices, first described in 1543 by Vesalius, are fatty structures which are attached through the length of the colon and consisted of visceral peritoneum. Epiploic appendicitis is an uncommon and self-limiting disease. In this report, we aimed to present two patients with epiploic appendicitis. PMID:28058362

  19. Ischemia-modified albumin as a predictor of the severity of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Murat Özgür; Güldoğan, Cem Emir; Balamir, İlhan; Tez, Mesut

    2017-01-01

    The early prediction of gangrenous/perforated appendicitis is of great importance for the surgical planning, further treatments, and predicting the course of disease. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) was previously reported as a biomarker of various ischemia-based diseases. Our aim is to determine the predictive value of serum IMA in the severity of acute appendicitis. Sixty-two patients who underwent urgent appendectomy were included in the study. Plasma level of IMA was measured after diagnosis and before treatment. All patients were classified as noncomplicated (acute) appendicitis and complicated (gangrenous/perforated) appendicitis according to histopathological findings, and comparisons were made between the groups. The data of 62 patients with a mean age of 30.1 years were statistically evaluated. The pathological diagnoses were acute appendicitis in 33 (53.2%), and gangrenous/perforated appendicitis in 29 (46.8%) patients. There were significant differences in computed tomography (CT) findings (P = .031) and IMA (P = .012) levels between the groups. A strong positive correlation between IMA levels and CT findings was also found (Spearman ρ = +0.688, P = .003). The IMA can be considered as a novel and useful marker to distinguish gangrenous/perforated appendicitis from noncomplicated appendicitis. The correlation of IMA with CT findings also enhances the predictive value of IMA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Secondary signs may improve the diagnostic accuracy of equivocal ultrasounds for suspected appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Partain, Kristin N; Patel, Adarsh; Travers, Curtis; McCracken, Courtney E; Loewen, Jonathan; Braithwaite, Kiery; Heiss, Kurt F; Raval, Mehul V

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for evaluating appendicitis. Our purpose was to determine if including secondary signs (SS) improve diagnostic accuracy in equivocal US studies. Retrospective review identified 825 children presenting with concern for appendicitis and with a right lower quadrant (RLQ) US. Regression models identified which SS were associated with appendicitis. Test characteristics were demonstrated. 530 patients (64%) had equivocal US reports. Of 114 (22%) patients with equivocal US undergoing CT, those with SS were more likely to have appendicitis (48.6% vs 14.6%, p<0.001). Of 172 (32%) patients with equivocal US admitted for observation, those with SS were more likely to have appendicitis (61.0% vs 33.6%, p<0.001). SS associated with appendicitis included fluid collection (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 13.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-82.8), hyperemia (OR=2.0, 95%CI 1.5-95.5), free fluid (OR=9.8, 95%CI 3.8-25.4), and appendicolith (OR=7.9, 95%CI 1.7-37.2). Wall thickness, bowel peristalsis, and echogenic fat were not associated with appendicitis. Equivocal US that included hyperemia, a fluid collection, or an appendicolith had 96% specificity and 88% accuracy. Use of SS in RLQ US assists in the diagnostic accuracy of appendicitis. SS may guide clinicians and reduce unnecessary CT and admissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes increases the risk of an appendectomy in patients with antibiotic treatment of noncomplicated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2017-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined whether diabetic patients have a higher risk for recurrent appendicitis during a 1-year follow-up period after successful antibiotic treatment for patients with acute uncomplicated appendicitis than nondiabetic patients using a population-based database. We included 541 appendicitis patients who received antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis. We individually tracked each patient for a 1-year period to identify those who subsequently underwent an appendectomy during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard regressions suggested that the adjusted hazard ratio of an appendectomy during the 1-year follow-up period was 1.75 for appendicitis patients with diabetes than appendicitis patients without diabetes. We found that among females, the adjusted hazard ratio of an appendectomy was 2.18 for acute appendicitis patients with diabetes than their counterparts without diabetes. However, we failed to observe this relationship in males. We demonstrated a relationship between diabetes and a subsequent appendectomy in females who underwent antibiotic treatment for noncomplicated appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Small bowel intussusception with pelvic plastron secondary to acute appendicitis in child.

    PubMed

    Blevrakis, Evangelos; Tampakaki, Zoi; Dimopoulou, Anastasia; Bakantaki, Anna; Blevrakis, Emmanouil; Sakellaris, George

    2010-03-01

    We report an unusual case of a 3-year-old child with appendicitis complicated by ileoileal intussusception. Although acute complicated appendicitis and concurrent ileoileal intussusception represent a possible cause of an acute abdomen, very few cases have been reported in the literature.

  3. [Adverse outcomes in the surgical treatment of acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Aguiló, Javier; Peiró, Salvador; Muñoz, Carmen; García del Caño, Julián; Garay, Miguel; Viciano, Vicente; Ferri, Ramón; García-Botella, Miguel; Medrano, José; Torró, José

    2005-11-01

    To describe adverse outcomes after appendectomy for acute appendicitis and to analyze the association between these outcomes and specific characteristics of the patient and hospital admission. We studied a cohort of 792 patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Postoperative complications, reoperations and deaths were prospectively studied and all readmissions were retrospectively identified. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between complications and patient characteristics, as well as hospital admission. Postsurgical complications developed in 9.8% of the patients. These complications mainly consisted of surgical wound infection (4.2%) and intra-abdominal complications (2.1%). A total of 0.7% of patients underwent reoperation during admission, 0.5% were admitted to the intensive care unit and five patients (0.6%) died in hospital. The rate of operation-related readmissions in the following year was 3.2%. Length of hospital stay was longer in patients with complications than in those without complications (9.6 and 3.5 days, respectively). Postoperative complications were associated with older age (45-65 years, OR 3.62, p < 0.001; more than 65 years OR 8.68, p < 0.001) and acute appendicitis complicated with peritonitis or perforation (OR 3.69, p < 0.005). Readmissions related to previous surgery were associated only with complications during the first admission (OR 18.79, p < 0.001). In appendectomy, the most frequent adverse outcomes are surgical wound infection and intra-abdominal complications, which are associated with older patients and perforations. This subgroup of patients at high risk requires closer surveillance.

  4. New parameter in diagnosis of acute appendicitis: Platelet distribution width

    PubMed Central

    Dinc, Bulent; Oskay, Alten; Dinc, Selcan Enver; Bas, Bilge; Tekin, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width in acute appendicitis. METHODS: This retrospective, case-controlled study compared 295 patients with acute appendicitis (Group I), 100 patients with other intra-abdominal infections (Group II), and 100 healthy individuals (Group III) between January 2012 and January 2013. The age, gender, and white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, mean platelet volume, and platelet distribution width values from blood samples were compared among the groups. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS for Windows 21.0 software. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and likelihood ratios, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. RESULTS: The mean ages of patients were 29.9 ± 12.0 years for Group I, 31.5 ± 14.0 years for Group II, and 30.4 ± 13.0 years for Group III. Demographic features such as age and gender were not significantly different among the groups. White blood cell count, neutrophil percentage and platelet distribution width were significantly higher in Group I compared to groups II and III (P < 0.05). Diagnostically, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were 73.1%, 94.0%, and 78% for white blood cell count, 70.0%, 96.0%, and 76.0% for neutrophil percentage, 29.5%, 49.0%, and 34.0% for mean platelet volume, and 97.1%, 93.0%, and 96.0% for platelet distribution width, respectively. The highest diagnostic accuracy detected was for platelet distribution width between Group I and Group III (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Platelet distribution width analysis can be used for diagnosis of acute appendicitis without requiring additional tests, thus reducing the cost and loss of time. PMID:25684947

  5. Regional variation in rates of pediatric perforated appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Sarda, Samir; Short, Heather L; Hockenberry, Jason M; McCarthy, Ian; Raval, Mehul V

    2017-09-01

    While trends in perforated appendicitis (PA) rates have been studied, regional variability in pediatric admissions for PA remains unknown. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the 2006-2012 Kids' Inpatient Database was conducted to examine variation in PA admission rates by region of the United States and insurance status. PA rates were calculated and reported as per 1000 admissions in accordance with national quality measure specifications. National PA rates per 1000 admissions for 2006, 2009, and 2012 were 313.9, 279.2, and 309.1, respectively. Similarly, all regions demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in PA rates between 2006 and 2009 (p<0.001), where the increase in rates between 2009 and 2012 was only statistically significant in the Midwest [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.07; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.03-1.12] and West (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.07-1.14). The Northeast consistently experienced the lowest PA rates. The odds of PA were highest among uninsured patients (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.31-1.29). The South had the highest proportion of uninsured children, and these patients had the highest odds of perforation (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.21-2.02). For children with appendicitis, geographic region and insurance status appear to be associated with perforation upon presentation. Understanding regional variation in pediatric PA rates may inform health policymakers in the constantly evolving insurance coverage landscape. Level III Treatment Study - Retrospective comparative study of appendicitis presentation in children by region of the country. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MODIFIED ALVARADO SCORE IN CHILDREN WITH DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICITIS.

    PubMed

    Peyvasteh, Mehran; Askarpour, Shahnam; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Besharati, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergency. Some predictive scoring systems are recommended to decrease the rate of negative appendectomy. To evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of modified Alvarado score in children who underwent appendectomy. Four hundred children with initial diagnosis of appendicitis were randomly selected from patients who underwent appendectomy. Modified Alvarado score was used for evaluation of the appendicitis, that was confirmed using histology. Of modified Alvarado score components, anorexia; nausea and vomiting and rebound tenderness were significantly more common in children with positive appendectomy in contrast to patients with negative appendectomy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for modified Alvarado score were: 91.3%; 38.4%; 87.7%; and 51.2% respectively. Alvarado score has high sensitivity but low specificity for diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children. A apendicite é uma das emergências abdominais mais comuns. Alguns sistemas de pontuação preditivos são recomendados para diminuir a taxa de apendicectomia negativa. Avaliar a sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo do escore de Alvarado modificado em crianças submetidas à apendicectomia. Quatrocentos crianças com diagnóstico inicial de apendicite foram selecionadas aleatoriamente de pacientes submetidos à apendicectomia. A pontuação de Alvarado modificada foi utilizada para avaliação do quadro, que foi confirmado por meio de histologia. Anorexia; náuseas, vômitos e desconforto abdominal foram significativamente mais comuns em crianças com apendicectomia positiva, em contraste com casos negativos pelo escore de Alvarado modificado. A sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo para o escore de Alvarado modificado foram: 91,3%; 38,4%; 87,7%; e 51

  7. A drawing pin, drill bit, several staples and a magnet: definitely not a simple case of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Claire

    2015-07-28

    The sequalae of foreign body ingestion may present in a number of manners and are even more prone to difficulties when a history of foreign body ingestion is not apparent. An 8-year-old boy with a short history of abdominal pain and vomiting presented to the hospital after seeing his general practitioner. He had a history of developmental delay. Examination revealed lower abdominal peritonism and his blood tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers. The patient was initially diagnosed with acute appendicitis and proceeded to theatre. At operation, the patient had a normal appendix but two perforations of the small bowel were incidentally discovered. After theatre, the patient underwent an abdominal X-ray, which revealed a number of radiopaque objects in the rectum. He returned to theatre where a number of metallic objects and a magnet were manually retrieved from the patient's rectum. He made a full recovery and was discharged home a few days later. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Appendix: A Potential Pitfall in the Sonographic Diagnosis of Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingding; Jeffrey, R Brooke; DiMaio, Michael A; Olcott, Eric W

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that thickening of the lamina propria, a finding produced by lymphoid hyperplasia, is significantly associated with false-positive sonographic diagnoses of appendicitis in 6- to 8-mm noncompressible appendixes. Sonograms of 119 consecutive patients with suspected appendicitis and 6- to 8-mm noncompressible appendixes were retrospectively blindly evaluated for thickening of the lamina propria (short axis thickness ≥ 1 mm). The reference standard for appendicitis was pathologic analysis of resected specimens. Results were compared with the two-tailed Fisher exact test. Thirty-one patients (26.1%) had a thickened lamina propria and 88 (73.9%) did not. Of the 27 pediatric patients with a thickened lamina propria, five (18.5%) had true-positive and 22 (81.5%) had false-positive sonograms for appendicitis; among the 55 pediatric patients without a thickened lamina propria, 27 (49.1%) had true-positive and 28 (50.9%) had false-positive sonograms for appendicitis (p = 0.009). Similar differences in adult patients were not statistically significant. All five pediatric patients with appendicitis and thickened lamina propria also showed two or more findings of periappendiceal fluid, hyperechoic periappendiceal fat, or mural hyperemia on color Doppler examination, compared with two of 22 similar pediatric patients without appendicitis (p < 0.001). Lymphoid hyperplasia may result in a noncompressible appendix 6-8 mm in diameter and may be misdiagnosed as appendicitis in pediatric patients. True-positive diagnoses of appendicitis can be accurately identified by the presence of at least two additional findings from the group of periappendiceal fluid, hyperechoic periappendiceal fat, and mural hyperemia. Identifying the characteristic sonographic appearance of lymphoid hyperplasia may help prevent false-positive misdiagnoses of appendicitis.

  9. Unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens from patients with suspected acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Mehmet; Akbulut, Sami; Kutluturk, Koray; Sahin, Nurhan; Arabaci, Ebru; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and implications of unusual histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens from patients with suspected acute appendicitis. METHODS: The demographic and histopathological data of 1621 patients (≥ 16 years-old) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis between January 1999 and November 2011 were retrospectively assessed. Microscopic findings were used to classify the patients under six categories: appendix vermiformis, phlegmonous appendicitis, gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis, supurative appendicitis, and unusual histopathologic findings. The demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with unusual histopathologic findings were evaluated in detail, and re-analysis of archived resected appendix specimens was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 912 males and 709 females, from 16 to 94 years old, were included in the study and comprised 789 cases of suppurative appendicitis, 370 cases of appendix vermiformis, 243 cases of perforated gangrenous appendicitis, 53 cases of flegmaneous appendicitis, 32 cases of gangrenous appendicitis, and 134 (8.3%) cases of unusual histopathological findings. The unusual histopathological findings included fibrous obliteration (n = 62), enterobius vermicularis (n = 31), eosinophilic infiltration (n = 10), mucinous cystadenoma (n = 8), carcinoid tumor (n = 6), granulomatous inflammation (n = 5), adenocarcinoma (n = 4; one of them mucinous), and mucocele (n = 3), adenomatous polyp (n = 1), taenia sup (n = 1), ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1), appendiceal diverticula (n = 1), and B cell non-hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). None of the 11 patients with subsequent diagnosis of tumor were suspected of cancer prior to the appendectomy. CONCLUSION: Even when the macroscopic appearance of appendectomy specimens is normal, histopathological assessment will allow early diagnosis of many unusual diseases. PMID:23840147

  10. Reduced risk of UC in families affected by appendicitis: a Danish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nyboe Andersen, Nynne; Gørtz, Sanne; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine

    2017-08-01

    The possible aetiological link between appendicitis and UC remains unclear. In order to investigate the hereditary component of the association, we studied the risk of UC in family members of individuals with appendicitis. A cohort of 7.1 million individuals was established by linkage of national registers in Denmark with data on kinship and diagnoses of appendicitis and UC. Poisson regression models were used to calculate first hospital contact rate ratios (RR) for UC with 95% CIs between individuals with or without relatives with a history of appendicitis. During 174 million person-years of follow-up between 1977 and 2011, a total of 190 004 cohort members developed appendicitis and 45 202 developed UC. Individuals having a first-degree relative with appendicitis before age 20 years had significantly reduced risk of UC (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.86 to 0.95); this association was stronger in individuals with a family predisposition to UC (RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.83). Individuals with a first-degree relative diagnosed with appendicitis before age 20 years are at reduced risk of UC, particularly when there is a family predisposition to UC. Our findings question a previously hypothesised direct protective influence of appendicitis on inflammation of the large bowel. Rather, genetic or environmental factors linked to an increased risk of appendicitis while being protective against UC may explain the repeatedly reported reduced relative risk of UC in individuals with a history of appendicitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Diagnosing Appendicitis: Evidence-Based Review of the Diagnostic Approach in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Shogilev, Daniel J.; Duus, Nicolaj; Odom, Stephen R.; Shapiro, Nathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency requiring emergency surgery. However, the diagnosis is often challenging and the decision to operate, observe or further work-up a patient is often unclear. The utility of clinical scoring systems (namely the Alvarado score), laboratory markers, and the development of novel markers in the diagnosis of appendicitis remains controversial. This article presents an update on the diagnostic approach to appendicitis through an evidence-based review. Methods We performed a broad Medline search of radiological imaging, the Alvarado score, common laboratory markers, and novel markers in patients with suspected appendicitis. Results Computed tomography (CT) is the most accurate mode of imaging for suspected cases of appendicitis, but the associated increase in radiation exposure is problematic. The Alvarado score is a clinical scoring system that is used to predict the likelihood of appendicitis based on signs, symptoms and laboratory data. It can help risk stratify patients with suspected appendicitis and potentially decrease the use of CT imaging in patients with certain Alvarado scores. White blood cell (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), granulocyte count and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are frequently elevated in patients with appendicitis, but are insufficient on their own as a diagnostic modality. When multiple markers are used in combination their diagnostic utility is greatly increased. Several novel markers have been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of appendicitis; however, while promising, most are only in the preliminary stages of being studied. Conclusion While CT is the most accurate mode of imaging in suspected appendicitis, the accompanying radiation is a concern. Ultrasound may help in the diagnosis while decreasing the need for CT in certain circumstances. The Alvarado Score has good diagnostic utility at specific cutoff points. Laboratory markers have very limited

  12. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Mimicking Tuberculous Pleuritis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Wang, Mao-Yun; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Hui; Yang, Sai; Liang, Bin-Miao; Liang, Zong-An

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary paragonimiasis is a food-borne zoonosis with a wide variety of radiologic findings, which sometimes can be confused with tuberculosis and carcinoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is always warranted. A 43-year-old male farmer, with productive cough, blood-tinged sputum and chest pain, as well as patchy consolidation and pleural effusions in chest computer tomography, was misdiagnosed of community-acquired pneumonia and tuberculosis. Complete blood cell count, sputum smear and culture, chest computer tomography, thoracoscopy, and biopsy. The diagnosis of pulmonary paragonimiasis was established due to the finding of Charcot–Leyden crystals in the pleural necrosis, and antibodies against Paragonimus westermani in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paragonimiasis should be considered as a possibility in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thoracoscopy is an effective and valuable technology that can help make an accurate diagnosis. PMID:27082624

  13. Pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis: mimicker of tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Mahima; Sahni, Ajay Kumar; Rajput, A K

    2013-01-01

    Infection caused by the lung fluke is endemic in north eastern parts of India. Paragonimus westermani and Paragonimus heterotremus are known to be endemic in eastern Indian states of Manipur and Nagaland. The infection is related to eating habits of the locals and is acquired by ingestion of raw, inadequately cooked crabs or crayfish containing encysted metacercariae which act as second intermediate hosts during the life cycle of the lung fluke. Diagnosis is generally delayed due to lack of suspicion and presentation similar to tuberculosis which is endemic in the population. We report pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis in a soldier from eastern India who presented with chest pain, haemoptysis, and eosinophilia. He gave history of consumption of raw crabs while on leave at his native village in Nagaland. Ova morphologically resembling Paragonimus heterotremus were detected in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage specimen. Symptoms resolved with praziquantel treatment. PMID:23432864

  14. MR imaging of the acute abdomen and pelvis: acute appendicitis and beyond.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Danrad, Raman; Hahn, Peter F; Blake, Michael A; Mueller, Peter R; Novelline, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Acute abdominal and pelvic processes account for more than half of all surgical procedures performed in the emergency setting. Rapid and accurate diagnosis in the emergency department is essential for the appropriate management of these acute conditions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an attractive modality for diagnostic imaging in patients for whom the risks of radiation or the potential nephrotoxicity of iodinated contrast agents is a major concern, such as pregnant and pediatric patients. MR imaging is most useful for evaluating pregnant patients with acute lower abdominal pain believed to have an extra-uterine cause, such as appendicitis or ovarian torsion. Other patients with other conditions commonly seen in the emergency setting may be better evaluated with another cross-sectional imaging modality. Imaging protocols should be adapted to the constraints of acute illness, with emphasis placed on minimizing the duration of image acquisition, and should include strategies to decrease motion-related artifacts. A prudent approach is to select the imaging modalities that can best depict a particular subset of clinical conditions to help narrow the differential diagnosis. Disadvantages of MR imaging include its high cost, the limited availability of MR imaging systems and trained radiologists, and the incompatibility of MR imaging systems and the equipment used for intensive care and monitoring of patient status. (c) RSNA, 2007.

  15. Groin pain

    MedlinePlus

    Pain - groin; Lower abdominal pain; Genital pain; Perineal pain ... Common causes of groin pain include: Pulled muscle, tendon, or ligaments in the leg: This problem often occurs in people who play sports such as ...

  16. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.; White, Shane N.

    2008-01-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressional velocity, attenuation, and acoustic impedance. The results suggest that a tooth phantom consisting of glass and composite can effectively mimic the acoustic behavior of a natural human tooth. PMID:18396919

  17. Tissue mimicking materials for dental ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul S; Culjat, Martin O; Grundfest, Warren S; Brown, Elliott R; White, Shane N

    2008-04-01

    While acoustic tissue mimicking materials have been explored for a variety of soft and hard biological tissues, no dental hard tissue mimicking materials have been characterized. Tooth phantoms are necessary to better understand acoustic phenomenology within the tooth environment and to accelerate the advancement of dental ultrasound imaging systems. In this study, soda lime glass and dental composite were explored as surrogates for human enamel and dentin, respectively, in terms of compressional velocity, attenuation, and acoustic impedance. The results suggest that a tooth phantom consisting of glass and composite can effectively mimic the acoustic behavior of a natural human tooth.

  18. Treatment of perforated appendicitis in children: what is the cost?

    PubMed

    Dennett, Kate V; Tracy, Sarah; Fisher, Sharon; Charron, Gisele; Zurakowski, David; Calvert, Catherine E; Chen, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    We compared direct hospital costs and indirect costs to the family associated with immediate appendectomy or initial nonoperative management for perforated appendicitis in children. From June 2009 through May 2010, 61 prospectively identified families completed a cost diary, documenting the numbers of missed school days for the child and missed employment days for the adult caregiver(s) over the treatment course. Hospital costs were obtained from hospital financial databases. Mann-Whitney U tests and Fisher exact tests were used to compare outcome measures for each treatment strategy. Patients treated by initial nonoperative management had a significantly longer median length of stay (9 days vs 7 days, P = .02) and a significantly greater median total hospital cost per patient ($31,349 vs $21,323, P = .01) when compared with those treated by immediate appendectomy. There was no significant difference in median number of missed school days (9 days vs 10 days, P = .23) or missed employment days for adult caregiver(s) (5 days vs 7 days, P = .18) between treatment strategies. Patients with perforated appendicitis treated by initial nonoperative management had a greater length of stay and a significantly greater total hospital cost but were not burdened by significantly greater indirect costs compared with those treated by immediate appendectomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy in appendicitis with peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Gregory J; Mancini, Matthew L; Nelson, Henry S

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) is safe and effective in cases of peritonitis, perforation, and abscess. We investigated our conversion rate and clinical outcomes in this patient population, as well as preoperative factors that predict operative conversion. A retrospective nonrandomized cohort of 92 patients underwent LA for acute appendicitis with peritonitis, perforation, or abscess at our institution between 1997 and 2002. Thirty-six of the 92 were converted to open appendectomy (OA), yielding a conversion rate of 39 per cent. The presence of phlegmon (42%), nonvisualized appendix (44%), technical failures (8%), and bleeding (6%) were reasons for conversion. Preoperative data had no predictive value for conversion. CT scan findings of free fluid, phlegmon, and abscess did not correlate with findings at the time of surgery. Total complication rates were 8.9 per cent in the LA group as compared to 50 per cent in the converted cohort. Postoperative data showed LA patients stayed 3.2 days versus 6.9 days for converted patients (P = 0.01). LA patients had less pneumonia (P = 0.02), intra-abdominal abscess (P = 0.01), ileus (P = 0.01), and readmissions (P = 0.01). LA is safe and effective in patients with appendicitis with peritonitis, perforation, and abscess, resulting in shorter hospital stays and less complication.

  20. [Septic complications in acute appendicitis. Problems of diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ghelase, F; Georgescu, I; St Ghelase, M; Baleanu, V; Cioara, Fl; Georgescu, E; Traila, H; Siloşi, C

    2007-01-01

    diagnostic improvement in complicated acute appendicitis (AA) by implementing the new sepsis concepts and modern imaging procedures; optimization of treatment with decreasing postoperation morbidity and mortality and improving the cost-efficiency indicator. 1495 cases of AA admitted between 2000 and 2004 have been assessed retrospectively and among them 306 (20.46%) had complications. On admission 80.43% patients were diagnosed with AA, 17.50% with acute abdominal syndrome and 2.07% with chronic appendicitis. On discharge there were 1158 (77.45%) cases of inflammatory AA and 306 (20.46%) cases of complicated AA (perforation, gangrene, peritonitis, plastron abscess). 98.26% of patients under-went operation and 1.73% did not. standard appendicectomy in 1407 (95.77%) cases; laparoscopic appendicectomy in 30 (2.04%) cases; extraperitoneal approach in 15 (1.02%) cases; associated with surgical interventions on other organs in 75 (5.10%) cases. POST-OPERATORY MORBIDITY:128 (41.08%) cases out of 306; septic parietal complications in 102 (33.33%) cases; intraperitoneal complications in 26 (8.49%) cases. POST-OPERATORY MORTALITY: 6 deaths in patients aged over 68. 4 days for uncomplicated AA and 14.6 days for complicated ones. Perioperative septic complications are the result of evolution of late diagnosed disease, unjustified postponing of operation, surgical technique, patient health condition.

  1. Abdominal pain – learning when not to intervene!

    PubMed Central

    Tachamo, Niranjan; Timilsina, Bidhya; Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj

    2016-01-01

    Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain. It is a benign condition but may mimic other serious causes of acute abdomen such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and gynecological emergency in severe cases. Knowledge of this condition in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain can save unnecessary hospital admission, antibiotics, and surgery. In this article, we present the case of a 43-year-old female who presented to our hospital with a 2-day history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain and diarrhea. She was diagnosed with EA with computed tomography of abdomen with contrast and was managed conservatively with good outcome. PMID:27987280

  2. Multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of pediatric acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of pediatric acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging tasks in the emergency department (ED) due to its unclear clinical presentation and non-specific findings in physical examinations, laboratory data, and plain radiographs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of abdominal multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) performed in the ED on pediatric patients presenting with acute abdominal pain. A retrospective chart review of children aged <18 years with acute abdominal pain who visited the emergency department and underwent MDCT between September 2004 and June 2007 was conducted. Patients with a history of trauma were excluded. A total of 156 patients with acute abdominal pain (85 males and 71 females, age 1-17 years; mean age 10.9 ± 4.6 years) who underwent abdominal MDCT in the pediatric ED during this 3-year period were enrolled in the study. One hundred and eighteen patients with suspected appendicitis underwent abdominal MDCT. Sixty four (54.2%) of them had appendicitis, which was proven by histopathology. The sensitivity of abdominal MDCT for appendicitis was found to be 98.5% and the specificity was 84.9%. In this study, the other two common causes of nontraumatic abdominal emergencies were gastrointestinal tract (GI) infections and ovarian cysts. The most common etiology of abdominal pain in children that requires imaging with abdominal MDCT is appendicitis. MDCT has become a preferred and invaluable imaging modality in evaluating uncertain cases of pediatric acute abdominal pain in ED, in particular for suspected appendicitis, neoplasms, and gastrointestinal abnormalities.

  3. A scoring system to predict the severity of appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Ramon R; van den Boom, Anne Loes; Heij, Hugo A; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Hulsker, Caroline C; Tenhagen, Mark; Dawson, Imro; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-02-01

    It appears that two forms of appendicitis exist. Preoperative distinction between the two is essential to optimize treatment outcome. This study aimed to develop a scoring system to accurately determine the severity of appendicitis in children. Historical cohort study of pediatric patients (aged 0-17 y old) with appendicitis treated between January 2010 and December 2012. Division into simple, complex appendicitis, or another condition based on preset criteria. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to build the prediction model with subsequent validation. There were 64 patients with simple and 66 with complex appendicitis. Five variables explained 64% of the variation. Independent validation of the derived prediction model in a second cohort (55 simple and 10 complex appendicitis patients) demonstrated 90% sensitivity (54-99), 91% specificity (79-97), a positive predictive value of 64% (36-86), and an negative predictive value of 98% (88-100). The likelihood ratio+ was 10 (4.19-23.42), and likelihood ratio- was 0.11 (0.02-0.71). Diagnostic accuracy was 91% (84-98). Our scoring system consisting of five variables can be used to exclude complex appendicitis in clinical practice if the score is <4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-03-02

    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p < 0.001). Conditional logistic regression shows that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of GERD for cases was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08~2.33) compared to controls. The adjusted ORs of prior GERD for patients aged 18~39, 40~59, and ≥60 years with appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group.

  5. Diabetes is associated with perforated appendicitis: evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Po-Li; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Li-Ting; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perforated appendicitis and patient with diabetes using a population-based data set. This study used data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 in Taiwan. We identified 4,806 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis. The independent variable was whether a patient had ever received a diagnosis of diabetes before the index hospitalization. We performed a conditional logistic regression model to explore the odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence interval of perforated appendicitis. Rates of perforated appendicitis for patients with and those without diabetes were 46.2% and 28.3%, respectively. A chi-square test revealed that there was a significant difference in rates of perforated appendicitis between patients with and those without diabetes (P < .001). The conditional logistic regression model revealed that the adjusted odds ratio of perforated appendicitis for patients with diabetes was 1.35 (95% confidence interval = 1.11 to 1.65) compared with patients without diabetes. Our study demonstrated that a history of diabetes is an important factor with regard to the rate of perforated appendicitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Appendicitis: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Li-Ting; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Appendicitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are both prevalent diseases and might share similar pathological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between GERD and appendicitis using a large population-based dataset. This study used administrative claims data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We identified 7113 patients with appendicitis as cases, and 28452 matched patients without appendicitis as controls. This study revealed that GERD was found in 359 (5.05%) cases and 728 (2.56%) controls (p < 0.001). Conditional logistic regression shows that the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of GERD for cases was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08~2.33) compared to controls. The adjusted ORs of prior GERD for patients aged 18~39, 40~59, and ≥60 years with appendicitis were 1.96 (95% CI: 1.56~2.47), 2.36 (95% CI: 1.94~2.88), and 1.71 (95% CI: 1.31~2.22) than controls, respectively. We concluded that patients with appendicitis had higher odds of prior GERD than those without appendicitis regardless of age group. PMID:26932391

  7. Plasma D-lactic acid level: a useful marker to distinguish perforated from acute simple appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Mehmet; Cetin, Selma; Uguralp, Sema; Sezgin, Nurzen; Karaman, Abdurrahman; Gozukara, Engin M

    2004-10-01

    Early diagnosis of perforated appendicitis is important for reducing morbidity rates. The aim of this study was to determine the value and utility of plasma D-lactic acid levels in identifying the type of appendicitis. In this clinical study, plasma D-lactic acid levels were assessed in 44 consecutive paediatric patients (23 with acute appendicitis, 21 with perforated appendicitis) before laparotomy. D-lactic acid levels were determined by an enzymatic spectrophotometric technique using a D-lactic acid dehydrogenase kit. Patients with perforated appendicitis had higher D-lactic acid levels (3.970 +/- 0.687 mg/dL) than patients in the control group (0.478 +/- 0.149 mg/dL) and patients with acute appendicitis (1.409 +/- 0.324 mg/dL; p < 0.05). For a plasma D-lactic acid level greater than 2.5 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity of the D-lactic acid assay were 96% and 87%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 87%, the negative predictive value was 96%, and the diagnostic value was 91%. These results suggest that the measurement of plasma D-lactic acid levels may be a useful adjunct to clinical and radiological findings in distinguishing perforated from acute non-perforated appendicitis in children.

  8. Clinical results of laparoscopic appendectomy in patients with complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Bat, Orhan; Kaya, Hakan; Çelik, Hamit Kafkas; Şahbaz, Nuri Alper

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) for the treatment of uncomplicated and complicated appendicitis. A retrospective analysis was performed who had undergone laparoscopic appendectomy for complicated appendicitis between January 2010 to October 2013. The diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established with physical examination, laboratory tests, and ultrasound examination. The patients were analysed for age, sex, conversion rate,operation time, postoperative infectious complications and length of hospital stay. A total of 452 patients were operated with LA. There were 362 (80.1%) uncomplicated (Group I) and 90 (19.1%) complicated Group (II) appendicitis.The intraabdominal abscess rate was 14.35% in Group I and 19.5% in Group II. The wound infection and rate of incisional hernia were also higher in Group II. The postoperative complications including intraabdominal abscess, wound infection and incisional hernia after LA in complicated appendicitis found high. LA should be performed very carefully in complicated appendicitis. PMID:25419386

  9. Systemic sarcoidosis mimicking malignant metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, Irena; Sherson, David Lee; Davidsen, Jesper Roemhild

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of systemic sarcoidosis involving the liver, pancreas, lungs, mediastinal and intraabdominal lymph nodes and bones. Multiple organ system manifestations mimicked malignant metastatic disease. The diagnosis was established with clinical, radiological, and pathological findings after neoplasm was ruled out by pathological tests. The patient showed rapid symptom remission with systemic steroid treatment. PMID:26672956

  10. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis mimicking interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Braham, Emna; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Smati, Belhassen; Ben Mrad, Sonia; Besbes, Mohammed; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Lymphoid granulomatosis is a rare form of pulmonary angiitis. This case report presents a patient with lymphoid granulomatosis in whom the clinical presentation, radiological features and the partial response to corticosteroid therapy mimicked interstitial lung disease. Lymphoid granulomatosis was only diagnosed at post-mortem examination. The range of reported clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and outcomes are described.

  11. Tophaceous gout of the lumbar spine mimicking a spinal meningioma.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro da Cunha, Pedro; Peliz, António Judice; Barbosa, Marcos

    2016-11-05

    Although gout is a common metabolic disorder, it usually affects distal joints of the appendicular skeleton. Axial spine involvement is rare, with only 131 cases reported in the literature. The authors report a rare case of lumbar spinal gout mimicking a spinal meningioma. A 77-year-old man with a history of gout presented with chronic low back pain and progressive paraparesis. Imaging revealed a lumbar spine compressive mass lesion with a dural tail signal. The differential diagnosis was thought to be straightforward favoring a spinal meningioma. Tophaceous gout was never considered. The presence of a dural tail associated with the lesion is an interesting detail of this case, that strongly misguided it and to the best of our knowledge it is the first one reported in the literature. The patient underwent surgery and intra-operative findings were surprisingly different from those expected, revealing a chalky white mass lesion firmly adherent and compressing the dural sac. It was completely excised, leaving the dura intact. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of tophaceous gout. The patient was sent to physical therapy and had a complete remission of pain and neurological deficit, regaining his walking capacity. Although spinal gout is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with symptoms of spinal stenosis, a suspicion of neoplastic lesion of the spine, and a previous history of gout. Early diagnosis can ensure proper and timely medical management, perhaps avoiding neurological compromise and the need for surgery.

  12. Analysis of Recurrence Management in Patients Who Underwent Nonsurgical Treatment for Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu

    2016-03-01

    The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively.We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis.Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach.In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity.

  13. On the Role of Ultrasonography and CT Scan in the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jyotindu; Kumar, Rajesh; Mathur, Ankit; Sharma, Pawan; Kumar, Nikhilesh; Shridhar, Nagaraj; Shukla, Ashwani; Khanna, Shiv Pankaj

    2015-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to revisit the utility of ultrasonography (USG) as a primary imaging modality in acute appendicitis (AA) and to establish the role of CT scan as a second-line/problem-solving modality. All cases of suspected AA were referred for urgent USG. USG was done with standard protocol for appendicitis. Limited computed tomographic (CT) scan [NCCT ± CECT (IV contrast only)] was done for the lower abdomen and pelvis where sonographic findings were equivocal. One hundred and twenty-one patients were referred for USG for suspected appendicitis. Eight-four patients underwent surgery for AA based on clinical as well as imaging findings, of whom 76 had appendicitis confirmed at histopathology. Three patients were misdiagnosed (3.6 %) on USG as appendicitis. Of 76 patients of appendicitis confirmed histopathologically, 63 (82.8 %) had features of appendicitis on USG and did not require any additional imaging modality. Of 121 patients, 12 (10 %) needed CT scan because of atypical features on USG. Of these 12 patients, seven had retrocecal appendicitis, and three high-up paracolic appendicitis. USG alone had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of 81, 88, 92.6, 71.6, and 83 %, respectively. When combined with CT scan in select cases, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of combined USG + CT scan were 96 % (P = 0.0014), 89 %, 93 %, 93.5 % (P = 0.0001), and 93 % (P = 0.0484), respectively. Twenty-eight (23 %) patients were given alternative diagnosis on USG. Dedicated appendiceal USG should be used as a primary imaging modality in diagnosing or excluding AA. Appendiceal CT can serve as a problem-solving modality.

  14. Analysis of Recurrence Management in Patients Who Underwent Nonsurgical Treatment for Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tsung-Jung; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Tsai, Chung-Yu; Kang, Chi-Hsiang; Huang, Wei-Chun; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chen, I-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The recurrence rate for acute appendicitis treated nonoperatively varies between studies. Few studies have adequately evaluated the management of these patients when appendicitis recurs. We aimed to explore the recurrence rate and management of patients with acute appendicitis that were first treated nonoperatively. We identified patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who were hospitalized due to acute appendicitis for the first time between 2000 and 2010 and received nonsurgical treatment. The recurrence and its management were recorded. Data were analyzed to access the risk factors for recurrence and factors that influenced the management of recurrent appendicitis. Among the 239,821 patients hospitalized with acute appendicitis for the first time, 12,235 (5.1%) patients were managed nonoperatively. Of these, 864 (7.1%) had a recurrence during a median follow-up of 6.5 years. Appendectomy was performed by an open and laparoscopic approach in 483 (55.9%) and 258 (29.9%) patients, respectively. The remaining 123 (14.2%) patients were again treated nonsurgically. Recurrence was independently associated with young age, male sex, percutaneous abscess drainage, and medical center admission by multivariable analysis. In addition, age <18, a (CCI) <2, medical center admission, and a longer time to recurrence were correlated with using laparoscopy to treat recurrence. Neither type of appendicitis, percutaneous abscess drainage, nor length of first time hospital stay had an influence on the selection of surgical approach. In conclusion, a laparoscopic appendectomy can be performed in recurrent appendicitis cases, and its application may not be related to previous appendicitis severity. PMID:27015200

  15. The Reliability of a Standardized Reporting System for the Diagnosis of Appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Simianu, Vlad V; Shamitoff, Anna; Hippe, Daniel S; Godwin, Benjamin D; Shriki, Jabi E; Drake, Frederick T; O'Malley, Ryan B; Maximin, Suresh; Bastawrous, Sarah; Moshiri, Mariam; Lee, Jean H; Cuevas, Carlos; Dighe, Manjiri; Flum, David; Bhargava, Puneet

    Computed tomography (CT) is a fast and ubiquitous tool to evaluate intra-abdominal organs and diagnose appendicitis. However, traditional CT reporting does not necessarily capture the degree of uncertainty and indeterminate findings are still common. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a standardized CT reporting system for appendicitis across a large population and the system's impact on radiologists' certainty in diagnosing appendicitis. Using a previously described standardized reporting system, eight radiologists retrospectively evaluated CT scans, blinded to all clinical information, in a stratified random sample of 237 patients from a larger cohort of patients imaged for possible appendicitis (2010-2014). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the diagnostic performance of readers for identifying appendicitis. Two-thirds of these scans were randomly selected to be independently read by a second reader, using the original CT reports to balance the number of positive, negative and indeterminate exams across all readers. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated. There were 113 patients with appendicitis (mean age 38, 67% male). Using the standardized report, radiologists were highly accurate at identifying appendicitis (AUC=0.968, 95%CI confidence interval: 0.95, 0.99. Inter-reader agreement was >80% for most objective findings, and certainty in diagnosing appendicitis was high and reproducible (AUC=0.955 and AUC=0.936 for the first and second readers, respectively). Using a standardized reporting system resulted in high reproducibility of objective CT findings for appendicitis and achieved high diagnostic accuracy in an at-risk population. Predictive tools based on this reporting system may further improve communication about certainty in diagnosis and guide patient management, especially when CT findings are indeterminate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Does Right Lower Quadrant Abdominal Ultrasound Accurately Identify Perforation in Pediatric Acute Appendicitis?

    PubMed

    Tseng, Peggy; Berdahl, Carl; Kearl, Y Liza; Behar, Solomon; Cooper, John; Dollbaum, Ryan; Hardasmalani, Madhu; Hardiman, Kevin; Rose, Emily; Santillanes, Genevieve; Lam, ChunNok; Claudius, Ilene

    2016-04-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen in pediatric emergency department (ED) visits, and right lower quadrant abdominal ultrasound (RLQUS) is a valuable diagnostic tool in the clinical approach. The utility of ultrasound in predicting perforation has not been well-defined. We sought to determine the sensitivity of RLQUS to identify perforation in pediatric patients with appendicitis. A chart review of all patients 3 to 21 years of age who received a radiographic work-up and who were ultimately diagnosed with perforated appendicitis between 2010 and 2013 at a pediatric ED was conducted. The final read for ultrasonography was compared to either the operative diagnosis, surgical pathology diagnosis, or further imaging results (if the patient was managed nonoperatively). Test characteristics were calculated for the identification of appendicitis and identification of perforation. Of the 539 patients evaluated for appendicitis, 144 (26.7%) patients had appendicitis, and 40 of these (27.8%) were perforated. Thirty-nine had RLQUS performed as part of their evaluation. Of these, 28 had positive findings for appendicitis, and 9 were read as definite or possible perforated appendicitis. The sensitivity of RLQUS for the diagnosis of appendicitis in the group with perforation was 77.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.4-89%) and the sensitivity for diagnosing a perforation was 23.1% (95% CI, 11.1-39.3%). There was a low rate of detection of perforation by RLQUS in our pediatric population. If larger studies confirm this, additional imaging should be recommended in patients with a high suspicion of perforation and in whom a diagnosis of perforation would change management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Searching for certainty: findings predictive of appendicitis in equivocal ultrasound exams.

    PubMed

    Telesmanich, Morgan E; Orth, Robert C; Zhang, Wei; Lopez, Monica E; Carpenter, Jennifer L; Mahmood, Nadia; Jadhav, Siddharth P; Guillerman, R Paul

    2016-10-01

    Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for evaluating suspected pediatric appendicitis. However, borderline appendiceal enlargement or questionable inflammatory changes can confound interpretation and lead to equivocal exams. The purpose of this study was to determine which findings on equivocal US exams are most predictive of appendicitis. All US exams performed for suspected pediatric appendicitis from July 1, 2013, through July 9, 2014, were initially interpreted using a risk-stratified scoring system. Two blinded pediatric radiologists independently reviewed US exams designated as equivocal and recorded the following findings: increased wall thickness, loss of mural stratification, peri-appendiceal fat inflammation, peri-appendiceal fluid, appendicolith and maximum appendiceal diameter. A third pediatric radiologist resolved discrepancies. US features were correlated with the final diagnosis via multivariate analysis. During the study period, 162/3,750 (4.3%) children had US exams initially interpreted as equivocal (mean age 9.8 +/- 3.8